WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological protective material

  1. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  2. IAEA biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.; Schelenz, R.; Ballestra, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Analytical Quality Control Services programme of the IAEA encompasses a wide variety of intercomparisons and reference materials. This paper reviews only those aspects of the subject having to do with biological reference materials. The 1988 programme foresees 13 new intercomparison exercises, one for major, minor and trace elements, five for radionuclides, and seven for stable isotopes. Twenty-two natural matrix biological reference materials are available: twelve for major, minor and trace elements, six for radionuclides, and four for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Seven new intercomparisons and reference materials are in preparation or under active consideration. Guidelines on the correct use of reference materials are being prepared for publication in 1989 in consultation with other major international producers and users of biological reference materials. The IAEA database on available reference materials is being updated and expanded in scope, and a new publication is planned for 1989. (orig.)

  3. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    of multiscale biological systems have been investigated and new research methods for automated Rietveld refinement and diffraction scattering computed tomography developed. The composite nature of biological materials was investigated at the atomic scale by looking at the consequences of interactions between...

  4. Radiation protecting clothing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Kotaro; Ijiri, Yasuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide radiation protecting clothing materials excellent in mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, flexibility and flexing strength. Constitution: The radiation protecting clothing materials according to this invention has pure lead sheets comprising a thin pure lead foil of 50 to 150 μm and radiation resistant organic materials, for example, polyethylene with high neutron shielding effect disposed to one or both surfaces thereof. The material are excellent in the repeating bending fatigue and mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and flexibility and, accordingly, radiation protecting clothings prepared by using them along or laminating them also possess these excellent characteristics. Further, they are excellent in the handlability, particularly, durability to the repeated holding and extension, as well as are preferable in the physical movability and feeling upon putting. The clothing materials may be cut into an appropriate size, or stitched into clothings made by radiation-resistant materials. In this case, pure lead sheets are used in lamination. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Material for radioactive protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R.S.; Boyer, N.W.

    A boron containing burn resistant, low-level radiation protection material useful, for example, as a liner for radioactive waste disposal and storage, a component for neutron absorber, and a shield for a neutron source is described. The material is basically composed of borax in the range of 25 to 50%, coal tar in the range of 25 to 37.5%, with the remainder being an epoxy resin mix. A preferred composition is 50% borax, 25% coal tar and 25% epoxy resin. The material is not susceptible to burning and is about 1/5 the cost of existing radiation protection material utilized in similar applications.

  6. Flotation of Biological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flotation constitutes a gravity separation process, which originated from the minerals processing field. However, it has, nowadays, found several other applications, as for example in the wastewater treatment field. Concerning the necessary bubble generation method, typically dispersed-air or dissolved-air flotation was mainly used. Various types of biological materials were tested and floated efficiently, such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, activated sludge, grape stalks, etc. Innovative processes have been studied in our Laboratory, particularly for metal ions removal, involving the initial abstraction of heavy metal ions onto a sorbent (including a biosorbent: in the first, the application of a flotation stage followed for the efficient downstream separation of metal-laden particles. The ability of microorganisms to remove metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions (as most wastewaters are is a well-known property. The second separation process, also applied effectively, was a new hybrid cell of microfiltration combined with flotation. Sustainability in this field and its significance for the chemical and process industry is commented.

  7. Applied radiation biology and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, R.; Gambini, D.-J.

    1990-01-01

    This book grew out of a series of courses in radiobiology and radiation protection which were given to students in schools for radiology technicians, radiation safety officers and to medical students. Topics covered include the sources of ionizing radiation and their interactions with matter; the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation; dosimetry; the biological effects of ionizing radiation; the effects of ionizing radiation on the human body; natural radioexposure; medical radio-exposure; industrial radioexposure of electronuclear origin; radioexposure due to experimental nuclear explosions; radiation protection; and accidents with external and/or internal radio-exposure. (UK)

  8. Applied radiation biology and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, R.; Gambini, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    Written by two eminent expects in the field with many years of teaching experience between them, this book presents a concise coverage of the physical and biological basics of radiation biology and protection. The book begins with a description of the methods of particle detection and dosimetric evaluation. The effects of ionizing radiation on man are treated from the initial physico-chemical phase of interaction to their conceivable pathological consequences. Regulations, limits and safeguards on nuclear power plants, radioisotope installations and medical centers which make use of ionizing radiation are given and the risks of exposure to natural, industrial and scientific radiation sources evaluated. The final chapter takes a look at some of the more important nuclear accidents, including Windscale, Three Mile Island, and Chernobyl, and describes basic procedures to be carried out in the eventuality of a nuclear emergency. Twelve chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  9. Radiation, chemical and biological protection. Mass destruction weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janasek, D.; Svetlik, J.

    2005-01-01

    In this text-book mass destruction weapons and radiation, chemical and biological protection are reviewed. The text-book contains the following chapter: (1) Mass destruction weapons; (2) Matter and material; (3) Radioactive materials; (4) Toxic materials; (5) Biological resources; (6) Nuclear energetic equipment; Appendices; References.

  10. Radiation biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    For protection purposes, the biological effects of radiation are separated into stochastic effects (cancer, hereditary effects) presumed to be unicellular in origin, and tissue reactions due to injury in populations of cells. The latter are deterministic effects, renamed ‘tissue reactions’ in the 2007 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection because of the increasing evidence of the ability to modify responses after irradiation. Tissue reactions become manifest either early or late after doses above a threshold dose, which is the basis for recommended dose limits for avoiding such effects. Latency time before manifestation is related to cell turnover rates, and tissue proliferative and structural organisation. Threshold doses have been defined for practical purposes at 1% incidence of an effect. In general, threshold doses are lower for longer follow-up times because of the slow progression of injury before manifestation. Radiosensitive individuals in the population may contribute to low threshold doses, and in the future, threshold doses may be increased by the use of various biological response modifiers post irradiation for reducing injury. Threshold doses would be expected to be higher for fractionated or protracted doses, unless doses below the threshold dose only cause single-hit-type events that are not modified by repair/recovery phenomena, or if different mechanisms of injury are involved at low and high doses.

  11. Biological Responses to Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James M.

    2001-08-01

    All materials intended for application in humans as biomaterials, medical devices, or prostheses undergo tissue responses when implanted into living tissue. This review first describes fundamental aspects of tissue responses to materials, which are commonly described as the tissue response continuum. These actions involve fundamental aspects of tissue responses including injury, inflammatory and wound healing responses, foreign body reactions, and fibrous encapsulation of the biomaterial, medical device, or prosthesis. The second part of this review describes the in vivo evaluation of tissue responses to biomaterials, medical devices, and prostheses to determine intended performance characteristics and safety or biocompatibility considerations. While fundamental aspects of tissue responses to materials are important from research and development perspectives, the in vivo evaluation of tissue responses to these materials is important for performance, safety, and regulatory reasons.

  12. Biological Research for Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Jung, Il Lae; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Jin Sik; Moon, Myung Sook; Byun, Hee Sun; Phyo, Ki Heon; Kim, Sung Keun

    2005-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about ornithine decarboxylase and its controlling proteins, thioredoxin, peroxiredoxin, S-adenosymethionine decarboxylase, and glutamate decarboxylase 67KD effect on the cell death triggered ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (toxic agents). In this study, to elucidate the role of these proteins in the ionizing radiation (or H 2 O 2 )-induced apoptotic cell death, we utilized sensesed (or antisensed) cells, which overexpress (or down-regulate) RNAs associated with these proteins biosynthesis, and investigated the effects of these genes on the cytotoxicity caused by ionizing radiation and H 2 O 2 (or paraquat). We also investigated whether genisteine(or thiamine) may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation (may enhance the preventing effect radiation or paraquat-induced damage) because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing or cell protecting effects. Based on the above result, we suggest that the express regulation of theses genes have potentially importance for sensitizing the efficiency of radiation therapy of cancer or for protecting the radiation-induced damage of normal cells

  13. Biological research for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  14. Biological research for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by γ-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by γ-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate γ-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by γ-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  15. Biological materials: a materials science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Marc A; Chen, Po-Yu; Lopez, Maria I; Seki, Yasuaki; Lin, Albert Y M

    2011-07-01

    The approach used by Materials Science and Engineering is revealing new aspects in the structure and properties of biological materials. The integration of advanced characterization, mechanical testing, and modeling methods can rationalize heretofore unexplained aspects of these structures. As an illustration of the power of this methodology, we apply it to biomineralized shells, avian beaks and feathers, and fish scales. We also present a few selected bioinspired applications: Velcro, an Al2O3-PMMA composite inspired by the abalone shell, and synthetic attachment devices inspired by gecko. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 37 CFR 1.801 - Biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biological material. 1.801... Biological Material § 1.801 Biological material. For the purposes of these regulations pertaining to the deposit of biological material for purposes of patents for inventions under 35 U.S.C. 101, the term...

  17. Physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Full text: An Advisory Group met to consider the up-dating and extension of the Recommendations for the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, produced in 1972. Twenty-seven experts from 11 countries and EURATOM were present. Growing concern has been expressed in many countries that nuclear material may one day be used for acts of sabotage or terrorism. Serious attention is therefore being given to the need for States to develop national systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials during use, storage and transport throughout the nuclear fuel cycle which should minimize risks of sabotage or theft. The revised Recommendations formulated by the Advisory Group include new definitions of the objectives of national systems of physical protection and proposals for minimizing possibilities of unauthorized removal and sabotage to nuclear facilities. The Recommendations also describe administrative or organizational steps to be taken for this purpose and the essential technical requirements of physical protection for various types and locations of nuclear material, e.g., the setting up of protected areas, the use of physical barriers and alarms, the need for security survey, and the need of advance arrangements between the States concerned in case of international transportation, among others. (author)

  18. "Protected biological control"- Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilkington, L.J.; Messelink, G.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Mottee, Le K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management

  19. New developments in protective materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirick, W.

    1987-01-01

    Linemen who must work in close proximity to high voltage circuits utilize various types of protective equipment to minimize risks of injury due to electrical shock or other hazards. Tools are available which sometimes allow the linemen to work at a relatively safe distance from potential sources of danger. However, these tools may not be appropriate in all instances and, in fact, work often may be better conducted by hand using insulated clothing and accessories. Electrical insulating gloves and sleeves are presently worn by linemen for protection from electrical shock. In addition, insulating line hose, covers, and blankets are employed to cover high voltage sources when linemen are working in those areas. Leather gloves--protectors-- are worn over the rubber electrical insulating gloves to prevent cuts, punctures, or other physical injuries to the rubber glove. Deficiencies were perceived, however, with respect to protective equipment now available. Specific problems being experienced with insulating protective equipment were reported to be related to material characteristics such as flexibility, weight, ozone/corona resistance, hydraulic fluid resistance and stiffness, particularly at cold temperatures. Discussions between the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Battelle's Columbus Division (BCD) resulted a program to investigate the need for and the development of improved electrical insulating equipment for linemen. This article describes the program

  20. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Le Feuvre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials, where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal. Keywords: Synthetic biology, Materials, Biological materials, Biomaterials, Advanced materials

  1. [Applications of synthetic biology in materials science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tianxin; Zhong, Chao

    2017-03-25

    Materials are the basis for human being survival and social development. To keep abreast with the increasing needs from all aspects of human society, there are huge needs in the development of advanced materials as well as high-efficiency but low-cost manufacturing strategies that are both sustainable and tunable. Synthetic biology, a new engineering principle taking gene regulation and engineering design as the core, greatly promotes the development of life sciences. This discipline has also contributed to the development of material sciences and will continuously bring new ideas to future new material design. In this paper, we review recent advances in applications of synthetic biology in material sciences, with the focus on how synthetic biology could enable synthesis of new polymeric biomaterials and inorganic materials, phage display and directed evolution of proteins relevant to materials development, living functional materials, engineered bacteria-regulated artificial photosynthesis system as well as applications of gene circuits for material sciences.

  2. Protection and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalouneix, J.; Winter, D.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the French regulation on nuclear materials possession, the first liability is the one of operators who have to know at any time the quantity, quality and localization of any nuclear material in their possession. This requires an organization of the follow up and of the inventory of these materials together with an efficient protection against theft or sabotage. The French organization foresees a control of the implementation of this regulation at nuclear facilities and during the transport of nuclear materials by the minister of industry with the sustain of the institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (IRSN). This article presents this organization: 1 - protection against malevolence; 2 - national protection and control of nuclear materials: goals, administrative organization, legal and regulatory content (authorization, control, sanctions), nuclear materials protection inside facilities (physical protection, follow up and inventory, security studies), protection of nuclear material transports (physical protection, follow up), control of nuclear materials (inspection at facilities, control of nuclear material measurements, inspection of nuclear materials during transport); 3 - international commitments of France: non-proliferation treaty, EURATOM regulation, international convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials, enforcement in France. (J.S.)

  3. Biological effects of nanoparticulate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, K.F.; Carrasco, A.; Powell, T.G.; Murr, L.E.; Garza, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    A range of morphologically nanoparticulate materials including Ag, NiO, TiO 2 , multiwall carbon nanotubes, and chrysotile asbestos have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy. All but the TiO 2 (anatase and rutile) were observed to exhibit some cytotoxicity at concentrations of 5 μg/ml for a murine macrophage cell line as a respiratory response model. Silver exhibits interesting systemic differences for animal and human toxicity, especially in light of its nanoparticulate materials, and should be avoided even if there is no detectable in vitro cytotoxic response, as a prudent approach to their technological applications

  4. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Feuvre, Rosalind A; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2018-06-01

    Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials , where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal.

  5. Magnetically responsive biological materials and their applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Pospíšková, K.; Baldíková, E.; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), s. 254-261 ISSN 0976-3961 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : adsorbents * biological materials * carriers * magnetic modification * whole-cell biocatalyst Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  6. 75 FR 6348 - Deposit of Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... either directly or indirectly. When the invention involves a biological material, sometimes words alone... charge about the same rates for their services. For example, the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC...

  7. Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    High-priority opportunities are proposed for use of nuclear techniques to effect improved production and shipping of augmentative biological control agents. Proposed subprojects include use of ionizing radiation to improve the production of insect natural enemies on natural hosts/prey or on artificial diets. Other subprojects pertain to improving the ability to move beneficial organisms in international trade, and in using them in the field. Additional high priority activities were identified proposing use of nuclear techniques to produce sterile and/or substerile F-1 weed biological control agents to help evaluate potential impact on non-target species in the pre-release phase, integration of augmentative releases and F-1 sterility in IPM and area-wide pest management programmes, and utilization of by-products from SIT mass-rearing facilities in augmentative biological control programmes. (author)

  8. Anal Sphincter Augmentation Using Biological Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Nasra N; Narang, Sunil K; Köckerling, Ferdinand; Daniels, Ian R; Smart, Neil J

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the use of biological materials in the augmentation of the anal sphincter either as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or anal bulking procedure. A systematic search of PubMed was conducted using the search terms "anal bulking agents," "anal sphincter repair," or "overlapping sphincter repair." Five studies using biological material as part of an overlapping sphincter repair (OSR) or as an anal bulking agent were identified. 122 patients underwent anal bulking with a biological material. Anorectal physiology was conducted in 27 patients and demonstrated deterioration in maximum resting pressure, and no significant change in maximum squeeze increment. Quality of life scores (QoLs) demonstrated improvements at 6 weeks and 6 months, but this had deteriorated at 12 months of follow up. Biological material was used in 23 patients to carry out an anal encirclement procedure. Improvements in QoLs were observed in patients undergoing OSR as well as anal encirclement using biological material. Incontinence episodes decreased to an average of one per week from 8 to 10 preoperatively. Sphincter encirclement with biological material has demonstrated improvements in continence and QoLs in the short term compared to traditional repair alone. Long-term studies are necessary to determine if this effect is sustained. As an anal bulking agent the benefits are short-term.

  9. Alkali metal protective garment and composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballif, III, John L.; Yuan, Wei W.

    1980-01-01

    A protective garment and composite material providing satisfactory heat resistance and physical protection for articles and personnel exposed to hot molten alkali metals, such as sodium. Physical protection is provided by a continuous layer of nickel foil. Heat resistance is provided by an underlying backing layer of thermal insulation. Overlying outer layers of fireproof woven ceramic fibers are used to protect the foil during storage and handling.

  10. The physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    A Technical Committee on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material met in April-May 1989 to advise on the need to update the recommendations contained in document INFCIRC/225/Rev.1 and on any changes considered to be necessary. The Technical Committee indicated a number of such changes, reflecting mainly: the international consensus established in respect of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; the experience gained since 1977; and a wish to give equal treatment to protection against the theft of nuclear material and protection against the sabotage of nuclear facilities. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. 1 tab

  11. Conduit for regeneration of biological material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a conduit comprising a first material, having 1) a through-going hole, 2) fibers aligned along the long-axis in the through-going hole, each fiber having a diameter in the range 200-2000 nm. The conduit is preferably for regeneration of biological material, even...

  12. Biological research for the radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Chan Kug; Shim, Hae Won; Jung, Il Lae; Byun, Hee Sun; Moon, Myung Sook; Cho, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Sik

    2003-04-01

    The work scope of 'Biological Research for the Radiation Protection' had contained the research about polyamine effect on cell death triggered ionizing radiation, H 2 O 2 and toxic agents. In this paper, to elucidate the role of polyamines as mediator in lysosomal damage and stress(H 2 O 2 )- induced apoptosis, we utilized α-DiFluoroMethylOrnithine (DFMO), which inhibited ornithine decarboxylase and depleted intracellular putrescine, and investigated the effects of polyamine on the apoptosis caused by H 2 O 2 , ionizing radiation and paraquat. We also showed that MGBG, inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, treatment affected intracellular redox steady states, intracellular ROS levels and protein oxidation. Thereafter we also investigated whether MGBG may enhance the cytotoxic efficacy of tumor cells caused by ionizing radiation or H 2 O 2 because such compounds are able to potentiate the cell-killing effects. In addition, ceruloplasmin and thioredoxin, possible antioxidant proteins, were shown to have protective effect on radiation- or H 2 O 2 (or chemicals)-induced macromolecular damage or cell death

  13. Accounting for biological effectiveness in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennis, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) presents a practical problem to radiological protection when attempts are made to ensure that the assessed risks from different types of radiation and different modes of exposure to radiation are commensurate with one another. Unfortunately, the theoretical understanding of RBE is still in the stage of competing explanations and hypotheses. Furthermore, the division of the concept of dose equivalent into a set of concepts for risk assessment and another set for measurement and control has introduced conflicting requirements of a practical nature that are difficult to resolve. Many of those working in radiobiology and radiation protection have perceived the need to increase the quality factors for photon and neutron radiations. It may be more reasonable to change the quality factors for neutrons than for other radiations. The advantages and disadvantages of different methods for accommodating such changes within the dose-equivalent concepts are to be examined. The method of accommodating such a change that has the least practical disadvantages is to increase the quality factors for all secondary particles produced in tissue by neutron radiations by a constant factor. The only disadvantage would be the perception that the quality factors for these secondary particles were not treated in a consistent fashion for all types of ionising radiation. (author)

  14. To better know the biological behaviour of future nuclear materials: a need to maintain a good level of protection against ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.; Metivier, H.

    2007-01-01

    An important program of research, called 'Generation IV' is currently developed at an international level to prepare the launching of reactors for the future. Its objective is to satisfy the growing needs in electric power within the framework for a sustainable development. One of the major aspects of this program is the search and the development for new nuclear materials containing fissile/fertile isotopes. Unfortunately, one realizes today that for many compounds considered to be used to manufacture these materials, there are no radio-toxicologic data, allowing to the occupational physicist to evaluate the real risk in the event of contaminations and to prescribe adapted therapeutic de-corporation. An emergency revival of 'workplace' studies, where are or will be handled these compounds or materials is mandatory. The lesson of the past showed that the prevision in radioprotection was rather difficult and that an experimental validation of the behaviour of hazardous heavy elements both in vitro and in vivo was necessary. (authors)

  15. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  16. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [es

  17. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [fr

  18. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  19. Physical protection of radioactive material in transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Safety in the transport of radioactive material is ensured by enclosing the material, when necessary, in packaging which prevents its dispersal and which absorbs to any adequate extent any radiation emitted by the material. Transport workers, the general public and the environment are thus protected against the harmful effects of the radioactive material. The packaging also serves the purpose of protecting its contents against the effects of rough handling and mishaps under normal transport conditions, and against the severe stresses and high temperatures that could be encountered in accidents accompanied by fires. If the radioactive material is also fissile, special design features are incorporated to prevent any possibility of criticality under normal transport conditions and in accidents. The safe transport requirements are designed to afford protection against unintentional opening of packages in normal handling and transport conditions and against damage in severe accident conditions; whereas the physical protection requirements are designed to prevent intentional opening of packages and deliberate damage. This clearly illustrates the difference in philosophical approach underlying the requirements for safe transport and for physical protection during transport. This difference in approach is, perhaps, most easily seen in the differing requirements for marking of consignments. While safety considerations dictate that packages be clearly labelled, physical protection considerations urge restraint in the use of special labels. Careful consideration must be given to such differences in approach in any attempt to harmonize the safety and physical protection aspects of transport. (author)

  20. Method of manufacturing neutron protection materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakibana, Hidetake; Okamoto, Masazane; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Koguchi, Noboru; Takesute, Morito; Miyamatsu, Tokuhisa

    1985-06-22

    To obtain protection materials easily moldable, flexible and capable of minimizing the workers' neutron exposure dose, a fine fiberous assembly is prepared by dispersing compounds of atoms having neutron absorbing performance such as Li or B, for example, finely powderous compounds of LiF or /sup 6/LiF into a solution of spinnable polymer, particularly, polyolefin polymer such as polyethylene in CH/sub 2/Cl and then flash spinning them. The fine fibers are fabricated into mat-like material, blankets, cloths and the likes for use in neutron exposure protection. In the case of neutron irradiation therapy, protection materials of reduced weight, flexible and giving preferred contact with human body can be obtained with ease for protecting the regions other than the lesion area.

  1. Study of biocompatible and biological materials

    CERN Document Server

    Pecheva, Emilia

    2017-01-01

    The book gives an overview on biomineralization, biological, biocompatible and biomimetic materials. It reveals the use of biomaterials alone or in composites, how their performance can be improved by tailoring their surface properties by external factors and how standard surface modification techniques can be applied in the area of biomaterials to beneficially influence their growth on surfaces.

  2. Neutron protection material and neutron protection devices made of such material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, W.

    1984-01-01

    This is concerned with a neutron protection material made of thermoplastic or thermosetting plastic from high molecule hydrocarbon compounds with particularly high hydrogen and carbon contents as braking or shielding material (moderator) for fast neutrons. The plastic can contain boron for absorbing low energy neutrons. The material is used to manufacture foil, plates, pipes, shielding walls, components, bodies for radiation protection equipment, devices and plant and for neutron protection clothes. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Advanced physical protection systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1975-10-01

    Because of the increasing incidence of terrorism, there is growing concern that nuclear materials and facilities need improved physical protection against theft, diversion, or sabotage. Physical protection systems for facilities or transportation which have balanced effectiveness include information systems, access denial systems, adequate and timely response, recovery capability, and use denial methods for despoiling special nuclear materials (SNM). The role of these elements in reducing societal risk is described; however, it is noted that, similar to nuclear war, the absolute risks of nuclear theft and sabotage are basically unquantifiable. Sandia Laboratories has a major Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) role in developing advanced physical protection systems for improving the security of both SNM and facilities. These activities are surveyed. A computer simulation model is being developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative physical protection systems under various levels of threat. Improved physical protection equipment such as perimeter and interior alarms, secure portals, and fixed and remotely-activated barriers is being developed and tested. In addition, complete prototype protection systems are being developed for representative nuclear facilities. An example is shown for a plutonium storage vault. The ERDA safe-secure transportation system for highway shipments of all significant quantities of government-owned SNM is described. Adversary simulation as a tool for testing and evaluating physical protection systems is discussed. A list of measures is given for assessing overall physical protection system performance. (auth)

  4. Advanced physical protection systems for nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the increasing incidence of terrorism, there is growing concern that nuclear materials and facilities need improved physical protection against theft, diversion, or sabotage. Physical protection systems for facilities or transportation which have balanced effectiveness include information systems, access denial systems, adequate and timely response, recovery capability, and use denial methods for despoiling special nuclear materials (SNM). The role of these elements in reducing societal risk is described; however, it is noted that, similar to nuclear war, the absolute risks of nuclear theft and sabotage are basically unquantifiable. Sandia Laboratories has a major US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) role in developing advanced physical protection systems for improving the security of both SNM and facilities. These activities are surveyed in this paper. A computer simulation model is being developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative physical protection systems under various levels of threat. Improved physical protection equipment such as perimeter and interior alarms, secure portals, and fixed and remotely activated barriers is being developed and tested. In addition, complete prototype protection systems are being developed for representative nuclear facilities. An example is shown for a plutonium storage vault. The ERDA safe-secure transportation system for highway shipments of all significant quantities of government-owned SNM is described. Adversary simulation as a tool for testing and evaluating physical protection systems is discussed. Finally, a list of measures is given for assessing overall physical protection system performance. (author)

  5. NBS activities in biological reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasberry, S.D.

    1988-12-01

    NBS activities in biological reference materials during 1986-1988 are described with a preview of plans for future certifications of reference materials. During the period, work has been completed or partially completed on about 40 reference materials of importance to health, nutrition, and environmental quality. Some of the reference materials that have been completed during the period and are described include: creatinine (SRM 914a), bovine serum albumin (SRM 927a), cholesterol in human serum (SRM's 1951-1952), aspartate aminotransferase (RM 8430), cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins in coconut oil (SRM 1563), wheat flour (SRM 1567a), rice flour (SRM 1568a), mixed diet (RM 8431a), dinitropyrene isomers and 1-nitropyrene (SRM 1596), and complex PAH's from coal tar (SRM 1597). Oyster tissue (SRM 1566a) is being analyzed and should be available in 1988.

  6. Neutron activation analysis of biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Simkova, M.; Obrusnik, I.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are briefly summed up of usino. NAA (neutron activation analysis) for determining element traces in foodstuffs and their intake by organisms, for monitoring changes in the content of important trace elements in tissues and body fluids owing to environmental pollution, for verifying the results of other analytical techniques and for certifying the content of element traces in reference materials. Examples are given of the use of NAA, and the results are summed up of the determination of Cd, Mn and Zn in biological reference materials NBS SRM-1577, Bovine Liver, Bowen's Kale, IAEA Milk Powder A-11 and IAEA Animal Muscle H-4. (E.S.)

  7. Bragg Curve, Biological Bragg Curve and Biological Issues in Space Radiation Protection with Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honglu, Wu; Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M.; Lin, Z.; Rusek, A.

    2006-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X-rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged particle exposure. Since the dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply as the particle approaches the end of its range, a position known as the Bragg peak, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle traversal since biological effects are influenced by the track structure of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the biological Bragg curve is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. To achieve a Bragg curve distribution, we exposed cells to energetic heavy ions with the beam geometry parallel to a monolayer of fibroblasts. Qualitative analyses of gamma-H2AX fluorescence, a known marker of DSBs, indicated increased clustering of DNA damage before the Bragg peak, enhanced homogenous distribution at the peak, and provided visual evidence of high linear energy transfer (LET) particle traversal of cells beyond the Bragg peak. A quantitative biological response curve generated for micronuclei (MN) induction across the Bragg curve did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono-to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition in cell progression, increased at the Bragg peak location. These results, along with other biological concerns, show that space radiation protection with shielding can be a complicated issue.

  8. A routine chromium determination in biological materials; application to various reference materials and standard reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    The determination limit under standard working conditions of chromium in biological materials is discussed. Neutron activation analysis and atomic spectrometry have been described for some analytical experiences with NBS SRM 1577 reference material. The chromium determination is a part of a larger multi-element scheme for the determination of 12 elements in biological materials

  9. Continuing training program in radiation protection in biological research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escudero, R.; Hidalgo, R.M.; Usera, F.; Macias, M.T.; Mirpuri, E.; Perez, J.; Sanchez, A.

    2008-01-01

    specific training program in radiation protection to meet the different needs of all workers in a biological research center. This program aims to ensure compliance with the relevant national legislation and to minimize the possibility of radiological incidents and accidents in this kind of center. This study has involved contributions from six nationally and internationally recognized Spanish biological research centers that have active training programs in radiation protection, and the design of the program presented here has been informed by the teaching experience of the training staff involved. The training method is based on introductory and refresher courses for personnel in direct contact with the radioactive facility and also for indirectly associated personnel. The courses will include guideline manuals (print or electronic), training through seminars or online materials, and also personnel evaluation, visits to the radioactive facility or practical training as required. The introductory courses are intended for newly incorporated personnel. The refresher courses are fundamentally designed to accommodate possible changes to national legal regulations, working conditions or the in-house radiological protection controls. Maintenance and instrumentation workers, cleaners, administrative personnel, etc. who are associated with the radioactive facility indirectly. These workers are affected by the work in the radioactive facility to varying degrees, and they therefore also require information and training in radiological protection tailored to their level of interaction with the installation. The aim of this study was to design a specific training program in radiation protection to meet the different needs of all workers in a biological research center. This program aims to ensure compliance with the relevant national legislation and to minimize the possibility of radiological incidents and accidents in this kind of center. This study has involved contributions from

  10. Mechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Baohua; Gao, Huajian

    2004-09-01

    Natural biological materials such as bone, teeth and nacre are nanocomposites of protein and mineral with superior strength. It is quite a marvel that nature produces hard and tough materials out of protein as soft as human skin and mineral as brittle as classroom chalk. What are the secrets of nature? Can we learn from this to produce bio-inspired materials in the laboratory? These questions have motivated us to investigate the mechanics of protein-mineral nanocomposite structure. Large aspect ratios and a staggered alignment of mineral platelets are found to be the key factors contributing to the large stiffness of biomaterials. A tension-shear chain (TSC) model of biological nanostructure reveals that the strength of biomaterials hinges upon optimizing the tensile strength of the mineral crystals. As the size of the mineral crystals is reduced to nanoscale, they become insensitive to flaws with strength approaching the theoretical strength of atomic bonds. The optimized tensile strength of mineral crystals thus allows a large amount of fracture energy to be dissipated in protein via shear deformation and consequently enhances the fracture toughness of biocomposites. We derive viscoelastic properties of the protein-mineral nanostructure and show that the toughness of biocomposite can be further enhanced by the viscoelastic properties of protein.

  11. Viscoelastic characterization of soft biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Vinod Timothy

    Progressive and irreversible retinal diseases are among the primary causes of blindness in the United States, attacking the cells in the eye that transform environmental light into neural signals for the optic pathway. Medical implants designed to restore visual function to afflicted patients can cause mechanical stress and ultimately damage to the host tissues. Research shows that an accurate understanding of the mechanical properties of the biological tissues can reduce damage and lead to designs with improved safety and efficacy. Prior studies on the mechanical properties of biological tissues show characterization of these materials can be affected by environmental, length-scale, time, mounting, stiffness, size, viscoelastic, and methodological conditions. Using porcine sclera tissue, the effects of environmental, time, and mounting conditions are evaluated when using nanoindentation. Quasi-static tests are used to measure reduced modulus during extended exposure to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), as well as the chemical and mechanical analysis of mounting the sample to a solid substrate using cyanoacrylate. The less destructive nature of nanoindentation tests allows for variance of tests within a single sample to be compared to the variance between samples. The results indicate that the environmental, time, and mounting conditions can be controlled for using modified nanoindentation procedures for biological samples and are in line with averages modulus values from previous studies but with increased precision. By using the quasi-static and dynamic characterization capabilities of the nanoindentation setup, the additional stiffness and viscoelastic variables are measured. Different quasi-static control methods were evaluated along with maximum load parameters and produced no significant difference in reported reduced modulus values. Dynamic characterization tests varied frequency and quasi-static load, showing that the agar could be modeled as a linearly

  12. Rapid homogenisation and drying of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donev, I.Y.

    1977-01-01

    In connection with the implementation for detection of trace elements in the pathogenesis of Ischaemic Heart Diseases and for the work of the laboratory a small apparatus for homogenisation and drying biological materials at liquid nitrogen temperature was constructed. For a complete drying 4 to 6 hours are necessary. A laboratory assistant of average qualification can do the work for 13 homogenisates in about 8-9 hours. The capacity of the homogeniser is about 1.5x10 -5 m 3 . Preliminary investigations were carried out for the determination of differences at drying. (T.G.)

  13. The physical protection of nuclear material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Technical Committee met 21-25 June 1993 to consider changes to INFCIRC/225/Rev.2. The revised document, INFCIRC/225/Rev.3, reflects the Technical Committee recommendations for changes to the text as well as other modifications determined necessary to advance the consistency of the Categorization Table in INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 with the categorization table contained in The Convention of the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and to reflect additional improvements presented by the experts. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States.

  14. The physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Technical Committee met 21-25 June 1993 to consider changes to INFCIRC/225/Rev.2. The revised document, INFCIRC/225/Rev.3, reflects the Technical Committee recommendations for changes to the text as well as other modifications determined necessary to advance the consistency of the Categorization Table in INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 with the categorization table contained in The Convention of the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and to reflect additional improvements presented by the experts. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States

  15. Structural adhesives for missile external protection material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, F. L.; Garzolini, J. A.

    1981-07-01

    Two basic rubber materials are examined as possible external substrate protection materials (EPM) for missiles. The analysis provided a data base for selection of the optimum adhesives which are compatible with the substrate, loads applied and predicted bondline temperatures. Under the test conditions, EA934/NA was found to be the optimum adhesive to bond VAMAC 2273 and/or NBR/EPDM 9969A to aluminum substrate. The optimum adhesive for composite structures was EA956. Both of these adhesives are two-part epoxy systems with a pot life of approximately two hours. Further research is suggested on field repair criteria, nuclear hardness and survivability effects on bondline, and ageing effects.

  16. Biological and environmental reference materials in CENAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvizu-Torres, R; Perez-Castorena, A; Salas-Tellez, J A; Mitani-Nakanishi, Y

    2001-06-01

    Since 1994, when the NIST/NOAA Quality Assurance Program in Chemical Measurements was discussed in Queretaro, CENAM, the National Measurement Institute (NMI) of Mexico, has become involved in the development of reference materials. In the field of biological and environmental reference materials, in particular, the NORAMET collaboration program with NIST and NRC, and the North-American Environmental Cooperation signed among three free-trade treaty organizations, have greatly helped the development of the materials metrology program in the newly established CENAM. This paper describes some particularly significant efforts of CENAM in the development of biological and environmental reference materials, on the basis of inter-comparison studies organized with local and governmental environmental agencies of Mexico. In the field of water pollution CENAM has developed a practical proficiency testing (PT) scheme for field laboratories, as a part of registration by local government in the metropolitan area, according to the Mexican Ecological Regulation. The results from these eight PTs in the last 5 years have demonstrated that this scheme has helped ensure the reliability of analytical capability of more than 50 field laboratories in three states, Mexico, D.F., and the States of Mexico and Queretaro. Similar experience has been obtained for more than 70 service units of stack emission measurements in the three states in 1998 and 1999, as a result of the design of a PT scheme for reference gas mixtures. This PT scheme has been accomplished successfully by 30 analytical laboratories who provide monitoring services and perform research on toxic substances (Hg, methylmercury, PCB, etc.) in Mexico. To support these activities, reference samples have been produced through the NIST SRMs, and efforts have been made to increase CENAM's capability in the preparation of primary reference materials in spectrometric solutions and gas mixtures. Collaboration among NMIs has also

  17. Ultrasonic tests on materials with protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Protective coatings are applied to some nuclear components such as reactor vessels to inhibit surface corrosion. Since in-service ultrasonic inspection is required for such components, a study was performed to determine whether the use of protective coatings can affect ultrasonic tests. Two 2 in. thick steel plates were uniformly machined, sandblasted, and used as bases for two types of protective coatings. The type and thickness of the coating and the presence of contamination, such as fingerprints or mild oxidation under the paint, were the independent variables associated with the coating. Tests were run to determine the effects of the protective coatings on ultrasonic tests conducted on the steel plates. Significant variations in ultrasonic test sensitivity occurred as a function of the type and thickness of protective coating, couplant (material that conducts the ultrasound from the transducer into the test part, normally water or some type of oil), transducer wear plate, and ultrasonic test frequency. Ultrasonic tests can be strongly affected by a protective coating on the component to be inspected. As compared to the test sensitivity for an uncoated reference sample, the sensitivity may be dramatically shifted up or down on the coated surface. In certain coating thickness ranges, the sensitivity can fluctuate widely with small changes in coating thickness. If a coating is chosen properly, however, components with protective coatings can be tested ultrasonically with valid results. These results are for the case of ultrasonic input on the coated surface. It is not expected that an ultrasonic test conducted from the front surface would be appreciably affected by a coating on the rear surface

  18. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marko, A M [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Advisory Committee on Radiological Protection; Myers, D K; Atchison, R J [Atomic Energy Control Board, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Advisory Committee on Radiological Protection. Secretariat; Gentner, N E [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-02-01

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually.

  19. Proceedings of the symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marko, A.M.

    1996-02-01

    The symposium on molecular biology and radiation protection was organized in sessions with the following titles: Radiation protection and the human genome; Molecular changes in DNA induced by radiation; Incidence of genetic changes - pre-existing, spontaneous and radiation-induced; Research directions and ethical implications. The ten papers in the symposium have been abstracted individually

  20. Materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbaud, F.; Desgranges, Clara; Martinelli, Laure; Rouillard, Fabien; Duhamel, Cecile; Marchetti, Loic; Perrin, Stephane; Molins, Regine; Chevalier, S.; Heintz, O.; David, N.; Fiorani, J.M.; Vilasi, M.; Wouters, Y.; Galerie, A.; Mangelinck, D.; Viguier, B.; Monceau, D.; Soustelle, M.; Pijolat, M.; Favergeon, J.; Brancherie, D.; Moulin, G.; Dawi, K.; Wolski, K.; Barnier, V.; Rebillat, F.; Lavigne, O.; Brossard, J.M.; Ropital, F.; Mougin, J.

    2011-01-01

    This book was made from the lectures given in 2010 at the thematic school on 'materials corrosion and protection at high temperatures'. It gathers the contributions from scientists and engineers coming from various communities and presents a state-of-the-art of the scientific and technological developments concerning the behaviour of materials at high temperature, in aggressive environments and in various domains (aerospace, nuclear, energy valorization, and chemical industries). It supplies pedagogical tools to grasp high temperature corrosion thanks to the understanding of oxidation mechanisms. It proposes some protection solutions for materials and structures. Content: 1 - corrosion costs; macro-economical and metallurgical approach; 2 - basic concepts of thermo-chemistry; 3 - introduction to the Calphad (calculation of phase diagrams) method; 4 - use of the thermodynamic tool: application to pack-cementation; 5 - elements of crystallography and of real solids description; 6 - diffusion in solids; 7 - notions of mechanics inside crystals; 8 - high temperature corrosion: phenomena, models, simulations; 9 - pseudo-stationary regime in heterogeneous kinetics; 10 - nucleation, growth and kinetic models; 11 - test experiments in heterogeneous kinetics; 12 - mechanical aspects of metal/oxide systems; 13 - coupling phenomena in high temperature oxidation; 14 - other corrosion types; 15 - methods of oxidized surfaces analysis at micro- and nano-scales; 16 - use of SIMS in the study of high temperature corrosion of metals and alloys; 17 - oxidation of ceramics and of ceramic matrix composite materials; 18 - protective coatings against corrosion and oxidation; 19 - high temperature corrosion in the 4. generation of nuclear reactor systems; 20 - heat exchangers corrosion in municipal waste energy valorization facilities; 21 - high temperature corrosion in oil refining and petrochemistry; 22 - high temperature corrosion in new energies industry. (J.S.)

  1. Solid freeform fabrication of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiwen

    This thesis investigates solid freeform fabrication of biological materials for dental restoration and orthopedic implant applications. The basic approach in this study for solid freeform fabrication of biological materials is micro-extrusion of single or multiple slurries for 3D components and inkjet color printing of multiple suspensions for functionally graded materials (FGMs). Common issues associated with micro-extrusion and inkjet color printing are investigated. These common issues include (i) formulation of stable slurries with a pseudoplastic property, (ii) cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate as a function of the extrusion parameters, (iii) fabrication path optimization for extrusion process, (iv) extrusion optimization for multi-layer components, (v) composition control in functionally graded materials, and (vi) sintering optimization to convert the freeform fabricated powder compact to a dense body for biological applications. The present study clearly shows that the rheological and extrusion behavior of dental porcelain slurries depend strongly on the pH value of the slurry and extrusion conditions. A slurry with pseudoplastic properties is a basic requirement for obtaining extruded lines with rectangular cross-sections. The cross-sectional geometry of the extrudate is also strongly affected by extrusion parameters including the extrusion nozzle height, nozzle moving speed, extrusion rate, and critical nozzle height. Proper combinations of these extrusion parameters are necessary in order to obtain single line extrudates with near rectangular cross-sections and 3D objects with dimensional accuracy, uniform wall thickness, good wall uprightness, and no wall slumping. Based on these understandings, single-wall, multi-wall, and solid teeth have been fabricated via micro-extrusion of the dental slurry directly from a CAD digital model in 30 min. Inkjet color printing using stable Al2O3 and ZrO 2 aqueous suspensions has been developed to fabricate

  2. Wave basin model tests of technical-biological bank protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sloped embankments of inland waterways are usually protected from erosion and other negative im-pacts of ship-induced hydraulic loads by technical revetments consisting of riprap. Concerning the dimensioning of such bank protection there are several design rules available, e.g. the "Principles for the Design of Bank and Bottom Protection for Inland Waterways" or the Code of Practice "Use of Standard Construction Methods for Bank and Bottom Protection on Waterways" issued by the BAW (Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute). Since the European Water Framework Directive has been put into action special emphasis was put on natural banks. Therefore the application of technical-biological bank protection is favoured. Currently design principles for technical-biological bank protection on inland waterways are missing. The existing experiences mainly refer to flowing waters with no or low ship-induced hydraulic loads on the banks. Since 2004 the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute has been tracking the re-search and development project "Alternative Technical-Biological Bank Protection on Inland Water-ways" in company with the Federal Institute of Hydrology. The investigation to date includes the ex-amination of waterway sections where technical- biological bank protection is applied locally. For the development of design rules for technical-biological bank protection investigations shall be carried out in a next step, considering the mechanics and resilience of technical-biological bank protection with special attention to ship-induced hydraulic loads. The presentation gives a short introduction into hydraulic loads at inland waterways and their bank protection. More in detail model tests of a willow brush mattress as a technical-biological bank protec-tion in a wave basin are explained. Within the scope of these tests the brush mattresses were ex-posed to wave impacts to determine their resilience towards hydraulic loads. Since the

  3. Femtosecond laser interaction with protection materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.; Krueger, J.; Hertwig, A.; Fiedler, A.; Kautek, W

    2003-03-15

    Textile, aluminium and polyethylene used as components in laser protection curtains were investigated with respect to their ablation behaviour. Employing 33-fs pulses (800 nm wavelength, 1 kHz repetition rate), ex situ geometrical measurements of the ablation cavities and in situ acoustic investigations with a microphone were performed to determine the ablation thresholds in the single- and multi-pulse cases. The acoustical method proved advantageous for complex surface morphologies and/or single laser pulse interactions. Incubation phenomena can be observed for all the materials studied. Technically relevant multi-pulse ablation thresholds are presented and are compared with the single-pulse (1-on-1) irradiation.

  4. Sprayable Phase Change Coating Thermal Protection Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Rod W.; Hayes, Paul W.; Kaul, Raj

    2005-01-01

    NASA has expressed a need for reusable, environmentally friendly, phase change coating that is capable of withstanding the heat loads that have historically required an ablative thermal insulation. The Space Shuttle Program currently relies on ablative materials for thermal protection. The problem with an ablative insulation is that, by design, the material ablates away, in fulfilling its function of cooling the underlying substrate, thus preventing the insulation from being reused from flight to flight. The present generation of environmentally friendly, sprayable, ablative thermal insulation (MCC-l); currently use on the Space Shuttle SRBs, is very close to being a reusable insulation system. In actual flight conditions, as confirmed by the post-flight inspections of the SRBs, very little of the material ablates. Multi-flight thermal insulation use has not been qualified for the Space Shuttle. The gap that would have to be overcome in order to implement a reusable Phase Change Coating (PCC) is not unmanageable. PCC could be applied robotically with a spray process utilizing phase change material as filler to yield material of even higher strength and reliability as compared to MCC-1. The PCC filled coatings have also demonstrated potential as cryogenic thermal coatings. In experimental thermal tests, a thin application of PCC has provided the same thermal protection as a much thicker and heavier application of a traditional ablative thermal insulation. In addition, tests have shown that the structural integrity of the coating has been maintained and phase change performance after several aero-thermal cycles was not affected. Experimental tests have also shown that, unlike traditional ablative thermal insulations, PCC would not require an environmental seal coat, which has historically been required to prevent moisture absorption by the thermal insulation, prevent environmental degradation, and to improve the optical and aerodynamic properties. In order to reduce

  5. Biological reference materials and analysis of toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, R; Sukumar, A

    1988-12-01

    Biological monitoring of toxic metal pollution in the environment requires quality control analysis with use of standard reference materials. A variety of biological tissues are increasingly used for analysis of element bioaccumulation, but the available Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are insufficient. An attempt is made to review the studies made using biological reference materials for animal and human tissues. The need to have inter-laboratory studies and CRM in the field of biological monitoring of toxic metals is also discussed.

  6. Emergency respiratory protection with common materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, D.W.; Hinds, W.C.; Price, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Certain unexpected accidents, such as fires, explosions, chemical spills, or nuclear reactor malfunctions, can lead to the exposure of workers and the public to toxic gases, vapors, and aerosols. The efficacy of readily available materials, such as cotton fabric, toweling, and a single-use respirator, for providing emergency respiratory protection was evaluated by determining the filtration efficiency as a function of particle size over the range of 0.4 to 5 μm diameter and performance against a reactive water soluble (I 2 ) and unreactive vapor (CH 3 I). At a reasonable design face velocity (1.5 cm/s), the respirator mask used at double thickness could reduce particle concentrations a factor of 30 or more throughout the particle range tested, and a wetted towel four layers thick could provide a factor of five. Dry fabrics were ineffective in removing iodine vapor, but wetted sheeting or toweling reduced concentration by a factor of ten or more under design conditions, 1.5 cm/s face velocity and 50 Pa pressure drop (0.2 inches of water). The fabrics provided a statistically insignificant reduction in methyliodide. In practice, any leaks around the seal to the face would lessen the protection offered by such materials. The effectiveness factor approach proved useful in comparing filter performance under different conditions

  7. 2006 Chemical Biological Individual Protection (CBIP) Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-09

    Requirements Office (JRO), MAJ W. Scott Smedley , Joint Requirements Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear Defense JPEO...Decker Director of Engineering 410-436-5600 www.ecbc.army.mil Gabe Patricio, JPEO 703 681-0808 Robert Wattenbarger, JPMOIP 703 432-3198 Canadian CBRN...UNCLASSIFIED Joint Requirements Office for Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Defense MAJ W. Scott Smedley 8 March 2006 Individual Protection Conference

  8. Computerized materials protection, control, and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteson, R.; Seitz, S.; Landry, R.P.; Hadden, M.L.; Painter, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons, along with the technical knowledge and materials needed to make these weapons, is an enduring problem of international urgency. Current international nuclear nonproliferation efforts are aimed at deterring, detecting, and responding to proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. These safeguards efforts are being implemented by applying preeminent science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. By strengthening systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A), one can reduce the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. Two major programs of international cooperation are now underway to achieve this goal. The first is between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Institutes of the Russian Federation (Laboratory-to-Laboratory Program), and the second is between the US Government and Governments of the former Soviet Republics (Government-to-Government Program). As part of these programs, the DOE is working with facilities to assist them in implementing computerized MPC and A systems. This work is a collaboration between computer scientists and safeguards experts in both the US and the new Republics. The US is making available technology and expertise to enable Russian experts to build on computerized MPC and A software developed in the US. This paper describes the joint efforts of these international teams to develop sophisticated computerized MPC and A systems using modern computer hardware and software technology. These systems are being customized to meet the site-specific needs of each facility

  9. Effective protection of biological membranes against photo-oxidative damage: Polymeric antioxidant forming a protecting shield over the membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertins, Omar; Mathews, Patrick D; Gomide, Andreza B; Baptista, Mauricio S; Itri, Rosangela

    2015-10-01

    We have prepared a chitosan polymer modified with gallic acid in order to develop an efficient protection strategy biological membranes against photodamage. Lipid bilayers were challenged with photoinduced damage by photosensitization with methylene blue, which usually causes formation of hydroperoxides, increasing area per lipid, and afterwards allowing leakage of internal materials. The damage was delayed by a solution of gallic acid in a concentration dependent manner, but further suppressed by the polymer at very low concentrations. The membrane of giant unilamellar vesicles was covered with this modified macromolecule leading to a powerful shield against singlet oxygen and thus effectively protecting the lipid membrane from oxidative stress. The results have proven the discovery of a promising strategy for photo protection of biological membranes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced materials for thermal protection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.

    1996-03-01

    Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2ṡsec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2ṡsec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

  11. Laser interaction with biological material mathematical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kulikov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the principles of laser interaction with biological cells and tissues of varying degrees of organization. The problems of biomedical diagnostics are considered. Scattering of laser irradiation of blood cells is modeled for biological structures (dermis, epidermis, vascular plexus). An analytic theory is provided which is based on solving the wave equation for the electromagnetic field. It allows the accurate analysis of interference effects arising from the partial superposition of scattered waves. Treated topics of mathematical modeling are: optical characterization of biological tissue with large-scale and small-scale inhomogeneities in the layers, heating blood vessel under laser irradiation incident on the outer surface of the skin and thermo-chemical denaturation of biological structures at the example of human skin.

  12. Method of manufacturing neutron protecting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakibana, Hidetake; Okamoto, Masazane; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Koguchi, Noboru; Takesute, Morihito; Miyamatsu, Tokuhisa

    1985-06-03

    Purpose: To manufacture neutron protecting materials which are highly flexible and can be shaped with ease at a good workability. Method: In this invention, natural lithium, natural boron such as Li-6 or B-10 or enriched isotope thereof with a great neutron absorption cross section is fixed to fibers. As a specific example, lumps of copolymer fibers are fabricated into weave sheets in a carding machine and applied with needle punching to prepare felt-like products. They are conditioned to OH or H type, which are respectively immersed in saturated aqueous boric acid or 1M-aqueous solution of lithium hydroxide and then dewatered and dried. As a result, boric acid type anion exchange fibers and lithium type cation exchange fibers can be obtained from the former and the latter respectively. In this way, blankets or cloths which are light in weight, flexible and have high neutron absorbing performance can be shaped. They are also in good fitting contact to a human body. (Kamimura, M.).

  13. [Synthetic biology and rearrangements of microbial genetic material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Quan-Feng; Wang, Qian; Qi, Qing-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    As an emerging discipline, synthetic biology has shown great scientific values and application prospects. Although there have been many reviews of various aspects on synthetic biology over the last years, this article, for the first time, attempted to discuss the relationship and difference between microbial genetics and synthetic biology. We summarized the recent development of synthetic biology in rearranging microbial genetic materials, including synthesis, design and reduction of genetic materials, standardization of genetic parts and modularization of genetic circuits. The relationship between synthetic biology and microbial genetic engineering was also discussed in the paper.

  14. The convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    This document contains the full text of a convention to facilitate the safe transfer of nuclear material, and to insure the physical protection of nuclear material in domestic use, storage, and transport. Two annexes are included, which establish categories of nuclear materials and levels of physical protection to be applied in international transport

  15. e-Biologics: Fabrication of Sustainable Electronics with "Green" Biological Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, Derek R

    2017-06-27

    The growing ubiquity of electronic devices is increasingly consuming substantial energy and rare resources for materials fabrication, as well as creating expansive volumes of toxic waste. This is not sustainable. Electronic biological materials (e-biologics) that are produced with microbes, or designed with microbial components as the guide for synthesis, are a potential green solution. Some e-biologics can be fabricated from renewable feedstocks with relatively low energy inputs, often while avoiding the harsh chemicals used for synthesizing more traditional electronic materials. Several are completely free of toxic components, can be readily recycled, and offer unique features not found in traditional electronic materials in terms of size, performance, and opportunities for diverse functionalization. An appropriate investment in the concerted multidisciplinary collaborative research required to identify and characterize e-biologics and to engineer materials and devices based on e-biologics could be rewarded with a new "green age" of sustainable electronic materials and devices. Copyright © 2017 Lovley.

  16. Materiomics: biological protein materials, from nano to macro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Steven; Buehler, Markus J

    2010-01-01

    Materiomics is an emerging field of science that provides a basis for multiscale material system characterization, inspired in part by natural, for example, protein-based materials. Here we outline the scope and explain the motivation of the field of materiomics, as well as demonstrate the benefits of a materiomic approach in the understanding of biological and natural materials as well as in the design of de novo materials. We discuss recent studies that exemplify the impact of materiomics – discovering Nature’s complexity through a materials science approach that merges concepts of material and structure throughout all scales and incorporates feedback loops that facilitate sensing and resulting structural changes at multiple scales. The development and application of materiomics is illustrated for the specific case of protein-based materials, which constitute the building blocks of a variety of biological systems such as tendon, bone, skin, spider silk, cells, and tissue, as well as natural composite material systems (a combination of protein-based and inorganic constituents) such as nacre and mollusk shells, and other natural multiscale systems such as cellulose-based plant and wood materials. An important trait of these materials is that they display distinctive hierarchical structures across multiple scales, where molecular details are exhibited in macroscale mechanical responses. Protein materials are intriguing examples of materials that balance multiple tasks, representing some of the most sustainable material solutions that integrate structure and function despite severe limitations in the quality and quantity of material building blocks. However, up until now, our attempts to analyze and replicate Nature’s materials have been hindered by our lack of fundamental understanding of these materials’ intricate hierarchical structures, scale-bridging mechanisms, and complex material components that bestow protein-based materials their unique properties

  17. Material science lesson from the biological photosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghye; Lee, Jun Ho; Ha, Heonjin; Im, Sang Won; Nam, Ki Tae

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by photosynthesis, artificial systems for a sustainable energy supply are being designed. Each sequential energy conversion process from light to biomass in natural photosynthesis is a valuable model for an energy collection, transport and conversion system. Notwithstanding the numerous lessons of nature that provide inspiration for new developments, the features of natural photosynthesis need to be reengineered to meet man's demands. This review describes recent strategies toward adapting key lessons from natural photosynthesis to artificial systems. We focus on the underlying material science in photosynthesis that combines photosystems as pivotal functional materials and a range of materials into an integrated system. Finally, a perspective on the future development of photosynthesis mimetic energy systems is proposed.

  18. Investigating the Use of a Protective Coating Material as an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petroleum wax is known to provide ozone protection to natural rubber under static deformation while a combination of chemical antiozonant and wax is normally used for ozone protection under dynamic conditions. The work described in this paper, aims at investigating the effectiveness of a coating material in protecting a ...

  19. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection.

  20. Manual of respiratory protection against airborne radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caplin, J.L.; Held, B.J.; Catlin, R.J.

    1976-10-01

    The manual supplements Regulatory Guide 8.15, ''Acceptable Programs for Respiratory Protection''. It provides broad guidance for the planned use of respirators to protect individuals from airborne radioactive materials that might be encountered during certain operations. The guidance is intended for use by management in establishing and supervising programs and by operating personnel in implementing programs. Guidance is primarily directed to the use of respirators to prevent the inhalation of airborne radioactive materials. Protection against other modes of intake (e.g., absorption, swallowing, wound injection) is, in general, not covered nor is the use of protective equipment for head, eye, or skin protection

  1. Delayed Luminescence and Biophotons from Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoesel, Ernst; Hann, Patrick; Garzon, Maria; Pfeiffer, Erik; Lofland, Samuel

    2008-03-01

    There has recently been increased interest in the field of biophotonics, since it is a non-invasive technique. Many biological systems, such as yeast, bacteria, leaves, seeds, and algae display the unusual phenomenon of a weak, delayed luminescence on the timescale of seconds to minutes after transient illumination. It is also observed that the time decay of the biophotonic emission is not exponential, even after the delay, and that there can be oscillations in intensity with time, which depend on the duration of the illumination. Results from two types of yeast, i.e. bread yeast, and saccharomyces, as well as those from several types of algae are presented. Possible mechanisms for the source of the ultraweak photon emission are discussed.

  2. Validation of tritium measurements in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.A.; Baumgartner, F.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum deviation of experimental R value from its real value, which is defined as the ratio of tissue bound to tissue water tritium, has been calculated and verified experimentally by taking consideration of isotopic fractionation arised in the course of water separation. Experimental procedures examined for the purpose are the azeotropic distillation and lyophilization for the removal of tissue water and the oxidative combustion of organic residue either by thermal process or by low temperature plasma generation. Each procedure optimalized by obviating or correcting isotope effects as well as other sources of error has been tested with mixed standards and biological samples. By washing out the exchangeable tritium and also physically bound tritium, the precision and accuracy of R values are further improved

  3. Analytical Chemistry at the Interface Between Materials Science and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Janese C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2000-09-21

    Likedlessentid sciences, anal~cd chetis~continues toreinvent itself. Moving beyond its traditional roles of identification and quantification, analytical chemistry is now expanding its frontiers into areas previously reserved to other disciplines. This work describes several research efforts that lie at the new interfaces between analytical chemistry and two of these disciplines, namely materials science and biology. In the materials science realm, the search for new materials that may have useful or unique chromatographic properties motivated the synthesis and characterization of electrically conductive sol-gels. In the biology realm, the search for new surface fabrication schemes that would permit or even improve the detection of specific biological reactions motivated the design of miniaturized biological arrays. Collectively, this work represents some of analytical chemistry’s newest forays into these disciplines. The introduction section to this dissertation provides a literature review on several of the key aspects of this work. In advance of the materials science discussion, a brief introduction into electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC) and sol-gel chemistry is provided. In advance of the biological discussions, brief overviews of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and the oxidative chemistry used to construct our biological arrays are provided. This section is followed by four chapters, each of which is presented as a separate manuscript, and focuses on work that describes some of our cross-disciplinary efforts within materials science and biology. This dissertation concludes with a general summary and future prospectus.

  4. AC Calorimetric Design for Dynamic of Biological Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeo Imaizumi

    2006-01-01

    We developed a new AC calorimeter for the measurement of dynamic specific heat capacity in liquids, including aqueous suspensions of biological materials. This method has several advantages. The first is that a high-resolution measurement of heat capacity, inmillidegrees, can be performed as a function of temperature, even with a very small sample. Therefore, AC calorimeter is a powerful tool to study critical behavior a tphase transition in biological materials. The second advantage is that ...

  5. National practices in physical protection of nuclear materials. Regulatory basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goltsov, V.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Federal law 'On The Use Of Atomic Energy' containing the section on physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities was issued in 1995 in Russian Federation. This document became the first federal level document regulating the general requirements to physical protection (PP). The federal PP rules developed on the base of this law by Minatom of Russia and other federal bodies of the Russian Federation were put in force by the government of Russia in 1997. The requirements of the convention on physical protection of nuclear materials (INFCIRC 274) and the modern IAEA recommendations (INFCIRC/225/Rev.4) are taken into account in the PP rules. Besides, while developing the PP rules the other countries' experience in this sphere has been studied and taken into account. The PP rules are action-obligatory for all juridical persons dealing with nuclear activity and also for those who are coordinating and monitoring this activity. Nuclear activity without physical protection ensured in accordance with PP rules requirements is prohibited. The requirements of PP Rules are stronger than the IAEA recommendations. The PP rules are establishing: physical protection objectives; federal executive bodies and organizations functions an implementation of physical protection; categorization of nuclear materials; requirements for nuclear materials physical protection as during use and storage as during transportation; main goals of state supervision and ministry level control for physical protection; notification order about the facts of unauthorized actions regarding nuclear materials and facilities. Besides the above mentioned documents, there were put in force president decrees, federal laws and regulations in the field of: counteraction to nuclear terrorism; interactions in physical protection systems; military and ministerial on-site guard activities; information protection. By the initiative of Minatom of Russia the corrections were put into the

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOLOGY MATERIAL RESOURCES BY METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Susantini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Biology Material Resources by Metacognitive Strategy The study was aimed at finding out the suitability of Biology Materials using the metacognitive strategy. The materials were textbooks, self-understanding Evaluation Sheet and the key, lesson plan, and tests including the answer key. The criteria of appropriateness included the relevance of the resources with the content validity, face va­lidity and the language. This research and development study was carried out employing a 3D model, namely define, design and develop. At the define stage, three topics were selected for analysis, they were virus, Endocrine System, and Genetic material. During the design phase, the physical appearance of the materials was suited with the Metacognitive Strategy. At the develop phase, the material resources were examined and validated by two Biology experts and senior teachers of Biology. The results showed that the Biology material Resources using Metacognitive Strategy developed in the study has fell into the category of very good ( score > 3.31 and was therefore considered suitable.

  7. Materiomics: biological protein materials, from nano to macro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Cranford

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Steven Cranford, Markus J BuehlerCenter for Materials Science and Engineering, Laboratory for Atomistic and Molecular Mechanics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: Materiomics is an emerging field of science that provides a basis for multiscale material system characterization, inspired in part by natural, for example, protein-based materials. Here we outline the scope and explain the motivation of the field of materiomics, as well as demonstrate the benefits of a materiomic approach in the understanding of biological and natural materials as well as in the design of de novo materials. We discuss recent studies that exemplify the impact of materiomics – discovering Nature’s complexity through a materials science approach that merges concepts of material and structure throughout all scales and incorporates feedback loops that facilitate sensing and resulting structural changes at multiple scales. The development and application of materiomics is illustrated for the specific case of protein-based materials, which constitute the building blocks of a variety of biological systems such as tendon, bone, skin, spider silk, cells, and tissue, as well as natural composite material systems (a combination of protein-based and inorganic constituents such as nacre and mollusk shells, and other natural multiscale systems such as cellulose-based plant and wood materials. An important trait of these materials is that they display distinctive hierarchical structures across multiple scales, where molecular details are exhibited in macroscale mechanical responses. Protein materials are intriguing examples of materials that balance multiple tasks, representing some of the most sustainable material solutions that integrate structure and function despite severe limitations in the quality and quantity of material building blocks. However, up until now, our attempts to analyze and

  8. Moessbauer spectroscopic studies of magnetically ordered biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.P.E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses recent work showing the application of Moessbauer spectroscopy to the study of the properties of the magnetically ordered materials which occur in a variety of biological systems. These materials display a diversity of behaviour which provides good examples of the various possibilities which can arise with iron-containing particles of different compositions and sizes. (orig.)

  9. Profile of accidents with biological material at a dental school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aragão de Almeida Sasamoto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/actascihealthsci.v36i1.14976 Current research characterizes the epidemiological profile of accidents with biological material (BM that occurred in a government-run dental school and identifies the post-exposure behavior taken by the injured subjects. The cross-sectional retrospective study comprises professors, students and technical-administration personnel who worked in the laboratory from 2001 to 2008 (n = 566. An electronic questionnaire, prepared by software developed for this purpose, was sent to subjects between May and August 2008 for data collection. Ninety-one (34.2% out of 266 participants reported some type of exposure to BM. There was no difference between the occurrence of accidents according to the subjects’ category (p = 0.496 and sex (p = 0.261. Most of the subjects reported cutaneous exposure (76.9% comprising saliva (68.1% and blood (48.3%. The fingers were the body members most affected. Accidents occurred mostly during clinical (34.1% and surgical (30.8% procedures. Although the use of protection equipments was high (82.9%, only 26.4% of subjects reported the accident and only 28.6% sought immediate help. Most of the injured subjects failed to report the accidents and did not comply with the guidelines. Others trivialized basic behavior such as the interruption of the procedure to seek medical assistance.

  10. Measuring management success for protected species: Looking beyond biological outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn D Bisack

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the ocean ecosystem, including the human component, is such that a single fishery may require multiple policy instruments to support recovery and conservation of protected species, in addition to those for fisheries management. As regulations multiply, the need for retrospective analysis and evaluation grows in order to inform future policy. To accurately evaluate policy instruments, clear objectives and their link to outcomes are necessary, as well as identifying criteria to evaluate outcomes. The Northeast United States sink gillnet groundfish fishery provides a case study of the complexity of regulations and policy instruments implemented under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act to address bycatch of marine mammals. The case study illustrates a range of possible objectives for the policy instruments including biological, economic, social-normative and longevity factors. We highlight links between possible objectives, outcomes and criteria for the four factors, as well as areas for consideration when undertaking ex-post analyses. To support learning from past actions, we call for a coordinated effort involving multiple disciplines and jurisdictions to undertake retrospective analyses and evaluations of key groups of policy instruments used for protected species.

  11. Summary of physical protection and material accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppel, P.J.

    1977-01-01

    The tremendous growth in safeguards and security requirements for activities involving strategic quantities of high enriched uranium and plutonium has resulted in a wealth of proposed regulations, counter proposals, interim plans, license conditions, and final regulations. This paper reviews the actions taken and indicates their impact on facilities handling special nuclear material

  12. Nanomechanical strength mechanisms of hierarchical biological materials and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehler, Markus J; Ackbarow, Theodor

    2008-12-01

    Biological protein materials (BPMs), intriguing hierarchical structures formed by assembly of chemical building blocks, are crucial for critical functions of life. The structural details of BPMs are fascinating: They represent a combination of universally found motifs such as alpha-helices or beta-sheets with highly adapted protein structures such as cytoskeletal networks or spider silk nanocomposites. BPMs combine properties like strength and robustness, self-healing ability, adaptability, changeability, evolvability and others into multi-functional materials at a level unmatched in synthetic materials. The ability to achieve these properties depends critically on the particular traits of these materials, first and foremost their hierarchical architecture and seamless integration of material and structure, from nano to macro. Here, we provide a brief review of this field and outline new research directions, along with a review of recent research results in the development of structure-property relationships of biological protein materials exemplified in a study of vimentin intermediate filaments.

  13. Non-proliferation issues in the field of biological technologies and dual-use materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamadaliev, S.M.; Troitskij, E.N.; Ibraev, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of the DTRA 01-00-C-0030 'Strengthening of physical and biological protection' project at the Research Agricultural Institute (Kazakhstan) are discussed. The project was directed on the organization of a reliable physical integrity of dangerous pathogens, on the provision reliable protection around the periphery and outside security of the whole object as well as on the exclusion of possibility of pathogens expansion of dangerous infection material out the controlled working conditions. The central section of the protection is storehouse of microorganism culture

  14. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  15. Nuclear technology in materials testing and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neider, R.

    1975-01-01

    A report of the 1974 activities of the laboratories for physical and measuring technical fundamentals, radiation effects and radiation protection, application of radionuclides and testing of radioactive materials of the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialpruefung (BAM) is given. (RW/LH) [de

  16. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [es

  17. Maintenance standards, care and control of the radiation protection material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasesco, L.

    2004-01-01

    The present protocol in Radiology, Tomography, surgical block and intensive care unit in the Britanic Hospital from Uruguay.Between their topics find care procedures in protective clothes, periodic and control methods, material record,and staff assigned

  18. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international co-operation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and nuclear materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers

  19. Measurement of HTO permeability of materials for protective appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Tomooka, M.; Kato, S.; Murata, M.; Kinouchi, N.; Yamamoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Tritiated water (HTO) vapor permeabilities were measured for plastic and rubber films used for protective appliances (suits, gloves, wrappings, etc.). The measurement data prove that polyehylene and butyl rubbers are materials suitable for HTO protective appliances with their lower permeability. The data also indicate that desiccating protective appliances before reuse is effective for restoring their original resistances to penetrating HTO vapor when they are repeatedly used. (author)

  20. Material surface modification for first wall protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The elements and strategy of a program to develop low Z surfaces for tokamak reactors is described. The development of low Z coated limiters is selected as an interim goal. Candidate materials were selected from the elements: Be, B, Al, Ti, V, C, O, N and their compounds. The effect of low energy erosion on surface morphology is shown for Be, TiC and VBe 12 . The tradeoffs in coating design are described. Stress analysis results for TiB 2 coated POCO graphite limiters for ORNL's ISX-B tokamak are given

  1. Plasma processing of fibre materials for enhanced impact protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creyghton, Y.L.M.; Simor, M.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of lightweight impact protective clothing depends on the constituting materials, their assembly in a system and interaction under various dynamic impact conditions. In this paper an overview of options for improved impact protective clothing systems based on a new plasma technology

  2. Utilization of colemanite as a radiation protection material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayulken, Ahmet; Aksut, Cem

    1986-01-01

    In experiments utilizing neutrons, a good shielding is very important. For developing countries, economics of the protection system is also a very important factor. In this work, a new material for protection blocks is investigated. These blocks are fabricated with colemanite powder in a paraffin wax matrix, and their behaviour as a neutron shield are investigated with a Pu-Be neutron source. (author)

  3. Occupational accidents involving biological material among public health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodi, Mônica Bonagamba; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2007-01-01

    This descriptive research aimed to recognize the occurrence of work accidents (WA) involving exposure to biological material among health workers at Public Health Units in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil. A quantitative approach was adopted. In 2004, 155 accidents were notified by means of the Work Accident Communication (WAC). Sixty-two accidents (40%) involved exposure to biological material that could cause infections like Hepatitis and Aids. The highest number of victims (42 accidents) came from the category of nursing aids and technicians. Needles were responsible for 80.6% of accidents and blood was the biological material involved in a majority of occupational exposure cases. This subject needs greater attention, so that prevention measures can be implemented, which consider the peculiarities of the activities carried out by the different professional categories.

  4. Materials Manufactured from 3D Printed Synthetic Biology Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Diana; Micks, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Many complex, biologically-derived materials have extremely useful properties (think wood or silk), but are unsuitable for space-related applications due to production, manufacturing, or processing limitations. Large-scale ecosystem-based production, such as raising and harvesting trees for wood, is impractical in a self-contained habitat such as a space station or potential Mars colony. Manufacturing requirements, such as the specialized equipment needed to harvest and process cotton, add too much upmass for current launch technology. Cells in nature are already highly specialized for making complex biological materials on a micro scale. We envision combining these strengths with the recently emergent technologies of synthetic biology and 3D printing to create 3D-structured arrays of cells that are bioengineered to secrete different materials in a specified three-dimensional pattern.

  5. Protecting innovation in bioinformatics and in-silico biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Commercial success or failure of innovation in bioinformatics and in-silico biology requires the appropriate use of legal tools for protecting and exploiting intellectual property. These tools include patents, copyrights, trademarks, design rights, and limiting information in the form of 'trade secrets'. Potentially patentable components of bioinformatics programmes include lines of code, algorithms, data content, data structure and user interfaces. In both the US and the European Union, copyright protection is granted for software as a literary work, and most other major industrial countries have adopted similar rules. Nonetheless, the grant of software patents remains controversial and is being challenged in some countries. Current debate extends to aspects such as whether patents can claim not only the apparatus and methods but also the data signals and/or products, such as a CD-ROM, on which the programme is stored. The patentability of substances discovered using in-silico methods is a separate debate that is unlikely to be resolved in the near future.

  6. Certification of biological reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanjewar, Mamata R.; Lanjewar, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    A multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method by short and long irradiation has been employed for the determination of 21 minor and trace elements in two standard Reference Materials P-RBF and P-WBF from Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques ,Czechoslovakia. Also some biological standards such as Bowen's kale, cabbage leaves (Poland) including wheat and rice flour samples of local origin were analysed. It is suggested that INAA is an ideal method for the certification of Reference Materials of Biological Matrices. (author)

  7. An integrated approach towards future ballistic neck protection materials selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, John; Helliker, Mark; Carr, Debra J

    2013-05-01

    Ballistic protection for the neck has historically taken the form of collars attached to the ballistic vest (removable or fixed), but other approaches, including the development of prototypes incorporating ballistic material into the collar of an under body armour shirt, are now being investigated. Current neck collars incorporate the same ballistic protective fabrics as the soft armour of the remaining vest, reflecting how ballistic protective performance alone has historically been perceived as the most important property for neck protection. However, the neck has fundamental differences from the thorax in terms of anatomical vulnerability, flexibility and equipment integration, necessitating a separate solution from the thorax in terms of optimal materials selection. An integrated approach towards the selection of the most appropriate combination of materials to be used for each of the two potential designs of future neck protection has been developed. This approach requires evaluation of the properties of each potential material in addition to ballistic performance alone, including flexibility, mass, wear resistance and thermal burden. The aim of this article is to provide readers with an overview of this integrated approach towards ballistic materials selection and an update of its current progress in the development of future ballistic neck protection.

  8. The influence of protective properties of packaging materials and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of protective properties of packaging materials and modified atmosphere on quality changes of dried apricot is shown in this paper. In our investigation, we used four different characteristic combinations of packaging materials with different barrier properties for packaging of dried apricot: ...

  9. NBS SRM 1569 Brewer's Yeast: Is it an adequate standard reference material for testing a chromium determination in biological materials tion in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.; Tjioe, P.S.; Kroon, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    Some analytical experiences with NBS SRM 1569 Brewer's Yeast are presented. Against this background the adequacy of this standard reference material for the determination of chromium in biological materials is discussed. Authors have three main objections. Due to its high content of insoluble chromium-containing particles, SRM 1569 is not typical for biological materials, possibly not even for Brewer's Yeast. The chromium level of SRM 1569 is not typical for the chromium levels normally encountered in pure biological materials. The major fraction (69 +- 3 percent) of the chromium is present in a form which is insoluble under the conditions used in Author's analysis. (T.I.)

  10. The Application of Auxetic Material for Protective Sports Apparel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Moroney

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research of auxetic materials highlights its potential as personal protective equipment for sports apparel with enhanced properties such as conformability, superior energy absorption and reduced thickness. In contrast, commercially available protective materials have proven to be problematic in that they inhibit movement, breathability, wicking and that molded pads are prone to saddling. Foam components are embedded within personal protective equipment for sports apparel, where protective material is positioned at regions of the body frequently exposed to injury of the soft tissue through collision, falls or hard impact. At present, the impact resistance of auxetic open cell polyurethane foam and some additively manufactured auxetic structures have been established, and processes for manufacturing curved auxetic materials as well as molding methods have been developed. Despite this, auxetic materials have not yet been applied as personal protective equipment for sports apparel in current research. This paper argues that there is scope to investigate auxetic materials potential for enhanced wearer functionality through properties of synclastic curvature and biaxial expansion.

  11. The usage of phase change materials in fire fighter protective clothing: its effect on thermal protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengmeng

    2017-12-01

    The thermal protective performance of the fire fighter protective clothing is of vital importance for fire fighters. In the study fabrics treated by phase change materials (PCMs) were applied in the multi-layered fabrics of the fire fighter protective clothing ensemble. The PCM fabrics were placed at the different layers of the clothing and their thermal protective performance were measured by a TPP tester. Results show that with the application of the PCM fabrics the thermal protection of the multi-layered fabrics was greatly increased. The time to reach a second degree burn was largely reduced. The location of the PCM fabrics at the different layers did not affect much on the thermal protective performance. The higher amount of the PCM adds on, the higher thermal protection was brought. The fabrics with PCMs of a higher melting temperature could contribute to higher thermal protection.

  12. Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material is composed of the text of 23 articles, annex 1 showing the levels of physical protection and annex 2 which is the categorization list of nuclear material. The text consists of definitions (article 1), the scope of applications (2), liability of protecting nuclear material during international transport (3 and 4), duty of mutual cooperation (5 and 6), responsibility for criminal punishment (7 to 13), and final provisions (14 to 23). It is to be noted that the nuclear material for military purposes and domestic nuclear facilities are excluded in the connection. After the brief description of the course leading to the establishment of the convention, individual articles and annexes and the respective Japanese version, and the explanation based on the intergovernmental meeting discussion on the draft convention are described. (J.P.N.)

  13. Biological evaluation of dental materials, in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, H.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper, the correlation between the user of tissue culture for in vitro tests and the tissue irritability and pupal response observed in in vitro tests, will be discussed. It would produce confusion if dental materials were standardised with the unreliable parameter of the living system in dynamic balance. Biological tests, both in vitro and in vivo, should be used for pre-standards testing, without any political control to establish physicochemical standards. As a first step, corrosion tests and the dissolution dosje of toxic components from the material in the tissue culture medium and/or artificial salvia should be standardised under conditions simulating the oral environment. The CNC method and photo-pattern analysis are used for the interpretation of cytotoxicity. The need for biological testing, both in vitro and in vivo, definitely exists in order to obtain physicochemical standards, with a biological simulation depending upon the feedback obtained from the results of in vitro and in vivo tests

  14. The preparation of four biological reference materials for QUASIMEME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van S.P.J.; Pieters, H.; Boer, de J.

    2004-01-01

    Four biological materials have been prepared for use in QUASIMEME interlaboratory studies including a shrimp sample for metal analysis (QM01-1) and two mussel (QO01-3 and QO02-2) and one mackerel sample (QO02-1) for organic contaminant analysis.

  15. The determination of copper in biological materials by flame spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, G. E.; Ryan, M.

    1962-01-01

    A method for the determination of the copper content of biological materials by flame spectrophotometry is described. The effects of interference by ions such as sodium and phosphate were eliminated by isolating copper as the dithizonate in CCl4. Results obtained for the urinary excretion of copper by a patient with Wilson's disease before and after treatment with penicillamine are reported. PMID:14479334

  16. Application of radiochemical separation procedures to environmental and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eakins, J D [UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Environmental and Medical Sciences Div.

    1984-06-15

    The measurement of low levels of radionuclides in environmental and biological materials often depends on separation of the nuclide of interest from a bulky matrix containing interfering radioelements. In such case, however sophisticated and elegant the counting technique, the quality of the final data will

  17. Social justice and research using human biological material: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social justice and research using human biological material: A response to Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper. ... South African Medical Journal ... In a recent article, Mahomed, Nöthling-Slabbert and Pepper proposed that research participants should be entitled to share in the profits emanating from such research ...

  18. Theory of light transfer in food and biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this chapter, we first define the basic radiometric quantities that are needed for describing light propagation in food and biological materials. Radiative transfer theory is then derived, according to the principle of the conservation of energy. Because the radiative transfer theory equation is ...

  19. Physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities in CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Gratia, M.-H.; Jorda, A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), as nuclear operator, is responsible for the control and protection of their nuclear materials. Inside CEA, DCS (Central Security Division) is in charge of the security matters, DCS defines the CEA strategy in this field, especially in physical protection. The paper will present the physical protection strategy of CEA. DCS defines the rules and methods; the operators have to apply in order to fulfill the security objectives of CEA. CEA has to provide the regulatory authority with documents proving that it is in accordance with the requirements of the 25th July 1980 law and 12th May 1981 decree. It has to implement all the necessary means in order to achieve the results requested by the regulatory authority. All these arrangements are described in the 'license and control file'. This file should specify the facility safeguards and physical protection system. Accounting measures are also described. In this file, the petitioner has to justify its capacity for holding nuclear materials and for exercising authorized activities on them. So the organization and the installed means have to be described in this authorization file. For physical protection, containment, surveillance and physical protection measures are presented: Containment measures must prevent the unauthorized or unjustified movements of nuclear material in the framework of the authorized activities; Surveillance measures must guarantee the integrity of the containment, check that no material is exiting by an abnormal channel; Physical protection measures for the materials, the premises and the facilities are intended to protect them against malevolent actions by means of security systems. The Central Security Division has established guidelines to provide guidance to the nuclear materials holders in writing such files. Each holding unit has to establish a 'license and control file' and each CEA site establishes a 'site license and control file

  20. [Safeguards for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, O.E.

    1975-01-01

    Testimony is given on the subject of safeguards for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities, particularly during transportation. The ERDA nation-wide safe-secure transportation system and the Safe-Secure Trailer are described. The nationwide ERDA voice communication system is also described. Development of hardware and systems is discussed. The use of adversary simulation for evaluating protection systems is mentioned

  1. Physical protection of facilities and special nuclear materials in france

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanpierre, G.

    1980-01-01

    Physical protection of nuclear facilities and special nuclear materials is subject in France to a national governmental regulation which provides for the basic principles to be taken into account and the minimal level of protection deemed necessary. But the responsibility of implementation is left to the facility management and the resulting decentralization allows for maximum efficiency. All safeguards measures comply with the commitments taken at the international level by the French government

  2. Protective material for solar cell; Taiyo denchiyo hyomen hogozai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimura, M.; Domoto, T. [Nitto Denko Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-02-03

    The protective material for the solar cell of this invention consists of fluororesin containing from 1 to 20wt% titanium oxide particles with the particle size range from 1 to 1,000nm. Surface contamination of the protective material for the solar cell and deterioration of the adhesive are prevented when titanium oxide with particular particle size is contained in the fluororesin in a particular range as mentioned above. Titanium oxide has photocatalytic performance to decompose organic substances, and the surface protective material for the solar cell containing titanium oxide can decompose and remove dirt such as dust adhering the surface for preventing surface contamination. In addition, total light permeability can be maintained at high rate and the permeability of less than 350nm ultraviolet rays causing deterioration of the adhesive can be decreased if the particle size and content of titanium oxide are specified. Titanium dioxide of anatase type crystal structure is ideal as the titanium oxide. 1 tab.

  3. Fuel from biologic wase materials; Kraftstoff aus biologischen Reststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braesel, Martina

    2013-06-01

    In Germany, annually about 770,000 tons of biological waste reach rubbish bins or composting plants. In order to recondition this biological waste, the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) has launched a research project with a funding of 4.3 million Euro limited to a period of time of five years. In cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) easily fermentable, wet biomass with a low content of lignocellulosic material has to be completely transformed to biogas with maximum energy. Only some of the ash remains.

  4. Transport of biologically active material in laser cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenz, M; Mathezloic, F; Stoffel, M H; Zweig, A D; Romano, V; Weber, H P

    1988-01-01

    The transport of biologically active material during laser cutting with CO2 and Er lasers is demonstrated. This transport mechanism removes particles from the surface of gelatin, agar, and liver samples into the depth of the laser-formed craters. The transport phenomenon is explained by a contraction and condensation of enclosed hot water vapor. We show by cultivating transported bacteria in agar that biological particles can survive the shock of the transport. Determination of the numbers of active cells evidences a more pronounced activity of the cultivated bacteria after impact with an Er laser than with a CO2 laser.

  5. INAA Application for Trace Element Determination in Biological Reference Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmodjo, D. P. D.; Kurniawati, S.; Lestiani, D. D.; Adventini, N.

    2017-06-01

    Trace element determination in biological samples is often used in the study of health and toxicology. Determination change to its essentiality and toxicity of trace element require an accurate determination method, which implies that a good Quality Control (QC) procedure should be performed. In this study, QC for trace element determination in biological samples was applied by analyzing the Standard Reference Material (SRM) Bovine muscle 8414 NIST using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Three selected trace element such as Fe, Zn, and Se were determined. Accuracy of the elements showed as %recovery and precision as %coefficient of variance (%CV). The result showed that %recovery of Fe, Zn, and Se were in the range between 99.4-107%, 92.7-103%, and 91.9-112%, respectively, whereas %CV were 2.92, 3.70, and 5.37%, respectively. These results showed that INAA method is precise and accurate for trace element determination in biological matrices.

  6. FDTD simulation of exposure of biological material to electromagnetic nanopulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simicevic, Neven [Center for Applied Physics Studies, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Haynie, Donald T [Center for Applied Physics Studies and Biomedical Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

    2005-01-21

    Ultra-wideband (UWB) electromagnetic pulses of nanosecond duration, or nanopulses, are of considerable interest to the communications industry and are being explored for various applications in biotechnology and medicine. The propagation of a nanopulse through biological matter has been computed using the finite difference-time domain (FDTD) method. The approach required the reparametrization of existing Cole-Cole model-based descriptions of dielectric properties of biological matter in terms of the Debye model without loss of accuracy. Several tissue types have been considered. Results show that the electromagnetic field inside biological tissue depends on incident pulse rise time and width. Rise time dominates pulse behaviour inside tissue as conductivity increases. It has also been found that the amount of energy deposited by 20 kV m{sup -1} nanopulses is insufficient to change the temperature of the exposed material for pulse repetition rates of 1 MHz or less, consistent with recent experimental results.

  7. Lightning protection technology for small general aviation composite material aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumer, J. A.; Setzer, T. E.; Siddiqi, S.

    1993-01-01

    An on going NASA (Small Business Innovative Research) SBIR Phase II design and development program will produce the first lightning protected, fiberglass, General Aviation aircraft that is available as a kit. The results obtained so far in development testing of typical components of the aircraft kit, such as the wing and fuselage panels indicate that the lightning protection design methodology and materials chosen are capable of protecting such small composite airframes from lightning puncture and structural damage associated with severe threat lightning strikes. The primary objective of the program has been to develop a lightening protection design for full scale test airframe and verify its adequacy with full scale laboratory testing, thus enabling production and sale of owner-built, lightning-protected, Stoddard-Hamilton Aircraft, Inc. Glasair II airplanes. A second objective has been to provide lightning protection design guidelines for the General Aviation industry, and to enable these airplanes to meet lightening protection requirements for certification of small airplanes. This paper describes the protection design approaches and development testing results obtained thus far in the program, together with design methodology which can achieve the design goals listed above. The presentation of this paper will also include results of some of the full scale verification tests, which will have been completed by the time of this conference.

  8. [The meaning of accidents with biological material to nursing professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagnini, Maristela Aparecida Magri; Rocha, Suelen Alves; Ayres, Jairo Aparecido

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study is to understand what meaning work accidents with exposure to biological material has to nurses. This is an exploratory study with a qualitative approach, and it used Bardin's content analysis. 87 accidents with biological material occurred in the period between 2001 and 2006; among them, eight were seropositive for Hepatitis B and C and HIV/AIDS. An interview with guiding questions was used to collect data. When inquiring these professionals about the meaning of these accidents, four categories emerged: risk situation, danger perception, fatality, and feelings. Although it is not a strategy of clarification, it is a fact that work organization and educative actions have considerable impact in reducing this type of accident, also reducing damage to the life of nurses involved in these accidents.

  9. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  10. Application of crime countermeasures for the protection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, C.H.

    1975-01-01

    Federal regulations prepared by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and published in the Federal Register require licensees to take appropriate action to protect the health and safety of the public from unauthorized use of special nuclear material (SNM), which includes plutonium, uranium-233, and highly enriched uranium. Crime countermeasures for compliance with these regulations are an important part of the guidance that is provided by the NRC's Office of Standards Development. The use of crime countermeasures and protective devices is intended to prevent the unauthorized diversion of material and to aid in the detection of diversion should it be attempted. Plant and equipment designs should incorporate both electronic and physical security measures for protection of SNM. This applies to facilities and equipment for reprocessing, fabrication, and transportation of SNM. The protection systems include physical barriers, access controls, intrusion detection devices, surveillance devices, central alarm stations, communications, and response capability. Acceptable security measures and devices applicable to protected areas, material access areas, vital areas, vital equipment, and transportation vehicles have been presented in Regulatory Guides. (U.S.)

  11. Biological and chemical sensors based on graphene materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxin; Dong, Xiaochen; Chen, Peng

    2012-03-21

    Owing to their extraordinary electrical, chemical, optical, mechanical and structural properties, graphene and its derivatives have stimulated exploding interests in their sensor applications ever since the first isolation of free-standing graphene sheets in year 2004. This article critically and comprehensively reviews the emerging graphene-based electrochemical sensors, electronic sensors, optical sensors, and nanopore sensors for biological or chemical detection. We emphasize on the underlying detection (or signal transduction) mechanisms, the unique roles and advantages of the used graphene materials. Properties and preparations of different graphene materials, their functionalizations are also comparatively discussed in view of sensor development. Finally, the perspective and current challenges of graphene sensors are outlined (312 references).

  12. Prompt gamma cold neutron activation analysis applied to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Hiep, N.T.

    1992-01-01

    Cold neutrons at the external neutron guide laboratory (ELLA) of the KFA Juelich are used to demonstrate their profitable application for multielement characterization of biological materials. The set-up and experimental conditions of the Prompt Gamma Cold Neutron Activation Analysis (PGCNAA) device is described in detail. Results for C, H, N, S, K, B, and Cd using synthetic standards and the 'ratio' technique for calculation are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable and complementary with respect to the elements being determined by INAA. (orig.)

  13. Routine Determination of Arsenic in Biological Materials. RCN Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, J.J.; Das, H.A.

    1970-08-01

    This text describes a routine procedure for the determination of arsenic in biological materials by neutron activation analysis. Unlike most methods published in literature the present analysis is not based on chemical separation by destination. After a first purification by anion-exchange the 76 As-activity (T1/2 = 26,4 h) is isolated by precipitation as the metal. The method was tested by analysis of the standard kale powder. This material was prepared and issued by Bowen in 1966, to provide a reliable standard for the intercomparison of various methods. (author)

  14. Scanning probe microscopy in material science and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cricenti, A; Colonna, S; Girasole, M; Gori, P; Ronci, F; Longo, G; Dinarelli, S; Luce, M; Rinaldi, M; Ortenzi, M

    2011-01-01

    A review of the activity of scanning probe microscopy at our Institute is presented, going from instrumentation to software development of scanning tunnelling microscopy, atomic force microscopy and scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Some of the most important experiments in material science and biology performed by our group through the years with these SPM techniques will be presented. Finally, infrared applications by coupling a SNOM with a free electron laser will also be presented.

  15. Biologically inspired autonomous structural materials with controlled toughening and healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Michael E.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2010-04-01

    The field of structural health monitoring (SHM) has made significant contributions in the field of prognosis and damage detection in the past decade. The advantageous use of this technology has not been integrated into operational structures to prevent damage from propagating or to heal injured regions under real time loading conditions. Rather, current systems relay this information to a central processor or human operator, who then determines a course of action such as altering the mission or scheduling repair maintenance. Biological systems exhibit advanced sensory and healing traits that can be applied to the design of material systems. For instance, bone is the major structural component in vertebrates; however, unlike modern structural materials, bone has many properties that make it effective for arresting the propagation of cracks and subsequent healing of the fractured area. The foremost goal for the development of future adaptive structures is to mimic biological systems, similar to bone, such that the material system can detect damage and deploy defensive traits to impede damage from propagating, thus preventing catastrophic failure while in operation. After sensing and stalling the propagation of damage, the structure must then be repaired autonomously using self healing mechanisms motivated by biological systems. Here a novel autonomous system is developed using shape memory polymers (SMPs), that employs an optical fiber network as both a damage detection sensor and a network to deliver stimulus to the damage site initiating adaptation and healing. In the presence of damage the fiber optic fractures allowing a high power laser diode to deposit a controlled level of thermal energy at the fractured sight locally reducing the modulus and blunting the crack tip, which significantly slows the crack growth rate. By applying a pre-induced strain field and utilizing the shape memory recovery effect, thermal energy can be deployed to close the crack and return

  16. Convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The document refers to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (IAEA-INFCIRC-274). Part I contains the status list as of September 6, 1991; Part II contains the texts of reservations/declarations made upon expressing consent to be bound; Part III contains the texts of reservations/declarations made upon signature

  17. A suggested approach to the selection of chemical and biological protective clothing--meeting industry and emergency response needs for protection against a variety of hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, Jeffrey O

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the development of a comprehensive decision logic for selection and use of biological and chemical protective clothing (BCPC). The decision logic recognizes the separate areas of BCPC use among emergency, biological, and chemical hazards. The proposed decision logic provides a system for type classifying BCPC in terms of its compliance with existing standards (for emergency applications), the overall clothing integrity, and the material barrier performance. Type classification is offered for garments, gloves, footwear, and eye/face protection devices. On the basis of multiple, but simply designed flowcharts, the type of BCPC appropriate for specific biological and chemical hazards can be selected. The decision logic also provides supplemental considerations for choosing appropriate BCPC features.

  18. Diffusion theory in biology: a relic of mechanistic materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agutter, P S; Malone, P C; Wheatley, D N

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion theory explains in physical terms how materials move through a medium, e.g. water or a biological fluid. There are strong and widely acknowledged grounds for doubting the applicability of this theory in biology, although it continues to be accepted almost uncritically and taught as a basis of both biology and medicine. Our principal aim is to explore how this situation arose and has been allowed to continue seemingly unchallenged for more than 150 years. The main shortcomings of diffusion theory will be briefly reviewed to show that the entrenchment of this theory in the corpus of biological knowledge needs to be explained, especially as there are equally valid historical grounds for presuming that bulk fluid movement powered by the energy of cell metabolism plays a prominent note in the transport of molecules in the living body. First, the theory's evolution, notably from its origins in connection with the mechanistic materialist philosophy of mid nineteenth century physiology, is discussed. Following this, the entrenchment of the theory in twentieth century biology is analyzed in relation to three situations: the mechanism of oxygen transport between air and mammalian tissues; the structure and function of cell membranes; and the nature of the intermediary metalbolism, with its implicit presumptions about the intracellular organization and the movement of molecules within it. In our final section, we consider several historically based alternatives to diffusion theory, all of which have their precursors in nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy of science.

  19. Flexible Organic Electronics in Biology: Materials and Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Caizhi; Zhang, Meng; Yao, Mei Yu; Hua, Tao; Li, Li; Yan, Feng

    2015-12-09

    At the convergence of organic electronics and biology, organic bioelectronics attracts great scientific interest. The potential applications of organic semiconductors to reversibly transmit biological signals or stimulate biological tissues inspires many research groups to explore the use of organic electronics in biological systems. Considering the surfaces of movable living tissues being arbitrarily curved at physiological environments, the flexibility of organic bioelectronic devices is of paramount importance in enabling stable and reliable performances by improving the contact and interaction of the devices with biological systems. Significant advances in flexible organic bio-electronics have been achieved in the areas of flexible organic thin film transistors (OTFTs), polymer electrodes, smart textiles, organic electrochemical ion pumps (OEIPs), ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs) and chemiresistors. This review will firstly discuss the materials used in flexible organic bioelectronics, which is followed by an overview on various types of flexible organic bioelectronic devices. The versatility of flexible organic bioelectronics promises a bright future for this emerging area. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Selection of sorption material for tests of pesticide permeation through protective clothing fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Nazimek, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies on selecting a solid sorption material for absorbing liquid crop protection agents which permeate samples of protective clothing fabrics. The sorption materials were investigated and selected with an assumption that they should have a high recovery coefficient for biologically active substances, used as active ingredients in crop protection agents, at a presumed, acceptably high level. The selected substances were determined with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector (dichlorvos, cypermethrin and 2,4-D) and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (carbofuran). The tests demonstrated that polypropylene melt-blown type unwoven cloth had high recovery coefficients for all 4 active ingredients proposed for the study. The highest recovery coefficient, -.97, was obtained for carbofuran. The recovery coefficients obtained for the 3 remaining substances were lower: .89 for cypermethrin and 2,4-D, and .84 for dichlorvos.

  1. Physical protection of radioactive materials in a University Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1998-01-01

    Although nuclear research centers attached to universities usually do not keep large inventories of radioactive or special nuclear material, the mentioned material has still to be under strict surveillance and safeguards if applicable. One problem in such research centers is the large and frequent fluctuation of persons - mainly students, scientists or visiting guest scientists - using such materials for basic or applied research. In the present paper an overview of protective actions in such a research institute will be given and experience of more than 36 years will be presented. (author)

  2. Ethylene glycol monolayer protected nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and interactions with biological molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Li, Zhigang; Huang, Xueying

    2004-05-11

    The usefulness of the hybrid materials of nanoparticles and biological molecules on many occasions depends on how well one can achieve a rational design based on specific binding and programmable assembly. Nonspecific binding between nanoparticles and biomolecules is one of the major barriers for achieving their utilities in a biological system. In this paper, we demonstrate a new approach to eliminate nonspecific interactions between nanoparticles and biological molecules by shielding the nanoparticle with a monolayer of ethylene glycol. A direct synthesis of di-, tri-, and tetra(ethylene glycol)-protected gold nanoparticles (Au-S-EGn, n = 2, 3, and 4) was achieved under the condition that the water content was optimized in the range of 9-18% in the reaction mixture. With controlled ratio of [HAuCl4]/[EGn-SH] at 2, the synthesized particles have an average diameter of 3.5 nm and a surface plasma resonance band around 510 nm. Their surface structures were confirmed by 1H NMR spectra. These gold nanoparticles are bonded with a uniform monolayer with defined lengths of 0.8, 1.2, and 1.6 nm for Au-S-EG2, Au-S-EG3, and Au-S-EG4, respectively. They have great stabilities in aqueous solutions with a high concentration of electrolytes as well as in organic solvents. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the ethylene glycol monolayer coating is ca. 14% of the total nanoparticle weight. Biological binding tests by using ion-exchange chromatography and gel electrophoresis demonstrated that these Au-S-EGn (n = 2, 3, or 4) nanoparticles are free of any nonspecific bindings with various proteins, DNA, and RNA. These types of nanoparticles provide a fundamental starting material for designing hybrid materials composed of metallic nanoparticles and biomolecules.

  3. Certification of biological candidates reference materials by neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanov, Denis V.; Nesterova, Yulia V.; Merkulov, Viktor G.

    2018-03-01

    The paper gives the results of interlaboratory certification of new biological candidate reference materials by neutron activation analysis recommended by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland). The correctness and accuracy of the applied method was statistically estimated for the determination of trace elements in candidate reference materials. The procedure of irradiation in the reactor thermal fuel assembly without formation of fast neutrons was carried out. It excluded formation of interfering isotopes leading to false results. The concentration of more than 20 elements (e.g., Ba, Br, Ca, Co, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Lu, Rb, Sb, Sc, Ta, Th, Tb, Yb, U, Zn) in candidate references of tobacco leaves and bottom sediment compared to certified reference materials were determined. It was shown that the average error of the applied method did not exceed 10%.

  4. OECD Policy Recommendations on Security for Biological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radisch, J.

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical innovations derived from research on pathogenic micro-organisms promise astounding health and economic benefits. Some such biological resources employed in the RandD for diagnostic kits, vaccines and therapeutics, however, possess capacity for dual-use; they may be misused to develop biological weapons. Research facilities entrusted with possession of such dual-use materials have a responsibility to comply with biosecurity measures that are designed to prevent loss or theft and thereby reduce the probability of a bioterrorist attack. The OECD has provided a forum for its Member countries to engage in a dialogue of international co-operation with a view to produce policies that achieve a research environment fortified by biosecurity measures and capable of producing health innovations. In 2007, the OECD developed a risk assessment framework and risk management principles for Biological Resource Centres. Ongoing policy work at the OECD will look to design biosecurity guidelines appropriate to a broader range of facilities in possession of dual-use materials, such as university and industrial laboratories.(author)

  5. Protecting nuclear material and facilities: Is a new approach needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhausler, F.; Bunn, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The main reason why national physical protection (PP) systems for nuclear and other radioactive material need to be strengthened further is that, after the attacks on the US on 11 September 2001, the threat of dangerous, suicidal radiological and nuclear terrorism can no longer be excluded as a possibility. Existing PP systems were not designed to deal with the threat of suicidal terrorists having the numbers, skills, training, and resources available to the commandos attacking on 11 September. Moreover, there are no mandatory international standards for domestic PP systems for nuclear or radioactive material, and this has produced great variation in protection provided from country to country. IAEA recommended standards, while useful, were not designed with the new terrorist threat in mind. Moreover, they are often not followed in practice. The result is inadequate protection against the new form of terrorism in most countries. The Director General of the IAEA expressed a similar view after 11 September, but achieving a consensus to amend the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) to require specific standards of protection for different amounts and kinds of nuclear material used or stored domestically (not in international transport) has been impossible in the year since 11 September. In the case of radiological materials, a new effort to provide required international standards for protection against the new form of terrorism has not begun. In the summer of 2001, leaders of the G-8 countries agreed to a Global Partnership to prevent the new terrorists from acquiring nuclear and radiological as well as other materials related to weapons of mass destruction. Perhaps in part because of the failure to date to achieve agreement on an effective amendment to the CPPNM, the first principle of this partnership is to strengthen 'multilateral treaties and other instruments whose aim is to prevent the proliferation or illicit

  6. A model of engineering materials inspired by biological tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holeček M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The perfect ability of living tissues to control and adapt their mechanical properties to varying external conditions may be an inspiration for designing engineering materials. An interesting example is the smooth muscle tissue since this "material" is able to change its global mechanical properties considerably by a subtle mechanism within individual muscle cells. Multi-scale continuum models may be useful in designing essentially simpler engineering materials having similar properties. As an illustration we present the model of an incompressible material whose microscopic structure is formed by flexible, soft but incompressible balls connected mutually by linear springs. This simple model, however, shows a nontrivial nonlinear behavior caused by the incompressibility of balls and is very sensitive on some microscopic parameters. It may elucidate the way by which "small" changes in biopolymer networks within individual muscular cells may control the stiffness of the biological tissue, which outlines a way of designing similar engineering materials. The 'balls and springs' material presents also prestress-induced stiffening and allows elucidating a contribution of extracellular fluids into the tissue’s viscous properties.

  7. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The latest review (1993) of this document was of limited scope and resulted in changes to the text of INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 designed to make the categorization table in that document consistent with the categorization table contained in the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Consequently, a comprehensive review of INFCIRC/225 has not been conducted since 1989. Consequently, a meeting of national experts was convened from 2-5 June 1998 and from 27-29 October 1998 for a thorough review of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3. The revised document reflects the recommendations of the national experts to improve the structure and clarity of the document and to take account of improved technology and current international and national practices. In particular, a chapter has been added which provides specific recommendations related to sabotage of nuclear facilities and nuclear material. As a result of this addition, the title has been changed to 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities'. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States.

  8. The physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The latest review (1993) of this document was of limited scope and resulted in changes to the text of INFCIRC/225/Rev.2 designed to make the categorization table in that document consistent with the categorization table contained in the Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. Consequently, a comprehensive review of INFCIRC/225 has not been conducted since 1989. Consequently, a meeting of national experts was convened from 2-5 June 1998 and from 27-29 October 1998 for a thorough review of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3. The revised document reflects the recommendations of the national experts to improve the structure and clarity of the document and to take account of improved technology and current international and national practices. In particular, a chapter has been added which provides specific recommendations related to sabotage of nuclear facilities and nuclear material. As a result of this addition, the title has been changed to 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities'. The recommendations presented in this IAEA document reflect a broad consensus among Member States on the requirements which should be met by systems for the physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. It is hoped that they will provide helpful guidance for Member States

  9. Ultrafast electron microscopy in materials science, biology, and chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Wayne E.; Campbell, Geoffrey H.; Frank, Alan; Reed, Bryan; Schmerge, John F.; Siwick, Bradley J.; Stuart, Brent C.; Weber, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    The use of pump-probe experiments to study complex transient events has been an area of significant interest in materials science, biology, and chemistry. While the emphasis has been on laser pump with laser probe and laser pump with x-ray probe experiments, there is a significant and growing interest in using electrons as probes. Early experiments used electrons for gas-phase diffraction of photostimulated chemical reactions. More recently, scientists are beginning to explore phenomena in the solid state such as phase transformations, twinning, solid-state chemical reactions, radiation damage, and shock propagation. This review focuses on the emerging area of ultrafast electron microscopy (UEM), which comprises ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and dynamic transmission electron microscopy (DTEM). The topics that are treated include the following: (1) The physics of electrons as an ultrafast probe. This encompasses the propagation dynamics of the electrons (space-charge effect, Child's law, Boersch effect) and extends to relativistic effects. (2) The anatomy of UED and DTEM instruments. This includes discussions of the photoactivated electron gun (also known as photogun or photoelectron gun) at conventional energies (60-200 keV) and extends to MeV beams generated by rf guns. Another critical aspect of the systems is the electron detector. Charge-coupled device cameras and microchannel-plate-based cameras are compared and contrasted. The effect of various physical phenomena on detective quantum efficiency is discussed. (3) Practical aspects of operation. This includes determination of time zero, measurement of pulse-length, and strategies for pulse compression. (4) Current and potential applications in materials science, biology, and chemistry. UEM has the potential to make a significant impact in future science and technology. Understanding of reaction pathways of complex transient phenomena in materials science, biology, and chemistry will provide fundamental

  10. Activation analysis of biological materials at the Activation Analysis Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukula, F.; Obrusnik, I.; Simkova, M.; Kucera, J.; Krivanek, M.

    1976-01-01

    A review is presented of the work of the Activation Analysis Centre of the Nuclear Research Institute for different fields of the Czechoslovak economy, aimed primarily at analyzing biological materials with the purpose of determining the contents of the so-called vital trace elements and of elements which already have a toxic effect on the organism in trace concentrations. Another important field of research is the path of trace elements from the environment to the human organism. A destructive method for the simultaneous determination of 12 trace elements in 11 kinds of human tissue has been studied. (Z.M.)

  11. Japanese tea leaves: a possible biological standard reference material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Keiichiro; Notsu, Kenji; Tsunoda, Kin-ichi; Kato, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Yuko.

    1978-01-01

    Japanese Tea Leaves, prepared by pulverizing with an agate ball mill and sieving with a Saran fiber sieve (50 mesh) were assessed as a possible biological standard reference material for elemental analysis. The metal content of the tea leaves was determined independently at two laboratories using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry. Neutron activation analysis was also performed to determine the content (21 elements) of Tea Leaves. For some elements the result from the various methods were compared. The characteristics of Tea Leaves are discussed and the elemental composition is compared to that of Orchard Leaves (NBS SRM, 1571). The most significant characteristic of Tea Leaves was the high manganese content. (auth.)

  12. Impact Testing of Orbiter Thermal Protection System Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Justin

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact testing of the materials used in designing the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS). Pursuant to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations a testing program of the TPS system was instituted. This involved using various types of impactors in different sizes shot from various sizes and strengths guns to impact the TPS tiles and the Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS). The observed damage is shown, and the resultant lessons learned are reviewed.

  13. A review of the materials and allergens in protective gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rebecca F; Lyons, Paul; Horne, Helen; Mark Wilkinson, S

    2009-09-01

    The ingredients previously reported to cause protective glove allergy are presented and evaluated for strength of evidence. Allergens that have caused both delayed hypersensitivity and contact urticaria are considered for rubber, plastic, leather, and textile gloves. The current guidelines regarding glove manufacture are described. A list of materials confirmed by the industry to be used in glove production is presented together with a suggested series for investigating patients with delayed type hypersensitivity and contact urticaria secondary to glove use.

  14. Convention on the physical protection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document refers to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (IAEA-INFCIRC-274), including in Part I the status list of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval, accession or succession by States or organizations as of 31 December 1996, in Part II the texts of reservations/declarations made upon or following expressing consent to be bound, and in Part III the texts of reservations/declarations made upon signature

  15. Convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The document refers to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (INFCIRC/274). Part I contains reservations/declarations made upon or following signature and Part II contains reservations/declarations made upon or following deposit of instrument of consent to be bound. The status of signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by States or organizations as of 31 July 1990 is presented in an attachment

  16. Convention on the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The document presents the original draft for a Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, full reports of all the discussions held by representatives of Member States at meetings called by the IAEA, texts of written comments provided by Member States and the final agreed text of the Convention, list of original signatory States and status of the list of signatory States at the date of publication

  17. Biological bases for radiation protection standards and implications for policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beninson, D.

    1987-01-01

    The author sums up the principles involved in radiation as being composed of three basic requirements: 1) the individual dose limitation 2) the justification of radiation sources or practices 3) the optimization of protection. This philosophy is more sophisticated than the old approach of threshold and safety factors, which, however, is still valid for protection against non-stochastic effects. Discussion following presentation of the paper ranged over cost benefit analysis and optimization of protection systems, uranium mining, and the varying reactions of different governments. (U.K.)

  18. Transport of radioactive materials: the need for radiation protection programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masinza, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The increase in the use of radioactive materials worldwide requires that these materials be moved from production sites to the end user or in the case of radioactive waste, from the waste generator to the repository. Tens of millions of packages containing radioactive material are consigned for transport each year throughout the world. The amount of radioactive material in these packages varies from negligible quantities in shipments of consumer products to very large quantities of shipments of irradiated nuclear fuel. Transport is the main way in which the radioactive materials being moved get into the public domain. The public is generally unaware of the lurking danger when transporting these hazardous goods. Thus radiation protection programmes are important to assure the public of the certainty of their safety during conveyance of these materials. Radioactive material is transported by land (road and rail), inland waterways, sea/ocean and air. These modes of transport are regulated by international 'modal' regulations. The international community has formulated controls to reduce the number of accidents and mitigate their consequences should they happen. When accidents involving the transport of radioactive material occur, it could result in injury, loss of life and pollution of the environment. In order to ensure the safety of people, property and the environment, national and international transport regulations have been developed. The appropriate authorities in each state utilise them to control the transport of radioactive material. Stringent measures are required in these regulations to ensure adequate containment, shielding and the prevention of criticality in all spheres of transport, i.e. routine, minor incidents and accident conditions. Despite the extensive application of these stringent safety controls, transport accidents involving packages containing radioactive material have occurred and will continue to occur. When a transport accident occurs, it

  19. Micro-buckling in the nanocomposite structure of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yewang; Ji, Baohua; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Huang, Yonggang

    2012-10-01

    Nanocomposite structure, consisting of hard mineral and soft protein, is the elementary building block of biological materials, where the mineral crystals are arranged in a staggered manner in protein matrix. This special alignment of mineral is supposed to be crucial to the structural stability of the biological materials under compressive load, but the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. In this study, we performed analytical analysis on the buckling strength of the nanocomposite structure by explicitly considering the staggered alignment of the mineral crystals, as well as the coordination among the minerals during the buckling deformation. Two local buckling modes of the nanostructure were identified, i.e., the symmetric mode and anti-symmetric mode. We showed that the symmetric mode often happens at large aspect ratio and large volume fraction of mineral, while the anti-symmetric happens at small aspect ratio and small volume fraction. In addition, we showed that because of the coordination of minerals with the help of their staggered alignment, the buckling strength of these two modes approached to that of the ideally continuous fiber reinforced composites at large aspect ratio given by Rosen's model, insensitive to the existing "gap"-like flaws between mineral tips. Furthermore, we identified a mechanism of buckling mode transition from local to global buckling with increase of aspect ratio, which was attributed to the biphasic dependence of the buckling strength on the aspect ratio. That is, for small aspect ratio, the local buckling strength is smaller than that of global buckling so that it dominates the buckling behavior of the nanocomposite; for comparatively larger aspect ratio, the local buckling strength is higher than that of global buckling so that the global buckling dominates the buckling behavior. We also found that the hierarchical structure can effectively enhance the buckling strength, particularly, this structural design enables

  20. Nuclear, biological and chemical contamination survivability of Army material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Army Regulation (AR) 70-71, Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) Contamination Survivability of Army Material, published during 1984, establishes Army policy and procedures for the development and acquisition of material to ensure its survivablility and sustainability on the NBC-contaminated battlefield. This regulation defines NBC contamination as a term that includes both the individual and collective effects of residual radiological, biological, and chemical contamination. AR 70-71 applies to all mission-essential equipment within the Army. NBC contamination survivability is the capability of a system and its crew to withstand an NBC-contaminated environment, including decontamination, without losing the ability to accomplish the assigned mission. Characteristics of NBC contamination survivability are decontaminability, hardness, and compatability. These characteristics are engineering design criteria which are intended for use only in a developmental setting. To comply with AR 70-71, each mission-essential item must address all three criteria. The Department of Defense (DOD) has published a draft instruction addressing acquisition of NBC contamination survivable systems. This instruction will apply throughout DOD to those programs, systems and subsystems designated by the Secretary of Defense as major systems acquisition programs and to those non-major systems that have potential impact on critical functions

  1. Laser-matter structuration of optical and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallo, L., E-mail: hallo@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Mezel, C., E-mail: candice.mezel@cea.fr [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); CEA Le Ripault, 37260 Monts (France); Guillemot, F., E-mail: fabien.guillemot@inserm.fr [UMR 577 INSERM, Universite Bordeaux 2 (France); Chimier, B., E-mail: chimier@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Bourgeade, A., E-mail: antoine.bourgeade@cea.fr [CEA-CESTA, Le Barp (France); Regan, C., E-mail: regan@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Duchateau, G., E-mail: duchateau@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CELIA, Universite Bordeaux 1 (France); Souquet, A., E-mail: agnes.souquet@inserm.fr [UMR 577 INSERM, Universite Bordeaux 2 (France); Hebert, D., E-mail: david.hebert@cea.fr [CEA-CESTA, Le Barp (France)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this study we model nanomaterial structuring. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laser energy deposition is discussed first. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full and approximate models are discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic material response is addressed via hydrodynamics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sild effects are accounted for - Abstract: Interaction of ultrafast laser, i.e. from the femtosecond (fs) to the nanosecond (ns) regime, with initially transparent matter may produce very high energy density hot spots in the bulk as well as at the material surface, depending on focusing conditions. In the fs regime, absorption is due to ionisation of the dielectric, which enables absorption process to begin, and then hydrodynamic to take place. In the ns regime both absorption and hydrodynamic are coupled to each other, which complexifies considerably the comprehension but matter structuration looks similar. A numerical tool including solution of 3D Maxwell equations and a rate equation for free electrons is first compared to some available simple models of laser energy absorption. Then, subsequent material deformation, i.e. structuration, is determined by solving hydrodynamic equations, including or not solid behaviour. We show that nature of the final structures strongly depends on the amount of deposited energy and on the shape of the absorption zone. Then we address some problems related to laser-matter structuration of optical and biological materials in the fs, ps and ns regimes.

  2. Fluorine determinations in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.; Guinn, V.P.; Becker, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Exploratory studies were carried out at the University of California, Irvine on several freeze-dried human diet materials and on two freeze-dried vegetation materials - all prospective reference materials. The University of California, Irvine equipment includes a 250-kW TRIGA Mark 1 reactor, 2.5 x 10 12 n/cm 2 ·s thermal flux, 3-s sample transfer time, and a typical 18% Ge(Li)/4,096-channel gamma-ray spectrometer with a detector resolution of 3.3 keV at 1,332 keV. In these exploratory studies, it was found that it was not feasible to measure fluorine with adequate precision or accuracy at fluorine concentrations much less than ∼100 ppm. These initial studies, however, defined the magnitudes of the various difficulties. One good outcome of these studies was the demonstration that the otherwise excellent Teflon-mill brittle-fracture method for homogenizing freeze-dried biological samples was not suitable if fluorine was to be determined. Abrasion of the Teflon increased the fluorine content of a human diet sample about sevenfold (compared with similar treatment of the same material in an all-titanium mill)

  3. Biological Criteria for Protection of U.S. Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reef ecosystems are threatened by natural stressors, human activities, and natural stressors exacerbated by human activities. Under the U.S. Clean Water Act, States and Territories may guard against anthropogenic threats by adopting water quality standards based on biologic...

  4. Biologically Hazardous Agents at Work and Efforts to Protect Workers' Health: A Review of Recent Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Taek Rim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations.

  5. Radiation protection in biological investigation centers. Problematic, development and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, M.T.; Pina, R.; Usera, F.

    1998-01-01

    The radiological risk derivatives from the radioisotope techniques accomplished in the different investigation lines developed in the Centers object of this work, have necessary made establishing an organization that assure some adequate protection conditions in the use of the ionizing radiations

  6. Radiologic science for technologists: physics, biology, and protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushong, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The second edition of a textbook primarily for students in radiologic technology is presented. Separate chapters discuss mammography, computed tomography, diagnostic ultrasound, and design of radiologic physics. Radiation protection is specifically presented in two chapters as well as being integrated throughout the text. The fundamentals of radiobiology, molecular and cellular effects of irradiation, and early and late radiation effects comprise four chapters

  7. Shellac/nanoparticles dispersions as protective materials for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weththimuni, Maduka L.; Capsoni, Doretta; Malagodi, Marco; Milanese, Chiara; Licchelli, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Wood is a natural material that finds numerous and widespread applications, but is subject to different decay processes. Surface coating is the most common method used to protect wood against deterioration and to improve and stabilize its distinctive appearance. Shellac is a natural resin that has been widely used as a protective material for wooden artefacts (e.g. furniture, musical instruments), due to its excellent properties. Nevertheless, diffusion of shellac-based varnishes has significantly declined during the last decades, because of some limitations such as the softness of the coating, photo-degradation, and sensitivity to alcoholic solvents and to pH variations. In the present study, different inorganic nanoparticles were dispersed into dewaxed natural shellac and the resulting materials were investigated even after application on wood specimens in order to assess variations of the coating properties. Analyses performed by a variety of experimental techniques have shown that dispersed nanoparticles do not significantly affect some distinctive and desirable features of the shellac varnish such as chromatic aspect, film-forming ability, water repellence, and adhesion. On the other hand, the obtained results suggested that some weak points of the coating, such as low hardness and poor resistance to UV-induced ageing, can be improved by adding ZrO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, respectively.

  8. Mechanical Testing of Carbon Based Woven Thermal Protection Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, John; Agrawal, Parul; Arnold, James O.; Peterson, Keith; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    Three Dimensional Woven thermal protection system (TPS) materials are one of the enabling technologies for mechanically deployable hypersonic decelerator systems. These materials have been shown capable of serving a dual purpose as TPS and as structural load bearing members during entry and descent operations. In order to ensure successful structural performance, it is important to characterize the mechanical properties of these materials prior to and post exposure to entry-like heating conditions. This research focuses on the changes in load bearing capacity of woven TPS materials after being subjected to arcjet simulations of entry heating. Preliminary testing of arcjet tested materials [1] has shown a mechanical degradation. However, their residual strength is significantly more than the requirements for a mission to Venus [2]. A systematic investigation at the macro and microstructural scales is reported here to explore the potential causes of this degradation. The effects of heating on the sizing (an epoxy resin coating used to reduce friction and wear during fiber handling) are discussed as one of the possible causes for the decrease in mechanical properties. This investigation also provides valuable guidelines for margin policies for future mechanically deployable entry systems.

  9. Development of Processing Techniques for Advanced Thermal Protection Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaduray, Guna; Cox, Michael; Srinivasan, Vijayakumar

    1997-01-01

    Thermal Protection Materials Branch (TPMB) has been involved in various research programs to improve the properties and structural integrity of the existing aerospace high temperature materials. Specimens from various research programs were brought into the analytical laboratory for the purpose of obtaining and refining the material characterization. The analytical laboratory in TPMB has many different instruments which were utilized to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. Some of the instruments that were utilized by the SJSU students are: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction Spectrometer (XRD), Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Ultra Violet Spectroscopy/Visible Spectroscopy (UV/VIS), Particle Size Analyzer (PSA), and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The above mentioned analytical instruments were utilized in the material characterization process of the specimens from research programs such as: aerogel ceramics (I) and (II), X-33 Blankets, ARC-Jet specimens, QUICFIX specimens and gas permeability of lightweight ceramic ablators. In addition to analytical instruments in the analytical laboratory at TPMB, there are several on-going experiments. One particular experiment allows the measurement of permeability of ceramic ablators. From these measurements, physical characteristics of the ceramic ablators can be derived.

  10. Composite materials for protection against electromagnetic microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyk, IV; Barsukov, VZ; Savchenko, BM; Shevchenko, KL; Plavan, VP; Shpak, Yu V; Kruykova, OA

    2016-01-01

    A fairly wide range of carbon-polymer composite materials was synthesized and studied in terms of their potential to protect people and electronic equipment from exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR). The materials studied included three main groups: (1) PVC polymer composites filled with various carbon-containing fillers (colloidal graphite, thermally expanded graphite, acetylene black, graphitized carbon black, carbon nanotubes, graphene) at concentrations ranging from 5 to 20%; (2) carbon cloth - commercial and modified with nanometal additives (e.g., nanoparticles of Cu, TiN, etc.); (3) highly-filled polymer-carbon composites in the form of paint. The transmission rate a of electromagnetic radiation was investigated for such materials in the frequency range of 10 GHz as well as their electrical conductivity. The results showed that the shielding ability of the materials of group (2) is significantly higher than that of the materials of group (1), which is probably due to the presence of strong internal skeleton of conductivity. Nevertheless, some highly-filled mixed polymer-carbon composites in the form of paint demonstrate even more shielding ability than carbon cloth and could be used for the defense against EMR. (paper)

  11. Radiation protection measures for the handling of unsealed radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moehrle, G.

    1975-03-01

    The radiation protective medical measures are described which are required after contamination by radioactive materials or their incorporation. In the case of skin contamination, penetration by diffusion is explained and the maximum permissible value with regard to the various types of radiation is given. A detailed description of the decontamination measures including the necessary equipment follows. Indications for the treatment of injuries are given. In addition, incorporation due to inhalation, ingestion with intake through the skin are described, direct and indirect incorporation detection are explained, and the therapeutical possibilities and measures are gone into. (ORU/LH) [de

  12. Application of radiation protection programmes to transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vietri, Jorge; Capadona, Nancy; Barenghi, Leonardo

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The principles for implementing radiation protection programmes (RPP) are detailed in the draft IAEA safety guide TS-G-1.5 'Radiation protection programmes for transport of radioactive material'. The document is described in this paper and analysis is made for typical applications to current operations carried out by consignors, carriers and consignees. Systematic establishment and application of RPPs is a way to control radiological protection during different steps of transport activity. The most widely transported packages in the world are radiopharmaceuticals by road. It is described an application of RPP for an organization involved in road transport of Type A packages containing radiopharmaceuticals. Considerations based on the radionuclides, quantities and activities transported are the basis to design and establish the scope of the RPP for the organizations involved in transport. Next stage is the determination of roles and responsibilities for each activity related to transport of radioactive materials. An approach to the dose received by workers is evaluated considering the type, category and quantity of packages, the radionuclides, the frequency of consignments and how long are the storages. The average of transports made in the last years must be taken into account and special measures intended to optimize the protection are evaluated. Tasks like monitoring, control of surface contamination and segregation measures, are designed based on the dose evaluation and optimization. The RPP also indicates main measures to follow in case of emergency during transport taking account of radionuclides, activities and category of packages for different accident scenarios. Basis for training personnel involved in handling of radioactive materials to insure they have appropriate knowledge about preparing packages, measuring dose rates, calculating transport index, labelling, marking and placarding, transport documents, etc, are considered. The RPP is a part

  13. Protective coatings on structural materials for energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, J.T.; De, P.K.; Srinivasa, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Structural Materials and Components used in coal fired energy conversion systems, crude oil refineries and coal gasification plants are subjected to degradation due to oxidation, sulfidation, carbonization and halogenation. Suitable protective coatings can significantly enhance their life. Protective coatings work by forming a highly stable, self-healing and slow growing protective scale at the operating temperatures. These scales act as barriers between the corrosive environment and the alloy and prevent degradation of the substitute. Three types of scales that provide such protection are based on Al 2 O 3 , Cr 2 O 3 and SiO 2 . Aluminide coatings are major alumina forming protecting coatings, applied on nickel, cobalt and iron base alloys. Aluminide coatings are prepared by enriching the surface of a component by aluminum. In this paper the formation of aluminide coatings of nickel, IN738, Alloy 800, Zircaloy-2 and pure iron by chemical vapor deposition has been described. In this technique, Aluminum chloride vapors from bath kept at 353-373 K are carried in a stream of hydrogen gas into a Hot Walled CVD chamber kept at 1173-1373 K. The AlCl 3 vapors were allowed to react with pure aluminum whereby aluminum sub-chlorides like AlCl and AlCl 2 are produced which deposit aluminum on the substrates. At the high temperature of the deposition, aluminum diffuses into the substrate and forms the aluminide coating. The process can be represented by the reaction Al (i) + AlCl 3(g) AlCl 2(s) + AlCl 2 (g) . XRD and optical microscopic studies have characterized the coatings. On pure nickel and Alloy 800 the coating consists of Ni 2 Al 3 and NiAl respectively. On pure iron the coatings consisted of FeAl. On Zircaloy-2, ZrAl 2 was also detected. The CVD coating process, XRD and optical microscopy data will be discussed further

  14. [Multi-causality in nursing work accidents with biological material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Leticia Gramazio; Sarquis, Leila Maria Mansano; Kirchhof, Ana Lúcia Cardoso; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres

    2013-12-01

    In order to analyze the multiple causes of occupational accidents with biological exposure among nursing staff was carried out a descriptive and exploratory research in a medium-sized hospital in the State of Paraná, in the period between January 2008 and January 2009. The population was 26 nursing staff of the medical clinic. Data collection was performed by semi-structured interviews with five of the eight injured in the period and its contents were analyzed by Causes and Effects Diagram. The categories of causes material, organizational, institutional and worker's behavior, showed the inappropriate disposal of sharps, work overload, no use of bio-security standards and poor supervision and training of workers, as factors for the occurrence of these accidents. The adoption of the tool of Causes and Effects Diagram provided an analysis of accidents in its multiple causes, showing the interaction between them.

  15. Problems in the determination of chromium in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behne, D.; Braetter, P.; Gessner, H.; Hube, G.; Mertz, W.; Roesick, U.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of sample preparation on the analysis of chromium in biological matter have been investigated using brewer's yeast as a test material. The apparent chromium content of the yeast as determined by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry was significantly higher after destruction of the organic matter with HNO 3 in a closed pressure vessel than after wet-ashing in open vessels and after direct introduction of the sample into the graphite furnace. The results obtained by neutron activation analysis without any sample preparation, which corresponded to the atomic absorption values after digestion in the pressure vessel, showed that considerable errors arise in the other methods of sample treatment. Chromium analysis of dried and ashed yeast suggest that losses of volatile chromium compounds may occur during heating. (orig.) [de

  16. Radiation protection standards: a summary of the biological effects of ionising radiation and principles of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This leaflet in the NRPB At-a-Glance-Series briefly summarises the biological effects of radiation, harm and sensitivity to radiation, radiation protection principles, acceptability of risk and the control of doses to workers, the public and in medical procedures in the UK. (UK)

  17. The High-Strain Rate Loading of Structural Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proud, W. G.; Nguyen, T.-T. N.; Bo, C.; Butler, B. J.; Boddy, R. L.; Williams, A.; Masouros, S.; Brown, K. A.

    2015-10-01

    The human body can be subjected to violent acceleration as a result of explosion caused by military ordinance or accident. Blast waves cause injury and blunt trauma can be produced by violent impact of objects against the human body. The long-term clinical manifestations of blast injury can be significantly different in nature and extent to those suffering less aggressive insult. Similarly, the damage seen in lower limbs from those injured in explosion incidents is in general more severe than those falling from height. These phenomena increase the need for knowledge of the short- and long-term effect of transient mechanical loading to the biological structures of the human body. This paper gives an overview of some of the results of collaborative investigation into blast injury. The requirement for time-resolved data, appropriate mechanical modeling, materials characterization and biological effects is presented. The use of a range of loading platforms, universal testing machines, drop weights, Hopkinson bars, and bespoke traumatic injury simulators are given.

  18. Ion beam modification of biological materials in nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L. D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2012-07-01

    Ion interaction with biological objects in nanoscale is a novel research area stemming from applications of low-energy ion beams in biotechnology and biomedicine. Although the ion beam applications in biotechnology and biomedicine have achieved great successes, many mechanisms remain unclear and many new applications are to be explored. We have carried out some research on exploring the mechanisms and new applications besides attaining ion beam induction of mutation breeding and gene transformation. In the studies on the mechanisms, we focused our investigations on the direct interaction in nanoscale between ions and biological living materials. Our research topics have included the low-energy ion range in DNA, low-energy ion or neutral beam bombardment effect on DNA topological form change and mutation, low-energy ion or neutral beam bombardment effect on the cell envelope and gene transformation, and molecular dynamics simulation of ultra-low-energy ion irradiation of DNA. In the exploration of new applications, we have started experiments on ion irradiation or bombardment, in the nanoscaled depth or area, of human cells for biomedical research. This paper introduces our experiments and reports interesting results.

  19. Ion beam modification of biological materials in nanoscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.

    2012-01-01

    Ion interaction with biological objects in nanoscale is a novel research area stemming from applications of low-energy ion beams in biotechnology and biomedicine. Although the ion beam applications in biotechnology and biomedicine have achieved great successes, many mechanisms remain unclear and many new applications are to be explored. We have carried out some research on exploring the mechanisms and new applications besides attaining ion beam induction of mutation breeding and gene transformation. In the studies on the mechanisms, we focused our investigations on the direct interaction in nanoscale between ions and biological living materials. Our research topics have included the low-energy ion range in DNA, low-energy ion or neutral beam bombardment effect on DNA topological form change and mutation, low-energy ion or neutral beam bombardment effect on the cell envelope and gene transformation, and molecular dynamics simulation of ultra-low-energy ion irradiation of DNA. In the exploration of new applications, we have started experiments on ion irradiation or bombardment, in the nanoscaled depth or area, of human cells for biomedical research. This paper introduces our experiments and reports interesting results.

  20. Millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric properties of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman Ansar

    Broadband dielectric properties of materials can be employed to identify, detect, and characterize materials through their unique spectral signatures. In this study, millimeter wave, submillimeter wave, and terahertz dielectric properties of biological substances inclusive of liquids, solids, and powders were obtained using Dispersive Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DFTS). Two broadband polarizing interferometers were constructed to test materials from 60 GHz to 1.2 THz. This is an extremely difficult portion of the frequency spectrum to obtain a material's dielectric properties since neither optical nor microwave-based techniques provide accurate data. The dielectric characteristics of liquids such as cyclohexane, chlorobenzene, benzene, ethanol, methanol, 1,4 dioxane, and 10% formalin were obtained using the liquid interferometer. Subsequently the solid interferometer was utilized to determine the dielectric properties of human breast tissues, which are fixed and preserved in 10% formalin. This joint collaboration with the Tufts New England Medical Center demonstrated a significant difference between the dielectric response of tumorous and non-tumorous breast tissues across the spectrum. Powders such as anthrax, flour, talc, corn starch, dry milk, and baking soda have been involved in a number of security threats and false alarms around the globe in the last decade. To be able to differentiate hoax attacks and serious security threats, the dielectric properties of common household powders were also examined using the solid interferometer to identify the powders' unique resonance peaks. A new sample preparation kit was designed to test the powder specimens. It was anticipated that millimeter wave and terahertz dielectric characterization will enable one to clearly distinguish one powder from the other; however most of the powders had relatively close dielectric responses and only Talc had a resonance signature recorded at 1.135 THz. Furthermore, due to

  1. Terahertz Computed Tomography of NASA Thermal Protection System Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D. J.; Reyes-Rodriguez, S.; Zimdars, D. A.; Rauser, R. W.; Ussery, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    A terahertz axial computed tomography system has been developed that uses time domain measurements in order to form cross-sectional image slices and three-dimensional volume renderings of terahertz-transparent materials. The system can inspect samples as large as 0.0283 cubic meters (1 cubic foot) with no safety concerns as for x-ray computed tomography. In this study, the system is evaluated for its ability to detect and characterize flat bottom holes, drilled holes, and embedded voids in foam materials utilized as thermal protection on the external fuel tanks for the Space Shuttle. X-ray micro-computed tomography was also performed on the samples to compare against the terahertz computed tomography results and better define embedded voids. Limits of detectability based on depth and size for the samples used in this study are loosely defined. Image sharpness and morphology characterization ability for terahertz computed tomography are qualitatively described.

  2. Security Culture in Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susyanta-Widyatmaka; Koraag, Venuesiana-Dewi; Taswanda-Taryo

    2005-01-01

    In nuclear related field, there are three different cultures: safety, safeguards and security culture. Safety culture has established mostly in nuclear industries, meanwhile safeguards and security culture are relatively new and still developing. The latter is intended to improve the physical protection of material and nuclear facility. This paper describes concept, properties and factors affecting security culture and interactions among these cultures. The analysis indicates that anybody involving in nuclear material and facility should have strong commitment and awareness of such culture to establish it. It is concluded that the assessment of security culture outlined in this paper is still preliminary for developing and conduction rigorous security culture implemented in a much more complex facility such as nuclear power plant

  3. IMPORTANCE OF MATERIAL BALANCES AND THEIR STATISTICAL EVALUATION IN RUSSIAN MATERIAL, PROTECTION, CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishbone, L.G.

    1999-01-01

    While substantial work has been performed in the Russian MPC and A Program, much more needs to be done at Russian nuclear facilities to complete four necessary steps. These are (1) periodically measuring the physical inventory of nuclear material, (2) continuously measuring the flows of nuclear material, (3) using the results to close the material balance, particularly at bulk processing facilities, and (4) statistically evaluating any apparent loss of nuclear material. The periodic closing of material balances provides an objective test of the facility's system of nuclear material protection, control and accounting. The statistical evaluation using the uncertainties associated with individual measurement systems involved in the calculation of the material balance provides a fair standard for concluding whether the apparent loss of nuclear material means a diversion or whether the facility's accounting system needs improvement. In particular, if unattractive flow material at a facility is not measured well, the accounting system cannot readily detect the loss of attractive material if the latter substantially derives from the former

  4. Consensus values for NIST biological and environmental Standard Reference Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandts, I.; Gladney, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST, formerly the National Bureau of Standards or NBS) has produced numerous Standard Reference Materials (SRM) for use in biological and environmental analytical chemistry. The value listed on the ''NIST Certificate of Analysis'' is the present best estimate of the ''true'' concentration of that element and is not expected to deviate from that concentration by more than the stated uncertainty. However, NIST does not certify the elemental concentration of every constituent and the number of elements reported in the NIST programs tends to be limited.Numerous analysts have published concentration data on these reference materials. Major journals in analytical chemistry, books, proceedings and ''technical reports'' have been surveyed to collect these available literature values. A standard statistical approach has been employed to evaluate the compiled data. Our methodology has been developed in a series of previous papers. Some subjective criteria are first used to reject aberrant data. Following these eliminations, an initial arithmetic mean and standard deviation (S.D.) are computed from remaining data for each element. All data now outside two S.D. from the initial mean are dropped and a second mean and S.D. recalculated. These final means and associated S.D. are reported as ''consensus values'' in our tables. (orig.)

  5. MEDICAL PROTECTION FOR THE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE IN THE EVENT OF USING BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel ORDEANUL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ADM/CBRN military or terrorist attack is most likely to be enforced on the force deployed in the theaters of operations (TO, as peace making troops, peace keeping troops, etc. For the medical protection of the expeditionary forces deployed in external theaters of operations (T.O., when using biological agents, we conducted a documentary study on the prophylaxis and specific treatment for the medical force protection, when using biological agents, by updating and improving the medical protection countermeasures against BWA, by anti-infective prophylaxis (antibacterial and antiviral pre-exposure, post-exposure and anti-infective etiology and support of the vital fuctions treatment.

  6. Fingerprinting of nuclear material to strengthen physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.; Lindauer, H.; Falta, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Physical protection of nuclear material against diversion and stealing presents a major step to prevent abuse of nuclear material for military or terrorist purposes. If such material had been diverted, however, and discovered by border traffic control, police control or other methods of investigation, identifying the site and time of diversion is of utmost importance to ensure that the point of possible diversion is closed and the possible delivery and end-use point becomes known. The quicker and more comprehensive these investigations are performed, the greater are the chances to find the criminal persons and the point of diversion. The paper, therefore, deals with fingerprinting methods used to obtain enough and comprehensive background information for investigators to find out the source of diversion and the channels through which it might have reached the point of discovery and the possible point of ultimate destination (end-use of the material). On the example of the round-robin test for the identification of illicit nuclear material performed by EURATOM in 1999, and the conclusions obtained by our laboratory it is demonstrated that a high amount of information can be drawn from a single sample and that this information can be used by investigators world-wide to find the point of origin of the material and its possible point of diversion. The set of information is segmented into 3 different levels: information gained in the first 24 hours after arrival of the unknown material, information gained up to one week after uptake and information gained up to one month after. The first information is to inform the investigators about the hazard and the relevance of the material, about preliminary investigation results and support the investigating judge on the justification to further detain the person(s). The second information should contain more detail on the material and the possible point of diversion and assist the investigators to decide on proper

  7. Physical protection concepts of nuclear materials. The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, G.; Artaud, R.

    1995-01-01

    As the nuclear energy was being developed, it appeared necessary to set up protections against its potential hazards, that should be more complete and elaborate than those implemented on the other industrial installations. This had to be done both in the safety field to prevent the environment and the populations from the consequences of severe casualties, and in the security field to avoid the risk of proliferation and limit to an acceptable level the results of voluntarily provoked accidents and sabotages. Taking advantage of the gathered experience, this document gives consideration to the concepts used in France in order to ensure the physical protection of the nuclear materials. The following topics are tackled: context inside which are envisaged the specific measures, coherence with the general dispositions taken to protect industrial installations, importance and limitations of the part played by the regulations, respective responsibilities of the plant operators and the public authorities, compromise between objectives in view and means to implement, adjustment between the physical protection system and the operating requirements. In addition, the ways in which these systems should be implemented are discussed, underlining the necessity to make progressive steps under a permanent will, in order, first, to update and bring under conformity the old installations, and second, to ensure the maintenance of the systems, taking account of the evolutions of needs and techniques. Those points are commented on examples taken among the different types of installations to be found in France, showing the differences in approach coming from the type and the age of the facilities, and giving the present trends for the new plants. (authors). 1 annexe

  8. New methodologies of biological dosimetry applied to human protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catena, C.; Parasacchi, P.; Conti, D.; Righi, E.

    1995-04-01

    Biological dosimetry is a diagnostic methodology for the measurement of the individual dose absorbed in the case of accidental overexposition to ionizing radiation. It is demonstrated how in vitro radiobiological and chemobiological studies using cytogenetic methods (count of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei) on human lymphocytes from healthy subjects and individuals undergoing radiotherapy or chemotherapy, as well as on lymphocytes of mammals other than man (comparative cytogenetics), can help to increase the basic radiobiological and chemobiological scientific information. Such information gives a valid contribution to understanding of the action of ionizing radiation or of pharmaceuticals on cells and, in return, can be of value to human radioprotection and chemoprotection. Cytogenetic studies can be summerized as follows: a) biodosimetry (estimate of dose received after accidental events); b) individual radiosensitivity (level of individual response); c) clinical radiobiology and chemobiology (individual response to radiopharmaceuticals, to radiotherapy and to chemopharmaceuticals); d) comparative radiobiology (cytogenetic studies on species other than man); e) animal model in the environmental surveillance

  9. Survey of currently available reference materials for use in connection with the determination of trace elements in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, R.M.

    1983-09-01

    Elemental analysis of biological materials is at present the subject of intensive study by many different research groups throughout the world, in view of the importance of these trace elements in health and medical diagnosis. IAEA and other organizations are now making a variety of suitable reference materials available for use in connection with the determination of trace elements in biological materials. To help analysts in making a selection from among these various materials, the present report provides a brief survey of data for all such biological reference materials known to the author. These data are compiled by the author from January 1982 to June 1983

  10. Covering materials used in protected agriculture; Nogyoyo hifuku shizai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Y.

    1998-03-01

    Forty and a few years have passed away since the start of facilities agriculture using plastic covering materials. The facilities have been divided into heavily equipped type and simplified type. The former includes heating, ventilation, irrigation water, and nutritious solution culture facilities. The latter includes pipe house, tunnel, and rain shelter facilities. For the heavily equipped type, all season, long life-time and large-scale facilities have been diffused. Hard plates and hard films with durability equivalent to glass are used. Especially, utilization of hard films has been increased, recently. Soft films are also widely used for heavily equipped type facilities in spite of their disadvantage of taking large labor for renewal. However, enhancement of durability is also required for the soft films. Their life-time has become five years from the former one or two years. The significant problem of covering materials is the treatment of used plastics. Measures for enhancing the reproduction have been promoted. Furthermore, the development of naturally decomposed materials with biological and optical degradation properties has been also promoted. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Biological activity of Penaeus monodon GILT in shrimp pathogen protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aekkaraj Nualla-ong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase (GILT contains a CXXC active site motif that possesses thiol reductase activity by catalyzing the disulfide bond reduction of exogenous antigens. Mutating the active site of human GILT to change the cysteine residues to serine residues eliminates this property. Our previous study reported that Penaeus monodon GILT (PmGILT contained a CXXS active site motif. Therefore, we assessed the enzymatic activity of PmGILT and demonstrated that it displayed identical thiol reductase activity at an acidic pH. In addition, the biological activity of PmGILT against shrimp pathogens, including white spot syndrome virus (WSSV and Gram-negative bacteria, was investigated. The neutralization of WSSV with PmGILT indicated the inhibition of WSSV invasion into shrimp hemocyte cells. Moreover, the relative percentage survival of shrimp injected with PmGILT-treated virus solution was 75%. Finally, the antimicrobial activity of PmGILT was confirmed by the growth inhibition of Vibrio harveyi. These results establish the role of PmGILT in the inhibition of the virulence of two major shrimp pathogens.

  12. [Vectors of malaria: biology, diversity, prevention, and individual protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pages, F; Orlandi-Pradines, E; Corbel, V

    2007-03-01

    Only the Anopheles mosquitoes are implicated in the transmission of malaria. Among the numerous species of anopheles, around fifty are currently involved in the transmission. 20 are responsible for most of the transmission in the world. The diversity of behavior between species and in a single species of anopheles as well as climatic and geographical conditions along with the action of man on the environment condition the man vector contact level and the various epidemiological aspects of malaria. The anopheles are primarily rural mosquitoes and are less likely to be found in city surroundings in theory. But actually, the adaptation of some species to urban surroundings and the common habit of market gardening in big cities or in the suburbs is responsible for the de persistence of Anopheles populations in town. Except for South-East Asia, urban malaria has become a reality. The transmission risk of malaria is heterogeneous and varies with time. There is a great variation of risk within a same country, a same zone, and even within a few kilometers. The transmission varies in time according to seasons but also according to years and to the level of climatic events. For the traveler, prevention at any time relies on the strict application of individual protection, as well in rural than in urban surroundings.

  13. Smart responsive phosphorescent materials for data recording and security protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huibin; Liu, Shujuan; Lin, Wenpeng; Zhang, Kenneth Yin; Lv, Wen; Huang, Xiao; Huo, Fengwei; Yang, Huiran; Jenkins, Gareth; Zhao, Qiang; Huang, Wei

    2014-04-07

    Smart luminescent materials that are responsive to external stimuli have received considerable interest. Here we report ionic iridium (III) complexes simultaneously exhibiting mechanochromic, vapochromic and electrochromic phosphorescence. These complexes share the same phosphorescent iridium (III) cation with a N-H moiety in the N^N ligand and contain different anions, including hexafluorophosphate, tetrafluoroborate, iodide, bromide and chloride. The anionic counterions cause a variation in the emission colours of the complexes from yellow to green by forming hydrogen bonds with the N-H proton. The electronic effect of the N-H moiety is sensitive towards mechanical grinding, solvent vapour and electric field, resulting in mechanochromic, vapochromic and electrochromic phosphorescence. On the basis of these findings, we construct a data-recording device and demonstrate data encryption and decryption via fluorescence lifetime imaging and time-gated luminescence imaging techniques. Our results suggest that rationally designed phosphorescent complexes may be promising candidates for advanced data recording and security protection.

  14. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durkee, Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Miller, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  15. Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) Advanced Integration Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mike [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cipiti, Ben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Durkee, Jr., Joe W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fallgren, Andrew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jarman, Ken [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Li, Shelly [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meier, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Osburn, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dasari, Venkateswara Rao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Lawrence O. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yoo, Tae-Sic [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-30

    The development of sustainable advanced nuclear fuel cycles is a long-term goal of the Office of Nuclear Energy’s (DOE-NE) Fuel Cycle Technologies program. The Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technologies (MPACT) campaign is supporting research and development (R&D) of advanced instrumentation, analysis tools, and integration methodologies to meet this goal (Miller, 2015). This advanced R&D is intended to facilitate safeguards and security by design of fuel cycle facilities. The lab-scale demonstration of a virtual facility, distributed test bed, that connects the individual tools being developed at National Laboratories and university research establishments, is a key program milestone for 2020. These tools will consist of instrumentation and devices as well as computer software for modeling, simulation and integration.

  16. Non-contact tensile viscoelastic characterization of microscale biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhui; Hong, Yuan; Xu, Guang-Kui; Liu, Shaobao; Shi, Qiang; Tang, Deding; Yang, Hui; Genin, Guy M.; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2018-06-01

    Many structures and materials in nature and physiology have important "meso-scale" structures at the micron length-scale whose tensile responses have proven difficult to characterize mechanically. Although techniques such as atomic force microscopy and micro- and nano-identation are mature for compression and indentation testing at the nano-scale, and standard uniaxial and shear rheometry techniques exist for the macroscale, few techniques are applicable for tensile-testing at the micrometre-scale, leaving a gap in our understanding of hierarchical biomaterials. Here, we present a novel magnetic mechanical testing (MMT) system that enables viscoelastic tensile testing at this critical length scale. The MMT system applies non-contact loading, avoiding gripping and surface interaction effects. We demonstrate application of the MMT system to the first analyses of the pure tensile responses of several native and engineered tissue systems at the mesoscale, showing the broad potential of the system for exploring micro- and meso-scale analysis of structured and hierarchical biological systems.

  17. Heavy metal ion removal by adsorption on to biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson-Charrier, M.; Guibal, E.; Le Cloirec, P.; Surjous, R.

    1994-01-01

    The development of regulations constraints in the industrial waste-waters management leads to the study of new treatment processes, using raw or functionalized biological materials. These processes show competitive performances in metal ion sorption efficiency for the low metal content effluents. Uptake capacities of Uranium as high as 400 mg.g -1 chitosan, equivalent to the double of the uptake capacity of fungal origin biomass, can be reached. The application of these processes to real mine wastewaters gives efficiency coefficient upper to 90%, the residual concentrations are compatible to a direct injection into the environment. The grafting of functional groups onto the chitosan scales up the sorption performances to uptake capacity upper than 600 mg.g -1 polymer. pH, metal concentration are cited as major parameters, particle size influences both uptake kinetics and sorption equilibrium, in the case of the uranium accumulation by chitosan. The desorption of uranium from the sorbent allows the valorization of uranium and the re-use of the sorbent. (authors). 21 refs., 10 figs

  18. Flame Spectrophotometric Determination of Strontium in Water and Biological Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, G

    1964-10-15

    A flame spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of strontium in biological material and water samples. Strontium is determined in the presence of calcium at a wavelength of 4607 A. The intensity of the strontium emission from the sample is increased if n-butanol is added to a solution of the sample in water. With a 6 vol% solution of n-butanol in water, an optimum intensity of 3.5 times that obtained with pure water solution is obtained. Anions and alkali metals which might interfere with the flame spectrophotometric determination are separated from the sample by a simple ion exchange operation. The method allows determination of strontium in solutions down to 0.1{mu}g/ml. In this case the standard deviation is 3.1 % and with a strontium concentration of 1 {mu}g/ml the deviation is 0.9 %. This method has been used for the determination of strontium in samples of varying composition such as bone, meat and skin from fishes, samples of human bones, shell-fish, milk, and water, in which case Sr quantities of 5{mu}g were determined with an analytical error of less than 5 % and Sr{sub q}uantities greater than 10 {mu}g with an error of less than 3 %.

  19. Flame Spectrophotometric Determination of Strontium in Water and Biological Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1964-10-01

    A flame spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of strontium in biological material and water samples. Strontium is determined in the presence of calcium at a wavelength of 4607 A. The intensity of the strontium emission from the sample is increased if n-butanol is added to a solution of the sample in water. With a 6 vol% solution of n-butanol in water, an optimum intensity of 3.5 times that obtained with pure water solution is obtained. Anions and alkali metals which might interfere with the flame spectrophotometric determination are separated from the sample by a simple ion exchange operation. The method allows determination of strontium in solutions down to 0.1μg/ml. In this case the standard deviation is 3.1 % and with a strontium concentration of 1 μg/ml the deviation is 0.9 %. This method has been used for the determination of strontium in samples of varying composition such as bone, meat and skin from fishes, samples of human bones, shell-fish, milk, and water, in which case Sr quantities of 5μg were determined with an analytical error of less than 5 % and Sr q uantities greater than 10 μg with an error of less than 3 %

  20. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling—the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field—is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams—which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics—we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism.

  1. Structural and functional biological materials: Abalone nacre, sharp materials, and abalone foot adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Albert Yu-Min

    A three-part study of lessons from nature is presented through the examination of various biological materials, with an emphasis on materials from the mollusk Haliotis rufescens, commonly referred to as the red abalone. The three categories presented are: structural hierarchy, self-assembly, and functionality. Ocean mollusk shells are composed of aragonite/calcite crystals interleaved with layers of a visco-elastic protein, having dense, tailored structures with excellent mechanical properties. The complex nano-laminate structure of this bio-composite material is characterized and related to its mechanical properties. Three levels of structural hierarchy are identified: macroscale mesolayers separating larger regions of tiled aragonite, microscale organization of 0.5 mum by 10 mum aragonite bricks; nanoscale mineral bridges passing through 30 nm layers of organic matrix separating individual aragonite tiles. Composition and growth mechanisms of this nanostructure were observed through close examination of laboratory-grown samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Glass slides and nacre pucks were implanted onto the growth surface of living abalone and removed periodically to observe trends in nacre deposition. Various deproteinization and demineralization experiments are used to explore the inorganic and organic components of the nacre's structure. The organic component of the shell is characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The functionality of various biological materials is described and investigated. Two specific types of functionality are characterized, the ability of some materials to cut and puncture through sharp designs, and the ability for some materials to be used as attachment devices. Aspects of cutting materials employed by a broad range of animals were characterized and compared. In respect to the attachment mechanisms the foot of the abalone and the tree frog were

  2. Organization and diffusion in biological and material fabrication problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Niall Mari

    This thesis is composed of two problems. The first is a systems level analysis of the carbon concentrating mechanism in cyanobacteria. The second presents a theoretical analysis of femtosecond laser melting for the purpose of hyperdoping silicon with sulfur. While these systems are very distant, they are both relevant to the development of alternative energy (production of biofuels and methods for fabricating photovoltaics respectively). Both problems are approached through analysis of the underlying diffusion equations. Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic bacteria with a unique carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) which enhances carbon fixation. A greater understanding of this mechanism would offer new insights into the basic biology and methods for bioengineering more efficient biochemical reactions. The molecular components of the CCM have been well characterized in the last decade, with genetic analysis uncovering both variation and commonalities in CCMs across cyanobacteria strains. Analysis of CCMs on a systems level, however, is based on models formulated prior to the molecular characterization. We present an updated model of the cyanobacteria CCM, and analytic solutions in terms of the various molecular components. The solutions allow us to find the parameter regime (expression levels, catalytic rates, permeability of carboxysome shell) where carbon fixation is maximized and oxygenation is minimized. Saturation of RuBisCO, maximization of the ratio of CO2 to O2, and staying below or at the saturation level for carbonic anhydrase are all needed for maximum efficacy. These constraints limit the parameter regime where the most effective carbon fixation can occur. There is an optimal non-specific carboxysome shell permeability, where trapping of CO2 is maximized, but HCO3 - is not detrimentally restricted. The shell also shields carbonic anhydrase activity and CO2 → HCO3- conversion at the thylakoid and cell membrane from one another. Co-localization of carbonic

  3. Physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. Safeguards and the role of the IAEA in physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolej, M.

    1999-01-01

    The physical protection and security of nuclear facilities and materials concerns utilities, manufactures, the general public, and those who are responsible for licensing and regulating such facilities. The requirements and process to ensure an acceptable physical protection and security system have been evolutionary in nature. This paper reviews the first step of such process: the State's safeguards system and the international safeguards system of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), including the relationship between these two safeguards systems. The elements of these systems that are reviewed include the State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material, physical protection measures, and containment and surveillance measures. In addition, the interactions between the State, the facility operator, and the IAEA are described. The paper addresses the IAEA safeguards system, including material accountancy and containment and surveillance; the State safeguards system, including material control and accountancy, and physical protection; the role of the IAEA in physical protection; a summary of safeguards system interactions.(author)

  4. Deciphering the language between biological and synthetic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo A. Netti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical signals propagating through aqueous environment are at the basis of the language utilized by living systems to exchange information. In the last years, molecular biology has partly disclosed the grammar and the syntax of this complex language revealing the fascinating world of molecular communication that is the foundation of biological development.

  5. Occupational exposure to potentially infectious biological material in a dental teaching environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Carvalhais, Helenaura P; Ramos-Jorge, Maria L; Auad, Sheyla M; Martins, Laura H P M; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2008-10-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study were to determine the prevalence of occupational accidents with exposure to biological material among undergraduate students of dentistry and to estimate potential risk factors associated with exposure to blood. Data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire (86.4 percent return rate), which was completed by a sample of 286 undergraduate dental students (mean age 22.4 +/-2.4 years). The students were enrolled in the clinical component of the curriculum, which corresponds to the final six semesters of study. Descriptive, bivariate, simple logistic regression and multiple logistic regression (Forward Stepwise Procedure) analyses were performed. The level of statistical significance was set at 5 percent. Percutaneous and mucous exposures to potentially infectious biological material were reported by 102 individuals (35.6 percent); 26.8 percent reported the occurrence of multiple episodes of exposure. The logistic regression analyses revealed that the incomplete use of individual protection equipment (OR=3.7; 95 percent CI 1.5-9.3), disciplines where surgical procedures are carried out (OR=16.3; 95 percent CI 7.1-37.2), and handling sharp instruments (OR=4.4; 95 percent CI 2.1-9.1), more specifically, hollow-bore needles (OR=6.8; 95 percent CI 2.1-19.0), were independently associated with exposure to blood. Policies of reviewing the procedures during clinical practice are recommended in order to reduce occupational exposure.

  6. Radioactive materials' transportation main routes in Brazil. Radiation protection aspects about radioactive materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaz, Solange dos Reis e; Andrade, Fernando de Menezes; Aleixo, Luiz Claudio Martins

    2007-01-01

    The heavy transportation in Brazil is generally done by highways. The radioactive material transportation follow this same rule. Whenever a radioactive material is carried by the road, by the sea or by the air, in some cases, a kind of combination of those transportation ways, the transport manager has to create a Transportation Plan and submit it to CNEN. Only after CNEN's approval, the transportation can be done. The plan must have the main action on Radiation Protection, giving responsibilities and showing all the directing that will be take. Although, the Brazilian's highways are not in good conditions, one could say that some of them are not good enough for any kind of transportation. But we are facing radioactive material use increase but the hospitals and industries, that the reason it's much more common that kind of transportation nowadays. So, because of that, a special attention by the governments must be provide to those activities. This paper goal is to show the real conditions of some important highways in Brazil in a radioactive protection's perspective and give some suggestions to adjust some of those roads to this new reality. (author)

  7. Determination of selenium in biological material by instrumental neutron activation analysis using 77m Se radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Moreira, Edson G.; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Tokura, Alexandra M.; Saiki, Mitiko

    1999-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element in human diet due to its relation to the protection against carcinogenic substances, heart disease, hypertension, sexual performance enhancement, and others. In this work Se concentration in samples of the biological certificate reference materials Human Hair BCR-CRM 397, Spiked Human Hair IAEA-085, Unspiked Human Hair IAEA-086; Dogfish Liver DOLT-1 and Dogfish Muscle DORM-1 were determined in order to improve the instrumental neutron activation analysis, INAA, method using 77m Se radioisotope. The application of this method allows the analysis of a large number of samples of samples with reduced time of experimental and cost. the best results were obtained with the reactor operating at 5 MW and time of irradiation between 10 and 20 s. In these experimental conditions the relative standard deviation and error were generally lower than 10%. (author)

  8. Upgrading nuclear material protection, control and accounting in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravelli, Jack; Behan, Chris; Fishbone, Les

    2001-01-01

    Full text: I. Program goal and organization - In this paper we review the Cooperative US-Russia Program of Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A), whose goal is to reduce the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation by strengthening systems of MPC and A; thereby the Program enhances US national security. Based on this goal, the technical objective is to enhance, through US technical cooperation, the effectiveness of MPC and A systems at Russian sites with weapons-usable nuclear material, i.e. plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The Program exists because the extensive social, political and economic changes in Russia arising from the dissolution of the Soviet Union have increased the risk that these materials would be subject to theft or other misuse, with potentially grave consequences. On the US side, the MPC and A Program is administered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration through the DOE national laboratories and other contractors. On the Russian side, the Program is administered by the Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy (Minatom) through its nuclear sites, by the regulatory agency Gosatomnadzor, and by nuclear sites not under Minatom. To carry out the Program objective, the DOE national laboratories consummate contracts with the Russian sites to implement agreed MPC and A upgrades. Deciding on what upgrades to perform depends on a cooperative analysis of site characteristics, materials, and vulnerabilities by joint US and Russian teams. Once the upgrades are agreed, the DOE laboratories supply technical and financial support and equipment to the Russian sites. The staff of the Russian sites do the work, and the US team members monitor the work through some combination - according to contract - of direct observation and reports, photographs and videotape supplied by the staff of the Russian sites. II. MPC and A task areas - Information in this review covers a selection of topical areas, with a

  9. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN WATER ACT TO PROTECT A NATIONAL TREASURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inh...

  10. Integration of biological control and transgenic insect protection for mitigation of mycotoxins in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control is known to be effective in reducing aflatoxin contamination of corn and some transgenic corn hybrids incur greatly reduced damage from corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea). We conducted seven field trials over two years to test the hypothesis that transgenic insect protection and biol...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.1000 - Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rollover protective structures (ROPS) for material handling equipment. 1926.1000 Section 1926.1000 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... CONSTRUCTION Rollover Protective Structures; Overhead Protection § 1926.1000 Rollover protective structures...

  12. Hybrid materials engineering in biology, chemistry and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leroux, F; Rabu, P; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Taubert, A.

    The Guest Editors emphasize the rapidly growing research in advanced materials. "Telecommunication, health and environment, energy and transportation, and sustainability are just a few examples where new materials have been key for technological advancement."

  13. Analysis of biological materials by RBS and PIXE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latuszynski, A.; Maczka, D.; Kobzev, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    A problem of the exact determination of the element concentration in different substances is of essential significance, especially in medical, biological, as well as environment protection investigations. For this purpose some chemical and physical methods are used such as very sensitive and precise techniques: PIXE and RBS. The main advantage of those methods is the sensitivity of ppm level and very small sample amount necessary for carrying out the investigations. In this article the investigation results obtained by PIXE and RBS methods for the metal contents in cow milk (18 various samples were studied) as well as the heavy metal admixtures in the brain of the living domestic animals (6 cows, 6 dogs and 17 rats) are presented. The samples were prepared for the analysis in a liofilization process, then they were mixed with spectral pure graphite. The PIXE and RBS investigations were performed using a proton beam of about 2 mm diameter, intensity of about 10 nA and energy of 2.5 MeV from the Van-de-Graaff generator, FLNP, JINR, Dubna. The measurements of the characteristic spectrum were carried out by means of a Si (Li) detector with the resolution of 200 eV at the energy of 6,4 keV. Generally, in all samples of milk and brain we could identify 20 elements, among them 13 (C, N, O, P, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn. Br, Rb, Sr) appeared in all of the studied samples. The difference in the concentration of the most of those elements between samples was in the range of 15 - 20 %. This indicates a good accuracy of the used methods of measurement. Especially our attention was paid to the presence of Sr, Rb and Br, practically in all the milk samples. This fact requires further investigations. Such elements as Pb, As, Ni, Co, Mn, V and Ti were found in some samples, including all samples coming from regions of a high urbanization. It is characteristic that the milk samples coming from villages located considerably far-away from cities and from communication tracks, practically

  14. Physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium relevant to radiation protection guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Present knowledge of the relevant physical, chemical, and biological properties of radiocerium as a basis for establishing radiation protection guidelines is summarized. The first section of the report reviews the chemical and physical properties of radiocerium relative to the biological behavior of internally-deposited cerium and other lanthanides. The second section of the report gives the sources of radiocerium in the environment and the pathways to man. The third section of the report describes the metabolic fate of cerium in several mammalian species as a basis for predicting its metabolic fate in man. The fourth section of the report considers the biomedical effects of radiocerium in light of extensive animal experimentation. The last two sections of the report describe the history of radiation protection guidelines for radiocerium and summarize data required for evaluating the adequacy of current radiation protection guidelines. Each section begins with a summary of the most important findings that follow

  15. Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants, Stage II Protection of concrete - State of the Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Ylva (CBI, Boraas (Sweden)); Henriksson, Gunilla (SP, Boraas (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study on the degradation and corrosion of concrete in biological treatment plants was conducted in 2009/2010 in a Waste Refinery Project WR-27 'Survey results of corroding problems at biological treatment plants'. The results showed that the concrete does not have sufficient resistance in the current aggressive plant environment. Furthermore, it is stated that some form of surface protection system is needed to ensure the good performance of concrete constructions, and that the system must withstand the aggressive environment and the traffic that occurs on site. Consequently, a new study was proposed in order to develop specifications for surface protection of concrete in aggressive food waste environments. Results from that study are presented in this report. The report includes various types of waterproofing/protection coating for concrete in biological treatment plants. A number of proposals from the industry are presented in the light of results from project WR-27, i.e., the materials must, among other things, withstand the aggressive leachate from waste food at temperatures up to 70 deg C, and some degree of wear. Some systems are compared in terms of technical material properties as reported by the manufacturer. It turns out that different testing methods were used, and the test results are thus generally not directly comparable. A proposal for a test program has been developed, focusing on chemical resistance and wear resistance. A test solution corresponding to leachate is specified. Laboratory tests for verification of the proposed methodology and future requirements are proposed, as well as test sites and follow-up in the field

  16. Safeguarding nuclear materials in the former Soviet Republics through computerized materials protection, control and accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roumiantsev, A.N.; Ostroumov, Y.A.; Whiteson, R.; Seitz, S.L.; Landry, R.P.; Martinez, B.J.; Boor, M.G.; Anderson, L.K.; Gary, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    The threat of nuclear weapons proliferation is a problem of global concern. International efforts at nonproliferation focus on preventing acquisition of weapons-grade nuclear materials by unauthorized states, organizations, or individuals. Nonproliferation can best be accomplished through international cooperation in the application of advanced science and technology to the management and control of nuclear materials. Computerized systems for nuclear material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) are a vital component of integrated nuclear safeguards programs. This paper describes the progress of scientists in the United States and former Soviet Republics in creating customized, computerized MPC and A systems. The authors discuss implementation of the Core Material Accountability System (CoreMAS), which was developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory by the US Department of Energy and incorporates, in condensed and integrated form, the most valuable experience gained by US nuclear enterprises in accounting for and controlling nuclear materials. The CoreMAS approach and corresponding software package have been made available to sites internationally. CoreMAS provides methods to evaluate their existing systems and to examine advantages and disadvantages of customizing CoreMAS or improving their own existing systems. The sites can also address crucial issues of software assurance, data security, and system performance; compare operational experiences at sites with functioning computerized systems; and reasonably evaluate future efforts. The goal of the CoreMAS project is to introduce facilities at sites all over the world to modern international MPC and A practices and to help them implement effective, modern, computerized MPC and A systems to account for their nuclear materials, and thus reduce the likelihood of theft or diversion. Sites are assisted with MPC and A concepts and the implementation of an effective computerized MPC and A system

  17. Application of Synthetic Mineral Alloys as Materials for Bulletproof Vests and Products for Different Objects Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ignatova.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Authors study ballistic properties of the material which has never been used for impact protection and the presented results prove that synthetic mineral alloys belong to the field of bulletproof ballistic protection and particularly to the means of objects’ protection from kinetic threats. Although the material has been described in connection with such specific embodiments as SVD and a cumulative jet, it is evident that many alternatives and modifications of their application for various protective articles are possible.

  18. Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting functions in a safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting systems to enhance overall safeguards capability are developed and presented. These concepts identify ways in which material accounting systems can be used to enable effective monitoring of authorized movement of nuclear material through physical protection boundaries. Concepts are also discussed for monitoring user access to nuclear material and for tagging user identification to material accounting transactions through physical protection functions. These result in benefits in detecting diversion and in positively tracing material movement. Finally, coordination of safeguards information from both subsystems in such an integrated system through a safeguards coordination center is addressed with emphasis on appropriate response in case of discrepancies

  19. Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC and A) Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Mark; Farmer, James; Haase, Michael; Mann, Greg; Soo Hoo, Mark; Toth, William

    1999-01-01

    To date, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accountancy (MPC and A) program has assisted in the implementation of operational site-wide MPC and A systems at several nuclear facilities in Russia. Eleven sites from the civilian sector have completed the site-wide installations and two have completed sub-site installations. By the end of 1999, several additional sites will have completed site-wide and sub-site system installations through DOE assistance. the effort at the completed sites has focused primarily on the design, integration, and installation of upgraded MPC and A systems. In most cases, little work has been performed to ensure that the installed systems will be sustained. Because of concerns that the installed systems would not be operated in the future, DOE established a sustainability pilot program involving the 11 sites. The purpose of DOE's MPC and A Sustainability Program is to ensure that MPC and A upgrades installed at sites in Russia are effective and will continue to operate over the long term. The program mission is to work with sites where rapid upgrades have been completed to cultivate enduring and consistent MPC and A practices. The program attempts to assist the Russian sites to develop MPC and A organizations that will operate, maintain, and continue to improve the systems and procedures. Future assistance will strive to understand and incorporate culturally sensitive approaches so that the sites take ownership for all MPC and A matters. This paper describes the efforts of the sustainability program to date

  20. Occupational exposure to contaminated biological material: perceptions and feelings experienced among dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila PINELLI

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dental students may be a particularly vulnerable group exposed to the risk of acquiring infections through occupational injuries.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceptions with regard to their occupational exposure to potentially infectious biologic materials.MATERIAL AND METHOD: Interviews were conducted by means of a script with open questions. The speeches were recorded, transcribed and qualitative analysis was performed with the aid of QUALIQUANTISOFT® software. The Collective Subject Discourse (CSD was obtained.RESULT: The feeling most frequently experienced was related to the fear of contagion. Most accidents occurred during the handling of sharp dental instruments. Respondents attributed the occurrence of accidents especially the lack of attention, carelessness while handling sharp instruments, and lack of use of Personal Protective Equipment. As regards the measures taken right after the exposure, they "washed the local area". Other respondents reported they "continued the dental treatment". They complained mostly about the fear of having been infected, and because they had to leave the faculty to take blood exams for HIV screening. As part of the learning experience the injured reported they paid more attention when handling sharp instruments. The students informed that any type of injury due to contact with contaminated material must be notified. However, they were neglectful about reporting their own injury.CONCLUSION: Education strategies for preventive measures related to occupational exposure must be restructured, because the knowledge and the fear of contagion among dental students were not always sufficient for a complete adherence to treatment protocols and notification.

  1. Multiscale modeling of emergent materials: biological and soft matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murtola, Teemu; Bunker, Alex; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we focus on four current related issues in multiscale modeling of soft and biological matter. First, we discuss how to use structural information from detailed models (or experiments) to construct coarse-grained ones in a hierarchical and systematic way. This is discussed in the c......In this review, we focus on four current related issues in multiscale modeling of soft and biological matter. First, we discuss how to use structural information from detailed models (or experiments) to construct coarse-grained ones in a hierarchical and systematic way. This is discussed...

  2. Strategy on biological evaluation for biodegradable/absorbable materials and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenghu; Luo, Hongyu; Wan, Min; Hou, Li; Wang, Xin; Shi, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    During the last two decades, biodegradable/absorbable materials which have many benefits over conventional implants are being sought in clinical practices. However, to date, it still remains obscure for us to perform full physic-chemical characterization and biological risk assessment for these materials and related devices due to their complex design and coherent processing. In this review, based on the art of knowledge for biodegradable/absorbable materials and biological risk assessment, we demonstrated some promising strategies to establish and improve the current biological evaluation systems for these biodegradable/absorbable materials and related medical devices.

  3. Materials of All-Polish Symposium Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The All-Polish Symposium Nuclear Techniques in Industry, Medicine, Agriculture and Environment Protection is cyclic (in 3 year period) conference being a broad review of state of art and development of all nuclear branches cooperated with industry and other branches of national economy and public life in Poland. The conference has been divided in one plenary session and 8 problem sessions as follow: Radiation technologies of flue gas purification; radiation technologies in food and cosmetic industry; application of nuclear techniques in environmental studies and earth science; radiometric methods in material engineering; isotope tracers in biological studies and medical diagnostics; radiometric industrial measuring systems; radiation detectors and device; nuclear methods in cultural objects examination. The poster section as well as small exhibition have been also organised

  4. Application of radiation chemistry in materials modification and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation chemistry is a part of the physical chemistry similarly like photo-chemistry, plasma-chemistry, ultrasonic-chemistry etc. Ionizing radiation produces abundant secondary electrons. Following these primary events, the ions, secondary electrons and excited molecules undergo further transformations, exchanging charges and energy and reacting with surrounding molecules, thereby producing free radicals and other reactive species which finally evolve into new stable products. Three main sources of radiation are applied for radiation processing. These are electron accelerators, gamma sources and X-ray unit based on e-/X conversion process. Radiation processing was used early on for polymer modification. The intermediates formed during material irradiation can follow several reaction paths that result in disproportion, hydrogen abstraction, arrangements and/or the formation of new bonds. Nowadays, the modification of polymers covers radiation cross-linking, radiation-induced polymerization (graft polymerization and curing) and the degradation of polymers. Some polymers predominantly undergo crosslinking other degradation. However new techniques allow crosslinking of polymers which were considered to be degradable only, like PTFE and cellulose derivatives. Regarding natural polymers the biggest application concerns rubber pre-crosslinking in tire industry. The processing of natural polymers is also being developed to elaborate new biodegradable materials. The radiation crosslinked wires and cables show excellent heat resistance (long-term thermal stability and short-term thermal stability) as well as abrasion resistance. Other big application is crosslinking of XLPE type pipes which are widely used for hot water and floor heating [30]. Polybutelene terephthalate (PBT), which is a plastic for electronic industry, can be crosslinked by radiation and lead free soldering materials can be applied in such a case. This method of crosslinking is also applied to manufacture

  5. Advanced Thermal Protection Systems (ATPS), Aerospace Grade Carbon Bonded Carbon Fiber Material, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Carbon bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) insulating material is the basis for several highly successful NASA developed thermal protection systems (TPS). Included among...

  6. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2011-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

  7. Source Identification of Human Biological Materials and Its Prospect in Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, K N; Gui, C; Gao, Y; Yang, F; Zhou, H G

    2016-06-01

    Source identification of human biological materials in crime scene plays an important role in reconstructing the crime process. Searching specific genetic markers to identify the source of different human biological materials is the emphasis and difficulty of the research work of legal medical experts in recent years. This paper reviews the genetic markers which are used for identifying the source of human biological materials and studied widely, such as DNA methylation, mRNA, microRNA, microflora and protein, etc. By comparing the principles and methods of source identification of human biological materials using different kinds of genetic markers, different source of human biological material owns suitable marker types and can be identified by detecting single genetic marker or combined multiple genetic markers. Though there is no uniform standard and method for identifying the source of human biological materials in forensic laboratories at present, the research and development of a series of mature and reliable methods for distinguishing different human biological materials play the role as forensic evidence which will be the future development direction. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine.

  8. Bioreceptivity evaluation of cementitious materials designed to stimulate biological growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Sandra; De Muynck, Willem; Segura, Ignacio; Aguado, Antonio; Steppe, Kathy; Boon, Nico; De Belie, Nele

    2014-05-15

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), the most used binder in construction, presents some disadvantages in terms of pollution (CO2 emissions) and visual impact. For this reason, green roofs and façades have gain considerable attention in the last decade as a way to integrate nature in cities. These systems, however, suffer from high initial and maintenance costs. An alternative strategy to obtain green facades is the direct natural colonisation of the cementitious construction materials constituting the wall, a phenomenon governed by the bioreceptivity of such material. This work aims at assessing the suitability of magnesium phosphate cement (MPC) materials to allow a rapid natural colonisation taking carbonated OPC samples as a reference material. For that, the aggregate size, the w/c ratio and the amount of cement paste of mortars made of both binders were modified. The assessment of the different bioreceptivities was conducted by means of an accelerated algal fouling test. MPC samples exhibited a faster fouling compared to OPC samples, which could be mainly attributed to the lower pH of the MPC binder. In addition to the binder, the fouling rate was governed by the roughness and the porosity of the material. MPC mortar with moderate porosity and roughness appears to be the most feasible material to be used for the development of green concrete walls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM): 3D MAT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 3D MAT Project seeks to design and develop a game changing Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS) technology tailored to meet the needs of the Orion Multi-Purpose...

  10. 75 FR 33901 - Physical Protection of Byproduct Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... positioning system (GPS) tracking as a national requirement for vehicles transporting highly radioactive..., Maryland. NRC's Agencywide Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS): Publicly available documents... also proposed to establish physical protection systems to detect, assess, and respond to unauthorized...

  11. Ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures against it's harmful effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hhalel, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    This book intrduces a good knowledge in specifications of ionizing radiation biological effects and the proper protective measures againest harmful effectes. The book is devided in to five main sections, the first one introduces the hostorical bachground of the contributions of a number of scietists in the basic knolwledge of radiation and its biological effects. The second section deals with the physical and chemical principles of radiation the third one talks about radiation detection. While the fourth section talks (via seven chapter) about the effectes of ionizing radiation on living organisms molecules cells, tissues organs systems and the living organism the fifth section talks about the uses of radiation sources, the probability of radiation accidents, protective measures, international recommendations related to doses and safe use of ionizing radiation. (Abed Al-wali Al-ajlouni). 53 refs., 107 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Biospheric Life Support - integrating biological regeneration into protection of humans in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mauricio; Iha, Koshun

    2016-07-01

    A biosphere stands for a set of biomes (regional biological communities) interacting in a materially closed (though energetically open) ecological system (CES). Earth's biosphere, the thin layer of life on the planet's surface, can be seen as a natural CES- where life "consumables" are regenerated/restored via biological, geological and chemical processes. In Life Sciences, artificial CESs- local ecosystems extracts with varying scales and degrees of closure, are considered convenient/representatives objects of study. For outer space, these concepts have been applied to the issue of life support- a significant consideration as long as distance from Earth increases. In the nineties, growing on the Russian expertise on biological life support, backed by a multidisciplinary science team, the famous Biosphere 2 appeared. That private project innovated, by assembling a set of Earth biomes samples- plus an organic ag one, inside a closed Mars base-like structure, next to 1.5 ha under glass, in Arizona, US. The crew of 8 inside completed their two years contract, though facing setbacks- the system failed, e.g., to produce enough food/air supplies. But their "failures"- if this word can be fairly applied to science endeavors, were as meaningful as their achievements for the future of life support systems (LSS) research. By this period, the Russians had accumulated experience in extended orbital stays, achieving biological outcomes inside their stations- e.g. complete wheat cycles. After reaching the Moon, the US administration decided to change national priorities, putting the space program as part of a "détente" policy, to relieve international tensions. Alongside the US space shuttle program, the Russians were invited to join the new International Space Station (ISS), bringing to that pragmatic project, also their physical/chemical LSS- top air/water regenerative technology at the time. Present US policy keeps the ISS operational, extending its service past its planned

  13. Biological oxygen demand in soils and hydrogel compositions for plant protection of the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentinovich Smagin, Andrey

    2018-02-01

    Potential biological activity of mineral and organogenic samples from light-textured sod-podzolic soils as well as of hydrogel compositions for protecting the root layer from pathogenic microflora and unfavorable edaphic factors were studied in laboratory conditions by oxygen consumption under the optimal hydrothermic conditions with portable gas analyzers. We have conducted ecological standardization of biological activity and organic matter destruction estimated by biological oxygen demand (BOD) in the widespread sandy soils. The primary outcome was the scale of gradations of biological oxygen uptake in soils with a range of quantities of potential biological activity from “very low” (140 g·m-3·hour-1), obtained on the basis of statistical processing of data array 1308 measurements. Acrylic polymer hydrogels had BOD = 0.2-2 g·m-3·hour-1, which corresponded to the periods of their half-lives from 0.2±0.1 to 6.8± 4.5 years, or relatively low resistance to biodestruction. In contrast to the pure gels, hydrogel compositions for rhizosphere based on ionic and colloidal silver showed low biological activity (BOD=0.01-0.2 g·m-3· hour-1) and, accordingly, significant resistance to biodegradation with half-lives from 5 to 70 years and above.

  14. New improved method for evaluation of growth by food related fungi on biologically derived materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Karina P.; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    2002-01-01

    Biologically derived materials, obtained as commercial and raw materials (Polylactate (PLA), Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), potato, wheat and corn starch) were tested for their ability to support fungal growth using a modified ASTM G21-96 (American Society for Testing and Materials) standard as well...

  15. The adhesion characteristics of protective coating materials for the containment structure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Kook; Shin, Jae-Chul

    2003-01-01

    Protective coating materials used in the containment structures should be durable for the designed 30 to 40 year lifetime of a nuclear power plant. At the present, these materials have not yet been developed. Therefore it is very important to keep the durability of the protective coating materials through persistent maintenance, and in order to achieve this, understanding the adhesion characteristics of the coating materials is of utmost importance. Therefore, this study attempts to find any methods for durability maintenance of these protective coating materials. To accomplish these aims, this study applied an experimental deterioration environment condition relevant to Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Main Steam Line Break (MSLB), categorized as of Design Basis Accident (DBA), onto steel liner plate specimens covered with protective coating materials. Adhesion tests were performed on these deteriorated coating materials to characterize the physical properties and through these tests, the quantitative adhesion characteristics according to the history of deterioration environment were found

  16. Using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to analyze biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew J; Trevisan, Júlio; Bassan, Paul; Bhargava, Rohit; Butler, Holly J; Dorling, Konrad M; Fielden, Peter R; Fogarty, Simon W; Fullwood, Nigel J; Heys, Kelly A; Hughes, Caryn; Lasch, Peter; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Obinaju, Blessing; Sockalingum, Ganesh D; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Strong, Rebecca J; Walsh, Michael J; Wood, Bayden R; Gardner, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2015-01-01

    IR spectroscopy is an excellent method for biological analyses. It enables the nonperturbative, label-free extraction of biochemical information and images toward diagnosis and the assessment of cell functionality. Although not strictly microscopy in the conventional sense, it allows the construction of images of tissue or cell architecture by the passing of spectral data through a variety of computational algorithms. Because such images are constructed from fingerprint spectra, the notion is that they can be an objective reflection of the underlying health status of the analyzed sample. One of the major difficulties in the field has been determining a consensus on spectral pre-processing and data analysis. This manuscript brings together as coauthors some of the leaders in this field to allow the standardization of methods and procedures for adapting a multistage approach to a methodology that can be applied to a variety of cell biological questions or used within a clinical setting for disease screening or diagnosis. We describe a protocol for collecting IR spectra and images from biological samples (e.g., fixed cytology and tissue sections, live cells or biofluids) that assesses the instrumental options available, appropriate sample preparation, different sampling modes as well as important advances in spectral data acquisition. After acquisition, data processing consists of a sequence of steps including quality control, spectral pre-processing, feature extraction and classification of the supervised or unsupervised type. A typical experiment can be completed and analyzed within hours. Example results are presented on the use of IR spectra combined with multivariate data processing. PMID:24992094

  17. Radiation protection programmes for the transport of radioactive material. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides guidance on meeting the requirements for the establishment of radiation protection programmes (RPPs) for the transport of radioactive material, to optimize radiation protection in order to meet the requirements for radiation protection that underlie the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. This Guide covers general aspects of meeting the requirements for radiation protection, but does not cover criticality safety or other possible hazardous properties of radioactive material. The annexes of this Guide include examples of RPPs, relevant excerpts from the Transport Regulations, examples of total dose per transport index handled, a checklist for road transport, specific segregation distances and emergency instructions for vehicle operators

  18. Legal Aspects of international cooperation in the physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herron, L.W.

    1981-10-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of developments in the number field having led the IAEA to promote international cooperation in ensuring adequate physical protection of nuclear facilities and materials. This work resulted in the establishment of recommendations and guidelines in this respect and culminated in the development of the 1980 Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. (NEA) [fr

  19. Biological and environmental reference materials in neutron activation analysis work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Gavrilas, M.

    1990-01-01

    The great usefulness of reference materials, especially ones of certified elemental composition, is discussed with particular attention devoted to their use in instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) work. Their use, including both certified and uncertified values, in calculations made by the INAA Advance Prediction Computer Program (APCP) is discussed. The main features of the APCP are described, and mention is made of the large number of reference materials run on the APCP (including the new personal computer version of the program), with NBS Oyster Tissue SRM-1566 used as the principal examle. (orig.)

  20. Concept of a Conducting Composite Material for Lightning Strike Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Katunin A.; Krukiewicz K.; Herega A.; Catalanotti G.

    2016-01-01

    The paper focuses on development of a multifunctional material which allows conducting of electrical current and simultaneously holds mechanical properties of a polymeric composite. Such material could be applied for exterior fuselage elements of an aircraft in order to minimize damage occurring during lightning strikes. The concept introduced in this paper is presented from the points of view of various scientific disciplines including materials science, chemistry, structural physics and mec...

  1. Synthetic Self-Assembled Materials in Biological Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, F.; van Esch, J.H.; Eelkema, R.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic self-assembly has long been recognized as an excellent approach for the formation of ordered structures on the nanoscale. Although the development of synthetic self-assembling materials has often been inspired by principles observed in nature (e.g., the assembly of lipids, DNA,

  2. On the possibility of multiple utilization of Bowen's Kale for neutron activation analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinov, V.M.; Lazarova, M.S.; Mihajlov, M.I.; Apostolov, D.

    1977-01-01

    The results of investigations related to the multiple utilization of Bowen's Kale in developing neutron-activation methods for determining microelements in biological materials carried out in recent years are presented. Bowen's Kale might be used as: (1) experimental material in the development of a method and its verification, i.e. as a test for biological materials; (2) a material where experimental conditions might be optimized; (3) a material for investigating the accuracy, reproducibility and the limit of proof at experimental conditions already defined; (4) a monitor; (5) a multielement volume reference standard for a number of microelements during their simultaneous determination and (6) a standard for verifying the authenticity of the results obtained. In this manner, a reliable criterion for comparison of the potentialities, the accuracy, reproducibility, the limits of proof and the authenticity of the neutron-activation methods of determining microelements in biological materials is introduced. (author)

  3. Analysis of biological materials using a nuclear microprobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulware, Stephen Juma

    The use of nuclear microprobe techniques including: Particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) for elemental analysis and quantitative elemental imaging of biological samples is especially useful in biological and biomedical research because of its high sensitivity for physiologically important trace elements or toxic heavy metals. The nuclear microprobe of the Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has been used to study the enhancement in metal uptake of two different plants. The roots of corn (Zea mays) have been analyzed to study the enhancement of iron uptake by adding Fe (II) or Fe(III) of different concentrations to the germinating medium of the seeds. The Fe uptake enhancement effect produced by lacing the germinating medium with carbon nanotubes has also been investigated. The aim of this investigation is to ensure not only high crop yield but also Fe-rich food products especially from calcareous soil which covers 30% of world's agricultural land. The result will help reduce iron deficiency anemia, which has been identified as the leading nutritional disorder especially in developing countries by the World Health Organization. For the second plant, Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta ), the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices ) for the improvement of lead phytoremediation of lead contaminated soil has been investigated. Phytoremediation provides an environmentally safe technique of removing toxic heavy metals (like lead), which can find their way into human food, from lands contaminated by human activities like mining or by natural disasters like earthquakes. The roots of Mexican marigold have been analyzed to study the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in enhancement of lead uptake from the contaminated rhizosphere.

  4. Factors associated with occupational exposure to biological material among nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrinho, Nádia Bruna da Silva; Malaguti-Toffano, Silmara Elaine; Reis, Renata Karina; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir

    2017-01-01

    to identify factors associated with occupational exposure to biological material among nursing professionals. a cross-sectional study was conducted in a high complexity hospital of a city in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Nursing professionals were interviewed from March to November 2015. All ethical aspects were observed. among the 226 professionals interviewed, 17.3% suffered occupational exposure to potentially contaminated biological material, with 61.5% being percutaneous. Factors such as age (p=0.003), professional experience in nursing (p=0.015), and experience at the institution (p=0.032) were associated with the accidents with biological material. most accidents with biological material among nursing professionals were percutaneous. Age, professional experience, and experience at the institution were considered factors associated with occupational exposure.

  5. Low cost materials of construction for biological processes: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-13

    The workshop was held, May 1993 in conjunction with the 15th Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. The purpose of this workshop was to present information on the biomass to ethanol process in the context of materials selection and through presentation and discussion, identify promising avenues for future research. Six technical presentations were grouped into two sessions: process assessment and technology assessment. In the process assessment session, the group felt that the pretreatment area would require the most extensive materials research due the complex chemical, physical and thermal environment. Discussion centered around the possibility of metals being leached into the process stream and their effect on the fermentation mechanics. Linings were a strong option for pretreatment assuming the economics were favorable. Fermentation was considered an important area for research also, due to the unique complex of compounds and dual phases present. Erosion in feedstock handling equipment was identified as a minor concern. In the technology assessment session, methodologies in corrosion analysis were presented in addition to an overview of current coatings/linings technology. Widely practiced testing strategies, including ASTM methods, as well as novel procedures for micro-analysis of corrosion were discussed. Various coatings and linings, including polymers and ceramics, were introduced. The prevailing recommendations for testing included keeping the testing simple until the problem warranted a more detailed approach and developing standardized testing procedures to ensure the data was reproducible and applicable. The need to evaluate currently available materials such as coatings/linings, carbon/stainless steels, or fiberglass reinforced plastic was emphasized. It was agreed that economic evaluation of each material candidate must be an integral part of any research plan.

  6. Impacts of Insufficient Instructional Materials on Teaching Biology: Higher Education Systems in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edessa, Sutuma

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess and determine impacts of insufficient instructional materials and ineffective lesson delivery methods on teaching in biology higher education. The participants of this study were 60 trainees who graduated in Bachelor of Sciences from eight public universities in majoring biology. Data for the study was…

  7. Expanding Kenya's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity to maximize coverage of plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Curran, Michael; Alvarez, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    Biodiversity is highly valuable and critically threatened by anthropogenic degradation of the natural environment. In response, governments have pledged enhanced protected-area coverage, which requires scarce biological data to identify conservation priorities. To assist this effort, we mapped conservation priorities in Kenya based on maximizing alpha (species richness) and beta diversity (species turnover) of plant communities while minimizing economic costs. We used plant-cover percentages from vegetation surveys of over 2000 plots to build separate models for each type of diversity. Opportunity and management costs were based on literature data and interviews with conservation organizations. Species richness was predicted to be highest in a belt from Lake Turkana through Mount Kenya and in a belt parallel to the coast, and species turnover was predicted to be highest in western Kenya and along the coast. Our results suggest the expanding reserve network should focus on the coast and northeastern provinces of Kenya, where new biological surveys would also fill biological data gaps. Meeting the Convention on Biological Diversity target of 17% terrestrial coverage by 2020 would increase representation of Kenya's plant communities by 75%. However, this would require about 50 times more funds than Kenya has received thus far from the Global Environment Facility. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. FIRE PROTECTION OF TIMBER STRUCTURES STRENGTHENED WITH FRP MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Zigler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern, progressive methods of structures’ strengthening based on the use of composite materials composed of high strength fibers (carbon, glass, aramid or basalt and matrices based on epoxy resins brings, among many indisputable advantages (low weight, high effectiveness, easy application etc. also some disadvantages. One of the major disadvantages is a low fire resistance of these materials due to the low glass transition temperature Tg of the resin used. Based on an extensive research of strengthening of historic structures with FRP materials [1], the article outlines possible approaches to this problem, especially while strengthening timber load- bearing structures of historic buildings.

  9. Dust Erosion Performance of Candidate Motorcase Thermal Protection Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-10

    REFERENCE DESCRIPTION SOURCE NUMBER 4.01 NBR B. F. Goodrich Aerospace and Defense Products (Nitrile butadiene 500 South Main Street rubber ) Akron, Ohio...material degradation occurs. 5.3 BALLISTIC RANGES Ballistic ranges are widely used for reentry erosion testing for two reasons: 1) no other type of facility...DET REFERENCE OTHER COMMENTS NUMBER DESIGNATION 2002 KEVLAR-EPOXY STAGE 3 MOTORCASE MATERIAL MOTORCAS E 2402 NBR 68 2403 NBR 69 2404 NBR -19709-6A (60

  10. Analysis of hazardous biological material by MALDI mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KL Wahl; KH Jarman; NB Valentine; MT Kingsley; CE Petersen; ST Cebula; AJ Saenz

    2000-03-21

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) has become a valuable tool for analyzing microorganisms. The speed with which data can be obtained from MALDI-MS makes this a potentially important tool for biological health hazard monitoring and forensic applications. The excitement in the mass spectrometry community in this potential field of application is evident by the expanding list of research laboratories pursuing development of MALDI-MS for bacterial identification. Numerous research groups have demonstrated the ability to obtain unique MALDI-MS spectra from intact bacterial cells and bacterial cell extracts. The ability to differentiate strains of the same species has been investigated. Reproducibility of MALDI-MS spectra from bacterial species under carefully controlled experimental conditions has also been demonstrated. Wang et al. have reported on interlaboratory reproducibility of the MALDI-MS analysis of several bacterial species. However, there are still issues that need to be addressed, including the careful control of experimental parameters for reproducible spectra and selection of optimal experimental parameters such as solvent and matrix.

  11. Molecular depth profiling of organic and biological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, John S. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: John.Fletcher@manchester.ac.uk; Conlan, Xavier A. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Lockyer, Nicholas P. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Vickerman, John C. [Surface Analysis Research Centre, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-30

    Atomic depth profiling using secondary ion mass spectrometry, SIMS, is common in the field micro-electronics; however, the generation of molecular information as a function of sample depth is difficult due to the accumulation of damage both on and beneath the sample surface. The introduction of polyatomic ion beams such as SF{sub 5} and C{sub 60} have raised the possibility of overcoming this problem as they deposit the majority of their energy in the upper surface of the sample resulting in increased sputter yields but with a complimentary reduction in sub-surface damage accumulation. In this paper we report the depth profile analysis of the bio-polymer polycaprolactone, PCL, using the polyatomic ions Au{sub 3}{sup +} and C{sub 60}{sup +} and the monoatomic Au{sup +}. Results are compared to recent analysis of a similar sample using SF{sub 5}{sup +}. C{sub 60}{sup +} depth profiling of cellulose is also demonstrated, an experiment that has been reported as unsuccessful when attempted with SF{sub 5}{sup +} implications for biological analysis are discussed.

  12. Contribution of the radiation hygiene laboratories network in physical protection of radiation materials in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Ministry of Health and Family from Romania has its own radiation protection network, including 23 radiation hygiene laboratories (RHLs), within the Institutes of Public Health-Bucharest, Iassy, Cluj-Napoca and Timisoara and the Directions of Public Health from Arges county, Bihor, Brasov, Mures, Maramures, Cluj, Sibiu, Harghita, Suceava, lassy, Bacau, Neamt, Galati, Constanta, Prahova, Dolj, Caras-Severin, Timis and Bucharest City. The RHLs network has 170 persons (physicians, physicists, engineers, chemists, biologists and technicians) and it is technically co-ordinated by the RHL in the Institute of Public Health-Bucharest. Within the local or national activities for physical protection of radioactive materials, the RHLs network closely co-operates with the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MAI) and with the nuclear regulatory authority, named the National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control (CNCAN). In the particular case of theft, sabotage or illicit traffic of radioactive materials, usually the MAI has the main role in the co-ordination of intervention actions of the three authorities. The RHLs network contributes by the expertise of its staff and by using its intervention facilities. The specific tasks for the RHLs network are: identification of the type and size of the radioactive material (by direct dosimetry and/or by gamma spectroscopy); dose reconstructions for the involved persons, the intervention personnel and the population; health management for overexposed persons and the medical response, including biological dosimetry and epidemiological studies. Recent special situations in this field, were: theft of some fuel (defect) tablets of natural uranium, from a production factory; the illicit traffic of radioactive materials, in transition to Western European Countries; an unauthorized decommissioning of a furnace, determining the uncontrolled dispersion of about 30 cobalt-60 sealed sources and the radiation exposure of nearly 20

  13. Protection of nuclear facilities and nuclear materials against malevolent actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornu, P.; Aurelle, J.; Jalouneix, J.

    2001-01-01

    The french approach for considering malevolent actions affecting the design and operation of nuclear facilities is aimed at determining the extent to which the facilities are protected. When carrying out these studies, operating organizations have to demonstrate that their are complying with the objectives set by the Competent Authority for reducing the risk of internal or external malevolent actions. The approach to be followed consist to determine the sensitivity of each zone and to estimate the vulnerability of the most critical zones to each type of aggression. The sensitivity can be defined by the level of the radiological consequences resulting from a malevolent action. The estimation of the vulnerability is made of the extent to which it is difficult to carry out a malevolent action. if need be, counter-measures are taken to protect zones for which the consequences would be unacceptable compared to the force of the aggression. Counter-measures are intended both to minimise sensitivity and make it more difficult to carry out the aggression envisaged. Acceptable consequences are taken as being those leading to levels of radioactive releases less than, or equal to, those taken into account in the facility safety case. This implies that the vulnerability of the most sensitive zones should be reduced to a minimum so that an acceptable level of protection can be provided for these areas. Emphasis will be paid on the defence in depth approach organized around prevention, management and mitigation measures. (authors)

  14. Effects of addictive substances during pregnancy and infancy and their analysis in biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płotka, Justyna; Narkowicz, Sylwia; Polkowska, Zaneta; Biziuk, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-01-01

    The use of addictive substances during pregnancy is a serious social problem, not only because of effects on the health of the woman and child, but also because drug or alcohol dependency detracts from child care and enhances the prospect of child neglect and family breakdown. Developing additive substance abuse treatment programs for pregnant women is socially important and can help ensure the health of babies, prevent subsequent developmental and behavioral problems (i.e., from intake of alcohol or other additive substances such as methamphetamine, cocaine,or heroine) and can reduce addiction costs to society. Because women of childbearing age often abuse controlled substances during their pregnancy, it is important to undertake biomonitoring of these substances in biological samples taken from the pregnant or nursing mother (e.g., blood, urine,hair, breast milk, sweat, oral fluids, etc.), from the fetus and newborn (e.g., meconium,cord blood, neonatal hair and urine) and from both the mother and fetus (i.e.,amniotic fluids and placenta). The choice of specimens to be analyzed is determined by many factors; however, the most important is knowledge of the chemical and physical characteristics of a substance and the route of it administration. Maternal and neonatal biological materials reflect exposures that occur over a specific time period, and each of these biological specimens has different advantages and disadvantages,in terms of accuracy, time window of exposure and cost/benefit ratio.Sampling the placenta may be the most important biomonitoring choice for assessing in utero exposure to addictive substances. The use of the placenta in scientific research causes a minimum of ethical problems, partly because its sampling is noninvasive, causes no harm to mother or child, and partly because, in any case,placentas are discarded and incinerated after birth. Such samples, when properly analyzed, may provide key essential information about fetal exposure to toxic

  15. Biological Control to Protect Watermelon Blossoms and Seed from Infection by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fessehaie, A; Walcott, R R

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT The efficacy of biological control seed treatments with Pseudomonas fluorescens (A506), Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (AAA 99-2), and an unidentified gram-positive bacterium recovered from watermelon seed (WS-1) was evaluated for the management of bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of watermelon. In growth chamber and greenhouse experiments, seed treated with AAA 99-2 displayed superior disease suppression, reducing BFB transmission by 96.5%. AAA 99-2, P. fluorescens A506, and Kocide also suppressed the epiphytic growth of A. avenae subsp. citrulli when applied to attached watermelon blossoms 5 h prior to inoculation. Watermelon blossom protection reduced seed infestation by A. avenae subsp. citrulli. From blossoms treated with 0.1 M phosphate buffered saline (PBS), 63% of the resulting seed lots were infested with A. avenae subsp. citrulli. In contrast, for blossoms protected with WS-1, Kocide, P. fluorescens A506, and AAA 99-2, the proportion of infested seed lots were 48.3, 21.1, 24.1, and 13.8%, respectively. The effect of blossom treatments on seed lot infestation was statistically significant (P = 0.001) but WS-1 was not significantly different from PBS. These findings suggest that blossom protection with biological control agents could be a feasible option for managing BFB.

  16. Future development of biological understanding of radiation protection: implications of nonstochastic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Boecker, B.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation-protection standards are based on minimizing or preventing biological effects in exposed populations. Radiation-induced biological effects can be classified as stochastic--malignant and hereditary diseases for which the probability of an effect occurring is a function of dose without threshold--and nonstochastic--inflammatory and degenerative diseases for which the severity and frequency of the effect varies with the dose and for which a threshold is present. The current International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) approach for setting limits for intakes of radionuclides by workers, which accounts for doses to significantly exposed organs of the body, is based on limitation of stochastic effects in most situations. When setting exposure limits, nonstochastic effects are generally considered to be unlikely at the limits for stochastic effects. In some situations, limits based on prevention of nonstochastic effects are lower than for stochastic effects. This review considers the threshold radiation doses for thyroid, bone, liver and lung and their relationship to the limits recommended by the ICRP and the cancer risks at the limits. This review indicates that the threshold dose for nonstochastic effects in thyroid and lung is much above the dose limit as advocated by ICRP. The threshold dose for nonstochastic effects in bone and liver is much closer to the dose limit, but protection from nonstochastic effects should still be afforded by the dose limits

  17. Measurement of the removal sechtion of biological protection concretes in the spectrum of an AmBe source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandin, C.; Tenrreiro, J.; Desdin, L.; Sarria, P.; Monne, G.; Tellez, E.; Csikai, J

    1992-01-01

    A method to measure the neutron removal cross sections in cuban concrete for biological protection using the average spectrum of a radioisotopic source was developed. The method was verified by the measurements of different materials with know removal cross sections like Pb, paraffin and water. These spetial cuban concrete are elaborated on the basis of arids of limestone, limonite, magnetite, baryte and serpentine. The aim of this work is to contribute to the characterization of those concretes for its use in cuban nuclear installations. In the experiments were used an AmBe source with an strength of 10 6 n/s. and a long counter detector with associated electronics. It can be seen in the table that the concretes of magnetite and limonite have the best shielding properties for neutrons

  18. A cabinet for the handling or treatment of materials therein in a protected atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landy, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A cabinet is described in which the atmosphere is arranged to move in a recirculatory filtered closed system. It is stated to be suitable for the handling of materials in a protected atmosphere, for example the handling of biohazardous materials, radioactive materials, etc. Full constructional details are given. (U.K.)

  19. Bioinspired Design of Building Materials for Blast and Ballistic Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nacre in abalone shell exhibits high toughness despite the brittle nature of its major constituent (i.e., aragonite. Its specific structure is a major contributor to the energy absorption capacity of nacre. This paper reviews the mechanisms behind the performance of nacre under shear, uniaxial tension, compression, and bending conditions. The remarkable combination of stiffness and toughness on nacre can motivate the development of bioinspired building materials for impact resistance applications, and the possible toughness designs of cement-based and clay-based composite materials with a layered and staggered structure were discussed.

  20. Endodontic radiology, practice, and knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection among clinical dental students and interns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Emien Enabulele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the practice and knowledge of endodontic radiology as well as assess the knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection among clinical dental students and interns. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study of clinical dental students and interns at University of Benin and University of Benin Teaching hospital respectively. Data was collected using a questionnaire which covered practice and knowledge of endodontic radiography, knowledge of radiation biology, hazard, and protection. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17.0. Result: Seventy participants were included in the study, 40% were final year students and 24.3% house officers. Majority (95.7% agreed that they exposed radiographs as part of endodontic treatment. Only 18.6% knew that the apices of teeth should be 3mm from the border of the X-ray film, while 24.3% knew that 3mm of periapical bone should be visible on X-ray. Less than half (31.4% knew that paralleling technique was the technique of choice for endodontic radiography and this was statistically Significant in relationship to the status of the of the respondents. A few (4.3% of the respondents had knowledge of new horizons in endodontic imaging. Half of the respondents knew that damage by X-rays is mainly due to formation of free radicals. The most frequently reported radiation hazards was reduced salivary flow, while the least reported was rampant caries. Most knew how to protect patients, themselves, and other persons while exposing radiographs. Conclusion: There is need for inclusion of endodontic radiography in the undergraduate curriculum to ensure proper and correct radiographs during endodontic procedure.

  1. The distribution property of shielding materials used in radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Paulo R.

    1996-01-01

    A parametric model for the distribution of the radiation scattered by shielding materials is proposed. The advantages regarding to chemical composition or to linear attenuation coefficient of the media as a function of energy are presented. Comparative results between the model and experimental data are reported

  2. Protecting Superconducting HTS-Antennas by Meta-Material Cloaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    to the cloak are not quantified. Thus, one can only visually judge the performance of the cloaking ability of the structure. In this project, a...materials composed of only s-shaped resonators,” Phys. Rev. E, vol. 70, p. 057605, Nov 2004. 8, 9 [25] J. Pendry, A. Holden, D. Robbins , and W

  3. Coated silicon comprising material for protection against environmental corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Brian Thomas (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with an embodiment of the invention, an article is disclosed. The article comprises a gas turbine engine component substrate comprising a silicon material; and an environmental barrier coating overlying the substrate, wherein the environmental barrier coating comprises cerium oxide, and the cerium oxide reduces formation of silicate glass on the substrate upon exposure to corrodant sulfates.

  4. Toward a biologically significant and usable standard for ozone that will also protect plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, Elena; Manning, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Ozone remains an important phytotoxic air pollutant and is also recognized as a significant greenhouse gas. In North America, Europe, and Asia, incidence of high concentrations is decreasing, but background levels are steadily rising. There is a need to develop a biologically significant and usable standard for ozone. We compare the strengths and weaknesses of concentration-based, exposure-based and threshold-based indices, such as SUM60 and AOT40, and examine the O 3 flux concept. We also present major challenges to the development of an air quality standard for ozone that has both biological significance and practicality in usage. - Current standards do not protect vegetation from ozone, but progress is being made

  5. Precision of neutron activation analysis for environmental biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hiroshi; Iwata, Shiro; Koyama, Mutsuo; Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Numata, Yuichi.

    1977-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1974 a special committee ''Research on the application of neutron activation analysis to the environmental samples'' had been organized at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University. Eleven research groups composed mainly of the committee members cooperated in the intercomparison programme of the reactor neutron activation analysis of NBS standard reference material, 1571 Orchard Leaves and 1577 Bovine Liver. Five different type of reactors were used for the neutron irradiation; i.e. KUR reactor of the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, TRIGA MARK II reactor of the Institute for Atomic Energy, Rikkyo University, and JRR-2, JRR-3, JRR-4 reactor of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Analyses were performed mainly by instrumental method. Precision of the analysis of 23 elements in Orchard Leaves and 13 elements in Bovine Liver presented by the different research groups was shown in table 4 and 5, respectively. The coefficient of variation for these elements was from several to -- 30 percent. Averages given to these elements agreed well with the NBS certified or reference values. Thus, from the practical point of view for the routine multielement analysis of environmental samples, the validity of the instrumental neutron activation technique for this purpose has been proved. (auth.)

  6. Is analysis of biological materials with nm spatial resolution possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warley, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Cells are bounded by a membrane, the plasma membrane, subcompartments within cells are also delineated by membranes, these membranes contain transporters that regulate the flow of ions across them. Fluxes of ions across the membranes underlie many of the basic properties of living material such as excitability and movement. Breakdown of membrane function ultimately leads to cell death. EM microanalysis has been instrumental in gaining understanding of how changes in element distribution affect cell behaviour and cell survival. The main problem that biologists face in undertaking such studies is that of specimen preparation. Cells consist mainly of water that needs to be either removed or stabilised before analysis can take place. Cryotechniques, fixation by rapid freezing followed by sectioning at low temperatures and freeze-drying of the sections have proved to be a reliable method for the study of intracellular element concentrations. These techniques have been used to show that elements are confined in different compartments within cells and produced results to support a new theory on the mechanism by which neutrophils kill bacteria. They have also shown that disturbance of the ionic content of mitochondria is one of the first signs in the pathway to cell death

  7. Sample preparation techniques of biological material for isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axmann, H.; Sebastianelli, A.; Arrillaga, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    Sample preparation is an essential step in all isotope-aided experiments but often it is not given enough attention. The methods of sample preparation are very important to obtain reliable and precise analytical data and for further interpretation of results. The size of a sample required for chemical analysis is usually very small (10mg-1500mg). On the other hand the amount of harvested plant material from plots in a field experiment is often bulky (several kilograms) and the entire sample is too large for processing. In addition, while approaching maturity many crops show not only differences in physical consistency but also a non-uniformity in 15 N content among plant parts, requiring a plant fractionation or separation into parts (vegetative and reproductive) e.g. shoots and spikes, in case of small grain cereals, shoots and pods in case of grain legumes and tops and roots or beets (including crown) in case of sugar beet, etc. In any case the ultimate goal of these procedures is to obtain representative subsample harvested from greenhouse or field experiments for chemical analysis. Before harvesting an isotopic-aided experiment the method of sampling has to be selected. It should be based on the type of information required in relation to the objectives of the research and the availability of resources (staff, sample preparation equipment, analytical facilities, chemicals and supplies, etc.). 10 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Maximum concentrations at work and maximum biologically tolerable concentration for working materials 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The meaning of the term 'maximum concentration at work' in regard of various pollutants is discussed. Specifically, a number of dusts and smokes are dealt with. The valuation criteria for maximum biologically tolerable concentrations for working materials are indicated. The working materials in question are corcinogeneous substances or substances liable to cause allergies or mutate the genome. (VT) [de

  9. Temperature response of biological materials to pulsed non-ablative CO2 laser irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugmans, M. J.; Kemper, J.; Gijsbers, G. H.; van der Meulen, F. W.; van Gemert, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents surface temperature responses of various tissue phantoms and in vitro and in vivo biological materials in air to non-ablative pulsed CO2 laser irradiation, measured with a thermocamera. We studied cooling off behavior of the materials after a laser pulse, to come to an

  10. Determination of trace elements in biological material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Teherani, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen trace elements in biological materials [grass (Imperata cylindrica), mimosa plant (Mimosa pudica), rice] by neutron activation method were determined. In the comparative analysis the content of the same element was different in each material, although they were collected at the same place and the same sampling method was applied. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  11. Protection of nuclear installations and materials against malevolent actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelle, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The approach adopted in France for considering malevolent actions affecting the design and operation of nuclear facilities is aimed at determining the extent to which the facilities are protected. When carrying out these studies, operating organizations have to demonstrate that they are complying with the objectives set by the Competent Authority for reducing the risk of internal or external malevolent actions. The operating organization studies are assessed by the technical support body of the Competent Authority. The technical support body submits the assessments to an interministerial advisory group that sends its comments and any specific technical instructions which may be necessary to the Competent Authority. The approach to be followed can be summed up as follows: 1) The sensitivity of each zone is determined; this can be characterised by the level of the radiological consequences resulting from a malevolent action. Sensitivity is determined by taking into account: the radioactive product inventory; possible accident situations; an estimate of the consequences of these accidents. Depending on the gravity of the consequences of a malevolent action, three types of zone have been defined: zones or systems at risk, when an action is not serious enough to lead to radiological consequences; to cause a significant accident, at least two zones or systems at risk have to be affected; critical zones or systems, when an action leads to radiological consequences deemed acceptable from a safety point of view; vital zones or systems, when an action leads to more serious radiological consequences than those taken into account in the safety case. 2) The vulnerability of the various zones to each type of aggression is estimated, in other words, an estimate is made of the extent to which it is difficult to carry out a malevolent action in the zone in question. The vulnerability assessment of the zones and systems identified previously can be broken down into two

  12. Methodological issues in analyzing time trends in biologic fertility: protection bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Key, Jane; Best, Nicky; Joffe, Michael

    2009-01-01

    One method of assessing biologic fertility is to measure time to pregnancy (TTP). Accidental pregnancies do not generate a valid TTP value and lead to nonrandom missing data if couples experiencing accidental pregnancies are more fertile than the general population. If factors affecting the rate...... of fertility trends in Europe over the past 50 years. Couples experiencing accidental pregnancies tended to be more fertile than the general population. However, trends in accidental pregnancy rates were inconsistent across countries and were insufficient to produce substantial bias in fertility trends...... of accidental pregnancies, such as availability of effective contraception and induced abortion, vary over time, then the result may be protection bias in the estimates of fertility time trends. Six European data sets were analyzed to investigate whether evidence of protection bias exists in TTP studies...

  13. Sampling and sample preparation methods for the analysis of trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoni, B.; Iyengar, V.

    1978-05-01

    The authors attempt to give a most systamtic possible treatment of the sample taking and sample preparation of biological material (particularly in human medicine) for trace analysis (e.g. neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry). Contamination and loss problems are discussed as well as the manifold problems of the different consistency of solid and liquid biological materials, as well as the stabilization of the sample material. The process of dry and wet ashing is particularly dealt with, where new methods are also described. (RB) [de

  14. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  15. Advanced materials and protective coatings in aero-engines application

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hetmańczyk; L. Swadźba; B. Mendala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The following article demonstrates the characteristics of the materials applied as parts of aircraft engine turbines and the stationary gas turbines. The principal technologies for manufacturing the heat resistant coatings and the erosion and corrosion resistant coatings were characterized. Sample applications for the aforementioned coatings are presented: on turbine blades, compressor blades and on parts of combustion chambers of aircraft engines.Design/methodology/approach: The nic...

  16. Surface treatments for material protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, P.K.; Gadiyar, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The paper highlights some of the surface treatment methods used in nuclear power plants to improve their performance. The corrosion resistance of zirconium alloys results from the formation of an adherent and protective film of ZrO 2 . Graphite coating of zircaloy-2 cladding minimizes the susceptibility to environmental induced cracking. Magnetite formation during the hot conditioning operation improves the corrosion resistance of carbon steel as well as controls the spread of radioactivity. It has been illustrated how the surface treatment is helpful for redistributing residual stress to facilitate conversion of tensile stress to compressive stress to mitigate failures due to stress corrosion and fatigue corrosion. Inhibitors and passivators can modify the surface conditions (in situ) of condenser tubes and cooling water systems. These aspects have been dealt in the text of the paper. (author). 8 refs., 3 figures

  17. Impacts of insufficient instructional materials on teaching biology: Higher education systems in focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutuma Edessa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess and determine impacts of insufficient instructional materials and ineffective lesson delivery methods on teaching in biology higher education. The participants of this study were 60 trainees who graduated in Bachelor of Sciences from eight public universities in majoring biology. Data for the study was collected while these trainees were attending the course of Biology Teaching Methods in the Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching, both in the regular and summer 2015/2016 training programs at Addis Ababa University. The study employs a mixed method design of both qualitative and quantitative data evaluations. Data was collected through classroom observations and interviews with the trainees. The findings indicated that insufficient instructional materials and ineffective teaching methods in higher education had negative impacts; that have affected the skills of performing biological tasks of graduates 71%. In the course of the Post Graduate Diploma in Teaching training, trainees were unsuccessful to conduct essential biological tasks expected from graduates of biology upon the completion of their undergraduate study program. The study was concluded with emphasis on the need to integrate theory and practice through using adequate instructional materials and proper teaching methods in the higher education biology teaching.

  18. UV-Curable Hybrid Nanocomposite Coating to Protect Tether Polymer Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for coatings to protect and strengthen tether materials for Momentum-exchange Electrodynamic Reboost (MXER) technology, Luminit, LLC,...

  19. Physical protection in the transport of nuclear materials (Legal aspects of the domestic system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novais, F.J.G.

    1978-04-01

    A study of the physical protection system is made. Emphasis is given to some considerations in the nuclear material transport area, mainly the details of the domestic system, from a juridic pont of view. (Author) [pt

  20. Utilization of Self-Healing Materials in Thermal Protection System Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project is the Utilization of Self-Healing Materials for Thermal Protection System (TPS) Applications. Currently, the technology for repairing TPS from...

  1. Resistance of gloves and protective clothing materials to permeation of cytostatic solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Sylwia Krzemińska; Małgorzata Pośniak; Małgorzata Szewczyńska

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The objective of the work was to determine the resistance of selected protective clothing and glove materials to permeation of cytostatics such as docetaxel, fluorouracil, and doxorubicin. Material and Methods The following glove materials were used: natural rubber latex (code A), acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (code B) and chloroprene rubber (code C). In addition, we tested a layered material composed of a non-woven polyester (PES), a polypropylene (PP) film, ...

  2. 10 CFR 76.111 - Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... significance (Category III), and for protection of Restricted Data, National Security Information, Safeguards... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Physical security, material control and accounting, and protection of certain information. 76.111 Section 76.111 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED...

  3. Radiation protection and the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; MacDowell, P.

    1996-01-01

    There are many industries dealing with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), some of them without knowing that their industrial processes and/or their regular wastes involve radioactivity. However, an increasing number of industries that produce NORM wastes are being sued, wherever there is a legal framework to do so. In particular, NORM wastes produced for a long time by the oil industry became foci of legal battles in the United States and elsewhere. The ripple effect of these judicial battles will influence the decision making processes of NORM wastes producing industries, mostly because of the costs incurred by remedial and preventive actions concerning NORM contamination. The regulation of NORM will occur sooner or later, and such actions may become mandatory. A foreseeable consequence of such regulation is a change in attitude concerning the sources and materials associated with NORM. Among those industries likely to be affected one can mention: niobium; rare earth processing; oil production; phosphate; uranium mining and milling; zircon; water treatment; and waste water treatment. The paper will briefly review data on exempt concentration activities, as suggested by the basic safety standards based on realistic environmental and dosimetric models. These activity concentrations are compared with those found in a number of extractive industries, and may be used to establish derived limits from a pre-established dose limit. (author)

  4. Systematic Approach to Training and Professional Development Specialists of Physical Protection, Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klos, Nataliia

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: 1. Ukraine has created the State system for professional training, retraining and professional development of specialists in physical protection, accounting and control of nuclear materials. 2. Ukraine has founded profession physical protection, accounting and control of nuclear materials

  5. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion into low-level radioactive waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.

    1986-02-01

    This report describes the results of a three-year research program to evaluate the performance of selected soil and rock trench cap designs in limiting biological intrusion into simulated waste. The report is divided into three sections including a discussion of background material on biological interactions with waste site trench caps, a presentation of experimental data from field studies conducted at several scales, and a final section on the interpretation and limitations of the data including implications for the user

  6. Guidance and considerations for implementation of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3, the physical protection of nuclear material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, INFCIRC/225/Rev.3, provides recommendations for the physical protection of nuclear material against theft in use, storage and transport, whether national or international and whether peaceful or military, and contains provisions relating to the sabotage of nuclear material or facilities. The recommendations contained in INFCIRC/225/Rev.3 detail the elements that should be included in a State's system of physical protection. It also recognizes the adverse health and safety consequences arising from the theft of nuclear material and the sabotage of nuclear material or facilities. Most industrial and developing countries use these recommendations to some extent in the establishment and operation of their physical protection systems. Although INFCIRC/225/Rev.3 provides recommendations for protecting materials and facilities from theft or sabotage, it does not provide in-depth details for these recommendations. In June 1996, the IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider this matter. This report is the result of continuing discussions and drafts over a period of nine months. The intent of this guidance is to provide a broader basis for relevant State organizations to prescribe appropriate requirements for the use of nuclear materials which are compatible with accepted international practice

  7. [Clinical treatment adherence of health care workers and students exposed to potentially infectious biological material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Maria Cristina Mendes de; Canini, Silvia Rita Marin da Silva; Reis, Renata Karina; Toffano, Silmara Elaine Malaguti; Pereira, Fernanda Maria Vieira; Gir, Elucir

    2015-04-01

    To assess adherence to clinical appointments by health care workers (HCW) and students who suffered accidents with potentially infectious biological material. A retrospective cross-sectional study that assessed clinical records of accidents involving biological material between 2005 and 2010 in a specialized unit. A total of 461 individuals exposed to biological material were treated, of which 389 (84.4%) were HCWs and 72 (15.6%) students. Of the 461 exposed individuals, 307 (66.6%) attended a follow-up appointment. Individuals who had suffered an accident with a known source patient were 29 times more likely to show up to their scheduled follow-up appointments (OR: 29.98; CI95%: 16.09-55.83). The predictor in both univariate and multivariate analyses for adherence to clinical follow-up appointment was having a known source patient with nonreactive serology for the human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis B and C.

  8. Innovative plant protection means prepared natural raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Lomtadze

    2018-03-01

    terms of growth and development index. It should also be noted that no harmful diseases were found on the treated seedlings.The developed compositional formulations can be successfully used for integrated protection of plants against pests and diseases. Their use is absolutely safe for the human and the environment. Keywords: Peach, Apple, Pests, Diseases, Acaricide, Fungicide

  9. The Widespread Prevalence and Functional Significance of Silk-Like Structural Proteins in Metazoan Biological Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel McDougall

    Full Text Available In nature, numerous mechanisms have evolved by which organisms fabricate biological structures with an impressive array of physical characteristics. Some examples of metazoan biological materials include the highly elastic byssal threads by which bivalves attach themselves to rocks, biomineralized structures that form the skeletons of various animals, and spider silks that are renowned for their exceptional strength and elasticity. The remarkable properties of silks, which are perhaps the best studied biological materials, are the result of the highly repetitive, modular, and biased amino acid composition of the proteins that compose them. Interestingly, similar levels of modularity/repetitiveness and similar bias in amino acid compositions have been reported in proteins that are components of structural materials in other organisms, however the exact nature and extent of this similarity, and its functional and evolutionary relevance, is unknown. Here, we investigate this similarity and use sequence features common to silks and other known structural proteins to develop a bioinformatics-based method to identify similar proteins from large-scale transcriptome and whole-genome datasets. We show that a large number of proteins identified using this method have roles in biological material formation throughout the animal kingdom. Despite the similarity in sequence characteristics, most of the silk-like structural proteins (SLSPs identified in this study appear to have evolved independently and are restricted to a particular animal lineage. Although the exact function of many of these SLSPs is unknown, the apparent independent evolution of proteins with similar sequence characteristics in divergent lineages suggests that these features are important for the assembly of biological materials. The identification of these characteristics enable the generation of testable hypotheses regarding the mechanisms by which these proteins assemble and direct the

  10. Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (Implementation of INFCIRC/225/Revision 5). Implementing Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    This publication is the lead Implementing Guide in a suite of guidance on implementing the Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5), IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 13. It provides guidance and suggestions to assist States and their competent authorities in establishing, strengthening and sustaining their national physical protection regime and implementing the associated systems and measures, including operators’ physical protection systems. The structure of this publication is as follows. After this introduction, Section 2 describes the objectives of physical protection and the overall approach to managing the risks of the unauthorized removal of nuclear material and the sabotage of nuclear facilities. Section 3 provides guidance for the State and its competent authorities on the physical protection elements of the nuclear security regime; this guidance is based on the fundamental principles set out in the Recommendations publication. Section 4 provides guidance on the operator’s physical protection system and describes a systematic, integrated approach. Appendix I gives an annotated outline of the typical contents of an operator’s security plan. Appendix II provides similar guidance for the contingency plan. Appendix III provides a description of nuclear material aggregation that can be used to categorize nuclear material and determine the appropriate level of protection against unauthorized removal. Appendix IV presents a table of paragraph cross-references between the Recommendations publication and this Implementing Guide.

  11. Criteria and application methodology of physical protection of nuclear materials within the national and regional boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, C.E.; Cesario, R.H.; Giustina, D.H.; Canibano, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The physical protection against robbery, diversion of nuclear materials and sabotage of nuclear installations by individuals or groups, has been for long time the reason of national and international concern. Even though, the obligation to create and implement an effective physical protection system for nuclear materials and installations in the territory of a given State, fall entirely on the State's Government, whether this obligation is fulfilled or not, and if it does, in what measure or up to what extent, it also concerns the rest of the States. Therefore, physical protection has become the reason for a regional co-operation. It is evident the need of co-operation in those cases where the physical protection efficiency within the territory of a given State depends also on the appropriate measures other States are taken, specially when dealing with materials been transported through national borders. The above mentioned constitute an important framework for the regional co-operation for the physical protection of nuclear materials. For that reason, the Nuclear Regulatory Authority established criteria and conditions aimed at mitigate diversions, robberies and sabotage to nuclear installations. As a working philosophy, it was established a simplify physical protection model of application in Argentina who, through the ARCAL No. 23 project, will be extrapolated to the whole Latin-American region, concluding that the application of the appropriated physical protection systems at regional level will lead to the strengthening of it at national level. (author) [es

  12. Aspects of investment protection in the case of raw material projects; Aspekte des Investitionsschutzes bei Rohstoffprojekten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolkewitz, Mathias [Wintershall Holding GmbH, Kassel (Germany). Bereich Recht, Steuern und Versicherungen; TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energierecht

    2011-04-15

    Addressing the question of investment protection currently is of particular importance under the tree aspects: (a) Due to the financial crisis and economic crisis, foreign investment in the years 2008 and 2009 have been drastically reduced; (b) There is a growing critique at the system of international investment protection; (c) For the first time, the Articles 206 and 207 of the Treaty of Lisbon of the European Union show a competence for foreign direct investment. These three aspects seem partly contradictory, but have a considerable changing potential in the area of investment protection. The author of the contribution under consideration describes the tools of investment protection as those are used for raw material projects. Subsequently the author picks out investment protection agreements and deals with some aspects that are important for practical applications in business companies. Raw material projects are projects for the exploration and production of oil and gas in foreign states.

  13. OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS WITH BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS IN CLINICAL ANALYSIS LABORATORY: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Azevedo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accidents involving biological material can cause diseases to the professional healthcare and also bring psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to characterize the accidents occurring with biological material with professional of clinical laboratories of Sinop-MT. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic and health variables. 21 (87.5% of respondents stated that they never suffered any kind of accident. One of the injured workers reported that there was involvement in your emotional life. It is observed underreporting of occupational accidents by employees affected, making it difficult to increase research on the subject and actions about the problem.

  14. ATTENDING PROFESSIONALS VICTIMS OF ACCIDENT WITH BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL IN A TROPICAL DISEASES HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Lillian Kelly de Oliveira Lopes; Anaclara Ferreira Veiga Tipple; Sirlene Neves Damando; Cássia Silva Miranda; Ivete Vieira Gomes

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The occupational risk for the health´s workers is a subject discussed in the last decades. However, the professional accident involving biological material´s records in the health´s units don´t describe the real situation. The purpose of this article is to identify the number of attending of professional accident involving biological material and the source of the leading. The data were obtained by the professional accident´s handbooks in 2003. The hospital had 5768 appointments. Am...

  15. Determination of mercury concentration in biological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, L.; Gras, N.; Cortes, E.; Cassorla, V.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain a confident analytical method for measuring the mercury concentration in biological materials. Destructive neutron activation analysis was used for this purpose and a radiochemical separation method was studied to isolate the mercury from its main interferences: sodium and phosphorus, because these elements in biological materials are in high concentrations. The method developed was based on the copper amalgamation under controlled conditions. Yield and reproductibility studies were performed using 203 Hg as radioactive tracer. Finally, food samples of regular consumption were analyzed and the results were compared with those recommended by FAO/WHO. (Author)

  16. Instrumental neutron activation analysis for the certification of biological reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambulkar, M.N.; Chutke, N.L.; Garg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    A multielemental instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) method by short and long irradiation has been employed for the determination of 22 minor and trace constituents in two proposed Standard Reference Materials P-RBF and P-WBF from Institute of Radioecology and Applied Nuclear Techniques, Czechoslovakia. Also some biological standards such as Bowen's Kale, Cabbage leaves (Poland) including wheat and rice flour samples of local origin were analysed. It is suggested that INAA is an ideal method for the certification of reference materials of biological matrices. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab

  17. Manual of use and accounting of radioactive material and procedures of radiological protection for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, Miguel

    1997-03-01

    This manual of use and accounting of material radioactive and procedures of radiological safety tries to facilitate workings of protection of material radioactive in services of medicine nuclear, during diagnosis (examinations with x-rays, or those that are made in nuclear medicine), or during the processing of diseases, mainly of the carcinomas (x-ray)

  18. Fresh biological reference materials. Use in inter laboratory studies and as CRMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boer, J.

    1999-01-01

    Biological reference materials were prepared and packed in tins and glass jars to be used in inter laboratory studies on chlorobiphenyls and organochlorine pesticides, and trace metals, respectively. The materials were homogenised, sterilised and packed as wet tissue, which is unique for the purpose of inter laboratory studies and offers the advantage of studying the extraction and destruction steps of the analytical methods. In addition to their use in inter laboratory studies, some materials have been prepared or are being prepared as certified reference material for chlorobiphenyl analysis. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Botanical Reference Materials for the Determination of Vanadium in Biological Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1982-01-01

    Three botanical reference materials prepared by the National Bureau of Standards have been studied by neutron activation analysis to evaluate their suitability with respect to the determination of vanadium in biological samples. Various decomposition methods were applied in connection with chemic....... A reference value of 1.15 mg/kg of this material is recommended, based on results from 3 different methods. All three materials are preferable to SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, while Bowen's Kale remains the material of choice because of its lower concentration....

  20. Personal protection during resuscitation of casualties contaminated with chemical or biological warfare agents--a survey of medical first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Andrea; Prior, Kate; Schumacher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The threat of mass casualties caused by an unconventional terrorist attack is a challenge for the public health system, with special implications for emergency medicine, anesthesia, and intensive care. Advanced life support of patients injured by chemical or biological warfare agents requires an adequate level of personal protection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the personal protection knowledge of emergency physicians and anesthetists who would be at the frontline of the initial health response to a chemical/biological warfare agent incident. After institutional review board approval, knowledge of personal protection measures among emergency medicine (n = 28) and anesthetics (n = 47) specialty registrars in the South Thames Region of the United Kingdom was surveyed using a standardized questionnaire. Participants were asked for the recommended level of personal protection if a chemical/biological warfare agent(s) casualty required advanced life support in the designated hospital resuscitation area. The best awareness within both groups was regarding severe acute respiratory syndrome, and fair knowledge was found regarding anthrax, plague, Ebola, and smallpox. In both groups, knowledge about personal protection requirements against chemical warfare agents was limited. Knowledge about personal protection measures for biological agents was acceptable, but was limited for chemical warfare agents. The results highlight the need to improve training and education regarding personal protection measures for medical first receivers.

  1. Biological and environmental reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Toro, E.; Parr, R.M.; Clements, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of an earlier report, published in 1985, which focussed mainly on reference materials for trace elements. In the present version of the report, reference materials for trace elements still constitute the major part of the data; however, information is also now included on a number of other selected analytes of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes and organic microcontaminants. The database presently contains 2,694 analyte values for 117 analytes in 116 biological and 77 environmental (non-biological) reference materials produced by 20 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the material, the unit size supplied, (weight or volume), and the minimum weight of material recommended for analysis is also provided (if available to the authors). It is expected that this report will help analysts to select the reference material that matches as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the analytes of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be analysed. Refs, 12 tabs

  2. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems.

  3. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, A; Kuznetsov, D; Kolesnikov, E; Chuprunov, K; Kondakov, S; Osipov, A; Samsonova, J

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems. (paper)

  4. Strengthened implementation of physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, H.-W.; Lee, J.-U.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Since the 9.11 terror, strengthening physical protection has been an accelerated trend internationally. IAEA has been requesting that member states implement a strengthened physical protection of nuclear facilities on the basis of threat assessments. In order to cope with this demand, the Korean government promulgated the 'Law for Physical Protection and Radiological Emergency Preparedness (LPPRE)' as a substantial countermeasure against possible threats. Pursuant to LPPRE, which entered into force on February 16, 2004, nuclear enterprisers are obliged to implement an effective physical protection of nuclear materials, get approval for its physical protection system, and be constantly inspected on. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) approved physical protection regulations of 24 domestic facilities operated by 14 enterprisers. National Nuclear management and Control Agency (NNCA) is entrusted with physical protection related duty and has been conducting physical protection inspection on nuclear materials in use, storage and transport. In addition, NNCA has established the methodology of threat assessment that entails organizing the threat assessment working group to develop a design basis threat (DBT). Korea is putting its best efforts to construct the threat assessment system and strengthen domestic physical protection regime in cooperation with competent authorities. (author)

  5. Order of 31 July 1987 on protection and control of nuclear materials carried by air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Order is part of a series of texts on protection and control of nuclear materials which include: the Act of 25 July 1980 and the Decree of 12 May 1981 made in its implementation and, as regards the specific aspect of protection and control of materials during transport, the Order of 26 March 1982 amended in 1986. The 1987 Order lays down the conditions which must be complied with by approved carriers (the French or the foreign holders of a licence under the above-mentioned Act of 1980) in case of transport of such materials by air [fr

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials by Bremsstrahlung measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1986-12-01

    The determination of phosphorus in biological materials by instrumental neutron activation via the reaction 31 P (n,γ) 32 P is described. The Bremsstrahlung produced by 32 P is measured in a well-type NaI(Tl) detector. The samples are measured within the polyethylene irradiation container with no changes between irradiation and measurement. The sources of error were studied and the proposed method was applied to the determination of phosphorus in ten internationally certified materials. (author)

  7. Current studies of biological materials using instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardy, J.J.; McOrist, G.D.; Farrar, Y.J.

    1985-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis still remains the preferred option when analysing the trace element distribution in a wide rage of materials by neutron activation analysis. However, when lower limits of detection are required or major interferences reduce the effectiveness of this technique, radiochemical neutron activation analysis is applied. This paper examines the current use of both methods and the development of rapid radiochemical techniques for analysis of the biological materials, hair, cow's milk, human's milk, milk powder, blood and blood serum

  8. Biologically-Inspired Concepts for Autonomic Self-Protection in Multiagent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterritt, Roy; Hinchey, Mike

    2006-01-01

    Biologically-inspired autonomous and autonomic systems (AAS) are essentially concerned with creating self-directed and self-managing systems based on metaphors &om nature and the human body, such as the autonomic nervous system. Agent technologies have been identified as a key enabler for engineering autonomy and autonomicity in systems, both in terms of retrofitting into legacy systems and in designing new systems. Handing over responsibility to systems themselves raises concerns for humans with regard to safety and security. This paper reports on the continued investigation into a strand of research on how to engineer self-protection mechanisms into systems to assist in encouraging confidence regarding security when utilizing autonomy and autonomicity. This includes utilizing the apoptosis and quiescence metaphors to potentially provide a self-destruct or self-sleep signal between autonomic agents when needed, and an ALice signal to facilitate self-identification and self-certification between anonymous autonomous agents and systems.

  9. Biological effects and radiation protection in veterinary radiology: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, P.C.; Siqueira, D.; Barros, F.S.

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary radiology is a tool of excellent diagnostic support. Besides X--ray, it counts on technological advances such as computed tomography, nuclear medicine and interventional radiology . It is common during X-ray practice to use exposure parameters with short times to avoid blurring by the movement of the animal, but the fact that the animals need to be immobilized during the exposures contribute significantly with the increase of the dose received by the professionals, whose biological risks are not yet well established as a result of exposure to other factors harmful to health, such as anesthetic gases, insecticides, zoonoses and others. For this reason, we sought to verify the main radiological risks to which veterinarians are exposed and the best means to guarantee radiological protection

  10. Invited review liquid crystal models of biological materials and silk spinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Alejandro D; Herrera-Valencia, Edtson E

    2012-06-01

    A review of thermodynamic, materials science, and rheological liquid crystal models is presented and applied to a wide range of biological liquid crystals, including helicoidal plywoods, biopolymer solutions, and in vivo liquid crystals. The distinguishing characteristics of liquid crystals (self-assembly, packing, defects, functionalities, processability) are discussed in relation to biological materials and the strong correspondence between different synthetic and biological materials is established. Biological polymer processing based on liquid crystalline precursors includes viscoelastic flow to form and shape fibers. Viscoelastic models for nematic and chiral nematics are reviewed and discussed in terms of key parameters that facilitate understanding and quantitative information from optical textures and rheometers. It is shown that viscoelastic modeling the silk spinning process using liquid crystal theories sheds light on textural transitions in the duct of spiders and silk worms as well as on tactoidal drops and interfacial structures. The range and consistency of the predictions demonstrates that the use of mesoscopic liquid crystal models is another tool to develop the science and biomimetic applications of mesogenic biological soft matter. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Road map for Establishing the Physical Protection Regime of Nuclear Materials and Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Ho-Sik; Kwak, Sung-Woo; Jang, Sung-Soon; Kim, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Jung-Soo; Yoon, Wan-Ki

    2007-01-01

    The importance of physical protection for nuclear materials and facilities that can be an objective for terrorists has never been more stressed. The responsibility for physical protection within a State does not rest entirely with that state because cross-border transactions related to nuclear materials increase as nuclear related industries expand. The international community has prepared measures to strengthen the regime of physical protection such as the IAEA's proposal of the 'Nuclear Security Plan for 2006-2009' and UN's resolution on 'the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism'. In order to cope with this, Korea has also made efforts to establish the implementation system for physical protection in the field of nuclear industries since the law for Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Facility and Radiological Emergency Preparedness (LPPREP) was promulgated in 2004. The detailed plans should be prepared to accomplish this. This study has been performed to derive the items for establishing the regime of physical protection. The items derived were classified as short, mid and long-term depending on their characteristics and environmental circumstances. The regime of national physical protection will be established if the studies on these items are carried out successfully and tangible results are obtained

  12. Implementation of physical protection of nuclear material in Yugoslavia and Slovenia - recent and planned activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Nikolic, A.; Nikoli, D.; Stegnar, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In more than ten last years region of South-Europe, especially countries originated from previous the Socialistic Federal Republics of Yugoslavia, are involved or surrounded, at least, by various conflicts including wars of different intensities. These unfavorable environment conditions have put additional focus at nuclear material kept in various institutions in the region. Following the IAEA recommendation on straighten the physical protection of nuclear material various actions are done or planned in the Yugoslavia and Slovenia to increase level of physical protection of nuclear material during its different usage and storage. Especial attention is drawn to update the administration rules, education of the involved personnel and redundancy of different physical protection modes of protection to prevent thieves and smuggling of nuclear material in the country or at country borders. The financial and experts help were offered by the IAEA at low level scale to Yugoslavia in 1996/97 to increase the physical protection of the fresh high-enriched uranium fuel stored and controlled regularly by the inspectors of the safeguard department of the IAEA. The further help and financial support is expected from the IAEA and relevant EU organization in aim to tighter the country borders to prevent the illegal traffic of nuclear material through the Europe. (author)

  13. Analysis of 10 years of accidents with biological material among the nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Xavier de Barros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were: to identify the profile of accidents with biological material among nursing professionals treated in a reference service; to characterize pre-exposure conducts and to analyze factors associated with percutaneous exposure. An epidemiological, retrospective and analytical study was conducted in records of accidents involving biological material from 2000 to 2010. The number of accidents with the nursing staff was 2,569, representing 44.6% of the total records. There was a prevalence of percutaneous exposure cases involving needles with lumen and blood in upper limbs among female nursing technicians. Being female and working outside the city where the service is located increased about twice the chances of suffering percutaneous accidents. The data found strengthen the importance of biological risk in the nursing practice and point to the fact that workers have to move between cities to be treated when the accident is considered serious, such as the case of percutaneous accidents.

  14. Determination of the dynamical behaviour of biological materials during impact using a pendulum device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zeebroeck, M.; Tijskens, E.; Van Liedekerke, P.; Deli, V.; De Baerdemaeker, J.; Ramon, H.

    2003-09-01

    A pendulum device has been developed to measure contact force, displacement and displacement rate of an impactor during its impact on the sample. Displacement, classically measured by double integration of an accelerometer, was determined in an alternative way using a more accurate incremental optical encoder. The parameters of the Kuwabara-Kono contact force model for impact of spheres have been estimated using an optimization method, taking the experimentally measured displacement, displacement rate and contact force into account. The accuracy of the method was verified using a rubber ball. Contact force parameters for the Kuwabara-Kono model have been estimated with success for three biological materials, i.e., apples, tomatoes and potatoes. The variability in the parameter estimations for the biological materials was quite high and can be explained by geometric differences (radius of curvature) and by biological variation of mechanical tissue properties.

  15. Measuring the complex permittivity tensor of uniaxial biological materials with coplanar waveguide transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and accurate technique is described for measuring the uniaxial permittivity tensor of biological materials with a coplanar waveguide transmission-line configuration. Permittivity tensor results are presented for several chicken and beef fresh meat samples at 2.45 GHz....

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Arsenic, Manganese, and Selenium in Biological Materials by Neutron-Activation Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Damsgaard, Else

    1973-01-01

    A new method was developed for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, manganese, and selenium in biological material by thermal-neutron activation analysis. The use of 81 mSe as indicator for selenium permitted a reduction of activation time to 1 hr for a 1 g sample, and the possibility of loss...

  17. Raman imaging from microscopy to macroscopy: Quality and safety control of biological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman imaging can analyze biological materials by generating detailed chemical images. Over the last decade, tremendous advancements in Raman imaging and data analysis techniques have overcome problems such as long data acquisition and analysis times and poor sensitivity. This review article introdu...

  18. Potential interferences inherent in neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornells, R.; Hoste, J.; Versieck, J.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive review is given of how neutron-activation analysis for trace elements in biological matrices can be jeopardized by radiation damage, by the impurities present in the packing material or by nuclear interferences of major elements. Systematic errors during the counting process and the quantitative interpretation of the γ-ray spectra should not be disregarded. (author)

  19. Neutron-Activation Analysis of Biological Material with High Radiation Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1966-09-15

    A method has been developed for the chemical separation and subsequent gamma-spectrometric analysis of the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the rare earths, chromium, hafnium, lanthanum, manganese, phosphorus, scandium and silver in neutron-activated biological material. The separation steps, being fully automatic, are based on a combination of ion-exchange and partition chromatography and require 40 min.

  20. An independent accurate reference method for the determination of chromium in biological materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagerwaard, A.; Woittiez, J.R.W.; de Goeij, J.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    A method for the determination of Cr in biological materials with high accuracy is reported for use as an independent reference method. It is based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) in combination with an individual yield determination based on the online yield principle. A

  1. Selenium determination in biological material by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in graphite furnace and using vapor generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho Vidal, M. de F. de.

    1984-01-01

    The applicability of the atomic absorption spectrophotometry to the determination of selenium in biological material using vapor generation and electrothermal atomization in the graphite furnace was investigated. Instrumental parameters and the analytical conditions of the methods were studied. Decomposition methods for the samples were tested, and the combustion in the Wickbold apparatus was chosen. (author) [pt

  2. Neutron-Activation Analysis of Biological Material with High Radiation Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.

    1966-09-01

    A method has been developed for the chemical separation and subsequent gamma-spectrometric analysis of the alkali metals, the alkaline earths, the rare earths, chromium, hafnium, lanthanum, manganese, phosphorus, scandium and silver in neutron-activated biological material. The separation steps, being fully automatic, are based on a combination of ion-exchange and partition chromatography and require 40 min

  3. Materiality, Symbolicity, and the Rhetoric of Order: "Dialectical Biologism" as Motive in Burke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engnell, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Considers how the work of Kenneth Burke has recently been critiqued for its lack of attention to the role of non-symbolic motivation in rhetoric. Describes Burke's contributions as a "dialectical biologism" that sets forth a system of five symbolic/material dialectics that undergird all rhetorical appeal. Suggests that the most effective…

  4. The use of reference materials in the elemental analysis of biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, H.J.M.

    1975-01-01

    Reference materials (RMs) are useful to compare the accuracy and precision of laboratories and techniques. The desirable properties of biological reference materials are listed, and the problems of production, homogenization and storage described. At present there are only 10 biological RMs available compared with 213 geological and 520 metallurgical RMs. There is a need for more biological RMs including special materials for microprobe analysis and for in vivo activation analysis. A study of 650 mean values for elements in RM Kale, analysed by many laboratories, leads to the following conclusions. 61% of the values lie within +-10% of the best mean, and 80% lie within +-20% of the best mean. Atomic absorption spectrometry gives results that are 5-30% high for seven elements, while intrumental neutron activation analysis gives low and imprecise results for K. Other techniques with poor interlaboratory precision include neutron activation for Mg, polarography for Zn and arc-spectrometry for many elements. More than half the values for elements in Kale were obtained by neutron activation, confirming the importance of this technique and the need for RMs. As a rough estimate, 6 x 10 9 elemental analyses of biological materials are carried out each year, mostly by medical, agricultural and food scientists. It seems likely that a substantial percentage of these are inaccurate, a situation that might be improved by quality control using standard RMs. (author)

  5. Use of inverse spatial conservation prioritization to avoid biological diversity loss outside protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareksela, Santtu; Moilanen, Atte; Tuominen, Seppo; Kotiaho, Janne S

    2013-12-01

    Globally expanding human land use sets constantly increasing pressure for maintenance of biological diversity and functioning ecosystems. To fight the decline of biological diversity, conservation science has broken ground with methods such as the operational model of systematic conservation planning (SCP), which focuses on design and on-the-ground implementation of conservation areas. The most commonly used method in SCP is reserve selection that focuses on the spatial design of reserve networks and their expansion. We expanded these methods by introducing another form of spatial allocation of conservation effort relevant for land-use zoning at the landscape scale that avoids negative ecological effects of human land use outside protected areas. We call our method inverse spatial conservation prioritization. It can be used to identify areas suitable for economic development while simultaneously limiting total ecological and environmental effects of that development at the landscape level by identifying areas with highest economic but lowest ecological value. Our method is not based on a priori targets, and as such it is applicable to cases where the effects of land use on, for example, individual species or ecosystem types are relatively small and would not lead to violation of regional or national conservation targets. We applied our method to land-use allocation to peat mining. Our method identified a combination of profitable production areas that provides the needed area for peat production while retaining most of the landscape-level ecological value of the ecosystem. The results of this inverse spatial conservation prioritization are being used in land-use zoning in the province of Central Finland. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  6. Chemical composition and biological evaluation of Physalis peruviana root as hepato-renal protective agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gengaihi, Souad E; Hassan, Emad E; Hamed, Manal A; Zahran, Hanan G; Mohammed, Mona A

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential of Physalis peruviana root as a functional food with hepato-renal protective effects against fibrosis. The chemical composition of the plant root suggested the presence of alkaloids, withanolides and flavonoids. Five compounds were isolated and their structures elucidated by different spectral analysis techniques. One compound was isolated from the roots: cuscohygrine. The biological evaluation was conducted on different animal groups; control rats, control treated with ethanolic root extract, CCl(4) group, CCl(4) treated with root extract, and CCl(4) treated with silymarin as a standard herbal drug. The evaluation used the oxidative stress markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and nitric oxide (NO). The liver function indices; aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST & ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, and total hepatic protein were also estimated. Kidney disorder biomarkers; creatinine, urea, and serum protein were also evaluated. The results suggested safe administration, and improvement of all the investigated parameters. The liver and kidney histopathological analysis confirmed the results. In conclusion, P. peruviana succeeded in protecting the liver and kidney against fibrosis. Further studies are needed to discern their pharmacological applications and clinical uses.

  7. Lightweight Ablative and Ceramic Thermal Protection System Materials for NASA Exploration Systems Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawrence, Timothy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2006-01-01

    As a collaborative effort among NASA Centers, the "Lightweight Nonmetallic Thermal Protection Materials Technology" Project was set up to assist mission/vehicle design trade studies, to support risk reduction in thermal protection system (TPS) material selections, to facilitate vehicle mass optimization, and to aid development of human-rated TPS qualification and certification plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on advanced heatshields that allow reductions in spacecraft mass by minimizing propellant requirements. Information will be presented on candidate materials for such reentry approaches and on screening tests conducted (material property and space environmental effects tests) to evaluate viable candidates. Seventeen materials, in three classes (ablatives, tiles, and ceramic matrix composites), were studied. In additional to physical, mechanical, and thermal property tests, high heat flux laser tests and simulated-reentry oxidation tests were performed. Space environmental effects testing, which included exposures to electrons, atomic oxygen, and hypervelocity impacts, was also conducted.

  8. N deposition as a threat to the World's protected areas under the Convention on Biological Diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, A.; Hicks, W.K.; Dentener, F.; Galloway, J.; Erisman, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper combines the world's protected areas (PAs) under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), common classification systems of ecosystem conservation status, and current knowledge on ecosystem responses to nitrogen (N) deposition to determine areas most at risk. The results show that 40% (approx. 11% of total area) of PAs currently receive >10 kg N/ha/yr with projections for 2030 indicating that this situation is not expected to change. Furthermore, 950 PAs are projected to receive >30 kg N/ha/yr by 2030 (approx. twice the 2000 number), of which 62 (approx. 11,300 km 2 ) are also Biodiversity Hotspots and G200 ecoregions; with forest and grassland ecosystems in Asia particularly at risk. Many of these sites are known to be sensitive to N deposition effects, both in terms of biodiversity changes and ecosystem services they provide. Urgent assessment of high risk areas identified in this study is recommended to inform the conservation efforts of the CBD. - Highlights: → Significant areas of the Protected Areas Programme under the CBD will likely be under threat of high N deposition levels by the year 2030.→ Approx. 950 PAs are projected to receive N deposition levels of more than 30 kg N/ha/yr by 2030.→ 62 of these sites are also Biodiversity Hotspots and G200 ecoregions, where forest and grassland ecosystems in Asia will be particularly at risk.→ Many of these sites are known to be sensitive to N deposition effects, both in terms of biodiversity changes and ecosystem services they provide → Urgent assessment of high risk areas identified in this study is recommended to inform the conservation efforts of the CBD. - Significant areas of the UNEP Protected Areas Programme under the CBD receive high N deposition rates that are likely to increase in the future, especially in Asia, and may pose a significant threat to biodiversity.

  9. An analysis of the development and application of plant protection UAV based on advanced materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-hui; Wei, Neng; Quan, Zhi-cheng; Huang, Yu-rong

    2018-06-01

    The development and application of a number of advanced materials plant protection unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is an important part of the comprehensive production of agricultural modernization. The paper is taken as an example of Guangxi No. 1 agricultural service aviation science and Technology Co., Ltd. This paper introduces the internal and external environment of the research and development of the plant protection UAV for the advanced materials of the company. The external environment focuses on the role of the plant protection UAV on the development of the agricultural mechanization; the internal environment focuses on the advantages of the UAV in technology research, market promotion and application, which is imperative. Finally, according to the background of the whole industry, we put forward some suggestions for the developing opportunities and challenges faced by plant protection UAV, hoping to proving some ideas for operators, experts and scholars engaged in agricultural industry.

  10. How accelerated biological aging can affect solar reflective polymeric based building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C.; Santunione, G.; Libbra, A.; Muscio, A.; Sgarbi, E.

    2017-11-01

    Among the main issues concerning building materials, in particular outdoor ones, one can identify the colonization by microorganisms referred to as biological aggression. This can affect not only the aesthetical aspect but also the thermal performance of solar reflective materials. In order to improve the reliability of tests aimed to assess the resistance to biological aggression and contextually reduce the test duration, an accelerated test method has been developed. It is based on a lab reproducible setup where specific and controlled environmental and boundary conditions are imposed to accelerate as much as possible biological growth on building materials. Due to their widespread use, polymeric materials have been selected for the present analysis, in the aim of reaching an advanced bio-aged level in a relatively short time (8 weeks or less) and at the same time comparatively evaluate different materials under a given set of ageing conditions. Surface properties before, during and after ageing have been investigated by surface, microstructural and chemical analyses, as well as by examination of time progressive images to assess bacterial and algal growth rate.

  11. Order of 26 March 1982 on the protection and control of nuclear materials during transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Order was made in implementation of Act No. 80-572 of 25th July 1980 on protection and control of nuclear materials and in particular, of Decree No. 81-512 of 12th May 1981, which was itself made in pursuance of the Act. In accordance with the Decree, this Order determines the rules applicable to the protection and control of nuclear materials in course of carriage, especially in connection with the supervision of the conditions in which such transport is carried out and the authorities warned in case of an incident, accident or any occurrence whatsoever which is likely to delay or jeopardize execution of the planned transport operation or protection of the nuclear material concerned. (NEA) [fr

  12. Occupational radiation protection in the mining and processing of raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The mining and processing of uranium ore, thorium ore and other raw materials containing natural radionuclides are carried out in a number of Member States. There is a clear need to update the guidance on the radiation protection of the workers involved, and this Safety Guide provides such updated guidance. Material from two previous publications has been adapted for inclusion in this Safety Guide. These previous publications - Radiation Monitoring in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (Safety Series No. 95) and Radiation Protection of Workers in the Mining and Milling of Radioactive Ores (Safety Series No. 26, hereby superseded) - dealt principally with activities involving uranium ore and thorium ore. Activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are elevated in other mineral deposits such as heavy mineral sands and phosphate rock. Furthermore, high radon levels may be found in mines, irrespective of the activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in the raw material being extracted. In recognition of these circumstances, this Safety Guide is intended to apply also to the mining and processing of any raw material for which radiation protection measures need to be considered. The IAEA Safety Fundamentals publication on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources presents the principles, concepts and objectives of protection and safety. Safety requirements based on the objectives and principles specified in these Safety Fundamentals, including requirements for the protection of workers exposed to ionizing radiation, are established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards or Bss). These requirements also reflect the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Safety Guides provide recommendations on the basis of international experience on the fulfilment of the requirements

  13. Effect of Flow Velocity on Corrosion Rate and Corrosion Protection Current of Marine Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seong Jong [Kunsan National University, Kunsan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Min Su; Jang, Seok Ki; Kim, Seong Jong [Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In spite of highly advanced paint coating techniques, corrosion damage of marine metal and alloys increase more and more due to inherent micro-cracks and porosities in coatings formed during the coating process. Furthermore, flowing seawater conditions promote the breakdown of the protective oxide of the materials introducing more oxygen into marine environments, leading to the acceleration of corrosion. Various corrosion protection methods are available to prevent steel from marine corrosion. Cathodic protection is one of the useful corrosion protection methods by which the potential of the corroded metal is intentionally lowered to an immune state having the advantage of providing additional protection barriers to steel exposed to aqueous corrosion or soil corrosion, in addition to the coating. In the present investigation, the effect of flow velocity was examined for the determination of the optimum corrosion protection current density in cathodic protection as well as the corrosion rate of the steel. It is demonstrated from the result that the material corrosion under dynamic flowing conditions seems more prone to corrosion than under static conditions.

  14. The role of spin–orbit coupling in topologically protected interface states in Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abergel, D S L; Balatsky, Alexander V; Edge, Jonathan M

    2014-01-01

    We highlight the fact that two-dimensional (2D) materials with Dirac-like low energy band structures and spin–orbit coupling (SOC) will produce linearly dispersing topologically protected Jackiw–Rebbi modes at interfaces where the Dirac mass changes sign. These modes may support persistent spin or valley currents parallel to the interface, and the exact arrangement of such topologically protected currents depends crucially on the details of the SOC in the material. As examples, we discuss buckled 2D hexagonal lattices such as silicene or germanene, and transition metal dichalcogenides such as MoS 2 . (paper)

  15. Chemical preparation of biological materials for accurate chromium determination by isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, L.P.; Garner, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    The current interest in trace elements in biological materials has created a need for accurate methods of analysis. The source of discrepancies and variations in chromium concentration determinations is often traceable to inadequate methods of sample preparation. Any method of Cr analysis that requires acid digestion of a biological matrix must take into consideration the existence or formation of a volatile Cr component. In addition, because Cr is often present at concentrations less than 1 μg/g, the analytical blank becomes a potential source of error. Chemical procedures have been developed for the digestion of the biological matrix and the separation of Cr without either large analytical blanks or significant losses by volatilization. These procedures have been used for the analysis of NBS Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1569 Brewers Yeast; SRM 1577 Bovine Liver; SRM 1570 Spinach and other biological materials including human hair and nails. At this time, samples containing 1 μg of Cr can be determined with an estimated accuracy of 2 percent

  16. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Forti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC. For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061.

  17. Evaluation of a fungal collection as certified reference material producer and as a biological resource center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Tatiana; Souto, Aline da S S; do Nascimento, Carlos Roberto S; Nishikawa, Marilia M; Hubner, Marise T W; Sabagh, Fernanda P; Temporal, Rosane Maria; Rodrigues, Janaína M; da Silva, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Considering the absence of standards for culture collections and more specifically for biological resource centers in the world, in addition to the absence of certified biological material in Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate a Fungal Collection from Fiocruz, as a producer of certified reference material and as Biological Resource Center (BRC). For this evaluation, a checklist based on the requirements of ABNT ISO GUIA34:2012 correlated with the ABNT NBR ISO/IEC17025:2005, was designed and applied. Complementing the implementation of the checklist, an internal audit was performed. An evaluation of this Collection as a BRC was also conducted following the requirements of the NIT-DICLA-061, the Brazilian internal standard from Inmetro, based on ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025:2005, ABNT ISO GUIA 34:2012 and OECD Best Practice Guidelines for BRCs. This was the first time that the NIT DICLA-061 was applied in a culture collection during an internal audit. The assessments enabled the proposal for the adequacy of this Collection to assure the implementation of the management system for their future accreditation by Inmetro as a certified reference material producer as well as its future accreditation as a Biological Resource Center according to the NIT-DICLA-061. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermo-fluidic devices and materials inspired from mass and energy transport phenomena in biological system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XIAO; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.

  19. A procedure for a mechanical evaluation of an undefined osteo-protective material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marco; Terroso, Miguel; Freitas, Ricardo; Marques, AntÓnio Torres; Gabriel, Joaquim; Simoes, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Falls represent a major care and cost problem to health and social services world-widely, since 50% of falls result in an injury. In this work, is proposed a methodology to evaluate protective pads materials and geometry performance, in order to reduce impact results in a fall event. Since the material properties and the pad geometry are the key factors to make the protection possible when a fall event occurs, our approach relies on the use of mechanical tests to evaluate the properties of the material and in the study of the pad response during a fall. For this, were used compression, tensile and instrumented falling weight tests, that allow a fully characterization of the materials that can be employed in the protective pads. Likewise, to gather precise information on falls events, in order to study the pad response during a fall, a set of laboratory fall trials were created using a camera-less inertial motion capture (mocap) system. This allow the acquisition of dynamic information of falls, namely acceleration and velocity that can be used to create a finite element analysis (FEA) model, where different segments from the human body can be evaluated when the protective pad is associated to it. Through the proposed methodology, different materials and pad geometries can be studied towards maximizing the performance of protection pads for falls. The mocap system allows the acquisition of fall data, and also the creation of a human body geometrical model, representative of the fall. From the mechanical trials, was showed that the spacer fabric embedded with silicone has the higher ability to reduce the peak force in case of impact when compared with all the other specimens. The compression and the tensile tests allow the mechanical definition of the material, and with this the material definition on the FEA model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecological evaluation of proposed dredged material from the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel: Phase 3 -- biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, N.P.; Karle, L.M.; Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; White, P.J.; Gruendell, B.D.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The John F. Baldwin Ship Channel is a 28-mile-long portion of the San Francisco Bay to Stockton Ship Channel, the primary shipping lane through San Francisco Bay and Delta. The San Francisco District of the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for construction of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel, which is authorized to be deepened to a project depth of {minus}45 ft relative to mean lower low water (MLLW). Approximately 8.5 million cubic yards (mcy) of sediment will be removed from the channel to reach this project depth. The USACE requested Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct testing for ocean disposal under the guidelines in Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal-Testing Manual (EPA/USACE 1991). This testing manual contains a tiered evaluation approach developed specifically for ocean disposal of dredged material at a selected site. In this study, John F. Baldwin Ship Channel sediments were evaluated under the Tier III (biological) testing guidance, which is considered to be highly stringent and protective of the environment. The Tier III guidance for ocean disposal testing requires tests of water column effects, (following dredged material disposal), deposited sediment toxicity, and bioaccumulation of contaminants from deposited sediment (dredged material).

  1. Actions of radiation protection in the collection of discarded radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, E.P.M.; Silva, F.C.A. da

    2017-01-01

    Brazil has approximately 2000 radiative facilities that use radiation sources in their processes and are controlled by The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - CNEN through standards, authorizations and inspections. These radioactive materials, whether in the form of waste or radioactive source, used in medical, industrial, research, etc. are sometimes discarded and found in inappropriate places, such as garbage dumps, industrial waste, streets, squares, etc. found by urban cleaning professionals without the proper knowledge of them. The work presents the radiation protection actions required for the safe collection of radioactive material to be performed by these professionals. According to the type of radioactive material the main actions of radiation protection are, among others: recognition of a radioactive material; correct use of personal protective equipment to contain possible radiation contamination; implementation of an area control etc. In order for the actions of recognition and collection of discarded radioactive material to be effective, there is a need to implement a training program in radiation protection for urban cleaning professionals

  2. Implementation of physical protection of nuclear material in Yugoslavia and Slovenia - recent and planned activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Nikolic, A.; Nikolic, D.; Stegnar, P.

    2002-09-01

    In more than ten last years region of South-East Europe (especially countries originated from previous the Socialistic Federal Republics of Yugoslavia) was involved (or surrounded, at least) by various conflicts, including wars of different intensities. These unfavourable conditions have put additional focus at nuclear material stored in various institutions in the region. Following the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on straighten the physical protection of nuclear material, various actions were done or are planned in the Yugoslavia and Slovenia in aim to increase level of physical protection of nuclear material during its different usage and storage. Especial attention is drawn to update the administration rules, education of the involved personnel and redundancy of different physical protection modes to prevent stealing and smuggling of nuclear material in both the countries or at country borders. The financial and expert help at low-level scale were offered by the IAEA and US government to Yugoslavia in 1996/97. It was used to increase the physical protection of fresh high-enriched uranium fuel stored and controlled regularly by the inspectors of the Safeguard Department of the IAEA. The further help and financial support is expected from the IAEA, USA and relevant European Union (EU) organisations in aim to tighter the borders of both the countries to prevent the illegal traffic of nuclear materials through the Europe. (author)

  3. Proposal for guidelines for the physical protection of nuclear materials, plants and transports in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    The guidelines are based on recommendations in the IAEA's ''Physical Protection of Nuclear Material,'' INFCIRC/225/rev.1. In accordance with practice in other countries, the guidelines give more detailed requirements for the protection of reactor plants than those given in the IAEA's present recommendations, which put more emphasis on the protection of nuclear materials. The measures to be taken for nuclear plants, or nuclear transports, are proposed made to fit the potential risk that the more closely defined actions imply. It is suggested that the more detailed rules for the scope of the protection of plants or materials should be laid down by the National Agency on the basis of recommendations made by the Inspectorate of Nuclear Installations, which in turn are based on the safety documentation of the plant/material owners. It is further proposed that the National Agency, again on a recommendation from the Inspectorate, should lay down more detailed guidelines for the reporting of changes in stocks or transports of nuclear materials. (author)

  4. Searching for biological traces on different materials using a forensic light source and infrared photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterzik, V; Panzer, S; Apfelbacher, M; Bohnert, M

    2016-05-01

    Because biological traces often play an important role in the investigation process of criminal acts, their detection is essential. As they are not always visible to the human eye, tools like a forensic light source or infrared photography can be used. The intention of the study presented was to give advice how to visualize biological traces best. Which wavelengths and/or filters give the best results for different traces on different fabrics of different colors? Therefore, blood (undiluted and diluted), semen, urine, saliva, and perspiration have been examined on 29 different materials.

  5. Determination of silicon in biological and botanical reference materials by epithermal INAA and Compton suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Peshev, S.; Becker, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Silicon determination in sixteen botanical and biological standard reference materials is described using the 29 Si(n, p) 29 Al reaction through instrumental epithermal neutron activation analysis and Compton suppression gamma-ray spectroscopy. By simultaneous utilization of both cadmium and boron epithermal filters along with anticoincidence gamma-counting, detection limits as low as 12 ppm were obtained for certain matrices, much lower than previously reported values for this type of analysis. The method is applicable to many botanical and biological matrices and is attractive with its interference free, purely instrumental nature, compared with methods using the 28 Si(n, p) 28 Al reaction or chemical separation techniques. ((orig.))

  6. Replacement of Ablators with Phase-Change Material for Thermal Protection of STS Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Raj K.; Stuckey, Irvin; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of the research and development program to develop new Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for aerospace applications at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), an experimental study was conducted on a new concept for a non-ablative TPS material. Potential loss of TPS material and ablation by-products from the External Tank (ET) or Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) during Shuttle flight with the related Orbiter tile damage necessitates development of a non-ablative thermal protection system. The new Thermal Management Coating (TMC) consists of phase-change material encapsulated in micro spheres and a two-part resin system to adhere the coating to the structure material. The TMC uses a phase-change material to dissipate the heat produced during supersonic flight rather than an ablative material. This new material absorbs energy as it goes through a phase change during the heating portion of the flight profile and then the energy is slowly released as the phase-change material cools and returns to its solid state inside the micro spheres. The coating was subjected to different test conditions simulating design flight environments at the NASA/MSFC Improved Hot Gas Facility (IHGF) to study its performance.

  7. Measuring the spectral emissivity of thermal protection materials during atmospheric reentry simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Hypersonic spacecraft reentering the earth's atmosphere encounter extreme heat due to atmospheric friction. Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials shield the craft from this searing heat, which can reach temperatures of 2900 F. Various thermophysical and optical properties of TPS materials are tested at the Johnson Space Center Atmospheric Reentry Materials and Structures Evaluation Facility, which has the capability to simulate critical environmental conditions associated with entry into the earth's atmosphere. Emissivity is an optical property that determines how well a material will reradiate incident heat back into the atmosphere upon reentry, thus protecting the spacecraft from the intense frictional heat. This report describes a method of measuring TPS emissivities using the SR5000 Scanning Spectroradiometer, and includes system characteristics, sample data, and operational procedures developed for arc-jet applications.

  8. The system of physical protection of nuclear materials in the Republic of Belarus: problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotukh, V.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: It is a matter of common knowledge, that the responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear material and facilities within a state shall rest entirely with the Government of that state. In Belarus all nuclear materials, including HEU, are located at the Center of Nuclear Technologies of the Belarus National Academy of Sciences 'Sosny'. Through regulatory resolution on measures for physical protection of nuclear materials issued by the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Belarus in 1993, the committee for Supervision of Industrial and Nuclear Safety (Promatomnadzor) was appointed as the authority responsible for ensuring physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities and was tasked to develop and approve relevant normative documents. In 1994 Promatomnadzor issued the order on ensuring physical protection of nuclear materials during use, storage and transportation that was in line with then relevant IAEA recommendations. Since September 2001 Promatomnadzor has been a department of the Ministry for Emergencies of the Republic of Belarus. The system of physical protection at 'Sosny' includes elements of the 'old' system set up in 1984, and the 'new' one installed in 1996 as a result of a multilateral co-operative effort between Belarus, Sweden, Japan and USA. The main technical components of the system are: detection system including magnetic, microwave and infrared sensors; video-surveillance system; system of access delay including electronic blocking devices; system of authorized access including magnetic cards; system of computerized control over all components and communication system. Discussions between potential donor states are taking place regarding various security upgrades, particularly to the protected area where main security sensitive buildings are located. In 2000 Promatomnadzor requested an international physical protection advisory service (IPPAS) mission from the IAEA. The

  9. Organizational influence on the occurrence of work accidents involving exposure to biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz; Cenzi, Camila Maria; dos Santos, Heloisa Ehmke Cardoso; Trovó, Marli Elisa Mendes

    2013-01-01

    to analyze work accidents involving exposure to biological materials which took place among personnel working in nursing and to evaluate the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of these accidents. a retrospective, analytical study, carried out in two stages in a hospital that was part of the Network for the Prevention of Work Accidents. The first stage involved the analysis of the characteristics of the work accidents involving exposure to biological materials as recorded over a seven-year period by the nursing staff in the hospital studied, and registered in the Network databank. The second stage involved the analysis of 122 nursing staff members' perception of the institutional culture, who were allocated to the control group (workers who had not had an accident) and the case group (workers who had had an accident). 386 accidents had been recorded: percutaneous lesions occurred in 79% of the cases, needles were the materials involved in 69.7% of the accidents, and in 81.9% of the accident there was contact with blood. Regarding the influence of the organizational culture on the occurrence of accidents, the results obtained through the analysis of the two groups did not demonstrate significant differences between the average scores attributed by the workers in each organizational value or practice category. It is concluded that accidents involving exposure to biological material need to be avoided, however, it was not possible to confirm the influence of organizational values or practices on workers' behavior concerning the occurrence of these accidents.

  10. Protection of environmental contamination by radioactive materials and remediation of environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report consisted of the environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials. 38 important accident examples of environmental contamination of radioactive materials in the world from 1944 to 2001 are stated. Heavily polluted areas by accidents are explained, for example, Chernobyl, atomic reactor accidents, development of nuclear weapon in USA and USSR, radioactive waste in the sea. The environmental contamination ability caused by using radioactive materials, medical use, operating reactor, disposal, transferring, crashing of airplane and artificial satellite, release are reported. It contains measurements and monitor technologies, remediation technologies of environmental contamination and separation and transmutation of radioactive materials. On the environmental contamination by non-radioactive materials, transformation of the soil contamination in Japan and its control technologies are explained. Protection and countermeasure of environmental contamination of radioactive and non-radioactive materials in Japan and the international organs are presented. There are summary and proposal in the seventh chapter. (S.Y.)

  11. Physical protection of export/import and transportation of nuclear material in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaclav, J

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The paper contains short overview about average amount of nuclear materials transported on the territory of the Slovak Republic in a year, and the physical protection of these nuclear materials. There are several types of transportation and export/import of nuclear materials in the SR: fresh fuel import; import of other unirradiated nuclear materials (e.g. depleted uranium, natural uranium); export of unirradiated nuclear materials (e.g. natural uranium); internal transportation of fresh fuel; internal transportation of other unirradiated nuclear materials; internal transportation of spent fuel. The main objective of the nuclear regulatory authority SR is to supervise observation of the national legislation as follows: the act no. 130 / 1998 on peaceful use of nuclear energy; UJD SR's regulation no. 186/1999 which details the physical protection of the nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, and radioactive waste (following requirements of INFCIRC 225 / Rev. 4); UJD SR's regulation no. 284 / 1999 which details conditions of nuclear material and radioactive wastes transportation. (author)

  12. Dealing with the regional challenge of physical protection of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The problem of protecting sensitive fissile and fissionable nuclear materials of misuses by governments has been the subject of the convention on physical protection of nuclear material (CPPNM), which entered into force on February 8, 1987. However, in May 2001 the final report of the expert meeting had already recognized 'a clear need to strengthen the international physical protection regime'. The board of governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) decided then to convene a group, which would meet in Vienna from 3 to 7 December 2001, to draft on amendment to the CPPNM. The tragic occurrences of September 11, 2001, however, changed the then generally accepted view on the problem of physical protection, because nuclear materials had to be protected from falling into the hands of terrorists rather than of governments thirst of nuclear sensitive materials. Moreover, crude explosive devices could be made by terrorists, or hired scientists, using readily available radioactive materials, like 226 Ra or 137 Cs to inflict damage to civilians. Thus physical protection of those and other radioactive materials became an instant challenge for national and international authorities to prevent the use of such materials in terrorist actions. The prevention of illicit trafficking of radioactive materials is now in the priority list of these authorities. Fortunately; an international conference on 'Measures to Detect, Intercept and Respond to the Illicit Uses of Nuclear Materials and Radioactive Sources' was held in Stockholm, Sweden, in May 2001. An IAEA document - GOV/2001/37-GC(45)/20 - recommended in its plan of activities a series of projects to be implemented between 2002 and 2005, which included developing and providing assistance for the application of: (i) standards for physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities in member states; (ii) norms and guidelines for nuclear material accounting and control in member states; (iii

  13. Text of the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The Final Act of the Meeting of Governmental Representatives to Consider the Drafting of a Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was signed on 26 October 1979. According to paragraph 11 of the Final Act, ''The Meeting recommended that the text of the Convention be transmitted for information to the Twenty-Third General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency.''

  14. Use of respirators for protection of workers against airborne radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revoir, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    The various types of respirators and the requirements for an effective respirator program are outlined. The use of specific types of respirators to protect workers against inhalation of airborne radioactive materials is discussed. Problems encountered in using respirators in the nuclear industry which have resulted in worker injury and death are described

  15. The effect of air permeability of chemical protective clothing material on clothing vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Vuister, R.; Wammes, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing (CW) is the additional heat load created by the garments. For CW-overgarments, research in the direction of reducing material thickness and thus heat and vapour resistance have not resulted in major improvements. The

  16. Announcement concerning the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material of March 3, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The State Council of the German Democratic Republic ratified the convention on physical protection of nuclear material which was signed on 21 May 1980 and deposited with the Director General on 5 February 1981. The convention entered into force in accordance with its article 19 on 8 February 1987. The German and English texts of this convention are presented

  17. Strengthening global practices for protecting nuclear material (NUMAT). Book of Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhaeusler, F.; Heissl, C.

    2002-08-01

    The International Conference on Physical Protection 'Strengthening Global Practices for Protecting Nuclear Material' was organized by the Institute of Physics and Biophysics, Salzburg University in cooperation with/supported by the European Commission, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, European Forum of the Stanford University's Institute for International Studies and Austria Institute for European Security. Its purpose was fostering exchange of information on the policy and technical aspects require to ensure the security of nuclear material around the world. There is a general concern that the international community needs to establish effective measures to counter theft, sabotage, and other illicit uses of nuclear fissile and other radioactive materials. The main subjects addressed by this conference were: a) global and local threat development and 'design basis'; b) standards for physical protection (PP), its adequacy and future needs; c) national practices in PP of nuclear materials (how to strengthen national security culture?); d) current R and D in security and detection technologies (identification of focus points for future R and D); e) programmes to aid in training, design, and implementation of physical protection systems (how to improve efficiency and assure sustainability of assistance programmes?). (nevyjel)

  18. GCD TechPort Data Sheets Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM) Project consists of three distinct project elements: the 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D MAT) project element; the Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System (CA-TPS) project element; and the Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project element. 3D MAT seeks to design, develop and deliver a game changing material solution based on 3-dimensional weaving and resin infusion approach for manufacturing a material that can function as a robust structure as well as a thermal protection system. CA-TPS seeks to develop and deliver a conformal ablative material designed to be efficient and capable of withstanding peak heat flux up to 500 W/ sq cm, peak pressure up to 0.4 atm, and shear up to 500 Pa. HEEET is developing a new ablative TPS that takes advantage of state-of-the-art 3D weaving technologies and traditional manufacturing processes to infuse woven preforms with a resin, machine them to shape, and assemble them as a tiled solution on the entry vehicle substructure or heatshield.

  19. Applications of mass spectrometry in the trace element analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, L.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of mass spectrometry for the analysis of biological material is illustrated by reviewing the different mass spectrometric methods applied and describing some typical applications published recently. Though atomic absorption spectrometry is used in the majority of analyses of biological material, most mass spectrometric methods have been used to some extent for trace element determination in biomedical research. The relative importance of the different methods is estimated by reviewing recent research papers. It is striking that especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is increasingly being applied, partly because the method can be used on-line after chromatographic separation, in speciation studies. Mass spectrometric methods prove to offer unique possibilities in stable isotope tracer studies and for this purpose also experimentally demanding methods such as thermal ionization mass spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry are frequently used. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of botanical reference materials for the determination of vanadium in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydorn, K.; Damsgaard, E.

    1982-01-01

    Three botanical reference materials prepared by the National Bureau of Standards have been studied by neutron activation analysis to evaluate their suitability with respect to the determination of vanadium in biological samples. Various decomposition methods were applied in connection with chemical or radiochemical separations, and results for vanadium were compared with those found by purely instrumental neutron activation analysis. Significantly lower results indicate losses or incomplete dissolution, which makes SRM 1575 Pine Needles and SRM 1573 Tomato Leaves less satisfactory than SRM 1570 Spinach. A reference value of 1.15 mg/kg of this material is recommended, based on results from 3 different methods. All three materials are preferable to SRM 1571 Orchard Leaves, while Bowen's Kale remains the material of choice because of its lower concentration. (author)

  1. Escalation of terrorism? On the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nass, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The report on the risk of attacks with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear weapons or materials covers the following topics: the variety of terrorism: ethnic-nationalistic, politically motivated, social revolutionary, political extremism, religious fanaticism, governmental terrorism; CBRN (chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear) weapons and materials: their availability and effectiveness in case of use; potential actor groups; prevention and counter measures, emergency and mitigating measures.

  2. The declaration regime: An efficient tool to improve control and protection of nuclear materials in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillette-Cousin, L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The French Government set up a national safeguards system under the authority of the Ministry for Industry to control nuclear materials within national boundaries and to ensure physical protection for nuclear materials, even for the small quantities held by users in industrial, medical and research areas. The main nuclear materials detained by small owners are depleted uranium and thorium. These materials are present in manufactured equipment (radiation shielding in industrial gammagraphy and radiotherapy, collimation devices and other accessories) which are used or unused, which may be damaged or left as scraps. The French protection and control system of nuclear materials is an original system based on detailed and comprehensive regulations, taking into account in a specific way the small users of nuclear materials. The decree no. 81-512 of 12 May 1981 establishes three different regimes: licensing, declaration and exemption, according to the nature and quantity of nuclear materials involved. Typically, the declaration regime applies to quantities of depleted uranium or thorium, greater than 1 kg and lower than 500 kg. The Order of 14 March 1984 sets the requirements related to the control and physical protection of nuclear materials in the frame of the declaration regime. A declaration must be established every year by the operator and sent to the IPSN, acting as technical support body of the national authority. This declaration provides the stock of all nuclear materials held by the operator and stock variations occurred during the previous year, including the identification of senders and receivers. Before fulfilling its annual declaration, the operator must carry out a physical inventory of all nuclear material, both used and unused. The declaration also describes the main features concerning facility layout related to surveillance and physical protection of materials. With respect to physical protection requirements, nuclear materials should be

  3. A method to determine site-specific, anisotropic fracture toughness in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtle, Sabine; Özcoban, Hüseyin; Yilmaz, Ezgi D.; Fett, Theo; Rizzi, Gabriele; Lilleodden, Erica T.; Huber, Norbert; Schreyer, Andreas; Swain, Michael V.; Schneider, Gerold A.

    2012-01-01

    Many biological materials are hierarchically structured, with highly anisotropic structures and properties on several length scales. To characterize the mechanical properties of such materials, detailed testing methods are required that allow precise and site-specific measurements on several length scales. We propose a fracture toughness measurement technique based on notched focused ion beam prepared cantilevers of lower and medium micron size scales. Using this approach, site-specific fracture toughness values in dental enamel were determined. The usefulness and challenges of the method are discussed.

  4. Laws and regulations associated with ownership of human biological material in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishen Mahesh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ownership with regard to human biological material (HBM is addressed to some extent within South African law, specifically in chapter eight of the National Health Act (NHA and its associated regulations. However, members of the legal fraternity struggle to conceptualise ownership of such materials without objectifying a person or people and risking reducing such individuals to a state of property. This then infers a reduction in human dignity by rendering one-self or parts of that same self as a commodity. The complexity of the issue raises much debate both legally as well as ethically. 

  5. Novel material and structural design for large-scale marine protective devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Ang; Lin, Wei; Ma, Yong; Zhao, Chengbi; Tang, Youhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale protective devices with different structural designs have been optimized. • Large-scale protective devices with novel material designs have been optimized. • Protective devices constructed of sandwich panels have the best anti-collision performance. • Protective devices with novel material design can reduce weight and construction cost. - Abstract: Large-scale protective devices must endure the impact of severe forces, large structural deformation, the increased stress and strain rate effects, and multiple coupling effects. In evaluation of the safety of conceptual design through simulation, several key parameters considered in this research are maximum impact force, energy dissipated by the impactor (e.g. a ship) and energy absorbed by the device and the impactor stroke. During impact, the main function of the ring beam structure is to resist and buffer the impact force between ship and bridge pile caps, which could guarantee that the magnitude of impact force meets the corresponding requirements. The means of improving anti-collision performance can be to increase the strength of the beam section or to exchange the steel material with novel fiber reinforced polymer laminates. The main function of the buoyancy tank is to absorb and transfer the ship’s kinetic energy through large plastic deformation, damage, or friction occurring within itself. The energy absorption effect can be improved by structure optimization or by the use of new sandwich panels. Structural and material optimization schemes are proposed on the basis of conceptual design in this research, and protective devices constructed of sandwich panels prove to have the best anti-collision performance

  6. Biological Control beneath the Feet: A Review of Crop Protection against Insect Root Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Kergunteuil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is offering promising solutions for crop protection against herbivore pests. While most research has focused on aboveground systems, several major crop pests are uniquely feeding on roots. We here aim at documenting the current and potential use of several biological control agents, including micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes and invertebrates included among the macrofauna of soils (arthropods and annelids that are used against root herbivores. In addition, we discuss the synergistic action of different bio-control agents when co-inoculated in soil and how the induction and priming of plant chemical defense could be synergized with the use of the bio-control agents described above to optimize root pest control. Finally, we highlight the gaps in the research for optimizing a more sustainable management of root pests.

  7. Biological Control beneath the Feet: A Review of Crop Protection against Insect Root Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Bakhtiari, Moe; Formenti, Ludovico; Xiao, Zhenggao; Defossez, Emmanuel; Rasmann, Sergio

    2016-11-29

    Sustainable agriculture is certainly one of the most important challenges at present, considering both human population demography and evidence showing that crop productivity based on chemical control is plateauing. While the environmental and health threats of conventional agriculture are increasing, ecological research is offering promising solutions for crop protection against herbivore pests. While most research has focused on aboveground systems, several major crop pests are uniquely feeding on roots. We here aim at documenting the current and potential use of several biological control agents, including micro-organisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi, and nematodes) and invertebrates included among the macrofauna of soils (arthropods and annelids) that are used against root herbivores. In addition, we discuss the synergistic action of different bio-control agents when co-inoculated in soil and how the induction and priming of plant chemical defense could be synergized with the use of the bio-control agents described above to optimize root pest control. Finally, we highlight the gaps in the research for optimizing a more sustainable management of root pests.

  8. INSECT AS BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR FROM PROTECTED TO THE DISTURB LANDSCAPE IN CENTRAL JAVA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuniawan Puji Wicaksono

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the biological science, invertebrate (especially insect diversity is relatively well known. Yet, little study about their interaction with specific land use or specific system function. With the rapid changes of landscape, biodiversity is also changes in response to human impact; due to each organism have the specific interaction with certain environment. In this research, the assessment of insect order in the different landscape types was conducted using several method of trapping to understand the specific pattern of insect which are inhabited the landscape. The objectives of this research were monitored the Insect diversity, its ecological importance to agro-forestry ecosystem, and compare it with other forest type in this area. Another objective was determined the insect characteristic as the indicator of environmental quality on each land-use system (forest, agro-forestry, plantation and monoculture. Monoculture agriculture has the largest number of Lepidoptera and Hemiptera order (herbivore insect dominated while in agro-forest system has the largest number of Diptera and coleoptera order. Protected forest, plantation forest and agro-forestry showed the similar index number which shows the similar ecological services for the insect as their habitat. However, in the monoculture agriculture, there was an unbalance insect composition and high dominance.

  9. Analysis of occupational accidents with biological material among professionals in pre-hospital services

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira,Adriana Cristina de; Paiva,Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of accidents due to biological material exposure, the characteristics and post-accident conduct among professionals of pre-hospital services of the four municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHOD: A cross-sectional study, using a structured questionnaire that was developed to enable the calculation of prevalence, descriptive analysis and analytical analysis using logistic regression. The study included 228 professionals; the prevalence of accidents du...

  10. Determination of element concentrations in biological reference materials by solid sampling and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauenburg, H.; Weigert, P.

    1992-01-01

    Using solid sampling with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), values for cadmium, copper, lead and zinc in six biological reference materials were obtained from up to four laboratories participating in three collaborative studies. These results are compared with those obtained with other methods used in routine analysis from laboratories of official food control. Under certain conditions solid sampling with GFAAS seems to be suitable for routine analysis as well as conventional methods. (orig.)

  11. Standard operating procedure for combustion of 14C - samples with OX-500 biological material oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure is for the purpose of safe operation of OX-500 biological material oxidizer. For ease of operation, the operation flow chart (including testing the system and sample combustion) and end of day maintenance flow chart were simplified. The front view, diagrams and switches are duly copied from operating manual. Steps on sample preparation are also included for biotic and a biotic samples. This operating procedure is subjected to future reviews

  12. Determination of arsenic in biological materials using ammonium molybdate labelled with 99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Y.; Nagaoka, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A new radiometric method for the determination of arsenic in biological materials has been developed. An excess of ammonium molybdate labelled with 99 Mo was added to the sample solution and the arsenomolybdic acid formed was extracted into n-butyl alcohol and ethyl acetate mixture. The activity of the organic phase was directly proportional to the amount of arsenic. The method was applied for the determination of arsenic in Orchard Leaves obtained from the National Bureau of Standards. (author)

  13. Pseudo-icosahedral Cr55Al232 -δ as a high-temperature protective material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Pabla, J.; He, H.; Misuraca, J.; Nakajima, Y.; Bender, A. D.; Antonacci, A. K.; Adrip, W.; McNally, D. E.; Zebro, A.; Kamenov, P.; Geschwind, G.; Ghose, S.; Dooryhee, E.; Ibrahim, A.; Tritt, T. M.; Aronson, M. C.; Simonson, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    We report here a course of basic research into the potential suitability of a pseudo-icosahedral Cr aluminide as a material for high-temperature protective coatings. Cr55Al232 -δ [ δ =2.70 (6 ) ] exhibits high hardness at room temperature as well as low thermal conductivity and excellent oxidation resistance at 973 K, with an oxidation rate comparable to those of softer, denser benchmark materials. The origin of these promising properties can be traced to competing long-range and short-range symmetries within the pseudo-icosahedral crystal structure, suggesting new criteria for future materials research.

  14. Nuclear materials management handbook. Safeguards, physical protection of nuclear material. 1995 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Now, very safe and stable supply of electric power has become to be obtained by nuclear energy, and Japan has steadily promoted nuclear power as the basic energy that contributes to overcome the unstable structure of energy supply in Japan highly depending on foreign countries, as shown in the long term plan of the research, development and utilization of nuclear power. Great progress was observed in nuclear fuel recycling in Japan such as the attainment of initial criticality of the prototype FBR 'Monju' and the start of construction of the commercial fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho. Recently the recognition of the importance of nuclear substance management has heightened, and the measures for maintaining and strengthening the reliability of nuclear nonproliferation system are investigated. It is important that Japan strictly observes the nuclear nonproliferation system based on the NPT which was extended infinitely. In this handbook, the outline of the measures for nuclear nonproliferation and safeguard and the protection of nuclear substances, the treaties and agreements and the national laws related to these are described. (K.I.)

  15. Under-reporting of accidents involving biological material by nursing professionals at a Brazilian emergency hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchin, Luiza Tayar; Gir, Elucir; Pazin-Filho, Antonio; Hayashida, Miyeko; da Silva Canini, Silvia Rita Marin

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens can be transmitted to health professionals after contact with biological material. The exact number of infections deriving from these events is still unknown, due to the lack of systematic surveillance data and under-reporting. A cross-sectional study was carried out, involving 451 nursing professionals from a Brazilian tertiary emergency hospital between April and July 2009. Through an active search, cases of under-reporting of occupational accidents with biological material by the nursing team were identified by means of individual interviews. The Institutional Review Board approved the research project. Over half of the professionals (237) had been victims of one or more accidents (425 in total) involving biological material, and 23.76% of the accidents had not been officially reported using an occupational accident report. Among the underreported accidents, 53.47% were percutaneous and 67.33% were bloodborne. The main reason for nonreporting was that the accident had been considered low risk. The under-reporting rate (23.76%) was low in comparison with other studies, but most cases of exposure were high risk.

  16. Clinical treatment adherence of health care workers and students exposed to potentially infectious biological material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Mendes de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess adherence to clinical appointments by health care workers (HCW and students who suffered accidents with potentially infectious biological material. METHOD A retrospective cross-sectional study that assessed clinical records of accidents involving biological material between 2005 and 2010 in a specialized unit. RESULTS A total of 461 individuals exposed to biological material were treated, of which 389 (84.4% were HCWs and 72 (15.6% students. Of the 461 exposed individuals, 307 (66.6% attended a follow-up appointment. Individuals who had suffered an accident with a known source patient were 29 times more likely to show up to their scheduled follow-up appointments (OR: 29.98; CI95%: 16.09-55.83. CONCLUSION The predictor in both univariate and multivariate analyses for adherence to clinical follow-up appointment was having a known source patient with nonreactive serology for the human immunodeficiency virus and/or hepatitis B and C.

  17. Analysis of occupational accidents with biological material among professionals in pre-hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Paiva, Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira

    2013-02-01

    To estimate the prevalence of accidents due to biological material exposure, the characteristics and post-accident conduct among professionals of pre-hospital services of the four municipalities of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A cross-sectional study, using a structured questionnaire that was developed to enable the calculation of prevalence, descriptive analysis and analytical analysis using logistic regression. The study included 228 professionals; the prevalence of accidents due to biological material exposure was 29.4%, with 49.2% percutaneous, 10.4% mucousal, 6.0% non-intact skin, and 34.4% intact skin. Among the professionals injured, those that stood out were nursing technicians (41.9%) and drivers (28.3%). Notification of the occurrence of the accident occurred in 29.8% of the cases. Percutaneous exposure was associated with time of work in the organization (OR=2.51, 95% CI: 1.18 to 5.35, paccidents with biological material should be encouraged, along with professional evaluation/monitoring.

  18. Biological export of radioactive materials from a leaching pond in SE Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, Jere B.

    1978-01-01

    A radioecological investigation was conducted to quantify biological export of radioactive materials from a test reactor area leaching pond located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory site in southeast Idaho. An estimated 42,000 Ci have been discharged to the pond since 1952. Approximately 35 gamma emitting radionuclides are detectable in unfiltered water. Biomass estimates and mean radionuclide concentrations were determined for major pond compartments. A radionuclide inventory of the pond ecosystem was constructed listing totals for radioactivity present in each compartment. Mean concentrations of predominant radionuclides and population census data were used to estimate biologically exported materials. Particular attention was paid to migrant waterfowl, a resident population of barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), and nesting shore birds. Whole body gamma spectra indicated 15 or more detectable fission and activation products associated with swallows and shore birds, and 20 or more for waterfowl. Concentration factors relative to filtered pond water were also calculated. Finally, biologically exported radioactive materials were compared with total amounts present in the pond. (author)

  19. Physical protection of small amounts of nuclear material or contaminated parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, R.

    2002-01-01

    In July 2001 an incident was recognized where a worker occupied with decontamination of structures in a shut down reprocessing plant for spent fuel illegally removed a small amount of radioactive material from the facility site. The investigations exhibited that he brought this material to the apartment of his partner in life and she incorporated significantly α-activity in the form of plutonium. Immediately after the incident was discovered the supervisory authorities and the operating company of the facility took action to minimize the harms to third parties arising from the radioactive material released and to prevent a similar event to occur. As the overall inventory of radioactive material in the shut down facility at the time the theft occurred was below the limit where measures of physical protection are required by the German regulatory work discussions were raised on consequences to be drawn from this incident to close this obvious gap. The German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Protection and Reactor Safety (BMU) as the superior competent authority therefore ordered GRS to draft a set of fundamental requirements for future rules to make a repetition of the initiating incident unlikely. Further discussions of the authorities involved on supplementary rules and guidelines aiming to better protect small amounts of radioactive material from being illegally removed out of nuclear facilities and laboratories are based on these fundamentals defined by GRS but not yet finished. (orig.)

  20. Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, B.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 19, 1980, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated final hazardous waste regulations according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. The major substantive portions of these regulations went into effect on November 19, 1980, and established a federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal. In an effort to comply with these regulations, a Hazardous Materials Management and Control Program was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program is administered by two Hazardous Materials Coordinators, who together with various support groups, ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are handled in such a manner that all personnel, the general public, and the environment are adequately protected

  1. Materials and means for protection of personnel performing liquidation of the Chernobyl' NPP acident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, Yu.N.; Sysoev, V.N.; Talachev, A.S.; Frid, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Composite materials (CM) on the basis of lead has been developed. Special polyethylene-polyisobutylene mixture or polyethylene were used as binding materials. This CM was made as plates with film pressed surface. Sheet of CM with 10 mm thickness may attenuate gamma radiation till 10 times. Cast polymer composition based on polyurethane has been developed for containment of the leed sheets. This composition was capable of hadening in operation process and having technical parameters needed for production of workpieces. Sn-50, Ce-58, Gd-64, W-74, Bi-83 were used for low-energy gamma radiation protection. They were introduced as powders of the elements or their mixtures in dissimilar polymer binders. The materials with high protective parameters were worked out. 1 fig

  2. Meeting Radiation Protection Requirements and Reducing Spacecraft Mass - A Multifunctional Materials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Rojdev, Kristina; Franklin, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Both crew and radio-sensitive systems, especially electronics must be protected from the effects of the space radiation environment. One method of mitigating this radiation exposure is to use passive-shielding materials. In previous vehicle designs such as the International Space Station (ISS), materials such as aluminum and polyethylene have been used as parasitic shielding to protect crew and electronics from exposure, but these designs add mass and decrease the amount of usable volume inside the vehicle. Thus, it is of interest to understand whether structural materials can also be designed to provide the radiation shielding capability needed for crew and electronics, while still providing weight savings and increased useable volume when compared against previous vehicle shielding designs. In this paper, we present calculations and analysis using the HZETRN (deterministic) and FLUKA (Monte Carlo) codes to investigate the radiation mitigation properties of these structural shielding materials, which includes graded-Z and composite materials. This work is also a follow-on to an earlier paper, that compared computational results for three radiation transport codes, HZETRN, HETC, and FLUKA, using the Feb. 1956 solar particle event (SPE) spectrum. In the following analysis, we consider the October 1989 Ground Level Enhanced (GLE) SPE as the input source term based on the Band function fitting method. Using HZETRN and FLUKA, parametric absorbed doses at the center of a hemispherical structure on the lunar surface are calculated for various thicknesses of graded-Z layups and an all-aluminum structure. HZETRN and FLUKA calculations are compared and are in reasonable (18% to 27%) agreement. Both codes are in agreement with respect to the predicted shielding material performance trends. The results from both HZETRN and FLUKA are analyzed and the radiation protection properties and potential weight savings of various materials and materials lay-ups are compared.

  3. Steps to implement the legal and regulatory infrastructure for physical protection of nuclear material in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The signature of Peru to become part of the Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material in 1995 has implied an obligation to formalize the legal and regulatory infrastructure for this purpose. As first step, physical protection measures were formalized on the two nuclear facilities: one critical assembly of zero power (RP0) and another research reactor of 10 Mw thermal power (RP10). Both of the installations use low enriched uranium nuclear fuel (Material and Testing Material - MTR type). On the other side, even thorium was put in perspective to control; currently it is being used for non-nuclear purposes and has not been included inside the physical protection measures. Its physical and chemical form and its small quantity do not warrant for applying the Convention. The physical protection measures implemented in the research reactor are well depicted and it is concluded that the physical protection system meets the recommendations of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3. The critical facility (RP0), as having nuclear material categorized III, has implemented a less restrictive system but enough to meet the requirements. In 1999 an evaluation of all physical protection systems was performed for these two nuclear installations. This evaluation took into account the recommendations of INFCIRC/225/Rev.4. The general conclusion was that the performance of physical protection system was suitable to the categories of nuclear material - II and III - and that the installations where nuclear material is used were suitably protected against non-authorized or illegal removal of nuclear material and sabotage. However, some of components of the system were not appropriately working and could make all of the system weak. Another of the identified problems was the lack of a rule on physical protection and also the lack of the Design Basis Threat, although this fact was well known due the social conditions in the country. The second undertaking has been to prepare the rule on

  4. Radiation Protection training WEB site to hold pedagogical material for developing courses a distance way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Hernando, E.; Falcon, S.; Rodriguez, M.; Villarroel, R.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation Protection Training (RPT) System in Spain are is well defined in the local local regulations related to radioactive facilities licensing and radiation protection. A system of personnel licenses is established considering two levels of required radiation protection training-supervisor and operator according to responsibilities assigned during the operation of the radioactive facilities. This paper present the major advances already done in the educational web site maintained on the CIEMAT server and accessible through the CSN web. The project includes training material for sixteen applied courses and the design of a educational web site to hold pedagogical material for developing distant learning courses. The main objective of this project is to provide training materials for course organisers, trainers and for professional participants and to promote the exchange of expertise between workers involved in all activities using radiation sources. The project also aims to provide necessary mechanism for standardisation of the radiation protection knowledge made available to the exposed workers, including theoretical and practical training. The developed training material included in the project will cover all uses of radioactive sources including medical diagnosis. The web site is being developed of provide educational material on a modular design and in Spanish. The paper presents the initial results of this useful tool for practitioners. Courses are based on core modules with basic and specific modules involving different targets groups, and the contents can be easily adapted for other target groups. For each one of the modules should be included in the web site: objectives, syllabus, lessons and practical sessions, demo and lab exercises, etc. The project includes training tools for sixteen courses based in the standard syllabus content in the Spanish legal framework. In the next future complete materials for trainers will be available to case courses

  5. Application of Advanced Materials Protecting from Influence of Free Space Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Oleg; Shovkoplyas, Yuriy

    2016-07-01

    High cost and low availability of the components certified for use in the space environment forces satellite designers to using industrial and even commercial items. Risks associated with insufficient knowledge about behavior of these components in radiation environment are parried, mainly, by careful radiating designing of a satellite where application of special protective materials with improved space radiation shielding characteristics is one of the most widely used practices. Another advantage of protective materials application appears when a satellite designer needs using equipment in more severe space environment conditions then it has been provided at the equipment development. In such cases only expensive repeated qualification of the equipment hardness can be alternative to protective materials application. But mostly this way is unacceptable for satellite developers, being within strong financial and temporal restrictions. To apply protective materials effectively, the developer should have possibility to answer the question: "Where inside a satellite shall I place these materials and what shall be their shape to meet the requirements on space radiation hardness with minimal mass and volume expenses?" At that, the minimum set of requirements on space radiation hardness include: ionizing dose, nonionizing dose, single events, and internal charging. The standard calculative models and experimental techniques, now in use for space radiation hardness assurance of a satellite are unsuitable for the problem solving in such formulation. The sector analysis methodology, widely used in satellite radiating designing, is applicable only for aluminium shielding and doesn't allow taking into account advantages of protective materials. The programs simulating transport of space radiations through a substance with the use of Monte-Carlo technique, such as GEANT4, FLUKA, HZETRN and others, are fully applicable in view of their capabilities; but time required for

  6. Evaluation of geologic materials to limit biological intrusion of low-level waste site covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; White, G.C.; Karlen, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The long-term integrity of low-level waste shallow land burial sites is dependent on the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological factors that modify the waste containment system. This paper reports the preliminary results of a screening study to-determine the effectiveness of four biobarrier materials to stop plant root and animal penetration into simulated low-level wastes. Experiments employed 288 lysimeters consisting of 25-cm-diam PVC pipe, with four factors tested: plant species (alfalfa, barley, and sweet clover); top soil thickness (30 and 60 cm); biobarrier material (crushed tuff, bentonite clay, cobble, and cobble-gravel); and biobarrier thickness (clay-15, 30, and 45 cm, others 30, 60, and 90 cm). The crushed tuff, a sandy backfill material, offers little resistance to root and animal intrusion through the cover profile, while bentonite clay, cobble, and cobble-gravel combinations do reduce plant root and animal intrusion thorugh cover profiles. However, dessication of the clay barrier by invading plant roots may limit the usefulness of this material as a moisture and/or biological barrier. The cobble-gravel combination appears to be the best candidate for further testing on a larger scale because the gravel helps impede the imgration of soil into the cobble layer - the probable cause of failure of cobble-only biobarriers

  7. Physical protection system of nuclear material in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueker, H.; Jungclaus, D.; von Eyss, H.J.; von Osten, W.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of physical protection, its statutory and other bases as well as the parties involved in the licensing process are described. The facilities are grouped in categories reflecting their hazard potentials: the possibility of a theft of nuclear fuels in an approach similar to INFCIRC 225 and, in addition, the possibility of a release of radioactive materials. Physical protection follows the concept of detection, alert of police force, delay, prevention of the act by police force. The schematic layout of a Category I facility is presented

  8. Detection capabilities and accuracy requirements of concentrations of radioactive material in air for radiation protection purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, A.

    1987-01-01

    Recent developments in the formulation of detection capability and accuracy criteria for bioassay measurements will be interpreted and adapted to provide similar criteria for the measurement of air concentrations of radioactive material for radiation protection purposes. Considerations of accuracy will be related to the known variability of measurement processes, as well as the uncertainties in the calculated limits of intake that serve as the basis of regulatory and voluntary standards of practice. Formulations and criteria will be presented for minimum detection amounts (MDA) and precision and bias of measurements for radiation protection purposes. 17 references

  9. Regulatory problems relating to physical protection of nuclear plants and materials in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocera, F.

    1981-10-01

    Although the questions raised by physical protection have an international charater, it is important to know of national regulations in that field since exchange of information and study of common problems help to achieve satisfactory results. This paper analyses the Italian situation, by illustrating legislative and administrative actions undertaken as well as the practices adopted in Italy to meet problems of prevention of malevolent acts against nuclear installations and substances, until such time an Act is passed in this respect. Finally, the author is in favour of the 1980 Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material being ratified soon by a large number of countries. (NEA) [fr

  10. Resistance of gloves and protective clothing materials to permeation of cytostatic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Pośniak, Małgorzata; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata

    2018-01-15

    The objective of the work was to determine the resistance of selected protective clothing and glove materials to permeation of cytostatics such as docetaxel, fluorouracil, and doxorubicin. The following glove materials were used: natural rubber latex (code A), acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (code B) and chloroprene rubber (code C). In addition, we tested a layered material composed of a non-woven polyester (PES), a polypropylene (PP) film, and a non-woven PP used for protective coats (code D). The cytostatics were analyzed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The tested samples were placed in a purpose-built permeation cell modified to be different from that specified in the standard EN 6529:2001. The tested materials were characterized by good resistance to solutions containing 2 out of the 3 selected cytostatics: doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil, as indicated by a breakthrough time of over 480 min. Equally high resistance to permeation of the third cytostatic (docetaxel) was exhibited by natural rubber latex, acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber, and chloroprene rubber. However, docetaxel permeated much more readily through the clothing layered material, compromising its barrier properties. It was found that the presence of additional components in cytostatic preparations accelerated permeation through material samples, thus deteriorating their barrier properties. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(3):341-350. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  11. [Accidents with biological material in health care workers in 2 primary health care areas (1990-1999)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Navarrete, M J; Montes Villameriel, F J; Solano Bernad, V M; Sánchez Matienzo, D; del Val García, J L; Gil Montalbán, E; Arribas Llorente, J L

    2001-09-15

    To find out the exposures with biological material in health care workers in primary health care, registered in the biological accidents database from Preventive Medicine Service in Miguel Servet Universitary Hospital of Zaragoza. Descriptive study of a retrospective cohort. SITE: Primary health care, Areas II and V of Zaragoza.Participants. Workers in this areas, distributed by: physician, nursing staff, auxiliary, orderly, housekeeping staff, others. Data of: workers, accident, serologic source, worker protection and vaccinal status of hepatitis B. The incidence of accidents was 26 (period 1997-1999). Most proportion of accidents were declared by nursing (78%). The highest occupational incidence was in auxiliary (63 ). In 90,1% of the cases, the accident was needlestick injury. The source was known in 67,7% of cases. The accidents occurred in hands in 96,8% of cases, and only one third of workers carried gloves. Results obtained are similar with previous studies about this event. We must insist on the need to declare these accidents, providing more information and accessibility for the declaration to worker. Moreover, we must insist on the correct application in the health care field of the standard precautions, because almost 50% of accidents are evitable, and to increase hepatitis B vaccination covertures.

  12. Developing a Biological Condition Gradient for the Protection of Coral Reefs in Guanica Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    We introduce the application of the Biological Condition Gradient (BCG), a conceptual model that describes how biological attributes of aquatic ecosystems (i.e., biological condition) might change along a gradient of increasing anthropogenic stress (e.g., physical, chemical and b...

  13. The determination of plutonium alpha activity in urine, faeces and biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bains, M.E.D.

    1963-07-01

    Methods have been developed for the determination of plutonium alpha activity in urine, faeces and biological materials. The chemical stages involved give practically complete separation of all extraneous material from the plutonium, which is electrodeposited on to a 0.5 inch stainless steel disc to produce a thin high resolution source. The limit of detection is 0.025 μμc/sample (sixteen-hour count) when the sources are counted in a small scintillator counter, but is lowest when counted in a counter which counts particles of energy 5.05-5.25 MeV only, and which therefore discriminates against small quantities of α-active materials introduced with the reagents in the final electrodeposition stage of the process. (Any such alpha activity may readily be identified by alpha pulse height analysis). (author)

  14. Development and Applications Of Photosensitive Device Systems To Studies Of Biological And Organic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruner, Sol

    2012-01-20

    The primary focus of the grant is the development of new x-ray detectors for biological and materials work at synchrotron sources, especially Pixel Array Detectors (PADs), and the training of students via research applications to problems in biophysics and materials science using novel x-ray methods. This Final Progress Report provides a high-level overview of the most important accomplishments. These major areas of accomplishment include: (1) Development and application of x-ray Pixel Array Detectors; (2) Development and application of methods of high pressure x-ray crystallography as applied to proteins; (3) Studies on the synthesis and structure of novel mesophase materials derived from block co-polymers.

  15. Modified clay minerals efficiency against chemical and biological warfare agents for civil human protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachá, Daniela; Rosenbergová, Kateřina; Slabotínský, Jiří; Kutláková, Kateřina Mamulová; Studentová, Soňa; Martynková, Gražyna Simha

    2014-04-30

    Sorption efficiencies of modified montmorillonite and vermiculite of their mono ionic Na and organic HDTMA and HDP forms were studied against chemical and biological warfare agents such as yperite and selected bacterial strains. Yperite interactions with modified clay minerals were observed through its capture in low-density polyethylene foil-modified clay composites by measuring yperite gas permeation with using chemical indication and gas chromatography methods. The antibacterial activities of synthetized organoclays were tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species in minimum inhibitory concentration tests. The obtained results showed a positive influence of modified clay minerals on the significant yperite breakthrough-time increase. The most effective material was the polyethylene-Na form montmorillonite, while the polyethylene-Na form vermiculite showed the lowest efficiency. With increasing organic cations loading in the interlayer space the montmorillonite efficiency decreased, and in the case of vermiculite an opposite effect was observed. Generally the modified montmorillonites were more effective than modified vermiculites. The HDP cations seem to be more effective compare to the HDTMA. The antibacterial activity tests confirmed efficiency of all organically modified clay minerals against Gram-positive bacteria. The confirmation of antibacterial activity against Y. pestis, plague bacteria, is the most interesting result of this part of the study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A Hypothesis on Biological Protection from Space Radiation Through the Use of New Therapeutic Gases as Medical Counter Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Michael P.; Ansari, Rafat R.; Nakao, Atsunori; Wink, David

    2012-01-01

    Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is the biological damage it induces. As damage is associated with increased oxidative stress, it is important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as both chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and biological signaling molecules for management of the body s response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it is concluded that this approach may have great therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson s and Alzheimer s disease, cataracts, and aging.

  17. A hypothesis on biological protection from space radiation through the use of new therapeutic gases as medical counter measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoenfeld Michael P

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Radiation exposure to astronauts could be a significant obstacle for long duration manned space exploration because of current uncertainties regarding the extent of biological effects. Furthermore, concepts for protective shielding also pose a technically challenging issue due to the nature of cosmic radiation and current mass and power constraints with modern exploration technology. The concern regarding exposure to cosmic radiation is biological damage that is associated with increased oxidative stress. It is therefore important and would be enabling to mitigate and/or prevent oxidative stress prior to the development of clinical symptoms and disease. This paper hypothesizes a "systems biology" approach in which a combination of chemical and biological mitigation techniques are used conjunctively. It proposes using new, therapeutic, medical gases as chemical radioprotectors for radical scavenging and as biological signaling molecules for management of the body's response to exposure. From reviewing radiochemistry of water, biological effects of CO, H2, NO, and H2S gas, and mechanisms of radiation biology, it can be concluded that this approach may have therapeutic potential for radiation exposure. Furthermore, it also appears to have similar potential for curtailing the pathogenesis of other diseases in which oxidative stress has been implicated including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic inflammatory disease, hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion (IR injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, and aging. We envision applying these therapies through inhalation of gas mixtures or ingestion of water with dissolved gases.

  18. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Yanqiu [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); College of Chemistry, Mudanjiang Normal University, Mudanjiang 157012 (China); Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Guan, Jingqi, E-mail: guanjq@jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Kan, Qiubin, E-mail: qkan@mail.jlu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  19. Durable protection of the surface of wood used outdoors: material constraints, problems and approaches to solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlin A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic durability of wooden structures is a major challenge for the use of this material in construction. Wood is used for its technical performances but also for its architectural qualities and its aesthetic perception. The premature aging of the wooden structures is detrimental because these disorders, even if they do not affect the strength of the structures, are mostly irremediable. The surface protection of wood is generally ensured by the use of a finish, whose essential role is to protect wood from climatic aggressions (water, solar radiation, oxygen, .... The secondary wood processing industry consists of a series of manufacturing and processing activities, each containing a portion of the added value of the product. The application of a finish on a wood-based work is usually the last and most visible step in this value chain.In outdoor use, the protection of the wood surface with transparent finishes is not yet sufficiently durable to be able to compete with materials used in industrial carpentry such as PVC or aluminum. Opaque finishes generally provide more durable protection but they mask the appearance of the wood sought by users.With the aim of positioning wood in this construction sector, research on transparent finishes has focused on the efficiency and improvement of the durability of the protection of the surface appearance of structures. Faced with climatic aggressions, the optimum conservation of a structure is not only linked to the performance of the finish but also to the characteristics of the wood material. In particular, in order to fulfill its protective function, the finish film must be able to follow the dimensional variations of the wood it covers without breaking and without detachment. In addition to the criteria for the effectiveness of finishes in the protection of structures, the environmental impact must be considered with increasing attention. Currently, more than 80% of composite or solid wood

  20. Possibilities of nondestructive determination of fluorine in coal and biological materials by IPAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randa, Zdenek; Mizera, Jiri; Chvatil, David

    2009-01-01

    The possibilities of nondestructive determination of fluorine in coal and biological materials by instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) were studied. The determination was based on counting the non-specific 511 keV annihilation gamma rays of 18 F, a pure positron emitter which is the product of the photonuclear reaction 19 F(γ, n) 18 F. The simultaneous formation of some additional positron emitters, particularly 45 Ti and 34m Cl, is an interfering factor. When using correction standards for Ti and Cl and optimization of the beam energy and irradiation-decay-counting times, fluorine could be determined by IPAA in selected coal and biological samples at the ten ppm level. The feasibility of additional optimization for further improvements of the proposed IPAA procedure are discussed

  1. Exploring matter through photons and neutrons: from biological molecules to designer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chidambaram, R.; Hosur, M.V.; Ramanadham, M.; Godwal, B.K.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding structure-property relationships of naturally occurring materials has been the aim of scientific research for centuries. The discovery of short wavelength x-rays and neutrons in the 20th century provided a means of studying molecular structure. The methodology of x-ray and neutron diffraction has been successfully applied to determine structures of molecules across disciplines of physics, chemistry, biology, biochemistry and medicine. Typical applications in physics include study of phase transformations, elasticity measurements, magnetic structure, surface scattering etc. In chemistry, the applications have ranged from routine structure determinations of reaction intermediates or natural products to refinement of quantum chemical parameters of atomic and molecular charge densities. The science of crystallography has had a profound effect on the disciplines of biology and medicine. A whole new discipline and industry was created when the structure of DNA was discovered through x-ray diffraction

  2. Damage-free vibrational spectroscopy of biological materials in the electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rez, Peter; Aoki, Toshihiro; March, Katia; Gur, Dvir; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Dellby, Niklas; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Wolf, Sharon G; Cohen, Hagai

    2016-03-10

    Vibrational spectroscopy in the electron microscope would be transformative in the study of biological samples, provided that radiation damage could be prevented. However, electron beams typically create high-energy excitations that severely accelerate sample degradation. Here this major difficulty is overcome using an 'aloof' electron beam, positioned tens of nanometres away from the sample: high-energy excitations are suppressed, while vibrational modes of energies electron energy loss spectra from biogenic guanine crystals in their native state, resolving their characteristic C-H, N-H and C=O vibrational signatures with no observable radiation damage. The technique opens up the possibility of non-damaging compositional analyses of organic functional groups, including non-crystalline biological materials, at a spatial resolution of ∼10 nm, simultaneously combined with imaging in the electron microscope.

  3. Headspace solid-phase microextraction procedures for gas chromatographic analysis of biological fluids and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, G A; Walker, V

    2000-12-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a new solventless sample preparation technique that is finding wide usage. This review provides updated information on headspace SPME with gas chromatographic separation for the extraction and measurement of volatile and semivolatile analytes in biological fluids and materials. Firstly the background to the technique is given in terms of apparatus, fibres used, extraction conditions and derivatisation procedures. Then the different matrices, urine, blood, faeces, breast milk, hair, breath and saliva are considered separately. For each, methods appropriate for the analysis of drugs and metabolites, solvents and chemicals, anaesthetics, pesticides, organometallics and endogenous compounds are reviewed and the main experimental conditions outlined with specific examples. Then finally, the future potential of SPME for the analysis of biological samples in terms of the development of new devices and fibre chemistries and its coupling with high-performance liquid chromatography is discussed.

  4. Conception for the protection of mineable raw materials in the Land of Brandenburg (Germany)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopf, M.

    1995-01-01

    The pit and quarry industry in Brandenburg will within a few years the same importance as the lignite industry. Both industries together may have up to 20 000 employees beyond the year 2000. The same number of employees could result in the enterprises of local and other subcontractors and mine suppliers. The government of Brandenburg creates at present the legal prerequisites to secure the supply with mineable raw materials. The regulation of the protection of mineable raw materials is proposed to be realised within the scope of the second plan for the development of the country, and within the regional plannings. The protection of the basic conditions for mining industries is a permanent task for administration and politics. By encouraged engagement in the case of opposed interests, those of mining can be considered with acceptable results provided the parties are ready to compromise. (orig.) [de

  5. Role of physical protection and safeguards technology used to Nuclear Material Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djoko-Irianto, Ign.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of nuclear materials at any nuclear facility must be in secure and must be known as safeguards purpose such as its position, from or type and amount. The clarification of the amount be reported to the national regulatory body and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as the International regulatory body. The national regulatory body and IAEA will then verify that report. The verification must be done to know there is no difference of the amount, and to give the assurance to the International community that any diversion of safeguarded nuclear material from civil use to a prescribed military purpose would be detected. To carry out verification, several verification techniques such as non-destructive analysis, surveillance, unattended and remote monitoring and environmental sampling are explained to convey the impression how those techniques are implemented. According to the security requirement, the physical protection system including all components of physical protection system have to be effectively designed

  6. Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting functions in a safeguards system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    Concepts on integration of physical protection and material accounting systems to enhance overall safeguards capability are developed and presented. Integration is approached by coordinating all safeguards information through a safeguards coordination center. This center represents a higher level in a communication, data-processing, and decision-making structure which is needed for efficient real-time operation of the integrated system. The safeguards coordination center functions to assess alarm and warning data required to resolve threats in the safeguards system, coordinate information and interaction involving the material accounting, physical protection, and facility monitoring and control systems, and present a single unified interface for interaction with facility management, facility operations, safeguards system personnel, and response forces

  7. Multiscale Modeling of Carbon/Phenolic Composite Thermal Protection Materials: Atomistic to Effective Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Lawson, John W.; Monk, Joshua D.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Next generation ablative thermal protection systems are expected to consist of 3D woven composite architectures. It is well known that composites can be tailored to achieve desired mechanical and thermal properties in various directions and thus can be made fit-for-purpose if the proper combination of constituent materials and microstructures can be realized. In the present work, the first, multiscale, atomistically-informed, computational analysis of mechanical and thermal properties of a present day - Carbon/Phenolic composite Thermal Protection System (TPS) material is conducted. Model results are compared to measured in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical and thermal properties to validate the computational approach. Results indicate that given sufficient microstructural fidelity, along with lowerscale, constituent properties derived from molecular dynamics simulations, accurate composite level (effective) thermo-elastic properties can be obtained. This suggests that next generation TPS properties can be accurately estimated via atomistically informed multiscale analysis.

  8. Material protection control and accounting program activities at the Urals electrochemical integrated plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAllister, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Urals Electrochemical Integrated Plant (UEIP) is the Russian Federation's largest uranium enrichment plant and one of three sites in Russia blending high enriched uranium (HEU) into commercial grade low enriched uranium. UEIP is located approximately 70 km north of Yekaterinburg in the closed city of Novouralsk (formerly Sverdlovsk- 44). DOE's MPC ampersand A program first met with UEIP in June of 1996, however because of some contractual issues the work did not start until September of 1997. The six national laboratories participating in DOE's Material Protection Control and Accounting program are cooperating with UEIP to enhance the capabilities of the physical protection, access control, and nuclear material control and accounting systems. The MPC ampersand A work at UEIP is expected to be completed during fiscal year 2001

  9. 10th meeting of the International Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Protection of Materials and Structures From the Space Environment

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the 10th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-10J, since its inception in 1992, have been to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials, including aspects of LEO, GEO and Deep Space environments, ground-based qualification, and in-flight experiments and lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of the atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences. The knowledge of environmental conditions on and around the Moon, Mars, Venus and the low Earth orbit as well as other possible candidates for landing such as asteroids have become an important issue, and protecting both hardware and human life from the effects of space environments has taken on a new meaning in light of the increased interest in space travel and colonization of other planets.  And while many materia...

  10. Considerations on Dop (Depth Of Penetration) Test for Evaluation of Ceramics Materials Used in Ballistic Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Ioan-Dan; Dobriţa, Florin

    2017-12-01

    Tremendous amount of funds and other resorces were invested in studying the response of ceramic materials under ballistic impact, the main goal being to find a way to increase the protection of soldiers and the vehicles used in the modern battlespace. Using of ceramic materials especially carbon based (carbides), nitrogen based (nitrides) and oxygen based (oxides) ceramics in order to increase the protection level of ballistic equipment could be, sometimes, a big challenge when trying to use the proper test in order to evaluate and compare their performances. The role of the tests is to provide a better understanding of their response in different situations and, as a consequence, to make them more efficient as armour components through future improvements. The paper presents shortly the main tests which are used and eventually standardised for evaluating the ballistic behaviour of the ceramics and other armour components, with a special focus to DOP (Depth of Penetration) Tests.

  11. Development of Standards for NanoSIMS Analyses of Biological Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davission, M L; Weber, P K; Pett-Ridge, J; Singer, S

    2008-07-31

    NanoSIMS is a powerful analytical technique for investigating element distributions at the nanometer scale, but quantifying elemental abundances requires appropriate standards, which are not readily available for biological materials. Standards for trace element analyses have been extensively developed for secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) in the semiconductor industry and in the geological sciences. The three primary approaches for generating standards for SIMS are: (1) ion implantation (2) using previously characterized natural materials, and (3) preparing synthetic substances. Ion implantation is a reliable method for generating trace element standards, but it is expensive, which limits investigation of the analytical issues discussed above. It also requires low background levels of the elements of interest. Finding or making standard materials has the potential to provide more flexibility than ion implantation, but realizing homogeneity at the nano-scale is in itself a significant challenge. In this study, we experiment with all three approaches, but with an emphasis toward synthetic organic polymers in order to reduce costs, increase flexibility, and achieve a wide dynamic concentration range. This emphasis serves to meet the major challenge for biological samples of identifying matrix matched, homogeneous material. Biological samples themselves are typically heterogeneous at the scale of microns to 100s of microns, and therefore they are poor SIMS standards. Therefore, we focused on identifying 'biological-like' materials--either natural or synthetic--that can be used for standards. The primary criterion is that the material be as compositionally similar to biological samples as possible (primarily C, H, O, and N). For natural material we adsorbed organic colloids consisting of peptidoglycan (i.e., amino sugars), activated charcoal, and humic acids. Experiments conducted with Si on peptidoglycan showed low affinity as SiO{sub 2}, yet its

  12. International conference in Stockholm to address protection of nuclear material and radioactive sources from illicit trafficking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Conference will look at approaches for enhancing security of material in general as well as protecting facilities against terrorism and sabotage. More specifically it will address measures for interception and response to illicit trafficking and discuss the practices and measures currently being used to minimize the possibilities of the unauthorized removal and movement of nuclear materials and critical equipment. It will also consider the importance of closer co-operation with law enforcement authorities and intelligence agencies and the necessity of applying new technologies to this effort

  13. Plasma-aided surface technology for modification of materials referred to fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineff, P.; Gospodinova, D.; Kostova, L.; Vladkova, T.; Chen, E.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in dielectric barrier air discharge at atmospheric pressure and room temperature over the past decade due to the increased number of industrial applications. New plasma-aided capillary impregnation technology for flame spreading stop and fire protection of porous materials was developed. Research, based on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), proves that plasma-chemical surface pre-treatment exert material change on chemical interaction between phosphorus containing flame retardant and wood matrix (Pinus sylvestris, Bulgaria; Pseudotsuga, Canada)

  14. 11th International Space Conference on Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The proceedings published in this book document and foster the goals of the 11th International Space Conference on “Protection of Materials and Structures from Space Environment” ICPMSE-11 to facilitate exchanges between members of the various engineering and science disciplines involved in the development of space materials. Contributions cover aspects of interaction with space environment of LEO, GEO, Deep Space, Planetary environments, ground-based qualification and in-flight experiments, as well as lessons learned from operational vehicles that are closely interrelated to disciplines of atmospheric sciences, solar-terrestrial interactions and space life sciences.

  15. Upgrade of the Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting System at the VNIIEF Industrial Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.C.; Maltsev, V.; Singh, S.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Industrial Zone at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center/All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC/VNEEF) consists of ten guarded areas with twenty two material balance areas (A and As). The type of facilities in the Industrial Zone include storage sites, machine shops, research facilities, and training facilities. Modernization of the Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) System at the Industrial Zone started in 1997. This paper provides a description of, the methodology/strategy used in the upgrade of the MFC and A system

  16. Physical protection of nuclear materials: Experience in regulation, implementation and operations. Proceedings of a conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The conference was held at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna from 10 to 14 November 1997. It was attended by 162 registered participants from 42 countries and eight international organizations. The 58 papers presented dealt with the experience of regulators, designers and facility operators, including response forces, in meeting the demands and requirements in this changing area of physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities. Individual abstracts were prepared for each of the papers. Topics covered include contemporary and emerging issues, experience in regulation, implementation at facilities, program assessment and cooperation, hardware and software, illicit trafficking in nuclear materials, and transportation

  17. Raising awareness about protection and control of nuclear materials held by 'small-scale holders'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladsous, D.; Coulie, E.; Giorgio, M.

    2013-01-01

    In France, the activities carried out by the 'small-scale holders' of nuclear materials are organized by a specific regulatory system which defines in a detailed way their obligations and the means of control of the government. The first part of the article presents the legal framework relating to the use of nuclear materials by small-scale holders in civilian fields. The importance of the declaration of the nuclear material inventory is clearly emphasized and must be prepared and transmitted to the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) every year. The second part describes how this declaration is used to provide basic information for the competent Ministry and the inspectors to check the correct application of the regulatory requirements relating to physical protection and to the control of nuclear materials. Finally, the last part presents the on-site inspections carried out by sworn and accredited inspectors under the authority of the competent Authority, which provide an overall picture and allow an evaluation of the risks of theft, loss or diversion of these materials. (authors)

  18. Computerized materials protection, control, and accountability at the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimenko, V.; Goryunov, V.; Ilyantsev, A.

    1998-01-01

    As part of a multifaceted approach to protecting its nuclear materials, The Institute of Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) at Obninsk, Russia, has been computerizing its materials protection, control, and accountability capabilities. This is being accomplished in collaboration with the CoreMAS team at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Such international cooperation in applying advanced science and technology to managing and controlling nuclear materials will help reduce the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation by preventing acquisition of weapons-grade nuclear materials by unauthorized individuals, organizations, or states. One important characteristic of IPPE is that it encompasses several facilities that manage nuclear materials, and three of these facilities already operate their own independent (or independently developed) computerized accounting systems. This paper focuses on the importance of compatibility between the computerized accountability systems at the facilities, the ability of the individual systems to communicate with a single site-wide system, and the necessity of coordination between facilities in designing and developing computerized systems. The authors believe that the lessons learned at IPPE in coordinating these efforts have wide-ranging significance for other sites with multiple facilities

  19. [Occupational accidents due to exposure to biological material in the multidisciplinary team of the emergency service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Adriana Cristina; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza; Paiva, Maria Henriqueta Rocha Siqueira

    2009-09-01

    This transversal, survey-based research was carried out with a multiprofessional emergency care team in Belo Horizonte, between June and December 2006. The study aimed at estimating the incidence of occupational accidents by exposure to biological material, post-accidents conducts and demographic determinant factors. The study applied a structured questionnaire and descriptive analyses, as well as incidence calculations and logistic regression. The incidence of accidents with biological material reached 20.6%, being 40.8% by sharp materials and 49.0% by body fluids; 35.3% of the accidents took place among physicians and 24.0% among nurses. Post-accidents procedures: no medical assessment, 63.3%; under-notification, 81.6%; no conduct, 55.0%; and no serological follow-up, 61.2%. Factors associated with accidents: working time in the institution (Odds Ratio--OR, 2.84; Credible Interval--CI 95%-1.22-6.62); working in advanced support units (OR = 4.18; CI 95%--1.64-10.64); and interaction between working time in the institution and working in Basic Support Unit (OR 0.27; CI 95%--0.07-1.00). In order to reduce accidents, the implementation of post-accident protocols and follow-up, as well as under-notification norms, are suggested.

  20. Biological and Biomimetic Low-Temperature Routes to Materials for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Daniel E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Inst. for Collaborative Biotechnologies

    2016-08-29

    New materials are needed to significantly improve the efficiencies of energy harnessing, transduction and storage, yet the synthesis of advanced composites and multi-metallic semiconductors with nanostructures optimized for these functions remains poorly understood and even less well controlled. To help address this need, we proposed three goals: (1) to further investigate the hierarchical structure of the biologically synthesized silica comprising the skeletal spicules of sponges that we discovered, to better resolve the role and mechanism of templating by the hierarchically assembled silicatein protein filament; (2) to extend our molecular and genetic analyses and engineering of silicatein, the self-assembling, structure-directing, silica-synthesizing enzyme we discovered and characterized, to better understand and manipulate the catalysis and templating of semiconductor synthesis,; and (3) to further investigate, scale up and harness the biologically inspired, low-temperature, kinetically controlled catalytic synthesis method we developed (based on the mechanism we discovered in silicatein) to investigate the kinetic control of the structure-function relationships in magnetic materials, and develop new materials for energy applications. The bio-inspired catalytic synthesis method we have developed is low-cost, low temperature, and operates without the use of polluting chemicals. In addition to direct applications for improvement of batteries and fuel cells, the broader impact of this research includes a deeper fundamental understanding of the factors governing kinetically controlled synthesis and its control of the emergent nanostructure and performance of a wide range of nanomaterials for energy applications.

  1. Use of vitamin B12 radioassay in the analysis of biological materials, mainly of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kralova, B.; Rauch, P.; Cerna, J.

    1982-01-01

    Vitamin B 12 was determined in biological materials by three basically different methods: microbiological assay with Lactobacillus leichmannii, microbiological assay with Escherichia coli and radioassay. The method with E. coli has a relatively low sensitivity to vitamin B 12 and in some cases of vitamin B 12 determination in microbial materials it can be used only after a separation of the interfering substances by gel chromatography. The procedure is suitable for orientational determinations of vitamin B 12 because it is very little affected by external factors. The assay with L. leichmannii is universal owing to its high specifity and sensitivity to vitamin B 12 . The main disadvantage of the latter procedure depends on the high requirements for a clean atmosphere which can be maintained in laboratories in industrial areas only with difficulties. These limitations do not apply to the quick and sensitive radioassay. The radioassay can be used after a suitable adjustment of the working procedure for large series of analyses of biological materials without any preliminary separational techniques. (author)

  2. "Rinse and trickle": a protocol for TEM preparation and investigation of inorganic fibers from biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Capella, Silvana; Rinaudo, Caterina; Belluso, Elena

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to define a sample preparation protocol that allows inorganic fibers and particulate matter extracted from different biological samples to be characterized morphologically, crystallographically and chemically by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). The method does not damage or create artifacts through chemical attacks of the target material. A fairly rapid specimen preparation is applied with the aim of performing as few steps as possible to transfer the withdrawn inorganic matter onto the TEM grid. The biological sample is previously digested chemically by NaClO. The salt is then removed through a series of centrifugation and rinse cycles in deionized water, thus drastically reducing the digestive power of the NaClO and concentrating the fibers for TEM analysis. The concept of equivalent hydrodynamic diameter is introduced to calculate the settling velocity during the centrifugation cycles. This technique is applicable to lung tissues and can be extended to a wide range of organic materials. The procedure does not appear to cause morphological damage to the fibers or modify their chemistry or degree of crystallinity. The extrapolated data can be used in interdisciplinary studies to understand the pathological effects caused by inorganic materials.

  3. Radiation protection - Monitoring of workers occupationally exposed to a risk of internal contamination with radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the course of employment, individuals might work with radioactive materials that, under certain circumstances, could be taken into the body. Protecting workers against risks of incorporated radionuclides requires the monitoring of potential intakes and/or the quantification of actual intakes and exposures. The selection of measures and programmes for this purpose requires decisions concerning methods, techniques, frequencies etc. for measurements and dose assessment. The criteria permitting the evaluation of the necessity of such a monitoring programme or for the selection of methods and frequencies of monitoring usually depend upon the legislation, the purpose of the radiation protection programme, the probabilities of potential radionuclide intakes, and the characteristics of the materials handled. This International Standard offers guidance for the decision whether a monitoring programme is required and how it should be designed. Its intention is to optimise the efforts for such a monitoring programme consistent with legal requirements and with the purpose of the radiation protection programme. Recommendations of international expert bodies and international experience with the practical application of these recommendations in radiation protection programmes have been considered in the development of this International Standard. Its application facilitates the exchanges of information between authorities, supervisory institutions and employers. The International Standard is not a substitute for legal requirements. In the International Standard, the word 'shall' is used to denote a requirement and no deviation is allowed. The word 'should' is used to denote a recommendation from which justified deviations are allowed. The word 'may' is used to denote permission

  4. Discussion of and guidance on the optimization of radiation protection in the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    The document provides guidance on one of the components of the system of dose limitation as it applies to the transport of radioactive material, namely the optimization of radiation protection. It focuses on the following parts of the transport system: design, maintenance, preparation for transport, transport, storage-in-transit and handling and it considers occupational and public exposures. The application is intended mainly for those transport situations within the regulatory requirements where potential radiation exposures could be beneficially reduced

  5. The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material; Proteccion Fisica Delos Materiales Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-09-15

    Physical protection against the theft or unauthorized diversion of nuclear materials and against the sabotage of nuclear facilities by individuals or groups has long been a matter of national and international concern. Although responsibility for establishing and operating a comprehensive physical protection system for nuclear materials and facilities within a State rests entirely with the Government of that State, it is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent that responsibility is fulfilled. Physical protection has therefore become a matter of international concern and co-operation. The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter or defeat hostile actions against nuclear facilities and materials, particularly when such materials are transported across national frontiers [French] La proteccion fisica contra el robo o la desviacion no autorizada de materiales nucleares y contra el sabotaje de las instalaciones nucleares por parte de individuos o de grupos ha sido durante largo tiempo motivo de preocupacion nacional e internacional. Aunque la obligacion de crear y hacer funcionar un sistema completo de proteccion fisica para las instalaciones y materiales nucleares en el territorio de un Estado determinado incumbe enteramente al Gobierno de dicho Estado, el que esa obligacion se cumpla o no, y si se cumple, en que medida o hasta que punto, es cosa que no deja indiferentes a los demas Estados. De aqui que la proteccion fisica se haya convertido en motivo de interes y cooperacion internacional. La necesidad de cooperacion internacional se hace evidente en los casos en que la eficacia de la proteccion fisica en el territorio de un Estado depende de que otros Estados tomen tambien medidas apropiadas para evitar o hacer fracasar los actos hostiles dirigidos contra instalaciones y

  6. Betsy Pugel, Tiny houses: Planetary protection-focused materials selection for spaceflight hardware surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schriml, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Betsy Pugel, National Aeronautics and Space Administration Tiny houses: Planetary protection-focused materials selection for spaceflight hardware surfacesOn October 10-12th, 2017 the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation and The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine co-hosting MoBE 2017 (Microbiology of the Built Environment Research and Applications Symposium) at the National Academy of Sciences Building to present the current state-of-the-science in understanding the formation and ...

  7. THz waves: biological effects, industrial and medical applications. Meeting of the non-ionizing radiation section of the French radiation protection society (SFRP). Conference review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souques, M.; Magne, I.

    2011-01-01

    Following the debates about body scanners installed in airports for passengers security control, the non-ionizing radiations (NIR) section of the French radiation protection society (SFRP) has organized a conference day to take stock of the present day knowledge about the physical aspects and the biological effects of this frequency range as well as about their medical, and industrial applications (both civil and military). This document summarizes the content of the different presentations: THz spectro-imaging technique: status and perspectives (P. Mounaix); THz technology: seeing the invisible? (J.P. Caumes); interaction of millimeter waves with living material: from dosimetry to biological impacts (Y. Le Drean and M. Zhadobov); Tera-Hertz: biological and medical applications (G. Gallot); Tera-Hertz: standards and recommendations (B. Veyret); Biological applications of THz radiation: a review of events and a glance to the future (G.P. Gallerano); Industrial and military applications - liquids and solids detection in the THz domain (F. Garet); THz radiation and its civil and military applications - gas detection and quantifying (G. Mouret); Body scanners and civil aviation security (J.C. Guilpin). (J.S.)

  8. Cell attachment properties of Portland cement-based endodontic materials: biological and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hany Mohamed Aly; Luddin, Norhayati; Kannan, Thirumulu Ponnuraj; Mokhtar, Khairani Idah; Ahmad, Azlina

    2014-10-01

    The attachment and spreading of mammalian cells on endodontic biomaterials are an area of active research. The purpose of this review is to discuss the cell attachment properties of Portland cement (PC)-based materials by using scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, methodological aspects and technical challenges are discussed. A PubMed electronic search was conducted by using appropriate key words to identify the available investigations on the cell attachment properties of PC-based endodontic materials. After retrieving the full text of related articles, the cross citations were also identified. A total of 23 articles published between January 1993 and October 2013 were identified. This review summarizes the cell attachment properties of commercial and experimental PC-based materials on different cell cultures by using SEM. Methodological procedures, technical challenges, and relevance of SEM in determining the biological profile of PC-based materials are discussed. SEM observations demonstrate that commercial MTA formulations show favorable cell attachment properties, which is consistent with their successful clinical outcomes. The favorable cell attachment properties of PC and its modified formulations support its potential use as a substitute for mineral trioxide aggregate. However, researchers should carefully select cell types for their SEM investigations that would be in contact with the proposed PC-based combinations in the clinical situation. Despite being a technical challenge, SEM provides useful information on the cell attachment properties of PC-based materials; however, other assays for cell proliferation and viability are essential to come up with an accurate in vitro biological profile of any given PC-based formulation. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluating skin-protective materials against contact irritants and allergens. An in vivo screening human model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Willard, P; Maibach, H I

    1998-03-01

    2 acute irritants and 1 allergen were selected: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) representative of irritant household and occupational contact dermatitis, the combination of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and urea to simulate diaper dermatitis, and Rhus to evaluate the effect of model protective materials. The putative protective materials and vehicle were applied to both ventral forearms of 10 subjects in each group, according to a randomized code. Test materials were spread over a marked 2.0 cm2 area, massaged in, allowed to dry for 30 min, and reapplied with another 30 min drying period. The model irritants and allergen were then applied (0.025 ml) to an Al-test occlusive patch, which in turn was placed for 24 h over each of the 8 designated sites. Inflammation was scored according to a clinical scale 72 h post-application. Paraffin wax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, and beeswax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, markedly (p < 0.001) suppressed SLS irritation. Paraffin wax plus beeswax in cetyl alcohol, and Acetulan in cetyl alcohol reduced NH4OH and urea irritation (p < 0.05), paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol significantly (p < 0.01) decreasing Rhus allergic contact dermatitis. This model, provides an easy approach to screening protectants. Its clinical significance requires comparison with an open rather than an occluded challenge.

  10. [Accidents with biological material at West Paraná University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murofuse, Neide Tiemi; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Gemelli, Lorena Moraes Goetem

    2005-08-01

    It is a descriptive and retrospective study with the purpose of investigating labor accidents with biological material involving workers and trainees occurred in 2003 and 2004 in a University Hospital of Parana. For data collection, the electronic form of the Net of Occupational Accidents Prevention - REPAT has been utilized. Out of the 586 hospital workers, there was a register of 20 (3,4%) injured workers in 2003 and 23 (3,8%) in 2004, representing an increase of 15% in the notifications from one year to the other.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Rhodamine B-ethylenediamine-hyaluronan Acid as Potential Biological Functional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. L.; Wang, W. X.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, W. B.; Gong, H. M.; Liu, M. X.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to synthesize and characterize fluorescent polymers, rhodamine B-ethylenediamine-hyaluronan acid (RhB-EA-HA). RhB-EA-HA was successfully synthesized by ester ammonolysis reaction and amidation reaction. Moreover, the structural properties of RhB-EA-HA were characterized by 1H-NMR spectra, UV-vis spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). RhB-EA-HA can be grafted on the surface of silica nanomaterials, which may be potential biological functional materials for drug delivery system.

  12. Utilisation of biological and secondary raw materials IX. Recycling - conversion to energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemer, Klaus; Kern, Michael; Raussen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The book on the utilization of biological and secondary raw materials covers the following issues: Perspectives of the circular flow and resource economy, waste avoidance, closed substance cycle waste management law and biowaste assessment, economic evaluation and usage alternatives for biogas, consequences of the 4th BlmschV, the BioAbfV and the DueV for the biowaste treatment, alternative techniques of the Biowaste collection, alternative models of the recyclable substance assessment, future of the packaging and recyclable substance utilization, ElectroG and E-scrape recycling, innovative concepts for the municipal waste management, future of the MBA, MVA and EBS management.

  13. A complex neutron activation method for the analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordogh, M.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to deal primarily with a few essential trace elements and to obtain reliable results of adequate accuracy and precision for the analysis of biological samples. A few other than trace elements were determined by the nondestructive technique as they can be well evaluated from the gamma-spectra. In the development of the method BOWEN's kale was chosen as model material. To confirm the reliability of the method two samples were analysed proposed by the IAEA in the frame of an international comparative analysis series. The comparative analysis shows the present method to be reliable, the precision and accuracy are good. (author)

  14. Analytical methods for determination of terbinafine hydrochloride in pharmaceuticals and biological materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaiah Kanakapura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Terbinafine is a new powerful antifungal agent indicated for both oral and topical treatment of mycosessince. It is highly effective in the treatment of determatomycoses. The chemical and pharmaceutical analysis of the drug requires effective analytical methods for quality control and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies. Ever since it was introduced as an effective antifungal agent, many methods have been developed and validated for its assay in pharmaceuticals and biological materials. This article reviews the various methods reported during the last 25 years.

  15. Ionometric determination of boron in natural, waste waters and biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakimov, V.P.; Markova, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    Method have been developed for the determination of boron in natural, waste waters and biological materials using direct potentiometry with a BF 4 - selective electrode. In order to estimate the matrix effects in plotting the calibration graphs, it is recommended to and the test water or solution of biomaterial mineralizates, containing boron in electrode-inactive form, to the calibration solutions before e.m.f. measurements version of boron into tetrafluoroborate in solid phase on heating the mineralized samples with ammonium bifluoride at 150-180 deg C

  16. A complex method for the neutron activation analysis of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordogh, M.

    1978-05-01

    The destructive and nondestructive approach of neutron activation analysis used by the author is reviewed to determine some trace elements in biological materials: Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, V and Zn. Bowen's kale was used to determine the accuracy and reliability. The parameters obtained were confirmed by participating in round robins organized by the IAEA: in which potato powder and animal bone have been analyzed for Zn, Co, Fe, Cr, Mn, Rb, Na, K and Cu. Tabulated results are given and compared with recommended values and literature data. Gamma spectra are shown. (T.G.)

  17. Manual work in cold environments and its impact on selection of materials for protective gloves based on workplace observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzmańska, Emilia; Wójcik, Paulina; Adamus-Włodarczyk, Agnieszka

    2018-04-01

    This article presents a workplace observations on manual work in cold environments and its impact on the selection of materials for protective gloves. The workplace observations was conducted on 107 workers in 7 companies and involved measurements of the temperature of air and objects in the workplaces; in addition the type of surface and shape of the objects was determined. Laboratory tests were also carried out on 11 materials for protective gloves to be used in cold environments. Protective characteristics, including mechanical properties (wear, cut, tear, and puncture resistance), insulation properties (thermal resistance), functional parameters, and hygienic properties (resistance to surface wetting, material stiffness) were evaluated. Appropriate levels of performance and quality, corresponding to the protective and functional properties of the materials, were determined. Based on the results of manual work and laboratory tests, directions for the selection of materials for the construction of protective gloves were formulated with a view to improving work ergonomics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bioinspired fabrication and characterization of a synthetic fish skin for the protection of soft materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Natasha; Vera, Marc; Szewciw, Lawrence J; Barthelat, Francois; Stoykovich, Mark P; Vernerey, Franck J

    2015-03-18

    The scaled skin of fish is a high-performance natural armor that represents a source of inspiration for novel engineering designs. In this paper, we present a biomimetic fish skin material, fabricated with a design and components that are simple, that achieves many of the advantageous attributes of natural materials, including the unique combination of flexibility and mechanical robustness. The bioinspired fish skin material is designed to replicate the structural, mechanical, and functional aspects of a natural teleost fish skin comprised of leptoid-like scales, similar to that of the striped red mullet Mullus surmuletus. The man-made fish skin material consists of a low-modulus elastic mesh or "dermis" layer that holds rigid, plastic scales. The mechanics of the synthetic material is characterized under in-plane, bending, and indentation modes of deformation and is successfully described by theoretical deformation models that have been developed. This combined experimental and modeling approach elucidates the critical mechanisms by which the composite material achieves its unique properties and provides design rules that allow for the engineering of scaled skins. Such artificial scaled skins that are flexible, lightweight, transparent, and robust under mechanical deformation may thus have potential as thin protective coatings for soft materials.

  19. Peculiarities of physical protection assurance of the nuclear materials at nuclear installation decommissioning stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinchuk, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    On December 15, 2000 Unit 3 of Chernobyl NPP, which is the last one in Ukraine having RBMK-type reactor, was permanently shutdown before the end of its lifetime. A number of projects related to establishing infrastructure for the plant decommissioning are being implemented in compliance with the Ukraine's commitments. Decommissioning stage includes activities on fuel unloading from the cores of Unit I and Unit 3, fuel cooling in the ponds followed by the fuel transportation to the spent fuel dry storage facility (currently under construction) for its safe long-term storage. Special facilities are being created for liquid and solid radioactive waste treatment. Besides, it is planned to implement a number of projects to convert Shelter Object in environmentally safe structure. Physical protection work being an essential part of the nuclear material management is organized in line with the recommendations of the IAEA, and the Laws of Ukraine 'On Nuclear Energy Utilization and Radiation Safety', 'On Physical Protection of Nuclear Installations and Materials', 'Regulations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials and Installations', other codes and standards. While organizing physical protection on ChNPP decommissioning stage we have to deal with some specific features, namely: Significant amount of fuel assemblies, which are continuously transferred between various storage and operation facilities; Big amount of odd nuclear material at Shelter Object; 'Theft of new fuel fragments from the central hall of the Shelter Object in 1995 with the intention of their further sale. The thieves were detained and sentenced. The stolen material was withdrawn, that prevented its possible proliferation and illicit trafficking. At present physical protection of ChNPP does not fully satisfy the needs of the decommissioning stage and Ukraine's commitments on non-admission of illicit trafficking. Work is carried out, aimed to improve nuclear material physical protection, whose main

  20. MAK and BAT values list 2014. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2014 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  1. MAK and BAT values list 2015. Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work and biological tolerance values for working materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The book on the MAK (maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work) and BAT (biological tolerance values for working materials) value list 2015 includes the following chapters: (a) Maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work: definition, application and determination of MAT values, list of materials; carcinogenic working materials, sensibilizing working materials, aerosols, limiting the exposition peaks, skin resorption, MAK values during pregnancy, germ cell mutagens, specific working materials; (b) Biological tolerance values for working materials: definition and application of BAT values, list of materials, carcinogenic working materials, biological guide values, biological working material reference values.

  2. Strengthening global physical protection practices; gaining better information on national practices for protection of weapons-usable material. Keynote address/session 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunn, G.; Rinne, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Unlike the Non-Proliferation Treaty requirement that non-nuclear-weapon parties provide 'safeguards' information to the IAEA on their nuclear materials and their state systems for accounting and control, there is no related requirement to provide information on state systems of physical protection. A review of 1997 IAEA and Stanford physical protection conference proceedings showed both the absence of information on important practices from many states and the great variation in practices from state to state. Besides the lack of internationally required standards for domestic protection, reasons for the variations described in Stanford-Sandia National Laboratories research include: differences in states' perceptions of the threats to their materials; differences in their abilities to pay the cost of stronger physical protection; differences in their laws and regulatory practices in general; and differences in their cultural attitudes - for example, attitudes toward whether to arm personnel guarding weapon-usable material or to require clearances for personnel with access to such material. The information presented to the 1997 IAEA and Stanford conferences was supplied voluntarily. The two global documents which provide norms for physical protection do not require submission of such information. These are the 1980 Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and the 1999 IAEA INFCIRC/225/Rev.4. This means that, without bilateral cooperation, no state can find out how other states are protecting their nuclear material. Yet, as IAEA Director General El Baradei has said, '[I]t is not a matter of indifference to other States whether and to what extent [physical protection] responsibility is fulfilled. ...The need for international cooperation becomes evident in situations - where the effectiveness of physical protection in one State depends on the taking by other States also of adequate measures to deter and defeat hostile actions against nuclear

  3. Differential biological effects of iodoacetate in mammalian cell lines; radio sensitization and radio protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Usha; Anjaria, K.B.; Desai, Utkarsha N.; Chaurasia, Rajesh K.; Shirsath, K.B.; Bhat, Nagesh N.; Balakrishnan, Sreedevi; Sapra, B.K.; Nairy, Rajesha

    2014-01-01

    There are several studies where it has been shown that Iodoacetate (IA) possesses in vivo anti-tumor activity. The fact that it is a model glycolytic inhibitor makes it more interesting. As seen in recent trends, glycolytic inhibitors are emerging as new strategy for cancer therapeutic research taking advantage of glycolytic phenotype of cancerous tissues. IA has been reported to have radioprotective effects in yeast cells and human lymphocytes. Biological effects of IA in response to radiation in mammalian cell lines are not well documented. We screened IA for cytotoxicity using clonogenic assay at different concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 μg/ml using three different mammalian cell lines; A-549 (human lung carcinoma cell line), MCF-7 (human mammary cancer cell line) and a noncancerous CHO (Chinese hamster ovary cell line). For studying radioprotective/radio sensitizing efficacy, cells were exposed to 4 Gy of 60 Co-γ radiation using a teletherapy source at a dose rate of 1 Gy/min, following which IA post-treatment was carried out. Clonogenic and micronucleus assay were performed to assess radioprotection/sensitization. The results indicated that IA was highly cytotoxic in cancerous cell lines A-549 (IC 50 =1.25 μg/ml) and MCF-7 (IC 50 = 1.9 μg/ml). In contrast, it was totally non-toxic in non-cancerous cell line, viz. CHO, in the same concentration range. In addition, IA exhibited radio protective effect in CHO cell line, whereas in other two cancer cell lines, viz. A-549 and MCF-7, radio sensitizing effect was seen as judged by induction of cell killing and micronuclei. In conclusion, lA, a model glycolytic inhibitor, was found to be selectively cytotoxic in cancer cells as compared to normal cells. Further, it reduced radiation induced damage (micronuclei and cell killing) in normal cells but increased it in cancer cells indicating its potential use in cancer therapy. (author)

  4. Establishment and utilization of radiological protection programs for the transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, J.; Capadona, N.

    2006-01-01

    The present work has by objective to indicate rules for the establishment and the use of the Radiological Protection Programs (PPR) that are of application to the transport of radioactive materials according to that required by the Transport Regulation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The PPR are established and applied in systematic form for remittent, transport and addressees, to consider the measures of radiological protection and its appropriately control during the transport stages of radioactive material. In particular, in the work it is analyzed the PPR applied to the operative stage, in the one that can be considered as one of the more important documents to use since it summarizes the evaluations and the necessary controls of radiological protection. Also it is analyzed the importance that this document gets ready on the base that it converges in the the analyses, evaluations and data that have been kept in mind during the previous stages of design of bundles and production of packings, the types and quantities of involved bundles, as well as of considering the quantities of expeditions and its frequencies, the ways of transport, etc. It is included a brief description of the parts that the PPR conforms on the base of that suggested in the advanced draft of the TS-G-1.5 Guide 'Radiation Protection Programmes for Transport of Radioactive Material', of October, 2005, of the IAEA: objectives. necessity, scope, basic elements of a PPR in function of the occupational dose. assignment of functions and responsibilities for the establishment of a PPR, evaluation and dose optimization, surface contamination, segregation and other protection measures, responses in emergencies. training and administration systems for baled and transport of radioactive material. Next an example of PPR for the transport of bundles of the A Type by lorry with content of radiopharmaceuticals that are the bundles more used worldwide in the expeditions of radioactive

  5. The monostandard method in thermal neutron activation analysis of geological, biological and environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alian, A.; Djingova, R.G.; Kroener, B.; Sansoni, B.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method is described for instrumental multielement thermal neutron activation analysis using a monostandard. For geological and air dust samples, iron is used as a comparator, while sodium has advantages for biological materials. To test the capabilities of this method, the values of the effective cross sections of the 23 elements determined were evaluated in a reactor site with an almost pure thermal neutron flux of about 9x10 12 nxcm -2 xs -1 and an epithermal neutron contribution of less than 0.03%. The values obtained were found to agree mostly well with the best literature values of thermal neutron cross sections. The results of an analysis by activation in the same site agree well with the relative method using multielement standards and for several standard reference materials with certified element contents. A comparison of the element contents obtained by the monostandard and relative methods together with corresponding precisions and accuracies is given. (orig.) [de

  6. Stopping powers for protons in materials of interest in dosimetry and in medical and biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    Stopping powers are required for many radiation applications in medicine and biology. Their accuracy can be critical. Some published calculations for these situations have not included recent developments in stopping power theory or the body of work on deviations from additivity due to phase of chemical binding effects. These areas have recently been reviewed and mean excitation energies recommended for a range of materials of interest. Calculated stopping powers are presented for protons of 0.4 to 200 MeV taking the available information into account. The materials considered are Lucite, ICRU composition muscle and bone, A-150 plastic, a TE gas, acetylene and polystyrene and water and water vapour. With suitable corrections and suitable I values in the Bethe stopping power expression, accuracies of <2% can be achieved. (author)

  7. Developing a Biological Condition Gradient for the Protection of Puerto Rico's Coral Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    We introduce the application of the Biological Condition Gradient (BCG) to coral reefs: a conceptual model that describes how biological attributes of coral reef ecosystems might change along a gradient of increasing anthropogenic stress. Under authority of the Clean Water Act, t...

  8. Thermal Protection Performance of Phase Changing Material Based on Polyethylene Glycol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Sadat Ahmadi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCM are substances with a high heat of fusion which, through melting and solidifying at certain temperatures, are capable to store or release a large amount of energy. This phenomenon can be utilized in designing heat protective materials as well as in thermal energy storage systems. One of the approaches to avoid materials leaching from a structure, where PCMs are incorporated, is to blend them with suitable polymers. To have a proper blend it is necessary to choose a compatible polymer with a PCM. It is important to assess the optimized concentration of PCM in polymer matrix and the phase structure and morphology of the blend, which causes the best heat protection. In this work, the influence of polyethylene glycol (PEG as PCMs in epoxy resin matrix on heat protection was investigated. A special performance test was designed to study timetemperature behavior of the prepared samples and DSC and SEM tests to observe the melting point, heat of fusion and morphology of the samples. The results indicated that increases in PCM content led to better heat protection and the best concentration for PEG was found to be 60% wt. Time-temperature curves show that increases of temperature for PCM samples is very slow compared with net epoxy sample. PCM samples curves show plateau in melting region. In this region, they show nearly 15°C temperature lower than a net epoxy sample. The plateau region makes a delay time in temperature increment, which is about 22 min for PEG samples compared with a net epoxy.

  9. Evolution of the physical protection and control of nuclear materials in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Renha, G.; Mafra, O.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Brazil started protecting its nuclear materials soon after the end of the World War II, when the Combined Development Trust intended to control the world supply of uranium and thorium. This happened in 1944, but on December 27, 1946, an amendment to the report of Committee II of the United Nations established that the international ownership of the unexplored uranium and thorium would not be mandatory. Brazil nationalized its thorium and uranium reserves in 1951. The Brazil-Germany agreement signed in 1975 enhanced the need for Brazilian nuclear safeguards and security. The physical protection (PP) and control of nuclear materials (CNM) became activities under the supervision of the Brazilian military forces. The System for Protection of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (SIPRON), established on 7 October 1980, took over the responsibilities for PP and other aspects of the Brazilian nuclear program. The central organ of SIPRON was the Brazilian National Security Council (CSN). The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) was in charge of coordinating, among others, the PP sector. Earlier that year - on 3 March 1980 - the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM) was signed simultaneously in New York and Vienna. The Brazilian congress approved the CPPNM on 27 November 1984, and the Brazilian government deposited the ratification letter on 17 October 1985. On 16 April 1991 the Brazilian government issued a decree to enforce the CPPNM in the Brazilian territory. CNEN published the regulatory documents NE - 2.01 on 19 April 1996, and NN - 2.02 on 21 September 1999 for PP, and CNM, respectively. CNEN has the ultimate responsibility to enforce these regulations. The operational aspects of PP and CNM in Brazil are still improving. Potential nuclear terrorism for example needs to be examined. Activities concerning training personnel and implementing PP and CNM will be described in the paper. (author)

  10. Biological availability of energy related effluent material in the coastal ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, C.I.; Abel, K.H.; Ahlstrom, S.W.; Crecelius, E.A.; Schmidt, R.L.; Thatcher, T.O.; Wildung, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    In order to make the predictions necessary to forecast the ecological consequences of an energy-related technology, there must be an understanding of: the biogeochemical processes involved in the natural system; the manner in which an energy technology affects these processes and how, in turn, this affects the ecosystem as a whole. Direct biological effects such as lethality, behavioral changes, and physiological changes, are being studied under the program previously discussed. The biological availability and impact studies are investigating: the chemical, physical, and biological processes that occur in the natural marine ecosystem; how energy effluents affect these processes; and the factors involved in regulating the bioavailability of effluent material. This past year's effort has centered on defining the quantities and forms of metals and radioisotopes in nuclear power plant effluent streams, the chemical forms present in bioassay systems, the chemical and microbial processes controlling the forms of metals available from the sediments, and the uptake and control of copper in shrimp. In addition, several sites in Sequim Bay have been monitored for potential use in field verification studies

  11. Human biological monitoring for exposure assessment in response to an incident involving hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Paul T J; van Brederode, Nelly E; Bos, Peter M J; Nijhuis, Nicole J; van de Weerdt, Rik H J; van der Woude, Irene; Eggens, Martin L

    2014-12-15

    Biological monitoring in humans (HBM) is widely used in the field of occupational and environmental health. In the situation of an unexpected release of hazardous materials HBM may contribute to the medical support and treatment of exposed individuals from the general population or of emergency responders. Such exposure information may also be used to respond to individual concerns such as questions about a possible relationship between the chemicals released during the incident and health effects. In The Netherlands a guideline was prepared to support early decision-making about the possible use of HBM for exposure assessment during or as soon as possible following a chemical incident. The application of HBM in such an emergency setting is not much different from situations where HBM is normally used but there are some issues that need extra attention such as the choice of the biomarker, the biological media to be sampled, the time point at which biological samples should be collected, the ethics approval and technical implementation of the study protocol and the interpretation and communication of the study results. These issues addressed in the new guideline will support the use of HBM in the management of chemical disasters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Clearance of material with negligible levels of radioactivity based on the amended German radiation protection ordinance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, G.; Bayer, A.

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the modalities for the clearance of relevant materials have been laid down in the amended Radiation Protection Ordinance in a comprehensive form. A distinction is made between unconditional clearance and cases of clearance in which disposal, recycling, and re-use is prescribed. The focus of attention in the case of unconditional clearance consists in special consideration of large volumes of building rubble and excavated soil. Material can only be released from supervision under the Atomic Energy Act, when the radiation-related risk, and correspondingly, also the dose from material issued with clearance, are at negligible levels. In order to facilitate the practical application of clearance, values have been derived on the basis of scenarios which cover all radiation exposures which can reasonably be considered. (orig.) [de

  13. Study on CPPNM Interpretation of the Physical Protection Regulatory Aspects for International Transport of Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo-jin; Yang, Seong-hyo; Hyung, Sang-chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nuclear energy has been regulated by various international agreements or treaties due to the potential dangers. In case of export or import of nuclear material, it is important to comply with international norms and domestic laws related to nonproliferation and physical protection of nuclear material. Because, if non-compliant, it can be taken nuclear sanctions from the international community, and thus the domestic nuclear activities can be under a negative impact. Recently, international interests in nuclear security have been increased, it has become very sensitive to whether or not to join, and to comply with international treaties during international transportation of nuclear materials. Currently it is not discussed yet how to present and interpret the relevant provisions in CPPNM. However, it is necessary to prepare for the dispute among the parties that we don't know when it happens.

  14. Accidents with biological material among undergraduate nursing students in a public Brazilian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Renata Karina; Gir, Elucir; Canini, Silvia Rita M S

    2004-02-01

    During their academic activities, undergraduate nursing students are exposed to contamination by bloodborne pathogens, as well as by others found in body fluids, among which are the Human Immunodeficiency (HIV), Hepatitis B and C viruses. We developed a profile of victimized students, characterizing accidents with biological material occurring among undergraduate nursing students at a public university in São Paulo State, Brazil. We identified the main causes and evaluated the conduct adopted by students and their reactions and thoughts concerning the accidents. Seventy-two accidents were identified, of which 17% involved potentially contaminated biological material. Needles were the predominant cause of accidents. The most frequently involved topographic areas were the fingers. Only five students reported the accidents and sought medical care. Among these, two students were advised to begin prophylactic treatment against HIV infection by means of antiretroviral drugs. It was found that the risk of accidents is underestimated and that strategies such as formal teaching and continual training are necessary in order to make students aware of biosafety measures.

  15. ATTENDING PROFESSIONALS VICTIMS OF ACCIDENT WITH BIOLOGICAL MATERIAL IN A TROPICAL DISEASES HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian Kelly de Oliveira Lopes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The occupational risk for the health´s workers is a subject discussed in the last decades. However, the professional accident involving biological material´s records in the health´s units don´t describe the real situation. The purpose of this article is to identify the number of attending of professional accident involving biological material and the source of the leading. The data were obtained by the professional accident´s handbooks in 2003. The hospital had 5768 appointments. Among these, 621 (10,76% were about professional accident, 25 (4,03% of this amount came from the own hospital and 596 (95,97% from other services. The article verified that workers proceeding from big services are leaded to the hospital evaluated. It´s important to structure health´s services to optimize the worker´s attending in the original´s unit. KEYWORDS: Occupational accidents; Occupational risk; Occupational Accidents registry.

  16. Accidents with biological material among undergraduate nursing students in a public Brazilian university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Karina Reis

    Full Text Available During their academic activities, undergraduate nursing students are exposed to contamination by bloodborne pathogens, as well as by others found in body fluids, among which are the Human Immunodeficiency (HIV, Hepatitis B and C viruses. We developed a profile of victimized students, characterizing accidents with biological material occurring among undergraduate nursing students at a public university in São Paulo State, Brazil. We identified the main causes and evaluated the conduct adopted by students and their reactions and thoughts concerning the accidents. Seventy-two accidents were identified, of which 17% involved potentially contaminated biological material. Needles were the predominant cause of accidents. The most frequently involved topographic areas were the fingers. Only five students reported the accidents and sought medical care. Among these, two students were advised to begin prophylactic treatment against HIV infection by means of antiretroviral drugs. It was found that the risk of accidents is underestimated and that strategies such as formal teaching and continual training are necessary in order to make students aware of biosafety measures.

  17. Modelling effective dielectric properties of materials containing diverse types of biological cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huclova, Sonja; Froehlich, Juerg; Erni, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An efficient and versatile numerical method for the generation of different realistically shaped biological cells is developed. This framework is used to calculate the dielectric spectra of materials containing specific types of biological cells. For the generation of the numerical models of the cells a flexible parametrization method based on the so-called superformula is applied including the option of obtaining non-axisymmetric shapes such as box-shaped cells and even shapes corresponding to echinocytes. The dielectric spectra of effective media containing various cell morphologies are calculated focusing on the dependence of the spectral features on the cell shape. The numerical method is validated by comparing a model of spherical inclusions at a low volume fraction with the analytical solution obtained by the Maxwell-Garnett mixing formula, resulting in good agreement. Our simulation data for different cell shapes suggest that around 1MHz the effective dielectric properties of different cell shapes at different volume fractions significantly deviate from the spherical case. The most pronounced change exhibits ε eff between 0.1 and 1 MHz with a deviation of up to 35% for a box-shaped cell and 15% for an echinocyte compared with the sphere at a volume fraction of 0.4. This hampers the unique interpretation of changes in cellular features measured by dielectric spectroscopy when simplified material models are used.

  18. The physical protection of radiation sources and radioactive materials in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sungita, Y.Y.; Massalu, I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In recognition of the legal deficiency and the awareness of radiation safety, the parliament of the United Republic of Tanzania enacted the protection from radiation act no. 5 of 1983, which established the national radiation commission (NRC) as a regulatory authority. The main objective of the act was to provide for a legal framework and guidance of the control of the use of radiation sources and radioactive materials with the view to achieve an assurance for acceptance level of radiation protection and safety standard. Due to trade liberalization that is currently experienced in the country, the increase in the number of radiation practices is observed yearly. medical diagnostic x-ray facilities constitute 72 % of all radiation installations in the country. Radioactive materials used in research, teaching and industrial application constitute 24 % and those used in therapy and nuclear medicine is 4 %. About seven radioactive materials incidents occurred in Tanzania during 1996-2000. Among these cases, some were illegal possession and across-boarder trafficking of radioactive materials. Theft and losses radioactive equipments or sources were also experienced. This presentation discusses the experienced incidents of illegal possession, theft and loss of radioactive materials and the lesson learnt from those events in connection with our operational laws. The needs for improvement of the whole system of notification, authorization, registration and licensing to cope up with increase in radiation practices and cross-border illegal trafficking of radioactive materials. The importance of involving immigration officers, police and custom officer with proper training in radiation safety aspect is emphasized. The recommendation are given in an attempt to rescue the situation. (author)

  19. Certification of biological reference materials: participation of the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticianelli, Regina B.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.

    2007-01-01

    Analytical laboratories have as one of their important goals to demonstrate their competence allowing international acceptance and comparison of analytical data. The IPEN Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN) has implemented its Quality Assurance Program which comprises, among other activities, the participation in intercomparison runs. As a part of this Quality Assurance Program, LAN-IPEN has participated in interlaboratorial trials to analyze two biological candidate reference materials: INCT-CF-3 Corn Flour and INCT-SBF-4 Soya Bean Flour from the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry And Technology (Warszawa, Poland). The elements Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn were analyzed in the candidate reference materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The performance of the laboratory was statistically evaluated in relation to the consensus values for these materials using the Z-Score test. This laboratory evaluation method has been accepted as a standard by ISO/IUPAC. In the present study, adequate Z-Score values (|Z|<2) were observed for all of the analyzed elements, confirming the accuracy of the nuclear methodology employed. The contribution of LAN-IPEN in the certification of the reference materials analyzed was very important, since the results provided were used in the statistical evaluation of the certified value. (author)

  20. Thermal Protection Performance of Carbon Aerogels Filled with Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate as a Phase Change Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kazemi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon aerogels are comprised of a class of low density open-cell foams with large void space, nanometer pore size and composed of sparsely semi-colloidal nanometer sized particles forming an open porous structure. Phase change materials are those with high heat of fusion that could absorb and release a large amount of energy at the time of phase transition. These materials are mostly used as thermal energy storage materials but in addition they could serve as an obstacle for passage of heat during phase changes and this has led to their use in thermal protection systems. In this study, the effect of magnesium chloride hexahydrate, as a phase change material (melting point 115°C, on thermal properties of carbon aerogels is investigated. Thermal performance tests are designed and used for comparing the temperature-time behavior of the samples. DSC is applied to obtain the latent heat of melting of the phase change materials and the SEM tests are used to analyze the microstructure and morphology of carbon aerogels. The results show that the low percentage of phase change materials in carbon aerogels does not have any significant positive effect on carbon aerogels thermal properties. However, these properties are improved by increasing the percentage of phase change materials. With high percentage of phase change materials, a sample surface at 300°C would display an opposite surface with a significant drop in temperature increases, while at 115-200°C, with carbon aerogels, having no phase change materials, there is a severe reduction in the rate of temperature increase of the sample.

  1. Communication of work accidents involving biological material: a study in the city of Santa Cruz do Sul/RS

    OpenAIRE

    Dayane Diehl; Karini da Rosa; Susimar Souza Rosa; Susane Beatriz Frantz Krug

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives: Healthcare workers are constantly exposed to the risk of occupational accidents involving biological material. Thus the aim of the study was to develop a profile of workers involved in workplace accidents with biological materials in Santa Cruz do Sul, through the number of notifications made in information systems. Methods: Transversal retrospective study with a quantitative approach; data collection was carried out between the years 2008 and 2010 from medical recor...

  2. Procurement of a Large Area Mapping FTIR Microscope for Organic-Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: After acquiring the Infrared Imaging Microscope with large area mapping capabilities for structure -function research and...Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should...of a Large Area Mapping FTIR Microscope for Organic-Inorganic Interfacial Analysis in Biological Materials Report Title After acquiring the Infrared

  3. Criminal offences considered in the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neira, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was signed in Vienna, on April 3, 1980, approved by Law 23.620 on September 28, 1998, and published in the Official Bulletin of the Argentine Republic on November 2, 1988. This Convention considers some aspects of Criminal Law and Criminal Procedural Law and integrates the normative hierarchical structure of the article 31 of the National Constitution. The adequacy of this Convention to the Argentine law is considered through two aspects: The first one examines figures existing in the Argentine Legislation about larceny and robbery of nuclear materials, misappropriation of nuclear materials, obtainment and fraud of nuclear materials, exaction through threat or intimidation, etc., which are considered in different articles of the Argentine Criminal Law. The second one analyses behaviours not foreseen in the Criminal Law and which are not qualified by the current Argentina's Criminal Code, such as exaction of nuclear material through the use of violence, the international perpetration of an act consisting to receive, possess, use, vacate, scatter nuclear material without legal authorization, or in the case that the act causes death, serious injuries to persons and others. The purpose of the future enactment of a new Nuclear Law is to put in order and fill-in gaps referred to different aspects such as civil liability in nuclear damages, characteristics of the nuclear damages, etc [es

  4. Analytic determination of the activation of essential and toxic trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.

    1980-01-01

    A neutron activation-analysis technique for the multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of this procedure comprise radiochemical and also instrumental analytic techniques. After radiochemical separation 34 elements can be determined, after only instrumental procedures 26 elements can be detected in biological material. The radiochemical analysis of 34 elements lasts 4 days. Tracer investigations on the radionuclide retention of the anorganic separators HAP, TiP and ZP in 9N aqueous HNO 3 solution indicated that apart from Na-24, K-42 and P-32 the radionuclides Cs-134, Rb-86 and Se-75 are almost quantitatively adsorbed at the separators. For the remaining investigated radionuclides different but well-reproducible retention values resulted. The pH-value only slightly influences the extent of the radionuclide retention. Kinetic investigations on the radiochemical precipitation of some radionuclides on Cu and Cu(Hg)sub(x) were carried out. The depositing of the radionuclides Ag-110m, Hg-203 and Se-75 at 0 0 C and room temperature on Cu(Hg)sub(x) and Cu foil is a first order reaction. The half-life periods and the velocity constants of the depositing on Cu and Cu(Hg)sub(x) were determined for the investigated radionuclides in dependency of the temperature. The technique was examined by means of international biological multielement standards of known element combinations. The realisation of ring tests for the multielement determination in potatoe and milk powder showed that this method provides precise results. The applicability of the radiochemical method was confirmed by the simultaneous determination of 25 elements in overall nutrition samples. The instrumental technique was applied for the multielement determination in human hair (of the head) and in river water. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Sensor Systems for Biological Agent Attacks: Protecting Buildings and Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    includes not only detection systems but vaccines, therapeutics , collective protection, and other means of protecting personnel in facilities and...attack. An overall biodefense architecture can include medical countermeasures (e.g., vaccines and therapeutics ) as well as personal and collective... Horticulture , aquaculture, seed/grain powders Small area sources, variable Other aerosols Arthropods Cosmopolitan, variable Sewage, stored

  6. Scratch, wear and corrosion resistant organic inorganic hybrid materials for metals protection and barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, M.; Gisario, A.; Puopolo, M.; Vesco, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Polysiloxane coatings as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion of Fe 430 B metal substrates. • Methyl groups feature a very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone. • Phenyl groups feature a larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. • Remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance. • Innovative ways to design of long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and aggressive chemicals. - Abstract: Polysiloxanes are widely used as protective barriers to delay erosion/corrosion and increase chemical inertness of metal substrates. In the present work, a high molecular weight methyl phenyl polysiloxane resin was designed to manufacture a protective coating for Fe 430 B structural steel. Methyl groups feature very small steric hindrance and confer ductility to the Si–O–Si backbone of the organic inorganic hybrid resin, thus allowing the achievement of high thickness. Phenyl groups feature larger steric hindrance, but they ensure stability and high chemical inertness. Visual appearance and morphology of the coatings were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy and contact gauge surface profilometry. Micro-mechanical response of the coatings was analyzed by instrumented progressive load scratch, while wear resistance by dry sliding linear reciprocating tribological tests. Lastly, chemical inertness and corrosion endurance of the coatings were evaluated by linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry in aggressive acid environment. The resulting resins yielded protective materials, which feature remarkable adhesion to the substrate, good scratch resistance and high wear endurance, thus laying the foundations to manufacture long lasting protective barriers against corrosion and, more in general, against aggressive chemicals

  7. Physical protection of special nuclear materials in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Measures to protect special nuclear materials in West Germany are based on a relatively likely average threat and not on the less-likely but maximum credible threat. The reason is to avoid the costs of maintaining a very high level of security that is seldom needed. The concept of delayed action, which divides the responsibility for security between private protection forces and local police forces, would be insufficient in the event of the maximum credible threat. In principle, sufficient security is possible only when the facilities and transports are constantly protected by a police force large enough to deal with the maximum credible threat without assistance from outside. They must also be adequately armed to avert all possible attackers, and they must be paid by the licensees. The threat of an insider(s) diverting special nuclear material can be addressed only by strengthening the scope and depth of the checks on applicants and employees and the permanent work controls. It is recognized, however, that such security measures may not be compatible with constitutional civil liberties

  8. Study on the Application Mode and Legal Protection of Green Materials in Medical-Nursing Combined Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian

    2017-09-01

    In the context of green development, green materials are the future trend of Medical-Nursing Combined building. This paper summarizes the concept and types of green building materials. Then, on the basis of existing research, it constructs the green material system framework of Medical-Nursing Combined building, puts forward the application mode of green building materials, and studies the policy and legal protection of green material application.

  9. Technological advancements for the detection of and protection against biological and chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubanks, Lisa M; Dickerson, Tobin J; Janda, Kim D

    2007-03-01

    There is a growing need for technological advancements to combat agents of chemical and biological warfare, particularly in the context of the deliberate use of a chemical and/or biological warfare agent by a terrorist organization. In this tutorial review, we describe methods that have been developed both for the specific detection of biological and chemical warfare agents in a field setting, as well as potential therapeutic approaches for treating exposure to these toxic species. In particular, nerve agents are described as a typical chemical warfare agent, and the two potent biothreat agents, anthrax and botulinum neurotoxin, are used as illustrative examples of potent weapons for which countermeasures are urgently needed.

  10. Determination of tin in biological reference materials by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, M.; Iyengar, V.; Gills, T.

    1991-01-01

    Because of a lack of reliable analytical techniques for the determination of tin in biological materials, there have been no reference materials certified for this element. However, the authors' experience has shown that it is feasible to use both atomic absorption and nuclear activation techniques at least for selected matrices. Therefore, an investigation was undertaken to determine tin in several biological materials such as non-fat milk powder (NBS-SRM-1549), citrus leaves (NBS-SRM-1572), total diet (NIST-SRM-1548), mixed diet (NBS-RM-8431), and USDIET-I by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). AAS-ashed samples were extracted with MIBK and assayed using a Perkin Elmer model 5000 apparatus. NAA was carried out by irradiating the samples at the NIST reactor in the RT-4 facility and counting with the help of a Ge(Li) detector connected to a multichannel analyzer. The concentration of tin measured by both AAS and NAA agree well for USDIET-I, total diet, citrus leaves and non-fat milk powder (the concentration ranges for tin in these matrices were from 0.0025 to 3.8 micro g/g). However, in the case of mixed diet (RM-8431), the mean values found were 47 ± 5.6 (n = 19) by AAS and 55.5 ± 2.5 (n = 6) by INAA. Since RM-8431 is not certified it is difficult to draw conclusions. For apple and peach leaves, a distillation step was required. The results were apple leaves 0.085 ± 0.015 (n = 10) by AAS and < 0.2 (n = 3) by RNAA; for peach leaves 0.077 ± 0.02 (n = 9) by AAS and < 0.1 (n = 3) by RNAA. All concentrations are expressed in micro g/g dry weight

  11. US-Russian laboratory-to-laboratory cooperation in nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, M.; Augustson, R.; Horton, R.

    1995-01-01

    Under the guidance of the Department of Energy (DOE), six DOE laboratories have initiated a new program of cooperation with the Russian Federation's nuclear institutes. The purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward a common goal shared by both the US and Russia--to reduce the risks of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials, by strengthening systems of nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting. This new program is called the Laboratory-to-Laboratory Nuclear Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (Lab-to-Lab MPC and A) Program. It is designed to complement other US-Russian MPC and A programs such as the government-to-government (Nunn-Lugar) programs. The Lab-to-Lab MPC and A program began in 1994 with pilot projects at two sites: Arzamas-16 and the Kurchitov Institute. This paper presents an overview of the Laboratory-to-Laboratory MPC and A Program. It describes the background and need for the program; the objectives and strategy; the participating US and Russian laboratories, institutes and enterprises; highlights of the technical work; and plans for the next several years

  12. Using virtualization to protect the proprietary material science applications in volunteer computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khrapov Nikolay P.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available USPEX is a world-leading software for computational material design. In essence, USPEX splits simulation into a large number of workunits that can be processed independently. This scheme ideally fits the desktop grid architecture. Workunit processing is done by a simulation package aimed at energy minimization. Many of such packages are proprietary and should be protected from unauthorized access when running on a volunteer PC. In this paper we present an original approach based on virtualization. In a nutshell, the proprietary code and input files are stored in an encrypted folder and run inside a virtual machine image that is also password protected. The paper describes this approach in detail and discusses its application in USPEX@home volunteer project.

  13. Using virtualization to protect the proprietary material science applications in volunteer computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrapov, Nikolay P.; Rozen, Valery V.; Samtsevich, Artem I.; Posypkin, Mikhail A.; Sukhomlin, Vladimir A.; Oganov, Artem R.

    2018-04-01

    USPEX is a world-leading software for computational material design. In essence, USPEX splits simulation into a large number of workunits that can be processed independently. This scheme ideally fits the desktop grid architecture. Workunit processing is done by a simulation package aimed at energy minimization. Many of such packages are proprietary and should be protected from unauthorized access when running on a volunteer PC. In this paper we present an original approach based on virtualization. In a nutshell, the proprietary code and input files are stored in an encrypted folder and run inside a virtual machine image that is also password protected. The paper describes this approach in detail and discusses its application in USPEX@home volunteer project.

  14. Guidance and considerations for the implementation of INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    This publication is intended to provide guidance and considerations for a State's competent authority to better understand and prescribe appropriate requirements, consistent with INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 for the protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities which are compatible with accepted international practice. This report, together with a more detailed report, Handbook on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Facilities, which addresses to the licencee or designer of physical protection systems who has specific implementation and compliance responsibilities, should be used in conjunction to each other to provide better and comprehensive guidance on physical protection

  15. Guidance and considerations for the implementation of INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, the physical protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    This publication is intended to provide guidance and considerations for a State's competent authority to better understand and prescribe appropriate requirements, consistent with INFCIRC/225/Rev.4 for the protection of nuclear material and nuclear facilities which are compatible with accepted international practice. This report, together with a more detailed report, Handbook on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Facilities, which addresses to the licensee or designer of physical protection systems who has specific implementation and compliance responsibilities, should be used in conjunction to each other to provide better and comprehensive guidance on physical protection

  16. Effects of chemical and biological warfare remediation agents on the materials of museum objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, C.; Erhardt, D.; Marte, F.; von Endt, D.; Tumosa, C.

    In the fall of 2001, anthrax-contaminated letters were sent to public figures in the United States. Chemical and radiation treatments were employed to decontaminate exposed buildings, objects, and materials. These treatments are effective, but potentially damaging to exposed objects and materials. The recommended surface chemical treatments include solutions, gels, and foams of oxidizing agents such as peroxides or chlorine bleaching agents. Such oxidizing agents are effective against a wide range of hazardous chemical and biological agents. Knowing how these reagents affect various substrates would help to anticipate and to minimize any potential damage. We are examining the effects on typical museum materials of reagents likely to be used, including hydrogen peroxide, sodium hypochlorite, and potassium peroxymonosulfate. Results so far show significant changes in a number of materials. Surface corrosion was observed on metals such as copper, silver, iron, and brass. Color changes occurred with at least one reagent in about one-fourth of the dyed fabric swatches tested, and about half of the inks. Samples of aged yellowed paper are bleached. Effects varied with both the substrate and the tested reagent. The observed changes were generally less drastic than might have been expected. Enough materials were affected, though, to preclude the use of these reagents on museum objects unless no less drastic alternative is available. It appears that many objects of lesser intrinsic value can be treated without severe loss of properties or usefulness. For example, most documents should remain legible if the appropriate reagent is used. This work will provide a basis for determining which treatment is most appropriate for a specific situation and what consequences are to be expected from other treatments.

  17. Corrosion of metallic materials. Dry corrosion, aqueous corrosion and corrosion by liquid metal, methods of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helie, Max

    2015-01-01

    This book is based on a course on materials given in an engineering school. The author first gives an overview of metallurgy issues: metallic materials (pure metals, metallic alloys), defects of crystal lattices (point defects, linear defects or dislocations), equilibrium diagrams, steels and cast, thermal processing of steels, stainless steels, aluminium and its alloys, copper and its alloys. The second part addresses the properties and characterization of surfaces and interfaces: singularity of a metal surface, surface energy of a metal, energy of grain boundaries, adsorption at a material surface, metal-electrolyte interface, surface oxide-electrolyte interface, techniques of surface analysis. The third chapter addresses the electrochemical aspects of corrosion: description of the corrosion phenomenon, free enthalpy of a compound and free enthalpy of a reaction, case of dry corrosion (thermodynamic aspect, Ellingham diagram, oxidation mechanisms, experimental study, macroscopic modelling), case of aqueous corrosion (electrochemical thermodynamics and kinetics, experimental determination of corrosion rate). The fourth part addresses the different forms of aqueous corrosion: generalized corrosion (atmospheric corrosion, mechanisms and tests), localized corrosion (galvanic, pitting, cracking, intergranular, erosion and cavitation), particular cases of stress cracking (stress corrosion, fatigue-corrosion, embrittlement by hydrogen), and bi-corrosion (of non alloyed steels, of stainless steels, and of aluminium and copper alloys). The sixth chapter addresses the struggle and the protection against aqueous corrosion: methods of prevention, scope of use of main alloys, geometry-based protection of pieces, use of corrosion inhibitors, use of organic or metallic coatings, electrochemical protection. The last chapter proposes an overview of corrosion types in industrial practices: in the automotive industry, in the oil industry, in the aircraft industry, and in the

  18. Nuclear Security Recommendations on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225/Revision 5): Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication, Revision 5 of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities (INFCIRC/225), is intended to provide guidance to States and their competent authorities on how to develop or enhance, implement and maintain a physical protection regime for nuclear material and nuclear facilities, through the establishment or improvement of their capabilities to implement legislative and regulatory programmes. The recommendations presented in this publication reflect a broad consensus among IAEA Member States on the requirements which should be met for the physical protection of nuclear materials and nuclear facilities.

  19. Animal experiments to investigate biological-chemical radiation protection and the therapy of radiolesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueckner, V.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of a combined therapy of radiation protection agents and erythropoetin on the radiation-induced suppression of erythropoiesis in mice is studied with the aid of the radioiron utilization test. After whole-body irradiation with 500 R, the erythropoietic system is so severely affected that erythropoetin application alone does not yield any results. AET (significant) and Cysteamin (insignificant), on the other hand, protect the bone marrow to a certain degree. The protected bone marrow provides a better base for erythropoetin therapy than the bone marrow of the irradiated and unprotected animals. Compared to the application of radiation protection agents alone, the combined therapy with AET and erythropoetin increases the radioiron incorporation in the erythrocytes by 7.5% while the therapy with Cysteamin and erythropoetin results in a 19.3% increase. In spite of these methods, however, the radioiron incorporation rate of the control animals was not reached. (BSC/AK) [de

  20. Simultaneous determination of arsenic, copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc in biological materials by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damsgaard, E.; Heydorn, K.

    1976-08-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of arsenic, copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc in biological material was developed by the incorporation of separation procedures for copper and zinc into an existing procedure. Investigation of the performance characteristics of the method was carried out with reference to copper and zinc. For certain materials characterized by a high Cu/Zn ratio, or a high zinc content, or both, such as liver, copper ihterferes in the determination of zinc thus requiring a small correction by an iterative procedure. Blank values for copper depend on the rinsing of the irradiation container, and a single rinsing with redistilled water was found superior to other rinsing procedures. Nuclear interference was negligible. The accuracy of the method was checked by analysis of Standard Reference Materials and the precision verified by analysis of Intercomparison Samples. Results are presented for 5 male foetuses of 3-5 months' gestational age. The distribution of arsenic, manganese and selenium is similar to that previously reported for adults. With the exception of liver, concentrations of copper in foetal organs were lower than values in the literature indicate. (author)

  1. Strengthening global norms for protecting nuclear materials - feedback on little countries radiation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelidze, L.; Kakushadze, S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Georgia is the part of New Great Silk Road, connecting Europe and Asia. Along this rout will be laid oil and gas pipelines, transport and telecommunication lines. Unfortunately, besides economical communication, the rout can be used for illegal transit of nuclear materials. There is special concern regarding uncontrolled territories of conflict zones. Taking into consideration recent terrible terrorist acts we feel great responsibility for ensuring safety of this rout, which is a precondition of economical development and political stability of the whole Caucasian region A potentially hazardous radiological situation developed in Georgia with orphan radiation sources in the late 1990s and 2001: discovery of high-activity strong Radiation sources of (Strontium-90 from thermo-generators) in Tsalenjikha district. Eight such generators were brought to Georgia in 1984, and four of them have been found in Svanety mountainous region in addition to the two found in the Tsalenjikha, but remaining two are not yet found. During the last years several incidents of illicit trafficking were reported. The radiation problems greatly relate to the withdrawal of the Russian military bases. The radiological accident took place in Lilo, Georgia, when sealed radiation sources had been abandoned by a previous owner at a site. Taking into account the geopolitical location of Georgia it is quite important to strengthen the physical protection infrastructure in country with has serious territorial problems. The first step was to provide an appropriate legal framework for the safety management in the country and clearly identify regulatory body. The ministry implements state control in the nuclear and radiation safety field for protection of environment and natural resources of Georgia (hereinafter referred to as the Ministry). The Ministry is obliged to supervise the physical protection systems. The Ministry shall co-ordinate the state system of physical protection of the use

  2. Systematic approach in protection and ergonomics testing personal protective equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog. E.A. den

    2009-01-01

    In the area of personal protection against chemical and biological (CB) agents there is a strong focus on testing the materials against the relevant threats. The testing programs in this area are elaborate and are aimed to guarantee that the material protects according to specifications. This

  3. The Russian Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting Program: Analysis and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes an analysis of the US-Russian Nuclear Material Protection, Control and Accounting (MPC and A) Program, developed on the basis of extensive discussions with US laboratory participants as well as personal experience. Results of the discussions have been organized into three main areas: Technical/MPC and A Progress; Programmatic and Administrative Issues; and Professional Aspects. Implications for MPC and A effectiveness, for MPC and A sustainability, and for future relations and collaboration are derived. Suggested next steps are given

  4. State planning policy 2/07: protection of extractive resources results in certainty of materials supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    Extractive resources are primary source materials used for building infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, bridges, railways, factories, hospitals, schools and homes. The Policy seeks to protect those essential and finite construction materials for future and existing extraction purposes. Population increases in south-east Queensland the upgrading of rail and port facilities to export coal and other minerals will form a major part in the expansion of extractive industry. Over $4 billion has been committed by the Government and industry to coal infrastructure developments such as upgrades at RG Tanna, Barney Point and the proposed Wiggins Island coal terminals at Gladstone, the Dalryample Bay and Hay Point terminals near Mackay and the Abbot Point coal terminal near Bower. The new Bauhinia regional railway will service the Rolleston coal mines.

  5. A Study on Salt Attack Protection of Structural and Finishing Materials in Power Plant Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W B; Kweon, K J; Suh, Y P; Nah, H S; Lee, K J; Park, D S; Jo, Y K [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This is a final report written by both KEPRI and KICT as a co-operative research titled {sup A} study on Salt Protection of Structural and Finishings in Power Plant Structures{sup .} This study presented the methods to prevent the chloride-induced corrosion of power plant structures through collection and analysis of research datum relating to design, construction and maintenance for the prevention of structural and finishing materials, thru material performance tests for anti-corrosion under many kinds of chloride-induced corrosion environments. As a result, this study proposed the guidelines for design, construction and maintenance of power plant structures due to chloride-induced corrosion. (author). 257 refs., 111 figs., 86 tabs.

  6. Supporting the material control and accountancy system with physical protection system features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, D.S.; Olson, C.E.; Caskey, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Most physical security functions can be accomplished by a range of alternative features. Careful design can provide comparable levels of security regardless of which option is chosen, albeit with possible differences in cost and efficiency. However, the effectiveness and especially the cost and efficiency of the material control and accounting system may be strongly influenced by the selection of a particular design approach to physical security. In this paper, a series of examples are cited to illustrate the effects that particular physical protection design choices may have. The examples have been chosen from several systems engineering projects at facilities within the DOE nuclear community. These examples are generalized, and a series of design principles are proposed for integrating physical security with material control and accounting by appropriate selection of alternative features. 2 references, 6 figures

  7. A Study on Salt Attack Protection of Structural and Finishing Materials in Power Plant Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W.B.; Kweon, K.J.; Suh, Y.P.; Nah, H.S.; Lee, K.J.; Park, D.S.; Jo, Y.K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This is a final report written by both KEPRI and KICT as a co-operative research titled {sup A} study on Salt Protection of Structural and Finishings in Power Plant Structures{sup .} This study presented the methods to prevent the chloride-induced corrosion of power plant structures through collection and analysis of research datum relating to design, construction and maintenance for the prevention of structural and finishing materials, thru material performance tests for anti-corrosion under many kinds of chloride-induced corrosion environments. As a result, this study proposed the guidelines for design, construction and maintenance of power plant structures due to chloride-induced corrosion. (author). 257 refs., 111 figs., 86 tabs.

  8. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J Y; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    goal of this study is to review the fundamental structures and chemistries of wood and wood-derived materials, which are essential for a wide range of existing and new enabling technologies. The scope of the review covers multiscale materials and assemblies of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin as well as other biomaterials derived from wood, in regard to their major emerging applications. Structure-properties-application relationships will be investigated in detail. Understanding the fundamental properties of these structures is crucial for designing and manufacturing products for emerging applications. Today, a more holistic understanding of the interplay between the structure, chemistry, and performance of wood and wood-derived materials is advancing historical applications of these materials. This new level of understanding also enables a myriad of new and exciting applications, which motivate this review. There are excellent reviews already on the classical topic of woody materials, and some recent reviews also cover new understanding of these materials as well as potential applications. This review will focus on the uniqueness of woody materials for three critical applications: green electronics, biological devices, and energy storage and bioenergy.

  9. Wood-Derived Materials for Green Electronics, Biological Devices, and Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongli; Luo, Wei; Ciesielski, Peter N.; Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, J. Y.; Henriksson, Gunnar; Himmel, Michael E.; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-08-24

    goal of this study is to review the fundamental structures and chemistries of wood and wood-derived materials, which are essential for a wide range of existing and new enabling technologies. The scope of the review covers multiscale materials and assemblies of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin as well as other biomaterials derived from wood, in regard to their major emerging applications. Structure-properties-application relationships will be investigated in detail. Understanding the fundamental properties of these structures is crucial for designing and manufacturing products for emerging applications. Today, a more holistic understanding of the interplay between the structure, chemistry, and performance of wood and wood-derived materials is advancing historical applications of these materials. This new level of understanding also enables a myriad of new and exciting applications, which motivate this review. There are excellent reviews already on the classical topic of woody materials, and some recent reviews also cover new understanding of these materials as well as potential applications. This review will focus on the uniqueness of woody materials for three critical applications: green electronics, biological devices, and energy storage and bioenergy.

  10. [Work accidents with biological material occurred in municipalities of Minas Gerais].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio, Renata Siqueira; Filardi, Monique Borsato Silva; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the profile accidents involving exposure to biological material occurring in Minas Gerais. A descriptive study carried out by querying the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, 50 cities in south of Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in the period of 2007-2011. Were recorded 460 accidents, and about half occurred among nursing assistants and technicians, followed by nurses and physicians. There were more accidents due to improper disposal of sharps. Among the source patients, there was a 8.0% prevalence of positive serology for HIV, 1.0% for HBsAg, 6.0% for anti-HBc and 3% for anti-HCV. Among the injured 14.0% were not immunized to hepatitis B; however, the vaccine and immunoglobulin prescription was lower than necessary. The results will subsidize the plan preventive measures and new approach towards the occurrence of such accidents.

  11. Why should we respect the privacy of donors of biological material?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tännsjö, Torbjörn

    2011-02-01

    Why should we respect the privacy of donors of biological material? The question is answered in the present article in general philosophical terms from the point of view of an ethics of honour, a libertarian theory of rights, a view of respect for privacy based on the idea that autonomy is of value in itself, and utilitarianism respectively. For different reasons the ethics of honour and the idea of the value of autonomy are set to one side. It surfaces that the moral rights theory and utilitarianism present conflicting answers to the question. The main thrust of the argument is that there is no way of finding an overlapping consensus, so politicians have to take decisions that are bound to be controversial in that they can be questioned on reasonable philosophical grounds.

  12. Ultratrace determination of platinum in biological materials via neutron activation and radiochemical separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeisler, R.; Greenberg, R.R.

    1982-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis scheme based upon a radiochemical separation of the activation products has been developed. The method utilizes the inherent sensitivity of the activation reaction 198 Pt(n,ν) 199 Pt and counting of the daughter nuclide 199 Au. This nuclide is radiochemically separated from interfering activities by homogeneous precipitation as elemental gold. The remaining interference of the secondary reaction 197 Au(n,ν) 198 Au(n,ν) 199 Au from gold in the samples is quantitatively assessed and corrected. During this process accurate gold concentrations in the samples are obtained at ultratrace levels. The analysis scheme is applied to gold and platinum determinations in biological Standard Reference Materials and human liver specimens. Gold and platinum are determined at concentrations of 5x10 - 11 g/g, and at higher levels. (author)

  13. Activation analytical determination of essential and toxic trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelenz, R.

    1980-01-01

    In order to determine the essential trace elements Hg, Ag, Cu and Se in food (potatoes, milk powder) and biological standard materials (fruit tree leaves), simple, fast radiochemical separation methods are worked out. Following oxidative decomposition and destillation of Hg, the elements silver, copper and selenium are found in the destillation residue and can be electrochemically enriched on an amalgamated Cu foil (determination of Ag and Se in the concentration range of 10 -9 to 10 -8 g, of Cu in the range of 10 -12 to 10 -10 g), whilst the matrix elements Na, K, P are adsorbed on a column with 3 different inorganic ion exchangers. The eluate of the ion exchanger can be added directly to the multielement gamma spectroscopy. The possiblity of working purely instrumentally is demonstrated by 2 examples: multielement analysis of human hair and river water. (RB) [de

  14. A rapid screening method for heavy metals in biological materials by emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacklock, E C; Sadler, P A

    1981-06-02

    A semi-quantitative screening method for heavy metals in biological material is described. The metals are complexed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate and potassium sodium tartrate. The solutions are adjusted to pH 4 and then extracted into chloroform. The chloroform phase is evaporated onto a matrix mixture of lithium fluoride and graphite. The sample is analysed by direct current arc emission spectroscopy using a 3 metre grating spectrograph. The spectra are recorded on a photographic plate. The method is developed on aqueous and spiked samples and then applied to in vivo samples containing toxic levels of heavy metals. Atomic absorption spectroscopy is used to check standard concentrations and to monitor the efficiency of the extraction procedure.

  15. Reactivity comparison of biological material after radiolabeling with avidin-biotin system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Wo; Qian Jianhua; Zhu Benxing

    2003-01-01

    To find a method for determining the immunoreactivity of monoclonal antibodies after radiolabeling avidin is unlabeled and labeled with Rodamine, 131 I and 188 Re, respectively. The affinities and half-desorbed amounts of biotin and four kinds of avidin are determined by the biotin columns plus non-labeled avidin (cold avidin). The affinities of biotin and avidin unlabeled and labeled with Rodamine, 188 Re and 131 I are decreased in turn. Their half-desorbed amounts from biotin are 21.9, 19.5, 25.7 and 47.9 μg of cold avidin. Two kinds of radiolabeled avidin have lower affinity with biotin than that of avidin unlabeled and labeled with Rodamine. There is a possibility to evaluate the reactivity of biological materials with different labeling methods by avidin-biotin system

  16. Method for determination of radioactive iodine isotopes in environmental objects and biologic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubynin, O.D.; Pogodin, R.I.

    1981-01-01

    The method proposed for determination of radioactive iodine isotopes content in environmental objects and biologic materials is based on the extraction of iodine with carbon tetrachloride and subsequent precipitation of bismuthyl iodine (BiOI) in perchloric medium. Sample preparation for analysis is carried out using conventional alkaline ashing methods. Quantitative iodine separation is hampered if macroquantities of Cl - , Br - , SO 4 2 - , SO 8 2 - , Cr 2 O 7 2 - and other ions are present in the solution. Iodine extraction is carried out before its precipitation. Separated iodine preparation activity is measured using scintillation (NaI) Tl gamma spectrometer. The method's sensitivity when measuring iodine-131 preparations makes up 0.07 Bq per 1 sample with the error +-25 %

  17. Determination of zinc stable isotopes in biological materials using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, K.Y.; Veillon, Claude

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for using isotope dilution to determine both the amount of natural zinc and enriched isotopes of zinc in biological samples. Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry offers a way to quantify not only the natural zinc found in a sample but also the enriched isotope tracers of zinc. Accurate values for the enriched isotopes and natural zinc are obtained by adjusting the mass count rate data for measurable instrumental biases. Analytical interferences from the matrix are avoided by extracting the zinc from the sample matrix using diethylammonium diethyldithiocarbamate. The extraction technique separates the zinc from elements which form interfering molecular ions at the same nominal masses as the zinc isotopes. Accuracy of the method is verified using standard reference materials. The detection limit is 0.06 μg Zn per sample. Precision of the abundance ratios range from 0.3-0.8%. R.S.D. for natural zinc concentrations is about 200-600 μg g -1 . The accuracy and precision of the measurements make it possible to follow enriched isotopic tracers of zinc in biological samples in metabolic tracer studies. (author). 19 refs.; 1 fig., 4 tabs

  18. Recovery of iodine as iodine-125 from biological materials prior to assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.B.; Belling, G.B.; Buckley, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    In biological tissues iodine is usually present as iodoamino acids or iodoproteins. The organic material must be oxidised and the iodine converted into iodate prior to the final spectrophotometric determination. At parts per billion (10 9 ) levels, recoveries of added iodine are difficult to measure precisely as iodine can easily be lost from the sample and added inorganic iodine may not be recovered in the same proportions as the naturally occurring iodine. Iodine-125 provides a much more sensitive, specific and accurate means of testing the recovery of nanogram amounts of iodine from biological tissues and it can be incorporated into tissues in the naturally occurring compounds. Plants can be grown in a solution culture containing iodine-125 and animals can be injected with iodine-125 to provide tissues where naturally occurring iodine compounds are labelled with radioactive iodine. These tissues can be used to examine the recovery of iodine after oven drying, freeze drying, alkali ashing and acid digestion of the samples. Experimental details are given for spinach, tobacco, oats, cauliflower and thyroid. Results are given and discussed. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the antibacterial efficacy of bamboo charcoal/silver biological protective material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, F.-C. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Wu, K.-H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: khwu@ccit.edu.tw; Liu, M.-J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Chung Cheng Institute of Technology, National Defense University (NDU), No. 190, Sanyuan 1st Street, Tahsi, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Lin, W.-P. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hu, M.-K. [School of Pharmacy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2009-01-15

    Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC/Ag) was prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution, silver ion (Ag{sup +}) release and antibacterial properties. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) showed that the Ag particles were distributed uniformly on the BC matrix. The Ag particle size was found to be less than 150 nm based on TEM. The Ag content and surface morphology of the BC/Ag composites depended on the initial concentration of AgNO{sub 3}, and the higher the Ag content, the smaller the specific surface area obtained on the BC. The antibacterial effects of the BC/Ag composite powders were assessed from the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and by the plate-counting method, and an excellent antibacterial performance was discovered.

  20. Measuring spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Todd Alan; Bostwick, Kimberly S; Marschner, Steve

    2013-05-20

    Light interacts with an organism's integument on a variety of spatial scales. For example in an iridescent bird: nano-scale structures produce color; the milli-scale structure of barbs and barbules largely determines the directional pattern of reflected light; and through the macro-scale spatial structure of overlapping, curved feathers, these directional effects create the visual texture. Milli-scale and macro-scale effects determine where on the organism's body, and from what viewpoints and under what illumination, the iridescent colors are seen. Thus, the highly directional flash of brilliant color from the iridescent throat of a hummingbird is inadequately explained by its nano-scale structure alone and questions remain. From a given observation point, which milli-scale elements of the feather are oriented to reflect strongly? Do some species produce broader "windows" for observation of iridescence than others? These and similar questions may be asked about any organisms that have evolved a particular surface appearance for signaling, camouflage, or other reasons. In order to study the directional patterns of light scattering from feathers, and their relationship to the bird's milli-scale morphology, we developed a protocol for measuring light scattered from biological materials using many high-resolution photographs taken with varying illumination and viewing directions. Since we measure scattered light as a function of direction, we can observe the characteristic features in the directional distribution of light scattered from that particular feather, and because barbs and barbules are resolved in our images, we can clearly attribute the directional features to these different milli-scale structures. Keeping the specimen intact preserves the gross-scale scattering behavior seen in nature. The method described here presents a generalized protocol for analyzing spatially- and directionally-varying light scattering from complex biological materials at multiple