WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological psychiatry

  1. Psychiatry Today : Biology vs. Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, I; Fried, W; Berman, S M; Lengua, J A; Alpert, M

    1995-06-01

    This research addresses preferences and theoretical leanings of present-day psychiatrists along the continuum defined at one end by biology and at the other by psychology. A questionnaire was devised and sent to 5,702 randomly selected members of the American Psychiatric Association in 1990. The response rate was 307%. The results were analyzed for two groups: psychiatrists with fewer than 15 years of practice since residency and psychiatrists with more than 15 years of practice since graduation. Although the great majority of psychiatrists in both groups equally valued psychology and biology, the senior group attributed a greater importance to psychological methods, whereas the younger group stressed equally the importance of biology and psychology. This suggests that psychiatry has evolved over the years from a predominantly psychological practice to one with a more equal emphasis on psychology and biology. Recent advances in neuroscience may have shifted the pendulum toward a more balanced willingness of clinicians to consider the broad armamentarium of psychosocial and biological treatments. The results point to the need for further conceptualization into the relationship between biology and psychology and its incorporation into the psychiatric residency curriculum. PMID:24442524

  2. Biological Psychiatry, Research And Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this section, we look at how the biological paradigm shift in psychiatry has been aided and abetted by industry for serving its own needs; which stymies other promising approaches; but which, nonetheless, can serve to advance biomedicine if checks and balances are in place. Industry, Biological Psychiatry And Non-pharmacological Advance The larger issue of benefit to society also concerns us when we realize that industry sponsorship is mainly for potential medications, not for trying to determine whether there may be non-pharmacological interventions that may be equally good, if not better. …a lack of balance in research activities, with a focus mainly on potential medications, is likely to divert talented researchers from the pursuit of profound scientific questions or divert them from the pursuit of questions without market relevance but with an aspect of public good. A company has little incentive to support trials evaluating whether inexpensive, off-patent drugs or whether non-pharmaceutical interventions, could replace their profitable patented drug (Baird, 2003 This is the reason why methods like yoga, psychotherapy, meditation, non-medicated non-mechanised relaxation will not find industry sponsors readily and may never be proved useful apart from anecdotal reporting.In which case to expect industry sponsorship to develop a larger therapeutic armamentarium, especially non-drug based, is wishful thinking. Moreover, non-pharmacological treatment procedures may not get desirable funding. This may not be as much of a problem in other branches of medicine as in psychiatry, wherein non-pharmacological interventions like psychotherapy still hold promise of therapeutic relief.If we do not see rigorous experimental research in psychotherapy or other non-drug modalities to the extent that we should, let us be careful before blaming the researchers for it. Where are the funds? Also, let us note that behind the great thrust towards Biological

  3. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D2) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABAA receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D2) and the ion-channel type (GABAA). (J.P.N.)

  4. Initiatives in biological research in Indian psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivatava, Amresh

    2010-01-01

    Biological psychiatry is an exploratory science for mental health. These biological changes provide some explicit insight into the complex area of ‘brain-mind and behavior’. One major achievement of research in biological field is the finding to explain how biological factors cause changes in behavior. In India, we have a clear history of initiatives in research from a biological perspective, which goes back to 1958. In the last 61 years, this field has seen significant evolution, precision a...

  5. [Practice relevant research in biological psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Lindenberg, A

    2015-11-01

    The practice of psychiatry would be unthinkable without modern psychopharmacology. Drug treatment, especially of severe psychiatric disorders, is often a precondition of community participation, societal reintegration and recovery. Seen in this context it is understandable that biological psychiatry has long been primarily defined by its close interconnection with psychopharmacology and has been perceived this way by practicing physicians. In recent years, however, the concept of what is "biological" has markedly expanded and so has the outreach of this approach into the practice of psychiatry. This article discusses examples showing that biological research methods provide new impulses for individualized medicine, psychotherapy and understanding environmental risks and therefore provide the basis for a preemptive and preventive approach that will be the key to master the challenges posed by the severe burden of mental illness. PMID:26440519

  6. The Third Wave of Biological Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HenrikWalter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article I will argue that we are witnessing at this moment the third wave of biological psychiatry. This framework conceptualizes mental disorders as brain disorders of a special kind that requires a multilevel approach ranging from genes to psychosocial mechanisms. In contrast to earlier biological psychiatry approaches the mental plays a more prominent role in the third wave. This will become apparent by discussing the recent controversy evolving around the recently published DSM-5 and the competing transdiagnostic Research Domain Criteria approach of the National Institute of Mental Health that is build on concepts of cognitive neuroscience. A look at current conceptualizations in biological psychiatry as well as at some discussions in current philosophy of mind on situated cognition, reveals that the thesis, that mental brain disorders are brain disorders has to be qualified with respect to how mental states are constituted and with respect to multilevel explanations of which factors contribute to stable patterns of psychopathological signs and symptoms.

  7. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas;

    2013-01-01

    These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in 2006. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizoph......These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in 2006. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of...... evidence for its efficacy and then categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5) ( Bandelow et al. 2008a ,b, World J Biol Psychiatry 9:242, see Table 1 ). This second part of the updated guidelines covers long-term treatment as well as the management of relevant side...

  8. [Psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Patrice; Conus, Philippe; Pomini, Valentino; Kramer, Ueli; Bonsack, Charles; Eap, Chin

    2011-01-19

    The novelties in clinical psychiatry are close to somatic medicine adaptation. The clinical staging concept in psychiatry (as in cancerology) is the result of an early intervention strategy in psychotic disorders. A differentiated mode of understanding of the phases of psychiatric disorders allows a prevention oriented approach. Individualized therapeutic programmes in accordance with specific problematics favors the orientation towards focalised follow-ups, for instance CBT programmes on Internet may be proposed to patients motivated and rather autonomous. Others, on the contrary, less accessible to health care should benefit of the support of a mobile team and specific coaching to return to vocational services. Systematic follow-up of the metabolic syndrome, often induced by atypical antipsychotics, belongs to those basic adjustment processes. PMID:21400949

  9. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas;

    2012-01-01

    These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia published in 2005. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia were...... on the first version of these guidelines, a systematic review of the MEDLINE/PUBMED database and the Cochrane Library, in addition to data extraction from national treatment guidelines, has been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of...... evidence for its efficacy and then categorised into six levels of evidence (A-F; Bandelow et al. 2008b, World J Biol Psychiatry 9:242). This first part of the updated guidelines covers the general descriptions of antipsychotics and their side effects, the biological treatment of acute schizophrenia and the...

  10. Is mental disease just brain disease? The limits to biological psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, N

    1992-06-01

    As a process of rational enquiry into an empirical field, psychiatry must submit itself to the same discipline as other areas of science. Effectively, it must show that its fundamental premises are both internally and externally consistent, and that its methods of investigation satisfy prevailing criteria of scientific methodology. When psychoanalytic psychology (and hence all psychodynamic models) and behaviourism were analysed from these points of view, they were found wanting. To date, there has been little or no meta-analysis of the third great school of psychiatric theorizing, biological psychiatry. A preliminary analysis establishes sharp limits to the notion that biological psychiatry is the "wave of the future". Like psychoanalysis and behaviourism, it cannot form the basis of a general theory of psychiatry. Since it lacks an adequate theoretical framework, the inescapable conclusion is that psychiatry is nothing more than protoscience. PMID:1642619

  11. Non-mammalian models in behavioral neuroscience: consequences for biological psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Caio eMaximino; Rhayra Xavier do Carmo Silva; Suéllen de Nazaré dos Santos da Silva; Laís do Socorro dos Santos Rodrigues; Hellen eBarbosa; Tayana Silva de Carvalho; Luana Ketlen Reis Leão; Monica Gomes Lima; Karen Renata Matos Oliveira; Anderson Manoel Herculano

    2015-01-01

    Current models in biological psychiatry focus on a handful of model species, and the majority of work relies on data generated in rodents. However, in the same sense that a comparative approach to neuroanatomy allows for the idenfication of patterns of brain organization, the inclusion of other species and an adoption of comparative viewpoints in behavioral neuroscience could also lead to increases in knowledge relevant to biological psychiatry. Specifically, this approach could help to ident...

  12. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia. Part 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    These updated guidelines are based on the first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in the years 2005 and 2006. For this 2015 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological....... Based on the first version of these guidelines a systematic review, as well as a data extraction from national guidelines have been performed for this update. The identified literature was evaluated with respect to the strength of evidence for its efficacy and subsequently categorised into six levels of...

  13. [Biological psychiatry (neuropsychiatry)--status and perspectives for for the 1990s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, R

    1993-01-01

    In recent years, research into biological aspects of psychiatric disorders has had high priority. Biological psychiatry, or neuropsychiatry, is characterised by (a) empiricist epistemology, (b) a diathesis-stress disease model, (c) neurobiological pathogenetic theories, (d) chemical or physical treatment as an essential though not necessarily sufficient measure, and (e) a patient-oriented ethical approach. A short review of some major topics is given, including standardised assessment, clinical and molecular genetics, neurotransmitter theories, neuro-imaging techniques, panic disorder, classic and novel psychopharmacological compounds, and alcohol and drug dependence. Avenues of future research endeavours are delineated, and it is concluded that in the future neuropsychiatry should play a major part in psychiatry, though closely integrated with psychological and social theory. PMID:8098866

  14. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of dementias in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihl, Ralf; Bunevicius, Robertas; Frölich, Lutz;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define a practice guideline for biological treatment of dementias for general practitioners in primary care. METHODS: This paper is a short and practical summary of the World Federation of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the Biological treatment of Alzheimer's disease a...

  15. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine ... Psychiatry Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry American Association for Emergency Psychiatry Association of ...

  16. Károly Schaffer and his school: the birth of biological psychiatry in Hungary, 1890-1940.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Brigitta; Bitter, István; Fink, Max; Gazdag, Gábor; Shorter, Edward

    2008-09-01

    In the first third of the twentieth century, neuropathology seemed to offer the key to unlock the causes of psychiatric illness. Among the top centers devoted to the microscopic anatomy of the brain was that of Károly Schaffer in Budapest. Schaffer, a pioneer in the histopathology of Tay-Sachs-Schaffer disease, was also a charismatic teacher, bringing forth a school of investigators in psychopathology. Among them was László Meduna, who originated convulsive therapy. Despite the importance of the Schaffer school, it is almost unknown outside of Hungary, largely the result of the introduction of neurophysiological, neurochemical and molecular genetic methods that distracted attention away from histopathological contributions in psychiatry after the Second World War. The microscopic study of the brain and its diseases seemed increasingly less important. The present biographical account of Károly Schaffer and his school seeks to bring this important story in the early history of biological psychiatry to a wider audience and explain why it has since been forgotten. PMID:18078742

  17. PSYCHIATRY-PAST, PRESENT & FUTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Doongaji, Dinshaw R

    1997-01-01

    An overview of psychiatry during the last three decades as practised in a general teaching hospital is presented. Psychiatry as an academic subject has matured tremendously during this period. The empirical treatments of the 1950s and the 1960s which evoke nostalgic memories, have been replaced by modern methods of treatment. However, there is a need to exercise caution against the blind acceptance of new and sophisticated research findings in biological psychiatry. Inspite of the bright futu...

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry ... World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association ...

  19. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry ... More Resources World Psychiatric Association American Association of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists ...

  20. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... general psychiatry training. They may become certified in: Child and adolescent psychiatry Geriatric psychiatry Forensic (legal) psychiatry Addiction psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training ...

  1. Utility and validity of DISC1 mouse models in biological psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, T; Sumitomo, A; Jaaro-Peled, H; Sawa, A

    2016-05-01

    We have seen an era of explosive progress in translating neurobiology into etiological understanding of mental disorders for the past 10-15years. The discovery of Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) gene was one of the major driving forces that have contributed to the progress. The finding that DISC1 plays crucial roles in neurodevelopment and synapse regulation clearly underscored the utility and validity of DISC1-related biology in advancing our understanding of pathophysiological processes underlying psychiatric conditions. Despite recent genetic studies that failed to identify DISC1 as a risk gene for sporadic cases of schizophrenia, DISC1 mutant mice, coupled with various environmental stressors, have proven successful in satisfying face validity as models of a wide range of human psychiatric conditions. Investigating mental disorders using these models is expected to further contribute to the circuit-level understanding of the pathological mechanisms, as well as to the development of novel therapeutic strategies in the future. PMID:26768401

  2. Digital psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S; Helmeste, D

    2000-02-01

    The American managed care movement has been viewed as a big experiment and is being watched closely by the rest of the world. In the meanwhile, computer-based information technology (IT) is changing the practice of medicine, much more rapidly than managed care. A New World of digitized knowledge and information has been created. Although literature on IT in psychiatry is largely absent in peer-reviewed psychiatric journals, IT is finding its way into all aspects of medicine, particularly psychiatry. Telepsychiatry programs are becoming very popular. At the same time, medical information sites are flourishing and evolving into a new health-care industry. Patient-physician information asymmetry is decreasing as patients are gaining easy access to medical information hitherto only available to professionals. Thus, psychiatry is facing another paradigm shift, at a time when most attention has been focused on managed care. In this new digital world, knowledge and information are no longer the sole property of professionals. Value will migrate from traditional in-person office-based therapy to digital clinical products, from in-person library search and classroom didactic instruction to interactive on-line searches and distance learning. In this time of value migration, psychiatrists have to determine what their 'distinctive competence' is and where best to add value in the health-care delivery value chain. The authors assess the impact of IT on clinical psychiatry and review how clinical practice, education and research in psychiatry are expected to change in this emerging digital world. PMID:15558872

  3. Biologism in Psychiatry: A Young Man’s Experience of Being Diagnosed with “Pediatric Bipolar Disorder”

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Parry

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric bipolar disorder is a diagnosis that arose in the mid 1990s in the USA and has mostly remained confined to that nation. In this article a young American man (under a pseudonym) describes his experience of having the diagnosis throughout his adolescent years. His story was conveyed via correspondence and a meeting with the author, an Australian child psychiatrist. The young American’s story reveals several issues that afflict contemporary psychiatry, particularly in the USA, where so...

  4. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What Is Psychiatry? Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ... written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and then complete four years of psychiatry residency. ...

  5. [Sleep psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  6. Transcultural psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vikash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last half of the century the researchers have placed a great deal of importance on brain behavior relations. This has brought upon a huge body of knowledge but unfortunately at the cost of culture - the true roots of much of our behaviour. This general disregard of cultural factors has not only led to false generalizations but has also blocked the understanding of the real forces that motivate and shape our perceptions, attitudes, and actions. This paper is therefore an attempt to highlight the trajectory of transcultural psychiatry, right from the conceptions of its idea, through flaws in methodology, assessment, treatment and to its future and its limitations.

  7. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders - first revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandelow, Borwin; Zohar, Joseph; Hollander, Eric; Kasper, Siegfried; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Zohar, Joseph; Hollander, Eric; Kasper, Siegfried; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Bandelow, Borwin; Allgulander, Christer; Ayuso-Gutierrez, José; Baldwin, David S; Buenvicius, Robertas; Cassano, Giovanni; Fineberg, Naomi; Gabriels, Loes; Hindmarch, Ian; Kaiya, Hisanobu; Klein, Donald F; Lader, Malcolm; Lecrubier, Yves; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Liebowitz, Michael R; Lopez-Ibor, Juan José; Marazziti, Donatella; Miguel, Euripedes C; Oh, Kang Seob; Preter, Maurice; Rupprecht, Rainer; Sato, Mitsumoto; Starcevic, Vladan; Stein, Dan J; van Ameringen, Michael; Vega, Johann

    2008-01-01

    In this report, which is an update of a guideline published in 2002 (Bandelow et al. 2002, World J Biol Psychiatry 3:171), recommendations for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are presented. Since the publication of the first version of this guideline, a substantial number of new randomized controlled studies of anxiolytics have been published. In particular, more relapse prevention studies are now available that show sustained efficacy of anxiolytic drugs. The recommendations, developed by the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Task Force for the Pharmacological Treatment of Anxiety, Obsessive-Compulsive and Post-traumatic Stress Disorders, a consensus panel of 30 international experts, are now based on 510 published randomized, placebo- or comparator-controlled clinical studies (RCTs) and 130 open studies and case reports. First-line treatments for these disorders are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin-noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and the calcium channel modulator pregabalin. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are equally effective for some disorders, but many are less well tolerated than the SSRIs/SNRIs. In treatment-resistant cases, benzodiazepines may be used when the patient does not have a history of substance abuse disorders. Potential treatment options for patients unresponsive to standard treatments are described in this overview. Although these guidelines focus on medications, non-pharmacological were also considered. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and other variants of behaviour therapy have been sufficiently investigated in controlled studies in patients with anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD to support them being recommended either alone or in combination with the above medicines. PMID:18949648

  8. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... clinics, general and psychiatric hospitals, university medical centers, community agencies, courts and prisons, nursing homes, industry, government, ... of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry American Association of Community Psychiatrists American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry Academy of ...

  9. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Association for Emergency Psychiatry Association of Gay and Lesbian Psychiatrists Resources Explore More Topics Warning Signs of ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2016 American Psychiatric ...

  10. Historicizing Indian psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-01-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically...

  11. Children's Education and Mental Health in Spain during and after the Civil War: Psychiatry, Psychology and "Biological Pedagogy" at the Service of Franco's Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Amparo; Canales, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the child psychiatry and psychology developed during the Spanish Civil War and immediate postwar period. The aim is to demonstrate that, despite the existence of a certain degree of disciplinary continuity in relation to the pre-war period, both disciplines were placed at the service of Francoism. This meant that the…

  12. Historicizing Indian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Amit Ranjan

    2005-04-01

    Our historical endeavour to map Indian psychiatry has largely remained linear, positivistic and evolutionary. Whether it starts from the ancient times or modern, it shows our past as a tale of victory for the western science, without questioning the borrowed paradigm. The use of historical methods for serious enquiry of psychiatry has been ignored. Emergence of a new genre of historicism that is critical of both colonialism and psychiatry as a universal science, has raised hopes to critically review the emergence of psychiatric knowledge. PMID:20711299

  13. Crime and Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Matcheswalla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry and crime are linked in certain ways. On one hand, we have criminal offenders with serious psychopathology; and on the other hand, we have psychiatric patients who may commit criminal offences during the influence of a psychiatric disorder. The psychiatrist in practice has to come in contact with the criminal justice system at some point of time in his career. Forensic psychiatry under whose realm these issues reside is a branch yet underdeveloped in India. The present paper reviews the inter-relationship between crime and psychiatry and the factors involved therein.

  14. Annals of General Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Fountoulakis Konstantinos

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Our regular readers will notice that the title of our journal has changed from Annals of General Hospital Psychiatry (AGHP) to Annals of General Psychiatry (AGP) since January 1st, 2005. This was judged as necessary, in order to be able to serve better the aims of the journal. Our initial thoughts were that including the term 'General Hospital' in the journal's title would help us to launch a journal dedicated to the idea of Psychiatry as a medical specialty. But they were not justif...

  15. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... as a panic attack, frightening hallucinations, thoughts of suicide, or hearing "voices." Or they may be more ... Illness What Is Psychiatry? What Is Mental Illness? Suicide Prevention What is ECT? Ask An Expert Share ...

  16. What Is Psychiatry?

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  17. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Annual Meeting Residents & Medical Students Residents Medical Students Patients & Families Mental Health Disorders/Substance Abuse Find a Psychiatrist Patients & Families What Is Psychiatry? All Topics Resources What ...

  18. What Is Psychiatry?

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  19. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... become a psychiatrist, a person must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state ... A psychiatrist is a medical doctor (completed medical school and residency) with special training in psychiatry. A ...

  20. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... and insomnia. Hypnotics – used to induce and maintain sleep. Mood stabilizers – used to treat bipolar disorder. Stimulants – ... psychiatry Pain medicine Psychosomatic (mind and body) medicine Sleep medicine Some psychiatrists choose additional training in psychoanalysis ...

  1. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... must complete medical school and take a written examination for a state license to practice medicine, and ... most psychiatrists take a voluntary written and oral examination given by the American Board of Psychiatry and ...

  2. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Releases Message from the President Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Media Registration - Annual Meeting Advocacy & ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents Medical Students International ...

  3. What Is Psychiatry?

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    Full Text Available ... Releases Message from the President Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Advocacy & APAPAC APA Sites APA ... APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents Medical Students International ...

  4. What Is Psychiatry?

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  5. Psychiatry's Turbid Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, John E.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    Psychiatry?s generic concept of disorder has long served an important legitimizing function for the broad array of conditions for which individuals seek mental health treatment, regardless of their presumed causes. Wakefield?s proposal to restrict the mental disorder concept to only a subset of these conditions has given rise to concerns about the uncertain consequences of classifying others as non-disorders. In Bergner?s recent counterproposal, this concern is masked in the form of a conspic...

  6. Psychiatry and music

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  7. Notes on a Few Issues in the Philosophy of Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part called the Preamble tackles: (a the issues of silence and speech, and life and disease; (b whether we need to know some or all of the truth, and how are exact science and philosophical reason related; (c the phenomenon of Why, How, and What; (d how are mind and brain related; (e what is robust eclecticism, empirical/scientific enquiry, replicability/refutability, and the role of diagnosis and medical model in psychiatry; (f bioethics and the four principles of beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, and justice; (g the four concepts of disease, illness, sickness, and disorder; how confusion is confounded by these concepts but clarity is imperative if we want to make sense out of them; and how psychiatry is an interim medical discipline. The second part called The Issues deals with: (a the concepts of nature and nurture; the biological and the psychosocial; and psychiatric disease and brain pathophysiology; (b biology, Freud and the reinvention of psychiatry; (c critics of psychiatry, mind-body problem and paradigm shifts in psychiatry; (d the biological, the psychoanalytic, the psychosocial and the cognitive; (e the issues of clarity, reductionism, and integration; (f what are the fool-proof criteria, which are false leads, and what is the need for questioning assumptions in psychiatry. The third part is called Psychiatric Disorder, Psychiatric Ethics, and Psychiatry Connected Disciplines. It includes topics like (a psychiatric disorder, mental health, and mental phenomena; (b issues in psychiatric ethics; (c social psychiatry, liaison psychiatry, psychosomatic medicine, forensic psychiatry, and neuropsychiatry. The fourth part is called Antipsychiatry, Blunting Creativity, etc. It includes topics like (a antipsychiatry revisited; (b basic arguments of antipsychiatry, Szasz, etc.; (c psychiatric classification and value judgment; (d conformity, labeling, and blunting creativity. The fifth part is called The Role of Philosophy

  8. Limitations of the biopsychosocial model in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benning TB

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tony B Benning Maple Ridge Mental Health Centre, Maple Ridge, BC, Canada Abstract: A commitment to an integrative, non-reductionist clinical and theoretical perspective in medicine that honors the importance of all relevant domains of knowledge, not just “the biological,” is clearly evident in Engel’s original writings on the biopsychosocial model. And though this model’s influence on modern psychiatry (in clinical as well as educational settings has been significant, a growing body of recent literature is critical of it - charging it with lacking philosophical coherence, insensitivity to patients’ subjective experience, being unfaithful to the general systems theory that Engel claimed it be rooted in, and engendering an undisciplined eclecticism that provides no safeguards against either the dominance or the under-representation of any one of the three domains of bio, psycho, or social. Keywords: critique of biopsychosocial psychiatry, integrative psychiatry, George Engel

  9. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju

    2014-01-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist ...

  10. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; WASSERMAN, DANUTA; Gaag, Rutger Jan van der

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approache...

  11. SPECT in psychiatry. SPECT in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barocka, A. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Feistel, H. (Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Ebert, D. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany)); Lungershausen, E. (Psychiatrische Klinik und Poliklinik, Erlangen (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D[sub 2] and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  12. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Illness What Is Psychiatry? What Is Mental Illness? Suicide Prevention What is ECT? Ask An Expert Share Your Story Become an APA Member Learn More Explore APA Psychiatrists Residents & Medical Students Patients & Families About APA Newsroom News Releases Psychiatric ...

  13. What Is Psychiatry?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Releases Message from the President Reporting on Mental Health Conditions APA Blogs Media Registration - Annual Meeting Advocacy & ... Foundation APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Sign In Join General Residents Medical Students International ...

  14. [Sophrology and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehr, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A relatively new discipline in the field of human sciences, sophrology seeks, through a physical as well as mental approach, to awaken awareness while energising the patient's resources and capacities. In psychiatry, it favours the development of body awareness and the positive activation of the mental structures, for the greater wellbeing of the patient. PMID:27615699

  15. Psychiatry and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-04-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698

  16. What psychiatry means to us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Trivedi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry has come up as one of the most dynamic branches of medicine in recent years. There are a lot of controversies regarding concepts, nosology, definitions and treatments in psychiatry, all of which are presently under a strict scanner. Differences are so many that even the meaning of psychiatry varies amongst individual psychiatrists. For us, it is an art to practice psychiatry and give the patient what he needs. Still, it should be practiced with great caution and utmost sincerity towards the patient, based on scientific knowledge and not to be guided by individual conceptions alone. Ethics in psychiatry forms an integral part of its basic concept and meaning, and a tight balance should be maintained between professional advancement and patient benefit. In recent years, the scope of psychiatry has enlarged considerably, with wide ranging influences from Sociology, Anthropology and Philosophy on the one hand, and Neurology and Medicine on the other.

  17. Meditation and Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Michael

    2008-01-01

    How might meditation promote wellness and healing from psychiatric illness? How might it contribute to the practice of psychiatry? This review of the literature attempts to answer these questions. Meditation is the consciously willed practice of two actions, attending and abstaining, that all people spontaneously perform to a greater or lesser degree. Psychological health may correlate in part with the degree to which we naturally perform these actions. This review analyzes the nature of medi...

  18. Mumbai Psychiatry: Current Obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay V Bagadia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mumbai, like any other Metro city, has its own share of contentious issues influencing psychiatric management. These could be old ongoing issues like myths about medications, electroconvulsive therapy and counselling, or newer ones like our stand on homosexuality and crime related to psychosocial factors. A range of these issues is considered in this paper along with some possible solutions. Getting due credit and status for psychiatry as a medical branch is also a challenge we need to address.

  19. Identifying Phronotypes in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. AndrewKozel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Refinements in the methods of diagnosis for psychiatric disorders are critically needed. These new methods should be based on objectively measured brain characteristics that provide clinically useful information. Studying the brain with respect to psychiatric disorders, however, faces numerous challenges. Utilizing techniques learned in other areas of medicine to deal with symptoms that lead to complex disorders can provide insight into improving diagnostic models in psychiatry. Specifically, many areas of medicine use objective measures of an organ’s function or characteristic to guide clinical management of particular subjective complaints. In psychiatry, an objectively measured brain characteristic that provides clinically useful information is proposed to be that person’s “phronotype.” Important requirements to developing phronotypes are discussed. Identifying phronotypes in psychiatry will require a specific investigative approach that must be grounded in rigorous scientific methodology. Successfully developing such markers will have a profound impact on clinical care, clinical research, basic science research, and most importantly the lives of those suffering from these illnesses.

  20. Psychiatry beyond the current paradigm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bracken, Pat

    2012-12-01

    A series of editorials in this Journal have argued that psychiatry is in the midst of a crisis. The various solutions proposed would all involve a strengthening of psychiatry\\'s identity as essentially \\'applied neuroscience\\'. Although not discounting the importance of the brain sciences and psychopharmacology, we argue that psychiatry needs to move beyond the dominance of the current, technological paradigm. This would be more in keeping with the evidence about how positive outcomes are achieved and could also serve to foster more meaningful collaboration with the growing service user movement.

  1. [Karl Jaspers and the challenges of social psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Markus; Lang, Fabian U; Becker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Karl Jaspers, in his book "General Psychopathology", argued for methodological pluralism rather than theoretical dogmatism. He formulated a methodological order of psychopathology with a distinction between "explanation" (objective psychopathology) and "understanding" (subjective psychopathology, psychopathology of meaning). The latter approach focused on patients' subjective experience and biographical issues. Karl Jaspers emphasised social factors in the genesis and course of mental disorders. Following a multiperspective concept, from Jaspers' viewpoint social psychiatry should consider itself of equal importance with biological and psychotherapeutic psychiatry. Therefore, uncritical generalization of one of these perspectives should be avoided. Personalized psychiatry, apart from searching biological markers to tailor treatment should identify psychosocial factors and subjective meaning. Concepts of recovery should not ignore biological foundations in mental disorders. PMID:24858436

  2. PSYCHIATRY IN AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Patill

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry in Ayurveda integrates mind, body and soul. The mind-body connection is very important in Ayurveda. Physical imbalances can disturb mental state while mental illness leads to disruption of body functions. In Ayurveda many reference of Manas and treatment of manovikara was available which would be easy to understand and rewarding in the field of treatment, by describing the definition of Manas, its functions, qualities, concept of Manas, classification of mental disorders, treatment of mental illness prevention of mental illnesses, method of examination of mental illness and other important aspects.

  3. BIOETHICS AND FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin SCRIPCARU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent laws on mental health define psychiatric illness as a loss of consciousness and understanding of consequences of self-behavioral acts, evaluated by loss of discernment. As discernment represents the main criteria of responsibility towards personal actions, this study attempts at presenting the ethical issues related to discernment evaluation from the perspective of forensic medicine. We propose a "mint" representation of the content and consequences of one’s own actions as a new criteria of evaluation, taking into account the modern principles of psychology and psychiatry.

  4. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review presents Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) as a powerful tool for clinical use and research in psychiatry. Its focus is on regional cerebral blood flow, measured with technetium labelled HMPAO. In addition, first results with brain receptor imaging, concerning dopamin-D2 and benzodiazepine receptors, are covered. Due to major improvements in image quality, and impressive number of results has been accumulated in the past three years. The authors caution against using SPECT results as markers for disease entities. A finding like 'hypofrontality' is considered typical of a variety of mental disorders. Clearly both, more experience with SPECT and contributions from psychopathology, are needed. (orig.)

  5. [Between neurology and psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Joseph; Toser, Doron; Zeev, Kaplan

    2014-06-01

    In this review we will discuss the broad spectrum of possible relationships between the fields of neurology and psychiatry alongside weighing the pros and cons of each alternative relationship. This is in the hope that such discussions will allow an informed decision regarding the construction of future relations between these two areas. The possible connections between the areas are discussed in light of possible relationships that exist between the two groups in the mathematical world with reference to the proposed solutions to the psychophysical mind-body problem. PMID:25095609

  6. Psychiatry in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Il; Oh, Keun-Young; Chung, Young-Chul

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports the current status of Korean psychiatry. In 2011, there were 3005 psychiatrists and 75,000 psychiatric beds. There were 84 psychiatric residency-training hospitals in 2011, which produced about 150 psychiatry board-certified doctors annually. As for academic activity, there is the Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, a main association for neuropsychiatry, and 21 other research societies. Psychiatric residency is a 4-year training program, with different objectives for each grade. The Korean health system accepts National Health Insurance. When severely mentally ill patients register as having a mental disorder, they pay only 10% of their total medical costs. Private clinics usually see patients with less severe conditions such as anxiety, mood and eating disorders; general and university hospitals and special mental hospitals often deal with severe conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. One great concern is an increasing trend to depend upon pharmacotherapy and neglect the role of psychotherapy. Additionally, conflicts among medical sectors are becoming fierce as other doctors request abolition of the current law that restricts them from prescribing anti-depressants for more than 60 days. The average hospitalization period of all mental care institutions was 166 days in 2010, substantially longer compared with developed countries. To win the heart of the general public, cutting edge research to improve the quality of treatment for mental diseases, reformation of psychiatric residency training programs, public campaigns to increase awareness of mental health value, and timely reflection on policy decisions should be pursued persistently. PMID:23466121

  7. Ethische Herausforderungen der Psychiatrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmchen H

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gegenwärtig ungelöste und zukünftige ethische Probleme der Psychiatrie werden durch Fortschritte in den Neurowissenschaften und durch den Wandel des soziokulturellen Kontextes der Psychiatrie bestimmt. Diese Rahmenbedingungen werden durch Hinweise auf die sozialen Folgen verdeutlicht, die sich aus der antipsychiatrischen Bewegung, wirtschaftlichen Krisen und dem demographischen Wandel ebenso wie auch aus der Strenge wissenschaftlicher Methodik oder dem zunehmenden genetischen Wissen für die psychiatrische Versorgung und Forschung ergeben. In solchem Kontext werden ethische Probleme erörtert, die sich zwischen Medizin und Gesellschaft (individuelles Wohl versus Allgemeinwohl oder innerhalb der Medizin (Wohl versus Wille des Patienten oder zwischen Individuum und Institution (Unabhängigkeit ärztlichen Denkens und Sponsoring entwickeln. Beispiele gegenwärtig ungelöster ethischer Probleme werden in der Forschung mit nicht einwilligungsfähigen Patienten, bei placebokontrollierten klinischen Prüfungen und bei industriegesponsorter Forschung gesehen. Zukünftige ethische Herausforderungen werden sich aus dem wachsenden genetischen Wissen, z. B. in der genetischen Voraussage von Risiken (Vermarktung genetischer Tests, pharmakogenetische Individualisierung der Therapie, präsymptomatische Diagnostik, Vertraulichkeit genetischer Daten, aus der pharmakologischen sowie neurotechnischen Veränderung von Hirnfunktionen (Enhancement, Anti-Aging, Aktivierung von Neuroplastizität und Implantation von neuronalem Gewebe oder Mikroelektronik, und nicht zuletzt an den Grenzen zwischen Krankheit und Gesundheit, zwischen Medizin und Wellness ergeben.

  8. Triglycerides as a biological marker of repeated re-hospitalization resulting from deliberate self-harm in acute psychiatry patients: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Roaldset, John Olav; Linaker, Olav Morten; Bjørkly, Stål

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biological factors have been associated with deliberate self-harm (DSH) but have not been integrated with clinical factors in routine risk assessments. This study aimed to examine the incremental validity of lipid levels and platelet serotonin when combined with psychosocial factors in risk assessments for repeated admissions due to DSH. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 196 acutely admitted patients, results of blood tests performed upon admission and the MI...

  9. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed. PMID:26755987

  10. Dimensional Approach in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In psychiatry there is a traditional categorical conception stating that several disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have distinct etiologies. On the other hand, dimensional approach claims that these entities are actually the same disorder reflecting different clinical aspects of same mental disorder in the course of time. ICD and DSM classifications are based on separate categories of different mental disorders. Howewer, it is quite difficult to consider a mental disorder as a discrete entity that has absolute boundaries from other disorders. There are patients manifesting symptoms of two or more categories but do not fulfill all diagnostic criteria for any mental disorder. Dimensional approach handles the psychopathology as a continuing process and establish the patients to the different ongoing points. According to this view, in fact, multiple diagnosis reflect dimensions of the same disease.

  11. MRI in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulert, Christoph [UKE, Hamburg (Germany). Psychiatry Neuroimaging Branch; Shenton, Martha E. (ed.) [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Psychiatry and Radiology

    2014-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive textbook on the use of MRI in psychiatry covering imaging techniques, brain systems and a review of findings in different psychiatric disorders. The book is divided into three sections, the first of which covers in detail all the major MRI-based methodological approaches available today, including fMRI, EEG-fMRI, DTI, and MR spectroscopy. In addition, the role of MRI in imaging genetics and combined brain stimulation and imaging is carefully explained. The second section provides an overview of the different brain systems that are relevant for psychiatric disorders, including the systems for perception, emotion, cognition, and reward. The final part of the book presents the MRI findings that are obtained in all the major psychiatric disorders using the previously discussed techniques. Numerous carefully chosen images support the informative text, making this an ideal reference work for all practitioners and trainees with an interest in this flourishing field.

  12. Maurycy Urstein: forgotten Polish contributor to German psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcinowski, Filip

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polish psychiatrist Maurycy Urstein (1872–1940 is nowadays almost forgotten. He is not mentioned in the history of Polish psychiatry which only partially may be explained by the fact that his most essential works were published in German language. His scientific oeuvre contains dozens of publications, including four monographs on catatonia. Urstein was an ardent advocate of the autointoxication theory of psychiatric disorders, fierce opponent of psychoanalysis and enthusiast of the use of biological methods of treatment in psychiatry. Both some eccentric views and specific personality probably equally contributed to his almost complete isolation among psychiatrists in the interwar Poland.

  13. The Task before Psychiatry Today Redux: STSPIR*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R

    2014-01-01

    stories.SCIENCE: Shrugging ambivalence and disagreement and searching for commonalities in psychiatric phenomena;An idiographic orientation which stresses individuality cannot, and should not, preclude the nomothetic or norm laying thrust that is the crux of scientific progress.The major contribution of science has been to recognize such commonalities so they can be researched, categorized and used for human welfare.It is a mistake to stress individuality so much that commonalities are obliterated.While the purpose and approach of psychiatry, as of all medicine, has to be humane and caring, therapeutic advancements and aetiologic understandings are going to result only from a scientific methodology.Just caring is not enough, if you have not mastered the methods of care, which only science can supply.PSYCHOTHERAPY: Psychiatrists continuing to do psychotherapy:Psychotherapy must be clearly defined, its parameters and methods firmly delineated, its proof of effectiveness convincingly demonstrated by evidence based and controlled trials;Psychotherapy research suffers from neglect by the mainstream at present, because of the ascendancy of biological psychiatry;It suffers resource constraints as major sponsors like pharma not interested;Needs funding from some sincere researcher organisations and altruistic sponsors, as also professional societies and governments;Psychotherapy research will have to provide enough irrefutable evidence that it works, with replicable studies that prove it across geographical areas;It will not do for psychiatrists to hand over psychotherapy to clinical psychologists and others.INTEGRATE APPROACHES: Welcoming biological breakthroughs, while supplying psychosocial insights:Experimental breakthroughs, both in aetiology and therapeutics, will come mainly from biology, but the insights and leads can hopefully come from many other fields, especially the psychosocial and philosophical;The biological and the psychological are not exclusive but

  14. Nursing interventions in inpatient psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frauenfelder, F.; Muller-Staub, M.; Needham, I.; Achterberg, T. van

    2013-01-01

    The successful application of the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) in inpatient psychiatry depends on whether the classification adequately describes nursing care in this setting. The present study aimed to identify nursing interventions mentioned in journal articles on psychiatric inpatie

  15. [Perspectives on researches in disaster psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    After experiencing the catastrophic Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster in 2011, Tohoku University founded the International Research Institute of Disaster Science (IRIDeS) in April, 2012. IRIDeS, comprising 7 divisions and 36 laboratories with broad areas of specialization, from the humanities to natural sciences, aims to become a global center for the study of disasters and disaster mitigation, learning from and building upon past lessons in disaster management from Japan and around the world. In IRIDeS, the Department of Disaster Psychiatry is in charge of dealing with issues related to disaster psychiatry, including the psychosocial impact of disasters. Now, at more than 2 and a half years after the catastrophic disaster, the psychological impact actually seems to be getting stronger and wider, whereas the memory of the disaster seems to be waning in other areas of the country. In such a situation, where a number of problems need to be resolved, what can/should we do as psychiatrists? On the other hand, other natural disasters, such as storms and floods, have kept hitting Japan, and catastrophes seem to strike somewhere in the world every year. In addition, we need to prepare for the possibility of a Nankai Trough Quake and an earthquake directly hitting the Tokyo area, which may occur sometime in the future. Considering the situation, we need to establish an education system for disaster psychiatry, and proceed with research to collect useful information to prepare for coming disasters. The aim of our department is to integrate multi-faceted basic and clinical research approaches to investigate the following topics: 1) to identify social, psychological, and biological factors involved in the pathophysiology of and recovery from disaster-related mental health problems; 2) to develop systems for disaster prevention, disaster response, and recovery, considering disaster-related psychiatric and psychological issues; 3) to develop useful tools for the

  16. History of psychiatry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, S.Haque; Goyal, Nishant

    2010-01-01

    History is a screen through which the past lightens the present and the present brightens the future. Psychiatry by virtue of its ability to deal with human thoughts and emotions and provide a pathway for healthy minds provides an important platform towards being a mentally sound human being and largely the society. This review takes a sneak peek into the foundations of modern psychiatry in India. The description is largely based on the time frame, which provides a better understanding of the...

  17. PSYCHIATRIC COMORBIDITY IN FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY

    OpenAIRE

    Žarkovic Palijan, Tija; Mužinić, Lana; Radeljak, Sanja

    2009-01-01

    For the past several years a numerous studies in the field of forensic psychiatry confirmed a close relationship between violent offenders and comorbid substance abuse. The comorbid substance abuse in violent offenders was usually unrecognized and misdiagnosed. Furthermore, comorbidity in forensic psychiatry describes the co-occurrence of two or more conditions or psychiatric disorder known in the literature as dual diagnosis and defined by World Health Organization (WHO). In fact, many vi...

  18. The molecular turn in psychiatry: a philosophical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2002-06-01

    Biological psychiatry has been dominated by a psychopharmacologically-driven neurotransmitter dysfunction paradigm. The objective of this paper is to explore a reductionist assumption underlying this paradigm, and to suggest an improvement on it. The methods used are conceptual analysis with a comparative approach, particularly using illustrations from the history of both biological psychiatry and molecular biology. The results are that complete reduction to physicochemical explanations is not fruitful, at least in the initial stages of research in the medical and life sciences, and that an appropriate (non-reducible) integrative principle--addressing a property of the whole system under study--is required for each domain of research. This is illustrated in Pauling's use of a topological integrative principle for the discovery of the functioning of proteins and in Watson and Crick's use of the notion of a genetic code as an integrative principle for the discovery of the structure of genes. The neurotransmitter dysfunction paradigm addresses single molecules and their neural pathways, yet their interactions within the CNS as a whole seem most pertinent to mental disorders such as schizophrenia. The lack within biological psychiatry of an integrative principle addressing a property of the CNS as a whole may be responsible for the empirical failure of orthomolecular psychiatry, as well as for the central role that serendipity has played in the study of mental disorders, which is dominated by the neurotransmitter paradigm. The conclusion is that research in biological psychiatry may benefit from using, at least initially, some integrative principle(s) addressing a property of the CNS as a whole, such as connectionism or a hierarchical notion. PMID:12187435

  19. Cyclical swings: The bête noire of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Hannah S

    2016-02-01

    Progress in psychiatry in the West has been retarded by the proclivity of the discipline to swing violently between 2 approaches to viewing mental illness; that is, emphasizing-to the exclusion of the other-the material-somatic vs the psychical-experiential avenues to knowledge. Each time a shift occurs, the leaders of the new dominant approach emotionally denounce the principles and ideas that came before. We can examine this phenomenon historically by looking at Romantic psychiatry, mid-/late-19th century empirical psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and modern biological psychiatry. Looking at the 2 approaches in treatment today, the gold standard of patient care involves combining empirical/psychological care in 1 person (the psychiatrist) or shared between 2 clinicians working intimately with each other (psychiatrist with psychologist or social worker.) Yet as regards psychiatrists, they are discouraged from paying full attention to the psychological side by the way managed care and third-party payment have combined to remunerate them. Finally, how do we account for the intense swings and denunciations in psychiatry? The author speculates on possible explanations but leaves the question open for her readers. PMID:26844651

  20. Comments on "cyclical swings" by Professor Hannah Decker: The underappreciated "solid center" of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ronald W

    2016-02-01

    The history of psychiatry is characterized by some deep ideological and conceptual divisions, as adumbrated in Professor Hannah Decker's essay. However, the schism between "biological" and "psychosocial" models of mental illness and its treatment represents extreme positions among some psychiatrists-not the model propounded by academic psychiatry or its affiliated professional organizations. Indeed, the "biopsycho-social model" (BPSM) developed by Dr. George L. Engel has been, and remains, the foundational model for academic psychiatry, notwithstanding malign market forces that have undermined the BPSM's use in clinical practice. The BPSM is integrally related to "centralizing" and integrative trends in American psychiatry that may be traced to Franz Alexander, Karl Jaspers, and Engel himself, among others. This "Alexandrian-Jaspersian-Engelian" tradition is explored in relation to Professor Decker's "cyclical swing" model of psychiatry's history. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844653

  1. Space Psychology and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Manzey, D.

    2003-09-01

    This book deals with psychological, psychiatric, and psychosocial issues that affect people who live and work in space. Unlike other books that focus on anecdotal reports and ground-based simulation studies, this book emphasizes the findings from psychological research conducted during actual space missions. Both authors have been active in such research. What is presented in this readable text has previously been found only in scientific journal articles. Topics that are discussed include: behavioral adaptation to space; human performance and cognitive effects; crewmember interactions; psychiatric responses; psychological counter-measures related to habitability factors, work-design, selection, training, and in-flight monitoring and support; and the impact of expeditionary missions to Mars and beyond. People finding this book of interest will include: psychology and social science students and professors in universities; medical students and residents in psychiatry and aerospace medicine; human factors workers in space and aviation professions; individuals involved with isolated environments on Earth (e.g., the Antarctic, submarines); aerospace workers in businesses and space agencies such as NASA and ESA; and anyone who is interested in learning the facts about the human side of long-duration space missions. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1341-8

  2. Nuclear medicine in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the same way that the symptoms between different diseases in psychiatry overlap, functional brain research frequently shows the same pattern of changes across diagnostic borders; on the other hand, many the other tests, e.g. psychological tests, present the same problem as mentioned above; therefore: The psychiatrist seldom applies to an NM specialist to obtain a diagnosis; instead, a nuclear medicine report will rather confirm, or less frequently exclude, the psychiatrist's diagnosis. Ideally, psychiatric patients should be rescanned after the treatment, and changes in perfusion and/or metabolism discussed between psychiatrist and NM specialist. As shown above, there are few practical applications of nuclear medicine due to low specificity and low spatial resolution, although in the aspect of functional imaging it is still superior to CT/MRI, even in their functional modalities. On the other hand, its investigational potential is still growing, as there is no imaging technique in sight which could replace metabolic and receptor studies, and also because the scope of functional imaging in psychiatric diseases is spreading from its traditional applications, like dementia or depression, towards many poorly investigated fields e.g. hypnosis, suicidal behaviour or sleep disorders. (author)

  3. Psychiatry and movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Aleksandar; Vuković, Olivera; Jovanović, Aleksandar A; Jasović-Gasić, Miroslava

    2009-06-01

    As one of the most potent and substantial form of mass communication, film exercises a very significant influence upon the perceptions of the audience, especially in relation to mental illness issues, and that perception is very much blurred with populists' misinterpretation and lack of awareness regarding problems faced by persons suffering from mental disorders. Movies such as "Psycho", "One Flew Over Cuckoo's Nest", "Exorcist", despite being valuable in an artistic sense, corroborated and encouraged confusion and undermined the clarity and certainty concerning the fine line separating mental health from mental illness. Modern film makers and movie theoreticians try to overcome these limitations which are often generated by exploitation of stereotypes and myths referring to mentally ill people. This paper defines and discusses the most frequent thematic stereotypes seen in movies which are perpetuating stigmatization of mentally ill people. They are: free-spirited rebel, maniac on a killing spree, seducer, enlightened member of society, narcissistic parasite, beastly person (stereotype of animal sort). Psychiatry and cinematography are linked inseparably not only because they creatively complement each other, but also as an opportunity of mutual influences blending into didactical categories and professional driving forces, benefiting both the filmmakers' and the psychiatrists' professions. PMID:19556954

  4. State of psychiatry in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeanett; Okkels, Niels; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2012-08-01

    Danish psychiatry has gone through profound changes over the past two to three decades, reducing inpatient-based treatment and increasing outpatient treatment markedly. The number of patients treated has almost doubled, and the diagnostic profile has broadened, now including a substantial number of common mental disorders, in particular depression and anxiety. Furthermore, 'new' diagnostic groups are represented in the treatment statistics with steeply increasing incidences, e.g. attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders, especially in the outpatient part of the statistics. Over the same 30 years, the number of available beds has been reduced by 60-70%; however, as the length of stay of inpatients has been reduced markedly, the departments are still able to treat a high number of patients. The financial budgeting of psychiatry is not increasing equivalently to the somatic specialities, handicapping development in psychiatry. Action has been taken to increase research activity in psychiatry. This is facilitated by an increasing interest among medical students and young graduate physicians attracted by the neuropsychiatric paradigm, rapidly implemented in Danish psychiatry. PMID:22950767

  5. The Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, John S.; Silva, Susan G.; Compton, Scott; Anthony, Ginger; DeVeaugh-Geiss, Joseph; Califf, Robert; Krishnan, Ranga

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The current generation of clinical trials in pediatric psychiatry often fails to maximize clinical utility for practicing clinicians, thereby diluting its impact. Method: To attain maximum clinical relevance and acceptability, the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN) will transport to pediatric psychiatry the practical…

  6. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework

    OpenAIRE

    LOLAS, FERNANDO

    2006-01-01

    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, ...

  7. State of psychiatry in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Jeanett Østerby; Okkels, Niels; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    2012-01-01

    statistics. Over the same 30 years, the number of available beds has been reduced by 60-70%; however, as the length of stay of inpatients has been reduced markedly, the departments are still able to treat a high number of patients. The financial budgeting of psychiatry is not increasing equivalently to the...

  8. Historical aspects of Mexican psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, Sergio Javier Villaseñor

    2016-04-01

    Mexican psychiatry initiated since pre-Hispanic times. Historically, treatments were a mixture of magic, science and religion. Ancient Nahuas had their own medical concepts with a holistic view of medicine, considering men and cosmos as a whole. The first psychiatric hospital appeared in 1566 and a more modern psychiatric asylum emerged until 1910. International exchanges of theoretical approaches started in the National University with the visit of Pierre Janet. There were other important figures that influenced Mexican psychiatry, such as Erich Fromm, Henri Ey, Jean Garrabé and Yves Thoret. Regarding Mexican psychiatrists, some of the most important contributors to Mexican psychiatry were José Luis Patiño Rojas, Manuel Guevara Oropeza and Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz. This article includes excerpts from "Clinical Psychiatry", a book by Patiño Rojas where he tries to understand and describe the inner world experienced by patients with schizophrenia; also, the thesis conducted by Guevara Oropeza ("Psychoanalisis"), which is a critical comparison between the theories of Janet and Freud. Finally, we include "The study of consciousness: current status" by Ramón de la Fuente, which leads us through the initial investigations concerning consciousness, its evolution, and the contributions made by psychology, philosophy and neurobiology. PMID:27117799

  9. Training in psychiatry throughout Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittlebank, Andrew; Hermans, Marc; Bhugra, Dinesh; Pinto da Costa, Mariana; Rojnic-Kuzman, Martina; Fiorillo, Andrea; Kurimay, Tamas; Hanon, Cecile; Wasserman, Danuta; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan

    2016-03-01

    Psychiatry is the largest medical specialty in Europe. Despite efforts to bring harmonisation, training in psychiatry in Europe continues to be very diverse. The Union Européenne des Médecins Spécialistes (UEMS) has issued as from 2000 a charter of requirements for the training in psychiatry with an additional European Framework for Competencies in Psychiatry in 2009. Yet these have not been implemented throughout Europe. In this paper, the diversity in training throughout Europe is approached from different angles: the cultural differences between countries with regards to how mental health care is considered and founded on, the cultural differences between people throughout Europe in all states. The position of psychotherapy is emphasised. What once was the cornerstone of psychiatry as medical specialty seems to have become a neglected area. Seeing the patient with mental health problems within his cultural context is important, but considering him within his family context. The purpose of any training is enabling the trainee to gain the knowledge and acquire the competencies necessary to become a well-equipped professional is the subject of the last paragraph in which trainees consider their position and early career psychiatrists look back to see whether what they were trained in matches with what they need in the working situation. Common standard for training and certification are a necessity within Europe, for the benefit of the profession of psychiatrist but also for patient safety. UEMS is advised to join forces with the Council of National Psychiatric Associations (NPAs) within the EPA and trainings and early career psychiatrist, to discuss with the users what standards should be implemented in all European countries and how a European board examination could ensure professional quality of psychiatrists throughout the continent. PMID:26880078

  10. Antioxidant Vitamins and Their Use in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betul Mazlum

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress can be defined as imbalance between prooxidant molecules produced during body metabolism and members of antioxidant system for favor of former. Oxidative stress, which is included in the pathogenesis of cancer, aging, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders, is also considered for pathogenetic mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, mood disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Due to important role of antioxidant vitamins in antioxidant defense mechanisms, vitamin supplementation therapies are considered in addition to conventional treatment choices for psychiatric disorders. This paper will attempt to review the biochemical, molecular and genetic data on biological processes related to vitamins A, C and E. Besides, the circumstances under which the antioxidant vitamin supplementation could be used in psychiatry and the factors that should be taken into consideration during these therapies will be discussed.

  11. Diretrizes da Federação Mundial das Sociedades de Psiquiatria Biológica para o tratamento biológico da esquizofrenia. Parte 1: tratamento agudo World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia. Part 1: acute treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Falkai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estas diretrizes para o tratamento biológico da esquizofrenia foram desenvolvidas pela Força-Tarefa da Federação Mundial das Sociedades de Psiquiatria Biológica (World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry, WFSBP. A meta fixada durante o desenvolvimento destas diretrizes foi rever sistematicamente todas as evidências disponíveis referentes ao tratamento da esquizofrenia, tanto no âmbito clínico como científico, e chegar a um consenso sobre as principais recomendações para a prática psiquiátrica. Estas diretrizes são destinadas a todos os médicos que atendem e tratam de pacientes portadores de esquizofrenia. Os dados usados para desenvolver estas diretrizes foram extraídos primariamente de vários painéis e diretrizes nacionais de tratamento para esquizofrenia, assim como de metanálises, revisões e estudos clínicos randomizados sobre a eficácia do tratamento farmacológico e de outras intervenções terapêuticas biológicas, identificadas por uma busca nas bases de dados MedLine e Biblioteca Cochrane. A literatura identificada foi avaliada no que diz respeito à solidez das evidências a favor da eficácia de uma dada intervenção e, então, categorizada em quatro níveis de evidências (de A a D. A primeira parte das diretrizes abrange a definição da doença, sua classificação, a epidemiologia e o curso da esquizofrenia, assim como o manejo terapêutico de fase aguda. Estas diretrizes são primariamente relacionadas ao tratamento biológico de adultos esquizofrênicos, incluindo medicação antipsicótica, outras opções de tratamento farmacológico, terapia eletroconvulsiva, estratégias terapêuticas recentes e complementares.These guidelines for the biological treatment of schizophrenia were developed by an international Task Force of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP. The goal during the development of these guidelines was to review systematically all available evidence

  12. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry. PMID:16759353

  13. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szasz Thomas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of mental diseases. Black's Law Dictionary states: "Every confinement of the person is an 'imprisonment,' whether it be in a common prison, or in private house, or in the stocks, or even by forcibly detaining one in the public streets." Accordingly, I maintain that Secular Humanism is incompatible with the principles and practices of psychiatry.

  14. The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, R A

    1965-07-10

    The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

  15. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    THORNTON, TIM

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell’s criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remark...

  16. Secular humanism and "scientific psychiatry"

    OpenAIRE

    Szasz Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The Council for Secular Humanism identifies Secular Humanism as a "way of thinking and living" committed to rejecting authoritarian beliefs and embracing "individual freedom and responsibility ... and cooperation." The paradigmatic practices of psychiatry are civil commitment and insanity defense, that is, depriving innocent persons of liberty and excusing guilty persons of their crimes: the consequences of both are confinement in institutions ostensibly devoted to the treatment of m...

  17. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    OpenAIRE

    Homayoun Amini; Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa; Saeed Shoar; Hosein Kaviani; Mehdi Samimi-Ardestani; Amir Shabani; Sara Esmaeili; Yasaman Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    Objective We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics. Method In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences) were asked to participate an...

  18. Classifications in child and adolescent psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Squillante , Maria-Vittoria

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic approach is essential to medicine. It is one of the binding terms of the doctor-patient relationship. In child psychiatry, the questioning concerning diagnosis and its theoretical background is coupled with the specific nature of the subject being studied. In France infant and juvenile psychiatry is a relatively recent discipline. The following paper discusses the development of child and adolescent psychiatry, taking into account the historical point of view.

  19. Advances and perspectives in mental health: is psychiatry being stigmatized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, R

    2011-01-01

    The specialty of Psychiatry and the interdisciplinary work performed by psychiatrists in conjunction with other scientific and humanistic disciplines is being affected by some facts which lead to its stigmatization. There are both internal and external risks that are affecting the profession. Among the internal ones we may mention the different diagnostic criteria used by psychiatrists and the differences between treatments--as there is a wide variety of treatment options. Besides, the practice of psychiatry may differ enormously, according to the perspective--biological, psychological, social, cultural, and so on--of each psychiatrist. The internal inconsistencies give rise to some of the external risks psychiatry and psychiatrists have to face: patients' discontent or even mistrust, the intrusion of other professions in the field of psychiatry and the negative image psychiatry has among the public. Just as it occurred in many other places before, the passing of a new mental health law in Argentina has proved to be an occasion for deep debate. The passing of this law has caused big controversy, especially among professional associations, private mental health services, NGOs which represent users and their families, trade unions which represent health workers, political and economic decision makers, etc. In Argentina, the debate of ideas has always been rich. Even when political parties were forbidden, there were discussions taking place among groups which supported psychoanalytic and psychodynamic approaches. There are many who demonize the developments made in the field of psychiatry and they also campaign against such developments. They catch the public's attention and they convince legislators, thus spreading the idea that psychiatry may be dangerous. As a consequence, for example, the new law gives similar status to psychiatrists and psychologists when it states that the decision to confine a patient into hospital "should be signed by two professionals, one of

  20. SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last fifteen years different attempts have been undertaken to understand the biological basis of major psychiatric disorders. One important tool to determine patterns of brain dysfunction is single emission computed tomography (SPECT). Whereas SPECT investigations are already a valuable diagnostic instrument for the diagnosis of dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) there have not been consistent findings that can be referred to as specific for any other particular psychiatric diagnostic entity. Nevertheless, SPECT studies have been able to demonstrate evidence of brain dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse in which other methods showed no clear abnormality of brain function. Our manuscript reviews the data which are currently available in the literature and stresses the need for further studies, especially for prediction and monitoring psychiatric treatment modalities. (orig.)

  1. Iranian Medical Students’ Perception of Psychiatry: Before and After a Psychiatry Clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Amini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to compare the medical students’ attitude towards psychiatry before and after psychiatry clerkship, and to examine the association of choosing psychiatry as a future career with some personal characteristics.Method: In a self-controlled, quasi-experimental study, all of the medical students entering the psychiatry clerkship in three major medical schools of Iran located in Tehran (Tehran, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran University of Medical Sciences were asked to participate anonymously in the study on the first and the last 3-days of their psychiatry clerkship. From 346 invited 4th-5th year medical students, 225 (65% completed anonymous self-report questionnaires before and after a 4-week psychiatry clerkship.Results: Positive response to choose psychiatry as a career was seen in 13.3 % and 18.3 % before and after psychiatry rotation, respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant; about one-quarter of the students were turned on to psychiatry and 25% were discouraged during the clerkship. Individual pair wise comparisons revealed significant improvements only in two out of 13 measured aspects of psychiatry. Seventeen out of 38 (47.7% students who identified psychiatry as the career of choice or strong possibility reported that one of their family members or close friends’ mental illness had an impact on their choice. Those students who considered psychiatry as the strong possibility claimed that they are more interested in humanities (OR = 2.96; 95% CI: 1.17, 7.49, and playing a musical instrument (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.15, 5.57.Conclusion: It may be concluded that exposure to psychiatry clerkship could influence medical students’ opinion about psychiatry positively, or negatively. Personal characteristics and individual interests of students may play an important role in choosing psychiatry as their future

  2. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  3. Psychiatry Residency Training around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisook, Sidney; Balon, Richard; Bjorksten, Karin S.; Everall, Ian; Dunn, Laura; Ganadjian, Krauz; Jin, Hua; Parikh, Sagar; Sciolla, Andres; Sidhartha, Tanuj; Yoo, Tai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors compare and contrast psychiatry residency training in the United States to that in Canada and selected countries in South America, Europe, and Asia. Method: Nine individuals who are intimately familiar with psychiatry residency training in the United States (primarily chairs, training directors, associate training directors,…

  4. The Holy Grail of Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Nemeroff, Charles B.

    2015-01-01

    Editor’s Note: “Holy Grail” is a well-known metaphor for the eternal spiritual pursuit for truth and wisdom. It suggests that in order for us to find what no one has found, we must search where few have looked. In 2013, a group led by Helen Mayberg published a groundbreaking paper that sought an answer to one of the most discussed conundrums in psychiatry and neuroscience: Can specific patterns of brain activity indicate how a depressed person will respond to treatment with medication or psyc...

  5. Movies in education of psychiatry residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukić, Vlado; Brecić, Petrana; Savić, Aleksandar

    2010-06-01

    Movies are a complex entity representing simultaneously an art form, a powerful industry, and a social phenomenon. The movie industry has always shown keen interest in physicians and medicine in general, and psychiatry in particular has often been in the spotlight. While there can be positive aspects of interaction of the movies and the psychiatry, stigmatization and negative public perception are also the results we often have to consider. Movies exploit psychiatric topics, at the same time portrayal of mental conditions, psychiatrists, and psychiatry on big screen could be used in different kinds of education in psychiatry. We present our initial experience with introducing movies in education of psychiatry residents in Psychiatric Hospital Vrapce. PMID:20562770

  6. What Psychiatry Means to Me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Herrman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving in early career from public health physician to psychiatrist gives me a public health view of psychiatry and an interest in pursuing the goals of widening access to community-based services for people with mental disorders and promoting mental health in communities. Training in social medicine in the UK and psychiatry in Australia lead to studies of homelessness in people living with psychotic disorders, the health of family caregivers, assessing quality of life and mental health promotion. Work with the World Health Organization (WHO in the Western Pacific Region and the World Psychiatric Association (WPA worldwide has given me opportunities to work with psychiatrists, mental health workers, service users and others in governments and non-government organisations implementing the recommendations of the World Health Report 2001 in countries with limited resources. My work as WPA Secretary for Publications seeks to improve information exchange in countries irrespective of their wealth. This is an exciting time to be working in a global village with technical capacity to reach into its furthest corners. Psychiatrists supported by WPA can help ensure that vulnerable people and communities and people living with mental disorders are well served in this new environment and no longer left out and left behind.

  7. Against Explanatory Minimalism in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The idea that psychiatry contains, in principle, a series of levels of explanation has been criticized not only as empirically false but also, by Campbell, as unintelligible because it presupposes a discredited pre-Humean view of causation. Campbell's criticism is based on an interventionist-inspired denial that mechanisms and rational connections underpin physical and mental causation, respectively, and hence underpin levels of explanation. These claims echo some superficially similar remarks in Wittgenstein's Zettel. But attention to the context of Wittgenstein's remarks suggests a reason to reject explanatory minimalism in psychiatry and reinstate a Wittgensteinian notion of levels of explanation. Only in a context broader than the one provided by interventionism is that the ascription of propositional attitudes, even in the puzzling case of delusions, justified. Such a view, informed by Wittgenstein, can reconcile the idea that the ascription mental phenomena presupposes a particular level of explanation with the rejection of an a priori claim about its connection to a neurological level of explanation. PMID:26696908

  8. The future of psychiatry as clinical neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Charles F; Lewis, David A; Detre, Thomas; Schatzberg, Alan F; Kupfer, David J

    2009-04-01

    Psychiatry includes the assessment, treatment, and prevention of complex brain disorders, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, developmental disorders (e.g., autism), and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer dementia). Its core mission is to prevent and alleviate the distress and impairment caused by these disorders, which account for a substantial part of the global burden of illness-related disability. Psychiatry is grounded in clinical neuroscience. Its core mission, now and in the future, is best served within this context because advances in assessment, treatment, and prevention of brain disorders are likely to originate from studies of etiology and pathophysiology based in clinical and translational neuroscience. To ensure its broad public health relevance in the future, psychiatry must also bridge science and service, ensuring that those who need the benefits of its science are also its beneficiaries. To do so effectively, psychiatry as clinical neuroscience must strengthen its partnerships with the disciplines of public health (including epidemiology), community and behavioral health science, and health economics.The authors present a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis of psychiatry and identify strategies for strengthening its future and increasing its relevance to public health and the rest of medicine. These strategies encompass new approaches to strengthening the relationship between psychiatry and neurology, financing psychiatry's mission, emphasizing early and sustained multidisciplinary training (research and clinical), bolstering the academic infrastructure, and reorganizing and refinancing mental health services both for preventive intervention and cost-effective chronic disease management. PMID:19318776

  9. NEW IMAGE OF PSYCHIATRY, MASS MEDIA IMPACT AND PUBLIC RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-01-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental healt and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and proffesional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should bui...

  10. The views of medical students about psychiatry clerkship education

    OpenAIRE

    Varkal, Mihriban Dalkıran; Yüksek, Erhan; Demirel, Ömer Faruk; Çağlar, Nuran; Eliüşük, Nihan; Gökdoğan, Pınar; Özmansur, Elif Nurdan; Emül, Murat

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Psychiatry education in medical schools seems to be given little attention and has not been fully integrated into curriculum. In this study our purpose was to get feedback about all phases of psychiatry clerkship from medical students, who completed psychiatry clerkship. Methods: A 31 item questionnaire investigating the views of medical students about psychiatry clerkship and a socio-demographic survey were given to the medical students, who completed psychiatry clerkship and...

  11. A Marxist approach to psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahem, J

    1982-01-01

    Marxism considers psychology and psychiatry to be young and complex sciences which are powerfully affected by the nature of society. Marxism contributes to these sciences by applying dialectical and historical materialism to their study and development. The Marxist critique of psychology and psychiatry under capitalism identifies the immense harmful effect on them of capitalist class ideology in a number of areas: anti-working class theories, racism, national chauvinism, sexism, theories of fixed evil human nature, and false or one-sided theories. Socialism is held to provide a healthy environment for individual psychological development and to utilize psychology and psychiatry for scientific and humane ends. PMID:7076375

  12. Mind-body and the future of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E R

    1990-02-01

    Philosophical perspectives are deeply relevant to psychiatric theorization, investigation, and practice. There is no better instance of this than the perennially vexing mind-body problem. This essay eschews reductionist, dualist, and identity-theory attempts to resolve this problem, and offers an ontology--"monistic dual-aspect interactionism"--for the biopsychosocial model. The profound clinical, scientific, and moral consequences of positions on the mind-body relation are examined. I prescribe a radically biological cure for psychiatry's--and all medicine's--chronic dogmatism and fragmentation. PMID:2187043

  13. [IMPACT OF AGING IN PSYCHIATRY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Romina; Jauregui, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The changes associated with aging influence the clinical presentation and treatment approach of psychiatric illness. Several psychiatric disorders are common in old age as depression or set of diseases with cognitive impairment requiring geriatric knowledge. In many countries psychiatry of the elderly are called psychogeriatric. Regardless of the name objective of this article is to convey that the psychiatrist who treats patients over 65 years with multiple disorders, with frailty social problems and polypharmacy should have some tools in addition to the thorough understanding of psychiatric illness itself. Teamwork, meet physiological changes of aging and how these affect the response to drugs, atypical presentation of illness and keep in mind the importance of psychosocial and environmental issues both in presentation and in addressing and monitoring of disease. PMID:26650408

  14. Reflections on psychiatry and international mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Herrman

    2013-01-01

    Achieving adequate support for mental health in any country requires a unified approach. Strong links between psychiatrists, community leaders and patients and families that are based on negotiation and respect, are vital for progress. When strong partnerships exist, they can contribute to community understanding and advancement of psychiatry. This is the first step towards scaling up good quality care for those living with mental illnesses, preventing illnesses in those at risk, and promoting mental health through work with other community sectors. Partnerships are needed to support education and research in psychiatry, and improvements in quality of care wherever psychiatry is practiced, including primary health and community mental health services, hospitals and private practice. There are important roles for psychiatry in building the strength of organisations that champion the advocacy and support roles of service users and family carers, and encouraging partnerships for mental health promotion in the community.

  15. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, David E; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2009-01-01

    This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct asses...

  16. Power, change, and 'the culture of psychiatry'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Sadeq

    2014-12-01

    It is not uncommon to encounter 'the culture of psychiatry' used as a descriptive or even explanatory concept in discussions of psychiatric practices and services, specifically in research addressing cultural aspects of psychiatry. Drawing on data from research on the role of culture in psychiatric services in the Boston area, this paper critically examines the attribution of a 'culture' to psychiatry, which is prevalent not simply in mainstream psychiatric literature, but also in certain lines of cultural psychiatry, specifically those dedicated to political and anti-racist activism. It is argued that the use of such terminology could be misleading as it implicitly attributes a sense of coherence and agency to what may best be described as a set of related discourses and sociopolitical practices. It is further suggested that, given the implications of using such terminology as 'culture' in our discussions of psychiatry as a social institution, a scientific discourse, or a clinical practice, it would be more fruitful to address the analytic concepts of power, meaning, and the sociopolitical functions of psychiatry instead. PMID:25159045

  17. Formal Training in Women's Issues in Psychiatry: A Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Liza H.; Epstein, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the availability of formal residency training opportunities in women's issues in psychiatry and explore the potential relationships between the availability of training and characteristics of residency programs. Method: The authors surveyed psychiatry residency training directors to identify program characteristics…

  18. Administrative issues in child and adult psychiatry training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, J C

    1978-01-01

    Child psychiatry training programs have encountered a number of administrative problems resulting from efforts to recognize, without isolating or submerging, the unique aspects of child psychiatry within existing departments of psychiatry. This paper questions the validity of the concept of general psychiatry, which may be responsible for many of these administrative dilemmas. The thesis is advanced that adult and child psychiatry actually represent distinct fields of practice, however, training programs for each should be integrated within departments of psychiatry through both adult and child divisional administrative lines. PMID:688803

  19. New image of psychiatry, mass media impact and public relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljević, Miro; Tomić, Zoran; Maslov, Boris; Skoko, Iko

    2010-06-01

    The mass media has a powerful impact on public attitudes about mental health and psychiatry. The question of identity of psychiatry as a medical profession as well as of the future of psychiatry has been the subject of much controversial discussion. Psychiatry today has the historical opportunity to shape the future of mental health care, medicine and society. It has gained in scientific and professional status by the tremendous increase of knowledge and treatment skills. Psychiatry should build up new transdisciplinary and integrative image of a specialized profession, promote it and make it public. Good public relations are very important for the future of psychiatry. PMID:20562738

  20. Cultural competency training in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A; Collazos, F; Ramos, M; Casas, M

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that the quality of care provided to immigrant and ethnic minority patients is not at the same level as that provided to majority group patients. Although the European Board of Medical Specialists recognizes awareness of cultural issues as a core component of the psychiatry specialization, few medical schools provide training in cultural issues. Cultural competence represents a comprehensive response to the mental health care needs of immigrant and ethnic minority patients. Cultural competence training involves the development of knowledge, skills, and attitudes that can improve the effectiveness of psychiatric treatment. Cognitive cultural competence involves awareness of the various ways in which culture, immigration status, and race impact psychosocial development, psychopathology, and therapeutic transactions. Technical cultural competence involves the application of cognitive cultural competence, and requires proficiency in intercultural communication, the capacity to develop a therapeutic relationship with a culturally different patient, and the ability to adapt diagnosis and treatment in response to cultural difference. Perhaps the greatest challenge in cultural competence training involves the development of attitudinal competence inasmuch as it requires exploration of cultural and racial preconceptions. Although research is in its infancy, there are increasing indications that cultural competence can improve key aspects of the psychiatric treatment of immigrant and minority group patients. PMID:18371580

  1. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  2. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  3. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  4. History and current condition of Russian psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, Valery N; Gurovich, Isaak

    2012-08-01

    Russian psychiatry has a dramatic history, and until now has been at a transitional stage of development. It is facing problems not only common in world psychiatry, but also specific to eastern Europe, in particular Russia. Starting from the beginning of the 1990s, considerable changes have occurred in psychiatry, especially after 1992 when the law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision was adopted. It became the ideological and legislative basis for reforms. However, there are definite obstacles to structural reforms in psychiatry. They are unfavourable technical conditions in many psychiatric clinics, hypercentralization of psychiatric services, shortage of clinical psychologists and social workers in psychiatry, some difficulties in cooperation between psychiatric and general medical institutions. Economic difficulties in the transition period of Russia's social development prevent the overcoming of these problems. They are being actively discussed and some of them are being gradually solved, e.g. the organization of team work in mental health services, the increasing number of specialists on social work, and the involvement of non-government organizations in psychosocial rehabilitation. PMID:22950772

  5. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krener, P

    1994-03-01

    Although psychiatry has one of the highest proportions of women entering its residency programs, women have not assumed a proportionate amount of academic or research leadership positions in the field. This literature review identifies three general groups of models that explain disparities between men's and women's careers, but these do not fully account for observed differences in psychiatric practice and academic progression of women in psychiatry. Gender differences in career paths in psychiatry are not only affected by individual traits and choices, but also by economic factors. Theories based on organizational discrimination, and systems and market factors are also reviewed. No single explanatory model accounts for disparities between the careers of men and those of women. Because psychiatric practice patterns may be broadly distributed across labor sectors, more diverse career patterns are possible in psychiatry than in more constrained and traditional fields. Research on gender differences in psychiatry careers must consider not only the individual work style and choice, but also the position of individuals within the organization and the position of those organizations across the labor market. PMID:24435498

  6. Neurology referrals to a liaison psychiatry service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, P

    2012-02-03

    The objective of the present study was to assess the activity of the Liaison Psychiatry service of Cork University Hospital in relation to all in-patient neurology referrals over a 12-month period. Of 1685 neurology admissions, 106 (6%) were referred to liaison psychiatry for assessment. 91 referrals (86%) met criteria for a psychiatric disorder according to DSM-IV, the commonest being major depression (24%) and somatoform disorder (23%). Patients with multiple sclerosis or epilepsy comprised nearly half of all referrals (48 cases; 45%). Approximately 20% of M.S. in-patients (21 cases) were referred for psychiatric assessment, with the corresponding figure in epilepsy being 25% (18 cases). Although only 106 (6%) neurology in-patients were referred to liaison psychiatry, psychiatric diagnoses were documented in 327 (20%) discharge forms, presumably reflecting previous diagnosis. The above findings indicate that psychiatric illness is common among neurology inpatients screened by liaison psychiatry yet referral rates are relatively low in terms of the overall number of neurology in-patients. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed in 86% of referrals indicating high concordance between neurologists and liaison psychiatry regarding the presence of a psychiatric disorder.

  7. [Where is going philosophy of psychiatry ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Elisabetta

    2016-12-01

    This contribution provides a critical outline of the current trends in the field of "philosophy of psychiatry" by following their developments in the last decade. The first part of the paper focuses on the evolution of this field from a strictly conceptual approach to a perspective more attentive to the social, practical, and clinical dimension of psychiatry. The second part of the paper points out that the need of a mutual commitment of philosophy and psychiatry is perceived according to different ways by the countries involved in this research area. The paper deals especially with the case of France, where the enthusiasm for the "new philosophy of psychiatry" has not had the same impact on the philosophical scene as in the English speaking countries. In conclusion, the paper shows that the field of philosophy of psychiatry stands as a fertile ground for new forms of interaction between the analytic, and the continental philosophical traditions. This interaction takes place, more particularly, as regards such topics as normativity, language, and interpretation. PMID:27550463

  8. On human self-domestication, psychiatry, and eugenics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brüne Martin

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The hypothesis that anatomically modern homo sapiens could have undergone changes akin to those observed in domesticated animals has been contemplated in the biological sciences for at least 150 years. The idea had already plagued philosophers such as Rousseau, who considered the civilisation of man as going against human nature, and eventually "sparked over" to the medical sciences in the late 19th and early 20th century. At that time, human "self-domestication" appealed to psychiatry, because it served as a causal explanation for the alleged degeneration of the "erbgut" (genetic material of entire populations and the presumed increase of mental disorders. Consequently, Social Darwinists emphasised preventing procreation by people of "lower genetic value" and positively selecting favourable traits in others. Both tendencies culminated in euthanasia and breeding programs ("Lebensborn" during the Nazi regime in Germany. Whether or not domestication actually plays a role in some anatomical changes since the late Pleistocene period is, from a biological standpoint, contentious, and the currently resurrected debate depends, in part, on the definitional criteria applied. However, the example of human self-domestication may illustrate that scientific ideas, especially when dealing with human biology, are prone to misuse, particularly if "is" is confused with "ought", i.e., if moral principles are deduced from biological facts. Although such naturalistic fallacies appear to be banned, modern genetics may, at least in theory, pose similar ethical problems to medicine, including psychiatry. In times during which studies into the genetics of psychiatric disorders are scientifically more valued than studies into environmental causation of disorders (which is currently the case, the prospects of genetic therapy may be tempting to alter the human genome in patients, probably at costs that no-one can foresee. In the case of "self-domestication", it

  9. Neuroimaging in psychiatry: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This perspective considers the present and the future role of different neuroimaging techniques in the field of psychiatry. After identifying shortcomings of the mainly symptom-focussed diagnostic processes and treatment decisions in modern psychiatry, we suggest topics where neuroimaging methods have the potential to help. These include better understanding of the pathophysiology, improved diagnoses, assistance in therapeutic decisions and the supervision of treatment success by direct assessment of improvement in disease-related brain functions. These different questions are illustrated by examples from neuroimaging studies, with a focus on severe mental and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and dementia. Despite all reservations addressed in the article, we are optimistic, that neuroimaging has a huge potential with regard to the above-mentioned questions. We expect that neuroimaging will play an increasing role in the future refinement of the diagnostic process and aid in the development of new therapies in the field of psychiatry.

  10. Educating psychiatry residents in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Sheldon

    2013-06-01

    Neuropsychiatry and psychiatric neuroscience should be part of the general psychiatry curriculum so that graduate psychiatrists will be able to allow their patients the benefit of neuroscientifically informed diagnosis and treatment. Current neurology and neuroscience educational requirements for US psychiatry training are reviewed. The draft milestone requirements for clinical neuroscience training as part of the US Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's Next Accreditation System are also provided. Suggestions for the neuropsychiatric and neuroscience content of psychiatry residency training are made, along with a description of pedagogic methods and resources. Survey data are reviewed indicating agreement by programme directors with the importance of neuroscience training and an increase in the amount of time devoted to this area. Faculty staff development in neuropsychiatry and neuroscience literacy will be needed to provide high quality training in these areas. PMID:23859089

  11. Challenges in conducting psychiatry studies in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifuddin Kharawala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of psychiatry studies are conducted in India. Psychiatry studies are complex and present unique challenges in the Indian setting. Ethical issues pertaining to the risk of worsening of illness, use of placebo and validity of informed consents are commonly faced. Site selection can be difficult due to the relative paucity of ICH-GCP (International Conference on Harmonisation - Good Clinical Practice trained psychiatry investigators in India. Recruitment can be challenging due to issues such as strict eligibility criteria, (lack of availability of caregiver, illness-related considerations, etc. Assessment of the consent capacity of patients is not simple, while structured assessments are not commonly employed. As the illness fluctuates, the consent capacity may change, thus requiring continued assessment of consent capacity. Study patients run the risk of worsening of illness and suicide due to exposure to inactive treatments; this risk is counterbalanced by use of appropriate study designs, as well as the indirect psychotherapeutic support received. Psychiatry studies are associated with a high placebo response. This necessitates conduct of placebo-controlled studies despite the attendant difficulties. Also, the high placebo response is often the cause of failed trials. Rating scales are essential for assessment of drug response. Some rating instruments as well as some rater training procedures may not be suitable for the Indian setting. Technological advancements may increase the procedural complexity but improve the quality of ratings. Psychiatry studies present monitors and auditors with unique scenarios too. Utilization of psychiatry specific training and expertise is recommended to ensure successful conduct of these studies in India.

  12. [Evaluating the current status of anthropologic psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Degenhard, M

    1997-10-01

    Phenomenological psychiatry examines the variety of psychiatric diseases as regular modifications of human feeling tone experience and behaviour, which can be derived approximately from the nature of man as defined philosophically, Interdisciplinary self-conception of phenomenological psychiatry as a science calls for a constant critical dialogue with the philosophy of man and other disciplines of the humanities. The point of departure of phenomenological psychiatry is the mental or affective illness of the individual patient, with which the psychiatrist is acquainted, and reflects in interpersonal encounters in such a way that individual case studies are of central importance in this area of studies. From a methodological point of view two approaches are to be differentiated within the field of research in phenomenological psychiatry: 1. The phenomenological approach is concerned with the analysis of specific patterns of disturbance of the transcendental organisation of psychotic subjectivity. 2. The interpretative approaches are again divided into the so called "Daseinsanalyse" as a hermeneutic access to the inner biography and "Weltanschauung" of the psychiatric patient as well as the attempts of understanding the meaning of psychotic forms of experience. In this context a survey of the current fields of research of phenomenological psychiatry is given which aims at a deeper understanding of the situation of psychiatric patients and which claims to have a strong relevance for therapy. The relevance of such a phenomenological approach for current psychiatry lies in a broadening and sophistication of our experience in clinic and practice. Its main interest lies in the concentration on the patient as an individual and on the existential dimension of forms of mental and emotional diseases. PMID:9445840

  13. [The role of psychiatry in the Brazilian psychiatric reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Junior, Octavio Domont de

    2011-12-01

    Psychiatry emerged just over two hundred years ago as a special branch of medicine offering institutional care for the insane, since it encompassed the fields of medicine, natural history (biology) and philosophy (humanities). It appeared at a time marked by the transition with the exclusion apparatus of the marginalized people of the Old Regime and by epistemic pluralism. In this article, the contribution that psychiatry can make today - just over two centuries and some important conceptual and institutional rearrangements later - is discussed. It is well established in the academic world and socially legitimized, albeit at another moment of transition, in which new paradigms of care are established placing importance on the contextual and intersubjective situation of psychic distress. Redefining Pinelian intuition using contemporary vocabulary regarding the epistemological and ethical challenge of an area of knowledge and practice of care the scope of which is psychic distress, the thesis will be proposed that it is also necessary to articulate the planes of body, experience and narrative in an ongoing dialogue. PMID:22124908

  14. De pendel, de kloof en de kliniek.Leendert Bouman (1869-1936) en de ‘psychologische wending’ in de Nederlandse psychiatrie

    OpenAIRE

    Timo Bolt

    2010-01-01

    The pendulum, the gap, and the clinic. Leendert Bouman (1869-1936) and the ‘psychological turn’ in Dutch psychiatry In recent historical literature, the Dutch psychiatrist Leendert Bouman (1869-1936) is named ‘the godfather of psychological psychiatry’. He is regarded as one of the exponents of a shift or ‘pendulum’ movement from a biological-materialistic to a psychological, phenomenological orientation in the Dutch psychiatry of the Interbellum. As a professor of the orthodox calvinist V...

  15. Holistic-medical foundations of American psychiatry: a bicentennial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Z J

    1981-07-01

    American psychiatry has reached its bicentennial. Holistic-medical foundations have been its hallmark, inspiration, and source of preeminence. Incorporated by psychobiology, the American school, they enabled the growth of psychiatry as a medical specialty and scientific discipline and stimulated unparalleled growth of general hospital psychiatry, psychiatric research and teaching, and psychosomatic medicine and liaison psychiatry. Holistic conceptions, a product of a democratic system and the liberal mind, continue to provide the best framework for psychiatry and an antidote to dogma and fanaticism. PMID:7020433

  16. Diversifying Residents' Outpatient Psychiatry Experience: A Contemporary Model for Academic Outpatient Psychiatry Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, John; Goebert, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    A diversified, outpatient experience is an important part of psychiatric training, yet challenging to attain. We describe a multiple, subspecialty psychiatry clinic model for 3rd year psychiatry residents. Evaluation findings based on its initial implementation indicated improved resident supervision, better therapeutic alliance and an overall increase in satisfaction. This model facilitates resident exposure to diverse patients and treatment modalities as well as faculty development of exper...

  17. Cognitive Science and Psychiatry: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dan J Stein

    1992-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cognitive science is a multidisciplinary field, comprising cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, neuroscience, and anthropology. In recent years, cognitive science has become a predominant paradigm in studies of the mind. This paper reviews work at the emerging interface between cognitive science and psychiatry. It is argued that cognitive science has significant potential as an integrative framework for theorizing and researching psychiatric disorders and...

  18. Psychopathology as the basic science of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Broome, Matthew R

    2014-09-01

    We argue that psychopathology, as the discipline that assesses and makes sense of abnormal human subjectivity, should be at the heart of psychiatry. It should be a basic educational prerequisite in the curriculum for mental health professionals and a key element of the shared intellectual identity of clinicians and researchers in this field. PMID:25179621

  19. Indian Psychiatry and classification of psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, K.S.

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of Indian psychiatry to classification of mental disorders has been limited and restricted to acute and transient psychosis and to possession disorders. There is a need for leadership in research in order to match diagnosis and management strategies to the Indian context and culture.

  20. Primary care psychiatry: the case for action.

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, M.

    1991-01-01

    Since the introduction of the National Health Service a number of epidemiological enquiries have established the importance of mental disorders in the field of primary care. Examples are provided from the work of the General Practice Research Unit at the Institute of Psychiatry in London. The results furnish a rational basis for collaborative action between research workers, general practitioners and policy makers.

  1. Educational Supervision Appropriate for Psychiatry Trainee's Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rele, Kiran; Tarrant, C. Jane

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied the regularity and content of supervision sessions in one of the U.K. postgraduate psychiatric training schemes (Mid-Trent). Methods: A questionnaire sent to psychiatry trainees assessed the timing and duration of supervision, content and protection of supervision time, and overall quality of supervision. The authors…

  2. Imaging-Genetics Applications in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To place imaging-genetics research in the context of child psychiatry. Method: A conceptual overview is provided, followed by discussion of specific research examples. Results: Imaging-genetics research is described linking brain function to two specific genes, for the serotonin-reuptake-transporter protein and a monoamine oxidase…

  3. The Endurance of Uncertainty: Antisociality and Ontological Anarchy in British Psychiatry, 1950–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Pickersgill, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Argument Research into the biological markers of pathology has long been a feature of British psychiatry. Such somatic indicators and associated features of mental disorder often intertwine with discourse on psychological and behavioral correlates and causes of mental ill-health. Disorders of sociality – particularly psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder – are important instances where the search for markers of pathology has a long history; research in this area has played an import...

  4. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  5. Cultural psychiatry. Theoretical, clinical, and research issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, R; Kleinman, A

    1995-09-01

    As a discipline, cultural psychiatry has matured considerably in recent years and the ongoing quality of its theoretical, clinical, and research development holds great promise. The contemporary emphasis on culture as process permits a deeper analysis of the complexities of sociosomatics--the translation of meanings and social relations into bodily experience--and, thus, of the social course of illness. We also are learning a great deal more about cultural processes that affect therapy, including ethnopharmacologic and culturally valid family interventions that are directly relevant to patient care and mental health policy. And an important set of studies is examining the trauma experienced by refugees and immigrants. But at the same time many disquieting findings still point to the limited impact of cultural psychiatry on knowledge creation and clinical application in psychiatry. The failure of the cultural validation of DSM-IV is only the most dismaying. The persistent misdiagnosis of minority patients and the continued presence of racial bias in some treatment recommendations are also disheartening, as is the seeming contempt of many mainstream psychiatrists for culturally defined syndromes and folk healing systems. Widespread inattention to ethnic issues in medical ethics is another source of dismay. It is for these reasons that the culture of psychiatry itself becomes as important as the culture of patients as a topic for research and intervention. Most of the world still suffers from a terrible lack of basic mental health services, including life-saving medications and hospital beds. In the face of these limitations, and because of the increasing multicultural and pluralistic reality of contemporary life, the growing interpretive bridges linking indigenous systems of illness classification and healing to Western nosologies and therapeutic modalities become even more essential and the reluctance of mainstream clinicians to explore folk healing methods more

  6. A Prescription for "Deprescribing" in Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Swapnil; Cahill, John Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The term "deprescribing," initially coined in geriatric medicine, describes a process of pharmacologic regimen optimization through reduction or cessation of medications for which benefits no longer outweigh risks. Burgeoning rates of polypharmacy, growing appreciation of long-term adverse effects, and a focus on patient-centered practice present specific indications for deprescribing in psychiatry. A strong therapeutic alliance, appropriate timing, and consideration of the meaning of medication for the patient must accompany the following established elements: review of all medications, identification of medications that could be ceased or reduced, collaborative planning of the deprescribing regimen, and provision of review and support to the patient and caregivers. The authors discuss how deprescribing might be adapted for and implemented in psychiatry, identify potential barriers, and make recommendations for future directions. PMID:26975524

  7. Psychiatry 2050: from younger psychiatrists' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan TM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tariq Mahmood Hassan, Wasif Habib, Mir Nadeem Mazhar, Tariq Munshi Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, CanadaThere have been various opinion pieces on predicting the future of psychiatry and addressing its different domains. This editorial addresses the topic from the vantage point of neuroscientific inquiry. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM 5 however continues with the tradition of its predecessor (DSM 4 text revision [TR], addressing most diagnoses with descriptive phenomenology as opposed to attempting to change diagnoses based on causative phenomenology or response to treatment. Advances in genomics and imaging, with time, will hopefully help shape psychiatric diagnoses and classifications with a primary basis on morphology. This may in turn help improve the recruitment of academic psychiatrists to the field. In doing so, the profession will gain respect amongst its peers in other disciplines of medicine and cement its future.

  8. [Malaise in psychiatry and its history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebili, S

    2016-04-01

    The main hypothesis of this paper is the presence of malaise in psychiatry. The malaise has two sides: on one hand, the end of psychiatry hegemony that dominated the theoretical field of psychiatry until the 1990s. The loss of influence of psychoanalysis is due to its inability to be submitted to any kind of assessment. On the other hand, the supremacy of neurosciences. The idea is not to underestimate the importance of neurosciences but rather to affirm that they occupy the whole theoretical field of psychiatry. This is an unusual situation that is specific to our time. Indeed, this monism has succeeded to an epistemological dualism that has existed throughout the history of psychiatry. In this article, we'll try to draw a history of dualism in psychiatry. Firstly, with Pinel, we find a tension between a metaphysical philosophical pole and a physiological one. Pinel's philosophy has something to do with Condillac's ideology as Pinel applies the analytical method to mental diseases. Under Cabanis's influence, the author of the famous Rapports du physique et du moral de l'homme, this ideology is under pressure with physiologism. As a materialist, he gives an essential part to the brain that distributes pieces of information throughout the body because he thinks that mind influences body. Secondly, dualism lies between the doctrine of localizations defended by Gall and the theory of degeneration elaborated by Magnan. Gall, in Anatomie et physiologie du système nerveux en général, seeks to know how bumps or hollows that are found on the skull are shaped. Gall is for the theory of delocalizations. He is the counterpart of Magnan who wrote a work about Les Dégénérés, that takes its part in the physiological trend with the famous theory of degeneration. For him, degeneration means the imperfect state of a subject whose cerebral functions are in a noticeably imperfect state. Thirdly, with Henry Ey, dualism starts to be less important. Indeed, he tends a monist

  9. Indian psychiatry, research and Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, J K; Gupta, Pawan Kumar; Saha, Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Asia has some of the largest conglomerations of human populations and also the fastest growing economies of the world. About 23% of the world's population lives in the South Asian region, and one-fifth of psychiatrically ill patients in the world live in this part of the world. Despite vast cultural, religious, geographical, and political diversities, the factors influencing mental health remain the same throughout this wide region, as highlighted at the recently concluded Asian summit, where the slogan, 'One vision, one identity, one community,' was launched. Thus, the need to strengthen regional cooperation in the field of mental health has always been felt. This article highlights facts about influence of Indian Psychiatry research as well as of some Asian countries in the world psychiatry and vice versa. PMID:21836718

  10. The philosophies of psychiatry: empirical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Alan S G

    2013-08-01

    The past two decades have seen a surge in cross-disciplinary work in philosophy and psychiatry. Much of this work is necessarily abstract whilst those working in the area are aware of the necessity of relating the theoretical and conceptual work to the vagaries of day-to-day practice. But given the diverse methods and aims of philosophy and psychiatry, crossing the 'communication gap' between the two disciplines is easier said than done. In this article different methods of bridging this gap are presented and commented upon. A number of research studies are reviewed with an eye to the potential they display to develop interdisciplinary theory. An empirical approach to philosophy of practice with special attention to ordinary language use is proposed as a fruitful may forward. PMID:22752587

  11. [Philosophy against psychiatry, right up against it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demazeux, Steeves

    2016-12-01

    Since the early 1990s, there has been a tremendous new interest at the international level for researches at the crossroad between philosophy and psychiatry. This interest has been supported and quite stimulated by the foundation of a dedicated association, as well as by the establishment of a journal and the promotion of a new collection. My aim in this paper is to trace the origins of the so-called "new philosophy of psychiatry" field and to reconstruct its global intellectual dynamics during the past two decades. I try to identify, through the big diversity of the individual contributions, its dominant theoretical orientations but also what may appear as some of its philosophical blind spots. PMID:27550457

  12. [On the cultural history of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, H

    2004-08-01

    About 1800, psychiatry was established as a medical discipline with special institutions (madhouses). Therefore, historiography of psychiatry focuses generally on the last 200 years. This contribution will also illustrate aspects of medical and cultural history, which nowadays are mostly supposed to be less important: the premodern concept of melancholy and hypochondria between humoral pathology, demonology, and psychology; the assessment of psychiatric illness as a "creative malady," even complementary to genius; the dialectics of psychiatric therapies between suppression and emancipation, which is especially prominent in the early nineteenth century in regard to "moral treatment" ( psychische Kur in German), a topic stressed vigorously by the "antipsychiatry" movement around 1970; the denunciation of patients and sections of the population by eugenics ( Rassenhygiene in German) and racism (especially toward the Jews) by psychiatrists. Finally, the miraculous mechanisms of mass hysteria of "normal" individuals are questioned. PMID:15340714

  13. Communication interculturelle en psychiatrie: enjeux linguistiques

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, María Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    Intercultural communication in hospitals has already been the object of many inter-disciplinary studies. In the present article, my analysis will focus on two aspects: first, intercultural communication in psychiatry, and secondly, their linguistic consequences. I am interested in an approach of the «intercultural» notion that strives to identify knowledge and understanding. This is a similar approach in psychiatric consultation during which decoding the subjects’ implications and negotiation...

  14. Setting Up Private Practice in Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Alan De Sousa; Avinash De Sousa

    2015-01-01

    Setting up a private practice in Mumbai is an onerous task. The present paper looks at the difficulties face by young psychiatrists when starting a private practice in psychiatry. It suggests certain guidelines to be followed to ensure the development of a successful practice. It also suggests methods to gain popularity among patients and society along with the ethics to be followed, knowledge base to be garnered, and the role of using multiple therapies and versatility in private practice.

  15. Genetics of complex traits in psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Gelernter, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all psychiatric traits are genetically complex. This article discusses the genetics of complex traits in psychiatry. The complexity is accounted for by numerous factors, including multiple risk alleles, epistasis, and epigenetic effects, such as methylation. Risk alleles can individually be common or rare, and can include, for example, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy number variants (CNV) that are transmitted or are new mutations, and other kinds of variation. Many d...

  16. Women in academic psychiatry in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penfold, P S

    1987-11-01

    A comparison of numbers of women psychiatrists with faculty appointments and women residents in Departments of Psychiatry in Canada in 1975 and 1985 showed that the average percentage of women faculty has increased from 11.4% to 14.3% and of women residents from 23.5% to 43.4%. Some departments appeared to be oblivious to the special educational role of women faculty and had not discussed the discrepancy between the numbers of faculty and residents. Only two departments were actively recruiting women faculty. The study also demonstrated a continued concentration of women in the lower ranks. Barriers to recruiting women faculty include lack of academic role models, job advertising not specifically designed to attract women candidates, rigid requirements for appointments, women's lack of access to male corridors of power, pervasive underlying doubts about women's abilities and competence based on cultural stereotypes, female socialization which does not lend itself readily to roles of authority, assertiveness and leadership, and the role strain that ensues when women psychiatrists try to combine career, marriage and motherhood. If women psychiatrists are to fill some of the positions in Departments of Psychiatry, which will fall vacant over the next decade, much more attention must be paid to eliminating or diminishing the multiple obstacles for women who chose a career in academic psychiatry. PMID:3690482

  17. In India, Psychiatry Has Come a Long Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Parikh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This Presidential Address of the Bombay Psychiatry Society covers the state of psychiatry in India in 1997. It posits that with the advent of newer brain imaging technologies in India such as computerised tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computerised tomography and brain electrical activity mapping, an era of evidence-based psychiatry in India has arrived. The Address cautions against the dehumanising potential of excessive reliance on technology. The need for a greater emphasis on psychiatry during undergraduate medical education is discussed along with the need to destigmatise psychiatric disorders. Finally, the need to encourage quality research in psychiatric disorders is stressed.

  18. Training in Tobacco Treatments in Psychiatry: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Nicotine dependence is the most prevalent substance abuse disorder among adult psychiatric patients and is a leading cause of death and disability. This study examines training in tobacco treatment in psychiatry residency programs across the United States. Method: The authors recruited training directors to complete a survey of their…

  19. Electrophysiological measures of cognition in biological psychiatry: some cautionary notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló, F; Gale, A

    1997-12-01

    Research into the electrophysiological correlates of mental illness is currently expanding, largely because of the availability of relatively inexpensive and powerful computers. However, improvements in technology do not always lead to enhanced methodological procedures; thus, there are concerns over the proper interpretation of the results of these investigations. Our argument is that electroencephalographic (EEG) research into psychopathology of psychiatric diseases should adopt a cognitivist model of mental dysfunction rather than a neurologist model of brain disease. Cognitive science has significant potential as an integrative framework for theorizing and researching psychiatric disorders and their treatment. Models of human cognitive functioning have rather special and unique features; these will make their impact upon the nature of both the analysis and interpretation of EEG data. The adoption of a sound model of brain function has implications for the methods to be used at different successive stages of the research process. We address a number of methodological requirements pertaining to: the recording and analysis of EEG signals, the laboratory context, the nature of the tasks, and the attribution of obtained effects. However, there are grounds for great caution. Even if the mapping of electrical changes in brain activity leads to a good approximation of the temporal and spatial dynamics of higher brain function, exploitation of such information presupposes a deeper understanding of both human cognition and the physiological basis of the EEG than is often displayed in the literature. To demonstrate this fundamental point, we draw a number of comparisons between traditional neurological approaches to brain assessment and contemporary cognitive psychophysiology. PMID:9522268

  20. EPA guidance on improving the image of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, A M; Möller, H-J; Maier, W; Gaebel, W; Falkai, P

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores causes, explanations and consequences of the negative image of psychiatry and develops recommendations for improvement. It is primarily based on a WPA guidance paper on how to combat the stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists and a Medline search on related publications since 2010. Furthermore, focussing on potential causes and explanations, the authors performed a selective literature search regarding additional image-related issues such as mental health literacy and diagnostic and treatment issues. Underestimation of psychiatry results from both unjustified prejudices of the general public, mass media and healthcare professionals and psychiatry's own unfavourable coping with external and internal concerns. Issues related to unjustified devaluation of psychiatry include overestimation of coercion, associative stigma, lack of public knowledge, need to simplify complex mental issues, problem of the continuum between normality and psychopathology, competition with medical and non-medical disciplines and psychopharmacological treatment. Issues related to psychiatry's own contribution to being underestimated include lack of a clear professional identity, lack of biomarkers supporting clinical diagnoses, limited consensus about best treatment options, lack of collaboration with other medical disciplines and low recruitment rates among medical students. Recommendations are proposed for creating and representing a positive self-concept with different components. The negative image of psychiatry is not only due to unfavourable communication with the media, but is basically a problem of self-conceptualization. Much can be improved. However, psychiatry will remain a profession with an exceptional position among the medical disciplines, which should be seen as its specific strength. PMID:26874959

  1. Encompassing Sexual Medicine within Psychiatry: Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segraves, Robert Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article examines the positive and negative aspects of psychiatry encompassing sexual medicine within its purview. Methods: MEDLINE searches for the period between 1980 to the present were performed with the terms "psychiatry," "sexual medicine," and "sexual dysfunction." In addition, sexual medicine texts were reviewed for chapters…

  2. Research in child and adolescent psychiatry in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shastri, Priyavadan Chandrakant; Shastri, Jay P.; Shastri, Dimple

    2010-01-01

    The primary source for this annotation on child and adolescent psychiatry is Indian Journal of Psychiatry. Articles covering various dimensions of child and adolescent mental health were searched from its electronic data base to discuss relevant articles. Literature was mainly in the form of original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, orations and presidential address.

  3. Therapeutic Uses of the WebCam in Child Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Susan; Fremont, Wanda

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors provide examples for the use of the WebCam as a therapeutic tool in child psychiatry, discussing cases to demonstrate the application of the WebCam, which is most often used in psychiatry training programs during resident supervision and for case presentations. Method: Six cases illustrate the use of the WebCam in individual…

  4. Burden and Stress among Psychiatry Residents and Psychiatric Healthcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Ishara, Sergio; Bandeira, Marina

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared the levels of job burden and stress in psychiatry residents with those of other healthcare professionals at inpatient and outpatient psychiatric hospitals in a medium-sized Brazilian city. Method: In this study, the levels of job burden and stress of 136 healthcare workers and 36 psychiatry residents from six various…

  5. [Child and adolescent psychiatry its problems and foresight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kosuke

    2002-01-01

    Accompanying the fall in birth rate, problems pertaining to the child's mind such as school in attendance, bullying, violence in the school, intrafamilial violence, eating disorders, substance abuse, and child abuse have rocketed and diversified, in addition to affecting increasingly lower age groups. The importance of child and adolescent psychiatry has never been more profound, but our country, without a chair in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in the medical school framework, and lacking recognition of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry as a clinical department has undoubtedly become an underdeveloped country in terms of child and adolescent psychiatric care. The medical schools have been in the process of review and reorganization these past few years. The range of mental science is wide, and despite being a major discipline constituting one of the two arms of medical science together with somatic medicine, it is regarded as a minor existence in our country. This is the time to re-establish mental science, with areas such as child and adolescent psychiatry, geriatric psychiatry, social psychiatry, and crime psychiatry placed on an equal footing with general psychiatry. Turning our eyes on the world, the children are being robbed of their mental health as refugees, through child labor, starvation, and civil war. The demand of this age is true symbiosis, surpassing differences in race, religion, language, and culture, which is probably the indispensable element in the quest for a happy future for the children of this age. PMID:12607920

  6. Evaluation of Professional Role Competency during Psychiatry Residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujich, Nikola N.; Razmy, Ajmal; Zaretsky, Ari; Styra, Rima G.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine psychiatry residents' perceptions on the current method of evaluating professional role competency and the use of multi-source feedback (MSF) as an assessment tool. Method: Authors disseminated a structured, anonymous survey to 128 University of Toronto psychiatry residents, evaluating the current mode of…

  7. Family Therapy Training in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellowship Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rait, Douglas Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study describes the current state of family therapy training in a sample of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship programs. Method: Child and adolescent psychiatry fellows (N = 66) from seven training programs completed a questionnaire assessing demographics, family therapy training experiences, common models of treatment and…

  8. Academic psychiatry and the pharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Thomas A

    2006-05-01

    In the second half of the 19th century new drugs introduced by the pharmaceutical industry helped lead to the establishment of academic departments in psychiatry. Causal treatment of cerebral pellagra by nicotinic acid and cerebral syphilis by penicillin in the first half of the 20th century led to major changes in the diagnostic distribution of psychiatric patients. In the second half of the 20th century with the introduction of a rapidly growing number of psychotropic drugs, pharmacotherapy became the primary form of treatment in mental illness. Psychiatrists today perceive neuropharmacology as one of the basic sciences of psychiatry and psychopharmacology as the bridge between the mode of action and the clinical indications of psychotropic drugs. Pharmacotherapy with psychotropic drugs focused attention on the differential responsiveness to the same drug within the same diagnostic category. Yet, instead of re-evaluating psychiatric nosology and conducting research in psychopathology, a statistical methodology was adopted for the demonstration of therapeutic effectiveness in pharmacologically heterogeneous populations. Employment of consensus-based classifications and psychiatric rating scales in the clinical development of psychotropic drugs led to semi-finished products, which are prescribed indiscriminately. Replacement of single-center clinical trials by multi-center centrally coordinated clinical investigations led to the control of education in pharmacotherapy by the pharmaceutical industry. To separate education from marketing, the identification of the treatment-responsive forms of illness and the delineation of the therapeutic profile of psychotropic drugs are proposed with the employment of a new methodology, the "Composite Diagnostic Evaluation System." It is postulated that development of a pharmacologically valid psychiatric nosology with the employment of a "nosologic matrix" would provide the pharmaceutical industry with the necessary feedback to

  9. Evolutionary Psychiatry and Nosology: Prospects and Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Faucher

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I explain why evolutionary psychiatry is not where the next revolution in psychiatry will come from. I will proceed as follows. Firstly, I will review some of the problems commonly attributed to current nosologies, more specifically to the DSM. One of these problems is the lack of a clear and consensual definition of mental disorder; I will then examine specific attempts to spell out such a definition that use the evolutionary framework. One definition that deserves particular attention (for a number of reasons that I will mention later, is one put forward by Jerome Wakefield. Despite my sympathy for his position, I must indicate a few reasons why I think his attempt might not be able to resolve the problems related to current nosologies. I suggest that it might be wiser for an evolutionary psychiatrist to adopt the more integrative framework of “treatable conditions” (Cosmides and Tooby, 1999. As it is thought that an evolutionary approach can contribute to transforming the way we look at mental disorders, I will provide the reader with a brief sketch of the basic tenets of evolutionary psychology. The picture of the architecture of the human mind that emerges from evolutionary psychology is thought by some to be the crucial backdrop to identifying specific mental disorders and distinguishing them from normal conditions. I will also provide two examples of how evolutionary thinking is supposed to change our thinking about some disorders. Using the case of depression, I will then show what kind of problems evolutionary explanations of particular psychopathologies encounter. In conclusion, I will evaluate where evolutionary thinking leaves us in regard to what I identify as the main problems of our current nosologies. I’ll then argue that the prospects of evolutionary psychiatry are not good.

  10. [Psychiatry in Quebec. Then and now].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This text narrates the evolution, since the 1960s, of different events that marked the history of psychiatry in the French-Canadian province of Quebec. From his personal experience, the author discusses. The evolution of the Départment de psychiatric de l'Université de Montréal fro where were issued more than 1000 psychiatrists who shaped clinical practice and research developments worthy of mention throughout the years. The evolution of diagnostic noselogy from the DSM-ii, very influenced by psychoanalysis, to the DSM-5 that is more atheortical, but that is still not based on objective data, which remains a challenge to the etiology of mental illness. The psychiatric drugs that we have learned to prescribe in the past 50 years in a more rational way thanks to a better understanding of their action mechanisms. In reality, there has been no discovery of new drug categories; rather it is the way we prescribe medication that evolved. The great adventure of the first textbook of Quebec psychiatry, which was first published in 1980, and is forthcoming in its 4th edition in 2015 in an improved and expanded format. The forthcoming version takes into consideration the developments in psychiatry. The creation of the Young Adults Clinic in 1988, providing treatment and rehabilitation to young adults in the early stages of schizophrenia, as well as psychoeducational support and information to heir family members. Through the years, this clinic had a considerable acknowledgement in Quebec and other French-speaking nations. PMID:26559212

  11. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  12. Hand Held Computing for Psychiatry Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    Residents in Psychiatry are required to keep a continuous log of patient contacts as they progress through their four years of training. These logs are reviewed on a regular basis by the Training Director to insure that the trainees have had a wide variety of patient contacts. Traditionally, the resident logs have been paper based or on cards. These are completed manually and submitted on a regular basis to be reviewed. This is a awkward process for the trainee as well as a lengthy review pro...

  13. A Neural Systems-Based Neurobiology and Neuropsychiatry Course: Integrating Biology, Psychodynamics, and Psychology in the Psychiatric Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Timothy; Hughes, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Psychotherapy and biological psychiatry remain divided in psychiatry residency curricula. Behavioral neurobiology and neuropsychiatry provide a systems-level framework that allows teachers to integrate biology, psychodynamics, and psychology. Method: The authors detail the underlying assumptions and outline of a neural systems-based…

  14. Blueprint for an Indian Nobel Laureate in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R Singh

    2015-01-01

    General qualities for a Nobel: The need to be really bright is a given; what is necessary is to be sufficiently crazy about a research topic to make it an obsession; be ready to forgo many creature comforts for long stretches of time; and after all this, be ready to accept that the Nobel may never happen, yet continue to do a type of research solely because it is intrinsically worth doing.Nobel in Physiology or Medicine: Here, the key is to do fundamental/basic research to answer persistent, nagging, unanswered questions of medicine which others neglect because they are discomforting. Or, find treatments that change the whole manner a disease has been hitherto treated.Nobel in Psychiatry: There are many Nobels waiting to be won, provided: (a The branch becomes more precise; (b Science, quantitative study and biology remain its bedrock; and (c There is an almost obsessive preoccupation with unravelling the mysteries of the brain. One has to choose wisely where to put in efforts, e.g., fields like fundamental research into the causes of psychiatric disorders, especially schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorders. Or their definitive treatments. Or, work at the cellular or molecular level of the neuron and brain; or, the glandular or genetic level of the systems connected with psychiatric disorders; or, in brain radio imaging. If other, or allied, fields are chosen, to work with finding quantitative data and attempt to pinpoint their precise biological correlates.Indian Nobel in Medicine: There is first the need to give up the colonial mindset that everything trend-setting in science comes only from the West. As also, for Departmental Heads, to protect and nurture those with research excellence rather than the mediocre and the sycophants. For governments, to set up an autonomous Research Excellence Council to expressly and exclusively cater to promoting research excellence, with a sizeable fund to put this into practice.All these four points are summarised as four

  15. Some origins of cross-cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo Oda, Ana Maria G; Banzato, Claudio Eduardo M; Dalgalarrondo, Paulo

    2005-06-01

    The interface between insanity, race and culture was a challenging subject for some of the most influential nineteenth-century alienists. Our paper reviews some of the theoretical and clinical investigations of comparative psychiatry of this period. The idea that insanity was supposedly rare among 'primitive' people, e.g., Africans, American Natives and some Eastern populations, was repeatedly defended by prominent alienists. Associated with this notion, many authors believed that insanity tends to become more prevalent as civilization evolves. According to them, civilization had an unfavourable effect on insanity rates because it demanded a much higher degree of organization and mental production. Moreover, a greater degree of mental excitation would explain why insanity occurs more frequently in Europe than in the East, Africa or South America. Eventually, at the end of the nineteenth century, the coalition of cross-cultural and neuropsychiatry produced a notion that the brain of the 'native' is more simple and crude than that of the civilized, and more vulnerable to the evil effects of civilized life. In conclusion, some ethnocentric bias and racial stereotypes still pervasive in contemporary psychiatry are identified and traced back to their historical origins. PMID:16013118

  16. What kind of science for psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence J Kirmayer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry has invested its hopes in neuroscience as a path to understanding mental disorders and developing more effective treatments and ultimately cures. Recently, the U.S. NIMH has elaborated this vision through a new framework for mental health research, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC. This framework aims to orient mental health research toward the discovery of underlying neurobiological and biobehavioral mechanisms of mental disorders that will eventually lead to definitive treatments. In this article we consider the rationale of the RDoC and what it reveals about implicit models of mental disorders. As an overall framework for understanding mental disorders, RDoC is impoverished and conceptually flawed. These limitations are not accidental but stem from disciplinary commitments and interests that are at odds with the larger concerns of psychiatry. A multilevel, ecosocial approach to biobhavioral systems is needed both to guide relevant neuroscience research and insure the inclusion of social processes that may be fundamental contributors to psychopathology and recovery.

  17. Replication Validity of Initial Association Studies: A Comparison between Psychiatry, Neurology and Four Somatic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas-Mallet, Estelle; Button, Katherine; Boraud, Thomas; Munafo, Marcus; Gonon, François

    2016-01-01

    between biological psychiatry, neurology and somatic diseases suggest that there is room for improvement, at least in some subdomains. PMID:27336301

  18. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  19. How new is the new philosophy of psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Damiaan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In their recent paper, Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton evaluate seven volumes of the Oxford University Press series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry,” an international book series begun in 2003 focusing on the emerging interdisciplinary field at the interface of philosophy and psychiatry. According to Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton, the series represents a clear indication that the interdisciplinary field of philosophy of psychiatry has been flourishing lately. Philosophers and psychiatrists face a “new philosophy of psychiatry”. However, the optimism which the “new” philosophy of psychiatry celebrates is precisely the exiling of philosophy from the foundations of psychiatry. The 150 year old belief that psychopathology cannot do without philosophical reflection has virtually disappeared from common psychiatric education and daily clinical practice. Though the discipline of psychiatry is particularly suited to contributions from philosophy, the impact of philosophy on psychiatry nowadays remains limited. With some exceptions, philosophical papers are embedded in a philosophical context inscrutable to ordinary psychiatrists. Much current philosophical work is perceived by psychiatrists as negativistic. I would encourage the field of psychiatry to incorporate once again basic philosophical attitudes which render possible true dialogue with philosophy and enrich both disciplines. The views developed here should not discredit the value and importance of Natalie Banner and Tim Thornton’s paper and the excellent series “International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry.” As Jaspers said “Everybody inclined to disregard philosophy will be overwhelmed by philosophy in an unperceived way”.

  20. [Interdisciplinarity and psychiatry: is it time not to know?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Mardônio Parente; Yasui, Silvio

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with interdisciplinarity as well as psychiatric and psychosocial care. Throughout the text, a historical account of the constitution and the crisis of scientific knowledge is presented and organized into disciplines. The theoretical difficulty of conceptualizing interdisciplinarity is analyzed and, in the concluding remarks, psychiatry and its relationship to psychosocial care is discussed. The argument is that, because of its history, psychiatry has singularities that differentiate it from other medical specialties and these singularities could initially cause psychiatry to go in the opposite direction in relation to interdisciplinarity. The conclusion is that because of their inherent characteristics psychosocial care services are privileged places for psychiatric training with interdisciplinary characteristics. PMID:23752547

  1. Polish psychiatry in the wake of social changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herczyńska, Grazyna

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to present some characteristic facts concerning the history of psychiatry in Poland. Those facts have been selected as to illustrate the two obvious but not often expressed theses: 1. the history of psychiatry in Poland has been closely linked with the mainstream of Western thought, social and philosophical ideas of the time; 2. development of psychiatry and psychiatric care depend on the political history of the country. The background factor that greatly influenced that development was the partition of Poland between Russia, Prussia and Austria, which lasted well over one hundred years. PMID:19112380

  2. Graphology in German psychiatry (1870-1930).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Armin

    2016-09-01

    This article discusses both the use of graphology in German psychiatry (1870-1930) and the use of handwriting in psychiatric experiments. The examination of handwriting was part of an ensemble of diagnostic tools. Although disorders of handwriting seemed to indicate psychic diseases, graphology did not seem the right method to produce valid observations. Nevertheless, psychiatrists began to incorporate the process of writing into research and diagnosis and to make the process of handwriting an experimental field. Emil Kraepelin invented an apparatus - the so-called Writing-Scale - with which he could measure the dynamics of writing in various dimensions and, in particular, the pressure of movements. The experiments produced a huge amount of data, but the psychiatrists were unable to interpret them in a comprehensible way. Although psychiatrists failed to grasp the psychopathology in handwriting, they discovered a systemic behaviour of the organism controlled by feedback. PMID:27160214

  3. Descartes' dogma and damage to Western psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventriglio, A; Bhugra, D

    2015-10-01

    René Descartes described the concept of mind-body dualism in the 16th century. This concept has been called his error but we prefer to call it his dogma because the error was recognised much later. We studied the original writings translated by various scholars. We believe that his dogma has caused tremendous amount of damage to Western psychiatry. This dualism has created boundaries between mind and body but as we know they are inextricably interlinked and influence each other. This has affected clinical practice and has increased the dichotomy between psychiatric services and the physical health care services in the West at least. This dualism has also contributed to stigma against mental illness, the mentally ill and the psychiatric services. We propose that it is time to abandon this mind-body dualism and to look at the whole patient and their illness experiences as is done in some other health care systems such as Ayurveda. PMID:26333032

  4. [Medical students and psychiatry. A survey of students' opinion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giberti, F; Corsini, G; Rovida, S

    1994-06-01

    In the last years research on the didactics of Psychiatry and opinions of medical students on Psychiatry has gained great interest. The authors think that this research could be useful for the improvement of didactics, for better understanding the meanings of professional choice, the identity of psychiatrist and their relationship with colleagues in other medical field. The goal of this research work was a preliminary survey of Genoese University Medical Student's opinions about psychiatry didactics, and choice of specialization. A questionnaire was submitted to all the students who passed Clinical Psychiatry examination in the period from November 1987 to December 1988. The students were divided in two randomized groups: the first group of students (224) was submitted to the questionnaire immediately after Clinical Psychiatry examination; while to the second group of students (66) the questionnaire was mailed. The aim of the questions was to assess the student's opinions on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, the career they wanted to take up, and the difficulties of studying psychiatry: 69% of the students of the first group and 42% of the students of the second group answered the questionnaire. Female students answered that they preferred psychiatric specialization more than their male colleagues did, but the difference has no statistical importance. In most cases, the students who answered that they have taken into account psychiatry as a choice of specialisation, are more interested in medical specialties (primary care, etc.) than in surgical specialties. Most of the medical students declare some emotional troubles (anxiety, sleeplessness, problem in social relations).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7934737

  5. Innovative methods in teaching psychiatry to medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Lobo; Concepción de-la Cámara; Ricardo Campos; Tirso Ventura; Carlos Marco; Antonio Campayo; Federico Dourdil; Mari Fé Barcones; Pedro Saz

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To test the conjecture that the innovative method to teach psychosomatic psychiatry previously reported will be confirmed as beneficial in the training of medical students in the field of general psychiatry. Methods: The emphasis in this course is placed on the discussion of clinical cases, bed-side clinical teaching, and a research-oriented part. The “Innovative Teaching Plan” (ITP) is intended to train student-leaders to guide small groups (SG) of students. The re...

  6. Towards Community - Reflections on Community Psychiatry, Culture and Alterity

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Neto; Teresa Maia; Pilar Santos Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The constant transformation of  communities  and  its relationship  with mental illness has been studied and debated for the past decades, although it is still not clear how it has been incorporated in clinical practice.Aims: The authors propose to review the relevance to Psychiatry, especially Community Psychiatry, of understanding  communities as well as the methodologies and conceptual frameworks that allow that approach.Methods: Selected and critical review of the literature...

  7. Changing Medical Students’ Attitudes to Psychiatry through Newer Teaching Techniques*

    OpenAIRE

    Ajita Nayak

    2015-01-01

    The significance of mental health in the entire health scenario has increased. However, the representation of psychiatry in the current MBBS curriculum for undergraduate students in India still remains much less than desirable. Further, stigmatising attitudes lessen these future doctors′ ability to detect and manage patients with psychological problems despite adequate knowledge about psychiatry. Students believe that psychiatrically ill patients are unpredictable and can be dangerous to othe...

  8. [Use of informatics technology in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, M; Papadimitriou, G N

    2012-01-01

    Computer technology dominates our daily lives and has become an integral professional tool in medical practice and by extension, in psychiatry as well. The widespread use of internet technology has taken place with unprecedented speed in the history of human civilization, spreading in a few decades to all countries of the world, offering novel possibilities for transmitting information, and leading to the globalization of knowledge. However, the speed with which computer technology is becoming a part of our lives is accompanied by difficulties in integration. The continued evolution of applications often leads to the impression that to be modern and efficient we have to run continuously after developments, dedicating time and effort that we cannot often afford. At the same time, its widespread use alters the needs of our patients, and our efficiency is constantly judged in a globalized environment which, while offering new possibilities, also has new demands. The initial impression that computer technology is simply a tool that can facilitate the work of those who are willing and able to use it has been replaced by the perception that the practice of medicine, in both clinical and academic level, requires sufficient knowledge of modern technology and the development of relevant skills for ongoing training and following innovative applications. The result of this assumption is the introduction of technology courses in the curricula of medical schools in the country. This article offers a brief description of the uses of information technology in psychiatry. In particular, e-mail is one of the most popular Internet services and there is internationally an increasing pressure from the public to be able to contact their doctor by e-mail. Furthermore, almost all psychiatric journals now have a digital electronic edition, thus increasing the volume of articles published, the ease of accessing the required information, and ultimately the reduction of the time it takes a

  9. Brain SPECT in psychiatry: Delusion or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The need for functional information is becoming increasingly evident for proper therapeutic approaches to the treatment and follow up of psychiatric diseases. While data on this subject already exists, there is a general lack of consensus about the use of brain SPECT in this domain and also a considerable negative prejudice due to a number of factors including poor quality imaging and unrealistic expectations. Based on a large group of brain SPECT-s performed over the past 3 years we attempted to sort and refine the indications for SPECT in psychiatry. Materials and Methods: High resolution brain SPECT was performed with triple head gamma camera, super-high resolution fan beam collimator and Tc-HMPAO. A comprehensive semiquantitative color, 3D surface as well as multi-thresholded volume display was routinely used and supplemented by automatic realignment in case of longitudinal follow-up. Results: 470 brain SPECT-s done on 432 patients were all referred by psychiatrists or neuro-psychiatrists for a wide spectrum of psychiatric diseases and ranged in age from 7 to 88 years. The most common primary reasons for referral were : attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD); anxiety; obsessive-compulsive disease, depression (refractory, chronic, bipolar ), impulse control problems; oppositional defiance, post traumatic brain injury; seizures, learning difficulties, pervasive development disorders, memory loss and differential of dementia. Among common denominators were long duration of the disease, unresponsiveness to treatment, worsening of clinical status, and presence of multiple conditions at the same time. The multiparametric display used enabled a comprehensive evaluation of the brain volume which included the hemispheric surfaces; the basal ganglia (striatum) and the thalamus, several components of the limbic and paralimbic systems: anterior and posterior cingulate and their respective subdivisions, insula-s and their subdivisions, apical and mesial

  10. Frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatry patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sevda Korkmaz,1 Sevler Yildiz,1 Tuba Korucu,1 Burcu Gundogan,1 Zehra Emine Sunbul,1 Hasan Korkmaz,2 Murad Atmaca1 1Department of Psychiatry, 2Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, Turkey Purpose: Anemia could cause psychiatric symptoms such as cognitive function disorders and depression or could deteriorate an existing psychiatric condition when it is untreated. The objective of this study is to scrutinize the frequency of anemia in chronic psychiatric patients and the clinical and sociodemographic factors that could affect this frequency.Methods: All inpatients in our clinic who satisfied the study criteria and received treatment between April 2014 and April 2015 were included in this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data for 378 patients included in the study and hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit values observed during their admission to the hospital were recorded in the forms. Male patients with an Hb level of <13 g/dL and nonpregnant female patients with an Hb level of <12 g/dL were considered as anemic.Findings: Axis 1 diagnoses demonstrated that 172 patients had depressive disorder, 51 patients had bipolar disorder, 54 patients had psychotic disorder, 33 patients had conversion disorder, 19 patients had obsessive-compulsive disorder, 25 patients had generalized anxiety disorder, and 24 patients had other psychiatric conditions. It was also determined that 25.4% of the patients suffered from anemia. Thirty-five percent of females and 10% of males were considered as anemic. The frequency of anemia was the highest among psychotic disorder patients (35%, followed by generalized anxiety disorder patients (32%, and obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (26%. Anemia was diagnosed in 22% of depressive disorder patients, 25% of bipolar disorder patients, and 24% of conversion disorder patients.Results: The prevalence of anemia among chronic psychiatry patients is more frequent than the general population

  11. Russian and Soviet forensic psychiatry: troubled and troubling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Russian forensic psychiatry is defined by its troubled and troubling relationship to an unstable state, a state that was not a continuous entity during the modern era. From the mid-nineteenth century, Russia as a nation-state struggled to reform, collapsed, re-constituted itself in a bloody civil war, metastasized into a violent "totalitarian" regime, reformed and stagnated under "mature socialism" and then embraced capitalism and "managed democracy" at the end of the twentieth century. These upheavals had indelible effects on policing and the administration of justice, and on psychiatry's relationship with them. In Russia, physicians specializing in medicine of the mind had to cope with rapid and radical changes of legal and institutional forms, and sometimes, of the state itself. Despite this challenging environment, psychiatrists showed themselves to be active professionals seeking to guide the transformations that inevitably touched their work. In the second half of the nineteenth century debates about the role of psychiatry in criminal justice took place against a backdrop of increasingly alarming terrorist activity, and call for revolution. While German influence, with its preference for hereditarianism, was strong, Russian psychiatry was inclined toward social and environmental explanations of crime. When revolution came in 1917, the new communist regime quickly institutionalized forensic psychiatry. In the aftermath of revolution, the institutionalization of forensic psychiatry "advanced" with each turn of the state's transformation, with profound consequences for practitioners' independence and ethical probity. The abuses of Soviet psychiatry under Stalin and more intensively after his death in the 1960s-80s remain under-researched and key archives are still classified. The return to democracy since the late 1980s has seen mixed results for fresh attempts to reform both the justice system and forensic psychiatric practice. PMID:24128434

  12. [The potential use of ayahuasca in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frecska, Ede; Bokor, Petra; Andrassy, Gabor; Kovacs, Attila

    2016-06-01

    Ayahuasca is a decoctum made of admixture plants containing dimethyltryptamine and harmine. For millennia it has been used as a central element of spiritual, religious, initiation, and other - foremost healing - rituals, originally by the indigenous groups of the Amazon basin and later by the mestizo populations of the region. During the last two decades the brew has raised increased scientific and lay interest about its healing potentials within the framework of Western therapeutic settings. The typical ayahuasca effects consist of strong somatic reactions, vivid visions, relived personal memories, cathartic emotions, and insightful, introspective experiences when the emerging mental contents take different context and get deeper perspectives. The ayahuasca-experience can be exhausting necessitating the presence of an experienced leader for helping participants to pass difficult phases and for maximizing therapeutic benefits. No health damaging adverse effect has been confirmed thus far as result of its well-structured, institutionalized use. The scientific investigation of ayahuasca is hindered by legal issues, methodical problems, and sociocultural preconceptions. The present review outlines the therapeutic potentials of ayahuasca use in psychiatry with its psychobiological and spiritual background. PMID:27390204

  13. [The situation of emergency psychiatry in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajonk, F-G B

    2015-09-01

    The impact of psychiatric emergencies for the care of patients in preclinical emergency medicine, in emergency departments and in psychiatric hospitals has been underestimated for a long time. There is still insufficient knowledge and a need for further research. There are, however, sufficient reasons to assume that annually approximately 500,000 patients with a psychiatric emergency receive treatment from a preclinical emergency physician and another 1.5 million in emergency departments in Germany. Further, approximately 500,000 patients are admitted to psychiatric hospitals as an emergency. The most frequent reasons are intoxication, agitation, aggressiveness and suicidal ideation, posing a threat of self-harm to the patient or to other persons and evoking other life-threatening conditions. Emergency psychiatry also plays a role in collective injuries, such as mass disasters, catastrophes and rampage situations. There is some evidence that the number of psychiatric emergencies is increasing. Reasons are, among others, changes in the services provided for inpatient and outpatient treatment, a reduction in stabilizing psychosocial factors and a general increase in the utilization of emergency healthcare services. PMID:26099496

  14. Godsdienst en psychiatrie: reacties op een geval van doodslag in godsdienstwaanzin

    OpenAIRE

    Belzen, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Religion and psychiatry: responses to a case of manslaughter in religious mania


    After having touched upon some modalities of the relationship between religion and psychiatry, a paradox is pointed out in a psychiatry segregated by denomination as was the case in the Netherlands: this type of psychiatry was stated to be different because of its religiou...

  15. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [{sup 3}H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with {sup 11}C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [{sup 11}C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high

  16. Haematological toxicity of drugs used in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Robert J; Dunk, Louisa

    2008-01-01

    Almost all classes of psychotropic agents have been reported to cause blood dyscrasias. Mechanisms include direct toxic effects upon the bone marrow, the formation of antibodies against haematopoietic precursors or involve peripheral destruction of cells. Agranulocytosis is probably the most important drug-related blood dyscrasia. The mortality from drug-induced agranulocytosis is 5-10% in Western countries. The manifestations of agranulocytosis are secondary to infection. Aggressive treatment with intravenous broad-spectrum antimicrobials and bone marrow stimulants may be required. Of drugs encountered in psychiatry, antipsychotics including clozapine (risk of agranulocytosis approximately 0.8%, predominantly in the first year of treatment) and phenothiazines (chlorpromazine agranulocytosis risk approximately 0.13%), and antiepileptics (notably carbamazepine, neutropenia risk approximately 0.5%) are the most common causes of drug-related neutropenia/agranulocytosis. Drugs known to cause neutropenia should not be used concomitantly with other drugs known to cause this problem. High temperature and other indicators of possible infection should be looked for routinely during treatment. Clozapine is well known as a drug that can cause blood dyscrasias, but olanzapine and other atypicals may also cause similar problems. In addition to genetic factors, there are likely to be dose-related and immunological components to these phenomena. Important lessons have been learnt from the haematological monitoring that is necessary with clozapine and the monitoring has been very successful in preventing deaths related to clozapine-induced agranulocytosis. Continuing research into the mechanisms of drug-induced neutropenia and agranulocytosis may serve to further enhance the safe use not only of clozapine, but also of other agents. PMID:18098216

  17. Conceptualizing the forensic psychiatry report as performative narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Ezra E H; Stankovic, Aleksandra; Baranoski, Madelon

    2010-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry has evolved into a recognized specialty. Two core competencies, often overlooked but commonplace in forensic psychiatry, are the constructing of forensic reports and the presenting of oral testimony. This article concerns the written forensic report and conceptualizes it as performative writing. We first review the development of the forensic report's structure over the past 30 years or so and then apply constructs from other disciplines as we propose a process for creating narrative forensic reports. Such writing is grounded in the discipline of psychiatry, relies on ethics-based principles of respect for persons and truth-telling, and uses language to tell a story that persuades the legal audience. We examine the impact of voice, pitfalls to avoid, and the concepts of witnessing and labeling, as we describe the process of formulating the narrative through the voice of the forensic expert. PMID:20305072

  18. [Problem based learning (PBL)--possible adaptation in psychiatry (debate)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowski, Tomasz; Frydecka, Dorota; Kiejna, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Teaching psychiatry concerns mainly education of students studying medicine and clinical psychology, but it also concerns professional training the people specializing in psychiatry and in other fields of medicine. Since the requirements that medical professionals are obliged to meet are ever higher, it is essential to provide highest possible quality of teaching and to do so to use the best possible teaching models. One of the modern educational models is Problem Based Learning (PBL). Barrows' and Dreyfus' research as well as development of andragogy had major impact on the introduction of this model of teaching. There are favourable experiences of using PBL in teaching psychiatry reported, especially in the field of psychosomatics. Problem Based Learning gradually becomes a part of modern curricula in Western Europe. For this reason it is worth keeping in mind PBL's principles and knowingly apply them into practice, all the more the reported educational effects of using this method are very promising. PMID:17598426

  19. A Survey of the Interactions between Psychiatry Residency Programs and the Pharmaceutical Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Christopher K.; Jibson, Michael D.; McCarthy, Mary; Benjamin, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors report a survey of the American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training (AADPRT) on interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and psychiatry residency programs. METHODS: American Association of Directors of Psychiatry Residency Training membership was anonymously surveyed by e-mail and by paper…

  20. Big data are coming to psychiatry: a general introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Bauer, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Big data are coming to the study of bipolar disorder and all of psychiatry. Data are coming from providers and payers (including EMR, imaging, insurance claims and pharmacy data), from omics (genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data), and from patients and non-providers (data from smart phone and Internet activities, sensors and monitoring tools). Analysis of the big data will provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration, descriptive observation, hypothesis generation, and prediction, and the results of big data studies will be incorporated into clinical practice. Technical challenges remain in the quality, analysis and management of big data. This paper discusses some of the fundamental opportunities and challenges of big data for psychiatry. PMID:26440506

  1. Psychiatry in 21 st century: The road ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayantanava Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of becoming more humane in its approach with improvements in understanding of mental illnesses over last century, psychiatry still has a long way to go. At this point in time, on one hand the world faces issues like terrorism, wars and global warming; while on the other it is witnessing economic and gender empowerment like never before. With technology providing us with immense opportunities to advance care for the mentally ill, we are closer than ever to finding the holy-grail of psychiatry, and overcoming daunting challenges.

  2. Psychiatry in the East African colonies: a background to confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, S

    2006-08-01

    This article is concerned with the discipline of psychiatry in colonial East Africa as it emerged out of the crime and disorder problem to become an intellectually significant 'East African School' of psychiatry. The process of lunacy certification, in particular, provides a snapshot of the medical and political tensions that existed among the medical establishment, the prison system and the colonial courts, all of whom sought to define collective African behaviour. This historical article utilises archaic terminology, such as 'lunatic' or 'lunacy', as these categories were in use at the time. PMID:16943144

  3. Commentary: the place of performative writing in forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Ezra E H; Baranoski, Madelon V

    2007-01-01

    In this issue of the Journal, Robert Simon has explored the subject of the place that writing should occupy in the professional life of forensic psychiatrists. We have taken the platform so elegantly constructed by this erudite and prolific author and used it to discuss the quotidian and concrete task of writing the customary forensic psychiatry report. We look to other disciplines for mechanisms to analyze the written forensic report: concepts of voice, portraiture, and narrative. We ultimately conclude that preparing these reports is a complex undertaking and that writing with clarity, precision, and artistry in forensic psychiatry should be viewed as a core competency. PMID:17389341

  4. Neurociência e psiquiatria Neuroscience and psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico G. Graeff

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo da história da psiquiatria, observa-se uma oscilação entre uma perspectiva biológica e outra mentalista. A perspectiva biológica enfatiza explicações calcadas no sistema nervoso central e intervenções psicofarmacológicas. Por outro lado, a perspectiva mentalista prioriza a experiência subjetiva e intervenções através da psicoterapia. Embora o embate entre estas duas perspectivas esteja longe de ser resolvido, o presente trabalho defende uma posição intermediária, privilegiando um equilíbrio entre estas duas perspectivas. Ao longo do artigo, apresenta-se o pensamento de autores dualistas, que propõem uma interação entre mente e cérebro, assim como de autores monistas, que consideram o cérebro como gerador dos processos mentais. Discute-se, também, a crítica que o conhecimento de natureza subjetiva, produzido pela psicanálise, vem sofrendo por parte de alguns neurocientistas. Finalmente, considera-se o conceito de "complementaridade", elaborado pelos físicos quânticos Heisenberg e Bohr, como uma possível forma de solucionar o impasse epistemológico entre psicanálise e neurociência.Throughout its history, Psychiatry shows a clear oscillation between biological and mentalistic perspectives. The biological perspective emphasizes explanations based on the central nervous system and psychopharmacological interventions. On the other hand, the mentalistic perspective highlights subjective experience and interventions based on psychotherapy. Although this difference of opinion is far from being solved, the present work stands for a balance between these two perspectives. The paper presents the dualistic and monist point of views regarding the brain-mind debate. It also discusses the criticisms put forward by some neuroscientists on the subjective knowledge produced by Psychoanalysis. Finally, it is suggested that the "complementarity" concept developed by the quantum physicists Heisenberg and Bohr might help to

  5. Consulting Psychiatry within an Integrated Primary Care Model

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiter, Elizabeth A. Zeidler; Pandhi, Nancy; Fondow, Meghan D. M.; Thomas, Chantelle; Vonk, Jantina; Reardon, Claudia L; Serrano, Neftali

    2013-01-01

    After implementation of an integrated consulting psychiatry model and psychology services within primary care at a federally qualified health center, patients have increased access to needed mental health services, and primary care clinicians receive the support and collaboration needed to meet the psychiatric needs of the population.

  6. Psychiatry Trainees' Training and Experience in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyal, Roy; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective: Alcohol is a teratogen. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) affect about 1% of live births, causing severe impairment. Individuals affected by FASDs are overrepresented in psychiatric settings. This study reports on the education and experience of psychiatry trainees in approaching FASDs. Method: Data were collected from…

  7. Implementing Interpersonal Psychotherapy in a Psychiatry Residency Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtmacher, Jonathan; Eisendrath, Stuart J.; Haller, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for depression is a brief, well researched treatment for acute major depression. This article describes the implementation of IPT as an evidence-based treatment for depression in a psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors tracked the implementation process over 5 years as interpersonal…

  8. Primary Supervision: Massachusetts General Hospital's child and adolescent psychiatry seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Michael S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes "Primary Supervision", a seminar he has led for approximately 20 years, which is designed for the entire class of nine first-year residents in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry training at Massachusetts General Hospital. The seminar meets for 1 hour each week throughout the first year. Through 900 hours of…

  9. Education and Training in Psychiatry in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Stuart; Bhugra, Dinesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Objective: Recent training and education changes have raised important issues in delivery of psychiatric education at all levels. In this article, the authors describe the current status of mental health education in the training of all doctors and postgraduate training and education in psychiatry in the U.K. Method: The authors explore…

  10. Postgraduate training in psychiatry in India with focus on mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ramesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present article traces the formation of the Indian Psychiatric Society and the progress of post-graduate training in psychiatry in India in general and Mumbai in particular. It covers the standard of psychiatric education, the goals and recommendations for improvisation of residency programmes, and the future of post-graduate psychiatric training. PMID:25838723

  11. Emergency Psychiatry and the Family: The Decision to Admit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, Richard A.

    1986-01-01

    Awareness of interpersonal forces upon mental health clinicians is crucial to allow mature balancing of the many factors involved in the decision-making process. An integration of family and systems thinking into the practice of emergency psychiatry can enhance comfort and effectiveness in many difficult crisis situations. (Author/BL)

  12. Values-Based Practice: A New Partner to Evidence-Based Practice and A First for Psychiatry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.W.M. Fulford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Values-based practice, although a skills -based approach to working with complex and conflicting values, is at the practical cutting edge of a new interdisciplinary field involving philosophy and psychiatry. To many, it came as a considerable surprise that the new field of philosophy of psychiatry should have emerged when it did, in the 1990s, heralded as this decade had been as the "decade of the brain" (Fulford et al ., 2003. There has been important work in the philosophy of psychiatry at earlier periods, of course, not least in the foundational work of Karl Jaspers (Jaspers, 1913. But the widespread expectation had been that with the development of the new neurosciences, the need for philosophy in psychiatry would diminish rather than increase (Fulford et al ., 2006. As Singh (2007 has put it "While the experimental breakthroughs, both in etiology and therapeutics, will come mainly from biology, the insights and leads can hopefully come from many other fields, especially the psychosocial and philosophical. It is in some such synergy that these two supposedly antagonistic branches must engage themselves, to complement and nurture rather than confront and dismember." So, nothing could be further from the truth than the idea that philosophy and neuroscience run counter to each other! Indeed, as the American neuroscientist and psychiatrist Nancy Andreasen (Andreasen, 2001 has argued, developments in the neurosciences, far from reducing the need for rigorous philosophical work in psychiatry, actually drive many of the deepest problems of traditional philosophy to the very top of our agenda-such problems include the nature of personal identity, the problem of free will, and the problem of the relationship between mind and brain itself. When it comes to values, in particular, there are many reasons why work on the philosophy of values, and its practical counterpart in values-based practice, should have been pushed to the top of our agenda. Some of

  13. Is Mandatory Prospective Trial Registration Working to Prevent Publication of Unregistered Trials and Selective Outcome Reporting? An Observational Study of Five Psychiatry Journals That Mandate Prospective Clinical Trial Registration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Scott

    Full Text Available To address the bias occurring in the medical literature associated with selective outcome reporting, in 2005, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE introduced mandatory trial registration guidelines and member journals required prospective registration of trials prior to patient enrolment as a condition of publication. No research has examined whether these guidelines are impacting psychiatry publications. Our objectives were to determine the extent to which articles published in psychiatry journals adhering to ICMJE guidelines were correctly prospectively registered, whether there was evidence of selective outcome reporting and changes to participant numbers, and whether there was a relationship between registration status and source of funding.Any clinical trial (as defined by ICMJE published between 1 January 2009 and 31 July 2013 in the top five psychiatry journals adhering to ICMJE guidelines (The American Journal of Psychiatry, Archives of General Psychiatry/JAMA Psychiatry, Biological Psychiatry, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry and conducted after July 2005 (or 2007 for two journals was included. For each identified trial, where possible we extracted trial registration information, changes to POMs between publication and registry to assess selective outcome reporting, changes to participant numbers, and funding type.Out of 3305 articles, 181 studies were identified as clinical trials requiring registration: 21 (11.6% were deemed unregistered, 61 (33.7% were retrospectively registered, 37 (20.4% had unclear POMs either in the article or the registry and 2 (1.1% were registered in an inaccessible trial registry. Only 60 (33.1% studies were prospectively registered with clearly defined POMs; 17 of these 60 (28.3% showed evidence of selective outcome reporting and 16 (26.7% demonstrated a change in participant numbers of 20% or more; only 26 (14

  14. Psychotherapy and its Role in Psychiatric Practice: A Position Paper. I. Psychiatry as a Psychobiological Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Yakov; John, Nicholas; Scott, Rowan; Tomy, Nadia

    2016-05-01

    Economic, political, and ideological landscapes have impacted the practice of psychiatry throughout its evolution as a medical discipline. Despite enormous scientific advances over the course of the past century, many psychiatrists continue to operate with a split Cartesian picture of mind versus brain and entrenched ideological positions ranging from biological "chemical imbalance" to rigidly followed manualized psychotherapy approaches, both of which frequently result in fractured clinical care. With the impact of systemic economic and political pressures in Canada and the United States, the attention to the doctor-patient relationship has taken a back seat to high-volume practices, computerized assessment tools, and the focus on evidence-based treatments for behaviorally defined syndromes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders that often come at the expense of the patient's experience of his or her illness. We spend much time teaching the next generation of psychiatrists what to prescribe versus how to prescribe; what manualized treatments to administer versus questioning why our patients engage in dysfunctional patterns of thinking, feeling, and relating to others, and what impact these patterns may have on their interaction with us in the here-and-now of the treatment setting. In this paper, we propose an integrative psychobiological model, in which biological interventions carry personal meanings, and relational transactions in the treatment setting are a form of learning that results in lasting physiological changes in the brain. Psychiatry needs to reconnect with its roots as a science of attachment and meaning, in which attention to the objective, subjective, and relational domains of the patient-provider experience is equally foundational for any successful treatment outcome. PMID:27123801

  15. Child and adolescent psychiatry and family status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Levin, Eline; Høyer, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much attention has been given to parental separation as a possible risk factor for adverse child development; however, little information is available regarding the family status of children referred to psychiatric facilities. AIMS: To assess the association between psychiatric illness...... children are at increased risk of not living with both biological parents independent of age of the child....

  16. The Differential Impact of Clerk Interest and Participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clerkship Rotation upon Psychiatry and Pediatrics Residency Matches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D.; Szatmari, Peter; Eva, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors evaluated the differential impact of clerk interest and participation in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (CAP) clerkship rotation upon psychiatry and pediatrics residency matches. Method: Authors studied clerks from the McMaster University M.D. program graduating years of 2005-2007. Participants were categorized as 1)…

  17. The Abduction of Disorder in Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Richters, John E.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    The evolutionary cornerstone of J. C. Wakefield's (1999) harmful dysfunction thesis is a faulty assumption of comparability between mental and biological processes that overlooks the unique plasticity and openness of the brain?s functioning design. This omission leads Wakefield to an idealized concept of natural mental functions, illusory interpretations of mental disorders as harmful dysfunctions, and exaggerated claims for the validity of his explanatory and stipulative proposals. The autho...

  18. Gender differences in the practice patterns of forensic psychiatry experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Marilyn; Recupero, Patricia R; Strong, David R; Gutheil, Thomas G

    2004-01-01

    In the past 25 years, the number of female forensic psychiatrists has increased dramatically. To assess whether there are gender differences in the practice patterns of forensic psychiatry experts, members of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law were surveyed during an annual business meeting. Women in the sample were shown to perform fewer categories of evaluation than men. Women were less likely than men to do criminal work, civil commitment/involuntary medication evaluations, and testamentary capacity evaluations, but there was no significant difference in the percentage of those performing some personal injury/disability/fitness for duty, custody, sexual harassment, or malpractice evaluations. Gender was not a significant factor in determining hourly rate. When subjects were asked to comment on whether they thought that gender was a factor in the selection of a forensic expert, 80 percent of the women, but only 41 percent of the men, believed that gender was a consideration. PMID:15515912

  19. [Ambiguity in Eric Kandel's neuroscientific basis of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glas, G

    2006-01-01

    The philosophical principles underlying the work of Eric Kandel are investigated on the basis of his innovative paper entitled 'A new intellectual framework for psychiatry' (Kandel 1998). A careful analysis of the concepts involved reveals some ambiguity in Kandel's proposition in the mind-body debate. On the one hand Kandel uses formulations that are compatible with (classical) psychophysical identity theories; on the other hand he expresses views that actually have more in common with non-eliminative physicalism (or epiphenomenalism). In addition, he weakens his position by using misleading metaphors an analogies. This can lead to what is known as the 'mereological fallacy'. The final part of the article examines what this ambiguity tells us about Kandel's views on psychotherapy and the social justification for psychiatry. Kandel's approach can lead to a pointless narrowing down of the psychiatrist's normative role and to an over-restrictive attitude to psychotherapy. PMID:17151995

  20. [What place is there for psychotherapy in public psychiatry?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, U; Ambresin, G; de Roten, Y; Fassassi, S; Hedjal, A; Herrera, F; Kolly, S; Pomini, V; Preisig, M; Despland, J-N

    2010-09-22

    The question of the place of psychotherapy in psychiatric public care is posed in this article. We will address this question first by presenting two clinical and research programmes which were implemented in a clinical psychiatric unit, section Karl Jaspers (Service of General Psychiatry) of the Department of Psychiatry CHUV, in Lausanne with the collaboration of the University Institute of Psychotherapy. The first one puts forward psychodynamic psychotherapy of depressed inpatients; the clinical programme and the research questions on efficacy of this treatment are discussed. The second focuses on the early treatment of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder, in particular in its research question on the effect of the motive-oriented therapeutic relationship in this process. We conclude by underlining the convergences of the two programmes. PMID:20963958

  1. Commentary on "Conceptions of modern psychiatry": from attachment to intersubjectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jon G

    2012-01-01

    I am honored and humbled by the invitation to comment on the wisdom of a true giant in the history of psychiatry, Harry Stack Sullivan. Resonating with the prescience of his thought as any contemporary reader would, I am astonished by its pertinence to current concerns. Four domains of resonance strike me: the role of neurobiology in psychiatry, the social origins of mind in attachment relationships, the contribution of self-hate to suicide and, perhaps most important for clinicians, the intersubjective process of diagnostic understanding and treatment. As an expression of admiration for the timelessness of Sullivan's essay and appreciation for all we have learned from him, my comments merely explicate how some of his thoughts are playing out in contemporary theory and research. PMID:22397539

  2. A Thorn in the Flesh? Forensic Inpatients in General Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllerhøj, Jette; Stølan, Liv Os; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    provide sufficient mental health care. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: Nationwide training and teaching as well as knowledge exchange between specialized forensic psychiatry and general psychiatry are recommended. Further exploration is needed on patient perspectives and on avenues to increase efficiency and......, bottlenecks, poor information exchange, lack of knowledge and competences, complex psychopathology, and a vague and therefore uncomfortable task of nursing leads to a focus on criminal offenses rather than mental disorders and an increased risk of brutalization and stigmatization in nursing practices. Members...... of staff identify the care of mentally disordered offenders in general psychiatric units as either "a parking space" or a very difficult or frightening course, where staff members tend to behave like pleasers in order to avoid risks of conflict or physical violence. Either way, it seems hard to...

  3. [Definition of mental illness and discoursive strategies in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, J

    1998-01-01

    Defining mental illness was presented in the article both as a matter of medical knowledge and a political issue. This latter aspect cannot be successfully dealt with by psychiatry itself, since it is a branch of medicine, nevertheless bioethics offers here its competences and possibilities. The presentation of some elements of traditional strategies in defining mental illness introduces a draft of such a project of the definition procedure, which reinforces the constantly threatened (by the decrease of sovereignity) social and legal status of psychiatry, and--on the other hand--enables us to support the evidently handicapped status of psychiatric patients. This solitary definition strategy, which support both psychiatric circles and patients, assumes that a popular modern tendency to deny the very reality of the mental illness is to be avoided. The definition of mental illness proposed in the article is pragmatic in character and is based on a definition of mental illness as a kind of spiritual disorder. PMID:10816967

  4. [Dynamic paradigm in psychopathology: "chaos theory", from physics to psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezard, L; Nandrino, J L

    2001-01-01

    For the last thirty years, progress in the field of physics, known as "Chaos theory"--or more precisely: non-linear dynamical systems theory--has increased our understanding of complex systems dynamics. This framework's formalism is general enough to be applied in other domains, such as biology or psychology, where complex systems are the rule rather than the exception. Our goal is to show here that this framework can become a valuable tool in scientific fields such as neuroscience and psychiatry where objects possess natural time dependency (i.e. dynamical properties) and non-linear characteristics. The application of non-linear dynamics concepts on these topics is more precise than a loose metaphor and can throw a new light on mental functioning and dysfunctioning. A class of neural networks (recurrent neural networks) constitutes an example of the implementation of the dynamical system concept and provides models of cognitive processes (15). The state of activity of the network is represented in its state space and the time evolution of this state is a trajectory in this space. After a period of time those networks settle on an equilibrium (a kind of attractor). The strength of connections between neurons define the number and relations between those attractors. The attractors of the network are usually interpreted as "mental representations". When an initial condition is imposed to the network, the evolution towards an attractor is considered as a model of information processing (27). This information processing is not defined in a symbolic manner but is a result of the interaction between distributed elements. Several properties of dynamical models can be used to define a way where the symbolic properties emerge from physical and dynamical properties (28) and thus they can be candidates for the definition of the emergence of mental properties on the basis of neuronal dynamics (42). Nevertheless, mental properties can also be considered as the result of an

  5. ["I do the right thing only against payment": A critique of pay for performance in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maio, G

    2015-11-01

    This paper takes a critical look at pay for performance (P4P) as a model for introducing new incentives in psychiatry. This model is to be seen as a tool of commercialism, and such a restructuring of psychiatry represents a wide-reaching political maneuver which actively introduces economical parameters into the field and will have a great impact on psychiatry. P4P starts with the false premise that medicine has to be structured like industry. This premise is false because psychiatry has to do with relationships to patients, and not with the production of a product. Therefore, it is essential to reflect critically upon the premises and consequences of P4P for psychiatry. Only this critical reflection can help psychiatry to keep its identity as a humane service for suffering people. PMID:26429196

  6. The neurology-psychiatry divide: a thought experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Reilly, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Diseases of the brain are generally classified as either neurological or psychiatric. However, these two groups of illnesses cannot be readily separated on the basis of pathophysiology or symptomatology. It is difficult to rationally explain to someone with no prior frame of reference why we have the split between neurological and psychiatric illness. This demonstrates that the division is untenable, which has implications for training in both psychiatry and neurology.

  7. Maurycy Urstein: forgotten Polish contributor to German psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Marcinowski, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Polish psychiatrist Maurycy Urstein (1872–1940) is nowadays almost forgotten. He is not mentioned in the history of Polish psychiatry which only partially may be explained by the fact that his most essential works were published in German language. His scientific oeuvre contains dozens of publications, including four monographs on catatonia. Urstein was an ardent advocate of the autointoxication theory of psychiatric disorders, fierce opponent of psychoanalysis and enthusiast of the use of bi...

  8. Psychiatry Training in Canadian Family Medicine Residency Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kates, Nick; Toews, John; Leichner, Pierre

    1985-01-01

    Family physicians may spend up to 50% of their time diagnosing and managing mental disorders and emotional problems, but this is not always reflected in the training they receive. This study of the teaching of psychiatry in the 16 family medicine residency programs in Canada showed that although the majority of program directors are reasonably satisfied with the current training, they see room for improvement—particularly in finding psychiatrists with a better understanding of family practice...

  9. Happiness and health in psychiatry: what are their implications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Happiness is a lasting state and is associated with the absence of negative emotions, the presence of positive emotions, life satisfaction, social engagement and objectives in life. Researchers have demonstrated the benefits of happiness in many aspects of life, but few studies have been conducted within psychiatry.Objectives To develop a critical literature review of studies on happiness and health in order to bring some further and useful information to psychiatry updating the article “Happiness: a review” published in 2007 in Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica.Methods Computational searching was undertaken of digital data basis (PubMed and SciELO using the keywords “happiness” and “health”. One hundred twenty-seven papers published between 2004 and 2014 were found, but only 76 had the keywords in the title or abstract and with this were selected.Results Personality traits, such as self-direction; being married; being involved in physical and leisure activities; higher educational backgrounds and intelligence quotient; religiosity, volunteering and altruism; good physical and mental health; were positively related to happiness.Discussion Analysis of the concept of happiness and its associated emotions may be more complex than describing the symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Despite this, the study of happiness brings several positive implications for psychiatry.

  10. The Troubled History of Psychiatry's Quest for Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Allan V; Grob, Gerald N

    2016-08-01

    Over the course of the nineteenth century, medical disciplines replaced holistic conceptions of body and mind with specific diagnoses that were unrelated to the qualities and circumstances of the individuals who harbored them. Despite periodic attempts from the late nineteenth through the mid-twentieth centuries to implement diagnostic systems based on the principle of specificity, psychiatric diagnoses remained undifferentiated, overlapping, and capacious. The need for medical legitimacy, compatibility with a biomedical model, and conditions that third parties would reimburse led psychiatry to replace the psychodynamically oriented DSM-I and DSM-II with the radically empiricist DSM-III in 1980. This manual emphasized explicit measurement, symptom-based entities, and homogeneous categories that were compatible with the specific disorders embraced in the rest of medicine. Yet the diagnostic system that the DSM-III launched was incongruent with the underlying nature of the continuous, fluid, and intersecting conditions with which psychiatry deals. The widespread institutionalization of the specific diagnostic system in psychiatric practice, however, prevented any thoroughgoing revisions when the DSM-5 was published in 2013. The result is an impasse between psychiatry's classificatory system and the need for scientific progress in understanding the causes of and treatments for mental disorders. PMID:27127255

  11. Impact of clerkship in the attitudes toward psychiatry among Portuguese medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida José C; Xavier Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Given the shortage of human resources and the launching of a new Mental Health Plan, recruitment of psychiatrists is currently a major concern in Portugal, as well as in several other countries. Medical students' attitude toward psychiatry has been pointed as a predictor of recruitment. This study aims to evaluate the medical students' perception of psychiatry before and after a clerkship, and the impact on their intention to pursue psychiatry as a future specialty option....

  12. Effect of changing journal clubs from traditional method to evidence-based method on psychiatry residents

    OpenAIRE

    Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh; Faridhoseini,Farhad; Ali SAGHEBI; Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Moharari, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Farhad Faridhosseini,1 Ali Saghebi,2 Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan,3 Fatemeh Moharari,2 Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam3 1Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, 2Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, 3Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mahhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Introduction: Journal club is a valuable educational tool in the medical field. This method follows different goals. This study aims to investigate the effect on psy...

  13. The naturalization of psychiatry in Indonesia and its interaction with indigenous therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Porath

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatry developed as a modern branch of medical knowledge in Western societies and arrived in Southeast Asia in the late nineteenth century. Dutch colonialism brought psychiatry and psychology to the Dutch East Indies as part of the development of European therapeutics in that part of the empire. During the twentieth century, psychiatry was naturalized in Indonesia (and other Southeast Asian countries) and integrated into the national health care system. In the post-independence period, mo...

  14. Persian Translation of Perception of Psychiatry Survey Questionnaire and Evaluation of its Psychometric Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Artounian; Behnam Shariati; Homayoun Amini; Alireza Salimi; Ali-Akbar Nejatisafa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Test the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Perception of Psychiatry Survey questionnaire , which is being used in a large multi-site international study, of which we were part. This instrument was designed to measure the attitudes of medical educators to psychiatry.Methods: We used World Health Organization guideline as the methodological model for Persian translation. The Persian version of Perception of Psychiatry Survey questionnaire was administered to a con...

  15. Working towards a new psychiatry - neuroscience, technology and the DSM-5

    OpenAIRE

    Alam Sabina; Patel Jigisha; Giordano James

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This Editorial introduces the thematic series on 'Toward a New Psychiatry: Philosophical and Ethical Issues in Classification, Diagnosis and Care' http://www.biomedcentral.com/series/newpsychiatry.

  16. Genetics in psychiatry: common variant association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buxbaum Joseph D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many psychiatric conditions and traits are associated with significant heritability. Genetic risk for psychiatric conditions encompass rare variants, identified due to major effect, as well as common variants, the latter analyzed by association analyses. We review guidelines for common variant association analyses, undertaking after assessing evidence of heritability. We highlight the importance of: suitably large sample sizes; an experimental design that controls for ancestry; careful data cleaning; correction for multiple testing; small P values for positive findings; assessment of effect size for positive findings; and, inclusion of an independent replication sample. We also note the importance of a critical discussion of any prior findings, biological follow-up where possible, and a means of accessing the raw data.

  17. Impact of clerkship in the attitudes toward psychiatry among Portuguese medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida José C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the shortage of human resources and the launching of a new Mental Health Plan, recruitment of psychiatrists is currently a major concern in Portugal, as well as in several other countries. Medical students' attitude toward psychiatry has been pointed as a predictor of recruitment. This study aims to evaluate the medical students' perception of psychiatry before and after a clerkship, and the impact on their intention to pursue psychiatry as a future specialty option. Methods Two self-report questionnaires were administered to all 6th year students in a medical school in Lisbon, before and after a 4-weeks full-time psychiatric clerkship, in order to evaluate attitudes toward psychiatry and intention to follow psychiatry in the future. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon and Chi-square tests. Results 153 students (60.8% female filled in both questionnaires (no dropouts. After the clerkship, there was a significant improvement regarding the overall merits of psychiatry, efficacy, role definition and functioning of psychiatrists, use of legal powers to hospitalize patients and specific medical school factors. There was also a significant increase of students decided or considering the possibility to take a residency in psychiatry. However, perceptions of low prestige and negative pressure from family and peers regarding a future choice of psychiatry remained unchanged in about one-third of the students. Conclusions The results indicate clearly that the clerkship had a favorable overall impact on the student attitude towards psychiatry, as well as in the number of students considering a future career in psychiatry. Attitudes toward psychiatry seems a promising outcome indicator of the clerkship's quality, but further research is needed in order to assess its reliability as a sound predictor of recruitment.

  18. Human dermal fibroblasts in psychiatry research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kálmán, S; Garbett, K A; Janka, Z; Mirnics, K

    2016-04-21

    In order to decipher the disease etiology, progression and treatment of multifactorial human brain diseases we utilize a host of different experimental models. Recently, patient-derived human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cultures have re-emerged as promising in vitro functional system for examining various cellular, molecular, metabolic and (patho)physiological states and traits of psychiatric disorders. HDF studies serve as a powerful complement to postmortem and animal studies, and often appear to be informative about the altered homeostasis in neural tissue. Studies of HDFs from patients with schizophrenia (SZ), depression, bipolar disorder (BD), autism, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder and other psychiatric disorders have significantly advanced our understanding of these devastating diseases. These reports unequivocally prove that signal transduction, redox homeostasis, circadian rhythms and gene*environment (G*E) interactions are all amenable for assessment by the HDF model. Furthermore, the reported findings suggest that this underutilized patient biomaterial, combined with modern molecular biology techniques, may have both diagnostic and prognostic value, including prediction of response to therapeutic agents. PMID:26855193

  19. Musings: What child and adolescent psychiatry means to me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Eugene Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been a grandfather for only 12 years, but for 37 years I have lived a grandparent's dream: people pay me to tell them how to raise their children. This is only one of the many rewards child and adolescent psychiatry has offered me. Table 1 lists some more of them.Probably the greatest satisfaction in child psychiatry is the wide selection of options for specialization: psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, nutrition, biochemistry, genetics, family therapy, parent guidance, custody and visitation advice, epidemiology, disorder specialization, research, consultation, public education and best of all, the chance to integrate it all and play at being a comprehensive physician. The myriad challenges provoke learning and continued development that keep one young at heart and mind. Sometimes I think I should pay to practice child psychiatry.It should be obvious by now to even the casual reader that I enjoy the privilege of being a child and adolescent psychiatrist and that enjoyment manifests in a playful attitude. That playful attitude includes not taking myself too seriously. In fact, I'm proud of my humility! It was earned at the expense of repeated humbling experiences in two ways:Confronting tragic situations that I could not help, where all my education, training, experience and brilliant diagnostic insight seemed useless; and Witnessing real heroism by some parents who struggle with sick children's difficult problems without complaining and with indefatigable hope. They outshine any professional pretensions of mine. By showing me my limitations and forcing me to compare myself to patients and parents (and occasional colleagues of superior moral caliber, child psychiatry has made a better, more honest person of me and for this I'm grateful.On the other hand, there is the mind-blowing exhilaration of watching a child improve after some prescription, potion or psychotherapeutic intervention and being allowed to believe that I had something to

  20. Social Skills: Adolf Meyer’s Revision of Clinical Skill for the New Psychiatry of the Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Adolf Meyer (1866–1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine’s traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the ‘New Psychiatry’, a clinical discipline that embodied social and scientific ideals shared with other ‘new’ progressive reform movements in the United States. This revision conformed to his concept of psychobiology – his biological theory of mind and mental disorders – and accorded with his definition of scientific medicine as a unity of clinical–pathological methods and therapeutics. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, neuron theory and American pragmatist philosophy, Meyer concluded that subjective experience and social behaviour were functions of human biology. In addition to the time-honoured techniques devised to exploit the material data of the diseased body – observing and recording in the clinic, dissecting in the morgue and conducting histological experiments in the laboratory – he insisted that psychiatrists must also be skilled at wielding social interaction and interpersonal relationships as investigative and therapeutic tools in order to conceptualise, collect, analyse and apply the ephemeral data of ‘social adaptation’. An examination of his clinical practices and teaching at Johns Hopkins between 1913 and 1917 shows how particular historical and intellectual contexts shaped Meyer’s conceptualisation of social behaviour as a biological function and, subsequently, his new vision of clinical skill for twentieth-century psychiatry. PMID:26090738

  1. Clinical Skills Verification in General Psychiatry: Recommendations of the ABPN Task Force on Rater Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibson, Michael D.; Broquet, Karen E.; Anzia, Joan Meyer; Beresin, Eugene V.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Kaye, David; Rao, Nyapati Raghu; Rostain, Anthony Leon; Sexson, Sandra B.; Summers, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) announced in 2007 that general psychiatry training programs must conduct Clinical Skills Verification (CSV), consisting of observed clinical interviews and case presentations during residency, as one requirement to establish graduates' eligibility to sit for the written certification…

  2. Integrating Neuroscience Knowledge and Neuropsychiatric Skills Into Psychiatry: The Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildkrout, Barbara; Benjamin, Sheldon; Lauterbach, Margo D

    2016-05-01

    Increasing the integration of neuroscience knowledge and neuropsychiatric skills into general psychiatric practice would facilitate expanded approaches to diagnosis, formulation, and treatment while positioning practitioners to utilize findings from emerging brain research. There is growing consensus that the field of psychiatry would benefit from more familiarity with neuroscience and neuropsychiatry. Yet there remain numerous factors impeding the integration of these domains of knowledge into general psychiatry.The authors make recommendations to move the field forward, focusing on the need for advocacy by psychiatry and medical organizations and changes in psychiatry education at all levels. For individual psychiatrists, the recommendations target obstacles to attaining expanded neuroscience and neuropsychiatry education and barriers stemming from widely held, often unspoken beliefs. For the system of psychiatric care, recommendations address the conceptual and physical separation of psychiatry from medicine, overemphasis on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and on psychopharmacology, and different systems in medicine and psychiatry for handling reimbursement and patient records. For psychiatry residency training, recommendations focus on expanding neuroscience/neuropsychiatry faculty and integrating neuroscience education throughout the curriculum.Psychiatry traditionally concerns itself with helping individuals construct meaningful life narratives. Brain function is one of the fundamental determinants of individuality. It is now possible for psychiatrists to integrate knowledge of neuroscience into understanding the whole person by asking, What person has this brain? How does this brain make this person unique? How does this brain make this disorder unique? What treatment will help this disorder in this person with this brain? PMID:26630604

  3. Telemedicine for Peer-to-Peer Psychiatry Learning between U.K. and Somaliland Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keynejad, Roxanne; Ali, Faisal R.; Finlayson, Alexander E. T.; Handuleh, Jibriil; Adam, Gudon; Bowen, Jordan S. T.; Leather, Andrew; Little, Simon J.; Whitwell, Susannah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The proportion of U.K. medical students applying for psychiatry training continues to decline, whereas, in Somaliland, there are no public-sector psychiatrists. This pilot study assessed the usefulness and feasibility of online, instant messenger, peer-to-peer exchange for psychiatry education between cultures. Method: Twenty medical…

  4. Training Researchers in Cultural Psychiatry: The McGill-CIHR Strategic Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmayer, Laurence J.; Rousseau, Cecile; Corin, Ellen; Groleau, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The authors aim to summarize the pedagogical approaches and curriculum used in the training of researchers in cultural psychiatry at the Division of Social and Transcultural Psychiatry at McGill University. Method: We reviewed available published and unpublished reports on the history and development of the McGill cultural psychiatry…

  5. AACAP 2005 Research Forum: Speeding the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice in Pediatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, John S.; Szatmari, Peter; Bukstein, Oscar; Chrisman, Allan; Kondo, Douglas; Hamilton, John D.; Kremer, Charlotte M. E.; Kratochvil, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: At the 2005 Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP), the Academy's Workgroup on Research conducted a Research Forum entitled "Increasing Research Literacy Through the Adoption of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in Pediatric Psychiatry." Method: Forum participants focused on speeding the adoption…

  6. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  7. Exposure to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for Medical Students: Are There Optimal "Teaching Perspectives"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Jeffrey; Barrett, Rowland; Grapentine, W. Lex; Liguori, Gina; Trivedi, Harsh K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The ability to develop quality medical student exposures in child and adolescent psychiatry is critical to the professional development of these future physicians and to the growth of recruitment efforts into the field. This study identifies teaching perspectives among child and adolescent psychiatry faculty to determine whether there…

  8. Assessment of Psychopharmacology on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Dorthea; Winstead, Daniel K.; Sheiber, Stephen C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report the assessment of psychopharmacology on the certification and recertification exams in general psychiatry and in the subspecialties administered by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN). METHODS: The ABPN's core competencies for psychiatrists were reviewed. The number of items addressing psychopharmacology or…

  9. Challenges of creating synergy between global mental health and cultural psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T.V.M. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses four major challenges for efforts to create synergy between the global mental health movement and cultural psychiatry. First, although they appear to share domains of mutual interest, the worlds of global mental health and cultural psychiatry have distinct lineages. Expanding

  10. Audit of an inpatient liaison psychiatry consultation service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to examine an audit that was performed of all patients referred to a liaison psychiatry inpatient consultation service which sought to establish a baseline for demographics, type of referral, and management of referrals, with a view to introducing improved evidence-based treatments. It also aims to examine timeliness of response to referrals benchmarked against published standards. DESIGN\\/METHODOLOGY\\/APPROACH: All inpatient referrals to a liaison psychiatry service were recorded over a six-month period, including demographics, diagnosis, management and timeliness of response to referrals. The data were retrospectively analysed and compared against international standards. FINDINGS: A total of 172 referrals were received in the six months. Commonest referral reasons included assessments regarding depressive disorders (23.8 per cent), delirium\\/other cognitive disorders (19.2 per cent), alcohol-related disorders (18.6 per cent), anxiety disorders (14.5 per cent), and risk management (12.2 per cent). Evidence-based practices were not utilised effectively for a number of different types of presentations. A total of 40.1 per cent of referrals were seen on the same day, 75.4 per cent by the end of the next day, and 93.4 per cent by the end of the following day. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Use of a hospital protocol for management of delirium may improve outcomes for these patients. Evidence-based techniques, such as brief intervention therapies, may be beneficial for referrals involving alcohol dependence. Referrals were seen reasonably quickly, but there is room for improvement when compared with published standards. ORIGINALITY\\/VALUE: This paper provides valuable information for those involved in management of liaison psychiatry consultation services, providing ideas for development and implementation of evidence based practices.

  11. Assessment of an undergraduate psychiatry course in an African setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leuvennink Johan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International reports recommend the improvement in the amount and quality of training for mental health workers in low and middle income countries. The Scotland-Malawi Mental Health Education Project (SMMHEP has been established to support the teaching of psychiatry to medical students in the University of Malawi. While anecdotally supportive medical educational initiatives appear of value, little quantitative evidence exists to demonstrate whether such initiatives can deliver comparable educational standards. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an undergraduate psychiatry course given by UK psychiatrists in Malawi by studying University of Malawi and Edinburgh University medical students' performance on an MCQ examination paper. Methods An undergraduate psychiatry course followed by an MCQ exam was delivered by the SMMHEP to 57 Malawi medical students. This same MCQ exam was given to 71 Edinburgh University medical students who subsequently sat their own Edinburgh University examination. Results There were no significant differences between Edinburgh students' performance on the Malawi exam and their own Edinburgh University exam. (p = 0.65. This would suggest that the Malawi exam is a comparable standard to the Edinburgh exam. Malawi students marks ranged from 52.4%–84.6%. Importantly 84.4% of Malawi students scored above 60% on their exam which would equate to a hypothetical pass by UK university standards. Conclusion The support of an undergraduate course in an African setting by high income country specialists can attain a high percentage pass rate by UK standards. Although didactic teaching has been surpassed by more novel educational methods, in resource poor countries it remains an effective and cost effective method of gaining an important educational standard.

  12. Neurology Didactic Curricula for Psychiatry Residents: A Review of the Literature and a Survey of Program Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Claudia L.; Walaszek, Art

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Minimal literature exists on neurology didactic instruction offered to psychiatry residents, and there is no model neurology didactic curriculum offered for psychiatry residency programs. The authors sought to describe the current state of neurology didactic training in psychiatry residencies. Methods: The authors electronically…

  13. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust

  14. [Consultation-liaison psychiatry: strategy for care, opportunity for training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogliani, Andrea; Canuto, Alessandra; Zeppegno, Patrizia; Torre, Eugenio

    2014-02-12

    The liaison psychiatry defines itself as way to comprehend the psychological aspects in any situation of care, and in particular in the context of somatic care. The identification of the psychic processes, which can influence the diagnosis and the outcome of a somatic disease, is essential to adequately and globally take care of the individual. At the same time, training in the Help relationship allows to identify the difficulties of nursing, which is very often source of exhaustion and burn-out. PMID:24620465

  15. [The most important obstacles of the development of Hungarian psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Sándor

    2015-06-01

    A quarter of a century ago the change of the political system in Hungary precipitated a serious value-crisis and caused a lot of harmful effects in nurturing and the development of psychiatry. The author establishes that the attack against psychiatry is more intensive than previously but neither the education and health management nor the psychiatric leadership could cope with these difficulties. It can't be denied that the foundation of lifelong mental health begins in the early life years and about 75% of the first Mental Disorder manifests in adolescence and youth. We are not able to ensure the special rights of every child according to the Hungarian Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of the Child by the United Nations. The large inequalities within the country, the lack of paramount mental education and nurturing, the lack of essential, consistent eternal values, the lack of required psychiatric care system are huge obstacles of the development of healthy individual and leads to self-destructive behaviour and several, serious physical and mental disorders. The purpose of the author is to call psychiatrists' attention to the main obstacles of the development of Hungarian Psychiatric Care System. The main obstacles of the present psychiatric care system: 1. Unclarified notions, confusion of ideas. 2. Somatic, neurologic, mental, cultural-social and spiritual ignorance. 3. Lack of organization in Mental Education and Psychiatric Care System. 4. Value-crisis in our society despite the fact that the "Council of Wise Men" created a "Scale of the Essential Consistent Eternal Values" for the Hungarian Education System in 2008. 5. Lack of mental health prevention both in education system and health care system. There is no teaching of hygiene lessons in the Hungarian schools. 6. Negligence and selfishness among the population. 7. Disinterest among competent authorities. 8. Leaving the most important possibilities out of consideration. The author establishes

  16. 48,XXYY in a General Adult Psychiatry Department

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, NB; Trancas, B; Pinto, P; Lopes, B.; Gamito, A; S. Almeida; Ferreira, B.; Luengo, A; Vieira, C; Martinho, J.; Pereira, B.; Cardoso, G

    2010-01-01

    The 48,XXYY syndrome is a distinct clinical and genetic entity, with an incidence of 1:17,000 to 1:50,000 newborns. Patients often access mental healthcare services due to behavior problems, such as aggressiveness and impulsiveness, and are frequently intellectually disabled. We report a case of a patient with 48,XXYY syndrome treated in a general adult psychiatry department. A 23-year-old man was frequently admitted to our inpatient psychiatric unit (14 admissions in five years) due to...

  17. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Englander

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer.

  18. The phenomenological method in qualitative psychology and psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englander, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    This article will closely examine the phenomenological method as applied to qualitative inquiry in psychology and psychiatry. In a critical comparison between Amedeo Giorgi's and Larry Davidson's qualitatively methods, conclusions were drawn with regard to how different kinds of qualitative inquiry are possible while remaining faithful to Husserlian philosophical foundations. Utilizing Lester Embree's recent articulation of how Husserl's method of the epochē can be disclosed as specific to a discipline, varieties of these two qualitative methods were seen in their relation to the original scientific aim instigated by the developer. PMID:26968361

  19. Nuclear death: an unprecedented challenge to psychiatry and religion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    The growing danger of a nuclear holocaust has intensified two aspects of the human predicament that concern both religion and psychiatry: the inevitability of death and the disastrous consequences of the characteristic termed pride by theologians and narcissism by psychiatrists. For the first time, humans have power to exterminate themselves and death threatens all ages equally. Pride of power causes leaders to exaggerate their ability to control nuclear weapons; moral pride leads to demonizing enemies. The author considers implications for psychiatrists and clergy, with special reference to preventing a nuclear holocaust.

  20. Sturge–Weber syndrome: neurology-psychiatry interface

    OpenAIRE

    Gadit, Amin A Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    This is a case of a 22-year-old male who was born with a port-wine stain on right side of his face, developed seizures at the age of 2, was not able to complete formal education in a school. MRI revealed intracranial calcification and left-sided brain atrophy. He had diagnosis of Sturge–Weber syndrome. Since the time of adolescence, he developed psychiatric problems and hence was treated with psychotropic medications. This case remains under the domain of psychiatry as well as neurology and c...

  1. [Concepts of anthroposophic psychiatry and their contribution to understanding schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, K

    1992-01-01

    A concept of central importance in alternative forms of psychiatry, namely the concept of the etheric body, is elaborated in reference to disturbed body sensations of schizophrenic patients. In the non-orthodox approach the etheric body, i.e. a spatial organisation of forces active in the organism that is perceived only under specific circumstances, is a mediating medium between body and soul. The concept of the etheric body proves to be associated with both, the still unsolved body-mind-problem and the problem of conceptualising psychic energy. Schizophrenia is interpreted as a disorder in which the connections between body, etheric body and mind have come loose. PMID:1287703

  2. Financial management challenges for general hospital psychiatry 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, R J

    2001-01-01

    Psychiatry programs are facing significant business and financial challenges. This paper provides an overview of these management challenges in five areas: departmental, hospital, payment system, general finance, and policy. Psychiatric leaders will require skills in a variety of business management areas to ensure their program success. Many programs will need to develop new compensation models with more of an emphasis on revenue collection and overhead management. Programs which cannot master these areas are likely to go out of business. For academic programs, incentive systems must address not only clinical productivity, but academic and teaching output as well. General hospital programs will need to develop increased sophistication in differential cost accounting in order to be able to advocate for their patients and program in the current management climate. Clinical leaders will need the skills (ranging from actuarial to negotiations) to be at the table with contract development, since those decisions are inseparable from clinical care issues. Strategic planning needs to consider the value of improving integration with primary care, along with the ability to understand the advantages and disadvantages of risk-sharing models. Psychiatry leaders need to define and develop useful reports shared with clinical division leadership to track progress and identify problems and opportunities. Leaders should be responsible for a strategy for developing appropriate information system architecture and infrastructure. Finally, it is hoped that some leaders will emerge who can further our needs to address inequities in mental health fee schedules and parity issues which affect our program viability. PMID:11313073

  3. Jung, spirits and madness: lessons for cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss-Chioino, Joan D

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of the nature and meaning of 'dissociative,' 'altered' or unusual states ultimately turns on the meaning and definition of consciousness. The view of consciousness from the discipline of psychiatry is largely based on a biomedically endorsed, culturally specific perspective of 'normal' consciousness as an integrated pattern of quotidian relationships with the 'observable' physical world. This perspective underlies the nosology for mental disorders, particularly psychoses, suggesting irreconcilable difference in cognition and affect of persons with these diagnostic labels. This article reviews some theories of Carl Gustav Jung regarding the structure and content of human consciousness and their relationship to aspects of 'dementia praecox' or 'schizophrenia.' It traces the origin and development of these ideas in part to Jung's early contact with, and intense interest in spiritualists and spirits, to later influences comprised of his own altered states (dreams and fantasies) and his involvement with patients diagnosed as schizophrenic. Data on current Spiritist beliefs and healing practices focused on 'madness' (i.e. most often diagnosed as schizophrenia in mental health settings), are described to explore parallels with Jung's ideas on the structure and dynamics of the psyche. These parallels are of special interest because the experience of spirits is ubiquitous, not well explained and often rejected as meaningful by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists. Jung, however, offers a cogent explanation of spirit phenomena as manifestations of the unconscious. A concluding section suggests contributions to cultural psychiatry by Jung. PMID:12940643

  4. Text mining applications in psychiatry: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbe, Adeline; Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Falissard, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    The expansion of biomedical literature is creating the need for efficient tools to keep pace with increasing volumes of information. Text mining (TM) approaches are becoming essential to facilitate the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text. We reviewed the applications of TM in psychiatry, and explored its advantages and limitations. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. In this review, 1103 papers were screened, and 38 were included as applications of TM in psychiatric research. Using TM and content analysis, we identified four major areas of application: (1) Psychopathology (i.e. observational studies focusing on mental illnesses) (2) the Patient perspective (i.e. patients' thoughts and opinions), (3) Medical records (i.e. safety issues, quality of care and description of treatments), and (4) Medical literature (i.e. identification of new scientific information in the literature). The information sources were qualitative studies, Internet postings, medical records and biomedical literature. Our work demonstrates that TM can contribute to complex research tasks in psychiatry. We discuss the benefits, limits, and further applications of this tool in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26184780

  5. Locked doors in acute inpatient psychiatry: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, M; Bowers, L; Jones, J; Simpson, A; Haglund, K

    2009-04-01

    Many acute inpatient psychiatric wards in the UK are permanently locked, although this is contrary to the current Mental Health Act Code of Practice. To conduct a literature review of empirical articles concerning locked doors in acute psychiatric inpatient wards, an extensive literature search was performed in SAGE Journals Online, EBM Reviews, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, EMBASE Psychiatry, International Bibliography of the Social Sciences, Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google, using the search terms 'open$', 'close$', '$lock$', 'door', 'ward', 'hospital', 'psychiatr', 'mental health', 'inpatient' and 'asylum'. A total of 11 empirical papers were included in the review. Both staff and patients reported advantages (e.g. preventing illegal substances from entering the ward and preventing patients from absconding and harming themselves or others) and disadvantages (e.g. making patients feel depressed, confined and creating extra work for staff) regarding locked doors. Locked wards were associated with increased patient aggression, poorer satisfaction with treatment and more severe symptoms. The limited literature available showed the urgent need for research to determine the real effects of locked doors in inpatient psychiatry. PMID:19291159

  6. Therapeutic Misconception in Psychiatry Research: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Ivan Sk; Foo, Meng Yee; Sum, Min Yi; Capps, Benjamin; Lee, Tih-Shih; Ho, Calvin; Sim, Kang

    2016-02-29

    Therapeutic misconception (TM) denotes the phenomenon in which research subjects conflate research purpose, protocols and procedures with clinical treatment. We examined the prevalence, contributory factors, clinical associations, impact, and collated solutions on TM within psychiatric research, and made suggestions going ahead. Literature search for relevant empirical research papers was conducted until February 2015. Eighty-eight reports were extracted, of which 31 were selected, summarised into different headings for discussion of implications and collated solutions of TM. We found variable and high rates of TM (ranging from 12.5% to 86%) in some psychiatry research populations. Contributory factors to TM included perceived medical roles of researchers, media, research setting and subject factors. Greater TM in affective, neurodevelopmental and psychotic spectrum conditions were associated with demographic variables (such as lower education, increased age), clinical factors (such as poor insight, cognitive deficits, increased symptoms, poorer self-rated quality of health), and social functioning (such as decreased independence). Inattention to TM may lead to frustration, negative impression and abandonment of participation in psychiatry research. Strategies such as the employment of a neutral educator during the informed consent process and education modules may be effective in addressing TM. Further research is warranted to examine the different TM facets, specific clinical correlates and more effective management strategies. PMID:26792036

  7. Application of functional near-infrared spectroscopy in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Schneider, Sabrina; Dresler, Thomas; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-15

    Two decades ago, the introduction of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) into the field of neuroscience created new opportunities for investigating neural processes within the human cerebral cortex. Since then, fNIRS has been increasingly used to conduct functional activation studies in different neuropsychiatric disorders, most prominently schizophrenic illnesses, affective disorders and developmental syndromes, such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as well as normal and pathological aging. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of state of the art fNIRS research in psychiatry covering a wide range of applications, including studies on the phenomenological characterization of psychiatric disorders, descriptions of life-time developmental aspects, treatment effects, and genetic influences on neuroimaging data. Finally, methodological shortcomings as well as current research perspectives and promising future applications of fNIRS in psychiatry are discussed. We conclude that fNIRS is a valid addition to the range of neuroscientific methods available to assess neural mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders. Future research should particularly focus on expanding the presently used activation paradigms and cortical regions of interest, while additionally fostering technical and methodological advances particularly concerning the identification and removal of extracranial influences on fNIRS data as well as systematic artifact correction. Eventually, fNIRS might be a useful tool in practical psychiatric settings involving both diagnostics and the complementary treatment of psychological disorders using, for example, neurofeedback applications. PMID:23578578

  8. The history of modern psychiatry in India, 1858-1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents an introduction to the history of Indian psychiatry. It suggests that this history can be divided into four main periods, 1795 to 1857, 1858 to 1914, 1914 to 1947 and 1947 to the present day. The focus of the piece is on the periods 1858-1914 and 1914-1947, as it traces the main trends and developments of the colonial era and argues that the foundations of modern psychiatry in India were laid down in the period of British rule. A brief consideration of the post-Independence period suggests that the patterns established in the years of British rule have continued to influence the psychiatric system of modern India. Research for these conclusions is based on extensive archival work in Indian mental health institutions and in Indian records offices, as well as work conducted at the National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh and at the India Office Library, the Wellcome Institute Library and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. PMID:11951867

  9. Placebo eff ects in psychiatry: mediators and moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Katja; Colloca, Luana; Enck, Paul

    2015-03-01

    A strong placebo response in psychiatric disorders has been noted for the past 50 years and various attempts have been made to identify predictors of it, by use of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials and laboratory studies. We reviewed 31 meta-analyses and systematic reviews of more than 500 randomised placebo-controlled trials across psychiatry (depression, schizophrenia, mania, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, psychosis, binge-eating disorder, and addiction) for factors identified to be associated with increased placebo response. Of 20 factors discussed, only three were often linked to high placebo responses: low baseline severity of symptoms, more recent trials, and unbalanced randomisation (more patients randomly assigned to drug than placebo). Randomised controlled trials in non-drug therapy have not added further predictors, and laboratory studies with psychological, brain, and genetic approaches have not been successful in identifying predictors of placebo responses. This comprehensive Review suggests that predictors of the placebo response are still to be discovered, the response probably has more than one mediator, and that different and distinct moderators are probably what cause the placebo response within psychiatry and beyond. PMID:25815249

  10. Can Interoception Improve the Pragmatic Search for Biomarkers in Psychiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sahib S; Lapidus, Rachel C

    2016-01-01

    Disrupted interoception is a prominent feature of the diagnostic classification of several psychiatric disorders. However, progress in understanding the interoceptive basis of these disorders has been incremental, and the application of interoception in clinical treatment is currently limited to panic disorder. To examine the degree to which the scientific community has recognized interoception as a construct of interest, we identified and individually screened all articles published in the English language on interoception and associated root terms in Pubmed, Psychinfo, and ISI Web of Knowledge. This search revealed that interoception is a multifaceted process that is being increasingly studied within the fields of psychiatry, psychology, neuroscience, and biomedical science. To illustrate the multifaceted nature of interoception, we provide a focused review of one of the most commonly studied interoceptive channels, the cardiovascular system, and give a detailed comparison of the most popular methods used to study cardiac interoception. We subsequently review evidence of interoceptive dysfunction in panic disorder, depression, somatic symptom disorders, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia nervosa. For each disorder, we suggest how interoceptive predictions constructed by the brain may erroneously bias individuals to express key symptoms and behaviors, and outline questions that are suitable for the development of neuroscience-based mental health interventions. We conclude that interoception represents a viable avenue for clinical and translational research in psychiatry, with a well-established conceptual framework, a neural basis, measurable biomarkers, interdisciplinary appeal, and transdiagnostic targets for understanding and improving mental health outcomes. PMID:27504098

  11. Psychiatry's Catch 22, Need For Precision, And Placing Schools In Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R

    2013-01-01

    The catch 22 situation in psychiatry is that for precise diagnostic categories/criteria, we need precise investigative tests, and for precise investigative tests, we need precise diagnostic criteria/categories; and precision in both diagnostics and investigative tests is nonexistent at present. The effort to establish clarity often results in a fresh maze of evidence. In finding the way forward, it is tempting to abandon the scientific method, but that is not possible, since we deal with real human psychopathology, not just concepts to speculate over. Search for clear-cut definitions/diagnostic criteria in psychiatry must be relentless. There is a greater need to be ruthless and blunt in this, rather than being accommodative of diverse opinions. Investigative tests - psychological, serum, CSF, or neuroimaging - are only corroborative at present; they need to become definitive. Medicalisation appears most prominent in psychiatry; so, diagnostic proliferation and fuzziness appear inevitable. And yet, the established diagnostic entities need to forward greater and conclusive precision. Also, the need for clarity and precision must outweigh pandering to and mollifying diverse interests, moreso in the upcoming revision of diagnostic manuals. This is specially because the DSM-5, being an Association manual, may need to accommodate powerful member lobbies; and ICD-11 may similarly need to cater to diverse country lobbies. Finding precise biological correlates of psychiatric phenomena, whether through neuroimaging, molecular neurobiology and/or neurogenomics, is the right way forward. It is in the 1.5-kg structure in the cranium that all secrets of psychiatric conditions lie. Social forces, behavioural modification, psychosocial restructuring, study of intrapsychic processes, and philosophical insights are not to be discounted, but they are supplementary to the primary goal - studying and deciphering those brain processes that result in psychiatric malfunction

  12. Medical students' views about an undergraduate curriculum in psychiatry before and after clinical placements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyebode Femi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that medical students wish to focus their learning in psychiatry on general skills that are applicable to all doctors. This study seeks to establish what aspects of psychiatry students perceive to be relevant to their future careers and what psychiatric knowledge and skills they consider to be important. It is relevant to consider whether these expectations about learning needs vary prior to and post-placement in psychiatry. To what extent these opinions should influence curriculum development needs to be assessed. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to medical students before they commenced their psychiatry placement and after they had completed it. The questionnaire considered the relevance of psychiatry to their future careers, the relevance of particular knowledge and skills, the utility of knowledge of psychiatric specialties and the utility of different settings for learning psychiatry. Results The students felt skills relevant to all doctors, such as assessment of suicide risk, were more important than more specialist psychiatric skills, such as the management of schizophrenia. They felt that knowledge of how psychiatric illnesses present in general practice was important and it was a useful setting in which to learn psychiatry. They thought that conditions that are commonly seen in the general hospital are important and that liaison psychiatry was useful. Conclusion Two ways that medical students believe their teaching can be made more relevant to their future careers are highlighted in this study. Firstly, there is a need to focus on scenarios which students will commonly encounter in their initial years of employment. Secondly, psychiatry should be better integrated into the overall curriculum, with the opportunity for teaching in different settings. However, when developing curricula the need to listen to what students believe they should learn needs to be balanced against the necessity of

  13. Innovative methods in teaching psychiatry to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lobo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: To test the conjecture that the innovative method to teach psychosomatic psychiatry previously reported will be confirmed as beneficial in the training of medical students in the field of general psychiatry. Methods: The emphasis in this course is placed on the discussion of clinical cases, bed-side clinical teaching, and a research-oriented part. The “Innovative Teaching Plan” (ITP is intended to train student-leaders to guide small groups (SG of students. The results of an intensive clerkship on bedside teaching are also studied. Trainee performance was assessed by the marks in the final examination, and a reliable and valid tool, the Medical Teaching Quality Questionnaire (MTQQ was used to document trainee satisfaction. The results of five academic courses are presented in this report. Results: External experts consulted assured that the content of the course was adequate. Eight hundred and thirty eight medical students have completed the learning course in the study period, and 418 (one of the two groups completed the evaluation with the MTQQ. Most items related to the students' satisfaction were rated “high” or “very high”, including the items asking about the usefulness of the course for physicians, the quality of the teaching methods and the bedside teaching. In relation to innovation, the discussion of clinical cases in small groups was also very satisfactory and the “enhancement of a researcher's mind” was rated “high” or “very high” by 1/3rd of medical students. The utility of the yearly evaluation of the quality of teaching methods was supported by results showing that items scored not favourably in the initial evaluation were considerably improved in the follow-up evaluations, when modifications in the method were introduced. Conclusions: Good performance and high satisfaction of medical students was documented in a course on general psychiatry. Lessons may be drawn to inform about

  14. The reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry, 1892-1954.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dalzell, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    This article draws on over 60 years of British medical journals and psychiatry textbooks to indicate the chronological stages of the reception of Eugen Bleuler in British psychiatry. Bleuler was already well known in Britain before his schizophrenia book appeared, with the journals containing numerous references, mainly positive, to his work. The psychiatry textbooks, however, were slower to integrate his contribution. This paper argues that this was not due to Bleuler\\'s placing Freud on a par with Kraepelin, but because of the early negative reaction to Kraepelin\\'s dementia praecox concept, despite Bleuler\\'s wider and less ominous conception of the illness.

  15. What attracts medical students towards psychiatry? A review of factors before and during medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Kitty; Lydall, Gregory J; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-08-01

    Potential psychiatrists decide on their careers before, during or after medical school. This article summarises the literature focusing on the first two groups. Pre-medical school factors associated with choosing psychiatry include gender, academic aptitude, ethnicity and migration, exposure to mental illness, economic considerations and medical school route and selection. Factors involved in influencing career choice at medical school level include attitudes towards psychiatry, teaching methods, quality and length of clinical exposure, electives and enrichment activities, and personality factors. Considering these factors may improve recruitment to psychiatry and address shortages in the speciality. PMID:24032490

  16. The naturalization of psychiatry in Indonesia and its interaction with indigenous therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Porath

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatry developed as a modern branch of medical knowledge in Western societies and arrived in Southeast Asia in the late nineteenth century. Dutch colonialism brought psychiatry and psychology to the Dutch East Indies as part of the development of European therapeutics in that part of the empire. During the twentieth century, psychiatry was naturalized in Indonesia (and other Southeast Asian countries and integrated into the national health care system. In the post-independence period, most Indonesian psychiatrists – there are currently about 450 – received training at Western universities and brought the knowledge of this subject back with them to their home country.

  17. Neuroscience in Psychiatry towards an integrative and personalized medicine in the DSM-V: a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Emmanuel Pérez Solís

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last Century the concept of health and, with it, medical science, has suffered a profound, conceptual and ontological change. However, this revolution has not reached, in the same way the field of mental health. In the next pages it will be shown, taking Major Depressive Disorder as a model, how it is possible and necessary, for the field ofpsychopathology (behavior and “mental” functions: rational, executive, cognitive, emotional, etc. the return to its medical origins, which will allow it to respond how the brain functions and its interactions with the rest of the organism and the environment, with the goal of obtaining patterns that will help us to define disease from an etiopathogenic point of view, so it would be possible to provide therapeutic options to theorgan in question. The time has come to ask if we have invented a science (psychiatry that has little to do with reality, and to answer that, the creation of multicentric data bases is proposed, in which biological (not just brain based, social, personal, clinical, etc. variables are integrated, to finally obtain correlations that allow us a reclassification of brain pathology that would be useful to offer integral and personalized treatments.

  18. Exposing the Expert Discourse in Psychiatry: A Critical Analysis of an Anti-Stigma/Mental Illness Awareness Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Daniel Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a situational analysis of a recent anti-stigma campaign in psychiatry (Defeat Denial: Help Defeat Mental Illness this paper seeks to engage with the reader on the use of an expert discourse that focuses on the brain and its disruption as a way to address stigma associated with mental illness. To begin, we briefly highlight key statistics regarding the impact of mental illness in Canada and introduce the concept of stigma. We then introduce the Defeat Denial media campaign and describe the analytical process employed for this paper - Situational Analysis with a specific focus on discourse. We then expand on the use of the expert discourse in the awareness campaign by making connections with Rose’s concept of biological citizen and, in the final sections, present recent studies on stigma that highlight the paradox and contested construction of the (biopsychiatric self

  19. [What do we call health and mental disorders in pediatrics? A reflexive outlook on the psychiatry diagnosis and its relation with the new subjetive theories in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Irene

    2011-10-01

    Conceptual basis for Infant and Juvenile Psychiatry are discussed taking into account the clear differences in the definition of Health and Mental Illness. It is emphasized that the mind is not simply a biological phenomenon and, thus, there is a need for assessment parameters that include subjective states, as well as a shift from lineal thoughts to complex forms that include the value of experience, fate, and event, amongst other ideas. This allows a change of perspective: the acknowledgement of the Positive Indicators of Mental Health and not only the absence of symptoms or disorders. PMID:22042071

  20. Informed Consent at Gunpoint: When Psychiatry Affects Gun Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candilis, Philip J; Khurana, Gagandeep; Leong, Gregory B; Weinstock, Robert

    2015-06-01

    As states take more steps to connect patients' gun ownership to their mental health, psychiatrists are being asked to provide mental health information after clinical interviews as well as after confiscation. This move into the patient-physician relationship raises new questions about how psychiatrists should obtain informed consent when interviews may result in reports to legal authorities. Consent warnings are already practiced more in the breach than in the observance and informed consent is imperfect at its best. In communities torn by controversies surrounding gun control, vehement political views will further influence these established themes to result in unprecedented pressures on patient confidentiality. This analysis draws on new movements in ethical theory and behavioral medicine that go beyond balancing principles to question the use of psychiatry in firearm reporting, and support a vigorous practice of informed consent to protect both individuals and the communities they live in. PMID:25640524

  1. Sleep hygiene use in a psychiatry outpatient setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, J

    2012-02-01

    Non-pharmacological measures are recommended prior to use of hypnotics in the latest NICE guidance. This study investigated if non-pharmacological measures are utilised prior to hypnotic prescribing in a general adult psychiatry outpatient setting, and further reviewed patient\\'s sleep quality following implementation of sleep hygiene education. Interviews were conducted with 85 patients, and poor adherence with NICE guidance was found among the 74 (87%) patients previously prescribed a hypnotic. Just five (6.8%) patients recalled use of non-pharmacological measures prior to hypnotic prescription, 47 (63.5%) indicated non-pharmacological measures had not been discussed, while a further 22 (29.7%) could not remember. Improvement in Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index scores following implementation of sleep hygiene education was also noted (P = 0.03). These findings suggest that increased awareness of sleep hygiene education for clinicians may be beneficial.

  2. Marginal revenue and length of stay in inpatient psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletscher, Mark

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the changes in marginal revenue during psychiatric inpatient stays in a large Swiss psychiatric hospital after the introduction of a mixed reimbursement system with tariff rates that vary over length of stay. A discrete time duration model with a difference-in-difference specification and time-varying coefficients is estimated to assess variations in policy effects over length of stay. Among patients whose costs are fully reimbursed by the mixed scheme, the model demonstrates a significant effect of marginal revenue on length of stay. No significant policy effects are found among patients for whom only health insurance rates are delivered as mixed tariffs and government contributions are made retrospectively. The results indicate that marginal revenue can affect length of stay in inpatient psychiatry facilities, but that the reduction in marginal revenue must be sufficiently large. PMID:26445962

  3. The Potential Utility of Pharmacogenetic Testing in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn R. Gardner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, pharmacogenetics has become increasingly significant to clinical practice. Psychiatric patients, in particular, may benefit from pharmacogenetic testing as many of the psychotropic medications prescribed in practice lead to varied response rates and a wide range of side effects. The use of pharmacogenetic testing can help tailor psychotropic treatment and inform personalized treatment plans with the highest likelihood of success. Recently, many studies have been published demonstrating improved patient outcomes and decreased healthcare costs for psychiatric patients who utilize genetic testing. This review will describe evidence supporting the clinical utility of genetic testing in psychiatry, present several case studies to demonstrate use in everyday practice, and explore current patient and clinician opinions of genetic testing.

  4. [Anankastic phenomena in psychiatry (predestination and dace in mental life)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Malpica, Carlos Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to compare behavioral mineralization occurring in mental illness to the freshness and plasticity behavior in health. The epistemological fundamentals of this paper include the theories of chaos and complexity of Edgar Morin, the concept of autopoiesis developed from the theory of systems, the latest discoveries on the neurobiology of consciousness and their associations with Darwinian psychiatry and also, following Lain Entralgo, recreating the Greek concept of ananke to describe the behavior fixation in an anachronistic place of the physis in mental illness. It provides some empirical evidence to support the proposal, and all this is rigorously examined with hermeneutic phenomenology and its theoretical possibilities. This leads to an epistemological rethinking of clinical and therapeutic proposal aimed at the subject and the recovery of his or her freedom. PMID:24294723

  5. [The frontiers of 'abnormality': psychiatry and social control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, M G

    1998-01-01

    The article examines some of the main aspects governing psychiatry's role in the Brazilian political and social context at the close of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth. It analyzes certain themes - civilization, race, labor, fanaticism, political dissent, sexuality - that were emphasized by specialists in their construction of a very broad notion of 'mental illness'. Through the analysis of texts produced by psychiatrists and legal experts (including dissertations written at the Faculdade de Medicina do Rio de Janeiro, reports from the Serviço de Assistência a Alienados, and works and articles by specialists), the relation between the psychiatric definition of the frontiers of 'abnormality' and efforts to implement new strategies of social control is discussed. PMID:16676447

  6. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-01-01

    , and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical......This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations...... anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research...

  7. Cross-Sector Problems of Collaboration in Psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Elisabeth Naima; Petersen, Anne; Lyager Kaae, Anne Marie;

    2013-01-01

    community-based services. Results: Staff and management experiencing cross-sector problems of collaboration point to ineffective coordination of services between systems and lack of mutual understanding of how systems other than the staffs’ own systems work. Solutions include specific procedural changes......Introduction: Some mental health service users need support from both hospital-based and community-based services. Treatment requires well-functioning collaboration practices between different mental health organizations and professions. However, serious cross-sector problems of collaboration have...... during service users’ admission to and discharge from hospital and during hospitalization and measures to increase cross-sector know­ledge about each system’s practices and methods. Conclusion: Improvement of cross-sector collaboration in psychiatry should take the form of a multi-faceted approach...

  8. Globalization of psychiatry - a barrier to mental health development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Suman

    2014-10-01

    The concept of globalization has been applied recently to ways in which mental health may be developed in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), sometimes referred to as the 'Third World' or developing countries. This paper (1) describes the roots of psychiatry in western culture and its current domination by pharmacological therapies; (2) considers the history of mental health in LMICs, focusing on many being essentially non-western in cultural background with a tradition of using a plurality of systems of care and help for mental health problems, including religious and indigenous systems of medicine; and (3) concludes that in a post-colonial world, mental health development in LMICs should not be left to market forces, which are inevitably manipulated by the interests of multinational corporations mostly located in ex-colonizing countries, especially the pharmaceutical companies. PMID:25343630

  9. Beyond categorical diagnostics in psychiatry: Scientific and medicolegal implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anckarsäter, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Conforming to a medical disease model rooted in phenomenology and natural science, psychiatry classifies mental disorders according to signs and symptoms considered to be stable and homogeneous across individuals. Scientific studies addressing the validity of this classification are scarce. Following a seminal paper by Robins and Guze in 1970, validity of categories has been sought in specific criteria referring to symptoms and prognosis, aggregation in families, and "markers", preferentially laboratory tests. There is, however, a growing misfit between the model and empirical findings from studies putting it to the test. Diagnostic categories have not been shown to represent natural groups delineated from the normal variation or from each other. Aetiological factors (genetic and/or environmental), laboratory aberrations, and treatment effects do not respect categorical boundaries. A more adequate description of mental problems may be achieved by: 1) a clear definition of the epistemological frame in which psychiatry operates, 2) a basic rating of the severity of intra- and interpersonal dysfunctions, and 3) empirical comparisons to complementary rather than exclusive dimensions of inter-individual differences in context-specific mental functions, treatment effects, and laboratory findings. Such a pluralistic understanding of mental health problems would fit empirical models in the neurosciences and postmodern notions of subjectivity alike. It would also clarify the assessment of dysfunction and background factors in relation to the requisites for penal law exemptions or insurance policies and make them empirically testable rather than dependent on expert opinion on issues such as whether a specific dysfunction is "psychiatric", "medical", or ascribable to "personality". PMID:20080303

  10. Working towards a new psychiatry - neuroscience, technology and the DSM-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Sabina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This Editorial introduces the thematic series on 'Toward a New Psychiatry: Philosophical and Ethical Issues in Classification, Diagnosis and Care' http://www.biomedcentral.com/series/newpsychiatry.

  11. The Supreme Court of Canada Ruling on Physician-Assisted Death: Implications for Psychiatry in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Olivia Anne

    2015-12-01

    On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the prohibition of physician-assisted death (PAD) was unconstitutional for a competent adult person who "clearly consents to the termination of life" and has a "grievous and irremediable (including an illness, disease, or disability) condition that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition." The radically subjective nature of this ruling raises important questions about who will be involved and how this practice might be regulated. This paper aims to stimulate discussion about psychiatry's role in this heretofore illegal practice and to explore how psychiatry might become involved in end-of-life care in a meaningful, patient-centred way. First, I will review existing international legislation and professional regulatory standards regarding psychiatry and PAD. Second, I will discuss important challenges psychiatry might face regarding capacity assessment, the notion of rational suicide, and the assessment of suffering. PMID:26720829

  12. Using participatory design to develop structured training in child and adolescent psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Deborah J; Ringsted, Charlotte; Bonde, Mie;

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Learning during residency in child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) is primarily work-based and has traditionally been opportunistic. There are increasing demands from both postgraduate trainees and medical organisations for structured programmes with defined learning outcomes. OBJECTIVES...

  13. Mental Health promotion of a hospital through the nurse in the liaison psychiatry team

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Cámara Conde; Julián Carretero Román; Ángela García Pozo; Marta Menéndez Rubiera; Javier Sánchez Alfonso; Nuria Sekade Gutiérrez

    2008-01-01

    We show a proposal to increase the quality of nursing cares, improving mental health care of hospitalized patients by creating the figure of the liaison nurse within the liaison psychiatry team. This nurse would not only be a reference to support the nursing staff at the level of patient care, but also the psycho-emotional self-care professional.Objectives: Justifying the need to include the figure of the specialist mental health team liaison psychiatry nurse. Method: The rotation as resident...

  14. Music Therapy as Psychotherapy in Psychiatry at all Levels of the GAF Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    Presentation and disussion on how to apply different music therapy methods and techniques in psychiatry at different levels of the GAF (Global Functioning Scoring system) scale described in combination with McGlashan's relational process levels and other therapeutic principles as illustrated in 5...... books on 'relational treatment in psychiatry' by Lars Thorgaard (DK) and Ejvind Haga (N). Is music therapy as psychotherapy applicable also at the lower GAF scorings? Which methods/techniques?...

  15. Problem-solving strategies in psychiatry: differences between experts and novices in diagnostic accuracy and reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel A; Violato C

    2013-01-01

    Adel Gabriel,1,2 Claudio Violato21Departments of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary; 2Medical Education, Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary Calgary, CanadaBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare diagnostic success and its relationship with the diagnostic reasoning process between novices and experts in psychiatry.Methods: Nine volunteers, comprising five expert psychiatrists and four clinical clerks, completed a think-aloud protocol while attempt...

  16. WPA guidance on how to combat stigmatization of psychiatry and psychiatrists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sartorius, Norman; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Cleveland, Helen-Rose;

    2010-01-01

    psychiatrists of the general public, of students of medicine, of health professionals other than psychiatrists and of persons with mental illness and their families. It also reviewed the evidence about the interventions that have been undertaken to combat stigma and consequent discrimination and made a series...... prevention of stigmatization of psychiatry, stressing the need to develop a respectful relationship with patients, to strictly observe ethical rules in the practice of psychiatry and to maintain professional competence....

  17. Educational needs assessment for psychiatry residents to prevent suicide: A qualitative approach

    OpenAIRE

    Majid Barekatain; Mahin Aminoroaia; Seyed Mehdi Ardestani Samimi; Fatemeh Rajabi; Abbas Attari

    2013-01-01

    Background: Suicide is a commonly encountered and stressful event in professional life of any psychiatrist. Suicide risk assessment is a major gateway to patient treatment and management. It is a core competency requirement in training of psychiatry. The present study designed to assesseducational needsfor suicide prevention in residents of psychiatry in two medical schools in Iran, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) and Shahid Beheshti Medical University (SBUMS) inTehran. Meth...

  18. Simulation-based learning in psychiatry for undergraduates at the University of Zimbabwe medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Piette, A.; Muchirahondo, F; Mangezi, W; Iversen, A.; Cowan, F; Dube, M; Peterkin, HG; Araya, R.; Abas, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of simulated patients to teach in psychiatry has not been reported from low-income countries. This is the first study using simulation teaching in psychiatry in Africa. The aim of this study was to introduce a novel method of psychiatric teaching to medical students at the University of Zimbabwe and assess its feasibility and preliminary effectiveness. We selected depression to simulate because students in Zimbabwe are most likely to see cases of psychoses during their war...

  19. Fourth revolution in psychiatry – Addressing comorbidity with chronic physical disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Shiv

    2010-01-01

    The moral treatment of mental patients, Electro Convulsive therapy (ECT), and Psychotropic medications constitute the first, second, and third revolution in psychiatry, respectively. Addressing comorbidities of mental illnesses with chronic physical illnesses will be the fourth revolution in psychiatry. Mind and body are inseparable; there is a bidirectional relationship between psyche and soma, each influencing the other. Plausible biochemical explanations are appearing at an astonishing rat...

  20. Relationship between practice counselling and referral to outpatient psychiatry and clinical psychology.

    OpenAIRE

    Cape, J; Parham, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although reduction in the use of secondary care mental health services is a suggested benefit of counselling in general practice, there has been little empirical investigation of this relationship. AIM: To investigate the relationship between the provision of counselling in general practice and the use of outpatient psychiatry and clinical psychology services across a geographical area. METHOD: Information on referrals to outpatient psychiatry and clinical psychology from all gene...

  1. Ethical perspectives on managed care as it relates to child and adolescent psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraty, R D; Hendren, R L; Flaa, C J

    1992-05-01

    Managed health care is providing an increasing influence in the way child and adolescent psychiatry is practiced. The goals of managed care have been to manage price, service, and quality. As external forces are brought to bear on child and adolescent psychiatry, ethical and legal dilemmas are faced. Underlying principles and the impact of society force physicians to reexamine their values and reeducate themselves about legal developments. PMID:1592769

  2. Associations between dimensions of religious commitment and mental health reported in the American Journal of Psychiatry and Archives of General Psychiatry: 1978-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, D B; Sherrill, K A; Lyons, J S; Craigie, F C; Thielman, S B; Greenwold, M A; Larson, S S

    1992-04-01

    The authors assessed all measures of religious commitment (N = 139) reported in research studies published in the American Journal of Psychiatry and Archives of General Psychiatry in 1978 through 1989 (N less than 35). For nearly two-thirds of the measures, the studies either made no hypotheses or reported no results concerning the relationship of religious commitment to mental health status. For the great majority of the measures assessed, the studies reported a positive relationship between religious commitment and mental health. PMID:1532477

  3. SIX DECADES OF THE PULA NEUROPSYCHIATRIC MEETINGS--FROM NEUROPSYCHIATRY TO BORDERLANDS OF NEUROLOGY AND PSYCHIATRY BRAIN AND MIND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Bosko; Demarin, Vida

    2015-12-01

    goals of medicine. Medicine, as science and practice, although founded on biological grounds, is primarily a human activity serving to individual man and the whole human race. Modern neurology and psychiatry are no longer restricted to diagnosing and curing brain and nerves or psychiatric disorders, and are nowadays important as a science of human mind and discipline caring about the human brain, the complex organ of each individual man, collective human consciousness and our mental life. Such atmosphere contributed to the fall of the totalitarian, narrow-minded political, ideological or nationalistic thinking, aiming to tolerance and humane democratic developments in the united Europe and the preparation for peaceful living of various nations, races, religions and viewpoints in the 21st century. PMID:27017726

  4. Comparison of the number of supervisors on medical student satisfaction during a child and adolescent psychiatry rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Mascioli, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Kelly J Mascioli,1 Catharine J Robertson,1,2 Alan B Douglass1,31Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre, University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, Ottawa, ON, Canada Background: Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Howe...

  5. Comparison of the number of supervisors on medical student satisfaction during a child and adolescent psychiatry rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Mascioli KJ; Robertson CJ; Douglass AB

    2016-01-01

    Kelly J Mascioli,1 Catharine J Robertson,1,2 Alan B Douglass1,31Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre, University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, Ottawa, ON, Canada Background: Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. However,...

  6. Choice and rejection of psychiatry as a career: surveys of UK medical graduates from 1974 to 2009†

    OpenAIRE

    Goldacre, Michael J; Fazel, Seena; Smith, Fay; Lambert, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Background Recruitment of adequate numbers of doctors to psychiatry is difficult. Aims To report on career choice for psychiatry, comparing intending psychiatrists with doctors who chose other clinical careers. Method Questionnaire studies of all newly qualified doctors from all UK medical schools in 12 qualification years between 1974 and 2009 (33 974 respondent doctors). Results One, three and five years after graduation, 4–5% of doctors specified psychiatry as their first choice of future ...

  7. [A role of Russian psychiatrists in the formation of forensic psychiatry in Russia in the beginning of XIX century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchasniy, K V

    2016-01-01

    The formation of forensic psychiatry knowledge as a special area of concern was due to fundamental changes in the social, economic and political life of Russia society. It reflected public awareness of the urgent need in solving the problem of support, preserve and maintain the mental health of the people. Forensic psychiatry was based on the development of psychiatry, public health and community medicine. Author describes of the role of Russian psychiatrists in the formation of forensic psychiatry, their active particitpation in internation professional meetings and in the development of the problem of responsibility. PMID:26977630

  8. Un marco de referencia nuevo para la psiquiatría: la mente encuentra al cerebro. I. Los fundamentos científicos y humanos A New Framework for Psychiatry: Mind Meets Brain. I. Scientific and Human Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Figueroa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Los artículos de Kandel "Un marco de referencia intelectual nuevo para la psiquiatría" y "La biología y el futuro del psicoanálisis: un marco de referencia nuevo para el psicoanálisis reconsiderado" son un intento de ubicar a la psiquiatría en el contexto de la biología moderna concerniente a las relaciones entre mente y cerebro. Objetivo. Revisar las interpretaciones de Kandel sobre la naturaleza del hombre y la psiquiatría académica. Método. Preguntar por el lugar en que se originan los conceptos de "mente y cerebro", es decir, el proyecto elaborado previamente que permite tomar a los entes como objetos para la ciencia. Resultados. La psiquiatría sólo encuentra lo que admite su tipo de representación previamente como un objeto posible, o sea, Yo, sujeto, persona, conciencia, hombre. Aun la concepción metafísica del hombre como animal racional fracasa en considerar la relación de la esencia del hombre con el ser. Es esta comprensión del ser que para Heidegger caracteriza más profundamente al hombre: el Dasein (Ser-ahí. La esencia del Dasein radica en su existencia. Conclusiones. La psiquiatría como ciencia siempre parte de presupuestos que la psiquiatría misma no puede nunca justificar científicamente. La psiquiatría hace aparecer al hombre sólo en ese tipo de objetividad que está constituida y mantenida por variadas objetivaciones científicas.Background. Eric Kandel´s "A new intellectual framework for psychiatry" and "Biology and the future of psychoanalysis: a new intellectual framework for psychiatry revisited" are attempts to place psychiatry into the context of modern biology concerning the relationship of mind and brain. Objective. In a two-part series, Kandel´s interpretations of the nature of man and the academic psychiatry are reviewed. Method. To inquire into the realm in which "mind and brain" originates, i.e., the project conceived beforehand that allows to take beings as objects for science

  9. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries. PMID:24301661

  10. Innovative practices in Psychiatry. Argentina, 1960-1970

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Alejandra Golcman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes innovative psychiatric practices that took place in Argentina during the sixties and seventies at the Hospital Jose Esteves in the province of Buenos Aires. Objective: To present the coexistence of different paradigms related to mental health in the same institution and to analyze the complexities generated by this scenario. Methodology: This study uses primary sources in the form of medical records of patients admitted to the hospital between 1960 and 1979. The medical records were cross-referenced with publications of newspapers and magazines of the time. Results: The analysis shows that the political environment during the era of military dictatorship —characterized by ideological persecution and the inhibition of political expression— influenced the development of innovative psychiatric practices. At the same time, instances of anti-Semitism and ideological persecution among health workers affected therapeutic approaches. Conclusions: While the introduction of innovative practices in mental health led to some resistance among the more orthodox psychiatrists, the presence of different paradigms shows a plan, both political and professional, to transform psychiatry and admission policy in Argentina.

  11. Biomedical psychiatry and its concealed metaphors: an anthropological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernáez, Angel

    2013-09-01

    The idea that power relations structure social life is self-evident to most anthropologists. Western medical knowledge or biomedicine, and by extension science or scientific knowledge, however, has until relatively recently been exempt from anthropological scrutiny in political terms. An understanding of biomedicine as a system of knowledge that is not a copy of facts but a representation of them has entailed a break with the traditional separation of folk knowledge and scientific knowledge in anthropology, making it possible to include biomedicine in the repertoire of ethnographic objects. The peculiarity of biomedicine as a cultural system, seen from this perspective, lies in a paradox: its self-characterization as a set of non-ideological discourses and practices is a representation that conceals its ideological and power-saturated nature. Through an analysis of DSM-IV-TR, this article explores some of the representational strategies through which this concealment takes place in biomedical psychiatry: the asocial and universal character of mental illness categories; the neutrality of clinical practice; and the non-moral nature of clinical criteria and judgment. These are concealed metaphors in the true sense, for not only do they speak of something without naming it but they also deny their own existence as metaphors. PMID:24308254

  12. Psychiatry, German society, and the Nazi "euthanasia" programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Michael

    1994-08-01

    The paper begins by establishing the position of psychiatry after the First World War, concentrating upon the interplay between economy measures and limited reform during the Weimar Republic. Each therapeutic advance involved the definition of irremediable subgroups within the already socially marginalized psychiatric constituency. Nazi policy towards psychiatric patients during the 1930s involved further economy measures, and the introduction of negative eugenic strategies, were similar in kind if not degree, to those pursued in some other countries at that time. The decision to kill the mentally ill and physically disabled was taken by Hitler in order to clear the decks for war, and was justified with the aid of crude utilitarian arguments, as well as what limited evidence there was regarding popular attitudes on these issues. Many health professionals and psychiatrists accommodated themselves to policies which a few years later became one of the components of the 'Final Solution of the Jewish Question', i.e. Hitler's vengeance against the Jewish people in circumstances of war he had envisaged much earlier. PMID:11645892

  13. Quality of education at multidisciplinary case conferences in psychiatry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naughton, Marie

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: A large Dublin-based teaching hospital facilitates a weekly Psychiatric Case Presentation meeting, which is relatively unique in medicine and even in psychiatry, in that there is a large variety of attendees from various multidisciplinary groups: consultant psychiatrists, psychiatric trainees, nurses, psychologists and psychoanalytic psychotherapists, occupational therapists, social workers and pastoral care staff. The aim of this audit is to assess the quality of education for members of different disciplines at these meetings, and to highlight the differing learning needs of the attendees. DESIGN\\/METHODOLOGY\\/APPROACH: Group-structured assessments and Likert scale questionnaires were used to identify what attendees thought were educational and what needed to be improved. FINDINGS: Overall, the case conference is educationally worthwhile but there were several areas of dissatisfaction. Some felt that the case conference was overly medical in its orientation and that there was excessive medical jargon. The seating arrangements were not conducive to group discussion. Consultants and psychiatric trainees felt that the quality of the clinical presentations could be improved. Presentation skills teaching classes and topic-based classes would be useful inclusions. Feedback to the multidisciplinary group on the patients\\' progress and feedback to the patient is important. Changes were implemented in areas of dissatisfaction, and these changes evaluated. ORIGINALITY\\/VALUE: The educational qualities of multidisciplinary Case Conferences need to be constantly evaluated to ensure that the learning needs of the different disciplines who attend are being met.

  14. The role of the standard EEG in clinical psychiatry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S S

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The EEG is a commonly requested test on patients attending psychiatric services, predominantly to investigate for a possible organic brain syndrome causing behavioural changes. AIMS: To assess referrals for EEG from psychiatric services in comparison with those from other sources. We determine which clinical factors were associated with an abnormal EEG in patients referred from psychiatric sources. METHODS: A retrospective review of EEG requests in a 1-year period was performed. Analysis of referral reasons for psychiatric patients was undertaken, and outcome of patients referred from psychiatric services post-EEG was reviewed. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred and seventy EEGs were reviewed, of which 91 (6.2%) were referred from psychiatry. Neurology service referrals had detection rates of abnormal EEGs of 27%, with psychiatric referrals having the lowest abnormality detection rate of 17.6% (p < 0.1). In psychiatric-referred patients the only significant predictors found of an abnormal EEG were a known history of epilepsy (p < 0.001), being on clozapine (p < 0.05), and a possible convulsive seizure (RR = 6.51). Follow-up data of 53 patients did not reveal a significant clinical impact of EEG results on patient management. CONCLUSIONS: Many patients are referred for EEG from psychiatric sources despite a relatively low index of suspicion of an organic brain disorders, based on reasons for referral documented, with an unsurprising low clinical yield.

  15. The neuroscience of free will: implications for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, J M

    2014-09-01

    Belief in free will has been a mainstay in philosophy throughout history, grounded in large part in our intuitive sense that we consciously control our actions and could have done otherwise. However, psychology and psychiatry have long sought to uncover mechanistic explanations for human behavior that challenge the notion of free will. In recent years, neuroscientific discoveries have produced a model of volitional behavior that is at odds with the notion of contra-causal free will and our sense of conscious agency. Volitional behavior instead appears to have antecedents in unconscious brain activity that is localizable to specific neuroanatomical structures. Updating notions of free will in favor of a continuous model of volitional self-control provides a useful paradigm to conceptualize and study some forms of psychopathology such as addiction and impulse control disorders. Similarly, thinking of specific symptoms of schizophrenia as disorders of agency may help to elucidate mechanisms of psychosis. Beyond clinical understanding and etiological research, a neuroscientific model of volitional behavior has the potential to modernize forensic notions of responsibility and criminal punishment in order to inform public policy. Ultimately, moving away from the language of free will towards the language of volitional control may result in an enhanced understanding of the very nature of ourselves. PMID:24330830

  16. Causality in Psychiatry: A Hybrid Symptom Network Construct Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Causality or etiology in psychiatry is marked by standard biomedical, reductionistic models (symptoms reflect the construct involved) that inform approaches to nosology, or classification, such as in the DSM-5 [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; (1)]. However, network approaches to symptom interaction [i.e., symptoms are formative of the construct; e.g., (2), for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] are being developed that speak to bottom-up processes in mental disorder, in contrast to the typical top-down psychological construct approach. The present article presents a hybrid top-down, bottom-up model of the relationship between symptoms and mental disorder, viewing symptom expression and their causal complex as a reciprocally dynamic system with multiple levels, from lower-order symptoms in interaction to higher-order constructs affecting them. The hybrid model hinges on good understanding of systems theory in which it is embedded, so that the article reviews in depth non-linear dynamical systems theory (NLDST). The article applies the concept of emergent circular causality (3) to symptom development, as well. Conclusions consider that symptoms vary over several dimensions, including: subjectivity; objectivity; conscious motivation effort; and unconscious influences, and the degree to which individual (e.g., meaning) and universal (e.g., causal) processes are involved. The opposition between science and skepticism is a complex one that the article addresses in final comments. PMID:26635639

  17. The 3 D's of geriatric psychiatry: depression, delirium, and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharia, Sheetal; Verilla, Kailen; Breden, Ericka L

    2011-08-01

    A Caucasian female octogenarian with multiple medical problems was admitted to the inpatient geriatric psychiatry unit with intermittent altered mental status and decline in memory. She had been hospitalized four times in the previous three months. She was admitted on more than 10 medications and received more than 20 different medications in this time period. It was determined that she had delirium concurrent with dementia and/or depression. During her hospital stay a urinary tract infection (UTI) was treated, her anticholinergic medications were minimized, and her digoxin dose was adjusted. As her mental status cleared, a workup was completed to differentiate between dementia and depression. She was initially treated with memantine, but as time progressed it became more evident she was experiencing depression and a "pseudodementia," which was treated with sertraline. Her Mini-Mental State Examination returned to 29/30 (her score previously was 26/29). This case demonstrates the complexity of treating an elder individual and the importance of differentiating among delirium, depression, and dementia. The pharmacy team played an active role in medication reconciliation. Additionally, they worked with the medical team to minimize her potentially harmful medications and optimize the treatment of her UTI and depression. PMID:21840820

  18. Functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology. 2. rev. and upd. ed.; Funktionelle MRT in Psychiatrie und Neurologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Frank [Universitaetsklinikum Aachen (Germany); Fink, Gereon R. (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Uniklinik Koeln (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    The book on functional MRT in psychiatry and neurology covers the following topics: (I) Fundamentals: functional neuro-anatomy, fundamentals of NMR imaging, basic research on the clinical use for diagnostics and therapy; basics of morphometry; real-time fMRT, planning and execution of experimental paradigms; data analysis and statistics; reliability and quality of fMRT experiments; eye movement, neuropharmacologic functional imaging, gender dependent effects, age dependent effects, resting state fMRT; meta analyses. (II) Higher brain achievements: movement and action, perception and attention, visual system and object processing, auditory system, executive functions, somatosensoric system, memory, learning and gratification system, functional neuro-anatomy of speech, number processing and calculation, connectivity, social cognition, emotions, olfactory system, functional imaging in the pain research. (III) Disease pattern: dystonia, Parkinson syndrome, Chorea Huntington, aphasia, apraxia, neglect, amnesia, function recovery following apoplexy, schizophrenia, affective disturbances, anxiety and fear, post-traumatic disturbances, hyperactivity syndrome, personality disorder. (IV) Working tools: brain atlas, tool for integrated analyses of structure, functionality and connectivity (SPM anatomy toolbox).

  19. The Third Revolution: Philosophy into Practice in Twenty-first Century Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KWM (Bill Fulford

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three revolutions in psychiatry characterised the closing decade of the twentieth century: 1 in the neurosciences, 2 in patient-centred models of service delivery, and 3 in the emergence of a rapidly expanding new cross-disciplinary field of philosophy and psychiatry. Starting with a case history, the paper illustrates the impact of this third revolution - the new philosophy of psychiatry - on day-to-day clinical practice through training programmes and policy developments in what has become known as values-based practice. Derived from philosophical value theory and phenomenology, values-based practice is a partner to evidence-based practice in supporting clinical decision-making in the highly complex environment of mental health care. The paper concludes by setting values-based practice in context with other potentially practical important areas of the new philosophy of psychiatry arguing that all three revolutions need to be brought together if psychiatry is to meet the challenges of the twenty-first century.

  20. A comparative study of attitudes toward psychiatry among nursing students across successive training years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Psychiatry nurses are an integral component of a multidisciplinary mental health-care team. Aim: The current study aimed at understanding the attitude of undergraduate nursing students toward psychiatry. Additionally, the attitudes toward psychiatry have been compared across the training years among these students. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out at a tertiary care nurse-training institute. All the nursing students enrolled with the institute at the time of the study constituted the sample frame. The study questionnaire used in the current study was a 29-item questionnaire that assessed attitudes toward psychiatry. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed using SPSS ver 17. Results: Overall, the majority of the nursing students from all four groups had a favorable response to the statements of the Likert scale. Most of the significantly positive responses (as assessed by the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance of the rank order were from the third-year and internship students. These findings were supported by the significant correlation between these statements and ranked order of the nurse-training years. Conclusions: The findings of the current study present some interesting insights into the attitude of nursing students toward psychiatry.

  1. EPA guidance on how to improve the image of psychiatry and of the psychiatrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhugra, D; Sartorius, N; Fiorillo, A; Evans-Lacko, S; Ventriglio, A; Hermans, M H M; Vallon, P; Dales, J; Racetovic, G; Samochowiec, J; Roca Bennemar, M; Becker, T; Kurimay, T; Gaebel, W

    2015-03-01

    Stigma against mental illness and the mentally ill is well known. However, stigma against psychiatrists and mental health professionals is known but not discussed widely. Public attitudes and also those of other professionals affect recruitment into psychiatry and mental health services. The reasons for this discriminatory attitude are many and often not dissimilar to those held against mentally ill individuals. In this Guidance paper we present some of the factors affecting the image of psychiatry and psychiatrists which is perceived by the public at large. We look at the portrayal of psychiatry, psychiatrists in the media and literature which may affect attitudes. We also explore potential causes and explanations and propose some strategies in dealing with negative attitudes. Reduction in negative attitudes will improve recruitment and retention in psychiatry. We recommend that national psychiatric societies and other stakeholders, including patients, their families and carers, have a major and significant role to play in dealing with stigma, discrimination and prejudice against psychiatry and psychiatrists. PMID:25735809

  2. História dos tratamentos biológicos Biologicals treatments's history

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    Sérgio Paulo Rigonatti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: Trata-se de uma discussão de como surgiram os tratamentos biológicos no decorrer da história da psiquiatria.Context: It's about a discussion on how begun the biological treatment throughout Psychiatry History.

  3. MSM Book Review: OXFORD TEXTBOOK OF PHILOSOPHY AND PSYCHIATRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit V. Bhide

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This tome was passed on to me by a dear old classmate, now a psychiatrist in Canada, who attended the last Annual Conference of the Indian Psychiatric Society (ANCIPS 2007, with a smirk and a whisper, "Here, you might want to get started on weightlifting at least now!" Her whisper was not merely for dramatic effect; she was clearly out of breath, wielding the heavy volume, a freebie from the conference that I was unable to attend.Weighty it is indeed; and for those who relish intellectual sparring with insights into the raison d'etre of our discipline, there could be no better and closer-to-complete reference volume. The interface of the vast domains of philosophy and psychiatry is considered in five parts; the division, albeit and even inevitably artificial, facilitates reference to particular relevant material greatly. The first part is "Core concepts in philosophy and mental health," which includes some fundamentals of the two disciplines, a broad review of the Szazian antipsychiatry and its tenets, as also the arguments against these. Framed well are the usefulness and limits of the medical model. The topic of psychopathology is here introduced. Boorse's distinction between illness and disease is elaborated.In the second part, "A philosophical history of psychopathology," there is a succinct summary of the history of concepts of mental illness. The phenomenological approaches of Karl Jaspers and Edmund Husserl are expanded upon, and the limitations of a purely phenomenological approach are rightly emphasized. "Philosophy of science and mental health" is the third part, wherein the philosopher J.L. Austin's notions of the nature of science, the place of psychiatry and indeed of psychology in the realm of the sciences (often so grudgingly granted by other well-recognized 'pure' and 'applied' sciences and Freudian psychoanalysis are deliberated upon. The importance of subjective and objective judgments and the 'evidence-base,' much bandied

  4. A Complex Systems Approach to Causal Discovery in Psychiatry.

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    Glenn N Saxe

    Full Text Available Conventional research methodologies and data analytic approaches in psychiatric research are unable to reliably infer causal relations without experimental designs, or to make inferences about the functional properties of the complex systems in which psychiatric disorders are embedded. This article describes a series of studies to validate a novel hybrid computational approach--the Complex Systems-Causal Network (CS-CN method-designed to integrate causal discovery within a complex systems framework for psychiatric research. The CS-CN method was first applied to an existing dataset on psychopathology in 163 children hospitalized with injuries (validation study. Next, it was applied to a much larger dataset of traumatized children (replication study. Finally, the CS-CN method was applied in a controlled experiment using a 'gold standard' dataset for causal discovery and compared with other methods for accurately detecting causal variables (resimulation controlled experiment. The CS-CN method successfully detected a causal network of 111 variables and 167 bivariate relations in the initial validation study. This causal network had well-defined adaptive properties and a set of variables was found that disproportionally contributed to these properties. Modeling the removal of these variables resulted in significant loss of adaptive properties. The CS-CN method was successfully applied in the replication study and performed better than traditional statistical methods, and similarly to state-of-the-art causal discovery algorithms in the causal detection experiment. The CS-CN method was validated, replicated, and yielded both novel and previously validated findings related to risk factors and potential treatments of psychiatric disorders. The novel approach yields both fine-grain (micro and high-level (macro insights and thus represents a promising approach for complex systems-oriented research in psychiatry.

  5. Managing the ‘unmanageable’: interwar child psychiatry at the Maudsley Hospital, London

    Science.gov (United States)

    EVANS, BONNIE; RAHMAN, SHAHINA; JONES, EDGAR

    2009-01-01

    When opened as a post-graduate teaching and research hospital in 1923, the Maudsley made virtually no provision for the treatment of children. Yet its children's department saw sustained growth during the interwar period. This expansion is explored in relation to novel behaviourist hypotheses and the forging of formal links with local government and charitable bodies. The recruitment of psychologists, educators and specialist social workers fostered a multidisciplinary approach through case conferences. This development would structure the theoretical origins of child psychiatry, in particular influencing the role and interpretation of psychoanalytic theory within it. William Moodie and Rosalie Lucas identified learned behaviour tied to social and familial circumstances as the crucial factor for both diagnosis and therapy. The theoretical orientation of child psychiatry and the practical treatment of children represented an area of dynamic change and innovation at a time when adult psychiatry struggled to discover effective treatments or achieve breakthroughs in causal understanding. PMID:19397089

  6. Improving Psychiatry Residents' Attitudes Toward Individuals Diagnosed with Substance Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Jonathan; Zerbo, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Special attention needs to be paid to the attitudes of psychiatry residents toward individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders. The attitudes of trainees may be worse toward these individuals than toward individuals with other diagnoses, and these attitudes may worsen over time. While psychiatry residencies are increasingly teaching residents about how to diagnosis and treat individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders, more attention needs to be paid to educating residents about common attitudes toward these individuals. We recommend that psychiatry residency programs start with basic educational didactics and reflection exercises on attitudes toward individuals diagnosed with substance use disorders and that programs try to form a positive "hidden curriculum" in their institutions. PMID:26146757

  7. Moving Toward Integrative, Multidimensional Research in Modern Psychiatry: Lessons Learned From Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Lawrence K; Reiss, Allan L

    2016-07-15

    The field of psychiatry is approaching a major inflection point. The basic science behind cognition, emotion, behavior, and social processes has been advancing rapidly in the past 20 years. However, clinical research supporting the classification system in psychiatry has not kept up with these scientific advances. To begin organizing the basic science of psychiatry in a comprehensive manner, we begin by selecting fragile X syndrome, a neurogenetic disease with cognitive-behavioral manifestations, to illustrate key concepts in an integrative, multidimensional model. Specifically, we describe key genetic and molecular mechanisms (e.g., gamma-aminobutyric acidergic dysfunction and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5-associated long-term depression) relevant to the pathophysiology of fragile X syndrome as well as neural correlates of cognitive-behavioral symptoms. We then describe what we have learned from fragile X syndrome that may be applicable to other psychiatric disorders. We conclude this review by discussing current and future opportunities in diagnosing and treating psychiatric diseases. PMID:26868443

  8. Effect of changing journal clubs from traditional method to evidence-based method on psychiatry residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faridhosseini F

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Farhad Faridhosseini,1 Ali Saghebi,2 Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan,3 Fatemeh Moharari,2 Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam3 1Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, 2Department of Psychiatry, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, 3Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mahhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran Introduction: Journal club is a valuable educational tool in the medical field. This method follows different goals. This study aims to investigate the effect on psychiatry residents of changing journal clubs from the traditional method to the evidence-based method. Method: This study was conducted using a before–after design. First- and second-year residents of psychiatry were included in the study. First, the status quo was evaluated by standardized questionnaire regarding the effect of journal club. Then, ten sessions were held to familiarize the residents with the concept of journal club. After that, evidence-based journal club sessions were held. The questionnaire was given to the residents again after the final session. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (frequency and percentage frequency, mean and standard deviation, and analytic statistics (paired t-test using SPSS 22. Results: Of a total of 20 first- and second-year residents of psychiatry, the data of 18 residents were finally analyzed. Most of the subjects (17 [93.7%] were females. The mean overall score before and after the intervention was 1.83±0.45 and 2.85±0.57, respectively, which showed a significant increase (P<0.001. Conclusion: Moving toward evidence-based journal clubs seems like an appropriate measure to reach the goals set by this educational tool. Keywords: journal club, evidence-based, residents, education method

  9. Ending political abuse of psychiatry: where we are at and what needs to be done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Voren, Robert

    2016-02-01

    The number of reports of political activists falling victim to the political abuse of psychiatry is increasing. When the USSR first disintegrated, this practice virtually ceased to occur. What came in its place, however, was a disturbing collection of other forms of abuses, including human rights abuses, caused by a lack of resources, outdated treatment methods, a lack of understanding of individual human rights and a growing lack of tolerance in society. The number of cases of political abuse of psychiatry has increased since the 21st century began, particularly over the past few years in Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. PMID:26958357

  10. A comparative and empirical analysis of practices in Norwegian forensic psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    List of papers. Papers I-III are removed from the thesis due to copyright restrictions. Paper I: Grøndahl, P. Scandinavian forensic psychiatric practices – an overview and evaluation. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry 2005; 59:92-102. DOI: 10.1080/08039480510022927 Paper II: Grøndahl, P., Ikdahl, S.E., Dahl, A.A. A study of forensic psychiatric screening reports and their relationship to full psychiatric reports. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology 2007; 18:331-41....

  11. Modern psychiatry in India: the British role in establishing an Asian system, 1858-1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J

    2006-08-01

    Four broad phases can be traced in the development of modern psychiatry in India. After briefly considering the outline of each of these phases this article will focus its attention on the second and third. It will be argued through tracing the trends in patient admission, treatment regimes and the organisation of the asylum system in these years that the foundations of modern psychiatry were laid in India in the period 1858 to 1947 and that the modern psychiatric system in India as it is today, although it has evolved since Independence in 1947, continues in significant ways to be shaped by the colonial period. PMID:16943145

  12. [Philosophy of psychiatry and phenomenology of everyday life: The disruptions of ordinary experience in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troubé, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    The paper considers the philosophy of psychiatry from the perspective of everyday life, as a particular structure of experience. We outline some questions raised by disturbances typical of psychotic disorders with regard to a phenomenology of the everyday and common sense. As a link between philosophy and clinical psychopathology, this phenomenology implies a transcendental point of view, embedded in concrete and practical forms of ordinary experience, along with social norms. This opens the possibility of a mutual questioning between philosophy and psychiatry, drawing on its clinical, epistemological, and ethical dimensions. PMID:27550459

  13. Biological Correlates of Empathy

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    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  14. Ein Lehrbuch über Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie – Geschlechtsunterschiede unter der Lupe? A Textbook for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy—Gender Differences under the Microscope?

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella Heuser; Nicole C. Schommer

    2007-01-01

    Anke Rohde und Andreas Marneros haben sich ein hohes Ziel gesetzt: ein übersichtliches Lehrbuch für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, das erstmals eine systematische Zusammenstellung des Wissens über geschlechtsspezifische Aspekte von Symptomatologie, Epidemiologie, Diagnostik, Pharmakotherapie und Psychotherapie psychischer Störungen enthält. Bemerkenswert ist dabei zweierlei: Erstens werden bei der Betrachtung geschlechtsspezifischer Unterschiede im Sinne der Genderforschung Frauen und Männer...

  15. Curricular Adaptations in Inpatient Child Psychiatry for the 21st Century: The Flexner Model Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cathy K.; Guerrero, Anthony; Matsu, Courtenay; Takeshita, Junji; Haning, William; Schultz, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe curricular modifications created in response to the changing culture of medical education, health care systems, academic medicine, and generational differences. The authors propose a model child psychiatry inpatient curriculum that is sustainable within a community teaching hospital in the 21st century. Methods: The…

  16. Trends in Psychotherapy Training: A National Survey of Psychiatry Residency Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudak, Donna M.; Goldberg, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The authors sought to determine current trends in residency training of psychiatrists. Method: The authors surveyed U.S. general-psychiatry training directors about the amount of didactic training, supervised clinical experience, and numbers of patients treated in the RRC-mandated models of psychotherapy (psychodynamic,…

  17. People see what papers show! Psychiatry's stint with print media: A pilot study from Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Shivanshu; Kalra, Gurvinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak

    2015-01-01

    Mass media including television, internet, and newspapers influences public views about various issues by means of how it covers an issue. Newspapers have a wider reach and may affect the impact that a news story has on the reader by factors such as placement of the story within the different pages. We did a pilot study to see how two English newspapers from Mumbai, India were covering psychiatry related news stories. The study was done over a period of 3 months. We found a total of 870 psychiatry related news stories in the two newspapers over 3 months with the majority of them being covered in the main body of the newspapers. Sex-related crime stories and/or sexual dysfunction stories received the highest coverage among all the news while treatment and/or recovery related stories received very little coverage. It is crucial that the print media takes more efforts in improving reporting of psychiatry-related stories and help in de-stigmatizing psychiatry as a discipline. PMID:26816431

  18. Resident psychiatrists as assessors for lectures in continued medical education in psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Melamed Yuval; Ophir Gil; Nechama Yael; Abramovitzh Ruth; Notzer Netta; Apter Alan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We examined the quality of instruction in a continued medical education course and the correspondence between the residents and lecturers evaluations of the program. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Resident psychiatrists and instructors completed structured evaluation forms immediately following each lecture in a psychiatry course for one academic year. RESULTS : Residents′ and lecturers′ evaluations of goal achievement, but not general ratings of lecture quality correlated ...

  19. Evaluation of an Evidence-Based Tobacco Treatment Curriculum for Psychiatry Residency Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Fromont, Sebastien C.; Leek, Desiree; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Louie, Alan K.; Jacobs, Marc H.; Hall, Sharon M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Smokers with mental illness and addictive disorders account for nearly one in two cigarettes sold in the United States and are at high risk for smoking-related deaths and disability. Psychiatry residency programs provide a unique arena for disseminating tobacco treatment guidelines, influencing professional norms, and increasing access…

  20. The impact of generational change and retirement on psychiatry to 2025

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    Schofield Deborah J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia is currently experiencing widespread shortages of psychiatrists. The changing nature of the workforce and increasing demand mean that these shortages are unlikely to ease. This study aims to identify demographic change and retirement patterns of the Australian psychiatry workforce from 1995 to 2003, and the implications of those changes for future workforce planning. Methods Data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW Medical Labour Force Survey from 1995 to 2003 is used to examine ageing of the psychiatry workforce and attrition of psychiatrists aged 50 years and over. Future attrition from the workforce is projected to 2025. Results Sixty two percent of psychiatrists practicing in the year 2000 are predicted to have retired by 2025. Most psychiatrists continue to work until late in life, with only 18 per cent retiring before age 65. The psychiatry workforce aged significantly between 1995 and 2003 (p Conclusion The impact of ageing of the workforce may be more immediate for psychiatry than for some other health professions. With the growing proportion of females and their typically lower workforce participation, more than one younger psychiatrist will be required to replace each of the mostly male retirees.

  1. Training in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Psychiatry Residency: An Overview for Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudak, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2001, Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education accredited general psychiatry training programs were charged with the requirement to train residents in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) to a level of competence. Programs were given the responsibility to delineate standards for trainees, to determine measures of competence,…

  2. Do Clinical Evaluations in a Psychiatry Clerkship Favor Students with Positive Personality Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibnall, John T.; Blaskiewicz, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors examine associations of personality characteristics, National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination performance, and Objective Structured Clinical Examination performance with clinical evaluations of third-year medical students in a psychiatry clerkship. Methods: Students completed the Revised NEO Personality…

  3. Do editorial policies support ethical research? A thematic text analysis of author instructions in psychiatry journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Strech

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: According to the Declaration of Helsinki and other guidelines, clinical studies should be approved by a research ethics committee and seek valid informed consent from the participants. Editors of medical journals are encouraged by the ICMJE and COPE to include requirements for these principles in the journal's instructions for authors. This study assessed the editorial policies of psychiatry journals regarding ethics review and informed consent. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The information given on ethics review and informed consent and the mentioning of the ICMJE and COPE recommendations were assessed within author's instructions and online submission procedures of all 123 eligible psychiatry journals. While 54% and 58% of editorial policies required ethics review and informed consent, only 14% and 19% demanded the reporting of these issues in the manuscript. The TOP-10 psychiatry journals (ranked by impact factor performed similarly in this regard. CONCLUSIONS: Only every second psychiatry journal adheres to the ICMJE's recommendation to inform authors about requirements for informed consent and ethics review. Furthermore, we argue that even the ICMJE's recommendations in this regard are insufficient, at least for ethically challenging clinical trials. At the same time, ideal scientific design sometimes even needs to be compromised for ethical reasons. We suggest that features of clinical studies that make them morally controversial, but not necessarily unethical, are analogous to methodological limitations and should thus be reported explicitly. Editorial policies as well as reporting guidelines such as CONSORT should be extended to support a meaningful reporting of ethical research.

  4. Training of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Fellows in Autism and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Veenstra-VanderWeele, Jeremy; Hellings, Jessica A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; Szymanski, Ludwik; King, Bryan H.; Carlisle, L. Lee; Cook, Edwin H., Jr.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with autism spectrum disorders and intellectual disability can be clinically complex and often have limited access to psychiatric care. Because little is known about post-graduate clinical education in autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability, we surveyed training directors of child and adolescent psychiatry fellowship…

  5. Cinemeducation in Psychiatry: A Seminar in Undergraduate Medical Education Combining a Movie, Lecture, and Patient Interview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnigk, Olaf; Schreiner, Julia; Reimer, Jens; Emami, Roya; Naber, Dieter; Harendza, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatric educators are often faced with students' negative attitudes toward psychiatry. A new type of seminar has been established in order to enable students to gain a deeper understanding of psychiatric illness. Method: A "cinemeducation seminar," combining a movie, a lecture, and a patient interview, has been established as part…

  6. Teaching of Psychiatry by PSP: Impact on NBME-Examination Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Ian; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A Personalized Study Program (PSP) was implemented in 1974 at Ohio State for all students on the psychiatry clerkship. PSP included an assigned textbook and syllabus of reading assignments, private meetings with tutors, standardized practice quizzes, optional use of other opportunities, and a written final exam. Its success is noted. (LBH)

  7. Diagnoses and Presenting Symptoms in an Infant Psychiatry Clinic: Comparison of Two Diagnostic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Karen A.; Boyum, Lisa A.; Harmon, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To present data from a general infant psychiatry clinic, including range and frequency of presenting symptoms, relationship between symptoms and diagnoses, and comparison of two diagnostic systems, DSM-IV and Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC: 0-3). Method: A…

  8. Effect of Medical Education on Students' Attitudes toward Psychiatry and Individuals with Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Marzellus; Harendza, Sigrid; Meyer, Jelka; Drabik, Anna; Reimer, Jens; Kuhnigk, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the effect of medical education on students' attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatric patients, and examined the usefulness of a new evaluation tool: the 6-item Psychiatric Experience, Attitudes, and Knowledge (PEAK-6). Method: Authors studied the attitudes of 116 medical students toward psychiatry…

  9. Preparing for a Successful Psychiatry Residency Review Committee Site Visit: A Guide for New Training Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Shashi K.; Bhatia, Subhash C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: New residency training directors are often faced with multiple competing tasks such as meeting Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) Psychiatry Program Requirements and achieving successful completion of residency review committee (RRC) site visits. For many years, the authors have presented workshops on this…

  10. Associate Residency Training Directors in Psychiatry: Demographics, Professional Activities, and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; DeGolia, Sallie G.; Esposito, Karin; Miller, Deborah A.; Weinberg, Michael; Brenner, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize associate training director (ATD) positions in psychiatry. Method: An on-line survey was e-mailed in 2009 to all ATDs identified through the American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training (AADPRT). Survey questions elicited information regarding demographics,…

  11. Rehabilitation : New term for or further development of social psychiatry? A Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Social psychiatry as an academic discipline and field of clinical practice seems to have lost its prominence and is being incorporated in regular clinical services of mental healthcare and also in various branches of social, genetic, psychiatric or clinical epidemiology. However, the central debate

  12. A Description of the Use of Music Therapy in Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Rafieyan, Roia; Ries, Rose

    2007-01-01

    Music therapy is gaining increasing recognition for its benefit in medical settings both for its salutary effects on physiological parameters and on psychological states associated with medical illness. This article discusses the role of a music therapist in consultation-liaison psychiatry, a specialty that provides intervention for medical and surgical patients with concomitant mental health issues.

  13. Recent Trends in American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology Psychiatric Subspecialties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Larry R.; Juul, Dorthea; Andrade, Naleen N.; Brooks, Beth Ann; Colenda, Christopher C.; Guynn, Robert W.; Mrazek, David A.; Reus, Victor I.; Schneidman, Barbara S.; Shaw, Kailie R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the current status and recent trends in the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) psychiatric subspecialties and discusses the implications of those trends as well as several key questions whose answers may well determine subspecialty viability. Methods: Data are presented on specialty and subspecialty…

  14. A Practical Approach to Implementing the Core Competencies in a Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Residency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Arden D.; Sexson, Sandra B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors describe the development and implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's core competencies in a child and adolescent psychiatry residency program. Method: The authors identify the program's organizational approach and participants and detail various strategies and methods of defining,…

  15. [Major obstacles in the development of child and adolescent psychiatry in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Sandor

    2016-06-01

    The author ascertains that healthy personality development faces increasingly serious obstacles and consequently the number of children in need of mental healthcare is on the rise. Child and adolescent psychiatry has drawn increasing appreciation, however, it is only formal and deficient in Hungary today and cannot assure optimal mental care according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. The author emphasizes that 75% of the first manifestation of the psychiatric disorders occurs during adolescence and young adulthood. In spite of legal regulation, several deficiencies hinder the development of children into healthy adults. The author analyses the most important obstacles in the development of child and adolescent Psychiatry. The author emphasizes the role of keypersons, describes the situation of and problems faced by Hungarian child psychiatric care. The author lists in detail the most important contradictions, deficiencies and obstacles and outlines suggestions for resolving the present crisis. The author emphasizes (1) the responsibility of institutions, and people dealing with society and children, and the disinterest of competent authorities. (2) The somatic, mental, cultural and spiritual ignorance/illiteracy among parents, teachers, healthcare workers, and the general population partly related to crises among the pedagogues. (3) The lack of holistic approach to treatment of children suffering from mental disorder. (4) The importance and the lack of knowledge concerning central nervous system function in child psychiatry. (5) Application of evidence-based medicine in child and adolescent psychiatry based on understanding the relationship between central nervous system alterations and mental functions. (6) Respecting keypersons' competence limits. (7) Immediate development of inpatient and outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry in the whole country. (8) Reform of child psychiatry board exam. (9) Development of currently missing textbooks and

  16. [Contribution of the Polish-German Mental Health Society to changes in Polish psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, Łukasz; Cechnicki, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to give a profile of the history and work of the Polish-German Mental Health Society (PNTZP). Founded in 1990, the PNTZP's supreme objective is to develop and reinforce partnership between Polish and German psychiatry on a range of levels. The methods it uses to further this aim include bilateral meetings, seminars, and annual symposia. In view of its historical roots, the PNTZP is constantly mindful of the excesses perpetrated on the mentally ill during the National Socialist period, and believes it has an obligation to promote a brand of psychiatry founded on the person, respect for human dignity, and the will and individuality of every man. For this reason, ethics are an essential element of discussion, including discussions with patients and their families. The society advocates the implementation of the National Programme of Mental Health Care and the development of community psychiatry in Poland. It supports the development of various structures for the treatment and assistance of people with mental illness, as well as scientific and academic reflection on the social and cultural implications of psychiatric thought and action. It is committed to facilitating the exchange of experiences between different professional groups, patients, and their families in order to promote mutual inspiration and support in the challenging task of developing psychiatry. A record of these years of meetings may be found in the twenty issues of the periodical Dialog. This example of cooperation across official state borders may be held up as a benchmark for the development of European psychiatry, and the joint work and discussions may offer help and inspiration in day-to-day therapeutic practice. The PNTZP is open to new people and initiatives, and is always looking for people willing to get involved in its work. PMID:25016775

  17. Perception of 1 st year medical students towards career choices and specialty of psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneet Kumar Upadhyaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortage of psychiatrists is a worldwide phenomenon. If the factors that attract or repel students towards a specialty can be identified, it may be possible to encourage them towards it. Choice of specialty as a career depends on the complex interplay of experiences before, during or after exposure to the specialty. Objectives: The aim was to understand perceptions of 1 st year medical students regarding career choices and the specialty of psychiatry through a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Materials and Methods: Perceptions of 137 1 st year medical students from the Government Medical College were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire. Students provided their opinions about future career choices; perspective of these specialties in terms of financial reward, reputation, work-life balance, challenging aspect, ability to help patients effectively and emotional stability; their preferences in life and interaction with psychiatrist and its impact. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with post-hoc analysis by Tukey-Kramer test. Results: Surgery was a high priority for 69 (50% while psychiatry was a high priority only for 11 (8%. Surgery was highest for financial reward and reputation, but lowest for work-life balance. Psychiatry had higher emotional stability, however, its the reputation was lower than surgery, medicine, obstetrics and gynaecology and paediatrics. Students preferred reputation (41% over social service opportunities (43%, work-life balance (16%, and high-income (11%. Interaction with psychiatrist increased inclination for psychiatry in 69% (9/13 students. Conclusions: Psychiatry is not a preferred specialty among 1 st year medical students due to its poor reputation.

  18. Is psychiatry only neurology? Or only abnormal psychology? Déjà vu after 100 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Jose

    2015-04-01

    Forgetting history, which frequently repeats itself, is a mistake. In General Psychopathology, Jaspers criticised early 20th century psychiatrists, including those who thought psychiatry was only neurology (Wernicke) or only abnormal psychology (Freud), or who did not see the limitations of the medical model in psychiatry (Kraepelin). Jaspers proposed that some psychiatric disorders follow the medical model (Group I), while others are variations of normality (Group III), or comprise schizophrenia and severe mood disorders (Group II). In the early 21st century, the players' names have changed but the game remains the same. The US NIMH is reprising both Wernicke's brain mythology and Kraepelin's marketing promises. The neo-Kraepelinian revolution started at Washington University, became pre-eminent through the DSM-III developed by Spitzer, but reached a dead end with the DSM-5. McHugh, who described four perspectives in psychiatry, is the leading contemporary representative of the Jaspersian diagnostic approach. Other neo-Jaspersians are: Berrios, Wiggins and Schwartz, Ghaemi, Stanghellini, Parnas and Sass. Can psychiatry learn from its mistakes? The current psychiatric language, organised at its three levels, symptoms, syndromes, and disorders, was developed in the 19th century but is obsolete for the 21st century. Scientific advances in Jaspers' Group III disorders require collaborating with researchers in the social and psychological sciences. Jaspers' Group II disorders, redefined by the author as schizophrenia, catatonic syndromes, and severe mood disorders, are the core of psychiatry. Scientific advancement in them is not easy because we are not sure how to delineate between and within them correctly. PMID:25849592

  19. [Modern criticism of psychiatry -- rebellion or return to tradition? (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatzel, J

    1976-02-01

    Modern criticism of psychiatry started about 10 years ago with violent attacks on the ways in which psychiatric patients were handled in practice. In its attempt to shatter rigid structures and to adopt attitudes, wellknown for many years, for therapeutic action, this criticism remains in an historical scientific tradition which can be traced back to the beginning of this century. With the advance of sociologic thinking and the adoption of radical sociogenetic demands, mainly in the Anglo-Saxon literature, this criticism finds its own feet towards the end of the sixties as a kind of antipsychiatry. It obtains its leverage in the lack of differentiation between diagnosis and psychopathologic description in psychiatry ignoring like Birnbaum the "essential" history of psychiatric science dating from the middle of the 19th century, it returns to the psychiatry of late romanticism. It assesses the place of psychiatry within the range of sciences. In a similar manner it opposes the detached, individual-psychologic, approach or classical psychopathology and sees the various psychopathologic data as forms of a deviation in the sense of symbolic interactionism. Modern criticism of psychiatry could, therefore, mark the start of a developing interactional psychopathology which would certainly not have to compete with traditional psychopathology. It could take its place as an independent approach on equal terms with existing trends. A precondition would be a disnissal of a- and antihistoric basic tendencies which alone would make possible the necessary re-interpretation with the developments up to date and with present-day achievements. PMID:767236

  20. Contribution of the Polish-German Mental Health Society to changes in Polish psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichocki, Łukasz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this presentation is to give a profile of the history and work of the Polish-German Mental Health Society (PNTZP. Founded in 1990, the PNTZP’s supreme objective is to develop and reinforce partnership between Polish and German psychiatry on a range of levels. The methods it uses to further this aim include bilateral meetings, seminars, and annual symposia. In view of its historical roots, the PNTZP is constantly mindful of the excesses perpetrated on the mentally ill during the National Socialist period, and believes it has an obligation to promote a brand of psychiatry founded on the person, respect for human dignity, and the will and individuality of every man. For this reason, ethics are an essential element of discussion, including discussions with patients and their families. The society advocates the implementation of the National Programme of Mental Health Care and the development of community psychiatry in Poland. It supports the development of various structures for the treatment and assistance of people with mental illness, as well as scientific and academic reflection on the social and cultural implications of psychiatric thought and action. It is committed to facilitating the exchange of experiences between different professional groups, patients, and their families in order to promote mutual inspiration and support in the challenging task of developing psychiatry. A record of these years of meetings may be found in the twenty issues of the periodical Dialog. This example of cooperation across official state borders may be held up as a benchmark for the development of European psychiatry, and the joint work and discussions may offer help and inspiration in day-to-day therapeutic practice. The PNTZP is open to new people and initiatives, and is always looking for people willing to get involved in its work.

  1. The Brazilian Neurology centenary (1912-2012) and the common origin of the fields of Neurology and Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Marleide da Mota Gomes; Jose Luiz de Sá Cavalcanti

    2013-01-01

    It is reported the Brazilian Neurology birth (1912), that has as the hallmark its first Neurology Cathedra of Rio de Janeiro, and the links between Neurology and Psychiatry, besides the main medical protagonists at that time in Rio de Janeiro: João Carlos Teixeira Brandão (1854-1921), first professor of the cathedra of Clinical Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases (1883-1921); Juliano Moreira (1873-1933), the founder of the Brazilian scientific Psychiatry and director of the Hospício Nacional de A...

  2. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  3. [Academic presentation of neurology and psychiatry of Keijo Imperial University at annual meetings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The origin of Keijo Imperial University, Medical School, Psychiatry course, and presentation at the Annual Meetings of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology and The Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology were investigated from its establishment to 1945. Keijo was the name used for the capital city of Korea, Seoul, when Korea was under Japanese rule. We believe the Keijo Imperial University evolved out of the Governor-General of Korea Hospital and Keijo Medical Professional School. The first Professor at the University was Shinji Suitsu, who studied under Shuzo Kure. He visited Shizuoka prefecture when he collaborated in Kure's "Actual situation and statistical observation on home custody of mental patients" (1918). This was confirmed by photographic materials from this time. The year after the visit to Shizuoka, Suitsu was sent to the Korean Peninsula. In 1913, Suitsu established the Department of Psychiatry at the Governor-General of Korea Hospital, and the institution had 500 tsubo (approximately 1,650 m2) of land within Keijo (Seoul), with floor space of 160 tsubo (approximately 528 m2) and 24 beds. Treatments were performed by Suitsu, an assistant, and 8-9 nurses. The number of hospitalized patients was 30-50 patients per year. Cells had floor heating. Keijo Imperial University was established in 1924, and was called Jodai. In 1925, Suitsu retired from his Professorship of Psychiatry at Keijo Medical Professional School. Suitsu was from Kyoto Imperial University, and had studied abroad. In 1925, Suitsu's father-in-law, and a long-time friend of Shuzo Kure, Seiji Yamane, passed away. The professor who took up the position after Suitsu was Kiyoji Kubo, who was originally supposed to go to Hokkaido Imperial University. When the medical school was established at Keijo Imperial University in 1926, Kubo was offered a professorship there. Jodai was under the jurisdiction of the Governor-General of Korea, and not the Ministry of Education. Later

  4. Psychiatry, authoritarianism, and revolution: the politics of mental illness during military dictatorships in Argentina, 1966-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marco A

    2013-01-01

    From 1966 to 1983, Argentina underwent a period of political radicalization as fascist regimes used terror to control its citizens and leftist guerrillas resorted to violence to spark revolution. During this politically volatile period, psychiatry transformed from an apolitical clinical specialty into an ideological tool used for both leftist resistance and military oppression. The largest psychiatric organization at the time, the Federación Argentina de Psiquiatras (FAP), became the center for a new politically committed brand of psychiatry in Argentina that united psychoanalysis and community psychiatry with Marxist theory. Though the military targeted and eventually dismantled the FAP and its leftist brand of psychoanalysis and community psychiatry, sectors of the government also paradoxically appropriated and reframed community-based psychiatric perspectives to pathologize leftist subversion and advance their own conservative ideology. PMID:23811712

  5. Ein Lehrbuch über Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie – Geschlechtsunterschiede unter der Lupe? A Textbook for Psychiatry and Psychotherapy—Gender Differences under the Microscope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Heuser

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Anke Rohde und Andreas Marneros haben sich ein hohes Ziel gesetzt: ein übersichtliches Lehrbuch für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, das erstmals eine systematische Zusammenstellung des Wissens über geschlechtsspezifische Aspekte von Symptomatologie, Epidemiologie, Diagnostik, Pharmakotherapie und Psychotherapie psychischer Störungen enthält. Bemerkenswert ist dabei zweierlei: Erstens werden bei der Betrachtung geschlechtsspezifischer Unterschiede im Sinne der Genderforschung Frauen und Männer berücksichtigt, zweitens wird ein vollständiger Überblick sowohl über die häufigen und bekannten psychischen Störungen als auch die äußerst seltenen psychiatrischen Erkrankungen der gesamten Altersspanne gegeben. Wenngleich die Qualität der einzelnen Beiträge deutlich zwischen sehr differenzierter und leider auch für ein Handbuch eindeutig zu oberflächlicher Betrachtung variiert, liegt in dem Band ein weitgehend informatives Nachschlagewerk vor, das einen ersten Überblick über die geschlechtsspezifische Psychiatrie gibt.Anke Rohde and Andres Marneros have given themselves a lofty goal: To put together a systematic collection for the first time that contains the entire body of knowledge on the gender-specific aspects of symptomatology, epidemiology, diagnostics, pharmacotherapy, and psychotherapy of psychological disturbances. There are two notable aspects: First, in accordance with contemporary gender analysis, the examination of the gender-specific differences takes both women and men into account; second, the book provides a complete overview of the common and well-known psychological disturbances as well as the extremely rare psychiatric illnesses along the entire age spectrum. Although the quality of the individual articles clearly ranges from the very sophisticated to a superficial treatment inappropriate for a textbook, the volume itself is, for the most part, an informative work of reference that offers an initial overview of

  6. Unexpected Death or Suicide by a Child or Adolescent: Improving Responses and Preparedness of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trainees

    OpenAIRE

    Sneha, Jadhav; Prakash, Chandra; Vinay, Saranga

    2011-01-01

    The death of a young patient is a difficult but universal experience in the field of medicine. It is less common in the field of child and adolescent psychiatry. However, when a child or adolescent patient commits suicide, a child and adolescent psychiatry trainee’s response could include shock, denial, disbelief, sadness, sleep difficulties, rumination about patient’s death, fears of litigation, social withdrawal, and a sense of failure. Trainees generally find themselves dealing with the ac...

  7. Teaching Cultural Competence to Psychiatry Residents: Seven Core Concepts and Their Implications for Therapeutic Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Jose M; Manguno-Mire, Gina; Kinzie, Erik; Johnson, Janet E

    2016-04-01

    The authors describe the Tulane Model for teaching cultural competence to psychiatry residents in order to outline an innovative approach to curricula development in academic psychiatry. The authors focus on the didactic experience that takes place during the first and second postgraduate years and present seven core concepts that should inform the emerging clinician's thinking in the formulation of every clinical case. The authors discuss the correspondence between each core concept and the Outline for Cultural Formulation, introduced in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV and updated in DSM-5. The authors illustrate how each of the core concepts is utilized as a guideline for teaching residents a process for eliciting culturally relevant information from their patients and their personal histories and how to apply that knowledge in the assessment and treatment of patients in clinical settings. PMID:25749919

  8. The secular and the supernatural: madness and psychiatry in the short stories of Muriel Spark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, A W

    2015-01-01

    Edinburgh-born Muriel Spark is one of modern Scotland's greatest writers. Examination of her work reveals that the subjects of madness and psychiatry are recurrent themes in her writing. She herself had a mental breakdown when she was a young woman and she took an interest in the world of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. In her short stories, Spark approaches the subject of madness in a variety of ways: she relates it to the supernatural; to writing fiction; and to religion. She frequently juxtaposes secular and supernatural explanations of mental disturbance. Spark adopts a sceptical and, at times, mocking view of psychiatrists and psychiatric treatment. Both psychoanalysis and pills are seen as problematic. PMID:27070895

  9. Cyborg psychiatry to ensure agency and autonomy in mental disorders. A proposal for neuromodulation therapeutics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Arthur eMicoulaud Franchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuromodulation therapeutics—as repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS and neurofeedback—are valuable tools for psychiatry. Nevertheless, they currently face some limitations: rTMS has confounding effects on neural activation patterns, and neurofeedback fails to change neural dynamics in some cases. Here we propose how coupling rTMS and neurofeedback can tackle both issues by adapting neural activations during rTMS and actively guiding individuals during neurofeedback. An algorithmic challenge then consists in designing the proper recording, processing, feedback, and control of unwanted effects. But this new neuromodulation technique also poses an ethical challenge: ensuring treatment occurs within a biopsychosocial model of medicine, while considering both the interaction between the patients and the psychiatrist, and the maintenance of individuals’ autonomy. Our solution is the concept of Cyborg psychiatry, which embodies the technique and includes a self-engaged interaction between patients and the neuromodulation device.

  10. What is Constructionism in Psychiatry? From Social Causes to Psychiatric Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael van Riel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is common to note that social environment and cultural formation shape mental disorders. The details of this claim are, however, not well understood. The paper takes a look at the claim that culture has an impact on psychiatry from the perspective of metaphysics and the philosophy of science. Its aim is to offer, in a general fashion, partial explications of some significant versions of the thesis that culture and social environment shape mental disorders, and to highlight some of the consequences social constructionism about psychiatry has for psychiatric explanation. In particular, it will be argued that the alleged dependence of facts about particular mental disorders and about the second order property of being a mental disorder on social facts amounts to a robust form of constructivism, whereas the view that clinician-patient interaction is influenced by cultural facts is perfectly compatible with an anti-constructivist stance.

  11. An Innovative Use of Case Conference to Teach Future Educators in Addiction Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muvvala, Srinivas B; Marienfeld, Carla; Encandela, John; Petrakis, Ismene; Edens, Ellen Lockard

    2016-06-01

    Objective An innovative course was developed for fellows enrolled in the Yale School of Medicine Addiction Psychiatry program to educate them in key principles of adult learning, apply these principles in a case conference presentation, and to improve skills in providing and receiving feedback. Methods An initial training module on educational skills was followed by individual mentorship to prepare a case presentation. A feedback module provided space to learn and practice skills in feedback delivery. Results The program showed positive results and improved confidence levels of the participants in presenting and providing/receiving feedback. Conclusions Implementing a course designed to improve teaching and feedback skills is feasible in a 1-year Addiction Psychiatry fellowship. PMID:27001311

  12. [The representation of Italian psychiatry in Italian Treccani Encyclopedia in 1930's].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazzi, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Testa, Luana; Coccanari dè Fornari, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    The article reconstruct the situation of Italian psychiatry around 1930, using as unusual sources the pages of the Enciclopedia Italiana di Scienze, Lettere e Arti. This important work, conceived in 1925 and finished in 1937, is due - as well known - to the strong interest of Giovanni Gentile and to his capacity to involve in the project a great part of Italian intellectual world, without any ideological preclusion. The section devoted to Medical Sciences, including Psychiatry, was directed by Nicola Pende (1880-1970) and Giacinto Viola (1870-1943). A prevalent positivistic approach to science is well testified by their specific attention to preventive and social medicine, researches in Genetics and in biotypological constitutions. Psycopathological and psycological lemmas are very limited, underlying the medical disinterest towards contemporary philosophy and psycology. PMID:25807782

  13. A Qualitative Analysis of Medical Students Views of Their First Psychiatry Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Nagesh B.; Shae-Leigh C. Vella; Kerry Dawes

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The importance of student’s perspectives in informing curricula and pedagogy has long been recognised. However, student’s perspectives are rarely reported in the academic literature. Therefore this study explores and reports on medical student’s perspectives of their first psychiatry clinical rotation in a ‘new’ era medical school in Australia. Method: Seventy-three graduate entry medical students completed a semi-structured questionnaire about their experiences during a mental hea...

  14. The child and adolescent psychiatry trials network (CAPTN: infrastructure development and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breland-Noble Alfiee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the National Institute of Mental Health funded the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Trials Network (CAPTN under the Advanced Center for Services and Intervention Research (ACSIR mechanism. At the time, CAPTN was believed to be both a highly innovative undertaking and a highly speculative one. One reviewer even suggested that CAPTN was "unlikely to succeed, but would be a valuable learning experience for the field." Objective To describe valuable lessons learned in building a clinical research network in pediatric psychiatry, including innovations intended to decrease barriers to research participation. Methods The CAPTN Team has completed construction of the CAPTN network infrastructure, conducted a large, multi-center psychometric study of a novel adverse event reporting tool, and initiated a large antidepressant safety registry and linked pharmacogenomic study focused on severe adverse events. Specific challenges overcome included establishing structures for network organization and governance; recruiting over 150 active CAPTN participants and 15 child psychiatry training programs; developing and implementing procedures for site contracts, regulatory compliance, indemnification and malpractice coverage, human subjects protection training and IRB approval; and constructing an innovative electronic casa report form (eCRF running on a web-based electronic data capture system; and, finally, establishing procedures for audit trail oversight requirements put forward by, among others, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Conclusion Given stable funding for network construction and maintenance, our experience demonstrates that judicious use of web-based technologies for profiling investigators, investigator training, and capturing clinical trials data, when coupled to innovative approaches to network governance, data management and site management, can reduce the costs and burden and improve the feasibility of

  15. Ethical considerations for evaluating the issue of physical restraint in psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Carlo Petrini

    2013-01-01

    This article examines some of the ethical issues associated with the use of physical restraint in psychiatry and neurology. It offers no specific answers to individual operational problems, but a methodological matrix is proposed as an aid to experts in the various settings in which decisions are taken. The subject is addressed mainly by considering two sources: reference documents published by eminent organisations, and the theoretical framework of ethical values (or principles). A number of...

  16. Perception of 1 st year medical students towards career choices and specialty of psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Suneet Kumar Upadhyaya; Raval, Chintan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shortage of psychiatrists is a worldwide phenomenon. If the factors that attract or repel students towards a specialty can be identified, it may be possible to encourage them towards it. Choice of specialty as a career depends on the complex interplay of experiences before, during or after exposure to the specialty. Objectives: The aim was to understand perceptions of 1 st year medical students regarding career choices and the specialty of psychiatry through a cross-sectional ...

  17. The Status of Irritability in Psychiatry: A Conceptual and Quantitative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Ribas Belil, Pablo; Brotman, Melissa A.; Valdivieso, Isabel; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveResearch and clinical interest in irritability have been on the rise in recent years. Yet several questions remain about the status of irritability in psychiatry, including whether irritability can be differentiated from other symptoms, whether it forms a distinct disorder, and whether it is a meaningful predictor of clinical outcomes. In this paper we try to answer these questions by reviewing the evidence on how reliably irritability can be measured and its validity.MethodWe combin...

  18. Financial impact of accurate discharge coding in a liaison psychiatry service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jordan, Iain

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has shown that patients seen by liaison psychiatry services are a complex and expensive patient group and that the psychiatric co-morbidities of hospital inpatients are poorly attested at discharge for assignment to diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of discharge coding in a neuropsychiatry liaison population. We also aimed to establish whether or not, had the correct diagnosis been assigned, additional funding would have been allocated to the hospital.

  19. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    OpenAIRE

    Clementi Nicoletta; Fornaro Michele; Fornaro Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most an...

  20. The impact of generational change and retirement on psychiatry to 2025

    OpenAIRE

    Schofield Deborah J; Fletcher Susan L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Australia is currently experiencing widespread shortages of psychiatrists. The changing nature of the workforce and increasing demand mean that these shortages are unlikely to ease. This study aims to identify demographic change and retirement patterns of the Australian psychiatry workforce from 1995 to 2003, and the implications of those changes for future workforce planning. Methods Data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) Medical Labour Force Surv...

  1. [Quality characteristics of freedom-restricting coercive measures in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepker, Renate; Steinert, Tilman; Jungmann, Joachim; Bergmann, Frank; Fegert, Jörg M

    2006-01-01

    Putting into practice legal prescriptions of both children's rights and the personal freedom guaranteed by the German basic constitutional law requires a reflected and sensitive use of freedom-restricting coercive measures. Such measures imply uncertainties and burdens for staff and patients in child and adolescent psychiatry. Using guidelines of psychiatric associations and instructions from three institutions, basic attitudes and quality characteristics of indication, performance, and participation with regard to freedom-restricting coercive measures are described. PMID:17253028

  2. The GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor complex: Role of pet and spect in neurology and psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission tomography (SPECT) for selective depiction of GABA-A-benzodiazepine receptor (GBZR) binding are complementary investigations in the diagnostic process of neurological and psychiatric disorders. This review summarizes the current knowledge about options and limitations of PET and SPECT for in vivo diagnostics in neurology and psychiatry. The growing importance of GBZR-imaging for the understanding of pathophysiology and pharmacological treatment in different psychiatric syndromes is discussed. (orig.)

  3. Psychiatry in the flesh. Embodiment of troubled lives. Studies of anorexia nervosa and eating disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Body and mind – new perspectives on eating disorders In this doctoral dissertation the author focuses on models of understanding of how body and mind might interact in eating disorders, with particular emphasis on anorexia nervosa. The thesis ”Psychiatry in the flesh. Embodiment of troubled lives. Studies of anorexia nervosa and eating disorders” is based on six scientific articles which all have been published in referee-based psychiatric journals. Three of these scientific papers d...

  4. Do Editorial Policies Support Ethical Research? A Thematic Text Analysis of Author Instructions in Psychiatry Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Strech, Daniel; Metz, Courtney; Knüppel, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction According to the Declaration of Helsinki and other guidelines, clinical studies should be approved by a research ethics committee and seek valid informed consent from the participants. Editors of medical journals are encouraged by the ICMJE and COPE to include requirements for these principles in the journal’s instructions for authors. This study assessed the editorial policies of psychiatry journals regarding ethics review and informed consent. Methods and Findings The informati...

  5. Do Editorial Policies Support Ethical Research? A Thematic Text Analysis of Author Instructions in Psychiatry Journals

    OpenAIRE

    Strech, Daniel; Metz, Courtney; Knueppel, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: According to the Declaration of Helsinki and other guidelines, clinical studies should be approved by a research ethics committee and seek valid informed consent from the participants. Editors of medical journals are encouraged by the ICMJE and COPE to include requirements for these principles in the journal's instructions for authors. This study assessed the editorial policies of psychiatry journals regarding ethics review and informed consent. Methods and Findings: The informa...

  6. Experience and views of academic psychiatrists on the role of spirituality in South African specialist psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Janse Van Rensburg ABR; M Poggenpoel; CPH Myburgh; CP Szabo

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of having to consider the role of spirituality in health, mental health and psychiatry in South Africa has in particular been emphasized by recent legislation on African traditional health practice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the views and experience of local psychiatrists regarding the role of spirituality in South African specialist psychiatric practice and training. METHOD: This study is an explorative, descriptive, contextual, phenomenol...

  7. A pilot study of user acceptance and educational potentials of virtual patients in transcultural psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis Pantziaras; Olivier Courteille; Richard Mollica; Uno Fors; Solvig Ekblad

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate user acceptance, educational potentials and face and construct validity of a dedicated Virtual Patient system for refugee trauma cases, designed to enhance clinical, interpersonal, social and cultural competence. Methods: We developed a Virtual Patient system portraying a female refugee - mediated by a still image and pre-recorded voice - that was evaluated by an invited group of physicians (n=9) working as residents in Psychiatry (n...

  8. Psychiatric penguins: writing on psychiatry for Penguin Books Ltd, c.1950-c.1980

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    The British mass-market publisher Penguin produced a number of texts on psychiatric topics in the period c.1950–c.1980. Investigation of editorial files relating to a sample of these volumes reveals that they were shaped as much by the commercial imperatives and changing aspirations of the publisher as by developments and debates in psychiatry itself. A number of economic imperatives influenced the publishing process, including the perennial difficulty in finding psychiatrists willing and abl...

  9. Avoiding violence by technologies? Rectal feeding in German psychiatry,c. 1860?85

    OpenAIRE

    Sammet, Kai

    2006-01-01

    Abstract During the nineteenth century, the use of the stomach tube became the preferred method to treat the insane refusing to eat. But it was not unusual for this practice to result in violence and serious injuries. Especially around 1860, when the discussion of non-restraint in German psychiatry reached its climax, other methods of dealing with sitophobia became the focus of interest. In particular, two ...

  10. Antisocial behaviour in clinically referred boys : Early identification and assessment procedures in child psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Enebrink, Pia

    2005-01-01

    Background: Oppositional and aggressive behaviour in children below twelve years of age is a frequent cause of concern for parents and teachers, and a common reason for referral to child and adolescent psychiatry. Whereas most children outgrow these behaviours, a small subgroup is at risk for developing a persistent antisocial lifestyle. Successfully identifying children at risk could prevent potential human and economic suffering of the child, his/her family, potential vict...

  11. A Qualitative Analysis of Medical Students' Views of Their First Psychiatry Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh B. Pai; Shae-Leigh C. Vella; Kerry Dawes

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The importance of student’s perspectives in informing curricula and pedagogy has long been recognised. However, student’s perspectives are rarely reported in the academic literature. Therefore this study explores and reports on medical student’s perspectives of their first psychiatry clinical rotation in a ‘new’ era medical school in Australia. Method: Seventy-three graduate entry medical students completed a semi-structured questionnaire about their experiences during a mental hea...

  12. Postdischarge Impact of C-L Psychiatry Treatment in Obstetrical Inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Kirsh; Eileen Patricia Sloan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Twenty-eight women, referred to C-L Psychiatry during their obstetrical inpatient stay were interviewed six months post-discharge to determine how they experienced the consultation process, whether they recollected and adhered to treatment recommendations, and whether they developed or had a recurrence of mental health problems post-discharge. Method. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted by a psychologist who had not been involved with patient care. Results. There was ...

  13. Consensus Guideline Based Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) in Psychiatry and Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemke, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is a valuable tool for tailoring the dosage of the prescribed medication(s) to the individual pharmacokinetic characteristics of a patient. In psychiatry and neurology, however, proven evidence that TDM should be used for treatment with the multiple neuropsychiatric medications is restricted to few compounds. Well-designed clinical trials on medical and economic benefits of TDM are rare. The use of TDM is limited in most countries to few antiepileptics, especially carbamazepine, phenobarbital and phenytoin, some mood stabilizers, especially lithium and valproic acid, some antidepressants, especially tricyclic antidepressants and some antipsychotics, primarily clozapine because these drugs have a narrow therapeutic index. On the other hand, specific indications and distinct problems can make TDM most useful for individualized pharmacotherapy with almost any neuropsychiatric drug. Potential benefits of TDM can, however, only be reaped if the method is adequately integrated into the clinical treatment process. The TDM expert group of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP) issued consensus guidelines for the best practice of TDM in psychiatry and neurology. A first version was published in 2004. These guidelines were extended in 2011 and are actually updated (see: www.agnp.de). Exemplified by single cases it is shown here how to use TDM consensus guidelines for problem solving in psychiatry and neurology. Studies on depressed patients give evidence for tricyclic antidepressants, venlafaxine and citalopram that TDM could become a standard of care in psychiatry and neurology. There is potential to accelerate improvement. Reducing phases of suffering will not only have medical benefits for the patients but also an impact on costs for the health system which needs to be clarified by controlled studies. PMID:26511090

  14. The politics of psychiatry and the vicissitudes of faith circa 1950: Karl Stern's psychiatric novel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burston, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Karl Stern, MD (1906-1975) was the author of The Pillar of Fire (1951) and three nonfiction books on psychiatry, psychoanalysis, and religion. His novel, Through Dooms of Love (1960), written with the assistance of his friend and admirer Graham Greene, covers a number of topics that were to psychiatric theory, treatment, and research at mid-century, and reflects several features of his own personal and professional vicissitudes. PMID:26334447

  15. Soviet psychiatrists under Stalinist duress: the design for a new Societ psychiatry and its demise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windholz, G

    1999-09-01

    A Scientific Session of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences met in 1950 in Moscow, to comply with the order of I.V. Stalin to institutionalize the theory of higher nervous activity of I.P. Pavlov. This Scientific Session decreed that annual scientific conferences should be held to consider problems related to Pavlovian physiology. In response to this call, a session on the Physiological Teachings of the Academician I. P. Pavolv on Psychiatry and Neuropathology was convened in Moscow in 1951. Certain influential Soviet psychiatrists - V.A. Giliarovski, M.O. Gurevich and A. S. Shmarian were condemned for adhering to anti-Marxist ideology and to psychiatric theories conceived by Western psychiatrists. The named psychiatrists acknowledged the correctness of the accusations, admitted their errors, and promised in the future to follow Pavlov's teachings on psychiatry. The session's Presidium urged the development of a New Soviet Psychiatry based upon experimental and clinical findings and consistent with the Pavlovian conceptualization of higher nervous activity, which considered pychiatric and neurotic syndromes in terms of the dynamic localization of the brain's functions. Long-range consequences of the 1951 session are considered. PMID:11624008

  16. The Supreme Court of Canada Ruling on Physician-Assisted Death: Implications for Psychiatry in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Olivia Anne

    2015-01-01

    On February 6, 2015, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that the prohibition of physician-assisted death (PAD) was unconstitutional for a competent adult person who “clearly consents to the termination of life” and has a “grievous and irremediable (including an illness, disease, or disability) condition that causes enduring suffering that is intolerable to the individual in the circumstances of his or her condition.”1 The radically subjective nature of this ruling raises important questions about who will be involved and how this practice might be regulated. This paper aims to stimulate discussion about psychiatry’s role in this heretofore illegal practice and to explore how psychiatry might become involved in end-of-life care in a meaningful, patient-centred way. First, I will review existing international legislation and professional regulatory standards regarding psychiatry and PAD. Second, I will discuss important challenges psychiatry might face regarding capacity assessment, the notion of rational suicide, and the assessment of suffering. PMID:26720829

  17. Medicalization in psychiatry: the medical model, descriptive diagnosis, and lost knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedler, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    Medicalization was the theme of the 29th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care that included a panel session on the DSM and mental health. Philosophical critiques of the medical model in psychiatry suffer from endemic assumptions that fail to acknowledge the real world challenges of psychiatric nosology. The descriptive model of classification of the DSM 3-5 serves a valid purpose in the absence of known etiologies for the majority of psychiatric conditions. However, a consequence of the "atheoretical" approach of the DSM is rampant epistemological confusion, a shortcoming that can be ameliorated by importing perspectives from the work of Jaspers and McHugh. Finally, contemporary psychiatry's over-reliance on neuroscience and pharmacotherapy has led to a reductionist agenda that is antagonistic to the inherently pluralistic nature of psychiatry.  As a result,  the field has suffered a loss of knowledge that may be difficult to recover. PMID:26602907

  18. Measuring the stigma of psychiatry and psychiatrists: development of a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zäske, Harald; Cleveland, Helen-Rose; Zielasek, Jürgen; Stuart, Heather; Arboleda-Florez, Julio; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Gureje, Oye; Jorge, Miguel R; Kastrup, Marianne; Suzuki, Yuriko; Tasman, Allan; Sartorius, Norman

    2011-11-01

    The stigma of mental illness is a severe burden for people suffering from mental illness both in private and public life, also affecting their relatives, their close social network, and the mental health care system in terms of disciplines, providers, and institutions. Interventions against the stigma of mental illness employ complementary strategies (e.g., protest, education, and contact) and address different target groups (e.g., school children and teachers, journalists, stakeholders). Within this framework, the World Psychiatric Association has adopted an Action Plan with the goal to improve the image of psychiatry and to reduce potential stigmatizing attitudes toward psychiatry and psychiatrists. To evaluate such interventions, a questionnaire has been developed that assesses opinions and attitudes toward psychiatrists and psychiatry in different samples of medical specialists (psychiatrists and general practitioners). The questionnaire comprises scales about perceived stigma in terms of the perception of societal stereotypes, self-stigma in terms of stereotype agreement, perceived stigma in terms of structural discriminations, discrimination experiences, stigma outcomes, and attitudes toward a second medical discipline. It is available in several languages (Arab, English, German, Japanese, Polish, and Spanish) and can easily be adapted for utilization in other medical specialties. PMID:21947511

  19. Assessment Methods of an Undergraduate Psychiatry Course at a Saudi University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Amr

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Arab countries there are few studies on assessment methods in the field of psychiatry. The objective of this study was to assess the outcome of different forms of psychiatric course assessment among fifth year medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We examined the performance of 110 fifth-year medical students through objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE, traditional oral clinical examinations (TOCE, portfolios, multiple choice questions (MCQ, and a written examination. Results: The score ranges in TOCE, OSCE, portfolio, and MCQ were 32–50, 7–15, 5–10 and 22–45, respectively. In regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between OSCE and all forms of psychiatry examinations, except for the MCQ marks. OSCE accounted for 65.1% of the variance in total clinical marks and 31.5% of the final marks (P = 0.001, while TOCE alone accounted for 74.5% of the variance in the clinical scores. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a consistency among the students’ assessment methods used in the psychiatry course, particularly the clinical component, in an integrated manner. This information would be useful for future developments in undergraduate teaching.

  20. The Introduction of Western Psychiatry into Korea (II) Psychiatric Education in Korea during the Forced Japanese Annexation of Korea (1910-1945)

    OpenAIRE

    CHUNG Wonyong,; LEE NaMi; RHI Bou-yong

    2006-01-01

    In the second report in our series on the historical investigation on the introduction of western psychiatry into Korea, authors deal with the status of psychiatric education during the Japanese forced annexation of Korea. The first lecture on psychiatry in Korea under the title "Mental Diseases" was held in Dae-han-eui-won around 1910. In 1913, the Department of Psychiatry branched off from the Department of Internal Medicine of Chosen-sotoku-fu-iing, the Colonial Governmental Clinic, the su...

  1. Delirium, a ‘confusing’ condition in general hospitals: The experience of a Consultation–Liaison Psychiatry Unit in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiota Goulia; Christos Mantas; Thomas Hyphantis

    2009-01-01

    Panagiota Goulia, Christos Mantas, Thomas HyphantisConsultation-Liaison Psychiatry Unit, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, GreeceBackground/aims: A plethora of studies showed that delirium is common in hospitalized populations. We aimed to examine the characteristics of delirium patients referred to our Consultation–Liaison Psychiatry Unit (CLPU).Methods: Our CLPU database was used to obtain data of all referred patients admitted to our hosp...

  2. Refinement of diagnosis and disease classification in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecrubier, Yves

    2008-03-01

    Knowledge concerning the classification of mental disorders progressed substantially with the use of DSM III-IV and IDCD 10 because it was based on observed data, with precise definitions. These classifications a priori avoided to generate definitions related to etiology or treatment response. They are based on a categorical approach where diagnostic entities share common phenomenological features. Modifications proposed or discussed are related to the weak validity of the classification strategy described above. (a) Disorders are supposed to be independent but the current coexistence of two or more disorders is the rule; (b) They also are supposed to have stability, however anxiety disorders most of the time precede major depression. For GAD age at onset, family history, biology and symptomatology are close to those of depression. As a consequence broader entities such as depression-GAD spectrum, panic-phobias spectrum and OCD spectrum including eating disorders and pathological gambling are taken into consideration; (c) Diagnostic categories use thresholds to delimitate a border with normals. This creates "subthreshold" conditions. The relevance of such conditions is well documented. Measuring the presence and severity of different dimensions, independent from a threshold, will improve the relevance of the description of patients pathology. In addition, this dimensional approach will improve the problems posed by the mutually exclusive diagnoses (depression and GAD, schizophrenia and depression); (d) Some disorders are based on the coexistence of different dimensions. Patients may present only one set of symptoms and have different characteristics, evolution and response to treatment. An example would be negative symptoms in Schizophrenia; (e) Because no etiological model is available and most measures are subjective, objective measures (cognitive, biological) and genetics progresses created important hopes. None of these measures is pathognomonic and most appear

  3. Test blueprints for psychiatry residency in-training written examinations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaffas EM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic

  4. Comparison of the number of supervisors on medical student satisfaction during a child and adolescent psychiatry rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascioli KJ

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kelly J Mascioli,1 Catharine J Robertson,1,2 Alan B Douglass1,31Department of Psychiatry, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 2Department of Psychiatry, Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa, ON, Canada; 3Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre, University of Ottawa Institute of Mental Health Research, Ottawa, ON, Canada Background: Traditionally, third-year medical students are assigned to one supervisor during their 1-week rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, the majority of supervisory staff in the Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry opted to switch the supervision schedule to one in which some medical students are assigned to two primary supervisors.Objective: The aim of the study was to determine if students assigned to two primary supervisors had greater rotation satisfaction compared with students assigned to one primary supervisor during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry.Methods: A satisfaction questionnaire was sent to 110 third-year medical students who completed their child and adolescent clerkship rotation. Based on the responses, students were divided into groups depending on their number of supervisors. Questionnaire responses were compared between the groups using independent t-tests.Results: When students who had one primary supervisor were compared to students who had two primary supervisors, the lone item showing a statistically significant difference was regarding improvement of assessment reports/progress notes.Conclusion: The number of supervisors does not significantly affect the satisfaction of students during a 1-week clerkship rotation in child and adolescent psychiatry. Other factors are important in rotation satisfaction.Keywords: medical students, clerkship, child psychiatry

  5. System as metaphor in the psychology and biology of shame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, R

    1996-01-01

    Biological theories of brain and psychological theories of mind are two systems of explanation that seem related to one another. The nature of the relationship is problematic and constitutes the age-old mind-body problem. The most prominent solutions currently are variations of materialism. While psychological theories can be consistent with materialism, there remains a difficulty in comprehending nonphysical (social, psychological) causes of physical effects. This difficulty is an obstacle to integration in psychiatry, where we routinely assume that illnesses that include or depend on biological dysfunction are caused multifactorially by causal agents such as perceived parental warmth, parental loss, stressful life events, genetics, and personality (Hammen et al. 1992; Kendler et al. 1993). Unity theory adopts the stance that neurobiological theories and psychological theories are essentially disparate explanations of the same psychobiological events; thus the relationship of mind to brain is one of shared reference (Goodman 1991; Maunder 1995). In Goodman's model the gap between biological and psychological systems is not bridgeable. Different conceptual categories refer to the same referents but cannot interact with each other. Stepping into the breach, systems theory has been presented as offering a language that can bridge the gap between psychological and biological theories of causation (Schwartz 1981; Weiner 1989). Thus, there is a controversy about the applicability of systems theory for integration in psychiatry. PMID:8837180

  6. SNARE complex in developmental psychiatry: neurotransmitter exocytosis and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupertino, Renata Basso; Kappel, Djenifer B; Bandeira, Cibele Edom; Schuch, Jaqueline Bohrer; da Silva, Bruna Santos; Müller, Diana; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Mota, Nina Roth

    2016-08-01

    Multiple biological processes throughout development require intracellular vesicular trafficking, where the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) receptors) complex plays a major role. The core proteins forming the SNARE complex are SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25), VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein) and Syntaxins, besides its regulatory proteins, such as Synaptotagmin. Genes encoding these proteins (SNAP25, VAMP1, VAMP2, STX1A, SYT1 and SYT2) have been studied in relation to psychiatric disorders susceptibility. Here, we review physiological aspects of SNARE complex and genetic association results reported for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, both in children and adults, autism spectrum disorders, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Moreover, we included findings from expression, pharmacogenetics and animal model studies regarding these clinical phenotypes. The overall scenario depicted here suggests that the SNARE complex may exert distinct roles throughout development, with age-specific effects of genetic variants in psychiatric disorders. Such perspective should be considered in future studies regarding SNARE complex genes. PMID:26856328

  7. [25 Years After Re-Unification of Germany: An Overview on Eastern German Psychiatry. Part 1: Post-War Era, Pavlovization, Psychopharmacological Era and Social Psychiatric Reform Movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, H

    2016-04-01

    This is the first of a 2-part study on the history of psychiatry in Eastern Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. It mainly covers the years post World War II up until the beginning of the 1970s. The first post-war years were determined by the new power holders' attempts to overcome National Socialist (Nazi) heritage and to re-organize mental health and care in general. The doctrine of a strict denazifization in East Germany must, however, be regarded as a myth. Promoted by centralized organization, there was an increase in communist party-ideological influence and harassment as well as aligning scientific views and research with Soviet paradigms (Pavlovization) during the 1950s and early 1960s. This, however, led to an enormous rise in exodus of skilled labor to West Germany, which in turn further increased the notorious lack of staff. After the erection of the inner-German wall, this problem was mitigated, yet never fully solved over the 40 years of the existence of the GDR. Despite adverse conditions, East German psychiatrists made major original contributions to the development of psychiatry in general, at least up until the 1960s. Academic psychiatry was mainly based on biological concepts that were further promoted by new somatic and psychopharmacological therapeutic options. In the 1960s, social psychiatric reformist forces emerged, primarily in the large psychiatric hospitals. The improvements achieved by these forces, however, were not implemented on a nation-wide scale, but mainly restricted to one particular or several institutions. PMID:27100844

  8. The Development of the Interface between Law, Medicine and Psychiatry: Medico-Legal Perspectives in History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Swanepoel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Medicine and law were related from early times. This relation resulted as a necessity of protecting communities from the irresponsible acts of impostors. Various legal codes dealing with medical malpractice existed in Egypt, Mesopotamia, China, Islam, Greece, Rome, Persia and India. Over the course of the past 30 years, interest in the history of psychiatry has boomed. Much of this proliferation of interest has taken place under the broad influence of postmodernism and has resulted in multiple and diverse histories that no longer seek to provide a linear narrative of constant evolutionary progress. Rather, these new histories explore and disrupt taken for granted assumptions about the past and provide a starting point for discussion and debate about the some of the very foundations of mental health care in South Africa. As a matter of practical importance knowledge of how knowledge accrues and knowledge of the mistakes of the past is of prime importance in preventing similar mistakes in present and future work. An important reason for specifically understanding historical psychiatry is the fact that many of the uncertainties experienced in the present are a direct result of decisions made in the past. The key issue is that while it is tempting to experience current psychiatric and legal approaches towards the mentally disordered as natural and permanent, an understanding of the past helps mental health and legal practitioners to see things in a different perspective. Psychiatric and legal approaches towards the mentally disordered have changed over time and can undoubtedly also be changed in future. Therefore, the research conducted in this article focuses on the history and development of law and psychiatry including prehistoric times, the Arabian countries, the Nile Valley as well as Greece and Rome.

  9. People see what papers show! Psychiatry's stint with print media: A pilot study from Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shrivastava, Shivanshu; Kalra, Gurvinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak

    2015-01-01

    Mass media including television, internet, and newspapers influences public views about various issues by means of how it covers an issue. Newspapers have a wider reach and may affect the impact that a news story has on the reader by factors such as placement of the story within the different pages. We did a pilot study to see how two English newspapers from Mumbai, India were covering psychiatry related news stories. The study was done over a period of 3 months. We found a total of 870 psych...

  10. [Marxist-Leninist philosophical personality theory and the development of the theory and practice of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, A

    1978-06-01

    This is a concise presentation of the essential positions of the Marxist-Leninist philosophical theory of personality. Its consequences to modern psychiatry are discussed. Particular emphasis has been placed on establishing practical relations with mental patients and creating optimum conditions for promoting the distinctive qualities or characteristics of persons within the framework of therapy. Also discussed by the author in his present paper are questions associated with pathogenesis. Integration of clinical and sociopsychological research into the development of psychoses is considered necessary. PMID:715077

  11. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people. PMID:24151148

  12. Editorial: Looking beyond the horizon--innovation in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco Fearon, R M

    2016-03-01

    As readers will no doubt be well aware, the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry dedicates an entire issue, once a year, to state-of-the-art authoritative reviews of research on some of the central issues in our field.(1) I like to think that in doing so we have been quietly undertaking a giant Pavlovian conditioning experiment: every year, as the spring flowers start to blossom (in the northern hemisphere at least), the nucleus accumbens of child psychologists and psychiatrists around the world begin to glow in anticipation of intellectual reward. PMID:26889890

  13. Editorial: Ingenious designs and causal inference in child psychology and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    The embryology of behaviour - This title of a book by the great developmental psychologist Arnold Gesell (Gesell, ) continues nicely to encapsulate for me a core endeavour in child psychology and psychiatry; in the use of scientific method to tease out causes and processes within developmental science and psychopathology. This edition of JCPP includes some tremendous examples of the increasing rigour and sophistication with which such questions are being addressed. Particularly encouraging for me, as primarily an interventionist, is the use of well-designed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for that end. PMID:27090380

  14. [Applying a social network for the practice and learning of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondin, Estefanía; Matusevich, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Social networking is a virtual space in which people relate and build their identity, share information, publish content and intervene on the content posted by others. We will describe an experiment carried out in the psychiatry service of Italian Hospital in Buenos Aires, in which we use Whatsapp Social Network applied to the development of clinical work and teaching task. From these new ways of relating between professional, emerge a new way to work, participate in groups or try to evaluate various options for dealing with a patient. We analyze the usefulness of this virtual platform as a working tool. PMID:25153981

  15. How psychiatry journals support the unbiased translation of clinical research. A cross-sectional study of editorial policies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Knüppel

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Reporting guidelines (e.g. CONSORT have been developed as tools to improve quality and reduce bias in reporting research findings. Trial registration has been recommended for countering selective publication. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE encourages the implementation of reporting guidelines and trial registration as uniform requirements (URM. For the last two decades, however, biased reporting and insufficient registration of clinical trials has been identified in several literature reviews and other investigations. No study has so far investigated the extent to which author instructions in psychiatry journals encourage following reporting guidelines and trial registration. METHOD: Psychiatry Journals were identified from the 2011 Journal Citation Report. Information given in the author instructions and during the submission procedure of all journals was assessed on whether major reporting guidelines, trial registration and the ICMJE's URM in general were mentioned and adherence recommended. RESULTS: We included 123 psychiatry journals (English and German language in our analysis. A minority recommend or require 1 following the URM (21%, 2 adherence to reporting guidelines such as CONSORT, PRISMA, STROBE (23%, 7%, 4%, or 3 registration of clinical trials (34%. The subsample of the top-10 psychiatry journals (ranked by impact factor provided much better but still improvable rates. For example, 70% of the top-10 psychiatry journals do not ask for the specific trial registration number. DISCUSSION: Under the assumption that better reported and better registered clinical research that does not lack substantial information will improve the understanding, credibility, and unbiased translation of clinical research findings, several stakeholders including readers (physicians, patients, authors, reviewers, and editors might benefit from improved author instructions in psychiatry journals. A first step of

  16. A guide to a new short course to promote interest and engagement in psychiatry in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Matthew; Lomas, Benjamin; Schofield, Zena; Doody, Gillian

    2015-08-01

    This article describes a new course for preclinical medical undergraduates designed to promote interest and engagement in psychiatry. The course employed a range of innovative teaching techniques alongside ward visits to provide students with early clinical experience. Unusually, assessment for the course involved the production of creative works as well as reflective writing about students' experiences. We collected a variety of feedback from participants showing that they found the course enjoyable and educational. We conclude that, overall, the course had a positive effect on student perceptions of psychiatry. PMID:26755955

  17. A Qualitative Analysis of Medical Students Views of Their First Psychiatry Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh B. Pai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The importance of student’s perspectives in informing curricula and pedagogy has long been recognised. However, student’s perspectives are rarely reported in the academic literature. Therefore this study explores and reports on medical student’s perspectives of their first psychiatry clinical rotation in a ‘new’ era medical school in Australia. Method: Seventy-three graduate entry medical students completed a semi-structured questionnaire about their experiences during a mental health rotation. The responses were analysed and coded into thematic categories. Results: The following thematic categories were evident; staff, breadth of experience, attitudes towards mental health, course materials and structure, and professional development. Conclusion: The results are discussed in the context of the current academic recommendations for the teaching of psychiatry and behavioural science to medical students. Although the use of student feedback is recommended by the literature, pragmatically it is rarely utilised and if it is utilised it is not reported in the academic literature. It is recommended that educators embrace the use of student’s perspectives to evaluate and inform their teaching.

  18. [First stage in identifying traumatic profil inpatients hospitalised in psychiatry in Martinique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M; Vacher, E; Lamy, S; Seridi, H; Jan, M; Debien, C; Sigward, J-M; Jehel, L

    2014-01-01

    The population hospitalised in psychiatry seems more exposed to traumatic events than the French general population, with particularly more sexual aggressions. The aim of this study is to describe the population hospitalised in psychiatry and more precisely the traumatic history of these patients, their comorbidities (mental diseases and addictions), and socio economical level. This descriptive, cross sectional and retrospective study took place in the Crisis Center in the University Hospital in Martinique (French West Indies), from February to July 2013. A socio-demographic information, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0, the Trauma History Questionnaire and the Impact Events Scale-Revised were realised with 49 of the 143 patients admitted during this period (34.3%). In this population, we found a mean of 6.5 (standart-deviation=4.2) different types of traumatic event, with 38.8% patients reporting a natural disaster, and 38.8% declaring at least one sexual aggression. In the 25 patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, 66.7% underwent a sexual aggression, significatively during childhood (before 10 years old, P=0.01), and during adolescence (between 10 to 18 years old, P=0.01). These results underline the importance of a systematic screening of the traumatic profile: the characteristics of the traumatic events and its clinical impact. PMID:25590554

  19. Drug monitoring in child and adolescent psychiatry for improved efficacy and safety of psychopharmacotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fegert Jörg M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most psychotropic drugs used in the treatment of children and adolescents are applied "off label" with a direct risk of under- or overdosing and a delayed risk of long-term side effects. The selection of doses in paediatric psychiatric patients requires a consideration of pharmacokinetic parameters and the development of central nervous system, and warrants specific studies in children and adolescents. Because these are lacking for most of the psychotropic drugs applied in the Child and Adolescent and Psychiatry, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM is a valid tool to optimise pharmacotherapy and to enable to adjust the dosage of drugs according to the characteristics of the individual patient. Multi-centre TDM studies enable the identification of age- and development-dependent therapeutic ranges of blood concentrations and facilitate a highly qualified standardized documentation in the child and adolescent health care system. In addition, they will provide data for future research on psychopharmacological treatment in children and adolescents, as a baseline for example for clinically relevant interactions with various co-medications. Therefore, a German-Austrian-Swiss "Competence Network on Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry" was founded 1 introducing a comprehensive internet data base for the collection of demographic, safety and efficacy data as well as blood concentrations of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents.

  20. Ein Lehrbuch über Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie – Geschlechtsunterschiede unter der Lupe?

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    Isabella Heuser

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Anke Rohde und Andreas Marneros haben sich ein hohes Ziel gesetzt: ein übersichtliches Lehrbuch für Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, das erstmals eine systematische Zusammenstellung des Wissens über geschlechtsspezifische Aspekte von Symptomatologie, Epidemiologie, Diagnostik, Pharmakotherapie und Psychotherapie psychischer Störungen enthält. Bemerkenswert ist dabei zweierlei: Erstens werden bei der Betrachtung geschlechtsspezifischer Unterschiede im Sinne der Genderforschung Frauen und Männer berücksichtigt, zweitens wird ein vollständiger Überblick sowohl über die häufigen und bekannten psychischen Störungen als auch die äußerst seltenen psychiatrischen Erkrankungen der gesamten Altersspanne gegeben. Wenngleich die Qualität der einzelnen Beiträge deutlich zwischen sehr differenzierter und leider auch für ein Handbuch eindeutig zu oberflächlicher Betrachtung variiert, liegt in dem Band ein weitgehend informatives Nachschlagewerk vor, das einen ersten Überblick über die geschlechtsspezifische Psychiatrie gibt.

  1. "The tempest in my mind": cultural interfaces between psychiatry and literature, 1844-1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, S L

    1995-01-01

    The professional literature of the first generation of American psychiatrists is replete with poetical passages drawn from the imaginative works of such English authors as Shakespeare, Byron, and Scott as well as the writings of residents of the asylums they tended. A close reading of such passages in the American Journal of Insanity (AJI), the central medium through which members of this nascent profession attempted to "popularize the study of insanity," suggests they were not simply textual ornaments or signs of the underdeveloped state of American psychiatry in the mid-nineteenth century. Indeed, literary manifestations of the imaginative minds of patients and renowned writers were scrutinized by psychiatrists seeking to advance their understanding of mental disease. Moreover, the English authors were often elevated to the status of medical experts and their poetry and prose were commended to fellow medical practitioners as sources of psychological insight. Toward the turn of the century psychiatrists' engagement with these literary forms was less pronounced in the AJI, due in large part to the impact of rising asylum populations and the coming of a culture of positivist medicine. Yet literary influences on psychiatric writing are still evident in this period, indicating the complexity of the cultural interfaces between psychiatry and literature and the importance of examining the historical processes that have served to define and distinguish the enterprise of the psychiatrist from that of the poet. PMID:7897178

  2. Mental Health promotion of a hospital through the nurse in the liaison psychiatry team

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    Natalia Cámara Conde

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We show a proposal to increase the quality of nursing cares, improving mental health care of hospitalized patients by creating the figure of the liaison nurse within the liaison psychiatry team. This nurse would not only be a reference to support the nursing staff at the level of patient care, but also the psycho-emotional self-care professional.Objectives: Justifying the need to include the figure of the specialist mental health team liaison psychiatry nurse. Method: The rotation as residents, for a month, with the interconsultation team psychiatric hospital Gregorio Marañón and literature review. Results: There have been partially unmet needs, these could be covered with the existence of a nurse specialist in mental health consultation in this hospital. Discussion: Possibly it poses difficulties in defining the roles of various liaison team professionals, which we expect can be defined at the start implementing the new member.The hospital itself has an own field defined, articulated through the NANDA, NIC, NOC methodology, which covers aspects that so far have not being made, there is not a nurse figure into the psychiatric consultation liaison team.

  3. Opening the 'black box': liaison psychiatry services and what they actually do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Elspeth; McMeekin, Aaron; Thomasson, Rachel; Khan, Sylvia; Makin, Sally; Shaw, Ben; Longson, Damien

    2016-08-01

    Aims and method To develop a simple, pragmatic typology to characterise the nature of liaison interventions delivered by a liaison service in a National Health Service setting. We carried out a retrospective electronic case-note review of referrals to a ward-based liaison psychiatry service. Results Three hundred and forty-four patients were referred to the service over a 12-month period. Ten different types of liaison interventions were identified, with the most common interventions being diagnosis (112 patients, 32.6%), medication management (57 patients, 16.6%), risk assessment and treatment (56 patients, 16.3% each). Mental Health Act work accounted for the greatest number of contacts per patient (median 7). Clinical implications There are inherent limitations in any single-site observational study, as site-specific results cannot be generalised to other liaison services. The intervention categories we developed, however, are easy to use and will provide a way of comparing and benchmarking the range of interventions delivered by different liaison psychiatry services. PMID:27512583

  4. MAP as a model for practice-based learning and improvement in child psychiatry training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Sheryl H; Podell, Jennifer L; Zima, Bonnie T; Best, Karin; Sidhu, Shawn; Jura, Martha Bates

    2014-01-01

    Not only is there a growing literature demonstrating the positive outcomes that result from implementing evidence based treatments (EBTs) but also studies that suggest a lack of delivery of these EBTs in "usual care" practices. One way to address this deficit is to improve the quality of psychotherapy teaching for clinicians-in-training. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires all training programs to assess residents in a number of competencies including Practice-Based Learning and Improvements (PBLI). This article describes the piloting of Managing and Adapting Practice (MAP) for child psychiatry fellows, to teach them both EBT and PBLI skills. Eight child psychiatry trainees received 5 full days of MAP training and are delivering MAP in a year-long outpatient teaching clinic. In this setting, MAP is applied to the complex, multiply diagnosed psychiatric patients that present to this clinic. This article describes how MAP tools and resources assist in teaching trainees each of the eight required competency components of PBLI, including identifying deficits in expertise, setting learning goals, performing learning activities, conducting quality improvement methods in practice, incorporating formative feedback, using scientific studies to inform practice, using technology for learning, and participating in patient education. A case example illustrates the use of MAP in teaching PBLI. MAP provides a unique way to teach important quality improvement and practice-based learning skills to trainees while training them in important psychotherapy competence. PMID:24245855

  5. On the ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry: philosophical considerations and pragmatic tasks

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    Giordano James

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A common theme in the contemporary medical model of psychiatry is that pathophysiological processes are centrally involved in the explanation, evaluation, and treatment of mental illnesses. Implied in this perspective is that clinical descriptors of these pathophysiological processes are sufficient to distinguish underlying etiologies. Psychiatric classification requires differentiation between what counts as normality (i.e.- order, and what counts as abnormality (i.e.- disorder. The distinction(s between normality and pathology entail assumptions that are often deeply presupposed, manifesting themselves in statements about what mental disorders are. In this paper, we explicate that realism, naturalism, reductionism, and essentialism are core ontological assumptions of the medical model of psychiatry. We argue that while naturalism, realism, and reductionism can be reconciled with advances in contemporary neuroscience, essentialism - as defined to date - may be conceptually problematic, and we pose an eidetic construct of bio-psychosocial order and disorder based upon complex systems' dynamics. However we also caution against the overuse of any theory, and claim that practical distinctions are important to the establishment of clinical thresholds. We opine that as we move ahead toward both a new edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, and a proposed Decade of the Mind, the task at hand is to re-visit nosologic and ontologic assumptions pursuant to a re-formulation of diagnostic criteria and practice.

  6. Sexuality training for psychiatry residents: a national survey of training directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, R A; Wiederman, M W

    2000-01-01

    The current status of training in human sexuality is relevant to all health care professionals. The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent of sexuality training offered in psychiatric residency programs. The training directors of psychiatry residencies were surveyed with regard to the number of expert faculty in sexuality training as well as resident exposure to seven related curricular areas. Of the 69 respondents, the majority reported expert faculty in sexual dysfunctions, sex therapy, therapy with gay/lesbian patients, and HIV/AIDS. For each sexuality topic, approximately 80% of programs reported curricula offerings through either didactics or clinical rotations. For didactics, most topics were presented in the context of a broader course. With the exception of HIV/AIDS, it was rare for programs to offer a clinical rotation involving sexuality issues. In conclusion, the majority of training programs in psychiatry provide curriculum offerings in sexuality training, primarily through didactic education. Results are discussed with regard to comparison to training in professional psychology and the need for assessment of sexuality training in health care professions generally. PMID:10929573

  7. Educational needs assessment for psychiatry residents to prevent suicide: A qualitative approach

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    Majid Barekatain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a commonly encountered and stressful event in professional life of any psychiatrist. Suicide risk assessment is a major gateway to patient treatment and management. It is a core competency requirement in training of psychiatry. The present study designed to assesseducational needsfor suicide prevention in residents of psychiatry in two medical schools in Iran, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS and Shahid Beheshti Medical University (SBUMS inTehran. Methods: This was a qualitative triangulation study, conducted in two steps. The first step was based on a phenomenological approach and the second was based on focus groups. The studied population was the psychiatric residents of IUMS and SBUMS. Purposive sampling was implemented until saturation. Interviews were performed. Colaizzi method was used to analyze the data. In the second step, participants attended a session, in which all final codes of the first step were discussed, and regarding the views, educational priorities and needs were listed. Results: A total of 2047 codes, extracted from 31 interviews, analyzed through Colaizzi method, were categorized in three groups: Educational, facilities and processes, human resources. Conclusions: According to defects of current educational program, we suggest regular reevaluations and revisions of clinical training programs according to current needs.

  8. Current clinical advances and future perspectives in the psychiatry/mental health field of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cía, Alfredo H; Rojas, Rodrigo Córdoba; Adad, Miguel Abib

    2010-01-01

    The history of Mental Health in Latin America is relatively young. It dates back to the mid nineteenth century and widely developed during the twentieth century, with formidable scientific, social, political, and ethical challenges. Latin American psychiatry has contributed in the fields of epidemiology, phenomenology, social psychiatry, psychiatric and epistemological research, and clinical genetics as well. More recent advances can also be seen in clinical psychotherapy and psychopharmacology. Now, there is a formal and informal recognition of various areas of expertise, such as children and adolescents, addictions, anxiety disorders, among others. However, we need to solve the health problems resulting from mental illnesses as well as the disorders related to the social, environmental, political, and economic factors of a continent marked by the precariousness of underdevelopment, which have a high impact on population health. Therefore, considering and trying to minimize the impact of those factors, contributing to the destigmatization of mental illnesses and their consequences, together with the growing number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), human rights defenders, public figures, etc., and collaborating in building a society that guarantees the right to mental health and adequate treatment and rehabilitation are part of our present challenges in Latin America. PMID:20874063

  9. A Reconciliation for the Future of Psychiatry: Both Folk Psychology and Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutto, Daniel D.

    2016-01-01

    Philosophy of psychiatry faces a tough choice between two competing ways of understanding mental disorders. The folk psychology (FP) view puts our everyday normative conceptual scheme in the driver’s seat – on the assumption that it, and it only, tells us what mental disorders are (1). Opposing this, the scientific image (SI) view (2, 3) holds that our understanding of mental disorders must come, wholly and solely, from the sciences of the mind, unfettered by FP. This paper argues that the FP view is problematic because it is too limited: there is more to the mind than FP allows; hence, we must look beyond FP for properly deep and illuminating explanations of mental disorders. SI promises just this. But when cast in its standard cognitivist formulations, SI is unnecessarily and unjustifiably neurocentric. After rejecting both the FP view, in its pure form, and SI view, in its popular cognitivist renderings, this paper concludes that a more liberal version of SI can accommodate what is best in both views – once SI is so formulated and the FP view properly edited and significantly revised, the two views can be reconciled and combined to provide a sound philosophical basis for a future psychiatry. PMID:26909047

  10. A Reconciliation for the Future of Psychiatry: Both Folk Psychology and Cognitive Science

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    Daniel Douglas Hutto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy of psychiatry faces a tough choice between two competing ways of understanding mental disorders. The folk psychology or FP view puts our everyday normative conceptual scheme in the driver’s seat – on the assumption that it, and it only, tells us what mental disorders are (Graham 2009. Opposing this, the scientific image or SI view (Murphy 2006, Gerrans 2014 holds that our understanding of mental disorders must come, wholly and solely, from the sciences of the mind, unfettered by FP. This paper argues that the FP view is problematic because it is too limited: there is more to the mind than FP allows, hence we must look beyond FP for properly deep and illuminating explanations of mental disorders. SI promises just this. But when cast in its standard cognitivist formulations SI is unnecessarily and unjustifiably neurocentric. After rejecting both the FP view, in its pure form, and SI, in its popular cognitivist renderings, this paper concludes that a more liberal version of SI can accommodate what is best in both views – once SI is so formulated and the FP view properly edited and significantly revised, the two views can be reconciled and combined to provide a sound philosophical basis for a future psychiatry.

  11. Investigating "mass hysteria" in early postcolonial Uganda: Benjamin H. Kagwa, East african psychiatry, and the Gisu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Yolana

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1960s, medical officers and administrators began to receive reports of what was being described as "mass madness" and "mass hysteria" in Tanganyika (now Tanzania) and Uganda. Each epidemic reportedly affected between three hundred and six hundred people and, coming in the wake of independence from colonial rule, caused considerable concern. One of the practitioners sent to investigate was Benjamin H. Kagwa, a Ugandan-born psychiatrist whose report represents the first investigation by an African psychiatrist in East Africa. This article uses Kagwa's investigation to explore some of the difficulties facing East Africa's first generation of psychiatrists as they took over responsibility for psychiatry. During this period, psychiatrists worked in an intellectual climate that was both attempting to deal with the legacy of colonial racism, and which placed faith in African psychiatrists to reveal more culturally sensitive insights into African psychopathology. The epidemics were the first major challenge for psychiatrists such as Kagwa precisely because they appeared to confirm what colonial psychiatrists had been warning for years-that westernization would eventually result in mass mental instability. As this article argues, however, Kagwa was never fully able to free himself from the practices and assumptions that had pervaded his discipline under colonial rule. His analysis of the epidemics as a "mental conflict" fit into a much longer tradition of psychiatry in East Africa, and stood starkly against the explanations of the local community. PMID:24191308

  12. Comparison of Two Different Curricula in Psychiatry Clerkship at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

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    S. Ali Ahmadi-Abhari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new psychiatry clerkship curriculum which was designed to improve the knowledge and skills of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS, Iran.Methods:This quasi-experimental study was conducted in two consecutive semesters from February 2009 to January 2010. In total, 167 medical students participated in the study. In the first semester, as the control group, the clerks’ training was based on the traditional curriculum. In the next semester, we constructed and applied a new curriculum based on the SPICES model (student-centered, problem-based, integrated, community-based, elective and systematic.At the end of the clerkship, the students were given two exams: Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ to assess their knowledge, and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE to assess their skills. Baseline data and test performance for each student were analyzed. Results:Compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significantly higher OSCE scores (P= 0.01. With respect to MCQ score, no significant difference was found between the two groups.Conclusions:The results suggest that the revised curriculum is more effective than the traditional one in improving the required clinical skills in medical students during their psychiatry clerkship.

  13. Understanding the burnout experience: recent research and its implications for psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslach, Christina; Leiter, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    The experience of burnout has been the focus of much research during the past few decades. Measures have been developed, as have various theoretical models, and research studies from many countries have contributed to a better understanding of the causes and consequences of this occupationally-specific dysphoria. The majority of this work has focused on human service occupations, and particularly health care. Research on the burnout experience for psychiatrists mirrors much of the broader literature, in terms of both sources and outcomes of burnout. But it has also identified some of the unique stressors that mental health professionals face when they are dealing with especially difficult or violent clients. Current issues of particular relevance for psychiatry include the links between burnout and mental illness, the attempts to redefine burnout as simply exhaustion, and the relative dearth of evaluative research on potential interventions to treat and/or prevent burnout. Given that the treatment goal for burnout is usually to enable people to return to their job, and to be successful in their work, psychiatry could make an important contribution by identifying the treatment strategies that would be most effective in achieving that goal. PMID:27265691

  14. Book review of J. Green & W. Yule (2000). Festschrift for Professor Sir Michael Rutter. Volume I. Research and Innovation on the Road to Modern child Psychiatry. London: Gaskell and the Association for Child Psychology and Psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan.

    2001-01-01

    All of the papers in this Festschrift are clearly written authoritative reviews of the topics they address. Each may be read independently by readers wanting a quick overview of a particular problem. Collectively these essays underline the extraordinary contribution which Professor Sir Michael Rutter has made to the field of child and adolescent psychiatry over the last half a century. peer-reviewed

  15. Concluding the Series on Evidence-Based Practice: The Spread of Excellence in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The child and adolescent psychiatry community has been using large systems of information and new technologies to improve its performance.Evidence-based approach is used by practitioners to find and implement feasible therapies and medication. The different procedures involved of evidence-based practice, as used in child and adolescent psychology,…

  16. Impact of a Metabolic Screening Bundle on Rates of Screening for Metabolic Syndrome in a Psychiatry Resident Outpatient Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechers, Ilse R.; Viron, Mark; Stoklosa, Joseph; Freudenreich, Oliver; Henderson, David C.; Weiss, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although it is widely acknowledged that second-generation antipsychotics are associated with cardiometabolic side effects, rates of metabolic screening have remained low. The authors created a quality-improvement (QI) intervention in an academic medical center outpatient psychiatry resident clinic with the aim of improving rates of…

  17. Linkage between Graduate Medical Education Training Practice Profiles in Psychiatry, Obstetrics/Gynecology, and Family Practice. Appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SysteMetrics, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA.

    Provided are appendices for a study which examined the relationship between graduate medical education (GME) and practice profiles in three specialties: family practice, psychiatry, and obstetrics/gynecology. Appendix A includes materials related to methodology of the study. Appendices B-D include supplementary materials for family practice,…

  18. Pattern of prescription and drug use in psychiatry out patient department of private practitioners of Central India

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    Chetna A. Shamkuwar

    2013-12-01

    Conclusions: Anti-anxiety drug (benzodiazepines was the most frequently prescribed class of psychotropic drugs in various psychiatry disorders. The prescribing prevalence of Alprazolam with different brand names was more than that of other benzodiazepines. The combination of different psychotropic drugs were also prescribed. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 777-782

  19. What to Learn and How to Teach It: Five Years of Pre-Meetings for Training Directors in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pato, Michele T.; Cyr, Rebecca L.; Manley, Lucas N.; Morley, Christopher P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A multi-year conference grant (R13) supported an annual pre-meeting that served as a forum for psychiatry residency training directors to learn about and develop educational programs in their residencies in the area of scholarly activity. Methods: The authors sought to measure the success of these programs through both a…

  20. The Brazilian Neurology centenary (1912-2012 and the common origin of the fields of Neurology and Psychiatry

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    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is reported the Brazilian Neurology birth (1912, that has as the hallmark its first Neurology Cathedra of Rio de Janeiro, and the links between Neurology and Psychiatry, besides the main medical protagonists at that time in Rio de Janeiro: João Carlos Teixeira Brandão (1854-1921, first professor of the cathedra of Clinical Psychiatry and Nervous Diseases (1883-1921; Juliano Moreira (1873-1933, the founder of the Brazilian scientific Psychiatry and director of the Hospício Nacional de Alienados (National Hospice for the Insane (1903-1930; Antônio Austregésilo Rodrigues de Lima (1876-1960, first professor of the cathedra of Neurology, considered the father of the Brazilian Neurology. Aloysio de Castro (1881-1959 was a great Brazilian neurosemiologist at that time. Austregésilo practiced both disciplines, Neurology and Psychiatry, and like Jean-Martin-Charcot, he was very interested in a typically psychiatric disorder, the hysteria. It is also considered in this paper the first Brazilian authors of Neurology and/or Psychiatric texts and the places where Neurology was initially developed by the main founders: Hospício Nacional de Alienados, Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Rio de Janeiro and Policlínica Geral do Rio de Janeiro.

  1. The philosophical "mind-body problem" and its relevance for the relationship between psychiatry and the neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Cuypers, Stefaan E

    2010-01-01

    Parallel to psychiatry, "philosophy of mind" investigates the relationship between mind (mental domain) and body/brain (physical domain). Unlike older forms of philosophy of mind, contemporary analytical philosophy is not exclusively based on introspection and conceptual analysis, but also draws upon the empirical methods and findings of the sciences. This article outlines the conceptual framework of the "mind-body problem" as formulated in contemporary analytical philosophy and argues that this philosophical debate has potentially far-reaching implications for psychiatry as a clinical-scientific discipline, especially for its own autonomy and its relationship to neurology/neuroscience. This point is illustrated by a conceptual analysis of the five principles formulated in Kandel's 1998 article "A New Intellectual Framework for Psychiatry." Kandel's position in the philosophical mind-body debate is ambiguous, ranging from reductive physicalism (psychophysical identity theory) to non-reductive physicalism (in which the mental "supervenes" on the physical) to epiphenomenalist dualism or even emergent dualism. We illustrate how these diverging interpretations result in radically different views on the identity of psychiatry and its relationship with the rapidly expanding domain of neurology/neuroscience. PMID:21037408

  2. Károly Schaffer and his school: The birth of biological psychiatry in Hungary, 1890–1940

    OpenAIRE

    Baran, Brigitta; Bitter, István; FINK, MAX; Gazdag, Gábor; Shorter, Edward

    2007-01-01

    In the first third of the twentieth century, neuropathology seemed to offer the key to unlock the causes of psychiatric illness. Among the top centers devoted to the microscopic anatomy of the brain was that of Károly Schaffer in Budapest. Schaffer, a pioneer in the histopathology of Tay–Sachs–Schaffer disease, was also a charismatic teacher, bringing forth a school of investigators in psychopathology. Among them was László Meduna, who originated convulsive therapy. Despite the importance of ...

  3. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the treatment of adolescent sexual offenders with paraphilic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Florence; Bradford, John M W; Briken, Peer; De La Barra, Flora; Häßler, Frank; Cosyns, Paul

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of these guidelines was to evaluate the role of pharmacological agents in the treatment of adolescents with paraphilic disorders who are also sexual offenders or at-risk of sexual offending. Psychotherapeutic and psychosocial treatments were also reviewed. Adolescents with paraphilic disorders specifically present a different therapeutic challenge as compared to adults. In part, the challenge relates to adolescents being in various stages of puberty and development, which may limit the use of certain pharmacological agents due to their potential side effects. In addition, most of the published treatment programmes have used cognitive behavioural interventions, family therapies and psychoeducational interventions. Psychological treatment is predicated in adolescents on the notion that sexually deviant behaviour can be controlled by the offender, and that more adaptive behaviours can be learned. The main purposes of these guidelines are to improve the quality of care and to aid physicians in their clinical decisions. These guidelines brought together different expert views and involved an extensive literature research. Each treatment recommendation was evaluated and discussed with respect to the strength of evidence for efficacy, safety, tolerability and feasibility. An algorithm is proposed for the treatment of paraphilic disorders in adolescent sexual offenders or those who are at risk. PMID:26595752

  4. Transcultural psychiatry

    OpenAIRE

    R Vikash; Chaudhury, S.; S Sukumaran; Singh, A. R.; Giri, D. K.; Srivastava, K.; Prakash, J.; Sanger, K.

    2008-01-01

    During the last half of the century the researchers have placed a great deal of importance on brain behavior relations. This has brought upon a huge body of knowledge but unfortunately at the cost of culture - the true roots of much of our behaviour. This general disregard of cultural factors has not only led to false generalizations but has also blocked the understanding of the real forces that motivate and shape our perceptions, attitudes, and actions. This paper is therefore an attempt to ...

  5. Transplant psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S G

    2009-12-01

    Transplant units increasingly recognise a need for assistance from psychiatrists and psychologists in the assessment and management of potential transplant recipients and live donors. This arises from the various known associations between mental disorder and the need for transplantation; the intensifying requirement to select carefully among the potential recipients and donors of scarce human organs; and the drive to maximise transplant outcomes by optimising all aspects of treatment after surgery. There is good evidence that careful, protocol-guided selection among potential candidates for transplantation with alcoholic liver disease helps ensure outcomes at least as good as for other forms of liver disease. The evidence base in other areas is less robust, but the principles guiding the psychiatric assessment are broadly the same. There is an increasing need for psychiatric assessment of potential live organ donors, in order to minimise the risks they run, and in the case of altruistic donation this is now mandatory in UK law. PMID:21152475

  6. [Novel advances in neuropsychology--forward to the "deconstruction" of psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohigashi, Yoshitaka

    2006-01-01

    Neuropsychology has recently become a science which deals not only with instrumental disorders (e.g., aphasia, apraxia, and agnosia), but also with impairments of interpersonal relationships (e.g., emotional cognitions, social decision making, and understanding others), and many important paradigms are already provided. We could enumerate several representative instances: (1)application of the "theory of mind" to autistic or related disorders (-->"reasoning of psychological state of others"), (2) neuropsychological studies on the "social brain" concerning emotional recognition or social recognition (-->"amygdale, orbitofrontal cortex, and medial ventral frontal cortex"), (3) identifying related cerebral areas (-->"superior temporal sulcus") to detect eye or body movements of others, (4) discovering the mirror neuron and mirror systems in monkeys and humans (-->"imitation of the behavior of others in the brain"), and (5) intracerebral processes which may occur precedent to conscious intention (-->"consciousness as post-hoc phenomena"). These novel paradigms might lead us to the "deconstruction" of psychiatry. We believe that the fundamental assignments of neuropsychology should inquire into "cognitive representation", "conscious representation", and "cerebral representation" about the inner processes of human activities. As these assignments would be almost the same for the psychiatric symptoms, we do not have any necessity to fundamentally distinguish psychiatric and neuropsychologial symptoms. These two kinds of signs will be attributed finally to the same dimension. The specificity of psychiatry resides in "conscious representation" and its cerebral foundations. We reconsidered the "Theory of Neural Group Selection" proposed by Edelman and the excellent experimental results on the relationship between intention and movements reported by Libet, et al.. All these results strongly indicate the absolute necessity to reconsider conscious causality and psychogenesis

  7. Uso terapêutico dos canabinoides em psiquiatria Therapeutical use of the cannabinoids in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alexandre S. Crippa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar os principais avanços no potencial uso terapêutico de alguns compostos canabinoides em psiquiatria. MÉTODO: Foi realizada busca nos bancos de dado PubMed, SciELO e Lilacs e identificados estudos e revisões da literatura sobre o uso terapêutico dos canabinoides em psiquiatria, em particular canabidiol, rimonabanto, Δ9-tetraidrocanabinol e seus análogos. RESULTADOS: O canabidiol demonstrou apresentar potencial terapêutico como antipsicótico, ansiolítico, antidepressivo e em diversas outras condições. O Δ9-tetraidrocanabinol e seus análogos demonstraram efeitos ansiolíticos, na dependência de cannabis, bem como adjuvantes no tratamento de esquizofrenia, apesar de ainda carecerem de mais estudos. O rimonabanto demonstrou eficácia no tratamento de sintomas subjetivos e fisiológicos da intoxicação pela cannabis e como adjuvante no tratamento do tabagismo. Os potenciais efeitos colaterais, de induzir depressão e ansiedade limitaram o uso clínico deste antagonista CB1. CONCLUSÃO: Os canabinoides têm demonstrado que podem ter amplo interesse terapêutico em psiquiatria, porém mais estudos controlados são necessários para confirmar estes achados e determinar a segurança destes compostos.OBJECTIVE: To review the main advances related to the potential therapeutic use of cannabinoid compounds in psychiatry. METHOD: A search was performed in the online databases PubMed, ScieELO, and Lilacs for studies and literature reviews concerning therapeutic applications of cannabinoids in psychiatry, especially cannabidiol, rimonabant, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and their analogues. RESULTS: Cannabidiol was found to have therapeutic potential with antipsychotic, anxiolytic, and antidepressant properties, in addition to being effective in other conditions. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and its analogues were shown to have anxiolytic effects in the treatment of cannabis dependence and to function as an adjuvant in the treatment of

  8. [Fifty years of public service for Quebec community psychiatry services. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This essay comprises 2 parts. It aims to recognize the public service of psychiatrists of the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal who served at the provincial level of the Ministry of Health and Social Services for deinstitutionalisation of policies and organisation of services, at the service of people with severe mental disorders. First with Dr. Camille Laurin post-face of the 1962 book Les fous crient au secours! (Mentally ill patients cry for help); then the insight on the latest phase of differentiated specialised clinics by Dr. Denis Lazure, who participated in 1962 to the Bédard, Lazure, Roberts commission that launched community psychiatry, but who will also be Social Affairs Minister in the late '70 s; Dr. Arthur Amyot will sail through the budgetary issues when in the beginning of the '80s the mental health directorate was under Social Affairs; Dr. Luc Blanchet will be associated to a rich production of interdisciplinary reports by the advisory Mental Health Committee until its dismissal in 2003; and finally, Dr. André Delorme, who probably has the record of longevity at the head of the mental health directorate, transferred in 2003 under the deputy minister for medical and university affairs.The essay will propose since the beginning a grid or referential of four health services analysis. First; the arguments for community care by British and Italian psychiatrists and researchers, Thornicroft and Tansella. Second; system issues of mental health reforms proposed by Canadian psychiatric nurse and researcher Paula Goering. Third; the model of socio-political regulation of health system proposed by the Université de Montréal' health administration researcher Dr. André-Pierre Contandriopoulos; and Fourth; the structural tension between the medical and social sector signaled by the American medical sociologist, Leutz.The same phases of deinstitutionalization in other countries as UK, took place as followed: a) the asylum phase

  9. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  10. Spaced-out in Saskatchewan: modernism, anti-psychiatry, and deinstitutionalization, 1950-1968.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Erika

    2010-01-01

    On the eve of deinstitutionalization, a group of professionals, including an architect, a psychiatrist, and a psychologist, joined together in pursuit of a middle ground between outright closure of long-stay hospitals and the introduction of out-patient services in general hospitals. Augmented by the use of the hallucinogenic drug LSD, these men produced a trenchant critique of modern psychiatry and the changing mental health system without subscribing to antipsychiatry. Caught among shifting psychiatric paradigms, fiscal constraints, and political pressure to situate mental health within an encroaching system of publicly funded health care reforms, their proposed mental hospital designs failed to stem the tidal wave of post-World War II changes in mental health care. PMID:21196606

  11. [From "psychopathy" to "personality disorder"--conceptual history of a problematic field within psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Paul; Camenisch, Paul

    2015-11-11

    The issue of personality disorders addresses fundamental questions of psychiatry: Is there a clear boundary between normal behaviour and the state of mental illness? Which criteria are defining this boundary? Is a personality disorder really a mental illness or «just» a special variation of an individual lifestyle? This paper reviews the development of the terms psychopathy/personality disorder from the early 19th century to the present-day diagnostic manuals ICD-10 and DSM-5. This debate spreads out–as it does with regard to any other mental disorder–between psychopathological, neurobiological and social sciences approaches. It is of high practical relevance to realize that nowadays effective therapeutic options for patients with personality disorders are available. Therefore, the therapeutic nihilism of earlier times is no longer justified. PMID:26558933

  12. La place de la psychiatrie dans les Archives d’anthropologie criminelle

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Christophe Coffin

    2012-01-01

    En 1886, lors de la parution du premier numéro des Archives d’anthropologie criminelle, la psychiatrie est déjà organisée en tant que discipline et constitue, à ce titre, une spécialité médicale. Une chaire de pathologie mentale et des maladies de l’encéphale a été fondée en 1879 à la faculté de médecine de Paris et les étudiants en médecine apprennent leur spécialité dans le cadre de l’asile pour aliénés, au chevet du malade. Depuis 1852, les ali��nistes (tel est le nom courant à l’époque, c...

  13. Cross-Cultural Studies of Personality Traits and their Relevance to Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.

    2009-01-01

    Aims This article provides a brief review of recent cross-cultural research on personality traits at both individual and culture levels, highlighting the relevance of recent findings for psychiatry. Method In most cultures around the world, personality traits can be clearly summarized by the five broad dimensions of the Five-Factor Model (FFM), which makes it feasible to compare cultures on personality and psychopathology. Results Maturational patterns and sex differences in personality traits generally show cultural invariance, which generates the hypothesis that age of onset, clinical evolution, and sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders might follow similar universal patterns. The average personality profiles from 51 cultures show meaningful geographical distributions and associations with culture-level variables, but are clearly unrelated to national character stereotypes. Conclusions Aggregate personality scores can potentially be related to epidemiological data on psychiatric disorders, and dimensional personality models have implications for psychiatric diagnosis and treatment around the world. PMID:17128620

  14. Assessment of a consultation-liaison psychiatry and psychology health care program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola BA Andreoli

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relevance of subjective criteria adopted by a psychiatry and psychology consultation-liaison service, and their suitability in the evaluation of case registries and objective results. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted and all supervisors of the university hospital service were interviewed. Routinely collected case registries were also reviewed. Standardized assessment with content analysis for each category was carried out. RESULTS: The results showed distortions in the adopted service focus (doctor-patient relationship and consultant requests. This focus is more on consulting physician-oriented interventions than on patients. DISCUSSION: Evaluation of the relevance of service criteria could help promoting quality assessment of the services provided, mainly when objective criteria have not yet been established to assure their suitability.

  15. "Quality of life": a brand new concept for research and practice in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlim Marcelo T

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the '70s, the assessment of quality of life (QOL has grown from a 'small cottage' industry to a formal discipline within a coherent theoretical framework, accepted methods, and manifold applications. In recent years, QOL has become increasingly popular as a useful variable tailored to assess the overall impact of diseases and medical treatments from the patient's point of view. In this updating paper, we describe the most frequently used instruments, and discuss the conceptual and practical issues concerning QOL evaluation, as applied to the study of mental disorders. In addition, we present a unifying definition of QOL that has recently been developed by the World Health Organization. Finally, we conclude that QOL measures are potentially useful methods to be applied to research and clinical practice in psychiatry - especially when used to demonstrate the impact of mental illnesses and the possible benefits of therapeutic interventions.

  16. [Beyond the asylum -An other view on the history of psychiatry in the modern age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Aude

    2015-07-01

    If one thinks medicine, madness and the past, one image immediately pops into mind: that of the mental asylum. Following the famous work by Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, many historians have thus considered that the medicalization of insanity in the modern age had mostly led to a "great confinement" and a greater segregation of all individuals deemed mentally unfit during the "asylum era': However, new research demonstrates that this classic narrative of the psychiatric past needs to be revised. It discloses that, ever since the 191h century, a whole other medical culture existed as a challenge to asylums, a culture that advocated the integration of the mad and fought to disassociate psychiatry from the dominant model of confinement all throughout the occidental world. This article aims at presenting the results of these historical works that depict another aspect of the psychiatric history, exploring "boarding out" practices, instead of asylum ones. PMID:26111838

  17. Aborigines, colonizers and newcomers: the landscape of transcultural psychiatry research in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaran, Carlos; Foresti, Katia; de Moore, Gregory

    2013-12-01

    The authors present an analysis of transcultural psychiatry research in relation to three main population groups in Australia: Aboriginal Australians, documented immigrants, and refugees. The pioneering reports produced by Western psychiatrists in Aboriginal communities are examined in this article. Additional quantitative and qualitative studies developed with Aboriginal people in the context of a traumatic acculturation process are also reviewed. Subsequently, the authors examine the challenges faced by immigrants with mental disorders in a health care system still unequipped to treat a new array of clinical presentations unfamiliar to the clinical staff. The authors also highlight the development of policies aimed at providing quality mental health care to a mosaic of cultures in an evolving multicultural society. Lastly, the psychiatric manifestations of refugees and asylum seekers are analysed in the context of a series of vulnerabilities and deprivations they have experienced, including basic human rights. PMID:24002948

  18. Resident psychiatrists as assessors for lectures in continued medical education in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamed Yuval

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined the quality of instruction in a continued medical education course and the correspondence between the residents and lecturers evaluations of the program. MATERIALS AND METHODS : Resident psychiatrists and instructors completed structured evaluation forms immediately following each lecture in a psychiatry course for one academic year. RESULTS : Residents′ and lecturers′ evaluations of goal achievement, but not general ratings of lecture quality correlated positively. Instructors′ enthusiasm, clarity and appropriateness of subject matter and encouragement of independent thinking, but not audio-visual aids significantly correlated with resident′s positive evaluations. CONCLUSIONS : Ongoing evaluation of classroom lectures by resident psychiatrists may provide valuable feedback to instructors and impact the quality of medical education. The "classic" role of the teacher organization and enthusiasm are the most important components of quality education.

  19. Tests, testing, and tested - we need to critically evaluate the meaning of tests in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Douglas M

    2013-04-01

    This article describes clinical pitfalls in our concepts of what it means for an illness, diagnosis, or evaluation and treatment methods to say that they have been "tested". This articles begins with the problems encountered in newborn testing for Krabbe Disease of the nervous system in New York State over the last few years as an example of a test that did not live up to its promise to help the society. Next, the article gives 3 examples of testing in psychiatry, 1. Psychological testing to make treatment decisions in children with depression, 2. Patient's and parents who have been told, or believe, that they have Asperger's disorder, and 3. The conclusions made about the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy based on clinical studies. The article's conclusion sums up these examples as reasons why we need to have a more practical and scientific approach to our understanding and implementation of tests used in our field. PMID:23825862

  20. Epidemiologic Studies in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: A Review of Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Burak Dursun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood psychiatric disorders are estimated to influence about 9 to 21% of relevant age group and interest in this disorders are increasing all over the world. The growing need to child and adolescent mental health leads the task of establishing proposals and policies in this field to become a priority for governments. The first step of such proposals should be determination of prevalence of child and adolescent mental disorders in that country. However, several major methodological problems make it hard to provide accurate prevalence estimates from epidemiological studies. Most common problems are within the fields of sampling, case definition, case ascertainment and data analyses. Such issues increases the costs of studies and hinder to reach large sample sizes. To minimize these problems, investigators have to be careful on choosing the appropriate methodology and diagnostic tools in their studies. Although there are many interviews and questionnaires for screening and diagnosing in child and adolescent psychiatry, only a few of them are suitable for epidemiological research. In parallel with the improvement in all fields of child and adolescent mental health in our country, some of the major screening and diagnosing tools used in prevalence studies in literature have already been translated and validated in Turkish. Most important of this tools for screening purposes are Child Behavior Checklist and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and for diagnosing purposes are Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version and Development and Well-Being Assessment. The aims of this article are to review the methodological problems of epidemiologic studies in child and adolescent psychiatry and to briefly discuss suitable diagnostic tools for extended sampled epidemiologic studies in our country.

  1. Negative pathways to psychiatric care and ethnicity: the bridge between social science and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Craig; Mallett, Rosemarie; Hutchinson, Gerard; Leff, Julian

    2004-02-01

    It has been consistently reported that the African-Caribbean population in the UK are more likely than their White counterparts to access psychiatric services via the police and under compulsion. The reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This paper comprises two main parts. The first provides a comprehensive review of research in this area, arguing the current lack of understanding stems from a number of methodological limitations that characterise the research to date. The issue of ethnic variations in pathways to psychiatric care has been studied almost exclusively within a medical epidemiological framework, and the potential insights offered by sociological and anthropological research in the fields of illness behaviour and health service use have been ignored. This has important implications as the failure of research to move beyond enumerating differences in sources of referral to psychiatric services and rates of compulsory admission means no recommendations for policy or service reform have been developed from the research. The second part of the paper sets out the foundations for future research, arguing that the pathway to care has to be studied as a social process subject to a wide range of influences, including the cultural context within which illness is experienced. It is further argued that Kleinman's (Patients and healers in the context of culture: an exploration of the borderland between anthropology, medicine and psychiatry, University of California Press, Los Angeles, 1980) Health Care System model offers a particularly valuable preliminary framework for organising and interpreting future research. It is only through gaining a more qualitative understanding of the processes at work in shaping different responses to mental illness and interactions with mental health services that the patterns observed in quantitative studies can be fully understood. This further reflects the need for a bridge between the social sciences and

  2. Ik maak er een eind aan. Over psychiatrie, een doodswens, en de rol van de hulpverlener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moniek van der Krogt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available On psychiatry, a client’s wish to die and the responsibilities of the social worker Research shows that each year, about 300 Dutch psychiatric patients emphatically and repeatedly ask for euthanasia. Two to five of those requests are honored. About 50 of the 300 patients eventually commit suicide. The process to request for euthanasia is long and complicated and such a request is rarely approved. Figures show that in 2009, 1525 people committed suicide. 750 (49% of these suicides are associated with a psychiatric history or psychiatric problems. In her work as a social worker the author is regularly confronted with clients who have a death wish. In this article, the role of the social worker when confronted with a wish to die, is explored. Ik maak er een eind aan. Over psychiatrie, een doodswens, en de rol van de hulpverlener Jaarlijks vragen circa 300 psychiatrische patiënten nadrukkelijk en herhaaldelijk om hulp bij zelfdoding. Twee tot vijf van die verzoeken worden gehonoreerd. Ongeveer 50 van de 300 patiënten pleegt uiteindelijk zelfmoord. Het proces om euthanasie aan te vragen is lang en ingewikkeld en zo’n verzoek wordt dus zelden goedgekeurd. Cijfers rondom zelfdoding tonen aan dat in 2009 1525 mensen zelfmoord pleegden. 750 (49% van deze zelfmoorden wordt in verband gebracht met een psychiatrisch verleden of psychiatrische klachten. In haar werk als hulpverlener heeft de schrijver van dit artikel regelmatig te maken met cliënten die aangeven dood te willen. In dit artikel wordt de rol van de hulpverlener, wanneer deze geconfronteerd wordt met een doodswens, uiteengezet.

  3. Boredom, dopamine, and the thrill of psychosis: psychiatry in a new key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branković, Saša

    2015-06-01

    Medication non-adherence is a great challenge in the treatment of psychotic disorders. Several factors leading to medication non-adherence in schizophrenia have been identified: drug side-effects, lack of illness insight, negative attitude of the patient and friends/relatives toward medication, stigma of mental illness and taking medication, poor therapeutic alliance, substance abuse, and role of the illness in maintaining the family system. In this work I propose a new vista on the phenomenon of medication non-adherence in psychosis. Rather rule than exception, non-adherence is to be expected in psychosis, it can be considered as a symptom of psychosis similarly as substance craving and use are symptoms of the substance use disorders. Relying on the last refinements of the concepts of boredom, anticipatory anhedonia, intrinsic motivation, and thrill I assume that there is a lure of psychotic episode. In order to escape an extremely unpleasant and distressing experience of boredom and to experience the thrill of psychosis, the patients are prone to quit antipsychotic therapy. The phenomena of boredom and the thrill of psychosis are evident but unexploited for strengthening the therapeutic adherence. Making the lure of psychosis an explicit reason for medication non-adherence would bring to the awareness a personal choice between short-term pleasure of the psychotic thrill and prevention of long-term losses due to a psychotic episode. Neurobiological and psychobiological underpinning of the psychotic thrill has been suggested. An explanation of the pleasure of psychosis and substance use, which overcomes the circular explanation of reward in which dopamine appears as the cause and consequence of reward, has been proposed. The present synthesis can be regarded as a contribution to the field of theoretical psychiatry. It points to a chance for psychiatry to do more for patients' wellbeing and treatment adherence performing in a new key - dealing with boredom and

  4. Attitude of young psychiatrists toward coercive measures in psychiatry: a case vignette study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wake Yosuke

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Every psychiatrist must pay careful attention to avoid violating human rights when initiating coercive treatments such as seclusion and restraint. However, these interventions are indispensable in clinical psychiatry, and they are often used as strategies to treat agitated patients. In this study, we investigated young psychiatrists' attitudes toward psychiatric coercive measures. Methods A total of 183 young psychiatrists participated as subjects in our study. A questionnaire with a case vignette describing a patient with acute psychosis was sent to the study subjects via the Internet or by mail. This questionnaire included scoring the necessity for hospitalization, and the likelihood of prescribing seclusion and/or restraint, on a 9-point Likert scale (with 9 indicating strong agreement. Results There was general agreement among the study subjects that the case should be admitted to a hospital (8.91 ± 0.3 and secluded (8.43 ± 1.0. The estimated length of hospitalization was 13.53 ± 6.4 weeks. Regarding the likelihood of prescribing restraint, results showed great diversity (5.14 ± 2.5 on 9-point scale; psychiatrists working at general hospitals scored significantly higher (6.25 ± 2.5 than those working at university hospitals (5.02 ± 2.3 or psychiatric hospitals (4.15 ± 2.6. A two-group comparison of the length of inpatient care revealed a significant difference between those psychiatrists who scored 1-3 (n = 55, 14.22 ± 7.4 wks and those who scored 7-9 (n = 62, 12.22 ± 4.0 regarding the need to use restraint. Conclusion Our results may reflect the current dilemma in Japanese psychiatry wherein psychiatrists must initiate coercive measures to shorten hospitalization stays. This study prompted its subject psychiatrists to consider coercive psychiatric treatments.

  5. Problem-solving strategies in psychiatry: differences between experts and novices in diagnostic accuracy and reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adel Gabriel,1,2 Claudio Violato21Departments of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary; 2Medical Education, Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary Calgary, CanadaBackground: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare diagnostic success and its relationship with the diagnostic reasoning process between novices and experts in psychiatry.Methods: Nine volunteers, comprising five expert psychiatrists and four clinical clerks, completed a think-aloud protocol while attempting to make a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition diagnosis of a selected case with both Axis I and Axis III diagnoses.Results: Expert psychiatrists made significantly more successful diagnoses for both the primary psychiatric and medical diagnoses than clinical clerks. Expert psychiatrists also gave fewer differential options. Analyzing the think-aloud protocols, expert psychiatrists were much more organized, made fewer mistakes, and utilized significantly less time to access their knowledge than clinical clerks. Both novices and experts seemed to use the hypothetic-deductive and scheme-inductive approaches to diagnosis. However, experts utilized hypothetic-deductive approaches significantly more often than novices.Conclusion: The hypothetic-deductive diagnostic strategy was utilized more than the scheme-inductive approach by both expert psychiatrists and clinical clerks. However, a specific relationship between diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic success could not be identified in this small pilot study. The author recommends a larger study that would include a detailed analysis of the think-aloud protocols.Keywords: diagnostic reasoning, knowledge structure, psychiatric diagnosis, hypothetic-deductive, scheme-inductive

  6. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  7. Differential stigmatizing attitudes of healthcare professionals towards psychiatry and patients with mental health problems : something to worry about? A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, Laura M.; Swart, Marte; Slooff, Cees J.; van Weeghel, Jaap; Knegtering, Henderikus; Castelein, Stynke

    2015-01-01

    This study compares stigmatizing attitudes of different healthcare professionals towards psychiatry and patients with mental health problems. The Mental Illness Clinicians Attitude (MICA) questionnaire is used to assess stigmatizing attitudes in three groups: general practitioners (GPs, n = 55), men

  8. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  9. One-Year Retrospective Analysis of Forensic Cases Referred to Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Outpatient Clinic in the Province of Adiyaman

    OpenAIRE

    Funda Gumustas; Yasemin Yulaf; Sebla Gokce; Sema Saglam; Emel Koyuncu Kutuk

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study’s aim is to investigate child and adolescent cases referred for forensic examination to our child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic. Material and Methods: File informations of 121 cases who referred to Adiyaman University Training and Research Hospital, child psychiatry clinic between 01 June 2012 and 31 May 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Socio-demographic characteristics of the children and reasons for referral determined. The study was focused on ...

  10. Clinical usefulness of the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-S) scale in patients with type I bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Miguel; Crespo-Facorro Benedicto; Cuesta Manuel J; Franco Manuel; Martínez-Arán Anabel; Segarra Nuria; Tabarés-Seisdedos Rafael; Vieta Eduard; Rojo J Emilio; Gómez-Benito Juana; Pino Oscar; Guilera Georgina; Purdon Scot E; Díez Teresa; Rejas Javier

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The relevance of persistent cognitive deficits to the pathogenesis and prognosis of bipolar disorders (BD) is understudied, and its translation into clinical practice has been limited by the absence of brief methods assessing cognitive status in Psychiatry. This investigation assessed the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry (SCIP-S) for the detection of cognitive impairment in BD. Methods After short training,...

  11. A 'German world' shared among doctors: a history of the relationship between Japanese and German psychiatry before World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Akira

    2013-06-01

    This article deals with the critical history of German and Japanese psychiatrists who dreamed of a 'German world' that would cross borders. It analyses their discourse, not only by looking at their biographical backgrounds, but also by examining them in a wider context linked to German academic predominance and cultural propaganda before World War II. By focusing on Wilhelm Stieda, Wilhelm Weygandt and Kure Shuzo, the article shows that the positive evaluation of Japanese psychiatry by the two Germans encouraged Kure, who was eager to modernize the treatment of and institutions for the mentally ill in Japan. Their statements on Japanese psychiatry reflect their ideological and historical framework, with reference to national/ethnic identity, academic position, and the relationship between Germany and Japan. PMID:24573258

  12. Mind in the Gap Between Neural and Social Networks - Cyberspace and Virtual Reality in Psychiatry and Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šendula-Jengić, Vesna; Šendula-Pavelić, Martina; Hodak, Jelena

    2016-06-01

    In terms of health and healthcare cyberspace and virtual reality can be used differently and for different purposes and consequently create different outcomes. The three main areas which we shall discuss here are: 1) cyberspace as provider of health information and self-help resources, since the anonymity cyberspace provides is particularly important in the highly stigmatized field of psychiatry where a large number of people never seek professional help, which in turn negatively affects not only the person in question, but the family and ultimately the society (work efficiency, disability-adjusted life year - DALY, etc.), 2) cyberspace and virtual reality (VR) as cause of psychopathology, starting from violent behaviour, to addictive behaviour and other, 3) and finally cyberspace and VR as providers of efficient professional therapy in the field of psychiatry. PMID:27287782

  13. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Update 2010 on the treatment of acute bipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunze, Heinz; Vieta, Eduard; Goodwin, Guy M;

    2010-01-01

    bipolar depression in adults. METHODS: The data used for these guidelines have been extracted from a MEDLINE and EMBASE search, from the clinical trial database clinicaltrials.gov, from recent proceedings of key conferences, and from various national and international treatment guidelines. Their...

  14. The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Update 2010 on the treatment of acute bipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunze, Heinz; Vieta, Eduard; Goodwin, Guy M;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: These guidelines are based on a first edition that was published in 2002, and have been edited and updated with the available scientific evidence until September 2009. Their purpose is to supply a systematic overview of all scientific evidence pertaining to the treatment of acute...... with at least limited positive evidence for efficacy in bipolar depression, several of them still experimental and backed up only by a single study. Only one medication was considered to be sufficiently studied to merit full positive evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Although major advances have been made since...... the first edition of this guideline in 2002, there are many areas which still need more intense research to optimize treatment. The majority of treatment recommendations is still based on limited data and leaves considerable areas of uncertainty....

  15. The Philosophical "Mind-Body Problem" and Its Relevance for the Relationship between Psychiatry and the Neurosciences

    OpenAIRE

    Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Cuypers, Stefaan

    2010-01-01

    Parallel to psychiatry, “philosophy of mind” investigates the relationship between mind (mental domain) and body/brain (physical domain). Unlike older forms of philosophy of mind, contemporary analytical philosophy is not exclusively based on introspection and conceptual analysis, but also draws upon the empirical methods and findings of the sciences. This article outlines the conceptual framework of the “mind-body problem” as formulated in contemporary analytical philosophy and argues that t...

  16. Impact of a structured review session on medical student psychiatry subject examination performance [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan H. Siddiqi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME subject examinations are used as a standardized metric for performance in required clerkships for third-year medical students. While several medical schools have implemented a review session to help consolidate knowledge acquired during the clerkship, the effects of such an intervention are not yet well-established. An improvement in NBME psychiatry examination scores has previously been reported with a single end-of-clerkship review session, but this was limited by a small sample size and the fact that attendance at the review session was optional, leading to likely selection bias.   Methods: A 1.5-hour structured review session was conducted for medical students in the last week of each 4-week psychiatry clerkship between September 2014 and July 2015. Students were required to attend unless excused due to scheduling conflicts. Scores on the NBME psychiatry subject exam were compared with those of students taking the examination in the corresponding time period in each of the previous two academic years.   Results: 83 students took the exam during the experimental period, while 176 took the exam during the control period. Statistically significant improvements were found in mean score (p=0.03, mean for the two lowest scores in each group (p<0.0007, and percentage of students scoring 70 or less (p=0.03. Percentage of students achieving the maximum possible score (99 was higher in the experimental group, but did not reach significance (p=0.06.   Conclusions: An end-of-clerkship review session led to increased mean scores on the NBME psychiatry subject examination, particularly for students at the lower end of the score range. Future research should investigate the impact of such an intervention in other specialties and other institutions.

  17. Assessment of Mental Symptoms and Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents Who Admitted to the Child-Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Yöntem Fidan T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The results of the studies investigating the positive and negative factors which affect the mental health were important for developing protective, new and effective programs in prevention from psychiatric disorders.The aim of this study is to determine the demographic features, symptom distribution of children and adolescents in this region.Methods: 632 child and adolescents who attended to Karadeniz Technical University Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic between 01 January 20...

  18. If Ethics in Psychiatry is the Answer - What was the Question? Exploring Social Space and the Role of Clinical Chaplaincy

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Kohlen

    2014-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, ethics has been expanding in health care and chaplains comprise one of the key groups that provide ethics consultation services in the German arena of psychiatry. Like all professional actors in the practical arena, chaplains perform their role. Performance happens in relation to others who occupy positions that allow more or less exercise of power. This architecture of relational positioning and territory constitutes the social space. The question is, whether ethi...

  19. Social Skills: Adolf Meyer’s Revision of Clinical Skill for the New Psychiatry of the Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Adolf Meyer (1866–1950) exercised considerable influence over the development of Anglo-American psychiatry during the first half of the twentieth century. The concepts and techniques he implemented at his prominent Phipps Psychiatric Clinic at Johns Hopkins remain important to psychiatric practice and neuro-scientific research today. In the 1890s, Meyer revised scientific medicine’s traditional notion of clinical skill to serve what he called the ‘New Psychiatry’, a clinical discipline that e...

  20. Impact of a structured review session on medical student psychiatry subject examination performance [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan H. Siddiqi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME subject examinations are used as a standardized metric for performance in required clerkships for third-year medical students. While several medical schools have implemented a review session to help consolidate knowledge acquired during the clerkship, the effects of such an intervention are not yet well-established. One prior study reported an improvement in NBME psychiatry examination scores with a 1.5-hour review session, but this study was limited by a small sample size and the fact that attendance at the review session was optional, leading to likely selection bias.   Methods: A 1.5-hour structured review session was conducted for medical students in the last week of each 4-week psychiatry clerkship between September 2014 and July 2015. Students were required to attend unless excused due to scheduling conflicts. Scores on the NBME psychiatry subject exam were compared with those of students taking the examination in the corresponding time period in each of the previous two academic years.   Results: 83 students took the exam during the experimental period, while 176 took the exam during the control period. Statistically significant improvements were found in mean score (p=0.03, mean for the two lowest scores in each group (p<0.0007, and percentage of students scoring 70 or less (p=0.03. Percentage of students achieving the maximum possible score (99 was higher in the experimental group, but did not reach significance (p=0.06.   Conclusions: An end-of-clerkship review session led to increased mean scores on the NBME psychiatry subject examination, particularly for students at the lower end of the score range. Future research should investigate the impact of such an intervention in other specialties and other institutions.

  1. Genetic diagnosis in clinical psychiatry: A case report of a woman with a 47, XXX karyotype and Fragile X syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Vandersteen, Anthony M.; David Moore; Celia Donaghue; Neil MacFarlane; Dragana Josifova

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A recent report highlighted the importance of considering a chromosomal abnormality in the differential diagnosis of adult clinical psychiatry. This case report illustrates the importance of considering Fragile X syndrome, an X-linked genetic disorder associated with psychiatric morbidities. Methods: A 45 years old woman was referred to the clinical genetics department by her psychiatrist for investigation of her gross obesity, hyperphagia, learning difficulties and...

  2. Delirium, a ‘confusing’ condition in general hospitals: The experience of a Consultation–Liaison Psychiatry Unit in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Goulia, Panagiota; Mantas, Christos; Hyphantis, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background/aims: A plethora of studies showed that delirium is common in hospitalized populations. We aimed to examine the characteristics of delirium patients referred to our Consultation–Liaison Psychiatry Unit (CLPU). Methods: Our CLPU database was used to obtain data of all referred patients admitted to our hospital and diagnosed with delirium. All referred nondelirious patients served as controls. Results: During one year, 483 patients were referred to the CLPU. Ninety-three (19.3%) were...

  3. Involuntary psychiatric holds - the structure of admissions on the example of Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Markiewicz; Janusz Heitzman; Ewa Gardyńska - Ziemba

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to analyse the structure of involuntary psychiatric holds in Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw, throughout the year. Our research interests included socio-demographic profiles of the patients, time of admissions (time of a day/night/ season), type of diagnoses at admission and suicide attempts preceding the admission. We also analysed the normative aspect of involuntary admissions, i.e. which Articles of the Polish Mental Health Act cons...

  4. A guide to a new short course to promote interest and engagement in psychiatry in medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, Matthew; Lomas, Benjamin; Schofield, Zena; Doody, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a new course for preclinical medical undergraduates designed to promote interest and engagement in psychiatry. The course employed a range of innovative teaching techniques alongside ward visits to provide students with early clinical experience. Unusually, assessment for the course involved the production of creative works as well as reflective writing about students' experiences. We collected a variety of feedback from participants showing that they found the course e...

  5. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  6. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  7. Symptoms of Poststroke Depression among Stroke Survivors: An Appraisal of Psychiatry Needs and Care during Physiotherapy Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibeneme, Sam Chidi; Anyachukwu, Canice Chukwudi; Nwosu, Akachukwu; Ibeneme, Georgian Chiaka; Bakare, Muideen; Fortwengel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To identify stroke survivors with symptoms of poststroke depression and the extent of psychiatry needs and care they have received while on physiotherapy rehabilitation. Participants. Fifty stroke survivors (22 females and 28 males) at the outpatient unit of Physiotherapy Department, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, who gave their informed consent, were randomly selected. Their age range and mean age were 26–66 years and 54.76 ± 8.79 years, respectively. Method. A multiple case study of 50 stroke survivors for symptoms of poststroke depression was done with Beck's Depression Inventory, mini mental status examination tool, and Modified Motor Assessment Scale. The tests were performed independently by the participants except otherwise stated and scored on a scale of 0–6. Data were analyzed using Z-test for proportional significance and chi-square test for determining relationship between variables, at p < 0.05. Results. Twenty-one (42.0%) stroke survivors had symptoms of PSD, which was significantly dependent on duration of stroke (χ2 = 21.680, df = 6, and p = 0.001), yet none of the participants had a psychiatry review. Conclusions. Symptoms of PSD may be common in cold compared to new cases of stroke and may need psychiatry care while on physiotherapy rehabilitation.

  8. Physicians’ “compliance with treatment” in the context of consultation-liaison psychiatry: The role of “triangle” relationships and projective identification

    OpenAIRE

    Hyphantis, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Thomas N Hyphantis1, Konstantinos I Arvanitakis21Consultation-Liaison Psychiatric Unit, Department of Psychiatry,Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Department of Philosophy and Department of Psychiatry, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, CanadaAbstract: Transference and countertransference issues arising in the context of consultation-liaison (C-L) psychiatry could be more complex than originally assumed since they include reactions evoked within the frame of a...

  9. Team-based learning for psychiatry residents: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Team-based learning (TBL) is an effective teaching method for medical students. It improves knowledge acquisition and has benefits regarding learner engagement and teamwork skills. In medical education it is predominately used with undergraduates but has potential benefits for training clinicians. The aims of this study were to examine the impact of TBL in a sample of psychiatrists in terms of classroom engagement, attitudes towards teamwork, learner views and experiences of TBL. Methods Forty-four psychiatry residents participated in an Addictions Psychiatry TBL module. Mixed-methods were used for evaluation. Self-rated measures of classroom engagement (Classroom Engagement Survey, CES) were compared with conventional lectures, and attitudes regarding the value of teams (Value of Teams Scale, VTS) were compared before and after the module. Independent t-tests were used to compare ‘lecture’ CES scores with TBL CES scores and pre and post scores for the VTS. Feedback questionnaires were completed. Interviews were conducted with a subset of residents and transcripts analysed using thematic analysis. Results Twenty-eight residents completed post-course measures (response rate 63.6%). Seven participants volunteered for qualitative interviews–one from each team. There was a significant difference in the mean CES score lectures compared to TBL (p < 0.001) but no difference was found in mean VTS score pre and post for either subscale (p = 0.519; p = 0.809). All items on the feedback questionnaire were positively rated except two regarding session preparation. The qualitative analysis generated seven themes under four domains: ‘Learning in teams’, ‘Impact on the individual learner’, ‘Relationship with the teacher’ and ‘Efficiency and effectiveness of the learning process’. Conclusions In this group of residents, TBL significantly improved learner-rated classroom engagement and seemed to promote interactivity between learners

  10. Un marco de referencia nuevo para la psiquiatría: la mente encuentra al cerebro. II. Fundamentos históricos A New Framework for Psychiatry: Mind Meets Brain. II. Historical Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Figueroa

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes. Eric Kandel trazó la evolución conceptual de la especialidad en Estados Unidos desde un modelo teórico predominante a otro en el curso del siglo XX. Objetivo. Revisar las sucesivas transiciones que, en la mitad del siglo XX, movilizaron a la psiquiatría desde un campo basado en la neuropatología estructural hacia el psicoanálisis. Método. Investigar la región en la que "mente y cerebro" se originan de acuerdo a la evolución conceptual según Kandel. Resultados. Los avances evolutivos de la psicofarmacología, biología molecular, imágenes cerebrales funcionales y genética que han estado ocurriendo desde el final del siglo XX hacen surgir la preocupación antipódica, es decir, que la psiquiatría podría hipercorregir con un creciente foco biológico estrecho que podría poner en peligro el humanismo del campo. Conclusiones: Un resultado potencial de un tal reduccionismo biológico sería la fragmentación del cuidado psiquiátrico hasta un punto que el psiquiatra solamente diagnosticaría enfermedades y prescribiría medicamentos, con la consecuente devaluación de los aspectos psicológicos y sociales en la causación y sanación de los trastornos mentales.Background. Eric Kandel traced the specialty´s conceptual evolution in America from one predominant theoretical model to another over the course of the 20th century. Objective. To review these successive transitions that, by the middle of the 20th century, moved psychiatry from a field based on structural neuropathology to psychoanalysis. Method. To inquire into the realm in which "mind and brain" originate according to Kandel´s conceptual evolution. Results. The evolutionary advances in psychopharmacology, molecular biology, functional brain images, and genetics that have been occurring since the end of the 20th century raise the antipodal concern, i.e., that psychiatry could overcorrect with an increasingly narrow biological focus that would endanger the humanism

  11. The Introduction of Western Psychiatry into Korea (II Psychiatric Education in Korea during the Forced Japanese Annexation of Korea (1910-1945

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    CHUNG Wonyong,

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the second report in our series on the historical investigation on the introduction of western psychiatry into Korea, authors deal with the status of psychiatric education during the Japanese forced annexation of Korea. The first lecture on psychiatry in Korea under the title "Mental Diseases" was held in Dae-han-eui-won around 1910. In 1913, the Department of Psychiatry branched off from the Department of Internal Medicine of Chosen-sotoku-fu-iing, the Colonial Governmental Clinic, the successor of Dae-han-eui-won. The chairman, Professor Suiju Sinji; and the Korean assistant Sim Ho-seop administered the psychiatric ward with 35 beds. Since 1913, an Australian missionary psychiatrist, Dr. McLaren began to teach neurology and psychiatry at Severance Union Medical College and established a Department of Psychiatry in 1923. Dr. McLaren was a faithful Christian and open minded toward Oriental religious thought such as in Buddhism and Taoism. He devoted himself to the humanitarian care of mentally ill patients and served there until 1937 when he had to leave the land due to Japanese persecution. His disciple, Dr. Lee Jung Cheol succeeded the chair of the Psychiatric Department of Severance Medical College and served until 1939. In 1916, Keijo(Seoul Medical College was established and in 1928, Keijo Teikoku Daigaku(Imperial University. From 1929 to 1941, the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry of Keijo Imperial University grew under the chairmanship of Professor Kubo Kioji followed by Professor Watanabe until 1945. Many assistants including a few Koreans were gathered to the Department for training and research. The main textbook used for the psychiatric education for medical students in Korea was on Kraepelinian German Psychiatry translated and edited by Japanese psychiatrists. Lectures and clerkships for Neurology and Psychiatry were allocated generally in the curriculum for senior students for weekly 1-3 hours. Postgraduate professional

  12. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  13. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  14. [Emil Kraepelin: a pioneer of modern psychiatry. On the occasion of the hundred and fiftieth anniversary of his birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géraud, M

    2007-09-01

    Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) whose hundred and fiftieth birth anniversary we are celebrating this year, is one of the most renowned figures of psychiatry. His Memoirs published in 1983 provide insight on the individual. In his early career he lived in Würzburg, Munich, Leipzig, Leubus, Dresden, and then in Dorpat in 1886 (as visiting professor) where he stayed for five years, in Heidelberg (as regular professor) from 1891 to 1904, and lastly in Munich. Kraepelin ranks among the great clinical medicine forerunners who followed in Kahlbaum's footsteps. For him, the foremost task of scientific psychiatry was to circumscribe pathological entities. At the foundation of Kraepelin-inspired scientific psychiatry lies the notion of the of disease, as opposed to the approach (5th edition of the Treatise), whereby it is no longer concerned with the study of mental disorder in terms of symptoms but rather in terms of conditions of occurrence, evolution and outcome thereof. This method produced two well-known results: the unification and recognition of , and the definition of (dementia praecox). These results are described in the Treatise of Psychiatry which has had eight editions during the author's lifetime (from 1883 to 1915), and which presents Kraepelin's systematic nosography covering the entire field of mental illness. Such an innovative method required special tools capable of exploring not only the symptoms, as had been done previously, but the pathological process per se: therefore, Kreapelin created a systematic method to conduct psychiatric research and founded a Research Establishment divided into different sections (histopathology, topographic histology, serology, genealogy). Alois Alzheimer and Franz Nissl, among others, were closely associated with his work. Kreapelin's thought was not set, however, and by the end of his career it took a turn toward a more comprehensive type of psychiatry (1920) taking into account the social aspects (social psychiatry>). From

  15. [Team-based community psychiatry: importance of context factors and transferability of evidence from studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinmann, S; Gühne, U; Kösters, M; Gaebel, W; Becker, T

    2012-07-01

    The German Society for Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN) guidelines on psychosocial interventions for people with severe mental illness appraise the transferability of results of trials evaluating community-based mental health services to the German situation. This assessment has to draw on research results on factors determining effectiveness. This must be seen against the background of a lack of high-quality trials in Germany. The article discusses system, context and setting factors related to the transfer of evidence on community-based service models from other countries. These issues are discussed on the basis of evidence concerning the models of case management, assertive community treatment and community mental health teams. International differences in study findings are highlighted and the importance of treatment-as-usual in influencing study results is emphasized. The more control services including elements of community-based care there are and the less the pressure to reduce inpatient treatment (threshold to inpatient care admission), the smaller the relative effect sizes of innovative care models will be.In the absence of direct evidence, careful examination of transferability is required before introducing health care models. Research has revealed solid evidence for several factors influencing the effects of innovative community mental health care. Among key factors in the care of people with severe mental illness, home visits and joint team responsibility for both psychiatric and social care were identified. This evidence can facilitate the adaptation of successful mental health care models in Germany. PMID:22688090

  16. Knowledge and attitude of nurses to Community Psychiatry services in Edo state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiegheme F.E

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community Psychiatry involves support and treatment of people with mental disorder in a domiciliary setting instead of mental hospital. The attitude of the public towards mental illness and mentally ill person is generally negative. Knowledge and attitude of nurses towards this topic is important because they deal directly patients, families and the community as negative attitude will hinder quality service. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of Registered Nurses (RNs towards Community Psychiatric services. Methods: A descriptive survey design was used for this study. A systematic random sampling method was used to select one hundred and fifty respondents. The research instrument for this study was self- developed structured questionnaire design in line with the variables to be measured. Descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, independent t–test and Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient analysis were used to analyze all data. Results: The study revealed that RNs with positive attitude have a higher mean value than Registered Nurses with negative attitude towards Community Psychiatric services. There is also a significant relationship between the knowledge and attitude of RNs and their participation in community psychiatric services. Conclusion: RNs disseminate information and care for mentally ill people and their relations, signifying a need for a positive knowledge and attitude that will enable the RNs to enter a personal relationship with the patient which is necessary for rehabilitation.

  17. A pilot study of user acceptance and educational potentials of virtual patients in transcultural psychiatry

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    Ioannis Pantziaras

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate user acceptance, educational potentials and face and construct validity of a dedicated Virtual Patient system for refugee trauma cases, designed to enhance clinical, interpersonal, social and cultural competence. Methods: We developed a Virtual Patient system portraying a female refugee - mediated by a still image and pre-recorded voice - that was evaluated by an invited group of physicians (n=9 working as residents in Psychiatry (n=8 and General Medicine (n=1. The participants were invited to provide insights/feedback about the system's usefulness and its educational value. Results: Scores across our sample were high regarding the Virtual Patient system's realistic nature (median value: 5 on a 7-point scale as well as the Virtual Patient's ability to mirror the course of a real clinical investigation (median value: 6 on a 7-point scale. The system was said to provide a good environment for safe training of clinical and communicative skills. The system's face and construct validity were also demonstrated. Proposed future improvements will include the implementation of detailed feedback from a Virtual Advisor and/or the Virtual Patient him/herself, the use of video-simulated patients and the ability to formulate clinical questions in free text. Conclusions: This dedicated Virtual Patient system was well received by the participants. They appraised it as having a good potential for training in relationship to the clinical encounter and the management of traumatized refugees.

  18. Reflective practice groups for nurses: a consultation liaison psychiatry nursing initiative: part 1--The model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawber, Chris

    2013-04-01

    In the present study, we outline the evolution of a process-focused reflective practice group (RPG) model for nurses working in clinical settings. The groups were initiated at Redcliffe and Caboolture hospitals by the consultation liaison psychiatry nurse and author. An associated article provides an evaluation of these RPG. The literature review identifies the key themes and theories on which the model is based, and the article outlines the process and practicalities of facilitating RPG in critical care, midwifery, and oncology specialties over a 3-year period. The model proposes that the effectiveness and sustainability of RPG arises from adequate preparation and engagement with prospective participants. Group rules, based on principles of confidentially, supportiveness, and diversity, were collaboratively developed for each group. Facilitation utilized a group-as-a-whole approach to manage process and stimulate reflection. While the purpose of RPG was a reflection on interpersonal aspects of nursing, contextual workplace issues were frequently raised in groups. Acknowledgement and containment of such issues were necessary to maintain clinical focus. The literature highlights facilitator credibility and style as crucial factors in the overall success of RPG, and it is proposed that reflective practice as a process-focused model for groups succeeds when nurse facilitators are trained in group process and receive concurrent supervision. PMID:23009276

  19. Reflective practice groups for nurses: a consultation liaison psychiatry nursing initiative: part 2--the evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawber, Chris

    2013-06-01

    This paper outlines an evaluation of reflective practice groups (RPG) involving nurses and midwives from three clinical nursing specialties at Redcliffe and Caboolture Hospitals, Queensland, Australia. The groups were facilitated by the consultation liaison psychiatry nurse and author using a process-focused, whole-of-group approach to explore clinical narrative in a supportive group setting. This was a preliminary evaluation utilizing a recently-developed tool, the Clinical Supervision Evaluation Questionnaire, along with externally-facilitated focus groups. Nurses and midwives responded favourably to RPG, reporting a positive impact on clinical practice, self-awareness, and resilience. The majority of participants considered RPG had positive implications for team functioning. The focus groups identified the importance of facilitation style and the need to address aspects of workplace culture to enable group development and enhance the capacity for reflection. Evaluation of the data indicates this style of RPG can improve reflective thinking, promote team cohesion, and provide support for nurses and midwives working in clinical settings. Following on from this study, a second phase of research has commenced, providing more detailed, longitudinal evaluation across a larger, more diverse group of nurses. PMID:23020828

  20. Are the Cochrane group registers comprehensive? A case study of Japanese psychiatry trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Hugh

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Language bias is a form of publication bias and constitutes a serious threat to meta-analyses. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register is one attempt to remedy this and now contains more than 300,000 citations. However we are still unsure if it provides comprehensive coverage, particularly for non-English trials. Methods We have recently established a comprehensive register of Japanese trials of psychotropic drugs through extensive personal contacts, electronic searches and handsearches. We examined two Cochrane psychiatry group registers against this Japanese database. Results The Japanese register contained 56 reports of randomized controlled trials (RCTs of antidepressants for depression but the Cochrane Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis group register contained 18, with an overlap of only nine. The Japanese register contained 61 reports of RCTs of neuroleptics for schizophrenia and the Cochrane Schizophrenia group register contained 36, with an overlap of only six. Taking account of some duplicate publications, only a quarter to a third of all relevant Japanese RCTs were retrievable from the Cochrane group registers. Conclusions Similar, or worse, yields may be expected with RCTs conducted in other East Asian countries, and in other fields of medicine. What evidence there is suggests that this situation may lead to a systematic over estimate of treatment effect.