WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological pest control

  1. Identification and evaluation of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, I.M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are used as biological control agents against lepidopterous pests. From the 180 species described world-wide, only 5 have large scale application. The development of better methods to select other Trichogramma species/strains is necessary for a more effective use of these wasps against target pests. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate criteria and methods for identification and selection of Trichogramma species/strains for biological control...

  2. Modelling approach for biological control of insect pest by releasing infected pest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interactions between a predator and a prey. Here we have extended the classical epidemic model to include a continuous and impulsive pest control strategies by releasing the infected pests bred in laboratory. For the continuous model, the results imply that the susceptible pest goes to extinct if the threshold condition R0 0 > 1, the positive equilibrium of continuous model is globally asymptotically stable. Similarly, the threshold condition which guarantees the global stability of the susceptible pest-eradication periodic solution is obtained for the model with impulsive control strategy. Consequently, based on the results obtained in this paper, the control strategies which maintain the pests below an acceptably low level are discussed by controlling the release rate and impulsive period. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the efficiency of two control strategies are also discussed

  3. Modelling approach for biological control of insect pest by releasing infected pest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Yuanshun [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Liaoning 116024 (China)], E-mail: ystan625@yahoo.com.cn; Chen Lansun [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Liaoning 116024 (China); Minnan Science and Technology Institute, Fujian Normal University, 362332 Fujian (China)

    2009-01-15

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interactions between a predator and a prey. Here we have extended the classical epidemic model to include a continuous and impulsive pest control strategies by releasing the infected pests bred in laboratory. For the continuous model, the results imply that the susceptible pest goes to extinct if the threshold condition R{sub 0} < 1. While R{sub 0} > 1, the positive equilibrium of continuous model is globally asymptotically stable. Similarly, the threshold condition which guarantees the global stability of the susceptible pest-eradication periodic solution is obtained for the model with impulsive control strategy. Consequently, based on the results obtained in this paper, the control strategies which maintain the pests below an acceptably low level are discussed by controlling the release rate and impulsive period. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the efficiency of two control strategies are also discussed.

  4. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Eusebio Nava Pérez; Cipriano García Gutiérrez; Jesús Ricardo Camacho Báez; Elva Lorena Vázquez Montoya

    2012-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also...

  5. Identification and evaluation of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, I.M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are used as biological control agents against lepidopterous pests. From the 180 species described world-wide, only 5 have large scale application. The development of better methods to select other Trichogramma species/strains is necessary for a more effectiv

  6. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also its are less expensive, are biodegradable and safe for humans and the environment, however havelittle residuality. Microbial pesticides are being introduced successfully to pests control in important crops such as; coffee, sugar cane, beans and corn. These products contain bacteria, fungi, viruses or nematodes. However, few entomopathogenic agents have been developed as effective biocontrol agents, one of them is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier for control of armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith covering about 74% of the market,fungus 10% , viruses 5% and 11% others. Other upstanding case is the use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamoagainst bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say. Biopesticides have shown that when are used properly in the biological pest control its favor the practice of a sustainable agriculture, with less dependence of chemical insecticides.

  7. COTTON APHID APHIS GOSSYPII L. (HOMOPTERA; APHIDIDAE); A CHALLENGING PEST; BIOLOGY AND CONTROL STRATEGIES: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar; Iqra Azam; Nadia Iram; Waheed Iqbal; Aqsad Rashda; Fakhra Anwer; Kiran Atta; Rafaqat Ali

    2014-01-01

    Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) is a key pest of cotton crop. The indiscriminate use of insecticides and pesticides during 1930’s and latter to control insects pests, developed resistance in cotton aphid against these chemicals resulting in outbreak of this pest. Cotton aphid has a major impact on quality and yield of cotton which emphasizes the need to manage this notorious pest. The main goal of this review is to highlight various strategies viz., biological, chemical and cultural control for...

  8. The role of ionizing radiation in biological control of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the commercial biological control industry is growing, it still represents only a small portion of the international market of pest control sales (about 3%). This low ratio is due to several factors including high cost of production of biological control agents and technical and regulatory difficulties that complicate the shipping procedures and create trade barriers. This article summarizes the role of ionizing radiation in supporting the use of biological control agents in insect pest control and concentrates on its role in the production, transport, distribution, and release of parasites and predators and the advantages that ionizing radiation can offer, in comparison with traditional techniques. (author)

  9. Biological control of pests in protected cultivation: implementation in Latin America and successes in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Lenteren, van, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The area with greenhouse crops is estimated to be around 40,000 hectares in Latin America, of which approximately 60% is occupied with ornamentals. Several pests are responsible for losses in yield or quality of greenhouse crops production and pest control is still mainly by chemicals. However, there are several stimuli for the adoption of biological control strategies as an IPM component, not only for the export market of products, but also for increased use of sustainable plant protection m...

  10. Potential for widespread application of biological control of stored-product pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengaard

    2007-01-01

    Biological control of stored product pests has substantial potential in Europe". This is essentially the conclusion of the activities of a European working group funded by the COST system, an intergovernmental networking system. Working group 4 of COST action 842 (2000-2005) focussed on biologica...... situations will contribute to ensuring that stored food products are protected from insect and mite pests using techniques that are safe for consumers, workers and the environment.......Biological control of stored product pests has substantial potential in Europe". This is essentially the conclusion of the activities of a European working group funded by the COST system, an intergovernmental networking system. Working group 4 of COST action 842 (2000-2005) focussed on biological...... control of stored-product pests and has considered a number of existing and potential fields for application of biological control. Three situations were identified where biological control would be a valuable component of integrated pest management: (1) Empty room treatment against stored-product mites...

  11. COTTON APHID APHIS GOSSYPII L. (HOMOPTERA; APHIDIDAE; A CHALLENGING PEST; BIOLOGY AND CONTROL STRATEGIES: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kaleem Sarwar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii is a key pest of cotton crop. The indiscriminate use of insecticides and pesticides during 1930’s and latter to control insects pests, developed resistance in cotton aphid against these chemicals resulting in outbreak of this pest. Cotton aphid has a major impact on quality and yield of cotton which emphasizes the need to manage this notorious pest. The main goal of this review is to highlight various strategies viz., biological, chemical and cultural control for cotton aphid management. The selection of suitable control strategy is made on by viewing the severity of cotton aphid outbreak. Furthermore, the role of transgenic crops in lowering cotton aphid population is also described. However, the preservation of the cotton aphid's natural enemies could be an ecologically sustainable method of maintaining the aphid population below threshold level.

  12. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    Full Text Available Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history, the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard, or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  13. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biological control (CBC is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina and the olive moth (Prays oleae. Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems.

  14. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages, ...

  15. Radiation sources supporting the use of natural enemies for biological control of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augmentative biological control as a component of integrated pest management programmes involves the release of natural enemies of the pest, such as parasitoids and predators. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques have been identified which can benefit such programmes; these benefits include facilitating trade, protecting the environment and increasing the overall efficacy of the programmes. This may involve sterilising feed material, hosts or even the control insects. Radiation is currently the most favoured sterilising agent, although availability and cost of radiation sources are considered as limiting the use of radiation in support of biological control. This paper reviews various radiation sources that may be used for this purpose, including a comparison of several key parameters such as cost estimates of these radiation sources that should assist in making a judicious selection of a suitable irradiator. (author)

  16. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan R Morris; John Vandermeer; Ivette Perfecto

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the...

  17. Biological control of cultural heritage pest Coleoptera and Lepidoptera with the help of parasitoid Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schöller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural enemies are known from many cultural heritage pests, but their potential for biological control has been marginally exploited only. In this publication, examples of practical and commercial application of parasitoids of beetles and moths are compiled as well as laboratory research that contributes to the development of guidelines for parasitoid releases. One the one hand there are parasitoids found to occur simultaneously with the pests in buildings, on the other hand there are parasitoids that were never found to be associated with the respective pests but accept them if brought into the cultural heritage environments. An example for the latter is the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens euproctidis, a parasitoid of moth eggs including those of the cloth moth Tineola bisselliella. In semi-field trials it was shown that inundative releases of the egg parasitoids are necessary and that effectiveness is reduced on thick cloth with long strand. Trichogramma release units have to be placed directly on the cloth to be protected. A naturally occuring parasitoid of Anobiid beetles is the pteromalid larval parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus. This parasitoid was applied against the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum in historic libraries and against spider beetles (Ptininae in historic buildings. A simulation model for the population-dynamics of L. distinguendus and the golden spider beetle Niptus hololeucus is presented. Finally, monitoring of the Braconid larval parasitoid Spathius exarator used for indirect monitoring of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum is described. The future potential of parasitoids to control cultural heritage pests is discussed.

  18. Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Hoddle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided “new tools” that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting “legacy pests”, even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of “new tools” include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using “new tools” for developing biological control programs for “legacy pests” could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect.

  19. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  20. Pest control in postharvest nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the impact of insect infestations on the quality of postharvest nuts. The chapter first reviews the biology of key field pests that may be found in harvested nuts, and pests found in nut storage and processing facilities. The chapter then reviews current and developing control...

  1. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  2. Biological control of pests in protected cultivation: implementation in Latin America and successes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The area with greenhouse crops is estimated to be around 40,000 hectares in Latin America, of which approximately 60% is occupied with ornamentals. Several pests are responsible for losses in yield or quality of greenhouse crops production and pest control is still mainly by chemicals. However, ther

  3. Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  4. Conservation Biological Control and Pest Performance in Lawn Turf: Does Mowing Height Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Emily K.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2014-03-01

    With >80 million United States households engaged in lawn and gardening activities, increasing sustainability of lawn care is important. Mowing height is an easily manipulated aspect of lawn management. We tested the hypothesis that elevated mowing of tall fescue lawn grass promotes a larger, more diverse community of arthropod natural enemies which in turn provides stronger biological control services, and the corollary hypothesis that doing so also renders the turf itself less suitable for growth of insect pests. Turf-type tall fescue was mowed low (6.4 cm) or high (10.2 cm) for two growing seasons, natural enemy populations were assessed by vacuum sampling, pitfall traps, and ant baits, and predation and parasitism were evaluated with sentinel prey caterpillars, grubs, and eggs. In addition, foliage-feeding caterpillars and root-feeding scarab grubs were confined in the turf to evaluate their performance. Although some predatory groups (e.g., rove beetles and spiders) were more abundant in high-mowed grass, predation rates were uniformly high because ants, the dominant predators, were similarly abundant regardless of mowing height. Lower canopy temperatures in high-mowed grass were associated with slower growth of grass-feeding caterpillars. Higher lawn mowing reduces fuel consumption and yard waste, and promotes a deep, robust root system that reduces need for water and chemical inputs. Although in this study elevated mowing height did not measurably increase the already-high levels of predation, it did suggest additional ways through which bottom-up effects on insect pest growth might interact with natural enemies to facilitate conservation biological control.

  5. A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris

    OpenAIRE

    Dutka, Alexandrea; McNulty, Alison; Williamson, Sally M.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of concern about population declines in pollinating insects. Many potential threats have been identified which may adversely affect the behaviour and health of both honey bees and bumble bees: these include pesticide exposure, and parasites and pathogens. Whether biological pest control agents adversely affect bees has been much less well studied: it is generally assumed that biological agents are safer for wildlife than chemical pesticides. The aim of this stu...

  6. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Morris

    Full Text Available Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82% than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  7. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  8. Mixed cropping systems for biological control of weeds and pests in organic oilseed crops

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Hans Marten; Schochow, Martin; Ulber, B; Kühne, Stefan; Rahmann, Gerold

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural advantages of mixed cropping are gained by biological effects like light competition, offering weed-suppressing capacities or by diversification of plant covers to break development cycles of pests. In a two-year project on mixed cropping with organic oilseed crops these effects were measured. It was found that weeds can be efficiently suppressed in organic linseed (Linum usitatissivum) in crop combinations with wheat (Triticum aestivum) or false flax (Camelina sativa). But linse...

  9. Biology and Control of Insect and Related Pests of Livestock in Wyoming. MP-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John E.

    This document provides information that a potential insecticide applicator can utilize to safely and effectively control insects and related pests of livestock. The first section of the manual discusses the general methods of preparation and application of insecticides. The second section concerns itself with the recognition of insect problems,…

  10. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests

    OpenAIRE

    Sobhy, Islam S.; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Ted C J Turlings

    2014-01-01

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of com...

  11. The Potential Role of Nuclear Techniques in Support of the Production of Biological Control Agents of Insect Pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While nuclear techniques could play a vital role in enabling cost-effective mass production of beneficial insects for use in augmentative biological control, surprisingly little use has been made of these techniques or ionizing radiation produced by other means (e.g., x-rays or electron beams from linear accelerators) for mass rearing beneficial insects. This technology has been available for quite some time, having been used to reproductively sterilize screwworm flies as early as 1951 (Bushland and Hopkins). Similarly, gamma radiation has been accepted internationally for human food preservation and disinfestation for many years (Anon., 1995). Quite a number of gamma radiation sources exist at or near USDA ARS and APHIS facilities throughout the U.S., as well as in many universities. Still, relatively little use has been made of this approach to assist in mass rearing of beneficial insects for use in augmentative biological control. As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there still is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Nuclear techniques should play an increasing role in the future, as the overall thrust of biological control moves more and more toward augmentative releases (Knipling, 1992). It is the intent of this presentation to review some of the existing and potential uses that can be made of nuclear techniques and other sources of ionizing radiation in support of the biological control of insect pests. (author)

  12. A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutka, Alexandrea; McNulty, Alison; Williamson, Sally M

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of concern about population declines in pollinating insects. Many potential threats have been identified which may adversely affect the behaviour and health of both honey bees and bumble bees: these include pesticide exposure, and parasites and pathogens. Whether biological pest control agents adversely affect bees has been much less well studied: it is generally assumed that biological agents are safer for wildlife than chemical pesticides. The aim of this study was to test whether entomopathogenic nematodes sold as biological pest control products could potentially have adverse effects on the bumble bee Bombus terrestris. One product was a broad spectrum pest control agent containing both Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp., the other product was specifically for weevil control and contained only Steinernema kraussei. Both nematode products caused ≥80% mortality within the 96 h test period when bees were exposed to soil containing entomopathogenic nematodes at the recommended field concentration of 50 nematodes per cm(2) soil. Of particular concern is the fact that nematodes from the broad spectrum product could proliferate in the carcasses of dead bees, and therefore potentially infect a whole bee colony or spread to the wider environment. PMID:26618084

  13. Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were...

  14. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) : Tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    OpenAIRE

    Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia.[br/] Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would beneÞt from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitismo...

  15. Public Health Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  16. Nonlinear incidence rate of a Pest management SI model with biological and chemical control concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Jian-jun; CHEN Lan-sun

    2007-01-01

    A pest management SI model with impulsive releases of infective pests and spraying pesticides is proposed and investigated. We prove that all solutions of the model are uniformly ultimately bounded. We also obtain the sufficient conditions of globally asymptotic stability periodic solution of pest-extinction and permanence of the model.The approach of combining impulsive releasing infective pests with impulsive spraying pesticides provides reliable tactical basis for the practical pest management.

  17. Cultural and chemical pest control methods alter habitat suitability for biological control agents: An example from Wisconsin commercial cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated pest control program requires an in-depth understanding of the compatibility of all control strategies used. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry production, early-season control strategies may include either a broad-spectrum insecticide application or a corresponding spring flood, along ...

  18. Technique of pneumatic pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Pest control in organic production of berries, potatoes and vegetables usually employs spreading technique of registered phytopharmaceutical agents. This technique may be supported or even replaced by pneumatic pest control. Up to now there is no evaluation of pneumatic pest control available from agricultural engineering point of view. This paper concerns the following questions: Which techniques of pneumatic pest control are available and how may these techniques be improved in ...

  19. Quality of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports on biological pest control / Thea Henriette Carroll

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Thea Henriette

    2006-01-01

    Decision making regarding the release of biological control agents for invasive species such as lantana, Lantana camara, requires the consideration and evaluation of environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports by a competent authority. Although various biological control agents have been authorised for release into the environment for the control of lantana, the quality of the EIA reports that form the basis for decision making has never been evaluated. The evaluation of the ...

  20. Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – Major Pest in Apple Production: an Overview of its Biology, Resistance, Genetic Structure and Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Pajač

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM (Linnaeus is a key pest in pome fruit production with a preference for apple. The pest is very adaptable to different climatic conditions and is known for developing resistance to several chemical groups of insecticides. Because of these reasons, the populations of codling moth are differentiated in many ecotypes of various biological and physiological development requirements. The article provides a bibliographic review of investigation about: morphology, biology, dispersal, damages, resistance to insecticides, population genetic structure and genetic control of this pest.

  1. Floricultural Insects and Related Pests - Biology and Control, Section I. Florogram - Specialty Manual Issue for Commercial Greenhouse Growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, A. G.; Scanlon, D. T.

    This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of floricultural crops grown commercially in glass and plastic houses in Massachusetts. The publication consists of two sections. The first section presents a description of the major pests of…

  2. The use of compost for the biological pest control. An alternative for pesticides; Utilizacion de compost en el control biologico de plagas. Una alternativa a los plaguicidas quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, J. A.

    2000-07-01

    Traditional methods of controlling pests and diseases using chemical pesticides can provide highly effective pest control but these methods might be damaging to the environment. Compost or other organic matter added to soil has the potential to control many soil borne plant pathogens, therefore they can be used in the sustainable agriculture. The mechanisms of action of compost are not well defined, being a mix of mycoparasitism, antibiotic production and nutrient competition. Our research is focused on the potential action of compost from municipal wastes in the biological control on pest. The addition of organic waste compost improved the biological control against Pythium furthermore raised the organic matter content of an arid soil. The addition of urban waste to the soil also could act long-term against Pythium, reducing the application times. One of the compost fraction more active in biological control are the humic substances. Nowadays, composts cannot be used by themselves to prevent plant pathogens action, it also is needed some pesticide application, but the use of these pesticides can be considerably reduced with the application of compost. (Author)

  3. Recent Advances in Biological Control of Pest Insects by Using Viruses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-lian SUN; Hui-yin PENG

    2007-01-01

    Insect viruses are attractive as biological control agents and could be a feasible alternative to chemical insecticides in the management of insect infestations. This review describes recent advances in the development of wild-type and genetically modified viruses as insecticides. A new strategy of application of insect viruses in China is reviewed. Also, the assessment of biosafety of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedovirus (HearNPV) is emphasized as a case-study.

  4. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare alternative methods of pest control for insect pests in order to determine which methods has the highest efficacy against insect pests and the least detrimental side effects, while maintaining production and profits. The analysis was based on the experimental...... trials for three treatments: weaver ants, chemical insecticides and control. Data on yields, quantities and prices of inputs and output were collected and analyzed using inferential statistics (t-test), partial budgetary technique and marginal analysis involving dominance analysis. The results of partial...

  5. Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Hannah

    2012-07-01

    The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests. PMID:23057183

  6. Management of plant pathogens and pests using microbial biological control agents. In: Trigiano, R.N. and Ownley, B.H., editors. Plant Pathology Concepts and Laboratory Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    All parts of plants face continual attack by plant pathogens and insects. Some insects are vectors of pathogens. Plant pests can be controlled by a variety of methods including application of pesticides but one of the most stainable and environmentally friendly approaches is biological control. Mic...

  7. Climate Change, Carbon Dioxide, and Pest Biology: Monitor, Mitigate, Manage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziska, Lewis H; McConnell, Laura L

    2016-01-13

    Rising concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide ([CO2]) and subsequent changes in climate, including temperature and precipitation extremes, are very likely to alter pest pressures in both managed and unmanaged plant communities. Such changes in pest pressures can be positive (migration from a region) or negative (new introductions), but are likely to be accompanied by significant economic and environmental consequences. Recent studies indicate the range of invasive weeds such as kudzu and insects such as mountain pine beetle have already expanded to more northern regions as temperatures have risen. To reduce these consequences, a better understanding of the link between CO2/climate and pest biology is needed in the context of existing and new strategies for pest management. This paper provides an overview of the probable biological links and the vulnerabilities of existing pest management (especially chemical control) and provides a preliminary synthesis of research needs that could potentially improve the ability to monitor, mitigate, and manage pest impacts. PMID:25671793

  8. The Creation of BugBag. Redesign of Insect Trap for Biological Pest Control

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Mads Rømer; Andersen, Jakob Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The project is based on research on pheromones and the project SoftPest Multitrap. Copenhagen Universitys Science and Life Sciences, more specifically Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, has researched and developed the pheromonis for mass trapping of the Strawberry Blossom Weevil (Anthonomus Rubi) and the European Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus Rugulipennis). Our foucus is on the user-experience Associated with the pheromonibased traps. Especially the distrubution, as...

  9. Training for Certification: Aquatic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial applicators. Weed control, vertebrate pest control, and environmental considerations and restrictions are the three major parts of the document. The weed control section discusses non-pesticide, mechanical, and biological control as…

  10. Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (Förster)-Past, Present, and Future: The History of a Biological Control Method Using L. distinguendus against Different Storage Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermayer, Steffi; Pollmann, Marie; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2016-01-01

    Legal requirements and consumer demands for residue-free products pose a big challenge for pest control in grain stores. One possible alternative to chemical insecticides is biological pest control with the pteromalid wasp Lariophagus distinguendus against the weevils Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Dryophtoridae), and many other storage pest beetles. The use of this wasp as a biocontrol agent was already suggested in 1919 by Prof. Dr. Hase [1]. Despite many studies on host-finding and behavioral biology, the applied aspect was neglected until 1994. Nowadays the wasps are commercially available and can now even be reared on-site, facilitating their use tremendously. This review highlights the milestones in L. distinguendus research, gives insights in current studies, and ventures a glimpse into the future. PMID:27490572

  11. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  12. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)-tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia. Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would benefit from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitism of five Trichogramma species-strains on the pest-plant system T. absoluta-tomato, and 2) assessed various biological traits of parasitoids, mass-reared on a factitious host (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), when developing on T. absoluta. In addition, we evaluated the overall efficiency of two specific Trichogramma species when released under greenhouse conditions in combination with a common natural enemy in tomato crop, the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Parasitoids emerging from T. absoluta on tomato showed lower parasitism rates and poor biological traits, for example, wing deformations, reduced longevity, when compared with the control reared on the factitious host. Under greenhouse conditions, the parasitoids that developed on T. absoluta after initial releases contributed little to biological control of T. absoluta, and parasitism tended to be lower when the predator was present. However, a slightly higher T. absoluta control level was achieved by combining the predator and release of the parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. This study shows that Trichogramma parasitoids may not build up populations on the T. absoluta-tomato system, but that Trichogramma parasitoids can be used in combination with M. pygmaeus to enhance biological control of the pest in tomato crops. PMID:24498728

  13. Biological soil disinfestation : a safe and effective approach for controlling soilborne pests and diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, J.G.; Wanten, P.J.; Blok, W.J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological soil disinfestation (bsd) is an environmentally friendly method to disinfest the soil from soilborne fungi and nematodes. With biological soil disinfestation a green manure crop (40 tonnes per ha) or other green biomass is homogeneously incorporated into the soil layer that has to be disi

  14. Dynamic models of pest propagation and pest control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Ming; Lin Zhen-Quan; Ke Jian-Hong

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a pest propagation model to investigate the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates.A pest aggregate grows by self-monomer birth,and it may fragment into two smaller ones.The kinetic evolution behaviours of pest aggregates are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory.For a system with a self-birth rate kernel I(k)= Ik and a fragmentation rate kernel L(i,j)= L,we find that the total number M0A(t)and the total mass of the pest aggregates M1A(t)both increase exponentially with time if L≠0.Furthermore,we introduce two catalysis-driven monomer death mechanisms for the former pest propagation model to study the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates under pesticide and natural enemy controlled pest propagation.In the pesticide controlled model with a catalyzed monomer death rate kernel J1(k)= J1k,it is found that only when I pests be killed off.Otherwise,the pest aggregates can survive.In the model of pest control with a natural enemy,a pest aggregate loses one of its individuals and the number of natural enemies increases by one.For this system,we find that no matter how many natural enemies there are at the beginning,pests will be eliminated by them eventually.

  15. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  16. Demonstration and Research Pest Control. Manual 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the demonstration and research pest control category. The text discusses pesticide-organism interactions such as penetration, transport, accumulation, and biological magnification. Integrating pesticides…

  17. Integrated Pest Management of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in clementines: enhancing its biological control

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ MARCO, FRANCESC

    2015-01-01

    Aphis spiraecola Patch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) es una de las plagas claves en el cultivo de clementinos de la cuenca Mediterránea. En primavera, este pulgón coloniza las brotaciones tiernas de los clementinos y causa importantes pérdidas económicas todos los años. Actualmente la gestión integrada de A. spiraecola en clementinos está basada en el control químico ya que se desconoce bastante sobre el control biológico de A. spiraecola en cítricos. Los esfuerzos realizados hasta la fecha se han ...

  18. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  19. Integration of behavioral and biological control for the management of cotton insect pests: Significance and cost benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earias pheromones. The pheromones were applied once in a season at the start of square formation stage of the cotton crop. The fourth block was treated with conventional insecticides. The farmer applied organophosphate (confidor) and Pyrethroid (Polytrin-C) insecticides in two sprays each. The infestation of pink bollworm and Earias spp. was recorded at weekly intervals. Establishment of the parasitoids was determined by placing Angoumois grain moth eggs in the field. These cards were brought into the laboratory after 24 hours exposure in the differently treated blocks and parasitoid emergence was recorded. For the control of sucking pests, insecticide (confidor) was sprayed uniformly in all the treatments in the third week of June during both years. The cost of the treatments was worked out and the cost benefit ratio for each treatment was calculated. Integration of parasitoids and pheromones, suppressed the bollworms infestation below the economic injury level (5-10%). Separate treatment of pheromones or parasitoids was less effective, and required supplemental measures. The population of the parasitoids in the field was low in the hot months of June and July and thereafter it gradually increased in the succeeding months. Maximum number of the parasitoids was observed in the month of October. The cost of integrated treatment with parasitoids and pheromones was also less than that of insecticide treatment alone. Potential of behavioural and biological control tactics for launching the integrated approach on an area-wide basis is discussed

  20. Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. Report of a Consultants Group Meeting. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-priority opportunities are proposed for use of nuclear techniques to effect improved production and shipping of augmentative biological control agents. Proposed subprojects include use of ionizing radiation to improve the production of insect natural enemies on natural hosts/prey or on artificial diets. Other subprojects pertain to improving the ability to move beneficial organisms in international trade, and in using them in the field. Additional high priority activities were identified proposing use of nuclear techniques to produce sterile and/or substerile F-1 weed biological control agents to help evaluate potential impact on non-target species in the pre-release phase, integration of augmentative releases and F-1 sterility in IPM and area-wide pest management programmes, and utilization of by-products from SIT mass-rearing facilities in augmentative biological control programmes. (author)

  1. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Casper Nyamukondiwa; Frank Chidawanyika; Pride Mudavanhu

    2012-01-01

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such oppor...

  2. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses. PMID:23786050

  3. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deal with invasions of exotic Lepidoptera is the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Pyralidae). Once the best example of successful classical biological control of weeds, solving a major cactus problem in Australia, it invaded Florida in 1989 and has been spreading along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. There is grave concern that this pest will eventually reach the cactus-rich Western U.S.A., Mexico, and Central America, threatening the biodiversity of the Opuntia-based native ecosystems and adversely impacting the important food and fodder Opuntia industry. Currently, the pheromone is being developed as a monitoring tool, mass rearing methods are being refined in South Africa and the radiation biology of the cactus moth is being studied to determine the optimum dose of radiation. An SIT programme is being considered to prevent further geographical expansion of this moth, but the use F1 sterility is also being assessed as a tool to determine the eventual host and geographical range and to study the rate of spread of this invading insect. To raise awareness of this major environmental threat and the potential of SIT to address alien species, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division recently hosted a planning and coordination meeting, that included representatives of some environmental organizations, to assess the role SIT/F1 Sterility can play in addressing the cactus moth invasion as a model of invasive pests affecting not only agriculture, but that are also of environmental concern (see report of a cactus moth Consultants Meeting on page 28). We foresee an increased role in developing SIT for potential alien invasive species to help FAO and IAEA Member States deal with incipient outbreaks of such pest species

  4. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    incompatibility and other alternatives to sterilization. Area-wide insect pest control programmes are logistically complex and managerially intensive. They require an effective management and a broad coalition of stakeholders committed to ensure success. These critical, but largely non-technical, operational issues, often determine success or failure of area-wide programmes: whereas the integration of various technologies is effective in some countries, it runs into major problems when implemented against the same pest insect in others. Therefore the main focus of this second conference was to review lessons learned in implementation, addressing both the technical and managerial components of operational AW-IPM programmes. Thus, in addition to oral and poster presentations on programmes and new technologies relevant to improving the implementation of operational programmes, managers, scientists and decision-makers at the conference debated a number of relevant questions during eight discussion sessions and four discussion panels. It is hoped that a third conference on this theme can be held in ca. 5-6 years. Another major development we would like to share relates to the 7th Session of the Interim Commission for Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM) for the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), held in April 2005 at FAO headquarters in Rome. The IPPC is the international treaty under which the international standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM) that protect plant health are agreed. These standards are recognized by the WTO's Agreement on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS). The use and transboundary shipments of sterile insects was previously outside the scope of ISPM No.3 entitled Code of Conduct for the Import and Release of Exotic Biological Control Agents. Since the implementation of the SIT was largely dominated by the public sector, this did not represent a problem for the transboundary shipment of sterile insects. However, the lack of an international

  5. General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

  6. Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

    The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

  7. Biological control and sustainable food production

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, J S; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Bigler, F

    2007-01-01

    The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentative control has been successfully applied against a range of open-field and greenhouse pests, and conservation biological control schemes have been developed with indigenous predators and parasitoid...

  8. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 2003 has again been a very intense period for all of us working at the Insect Pest Control Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Agriculture Programme. This issue reports normative activities, and the application of area-wide control and SIT. One that stands out during 2003 is the recent publication of 'Trapping Guidelines for Area-wide Fruit Fly Programmes', which responds to the request by Member States to harmonize internationally trapping procedures for Tephritid fruit flies of economic importance. These pest insects have a major impact on the international trade of fresh fruits and vegetables, and the guidelines provide strategic guidance and direction to NPPOs, RPPOs and industry on where and how to implement fruit fl y surveys. Using these guidelines in the implementation of surveys will support FAO and IAEA Member States in obtaining international recognition of their fruit fly control and quarantine activities. A new project is a world-directory of fruit fly workers. A tremendous amount of information is made available each year on Tephritid fruit flies: new technologies developed, new information on their biology and ecology; new control methods made available, new species identified, new outbreaks recorded and new operational control programmes launched. This site will attempt to collate this information and allow Tephritid fruit fly workers worldwide to keep up-to-date on the most recent developments. Another activity has been the development of more scientific methods for determining when an area achieves a pest-free status. A consultants meeting focused on this topic and a generic procedure has been developed for declaring an area to be 'pest-free' following an eradication campaign against an insect pest. This involves a probability model to deal with null trapping results and also a growth model to help verify that pest specimen were not present when control was stopped. Other normative and promotional activities under development include

  9. Biological control and sustainable food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bale, J.S.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Bigler, F.

    2008-01-01

    The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). Augmentati

  10. Spatially optimal habitat management for enhancing natural control of an invasive agricultural pest: soybean aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Werf, van der W.; Swinton, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    By their direct effects on private profitability, invasive agricultural pests create special incentives for management that set them apart from other categories of invasive species. One attractive nonchemical management approach for agricultural pests relies upon biological control by natural enemie

  11. Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

  12. Natural enemy interactions constrain pest control in complex agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Emily A.; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2013-01-01

    Biological control of pests by natural enemies is a major ecosystem service delivered to agriculture worldwide. Quantifying and predicting its effectiveness at large spatial scales is critical for increased sustainability of agricultural production. Landscape complexity is known to benefit natural enemies, but its effects on interactions between natural enemies and the consequences for crop damage and yield are unclear. Here, we show that pest control at the landscape scale is driven by diffe...

  13. A Usages of Herb Extracts by Stream Integrated with Micro-organism to Control Insect Pests and Phytophagus Mites by Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A usages of herb extracts by stream integrated rith micro-organism to control insect pests and phytophagus mites by biological control was compared with insecticide to investigate the responses of chili tree and kieffer lime tree. Moreover, herb extracts were tested in controlling insect pests. Herb extracts were selected from many effective kinds such as: Azadirachta indica, Hyptis suaveolens, Citronella grass, Eucalyptus, Stemona, Galangal, Zingiber, cassumunar Roxb. Chronmolaena oderatum, Derris elyptica, Ginger, Annona seed, Malueraca sp., Andrographis paniculata, Veronia aquarrosa, Garlic, Thevetia peruviana, and Tobacco. The experiment was set at Herb Laboratory Ayutthaya Campus, Rajamangala University of Technology, Suvarnabhumi during August 2004 to June 2006. From testing herb extracts at 100 ppm. On Chili germination, the result was that the Chromolaena extracts made highest germination of 69.50%, Citronella grass at 500 ppm., made highest germination of chili seed at 86.00% within 12 days. Garlic extracts could kill 75.90% of aphids in 24 hrs., maximized in this experiments. Malueraca extracts at 500 ppm. Could kill 92.65% of chili aphids similar to the activity of insecticides action in 24 hrs. However at 5,000 ppm. It found that chemical treatment gave difference results from herbal treatments. Annona extracts could kill 64.58% of chili aphids better that others treatments. There are 18 treatment of time at 6 hrs. , 15 hrs., and 24 hrs., respectively. The results found that at 6 hrs., Kelthane could kill 93.75% of red spider mite. At 15 hrs. Stemona could kill 95.50% of red spider mite. At 24 hrs. Stemona or Chromolaena could kill 100% of red spider mite equally, Chrolaena could kill more than 83% of chili thrips at 24 hrs. Annona extracts could harvest the maximum of fruit fresh weight and numbers of fruits. After cutting leaves for producing new leaves, spraying herbal extracts was not different in statistic; however, Eucalyptus extracts, Neem plus

  14. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication

  15. Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert C., Comp.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

  16. Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

  17. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cladera, Jorge L.; Vilardi, Juan C.; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in differen...

  18. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  19. Termite Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)

  20. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

    This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

  1. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)

  2. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  3. Pest Control Section Biochemical Group, Progress Report 1982-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reserch efforts in the Pest Control Section, BARC, a continuator of insect sterilization and pest control section of the erstwhile Biology and Agriculture Division, were continued to develop integrated management practices for the control of important insect pests of agricultural and medical importance. Insect pests chosen are, ubiquitous potato tuberworm, a serious pest of potatoes, cotton bollworms with particular reference to spotted bollworms and a mosquito (Culex fatigans), a vector of filariasis. Keeping these insects as targets, research activities have been concentrated in the fields of biological control with parasities, pathogens and sterile insects, sex pheromones and insect plant interaction with a view to integrate pest management programme. Besides, the research activity also encompasses investigations of basic nature in the fields of insect sex pheromones, insect pathology and insect plant interaction. Studies on insect pheromones relate to the modifying influence of abiotic and biotic factors of the environment on pheromone production and perception and the possibility of insect developing resistance to pheromones. Studies in the field of insect plant interaction are directed towards identifying weak links in the insect plant relationship with a view to exploit them for developing control. Basic studies in the field of insect pathology relate to isolation and identification of entomopathogens, source of their pathogenecity, improvement in their virulence and formulation of cheaper and potent microbial insecticides. This report pertains to the period 1982-86. (Orig.). 11 tables, 5 figures

  4. 昆虫生长调节剂在害虫生物防治中的应用%Application of Insect Growth Regulators in Biological Control of Insect Pest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭青春; 郑福山; 董红霞

    2011-01-01

    概述了昆虫生长调节剂的作用特点和种类,并对其在害虫生物防治中的应用进行了介绍。%Function characteristics and classification of insect growth regulators were summarized.And application of insect growth regulators on biological control of insect pests was introduced.

  5. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Fumigatio...

  6. Review of nonchemical methods for controlling stored products pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumigation of stored products with methyl bromide has been an important means of limiting the loss of quality and quantity of these commodities that are subject to attack by cosmopolitan stored product pests. Methyl bromide was identified as a substance depleting ozone, and is expected to be withdrawn from production, importation, and use in Poland and other countries soon after 2000. Based on the current knowledge, most of alternatives to methyl bromide (controlled atmospheres, heat, cold, irradiation, biotechnical methods, inert dusts, biological methods, sanitation) have researchable gaps or other constraints. None of these alternatives used alone will replace methyl bromide. Successful pest control in the absence of methyl bromide will require the development of sophisticated pest monitoring and decision support systems to enable the use of integrated pest management strategies. (author)

  7. The most important sugar beet pests in Ukraine and integral measures for their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Vitaly P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The report delivers the origins of the insect complex formation on sugar beet fields in Ukraine. Biological, ethological and ecological peculiarities of the most numerous pest species have been shown. Regularities of many-year dynamics of pests, the problems of phytosanitary state of agrocenosis of sugar beet fields and conceptual grounds of pest control in contemporary conditions have been substantiated.

  8. Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, V. Rodney

    This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

  9. A Dynamical Analysis of a Piecewise Smooth Pest Control SI Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Liu, Wanbo; Tao, Fennmei; Kang, Baolin; Cong, Jiguang

    In this paper, we propose a piecewise smooth SI pest control system to model the process of spraying pesticides and releasing infectious pests. We assume that the pest population consists of susceptible pests and infectious pests, and that the disease spreads horizontally between pests. We take the susceptible pest as the control index on whether to implement chemical control and biological control strategies. Based on the theory of Filippov system, the sliding-mode domain and conditions for the existence of real equilibria, virtual equilibria, pseudo-equilibrium and boundary equilibria are given. Further, we show the global stability of real equilibria (or boundary equilibria) and pseudo-equilibrium. Our results can provide theoretical guidance for the problem of pest control.

  10. Industrial and Institutional Pest Control. Sale Publication 4073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…

  11. Potential Use of Entomopathogenic Virus Native to Sumatra Island as Biological Control Agent of Setora nitens L. (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae, the Main Pest of Oilpalm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparman Suparman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slug caterpillars Setora nitens, have been appearing to be more serious insect pest of oil palm as it might cause frond damages up to 90%. Many effort had been made to control the caterpillars using insecticides but the insects are still existing and causing significant damages to the palm. Microbial insecticide, especially the one developed from indigenous entomopathogenic virus, is a promising method of controlling the insect since its toxicity to non target animals and humans is extremely low. A conventional way of controlling S. nitens using crude sap of infected larvae has been applied in several oil palm plantations in Sumatra Island, but various improvements are required to make the method more effective, efficient, widely acceptable and scientifically justified. A research on the potential use of entomopathogenic virus native to Sumatra Island as biological control agent of slug caterpillar was conducted to comprehend the pathogenicity and virulence of the entomopathogenic virus and to reveal the morphological identify of its particle. The results showed that the use of virus infecting caterpillars to control the insect was quite successful in term of increasing the number of infected caterpillars and reducing the rate of population development in the field. The use of homogenized infected caterpillars to orally infect healty S. nitens caterpillars resulted in the symptoms characteristics to viral infections appeared in all treated caterpillars with various extent of symptom developments. Some caterpillars could spine cocons but failed to release adult moth. Purification of the virus particles from infected caterpillars resulted in the apperarance of white band in the sucrose gradient indicated the presence of viral RNA. Electron microscopic observation showed that the white band in the sucrose gradient contained sphericle shape of virus particles justifying that the agent infecting S. nitens caterpillars is a virus which still need

  12. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Nyamukondiwa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  13. Chrysomelids American diabroticines Hosts and natural enemies. Biology-feasibility for control of pest species (Crisomelidos Diabroticinos americanos Hospederos y enemigos naturales Biologia y factibili manejo especies plagas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chrysomelids in the Diabroticites include some of the most important pest species of the American continent. The chemical and management techniques used to date to control them are: crop rotation to prevent re-infection of host crops, especially in the species that display an egg diapause; insec...

  14. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter. No. 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter lists the FAO/IAEA meetings in the field of pest control held between September 1990 and February 1991 and provides very brief summaries of their contents. It also features a special report on the New World Screwworm in North Africa. An eradication programme, organized by the IAEA and the FAO and based on the sterile insect technique, was implemented, and as a result it is expected that the area will be declared free of the pest during autumn 1991

  15. Genetic techniques in insect pest control: an overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marec, František

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (1998), s. 40. [ FAO /IAEA International Conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. 28.05.1998-02.06.1998, Penang] Keywords : Cochliomyia hominivorax * Ceratitis capitata Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  16. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  17. Potential Use of Entomopathogenic Virus Native to Sumatra Island as Biological Control Agent of Setora nitens L. (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae), the Main Pest of Oilpalm

    OpenAIRE

    Suparman Suparman; Yulia Pujiastuti; Hisanori Bando; Shin-ichiro Asano

    2013-01-01

    Slug caterpillars Setora nitens, have been appearing to be more serious insect pest of oil palm as it might cause frond damages up to 90%. Many effort had been made to control the caterpillars using insecticides but the insects are still existing and causing significant damages to the palm. Microbial insecticide, especially the one developed from indigenous entomopathogenic virus, is a promising method of controlling the insect since its toxicity to non target animals and humans is extremely ...

  18. 1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNab, A. A.; And Others

    This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

  19. Economics of area-wide pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide pest management is commonly practised throughout the world, probably much more so than is generally recognised (Lindquist 2000, Klassen 2000). Apart from highly publicised area-wide schemes such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) for fruit flies, pheromone disruption for cotton bollworms and classical biological control, there are many examples of actions such as concerted host plant eradication, enforced closed crop seasons, organised pesticide rotation for resistance management, coordination of resistant crop genotypes, etc., some going back several centuries, which should also be considered as area-wide practices. Each of these is faced with many of the economic issues generally associated with area-wide management which will be discussed below. In general, there are to be four major questions to answer in devising an area-wide pest management programme: 1) Should a particular pest be controlled locally or area-wide? 2) What is an appropriate area over which management should be attempted? 3) Within that area what form of control is most efficient? 4) What level of organisation should be used to get the job done? It should be noted that apart from clearly objective measures such as technical effectiveness (say, mortality) or cost efficiency (mortality per dollar), there are many subjective measures that come into the evaluation of area-wide control due to the element of risk (for example, in quarantine and eradication), the boundaries of externalities (for example, variable probabilities of pesticide drift under different conditions or target organism sensitivities) and time preferences for returns on capital investments (such as insect rearing facilities or research to develop pheromone technologies). As a result of these subjective components, it may sometimes be difficult to reach clearly agreed decisions based on objective economic analyses, even with a consensus on the data used. There are three general classes of economic problems in comparing

  20. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Agricultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication of Pennsylvania State University discusses the damage from and control of vertebrate pests. Specific discussions describe the habits, habitat, and various control measures for blackbirds and crows, deer, meadow and pine mice, European starlings, and woodchucks. Where confusion with non-harmful species…

  1. Regulatory Pest Control. Pesticide Bulletin 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, George C.

    This manual gives descriptions of and control methods for the imported fire ant, sweet potato pests, the white fringed beetle, the Japanese beetle, and phony peach disease. Toxicity, formulation, and application information is given for 2,4-D, methyl bromide, Chlordane, Mirex, and Mocap. Finally, environmental considerations and precautions are…

  2. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  3. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  4. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  5. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  6. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  7. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  8. Right Of Way Pest Control. Manual 88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the right-of-way pest control category. The text discusses types of vegetation, the nature of herbicides, application methods, use for specific situations, and safety precautions. (CS)

  9. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  10. Almond growers rely on pest control advisers for integrated pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Brodt, Sonja; Zalom, Frank; Krebill-Prather, Rose; Bentley, Walt; Pickel, Carolyn; Connell, Joseph; Wilhoit, Larry; Gibbs, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of full-time almond growers in the three primary almond-producing regions of California showed that growers rely substantially on pest control advisers (PCAs) for pest management decision-making. Independent PCAs communicated more frequently with growers than PCAs who are employed by agricultural product suppliers. Growers who use independent PCAs tend to feel more knowledgeable about integrated pest management (IPM) and report the use of more complex pest-monitoring te...

  11. Nonchemical pest control in China rice: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shiwen; Wang, Ling; Liu, Lianmeng; Fu, Qian; Zhu, Defeng

    2014-01-01

    Major pests such as blast, sheath blight, bacterial blight, plant hoppers, leaf folder, and stem borers occur in rice paddy fields. These pests cause high damage to the grain and straw yield. The application of high N fertilizer loads increases the predisposition of rice crops to be infected by pests. Many agrochemicals used to control pests lead to pest adaptation and resistance, loss of soil fertility and organic carbon, soil erosion, decreasing biodiversity, and desertification. Chemical f...

  12. Observation of biological pests on building facades by thermocamera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina, Z.; Solař, J.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Maršálková, Eliška; Fabian, R.; Čmiel, F.

    Pfaffikon: Trans Tech Publications, 2014 - (Kostelecká, M.), s. 183-186. (Book series. vol. 923). ISSN 1022-6680. [15th International Conference on Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of Building, CRRB 2013. Prague (CZ), 14.09.2013-15.09.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : spectrofluorometric method * infrared thermography * radiometric longwave method * biological pest * insulated facede Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. Control of stored-product pests by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review deals with the effects of irradiation on some aspects of the biology of major stored-product pests, namely mortality, stages of development, reproductive organs and reproductive potential, histology of the gut, factors influencing irradiation and the synergism of irradiation with other control agents. It also reports on the irradiation effects on stored commodities. Further guidelines for future research have been suggested. (author)

  14. Physiological Studies and Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philogene, Bernard J. R.

    1972-01-01

    In the light of new knowledge about insecticides, future research should be conducted by plant and insect physiologists together. Plant physiologists should explain what characteristics in plants attract insects and insect physiologists should study adaptive patterns of insects and combine their knowledge to control insects. (PS)

  15. Banker Plant System: a New Approach for Biological Control of Arthropod Pests%害虫生物防治新技术——载体植物系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖英方; 毛润乾; 沈国清; Lance S.Osbome

    2012-01-01

    建立一个自我维持并可有效降低害虫种群水平的系统是害虫生物防治长期追求的理想目标。载体植物系统(banker plant system)又称开放式天敌饲养系统,是近年来开发出的一种集保护利用本地天敌、人工繁殖释放天敌以及异地引进天敌等传统技术特点为一体的新型生物防治技术。载体植物(banker plants)、替代食物(alternative foods)和有益生物(beneficial)是该系统的三个基本要素。本文对载体植物和载体植物系统概念、特点以及近年来国际上的研究进展进行了综述,并结合自身的研究实践,举例介绍载体植物系统的应用,以推动国内外对载体植物系统的研究和应用。%Banker plant system(BPS) is a new concept for biological control of arthropod pests.It consists of three key elements: a banker plant,a highly specific alternative host or prey,and one or more natural enemies(predator or parasitoid).The ideal banker plant should be a non-crop plant that provides resources(alternative prey or nutrient) to sustain natural enemies of arthropod pest.The natural enemies should be specific to the alternative prey and the pest,and are able to disperse to a long distance to attack the pest.The banker plant system uniquely combines the advantages of both augmentative and conservation biological controls in greenhouse or field,it has been shown to be an effective,simple,reliable approach for control of arthropod pests.The use of banker plant system will not require the repeated release of natural enemies and also reduce the cost for purchasing commercial available biocontrol agents.The review is intended to summarize the history,development and potential application of banker plant systems.In our study,the goal is to develop long-term pest suppression of silver-leaf whitefly and two-spotted spider mite in vegetable crops,especially in greenhouse vegetables.Current,these pests have seriously

  16. A genetic perspective on pest control and the future of autocidal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits and limitations of chemical methods of pest control are acknowledged and the need to find alternatives is recognized at the outset. Genetic methods of control that specifically aim to reduce pest abundance by altering the genetic makeup of individuals in field populations are viewed as one important alternative or adjunct approach to chemical control. There is a tendency to classify methods of pest control according to the predominant discipline involved in the development of the technology. This basis for classification can divert attention from the essentially genetic dimensions of control measures, such as pesticides, synthetic sex pheromones, sterile insect techniques and genetic manipulation, whether by classical cytogenetic methods or recombinant-DNA procedures. By way of contrast, cytoplasmic incompatibility, traditionally viewed as a genetic approach because such phenomena are usually studied by geneticists, is probably more a host/parasite phenomenon. The paper attempts to apply a genetic perspective to the diverse array of control measures currently used by pest managers and examines the prevailing concepts of genetic control of insect pests and whether these have any legitimate claim to becoming practical tools for controlling major insect pests. A serious limitation to the development of genetic methods of pest control has been the absence of sustained genetic studies on important pest species, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) and other pests from the Diptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera orders. The application of classical cytogenetic and modern molecular biology techniques offers considerable promise in improving sterile insect techniques and for developing genuinely novel methods of autocidal control. However, these newer techniques are unlikely to realize their full potential if they are not developed hand-in-hand with the more traditional techniques of physiology, biochemistry, behaviour and ecology. 32 refs

  17. Development and Integration of Alternative Management Strategies Using Inherited Sterility and Natural Enemies to Control Lepidopteran Pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepidopteran pests such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, are often the most destructive pests of field crops in the United States. Insecticide resistance, increasing concern over pesticide pollution, and the desire to effectively manage lepidopteran pests on an area-wide basis have motivated scientists to identify and develop new pest management tactics that are compatible with current IPM practices. IPM-based systems, including genetic methods and biological control, offer the best long-term solutions to pesticide reduction and the management of destructive agricultural pests. F1 sterility has emerged as a promising control strategy for lepidopteran pests.

  18. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  19. Pest Control in the Presence of Pest Suppression by Natural Enemies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Swinton, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    The control of pests by their natural enemies represents an important ecosystem service that maintains the stability of agroecosystems and has the potential to mitigate pest control costs both to private producers and to society. Extending the "economic threshold" concept, this paper proposes an "ecological economic threshold" for pesticide use that takes into account the implicit cost of injury to natural enemies. By explicitly accounting for natural pest suppression, the ecological economic...

  20. Organic agriculture promotes evenness and natural pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, David W; Northfield, Tobin D; Strand, Michael R; Snyder, William E

    2010-07-01

    Human activity can degrade ecosystem function by reducing species number (richness) and by skewing the relative abundance of species (evenness). Conservation efforts often focus on restoring or maintaining species number, reflecting the well-known impacts of richness on many ecological processes. In contrast, the ecological effects of disrupted evenness have received far less attention, and developing strategies for restoring evenness remains a conceptual challenge. In farmlands, agricultural pest-management practices often lead to altered food web structure and communities dominated by a few common species, which together contribute to pest outbreaks. Here we show that organic farming methods mitigate this ecological damage by promoting evenness among natural enemies. In field enclosures, very even communities of predator and pathogen biological control agents, typical of organic farms, exerted the strongest pest control and yielded the largest plants. In contrast, pest densities were high and plant biomass was low when enemy evenness was disrupted, as is typical under conventional management. Our results were independent of the numerically dominant predator or pathogen species, and so resulted from evenness itself. Moreover, evenness effects among natural enemy groups were independent and complementary. Our results strengthen the argument that rejuvenation of ecosystem function requires restoration of species evenness, rather than just richness. Organic farming potentially offers a means of returning functional evenness to ecosystems. PMID:20596021

  1. The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

  2. Implications of the Tribolium genome project for pest biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The universal availability of the complete Tribolium castaneum genome sequence assembly and annotation and concomitant development of the versatile Tribolium genome browser, BeetleBase (http://beetlebase.org/) open new realms of possibility for stored-product pest control by greatly simplifying the...

  3. The role of nuclear techniques in the control of agricultural pests and stored grains insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture in general, and pest control specifically, are very numerous. Although this field of science is over a century old, its rapid developments occurred only in the last few decades. In fact, the contribution of nuclear techniques to insect pest control during the last half century is one of the most important developments in this science. This article is devoted to discuss the most important and widely used applications of nuclear techniques, particularly ionizing radiation, in insect pest control. In particular, it deals with the subject of sterilizing insects for the purpose of insect pest control and/or eradication in the field and storage, irradiation disinfestation of sorted products, particularly cereals and pulses, facilitating international trade by avoiding quarantine barriers and its role in biological control of insect pests. (author)

  4. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past years it has often been pointed out that the name of the Insect and Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, and the name of this newsletter (Insect and Pest Control Newsletter) create confusion and expectations for control of rats, birds, weeds and other non-insect pests but which are not within our mandate. All work within the Subprogramme has been on insect pests, and in 1999 an external review recommended a change to Insect Pest Control Subprogramme since this is simpler, reduces confusion and retains the good recognition and high reputation that already exists. The IAEA management implemented this recommendation and consequently, as of this issue this newsletter is entitled Insect Pest Control Newsletter. There was a very constructive consultant's meeting recently held in Vienna on the development of genetic sexing strains for the codling moth, for which the demand for SIT application is significantly increasing. Based on the discussions during this meeting a real opportunity seems now to exist to move the field of Lepidoptera genetic sexing forward. The possibility of using an allele of a dominant lethal mutation, such as the temperature sensitive Notch, in the development of a genetic sexing system for codling moth is very exciting. As emerged during the meeting, if an appropriate allele of this mutation can be inserted onto the female determining chromosome of codling moth, through transformation, then it may be possible to kill female embryos with a cold temperature treatment. Another approach could be to translocate an autosomal insertion of the gene onto the female determining chromosome. If the insert of the dominant lethal mutation also included a gene expressing a fluorescent protein then the strain would also have a visible marker for the sexing procedure. This latter is very important for any use of a sexing strain in mass rearing. There appear to be few technical constraints to demonstrating 'proof of principle' for

  5. Herbivory, Predation, and Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Terence M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Authors describe a set of controlled ecosystems that can be used to demonstrate the effects of herbivory on the health and growth of a plant population and of predation on the growth of a primary consumer population. The system also shows the effectiveness of biological pest control measures in a dramatic way. The construction of the ecosystems is…

  6. Potential of the strain of entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea CCM 8637 as a biological control agent against Cameraria ohridella and other pests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zemek, Rostislav; Prenerová, Eva; Awad, Mona; Hussein, Hany

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2012), s. 79-80. ISSN 1335-258X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Grant ostatní: European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.4.00/12.0082 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : biological control * horse chestnut leaf miner * Colorado potato beatle

  7. Review on Application of Electromagnetic Theory and Technology to Forest Pests Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiangfeng; QU Zhiwei; LIANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Many domestic and international scholars have done a wide range of researches on electromagnetic theory and technology and have made some achievements. Electromagnetic technology has been used in forest pests control as a convenient and high-efficient physics means. This article summarizes the current study of the electromagnetic biological effect and introduces the application of microwave, pulsed electromagnetic field and electrostatic field to forest pests control. The research direction and prospect of the application of electromagnetic theory and technology to forest pests control are also discussed.

  8. THE CONTROL OF PESTS IN ECOSYSTEMS BY UNCHEMICAL METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    H BUNESCU; I GHIZDAVU; G MIHAI; I OLTEAN; M PORCA; BODIŞ, I.

    2003-01-01

    The most important way to control the pests is to not use chemicals, preventing the environmental pollution in the different ecosystems. We proposed to study and apply the unchemical methods according to ecological pest management, to control some pesticide resistant pests. The research has been oriented to the physical methods: the use of the light radiation reflected by different materials (supports), directly applied on the hostplant leaves or on the ground, which remove the insects from t...

  9. Monographical study for the identification and control of diptera pest species on Romanian wheat crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Malschi

    2009-01-01

    During 1978-2006, the agro-ecological research on the main species of wheat diptera pests,on integrated control systems and strategy of their management were performed, as part of sustainabledevelopment technology of wheat crop. The studies approached the species characteristics, the attackdiagnosis, the parallel evolution of populations and losses, insecticides effect, the biological efficiency andselective moment of treatments; the main objectives were: integrated diptera pest control and f...

  10. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2004 the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture celebrated 40 years of existence. The creation in October 1964 of this Division, which includes the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, marked the beginning of what is certainly a unique and arguably the best example of inter-agency cooperation within the whole UN family. The goal was to join the talents and resources of both organizations to obtain better cooperation and less duplication of efforts in assisting their Member States in applying nuclear techniques for providing people with more, better and safer food and other agricultural products, while sustaining the natural resources base. The complete press release is included under 'Special News and Reports'

  11. Monographical study for the identification and control of diptera pest species on Romanian wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Malschi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available During 1978-2006, the agro-ecological research on the main species of wheat diptera pests,on integrated control systems and strategy of their management were performed, as part of sustainabledevelopment technology of wheat crop. The studies approached the species characteristics, the attackdiagnosis, the parallel evolution of populations and losses, insecticides effect, the biological efficiency andselective moment of treatments; the main objectives were: integrated diptera pest control and forecastof losses, protection and use of the natural reservoir of entomophagous in regional diptera populationslimitation, in cereal agroecosystems. The research proved the crucial role of entomophagous as naturalpredators, and their efficiency in decreasing wheat pests abundance, in normal conditions.

  12. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 66, January 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  13. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 68, January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  14. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 73, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation field projects, coordinated research projects and research coordination meetings, developments at the Entomology Unit Seibersdorf, training courses offered on insect pest control as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section

  15. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 69, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  16. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 71, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  17. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 72, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  18. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 70, January 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  19. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 67, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  20. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  1. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  2. Potential Use of a Serpin from Arabidopsis for Pest Control

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Maharramov, Jafar; Carrillo, Laura; Vandenabeele, Steven; Vercammen, Dominique; Van Breusegem, Frank; Smagghe, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Although genetically modified (GM) plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resist...

  3. Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, J. A.; Lewis, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially sex pheromones, have proved most successful as tools for manipulation of pest population dynamics Factors influencing search behavior of natural enemies include habitat characteristics such as crop, associated plants and plant assemblages, host plant characteristics, influence of associated organisms, and characteristics of the searching entomophage Recent studies have shown potential for simultaneous management of a pest species and enhancement of natural enemies using pest pheromones

  4. Companion and refuge plants to control insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci and aphids are major pests of crops in the southeast USA. An environmentally-friendly management strategy is “push-pull” technology which combines the use of repellent (“push”) and trap crops (“pull”) for insect pest control. The repellent crop,...

  5. Biological Characteristics of Experimental Genotype Mixtures of Cydia Pomonella Granulovirus (CpGV: Ability to Control Susceptible and Resistant Pest Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Graillot

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The detection of resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella populations against the Mexican isolate of its granulovirus (CpGV-M, raised questions on the sustainability of the use of this biological insecticide. In resistant host cells, CpGV-M is not able to complete its replication cycle because replication is blocked at an early step. Virus isolates able to overcome this resistance have been characterized—among them, the CpGV-R5 isolate. In mixed infections on resistant insects, both CpGV-M and CpGV-R5 viruses replicate, while CpGV-M alone does not induce mortality. Genetically heterogeneous virus populations, containing 50% of each CpGV-M and CpGV-R5 appear to control resistant host populations as well as CpGV-R5 alone at the same final concentration, even if the concentration of CpGV-R5 is only half in the former. The use of mixed genotype virus preparations instead of genotypically homogeneous populations may constitute a better approach than traditional methods for the development of baculovirus-based biological insecticides.

  6. Biological Characteristics of Experimental Genotype Mixtures of Cydia Pomonella Granulovirus (CpGV): Ability to Control Susceptible and Resistant Pest Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graillot, Benoit; Bayle, Sandrine; Blachere-Lopez, Christine; Besse, Samantha; Siegwart, Myriam; Lopez-Ferber, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The detection of resistance in codling moth (Cydia pomonella) populations against the Mexican isolate of its granulovirus (CpGV-M), raised questions on the sustainability of the use of this biological insecticide. In resistant host cells, CpGV-M is not able to complete its replication cycle because replication is blocked at an early step. Virus isolates able to overcome this resistance have been characterized-among them, the CpGV-R5 isolate. In mixed infections on resistant insects, both CpGV-M and CpGV-R5 viruses replicate, while CpGV-M alone does not induce mortality. Genetically heterogeneous virus populations, containing 50% of each CpGV-M and CpGV-R5 appear to control resistant host populations as well as CpGV-R5 alone at the same final concentration, even if the concentration of CpGV-R5 is only half in the former. The use of mixed genotype virus preparations instead of genotypically homogeneous populations may constitute a better approach than traditional methods for the development of baculovirus-based biological insecticides. PMID:27213431

  7. Mechanisms of using mutations in pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional chemically based methods for insect control have been shown to have serious limitations, and many alternative approaches have been developed and evaluated, including those based on the use of different types of mutation. The mutagenic action of ionizing radiation was well known in the field of genetics long before it was realized by entomologists that it might be used to induce dominant lethal mutations in insects, which, when released, could sterilize wild female insects. The use of radiation to induce dominant lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique is now a major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Specific types of mutations can also be used to make improvements to the sterile insect technique, especially for the development of strains for the production of only male insects for sterilization and release. These strains utilize male translocations and a variety of selectable mutations, either conditional or visible, so that at some stages of development, the males can be separated from the females. (author)

  8. Pest Management for Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Helps gardeners reduce their environmental impact while they manage pests by explaining pesticide labels, how to select plants to avoid pest problems, developments in biological control, how to attract bug-eaters, the effect of pesticides and how to choose the right one, beneficial insects, general gardening practices to consider, pest and plant life cycles, and proper identification of pest problems

  9. Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) and control of citrus pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, applications and function are described for the non-scientist to bring a better understanding of how this emerging technology is providing environmentally friendly, non-transgenic, insect pest control. ...

  10. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second International Conference on Areawide Insect Pest Control sponsored by FAO and IAEA will be held from 9 to 13 May, 2005 in Vienna, Austria. This conference will provide a forum for the presentation of scientific papers dealing with areawide insect management programmes, including those applying the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and will include significant time for plenary discussion. The framework of the conference is being developed and the announcement with details of the Conference can be found under http://www.pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Meetings/Meetings2005.asp. It is planned to hold several Research Coordination Meetings in conjunction with this meeting. The Interregional Training Course on The Use of the Sterile Insect and Related Techniques for the Integrated Areawide Management of Insect Pests, was held from 4 May to 1 June 2004 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. This is a unique course that provides participants with a complete overview of all aspects related to areawide and SIT operational programmes. Both USA and external lecturers participated with an adequate balance between theory and practical laboratory and field exercises. Third, the SIT programme in Madeira is in negotiations with a private company regarding some type of partnership to ensure sustainability of the programme when EC funding comes to an end. These developments have been followed very closely by the sub-programme and we have been involved in providing advice, developing collaborative links and interacting at the R and D and technology transfer levels. There will be ample scope for further collaboration when these initiatives become fully realized. The fifth meeting of the Working Group on Fruit Flies of the Western Hemisphere (WGFFWH) took place in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, from 16 to 21 May 2004 and more than 200 participants attended. The meeting has a very unique format where scientists, action programme managers and the industry interact, greatly encouraging discussions and

  11. Notes on the Economics of Control of Wildlife Pests

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    Some wildlife species are agricultural pests but these populations are often valued by other than agriculturalists. For non-farmers, the population levels of such wildlife are frequently pure public goods. This is one source of market failure in the economically optimal social control of an agricultural pest of this type. Secondly, if the species is geographically mobile, externalities occur between farmers in the control of the species, and this reduces the incentives of farmers as individua...

  12. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 78, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPC Newsletter is prepared twice per year by the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Contents: To Our Readers; Staff; Forthcoming Events; Past Events; Technical Cooperation Projects; Coordinated Research Projects and Research Coordination Meetings; Developments at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory; Reports; Announcements; In Memoriam; Other News; Relevant Published Articles; Papers in Peer Reviewed Journals; Priced and Unpriced Publications

  13. 9 CFR 3.84 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and pest control. 3.84 Section 3.84 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... controlled so as to facilitate cleaning of the premises and pest control. (d) Pest control. An...

  14. Ecological Compatibility of GM Crops and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant genetically modified (GM) crops pervade many modern cropping systems, and present challenges and opportunities for developing biologically-based pest management programs. Interactions between biological control agents (insect predators, parasitoids, and pathog...

  15. Modeling the integration of parasitoid, insecticide, and transgenic insecticidal crop for the long-term control of an insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-06-01

    The tools of insect pest management include host plant resistance, biological control, and insecticides and how they are integrated will influence the durability of each. We created a detailed model of the population dynamics and population genetics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and its parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), to study long-term pest management in broccoli Brassica oleracea L. Given this pest's history of evolving resistance to various toxins, we also evaluated the evolution of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt broccoli (expressing Cry1Ac) and two types of insecticides. Simulations demonstrated that parasitism provided the most reliable, long-term control of P. xylostella populations. Use of Bt broccoli with a 10% insecticide-free refuge did not reduce the long-term contribution of parasitism to pest control. Small refuges within Bt broccoli fields can delay evolution of resistance > 30 generations if resistance alleles are rare in the pest population. However, the effectiveness of these refuges can be compromised by insecticide use. Rainfall mortality during the pest's egg and neonate stages significantly influences pest control but especially resistance management. Our model results support the idea that Bt crops and biological control can be integrated in integrated pest management and actually synergistically support each other. However, the planting and maintenance of toxin-free refuges are critical to this integration. PMID:23865173

  16. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In addition to the direct damage it can cause, this species is an efficien...

  17. Biology and Ecology of the Western Flower Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): The Making of a Pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 30 years, the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) has become one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. Certain biological attributes of this insect predispose it to be a direct pest across a wide range of crops. In additio...

  18. Landscape Structure and Biological Control in Agroecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Thies, Carsten; Tscharntke, Teja

    1999-01-01

    Biological pest control has primarily relied on local improvements in populations of natural enemies, but landscape structure may also be important. This is shown here with experiments at different spatial scales using the rape pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus), an important pest on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The presence of old field margin strips along rape fields was associated with increased mortality of pollen beetles resulting from parasitism and adjacent, large, old fallow habit...

  19. Eco Control of Agro Pests using Imaging, Modelling & Natural Predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Faithpraise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars in their various forms: size, shape, and colour cause significant harm to crops and humans. This paper offers a solution for the detection and control of caterpillars through the use of a sustainable pest control system that does not require the application of chemical pesticides, which damage human health and destroy the naturally beneficial insects within the environment. The proposed system is capable of controlling 80% of the population of caterpillars in less than 65 days by deploying a controlled number of larval parasitoid wasps (Cotesia Flavipes, Cameron into the crop environment. This is made possible by using a continuous time model of the interaction between the caterpillar and the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasps using a set of simultaneous, non-linear, ordinary differential equations incorporating natural death rates based on the Weibull probability distribution function. A negative binomial distribution is used to model the efficiency and the probability that the wasp will find and parasitize a host larva. The caterpillar is presented in all its life-cycle stages of: egg, larva, pupa and adult and the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasp is present as an adult larval parasitoid. Biological control modelling is used to estimate the quantity of the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasps that should be introduced into the caterpillar infested environment to suppress its population density to an economically acceptable level within a prescribed number of days.

  20. Bifurcation and chaos of a pest-control food chain model with impulsive effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to biological and chemical control strategy for pest control, we investigate the dynamics of a predator-prey food chain with impulsive effect, periodic releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticide at different fixed times, by using impulsive differential equation. Choose pest birth rate r2 as control parameter, we show that there exists a stable pest-eradication periodic solution when r2 is less than some critical value r2* and the system is permanence when r2 is larger than the critical value r2*. By use of standard techniques of bifurcation theory, we prove that above this threshold there are periodic oscillations in prey, middle-predator and top predator. Furthermore, bifurcation diagrams have shown that there exists complexity for the pulsed system including periodic doubling cascade.

  1. Biological control of ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  2. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 86, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2015 we concluded the six-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade”. The objective of the CRP was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, conducting coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, with an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. One of the scientific outputs of the CRP was the accurate alignment of some biological species with taxonomic names. The resolution of some of these controversial issues has important applied implications for FAO and IAEA Member States, both in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and in facilitating international agricultural trade

  3. Technique of pneumatic pest control – analyses and a new device

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried

    2005-01-01

    Pest control in organic production of berries, potatoes and vegetables usually employs spreading technique of registered phytopharmaceutical agents. This technique may be supported or even replaced by pneumatic pest control. Pneumatic pest control means suction of pest using a vacuum device similar to a home vacuum cleaner. Up to now there is no evaluation of pneumatic pest control available from an agricultural engineering point of view. This paper concerns the following questions: Which tec...

  4. Sustainable pest regulation in agricultural landscapes: a review on landscape composition, biodiversity and natural pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Bianchi, F.J.J.A.; Booij, C.J.H.; Tscharntke, T

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural intensification has resulted in a simplification of agricultural landscapes by the expansion of agricultural land, enlargement of field size and removal of non-crop habitat. These changes are considered to be an important cause of the rapid decline in farmland biodiversity, with the remaining biodiversity concentrated in field edges and non-crop habitats. The simplification of landscape composition and the decline of biodiversity may affect the functioning of natural pest control...

  5. Control of insect pests with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of electron beams with an energy of 2.5 MeV on insect pests were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. Electron beams at 400 Gy inactivated all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetraychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, and Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia and gerbera were tolerant to electron beams at 400-600 Gy, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea and iris were intolerant. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. Soft-electrons at 60 keV effectively inactivated eggs, larvae and pupae of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and eggs of adzuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis) at a dose of 1 kGy. The adults of T. castaneum and P. interpunctella were inactivated by electron treatment at 5.0 kGy and 7.5 kGy, respectively. Adults of C. chinensis survived at 7.5 kGy, but were inactivated having lost ability to walk at 2.5 kGy. Soft-electrons at 60 keV could not completely inactivate the larvae of C. chinensis and smaller larvae (2nd instar) of maize weevil (Stiophilus zeamais) inside beans and grains, because the electrons with low penetration did not reach the larvae due to the shield of beans or grains. However, soft-electrons at 60 keV inactivated eggs, larger larvae (4th instar) and pupae of S. zeamais in rice grains, which indicated that S. zeamais was exposed to electrons even inside the grains. (author)

  6. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter announces the development of a draft international standard to facilitate the transboundary shipment of sterile insects stands out. This was developed in response to requests from Member States and the private sector for regulation of the shipping of sterile insects. The draft standard will be considered, reviewed and hopefully endorsed over the next years by the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the governing body of the International Plant protection Convention (IPPC). Also of significance are the Fruit Fly Trapping Guidelines that have been developed to support the harmonization of monitoring procedures for these pest insects in view of the increasing fruit fly related transboundary interactions resulting from the rapidly growing trade in agricultural commodities, as well as travel, transport and tourism. An upcoming event also in the normative area is an FAO/IAEA Expert Meeting on 'Risk Assessment of Transgenic Arthropods' to be held at FAO, Rome from 8-12 April, 2002. The objective of the meeting are to a) assess current status of transgenesis in pest arthropods; b) to assess biosafety concerns for transgenic arthropod release; c) to provide guidance for future risk assessment protocols for case by case analysis; and d) to assess the possibility of establishing a working group under IPPC for setting guidelines for development and use of transgenic insect technology. An important event at the end of 2001 was the Resolution on the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) adopted by the FAO Conference held in Rome, 2-13 November 2001 (for the full text of the resolution see page 39).. The resolution acknowledges the severity of the trypanosomosis problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and the potential benefits of tsetse elimination, and calls upon affected member nations to include tsetse eradication in their Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and for the FAO to support them in their efforts to

  7. Nuke 'Em! Library Pest Control Using a Microwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezner, Jerome; Luner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the threats to books and periodicals posed by such insects as book lice, termites, cockroaches, silverfish, firebrats, and beetles; reviews past methods of pest control; and describes a technique for insect control using microwaves. The results of tests of microwave effects on publications are reported, necessary precautions are…

  8. THE CONTROL OF PESTS IN ECOSYSTEMS BY UNCHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H BUNESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important way to control the pests is to not use chemicals, preventing the environmental pollution in the different ecosystems. We proposed to study and apply the unchemical methods according to ecological pest management, to control some pesticide resistant pests. The research has been oriented to the physical methods: the use of the light radiation reflected by different materials (supports, directly applied on the hostplant leaves or on the ground, which remove the insects from the damaged zone; the use of visual traps (coloured panels and coloured plates, which attract and capture the insects. The researches were carried out in 2002, with five experiences organised in two ecosystems (orchard and mountain grazing. The both categories of methods were very effective.

  9. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

  10. Radioisotopes and Radiation in Animal and Plant Insect Pest Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop-pest control is of major economic importance and demands the aid of the latest advances in science. Radioisotopes and radiation are being employed to increase the efficiency of existing insect pest control. They are extremely valuable, since improvements to existing methods depend on having detailed data on the bioecology, toxicology, and so on. Radioactive labelling of insects has been extremely promising in bioecology; the labelling of grain pests (Eurygaster integriceps Put., Hadena sordida Skh.) and grain-pest parasites (Meniscus agnatus Crow, Pseudogonia cinerascens Rond.) has provided information about their areas of migration, habitats, sizes of population and the feeding habits. The same technique was used to determine the rate of propagation of the Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineota Say), which is subject to quarantine controls; subsequently an extermination programme was carried out on the basis of the data obtained. It also provides a valuable means of studying the extremely complex problems of parasitism and predaceousness, in particular intermediate feeding cycles and chemotaxis. The feeding areas of field rodents have been mapped out with the help of a self-labelling, radioactive-bait technique. Pesticides synthesized with radioisotopes have been used in conjunction with radiochromatography, fluorimetry and other techniques to study the highly complex biochemical processes caused to toxicants in plants and insects. It has also been possible to determine the rate of hydrolysis of organic-phosphorus insecticide compounds of the thiphos and metaphos type as a function of the degree of development and the physiological state of plants as well as of environmental conditions. Data have been obtained on the length of time residual quantities of toxicants are retained in agriculture products following different periods of chemical treatment. Radioisotope techniques have yielded information on various metabolic processes exhibiting different

  11. Control of stored product pests by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation for prevention of food-borne illness and disinfestation of commodities of pests is increasing in a number of countries. The goal of this review is to analyze the literature and current use of irradiation to control stored product pests and suggest research to optimize its potential. Doses to prevent reproduction of stored product pests range from 0.05 kGy for Tenebrio molitor L. to 0.45 kGy for Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier). Small but increasing amounts of grains and pulses are being irradiated in the world today especially in Asia. At least 33 countries permit irradiation of some stored products with 14 countries permitting it for all stored products. Ways in which stored product irradiation research and application may influence other uses of irradiation technology are also discussed. Deactivation of weed seeds might be an area of stored product phytosanitation where irradiation would have an advantage over other measures. (author)

  12. Applicator Training Manual for: Agricultural Animal Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian M.

    This manual discusses pesticide safety and environmental considerations, pesticide toxicity, residue potential, pesticide formulations, and application techniques. In addition, descriptions of, and methods for controlling insects and related pests that attack cattle, sheep and goats, swine, horses and other equines, and poultry are given. These…

  13. Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)

  14. INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

  15. History and Use of Heat in Pest Control: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes the history and use of heat in controlling a wide range of agricultural and structural pests. Definitions and concepts used in heat treatments are discussed as well as possible mechanisms of thermal lethality. Factors used in determining treatments are availability, costs, co...

  16. The Coleopteran gut and targets for pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of high throughput sequencing and proteomic technologies, new strategies are now available for the design of new control approaches for the most problematic pests. While beetles constitute the most diverse order of insects and are well-represented in the list of agriculturally-import...

  17. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  18. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WEEDS BY MEANS OF PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological control is the use of live beneficial organisms and products of their metabolism in the pests control. Plant pathogens can be used for weed control in three different ways: as classical, conservation and augmentative (inoculative and inundated biological control. Inundated biological control involves the use of bioherbicides (mycoherbicides or artificial breeding of pathogens and application in specific stages of crops and weeds. Biological control of weeds can be used where chemical herbicides are not allowed, if resistant weed species are present or in the integrated pest management against weeds with reduced herbicides doses and other non-chemical measures, but it has certain limitations and disadvantages.

  19. General Biology and Current Management Approaches of Soft Scale Pests (Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Ernesto Robayo; Chong, Juang-Horng

    2015-01-01

    We summarize the economic importance, biology, and management of soft scales, focusing on pests of agricultural, horticultural, and silvicultural crops in outdoor production systems and urban landscapes. We also provide summaries on voltinism, crawler emergence timing, and predictive models for crawler emergence to assist in developing soft scale management programs. Phloem-feeding soft scale pests cause direct (e.g., injuries to plant tissues and removal of nutrients) and indirect damage (e....

  20. Use of nuclear techniques in biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Among these approaches, biological control is a keystone. However, because of increasing concerns about the introduction of exotic natural enemies of insect pests and weeds (Howarth 1991, Delfosse 1997), the overall thrust of biological control has moved toward augmentative biological control, involving releases of established natural enemy species (Knipling 1992). This in turn has created a need to develop more cost-effective mass rearing technologies for beneficial insects. Nuclear techniques could play an especially important role in augmentative biological control, not only in facilitating mass rearing, but in several other ways, as indicated below. Recognising the potential value for use of nuclear techniques in biological control, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, sponsored a Consultants' Group Meeting on this subject in April 1997. The Group produced a document entitled Use of Nuclear Techniques in Biological Control: Managing Pests, Facilitating Trade and Protecting the Environment. The consultants included the authors of this paper as well as Ernest Delfosse (at that time, with the USDA-APHIS National Biological Control Institute), Garry Hill (Intl. Institute for Biological Control), Sinthya Penn (Beneficial Insectary), and Felipe Jeronimo (USDA-APHIS PPQ, Guatemala). The remarks presented in this paper reflect the thoughts presented by these consultants and other participants at the IAEA-sponsored meeting. Several potential uses for nuclear techniques were identified by the Consultants' Group, including: 1) improvements in rearing media (either artificial diets or natural hosts/prey), 2) provision of sterilised natural prey to be used as food during shipment, to ameliorate concerns relating to the

  1. Impact of five insecticides used to control citrus pests on the parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola Longvinovskaya (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2016-07-01

    The parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola Longvnovskaya is a main biological control agent of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, an insect pest that causes considerable damage to citrus worldwide. However, the use of pesticides to control arthropod pests can reduce the effectiveness of parasitoids and disrupt integrated pest management in citrus groves. This study evaluated the impact on A. citricola of five insecticides that are used to control arthropod pests in citrus. Our results indicated that imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and β-cyfluthrin were harmful (mortality >89 %) to A. citricola adults; whereas abamectin did not cause significant mortality and was considered harmless to the parasitoid. In addition to causing high mortality, imidacloprid and bifenthrin were considered moderately persistent, because they caused control treatment. Therefore, semi-field and field studies that consider demographic parameters are needed to evaluate the impacts of these insecticides on the A. citricola parasitoid. PMID:27146672

  2. An overview of the use of isotopes and radiation in pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique and phyto sanitary irradiation treatments protect horticultural markets and livestock of many countries. Furthermore, radiotracers had a very important role in revealing the characteristics and dynamics of several biological systems. The use of sterile insects to control or eradicate pest populations was a revolutionary initiative in entomology conceived at the beginning of the twenty century. In international agricultural markets, the use of radiation as a method for the prevention of quarantine insects represents an important alternative post-harvest pest control, reducing the need for chemical fumigants and other similar toxic products. Radioisotopes allowed the rise of an entire new branch of the study of insects, the radio entomology. Isotopic releases from nuclear operations had demonstrated the utility of radiotracers for studying the dynamics of biological systems. Labeling insects with radiotracers in order to study dispersal, population densities, behavior and food intake became a very popular insect-marking method. (author)

  3. THE MAIN PESTS MICROBIOLOGICAL CONTROL IN VEGETABLE, BACCATE CROPS AND POTATO IN LENINGRAD PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    S.A. DOBROKHOTOV; A.I. ANISIMOV; S.D. GRISHECHKINA; L.G. DANILOV; G.R. LEDNEV; K.N. FURSOV

    2015-01-01

    The using of microbiological preparations for plant protection steadily extends in the world. A short list of microbiological preparations that are authorized for applying on the territory of the Russian Federation for insect pest control on crops is presented in the State Catalog of pesticides and agrochemicals. However, the biological preparations allowed for berry crops is very limited in number, and for pine strawberry no one is indicated in the Russian Federation State Catalog. In the re...

  4. Desert locust outbreaks in the Sahel: Resource competition, predation and ecological effects of pest control

    OpenAIRE

    José A Sánchez-Zapata; Donázar, José A.; Delgado, Antonio; Forero, Manuela G.; Ceballos, Olga; Hiraldo, F.

    2007-01-01

    1. The desert locust Schistocerca gregaria has been considered a major pest since ancient times, as locust swarms holding millions of insects move throughout the Sahel, northern Africa, Middle East and southern Mediterranean countries. Most research has focused on the biology of the species and the development of strategies in locust control, but little is known about the place of locust pulses within food webs in which domestic herbivores and European long-distance migratory birds are also i...

  5. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means for insect pest population control

    OpenAIRE

    Zabalou, Sofia; Riegler, Markus; Theodorakopoulou, Marianna; STAUFFER, CHRISTIAN; Savakis, Charalambos; Bourtzis,Kostas

    2004-01-01

    Biological control is the purposeful introduction of parasites, predators, and pathogens to reduce or suppress pest populations. Wolbachia are inherited bacteria of arthropods that have recently attracted attention for their potential as new biocontrol agents. Wolbachia manipulate host reproduction by using several strategies, one of which is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) [Stouthamer, R., Breeuwer, J. A. J. & Hurst, G. D. D. (1999) Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53, 71–102]. We established Wolbachi...

  6. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 76, January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last twelve months the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme hosted an international symposium and co-sponsored another one; organized five research coordination meetings, four regional training courses, three consultants meetings and two workshops; participated in many interesting and successful research activities; provided technical support to over thirty technical cooperation projects in FAO and IAEA Member States, and actively contributed to a number of other international events, panels and advisory committees. In this newsletter you will find information and details about some of the activities enumerated above. These reflect not only our growing commitments and increasing research and normative responsibilities, but also our expanding involvement with additional pest species, although our budget and staff have not increased in proportion. The success of the subprogramme has historically been guaranteed by its focussed approach on a few major pest problems which allowed us to provide our Member States the best support in terms of research, normative assistance and implementation of operational programmes. Despite the continuous demand of FAO and IAEA Member States to expand our support and include more pest insects, we remain conscious that diluting our human and financial resources may jeopardise the high quality service that our Member States deserve

  7. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

  8. 33 CFR 274.6 - Division/district pest control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Division/district pest control..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.6 Division/district pest control programs. (a) Guides. Referenced technical manuals, and Engineer Circulars...

  9. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  10. Self-control of insect pests: a nuclear application that is friendly to the environment in the field of combat and eradicate of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decades, insect control methods depend primarily on insecticides, and the world consumption of insecticides is increasing by about 5% every year. Unfortunately, however, these chemicals pollute the environment, leave residues on agricultural products, and kill beneficial organisms leading to secondary pest problems and insecticide resistance. Ecological and environmental concerns have lead to new tactics in insect pest control. These tactics put more emphasis on cultural, physical and biological control methods including autocidal control where insects are used to destroy their own natural population. This article discusses the subject of autocidal control, its history, philosophy, basics, advantages, how to use it and where. It also gives an idea about its current use and future outlook. (author)

  11. Gamma radiation in pest control at the storehouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects of radiation control of wheat grain pests in Bulgaria are shown, drawing the following main conclusions: The lethal doses of gamma rays for the granary weevil, grain borer and confused flour beetle are fairly high - of the order of 300,000-400,000 r; the sterilizing doses of gamma rays arrest the reproduction of granary and rice weevils as well as of confused flour beetles. The irradiated insects, however, retain their sex activity and so may inhibit the reproduction of fertile populations. Irradiation strongly reduces the life span of, and consequently the damage done by, the insects; radiation control of stored-grain pests by using sterilizing doses does not deteriorate the technological quality of the wheat grain. (E.T.)

  12. Ecology and management of crop pollination and pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Ola

    2013-01-01

    The agricultural landscape has gone through large changes to meet increasing demands for food. This has led to major biodiversity declines, while effects on ecosystem services that support agricultural productivity, such as pollination and pest control, remain less studied. This thesis examines temporal trends, impacts, and management for functionally important insects in agriculture using red clover seed production as a model system. Red clover is pollinated by bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and ...

  13. Integrating ecology and technology to create innovative pest control devices

    OpenAIRE

    Blackie, H.; MacMorran, D.; L. Shapiro; Woodhead, I.; Diegel, O.; Murphy, E.; Eason, C. T.

    2011-01-01

    The development of innovative pest management and monitoring tools requires the integration of animal ecology, toxicology and design engineering. Resetting, multi-kill devices offer substantial advantages over current baiting or trapping techniques. This research outlines the development and testing of a longlife, resetting, toxin delivery systems for predator control, which has recently been laboratory and field trialed on stoats (Mustela erminea) and weasels (M. nivalis). Results of laborat...

  14. The use of insecticides to control insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciechowska, M.; Stepnowski, P.; Gołębiowski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are used as plants protection products. Among those, insecticides serve as agents to control insects. When incorrectly applied, however these substances may negatively affect people's health and natural environment. Administration routes of insecticides depend on many factors and vary from spraying to fertilizers. These different methods influence how insects prey and how pests develop. Additionally, too frequent use of the same chemicals can lead to development of resi...

  15. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Regulatory Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesecher, Robert

    This manual is designed to assist regulatory pest control applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The guide discusses: (1) Factors influencing introduction and spread of pests and their population dynamics; (2) Methods and techniques used to suppress, control, or eradicate pests of…

  16. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Field Crop Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, M. H.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on field crop pest control. The five sections presented describe: (1) Field crop pests; (2) Using pesticides in field crops; (3) Weed pests of field crops; (4)…

  17. Pest Control and Related Orchard Practices in Commercial Fruit Plantings. Circular 1151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, S. M.; And Others

    This circular brings together suggestions from the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station and the Illinois State Natural History Survey relating to orchard practices and pest control. It provides some basic steps in pest control and discusses some specific orchard pests such as grasshoppers, mites, mice, and rabbits. In addition, it gives some…

  18. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetse and trypanosomosis are at the root of low agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa and the removal of this factor would be a major contributor for large- scale poverty reduction in this region. Whilst removal of the disease would allow other constraining issues to become priorities such as the presence of other disease, lack of feed, poor husbandry skills and lack of markets for dairy products, without the removal of the threat of trypanosomosis there can be no progress, and for many in this region, no way out of staying hungry. Significantly though, during the past five years there has been an increasing awareness that the final elimination of the tsetse fly from areas can be achieved through the integrated use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Reduction of tsetse fly populations has always been achievable but not sustainable. The area-wide application of SIT offers a realistic, affordable and environmentally acceptable way to complete the task by eliminating the final remaining flies. Although the effective use of SIT for fly elimination requires a reduction of fly populations by around 95%, this has often been achieved but not sustained due to the recurrent cost and logistics of fly control. The fact that use of SIT can achieve final eradication of the fly and hence the disease has been dramatically demonstrated on the island of Zanzibar. Recognizing this fact and in response to the increasing problem of African trypanosomosis, the Heads of African States and Governments, at their 36th Summit Meeting in Lome, Togo, 10-12 July 2000, adopted a Decision on Proposal for Eradication of Tsetse Flies on the African Continent. In this decision, AHG/Dec.156 (XXXVI), the Assembly of countries that have initiated the application of the SIT for their pioneering effort, and invited the OAU to lead the establishment of a Pan- African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). The Programme Against African Trypanosomosis (PAAT), which is a

  19. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest co...

  20. Landscape structure and biological control in agroecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies; Tscharntke

    1999-08-01

    Biological pest control has primarily relied on local improvements in populations of natural enemies, but landscape structure may also be important. This is shown here with experiments at different spatial scales using the rape pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus), an important pest on oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The presence of old field margin strips along rape fields was associated with increased mortality of pollen beetles resulting from parasitism and adjacent, large, old fallow habitats had an even greater effect. In structurally complex landscapes, parasitism was higher and crop damage was lower than in simple landscapes with a high percentage of agricultural use. PMID:10436158

  1. Control of insect pests in stored dates using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arab countries produce more than 73% of the total world production of date palm and dates constitute an important part of the people's diet. They are produced at a certain time of the year and stored to be consumed all year around. Similar to most other agricultural crops, dates are attacked during storage by a number of insect pests causing sever losses. Methyl bromide, a chemical fumigant highly effective in controlling insect pests of stored dates, has been used for over half a century to protect stored food products, including dates, against insect attack. Because of its environmental drawbacks, methyl bromide is being phased out globally with no other chemical to replace it at present. Ionizing radiation, particularly gamma radiation, may offer a good alternative to methyl bromide for protecting food products including stored dates, against insect attack. In this paper, we present details on insect pests of stored dates, their sensitivity to gamma irradiation and the possibility of using gamma irradiation as an alternative to methyl bromide for their control. It also discusses the criteria used for determining the irradiation dose. In addition, it deals with the advantages, legality, practicality and the difficulties that hamper the practical application of this technology. (author)

  2. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means for insect pest population control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalou, Sofia; Riegler, Markus; Theodorakopoulou, Marianna; Stauffer, Christian; Savakis, Charalambos; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2004-01-01

    Biological control is the purposeful introduction of parasites, predators, and pathogens to reduce or suppress pest populations. Wolbachia are inherited bacteria of arthropods that have recently attracted attention for their potential as new biocontrol agents. Wolbachia manipulate host reproduction by using several strategies, one of which is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) [Stouthamer, R., Breeuwer, J. A. J. & Hurst, G. D. D. (1999) Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53, 71–102]. We established Wolbachia-infected lines of the medfly Ceratitis capitata using the infected cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi as donor. Wolbachia induced complete CI in the novel host. Laboratory cage populations were completely suppressed by single releases of infected males, suggesting that Wolbachia-induced CI could be used as a novel environmentally friendly tool for the control of medfly populations. The results also encourage the introduction of Wolbachia into pest and vector species of economic and hygenic relevance to suppress or modify natural populations. PMID:15469918

  3. Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Stanley G.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

  4. Species and control of insect pests and major diseases of Torreyagrandis Merrillii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhongliang; XU Zhihong; CHEN Xiulong; JIN Guolong; LI Suping; SHEN Yulin; LANG Xuejun; HU Zhongcheng; CHEN Lihong

    2006-01-01

    From January 2001 to December 2004,the investigation on the species of insect pests and diseases in Torreya grandis Merrillii was conducted and integrated control technologies of the main insect pests and diseases were studied in Zhuji,Shaoxin,Shenzhou,Dongyang,and Jiande counties of Zhejiang Province.Via field survey,a system of regular observations,55 species of insectpests belonging to 9 orders and 29 families,and 4 species of diseases were recorded.Among them,Lepteucosma torreyae and Macrolygus torreyae were found to be new species.The biological characteristics of the major insect pests and diseases,such as Rhyncaphytoptus abiesis,Helicobasidium compacum,Erwinia carotovora,Chlorella sp.,Macrolygus torreyae,and Lepteucosma torreyae,were primarily recorded,and their outbreaks and epidemics were researched.The forecasting method for Lepteucosma torreyae was established.Based on strengthening cultivation and management,integrated control measures were put forward including physical,biologic and chemical methods.Medications with higher effect and lower toxicity were screened by comparing the effect of different pesticide treatments.

  5. Crop domestication, global human-mediated migration, and the unresolved role of geography in pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yolanda H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ecological pest management seeks to improve pest control through the manipulation of ecological processes that promote natural enemies and suppress pests. These approaches can involve cultural practices such as reduced tillage, increased use of non-crop plants that provide food and shelter for natural enemies, and intercropping to enhance the abundance and diversity of natural enemies. A major assumption of ecological pest management is that these activities can be equally effective ...

  6. Research Progress of Ap-plication of Insect Mi-crosporidia in Biological Control of Agricultural Pests%微孢子虫在害虫生物防治中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉强

    2015-01-01

    The insect microsporidia may cause epizootics of insects, they are the potential microbial insecticides. The research progress of insect microsporidia controlling agricultural pests, such as grasshopper, red fire ant, cotton boll-worm, corn borer, Yunnan pine caterpil-lar were summarized, the current prob-lems and theirs application prospect were also described.%昆虫微孢子虫能引起昆虫的流行病,是一种很有应用潜力的微生物杀虫剂。综述昆虫微孢子虫在防治蝗虫、红火蚁、棉铃虫、玉米螟、云南松毛虫等农业害虫上的研究进展,并对目前存在的问题及其应用前景进行了展望。

  7. Utah Home Orchard Pest Management Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Marion; Alston, Diane; Nischwitz, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is the practice of combining knowledge of the pest and host plant with multiple tactics for long-term, safe pest control. The goal of IPM is pesticide reduction by using cultural, mechanical, and biological controls before the last option, pesticides.

  8. The control of stored rice pests by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of nuclear energy application in pest control of foods are emphasized. The following topics are ruled out: grain production; food storage and infestation; entomological researches with insects of stored products, specially rice; researches carried out in Brazil with Sitophilus zeamais Mots and Sitophilus oryzae L.; moths of greater power; the methodology applied to the study of radiation sterilizing doses for woodworms, weevils and moths that infest grains and stored products; palatability-and wholesomeness assays and, at least, stock maintenance. (M.A.)

  9. The use of insecticides to control insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wojciechowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used as plants protection products. Among those, insecticides serve as agents to control insects. When incorrectly applied, however these substances may negatively affect people's health and natural environment. Administration routes of insecticides depend on many factors and vary from spraying to fertilizers. These different methods influence how insects prey and how pests develop. Additionally, too frequent use of the same chemicals can lead to development of resistance of insects to these insecticides. In order to prevent occurrence of negative effects of insecticides on surroundings, the effects of these compounds should be studied

  10. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-15

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

  11. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable

  12. Biological control of leatherjackets using insect pathogens OF0116T

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, David

    1998-01-01

    Leatherjackets (Tipula spp.; larvae of crane flies) are significant pests affecting the organic farming sector. Effective non-chemical methods of protecting organic crops from leatherjackets have not yet been developed, although insect pathogens are a promising method for biological control of these pests. This study will aim to identify and evaluate fungi, nematodes and the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis for their effectiveness as control agents. The pathogens will be sourced from the HRI ...

  13. Optimal Application Timing of Pest Control Tactics in Nonautonomous Pest Growth Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shujuan Zhang; Juhua Liang; Sanyi Tang

    2014-01-01

    Considering the effects of the living environment on growth of populations, it is unrealistic to assume that the growth rates of predator and prey are all constants in the models with integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Therefore, a nonautonomous predator-prey system with impulsive effect is developed and investigated in the present work. In order to determine the optimal application timing of IPM tactics, the threshold value which guarantees the stability of pest-free periodic solut...

  14. Laser digital photography and its application to biology of pests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weyda, František

    Brno : Mendelova zemědělská a lesnická univerzita v Brně, 2009 - (Šafránková, I.; Šefrová, H.). s. 177-177 ISBN 978-80-7375-316-0. [Česká a slovenská konference o ochraně rostlin /18./. 02.09.2009-04.09.2009, Brno] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : laser digital photography Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology

  15. The bioeconomics of controlling an African rodent pest species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skonhoft, Anders; Leirs, Herwig; Andreassen, Harry P;

    2006-01-01

    of the dry season/beginning of rainy season. The paper demonstrates that changing from today's practice of symptomatic treatment when heavy rodent damage is noticed to a practice where the calendar is emphasized, may substantially improve the economic conditions for the maize producing farmers. This......The paper treats the economy of controlling an African pest rodent, the multimammate rat, causing major damage in maize production. An ecological population model is presented and used as a basis for the economic analyses carried out at the village level using data from Tanzania. This model...... strategies, by varying the duration and timing of rodenticide application. Our numerical results suggest that it is economically beneficial to control the rodent population. In general, the most cost-effective duration of controlling the rodent population is 3-4 months every year, and especially at the end...

  16. Construction of ice nucleation active Enterobacter cloacae for control of insect pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria are the most potent heterogeneous ice nuclei in nature, which have become an important biological resource for diverse applications. Many researches have proved that INA bacteria can raise the supercooling points (SCPs) of insect pests, then reduce their cold hardiness. However, INA bacteria's inefficient colonization on the surface or in the guts of insects, and the high incidence of frost injury induced by their release hampered the application of INA bacteria in controlling insect pests in agricultural fields. In this study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid mob-Tn5-iceA with the ability of broad-host-range conjugal mobilization and integration of the ina gene of iceA into chromosomal DNA of many gram-negative bacteria by Tn5 transposition. In addition, Ent. cloacae strains stably carrying iceA and expressing high ice nucleation activity (INA), even in the absence of antibiotic pressure, were constructed through conjugal mobilization and Tn5 transposition. Ent. cloacae strains have been reported to be able to efficiently colonize in the guts of insects, but have weak plant epiphytic ability. Therefore, these transgenic Ent. cloacae may be promising candidates for control of insect pests in agricultural fields.

  17. Use of natural enemies and biorational pest control of corne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the potential use of natural enemies and biorational insecticides for control of main pests of corn in thestate of Sinaloa is presented. A discuss on their composition, dosage, toxicity and type of effect on beneficial organisms(natural enemies and pollinators is too included. The work revealed that is possible implement the use of these natural enemies and products for the control of neonate larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda fall armyworm (J. E Smith with Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow (Samson; against thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande using the nematodes Steinernema riobravis (Cabanillas and Poinar, S. feltiae (Filipjev and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar at doses of 10,000 IJ (4x10 ~ IJ/m; against the corn silk fly Euxesta stigmatias (Loew encouraging the natural parasitism of Spalangia sp., while for the cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel can be with spinosad (soluble concentrate at doses of 0.123 kg a. i, and to the corn earwormHelicoverpa zea (Boddie using the analog of methoxyfenozide molting hormone (24% at 144 mg of a. i/L. The biorational control agents that not affect significantly to the natural enemies were the nucleopoliedrosis virus SfMNPV and SeMNPV; N. rileyi and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize; Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier; the azadirachtin (neem and parasitoids. In the case of products of chemical synthesis: Spinosad, oxymatrine and bifenthrin showed high rates of mortality in the control of corn pests, so these are considered as of high and moderate risk to Aphis mellifera (L. bees, the methoxyfenozide presented relatively low toxicity to natural enemies. In general, biorational products have repellent effect on larvae and adults of these insects, inhibit feeding and induce molting, also causing deformities and impede the development and growth, too interfere with sexual intercourse and copulate, reducing the oviposition, as well as cause sterility of adults, so these may also constitute a risk to

  18. Insect and Pest Control Section newsletter and information circular on radiation techniques and their application to insect pests. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information Circular presents preliminary reports of research and development activities in the application of nuclear energy for entomological problems and related aspects. Radiation sterilization and isotope-aided studies are stressed, however, articles relating to practical pest control or eradication are also within the scope of the Information Circular

  19. Dynamic Analysis of a Predator-Prey (Pest Model with Disease in Prey and Involving an Impulsive Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behaviors of a predator-prey (pest model with disease in prey and involving an impulsive control strategy to release infected prey at fixed times are investigated for the purpose of integrated pest management. Mathematical theoretical works have been pursuing the investigation of the local asymptotical stability and global attractivity for the semitrivial periodic solution and population persistent, which depicts the threshold expression of some critical parameters for carrying out integrated pest management. Numerical analysis indicates that the impulsive control strategy has a strong effect on the dynamical complexity and population persistent using bifurcation diagrams and power spectra diagrams. These results show that if the release amount of infective prey can satisfy some critical conditions, then all biological populations will coexist. All these results are expected to be of use in the study of the dynamic complexity of ecosystems.

  20. Opportunities for integrated pest management to control the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, David; George, David; Guy, Jonathan; Sparagano, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Dermanyssus gallinae is the most economically important ectoparasite of laying hens in Europe. Control of D. gallinae is already hampered by issues of pesticide resistance and product withdrawal and, with the prohibition of conventional cages in 2012 and the resulting switch to more structurally complex housing which favours red mite, the importance of managing this pest will increase. Integrated Pest Management (IPM), as often employed in agricultural pest control, may be a way to address th...

  1. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    OpenAIRE

    María Berenice González Maldonado; Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (...

  2. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of ornamental and turf pest control prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The three sections presented describe: (1) Ornamentals; (2) Turfgrass; and (3) Pest Control. Section one discusses the diagnostic chart for plant problems, non-pest…

  3. The Insect Ecdysone Receptor is a Good Potential Target for RNAi-based Pest Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment ...

  4. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, A.; Gakkhar, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  5. Biological control of aphids in the presence of thrips and their enemies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messelink, G.J.; Bloemhard, C.M.J.; Sabelis, M.W.; Janssen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Generalist predators are often used in biological control programs, although they can be detrimental for pest control through interference with other natural enemies. Here, we assess the effects of generalist natural enemies on the control of two major pest species in sweet pepper: the green peach a

  6. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the last century, mites moved into the focus of attention as pests relevantto agriculture, forestry and landscape horticulture, presumably in direct reactionto the “green revolution” that involved plant cultivation in large-plot monocropping systems,improved methods of cultivation, selection of high-yielding cultivars and intensifieduse of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Agroecosystems in which phytophagous miteshave become harmful organisms are primarily orchards, vineyards, greenhouses, urbangreeneries, plant nurseries and stored plant products, as well as annual field crops to asomewhat lesser degree. Phytophagous mite species belong to a variety of spider mites(Tetranychidae, false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae, gall and rust mites (Eriophyoidae, tarsonemidmites (Tarsonemidae and acarid mites (Acaridae. Most of these harmful speciesare widespread, some of them having more economic impact than others and being moredetrimental as depending on various specificities of each outdoor agroecosystem in anyparticular climatic region.The first segment of this overview focuses on the most significant mite pests ofagroecosystemsand urban horticultural areas in European countries, our own region andin Serbia today, primarily on species that have caused problems in recent years regardingplant production, and it also discusses various molecular methods available for investigatingdifferent aspects of the biology of phytophagous mites. Also, acaricides are discussedas a method of controlling mite pests in the light of the current situation and trends on pesticidemarkets in Serbia and the European Union member-countries

  7. Control of Pest Infestation of Food by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation techniques being studied for use in the control of pest infestation of post-harvest food are reviewed. Two main techniques are discussed: direct irradiation of the food together with its infestation load and application of the sterile-male technique. The progress made in the radiation entomology of stored-product insects as it relates to the direct irradiation method is discussed. The two variants of the sterile-male technique are discussed, namely, the classical sterile-male technique in which fully sterile males are released, and the inherited partial sterility technique in which substerile males are used. The potentials and relative merits of these methods are also discussed. (author)

  8. Control of pest infestation of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation techniques being studied for use in the control of pest infestation of post-harvest food are reviewed. Two main techniques are discussed: direct irradiation of the food together with its infestation load and application of the sterile-male technique. The progress made in the radiation entomology of stored-product insects as it relates to the direct irradiation method is discussed. The two variants of the sterile-male technique are discussed, namely, the classical sterile-male technique in which fully sterile males are released, and the inherited partial sterility technique in which substerile males are used. The potentials and relative merits of these methods are also discussed. (author)

  9. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 81, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to requests from our readers, this introduction is mainly dedicated to the ongoing efforts to develop alternatives for insect reproductive sterilization and blood sterilization for their use in insect pest control programmes with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. Radioisotope irradiators that are loaded with either cobalt-60 or caesium-137 producing gamma rays have been routinely used for many decades and have proven to be extremely reliable and safe for these purposes in successful area-wide insect eradication or suppression programmes. These include industrial panoramic-type irradiators in larger programmes, all the way to smaller self-contained irradiators. Nevertheless, the transboundary shipment of self-contained gamma irradiators or radioactive material has become logistically more complex due to security issues. This situation was exacerbated when the production of the Gamma Cell 220 (GC220), the source most commonly used for irradiating insects for sterilization purposes, was discontinued. These events may have created the impression that the use of gamma radiation has become a less viable option, unattainable for insect pest control programmes that want to integrate the SIT. Nevertheless, some of the biggest SIT operational programmes have in recent years been equipped with new self-contained cobalt-60 sources, including the SIT programme against the pink bollworm in Phoenix, Arizona; El Pino Mediterranean fruit fly facility in Guatemala; and the screwworm programme in Panama. Thus these larger and more expensive irradiators, together with panoramic units (that are also costlier than self-contained gamma irradiators) have remained over the years a valid option, especially for larger operational programmes. In addition, the reloading of smaller units with new cobalt or the purchase of refurbished used self-contained irradiators remain viable alternatives

  10. Predatory hoverflies increase oviposition in response to colour stimuli offering no reward: implications for biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Day, R.L.; Hickman, J.M.; Sprague, R.I.; Wratten, S. D.

    2015-01-01

    There are increasing efforts worldwide to engineer agroecosystems to enhance ecosystem services such as carbon storage, minimisation of erosion, and biological control of pests. A key group of insect biological control agents is the hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae). While adult Syrphidae are pollen and nectar feeders, the larvae of many species are aphidophagous, thus demonstrating life-history omnivory and their potentially important role in the biological control of aphids and other pests. S...

  11. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  12. Manipulating within-orchard and adjacent habitats to provide better pest control in organic orchards. Some elements for modulating “orchard tree-pest-natural enemy” relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Simon., S; SAUPHANOR, B.; Defrance, H.; LAURI, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    The control of pests in organic orchards cannot solely rely on the use of direct control methods. The effect of manipulating the habitat of orchard pests and natural enemies through tree architecture and the increase of plant diversity has been investigated in an experimental organic apple orchard and in a pear orchard, in order to provide information about the potential benefits of these cultural practices. Tree training affected the development of the most detrimental pests of apple trees, ...

  13. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide presents information needed to meet the requirements for pesticide applicator certification. The first part deals with recognition and control of aquatic pests such as aquatic weeds, fish and other vertebrates. Environmental concerns in aquatic pest control are discussed in the second section. (CS)

  14. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

  15. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  16. Using GPS instruments and GIS techniques in data management for insect pest control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interactive tutorial CD entitled 'Using GPS Instruments and GIS Techniques in Data Management for Insect Pest Control Programs' was developed by Micha silver of the Arava Development Co., Sapir, Israel, and includes step-by-step hands on lessons on the use of GPS/GIS in support of area-wide pest control operations

  17. Analysis of sustainable pest control using a pesticide and a screened refuge

    OpenAIRE

    Ringland, John; George, Prasanth

    2010-01-01

    We describe and analyze a ‘screened refuge’ technique for indefinitely sustaining control of insect pests using transgenic pesticidal crops or an applied pesticide, even when resistance is not recessive. The screen is a physical barrier that restricts pest movement. In a deterministic discrete-time model of the use of this technique, we obtain asymptotic analytical formulas for the two important equilibria of the system in terms of the refuge size and the pest fitnesses, mutation rates, and m...

  18. Dynamics of a Stage Structured Pest Control Model in a Polluted Environment with Pulse Pollution Input

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Xu; Bing Liu; Baolin Kang

    2013-01-01

    By using pollution model and impulsive delay differential equation, we formulate a pest control model with stage structure for natural enemy in a polluted environment by introducing a constant periodic pollutant input and killing pest at different fixed moments and investigate the dynamics of such a system. We assume only that the natural enemies are affected by pollution, and we choose the method to kill the pest without harming natural enemies. Sufficient conditions for global attractivity ...

  19. Weather Forecast Based Conditional Pest Management: A Stochastic Optimal Control Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Liang; Elbakidze, Levan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we examine conditional, forecast-based dynamic pest management in agricultural crop production given stochastic pest infestations and stochastic climate dynamics throughout the growing season. Using stochastic optimal control we show that correlation between forecast error for climate prediction and forecast error for pest outbreaks can be used to improve pesticide application efficiency. In the general setting, we apply modified Hamiltonian approach to discuss the steady state...

  20. Recent advances in development of ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest pest control on perishable commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) have been developed for postharvest pest control on different types of perishable products. Complete control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia sp.), twopotted spider mite (Tetranychus u...

  1. Crop domestication, global human-mediated migration, and the unresolved role of geography in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda H. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecological pest management seeks to improve pest control through the manipulation of ecological processes that promote natural enemies and suppress pests. These approaches can involve cultural practices such as reduced tillage, increased use of non-crop plants that provide food and shelter for natural enemies, and intercropping to enhance the abundance and diversity of natural enemies. A major assumption of ecological pest management is that these activities can be equally effective for all insect herbivores. Here, I propose that these strategies may only be effective for a subset of pests and geographic regions because most insect pests have complex evolutionary histories that make them difficult to manage. I discuss how crop domestication and human-mediated migration are major evolutionary events that shape the geography of interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. Insect herbivores can evolve to be pests through three major modes: 1 herbivores associated with the crop wild ancestor may shift onto the domesticated crop, 2 herbivores may host-shift from native host plants onto an introduced crop, or 3 human-mediated migration can introduce insect pests into new cropping regions. The resulting geographic structure can influence the success of pest management by altering ecological factors such as: species distributions, patterns of biodiversity, community structure, and natural enemy attack rates. I discuss how the different modes of insect pest evolution structure a set of relevant questions and approaches for ecological pest management. By acknowledging how agricultural history and geography shape the ecology and evolution of insect pests, we may collectively develop a better capacity to identify where and how ecological pest management approaches can be most broadly effective.

  2. Farmers' information on sweet potato production and millipede infestation in north-eastern Uganda. II. Pest incidence and indigenous control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Abidin, P.E.; Odongo, B.

    2004-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk) is an important staple food for the people of north-eastern Uganda. Crop yields per unit area are low partly because of biological constraints, including pests like millipedes. The objective of this study was to generate information on pest incidence and control strategies of millipedes by interviewing farmers in different districts. The respondents associated the dying of planting material with drought. However, millipedes also damaged planting materi...

  3. A review and Extension of Economic Pest Control Model Incorporating Multi-Pest Species and Insect Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Rex

    1996-01-01

    Most pest control models are extensions of classical production theory which states that a producer will increase the use of a variable input to the point where the marginal cost of the input is equal to the marginal benefit. There have been several useful and sophisticated extensions of this model that incorporate complexities of agricultural production such as pesticide externalities, insect resistance and multiple­ insect species. These extensions have generally been developed incrementall...

  4. The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum: Lessons in Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it was mass reared and exp...

  5. THE INSECT PATHOGENIC FUNGUS Verticillium lecanii (Zimm. Viegas AND ITS USE FOR PESTS CONTROL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B C ALAVO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical insecticides play an important role in the control of plant damage and plant diseases. However, extensive use of these products has led to the disruption of ecosystems because of several reasons such as death of non-target species, accumulation of pesticide residues in the environment and food, and buildup of pesticide resistance in the target species. Biological control is one of the alternatives to chemical pesticides and it can be described as the limitation of the abundance of living organisms and their products by other living organisms. Predators, parasitoids, fungi and other beneficial organisms can be used for the biocontrol of insect pests. The fungus Verticillium lecanii is one of the members of Deuteromycetes and it can be used for crop protection. This paper is a review of the international literature related to V. lecanii for the bio-control of insects of agricultural importance.

  6. LABORATORY TEST METHOD OF EXPOSURE BY ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTES OF MICORBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS TO NON TARGET AVIAN SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms applied to the environment to control the proliferation and spread of agricultural or silvicultural insect, arthropod. and plant pests. hen used in this manner, the micrporganisms are classified as pesticides and are subjec...

  7. Genomics of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Implications for Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dihong; Baiocchi, Tiffany; Dillman, Adler R

    2016-08-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been used in biological control but improvement is needed to realize their full potential for broader application in agriculture. Some improvements have been gained through selective breeding and the isolation of additional species and populations. Having genomic sequences for at least six EPNs opens the possibility of genetic improvement, either by facilitating the selection of candidate genes for hypothesis-driven studies of gene-trait relations or by genomics-assisted breeding for desirable traits. However, the genomic data will be of limited use without a more mechanistic understanding of the genes underlying traits that are important for biological control. Additionally, molecular tools are required to fully translate the genomic resources into further functional studies and better biological control. PMID:27142565

  8. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 75, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our last newsletter we reported that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is experiencing important changes as part of a major reform process that is ongoing at FAO since 2009, and which will be fully implemented by 2013, resulting in a more responsive and modern organization. Also at IAEA restructuring is taking place as a result of IAEA's new leadership and external reviews that made positive recommendations. These changes directly affect the operations of the Joint Division. Up to the end of 2009, the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco were administratively under separate management, although programmatically they always have been part of their respective Divisions at headquarters. This double leadership in the management structure was a source of inefficiencies in what should be seamless programme operations. As of 1 January 2010, in order to streamline, simplify and harmonize lines of authority and accountability, laboratory activities and staff have been aligned with their respective programmes. In the case of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, this means that its five units (including the Entomology Unit) have been fully integrated into the respective subprogrammes under the Director of the Joint Division, who was given full authority and accountability for all programmatic and administrative functions regarding the management of the activities of the FAO/IAEA Laboratories. It is expected that this streamlining will lead to more opportunities for Seibersdorf staff to play a greater role in programme development and will result in improved programme delivery to our Member States. You will notice in this newsletter that, as part of the streamlining, the name of the Entomology Unit, which has been in use since the 1960s, has been officially changed to Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL). Aside from the name change we do not anticipate any real changes in the implementation

  9. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  10. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Insect ecology studies and insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the activities of the Pest Control Research Group in Indonesia. Pests under study are the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the sugar cane borer (Chilo auricilius), bean flies (Agromyza spp.), tobacco insects (Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera litura) and cotton insects, especially the pink bollworm

  11. Development of Semiochemical Based Control Programs for Arthropod Pests of Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years the apiculture industry has experienced serious problems from serious invasions by exotic pests including Varroa destructor and the Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida. Control of these pests is difficult and problematic because Honey bees are extremely sensitive to pesticides and the...

  12. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  13. Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

  14. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)

  15. The Sterile Insect Technique as a method of pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Valencia community is doing one of the most ambitious project in the field of plant protection at European level: the fight against fruit fly, one of the most damaging pests of citrus and fruit; by Insect Technique Sterile. This technique consists of laboratory breeding and release into the fields of huge quantities of insects of the pest species that have previously been sterilized. Sterile insect looking for wild individuals of the same species to mate with them and the result is a clutch of viable eggs, causing a decrease in pest populations. After three years of application of the technique on an area of 150,000 hectares, the pest populations have been reduced by 90%. Other benefits have been the reduced used of insecticides and improved the quality of exported fruit. (Author)

  16. Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests and the fifth international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the world population attaining the six billion mark, the urgency of increasing quality food production and reducing the spread of diseases transmitted by insects, without affecting our fragile environment, will be of paramount importance. Losses currently experienced in agricultural production, due to insect pests and through diseases transmitted by insect vectors, are very high especially in developing and poor countries. Many insect pests and vectors are of economic importance, and several such as fruit flies, mosquitoes and tsetse flies have attracted international concerns. Most pests are traditionally controlled through heavy reliance on pesticides which can cause environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and pest resurgence. The control, management or eradication of insect pests and vectors with minimal adverse impact on our food quality, environment, health and well-being should be of great concern to many agriculturists, biological and physical scientists as well as to national and international agencies responsible for pest control. Steps taken by the various concerned agencies to improve and implement the area-wide control will hopefully lead us into the next millennium free from major insect pests and vectors while at the same time protect our precarious global environment. This volume is the culmination of proceedings conducted in two recent international meetings, FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, 28 May - 2 June 1998, and the Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1-5 June 1998, held in Penang, Malaysia. Over three hundred papers (both oral contributions and posters) were presented at the two meetings. The manuscripts submitted by authors are divided according to broad topics into eighteen sections originally defined by the organisers as corresponding to the sessions of the meetings. The organisers identified one to several individuals in each of the sessions to deliver an

  17. Expressed sequence tags from Atta laevigata and identification of candidate genes for the control of pest leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique-Silva Flávio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leafcutters are the highest evolved within Neotropical ants in the tribe Attini and model systems for studying caste formation, labor division and symbiosis with microorganisms. Some species of leafcutters are agricultural pests controlled by chemicals which affect other animals and accumulate in the environment. Aiming to provide genetic basis for the study of leafcutters and for the development of more specific and environmentally friendly methods for the control of pest leafcutters, we generated expressed sequence tag data from Atta laevigata, one of the pest ants with broad geographic distribution in South America. Results The analysis of the expressed sequence tags allowed us to characterize 2,006 unique sequences in Atta laevigata. Sixteen of these genes had a high number of transcripts and are likely positively selected for high level of gene expression, being responsible for three basic biological functions: energy conservation through redox reactions in mitochondria; cytoskeleton and muscle structuring; regulation of gene expression and metabolism. Based on leafcutters lifestyle and reports of genes involved in key processes of other social insects, we identified 146 sequences potential targets for controlling pest leafcutters. The targets are responsible for antixenobiosis, development and longevity, immunity, resistance to pathogens, pheromone function, cell signaling, behavior, polysaccharide metabolism and arginine kynase activity. Conclusion The generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags from Atta laevigata have provided important genetic basis for future studies on the biology of leaf-cutting ants and may contribute to the development of a more specific and environmentally friendly method for the control of agricultural pest leafcutters.

  18. Research on the Application of the Super Capacitor in the Solar LED Pest Control Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tianhua

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the energy storage characteristics of the super-capacitor and solar panels, this study selects the super-capacitor as the storage device to design the solar LED pest control light, which is energy saving, environmentally friendly, safe and reliable. The solar LED pest control light is easy to use and there is no need erecting and maintaining wires. However, the current storage battery is weak in charge control due to the instability of the sun light and this unstable charge state may lead to its premature failure or capacity loss, thus causing the service life of pest control light to be below the designed specification.

  19. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 82, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbes have been the dominating forms of life, almost since the birth of our planet about 4.5 billion years ago. Being masters of chemical reactions, they regulate the recycling of all major chemicals relevant to life; manage energy sources and the production of fuels; determine the aerobic conditions of our atmosphere and influence our climate; are the catalytic factors of soil fertility, thus affecting agricultural production; and have also been of paramount importance for the health of ecosystems and of all living organisms including humans. Last, but not least, they have been the driving force of the on-going 'biotechnological revolution', which promises to produce more and healthier food, drugs and 'green' fuels. Because of all their unique metabolic properties, microbes have been driving the evolution of life on earth, either by being free-living or by establishing symbiotic associations with diverse organisms including insects. Insects are the most abundant and species-rich animal group on earth, occupying most available ecological niches. Conservative estimates suggest that about 85% of all described animal species are insects; estimates range between 2-30 million insect species and about 10 quintillion (1018) individual insects being alive at any given time (http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/ buginfo/bugnos.htm). During recent years it has become evident that the ecological and evolutionarily success of insects greatly depends on the sophisticated symbiotic associations they have established with diverse microorganisms, which influence all aspects of their biology, physiology, ecology and evolution. The few examples presented below aim to underline the importance of these symbiotic associations and indicate that the characterization, exploitation and management of insect-bacterial symbiotic associations can significantly contribute to the support and enhancement of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes against agricultural pests and disease

  20. Control of insect pests using slow release pheromone containing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of slow release devices are being or have been developed and commercialised for the detection of insect pests, in the form of monitoring lures, and for their control, by lure and kill or mating disruption techniques. The devices are based upon matrix-type polymer formulations with pheromone or attractant distributed therein. Release profiles of devices were determined by gas chromatographic analysis of pheromone residing in the devices, as a function of time; release rates were then derived, also as a function of time, and compared with bioefficacy results of field tests. The lower rate limit, consistent with mating disruption, can be determined, and will be appropriate to, and dependent upon the field test conditions eg temperature, wind conditions, point source density, insect pressure, the presence of beneficials, and the influence of other attractants such as plant volatiles. Such an approach has been taken in the development of products for Pectinophora gossypiella (Pink Bollworm), Chilo suppressalis (Rice Stem Borer) Lymantria dispar (Gypsy moth), Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean Fruit Fly), Rhyacionia buoliana (European Pine Shoot Moth), and Keiferia lycopersicella (Tomato Pinworm). It is essential that the cost of pheromone be minimized in order to maximize the possibility of successful product development. To this end, the metathesis route has been found useful in some cases eg for Pink Bollworm pheromone (50/50) Z,E/Z,Z-7,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. 9 refs, 4 figs

  1. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a 60Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment

  2. Control of Adult Pests by the Irradiation-of-Male Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grosch effect (i.e., of radiation interfering with utilization of nutrients in insects) became applicable to pest control when Galun and Warburg discovered that irradiated ticks fed once would seldom if ever feed again. This lifelong sensation of 'impletion' does not interfere with sexual competitiveness, but it does render harmless a pest that is a pest during the adult stage of its life cycle. It would seem that the general principle of treating adult pests to limit their feeding capacity could be extended to other pests. When insect pests are- living in stored food products, it is a general rule that desirably low levels of radiation can be used to eradicate the pest if sterilizing doses rather than insecticidal doses are used. With the entire population of both males and females being irradiated, the sterilizing dose is often much lower than that which would be desirable when the insects are mass-reared for irradiation and release. Where mass-rearing techniques are not feasible, or where the pestiferousness of adults cannot be overcome by radiation or other treatments, field-irradiation facilities in baited traps can be devised. These have some advantages over similar traps containing chemosterilants. Wherever it can be used, the method of mass-rearing, irradiation, and release is still the most desirable way to control insect pests. (author)

  3. Organic Centre Wales Technical Note 3: Biology and Management of Soil pests

    OpenAIRE

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of crops grown in the UK are host to single or multiple insect pests that feed on the growing plant at some stage of their life cycle. Insect pest is not strictly correct terminology because the pests come from a wide range of families or groups, from Coleoptera (beetles), Diptera (true flies), Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Molluscs (slugs and snails) and Nematodes. This technical sheet lists major and minor pests, provides a simple key for identifying soil pests, lists r...

  4. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests: Integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful implementation of area-wide pest control programmes integrating the use of sterile insects with other control technologies against a number of key veterinary, medical and plant insect pests, such as various fruit flies, moths, screwworms, and tsetse species, clearly demonstrates a peaceful application of nuclear technology. Over the last 40 years, FAO and IAEA have played, and they will continue to play, a critical role in supporting their Member States in the development and application of these environment-friendly pest control methods. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management, in which the total population of a pest in an area or region is targeted, is central to the effective application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and is increasingly being considered for related genetic, biological and other pest control technologies. Insect movement, occurring sometimes over long distances, is generally underestimated. As a consequence, most conventional pest control can be described as localized, un-coordinated action against segments of a pest population, resulting very often in an unsustainable spiral of insecticide application and eventual resistance. However, an area-wide integrated approach adopts a preventive rather than a reactive tactic, whereby all individuals of the pest population are targeted, requiring fewer inputs and resulting in more cost effective and sustainable control. In June 1998 FAO and IAEA sponsored the First International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques in Penang, Malaysia with the participation of almost 300 participants from 63 Member States and 5 international organizations. This Conference greatly increased awareness concerning the area-wide approach for insect pest control programmes. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced and a better regulatory framework is being developed for integrating SIT

  5. Intercropping as cultural pest control: Prospects and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    Agriculturalists have been intercropping (simultaneously growing several crops in the same field) for centuries, and the use of polycultures continues as an important form of agriculture among indigenous peoples in the New and Old World tropics and subtropics One demonstrated advantage of intercropping is a reduction in insect pest populations, explained by higher numbers of natural insect enemies in the intercrop and/or reduced herbivore colonization and tenure time in the intercrop A review of 150 published field studies in which 198 herbivore species were studied shows that 53% of the pest species were less abundant in the intercrop, 18% were more abundant in the intercrop, 9% showed no difference, and 20% showed a variable response Two major problems of the published studies are 1) lack of experimental evidence demonstrating that reduced pest numbers in the intercrop resulted in higher yield, and 2) lack of experimental evidence demonstrating the ecological mechanisms responsible for the intercrop effect There is some theoretical and empirical work suggesting that herbivore movement patterns, rather than natural insect enemies, are often more important in accounting for reduced pest abundance in an intercrop Several examples from the author's work are presented that demonstrate ways of studying the ecological mechanisms underlying pest suppression in intercrops. The successful design of new intercropping systems to reduce pests will require a better theoretical understanding of such ecological mechanisms It is emphasized that intercropping has potential in both developed and developing countries and that many of the impediments to incorporating appropriate strategies of diversification are social rather than technological

  6. Conditional lethality strains for the biological control of Anastrepha species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pro-apoptotic cell death genes are promising candidates for biologically-based autocidal control of pest insects as demonstrated by tetracycline (tet)-suppressible systems for conditional embryonic lethality in Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) and the medfly, Ceratitis capitata (Cc). However, for medfly...

  7. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 74, January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would like to thank all our collaborators in many parts of the world, as well as our staff and colleagues in Vienna and Seibersdorf for a fruitful year 2009. Besides our participation and support to many events and interesting research, field, and knowledge management activities, the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme has been involved in a number of external reviews and is undergoing change as part of a major reform process at FAO and also important restructurings and new leadership at IAEA. It is now 45 years ago that FAO and IAEA joined forces in a partnership through a Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, the oldest example of institutionalized interagency cooperation in the United Nations system. The Joint Division has been developing and is building on the synergies that exist between the mandates of FAO, as the lead agency in food security, agriculture and rural development, and the IAEA, as the global forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nevertheless, during the past two years, as a result of the above reform process, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division has been subject to a period of much uncertainty about the future of this partnership. I am now very pleased to be able to inform that following an exchange of formal notes between the senior management of FAO and IAEA in mid 2009, the Arrangements between the Directors General of FAO and IAEA for the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture remain in force. This is a confirmation of the strong support that has been received from Member States of both FAO and IAEA during the last two years requesting the continuation of the successful partnership between both organizations

  8. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 84, January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 29 September 2014, a ceremony was held in Seibersdorf, Austria to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, as well as the ground-breaking for the renovation of the IAEA’s Nuclear Sciences and Applications laboratories at Seibersdorf – including the FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratories. The enormous contributions of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division during the past 50 years were also honoured, serving stakeholders worldwide to meet the changing needs of Member States through the peaceful uses of nuclear technologies based on the shared goals of our two parent organizations and the five strategic objectives of FAO. Established on 1 October 1964, this FAO/IAEA partnership still remains unique, with its key strengths based on interagency cooperation within the United Nations family. It is a tangible joint organizational entity with a fusion of complementary mandates, common targets, a joint programme, co-funding and coordinated management geared to demand- driven and results-based services to its Members and to the international community at large. The mission of the Joint Division has proactively evolved to address new challenges in Member States and nuclear applications continue to provide added value to conventional approaches in addressing a range of agricultural problems and issues, including food safety, animal production and health, crop improvement, insect pest control and sustainable use of finite natural resources. Over the past 50 years, this partnership has brought countless successes with distinct socio-economic impact at country, regional and global levels in Member States. The 50 year anniversary was taken as an opportunity to highlight examples of tangible, sustainable results derived out of this unique partnership – beneficial to Member States of both parent organizations – and to share these with our many stakeholders around the world

  9. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 85, July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the amazing progress made in science and technology during the last hundred years, humankind still faces significant challenges in combating pest insects, such as mosquitoes that are the vectors of major pathogens (arboviruses and bacterial as well as eukaryotic microorganisms). These pathogenic microorganisms cause infectious diseases resulting in severe morbidity or lethality. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are over 200 million cases of malaria resulting in more than 600 000 deaths annually, mainly very young children. The great majority of malaria deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, malaria transmission occurs in about 100 countries putting about 3.4 billion people at risk (World Malaria Report, 2013). Similarly, around 400 million people contract every year a dengue infection of which about 500 000, mainly children require hospitalization; it is estimated that 2.5% of them die. Dengue has spread globally during the last years and currently over 3 billion people are at risk in more than 100 countries in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-east Asia and the Western Pacific. The majority of dengue cases are reported in American, Southeast Asian and the Western Pacific regions. Recently another viral mosquito-borne disease, chikungunya, has been spreading rapidly. It is a disease that causes severe chronic joint pain in patients across the globe. In the absence of effective vaccines and drugs, these mosquito- transmitted diseases pose an enormous economic and social burden worldwide and their incidence has increased drastically in recent years. In addition, the traditional chemical- based vector control strategies are facing serious challenges due to increased resistance of mosquitoes to the used insecticides and increased public concern of insecticide use in urban areas. Based on these facts, novel methods and complementary approaches are required to manage mosquito populations in an effective and more

  10. Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Jörg; Hiltpold, Ivan; Köllner, Tobias G.; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hibbard, Bruce E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2009-01-01

    When attacked by herbivorous insects, plants emit volatile compounds that attract natural enemies of the insects. It has been proposed that these volatile signals can be manipulated to improve crop protection. Here, we demonstrate the full potential of this strategy by restoring the emission of a specific belowground signal emitted by insect-damaged maize roots. The western corn rootworm induces the roots of many maize varieties to emit (E)-β-caryophyllene, which attracts entomopathogenic nematodes that infect and kill the voracious root pest. However, most North American maize varieties have lost the ability to emit (E)-β-caryophyllene and may therefore receive little protection from the nematodes. To restore the signal, a nonemitting maize line was transformed with a (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase gene from oregano, resulting in constitutive emissions of this sesquiterpene. In rootworm-infested field plots in which nematodes were released, the (E)-β-caryophyllene-emitting plants suffered significantly less root damage and had 60% fewer adult beetles emerge than untransformed, nonemitting lines. This demonstration that plant volatile emissions can be manipulated to enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents opens the way for novel and ecologically sound strategies to fight a variety of insect pests. PMID:19666594

  11. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Common forest pests and their control are discussed. Special attention is given to the effectiveness of different application techniques and potential human and environmental hazards. (CS)

  12. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-07-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel discrete pest population growth models with both impulsive chemical control and the evolution of pesticide resistance. Strong and weak threshold conditions which guarantee the extinction of the pest population, based on the threshold values of the analytical formula for the optimal switching time, were derived. Further, we addressed switching strategies in the light of chosen economic injury levels. Moreover, the effects of the complex dynamical behaviour of the pest population on the pesticide switching times were also studied. The pesticide application period, the evolution of pesticide resistance and the dynamic complexity of the pest population may result in complex outbreak patterns, with consequent effects on the pesticide switching strategies.

  13. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  14. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control for Commercial Applicators: Pest Control of Ornamental Plants; NCR 12, Lawn Diseases in the Midwest; NCR 26, Lawn Weeds and their Control. Manual 89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, W. S., Comp.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the ornamental and turf pest control category. The text discusses pest control of ornamental plants, lawn diseases, and lawn weeds and their control. (CS)

  15. Integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme requires a thorough knowledge of the biology of the target species, namely information on the dispersal, population densities and dynamics as well as the ecology of the natural enemies of the pest. Studies on these can be accomplished by radiolabelling techniques. In the event that conditions prevent the use of radioisotopes the insects can be labelled with either a rare earth or stable isotopes. All insects treated with the rare earths, once captured, are exposed to neutrons which produce radioactivity in the rare earths. There are two other approaches in the practical application of radiation to the problem of insect control: the exposure of insects to lethal doses of radiation and the release of sterile insects. The Insect and Pest Control Section contributes to all aspects of the sterile insect technique (SIT) and it is involved in the Agency's Coordinated Research Programme which permits scientists from the developing countries to meet to discuss agricultural problems and to devise means of solving crop-pest infestation problems by using isotopes and radiation. The success of radiation in insect pest control was underlined and reviewed at the international symposium on the sterile insect technique and the use of radiation in genetic insect control jointly organized by the FAO and the IAEA and held in the FRG in 1981. Another important action is the BICOT programme in Nigeria between the IAEA and the Government of Nigeria on the biological control of tsetse flies by SIT

  16. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Emily A.; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexi...

  17. Integrated pest management in apple orchards in The Netherlands: a solution for selective control of tortricids

    OpenAIRE

    Reede, de, T.

    1985-01-01

    Field trials to compose a coherent system of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for apple orchards in the Netherlands were started in 1967, when the 12 ha apple orchard "De Schuilenburg" at Kesteren became available for experiments on IPM. Natural control of one of the most severe pests under conventional control, the fruit tree red spider mite Panonychus ulmi , is a central part in IPM. Many broad-spectrum pesticides exterminate the predacious mite Typhlodromus pyri , which is responsible for ...

  18. The Trojan Female Technique: A Novel, Effective and Humane Approach for Pest Population Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour- intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan Female Technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control. (author)

  19. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 80, January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 28, 2012, with the participation of representatives from Member States and the press, the IAEA commemorated 50 years of IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria. At a ceremony to mark the anniversary, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano said the Laboratories in Seibersdorf have improved, in the 50 years since they opened, the lives of millions of people through work using nuclear echniques. At the eight nuclear applications laboratories, which include the five FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories, scientists carry out research and development, provide technical services to Member States and host fellows and scientific visitors. He stated that work at the laboratories has made a difference in controlling animal diseases and insect pests in many countries, contributed to more sustainable soil and water management technologies and the development of hardier and more nutritious crops. Scientists at the laboratories have helped communities dentify the best sources of underground water and ensure that this scarce resource is used effectively. They have worked on safe ways to preserve food, and provided vital echnical support for cancer treatment and other medical uses of nuclear technology. New challenges abound in the present and the future, Director General Yukiya Amano said. 'Member States want us to do more in almost all areas of nuclear applications'. He referred to the positive feedback received, reinforcing the critical nature of the services provided by the laboratories, and his announcement to carry out a complete modernization of the Laboratories. His proposal was supported in a resolution of the 56th General Conference, which called upon the IAEA to establish state-of-the-art facilities and equipment at Seibersdorf. The goal, according to the resolution, must be o 'ensure that maximum benefits in terms of capacity-building and technology enhancement are made available to Member States, particularly developing countries.' He pledged

  20. Design of Light Source of Agricultural UVALED Pest Control Lamp in Food Production

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tianhua; Luo Guangyi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the design of light source of agricultural UVALED pest control lamp in food production. The traditional agricultural black light lamp is a special gas discharge lamp, which can emit 320~400 nm ultraviolet light to trap the pests. However, the traditional agricultural black light lamp has such problems as low light efficiency, large power consumption; poor shock resistance, short life span and the filler harming the environment. To solve these problems, thi...

  1. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms

    OpenAIRE

    Railsback, Steven F.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    How land use can support both natural and agricultural resources is a key sustainability question. This question is more complicated when nature and agriculture support each other; here, birds consume pest insects, and coffee provides bird habitat. We used a model based on field research to study the effects of agricultural and natural land uses on birds, the pest control services that birds provide, and crop production on Jamaican coffee farms. Our conclusions address whether small forest-li...

  2. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nian-Feng Wan; Xiang-Yun Ji; Jie-Xian Jiang; Bo Li

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially ap...

  3. Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmer, Mark S.; Bachelet, Ido; Raman, Rahul; Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2009-01-01

    Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect immunity that might lead to the development of nontoxic, sustainable pest control methods. Gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) are critical for sensing pathogenic infection and triggering effector responses. We report that termite GNBP-2 (tGNBP-2) shows β(1,3)-gluca...

  4. Citrus growers vary in their adoption of biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E

    2012-01-01

    In a spring 2010 survey, we investigated the characteristics that influenced whether California growers controlled major citrus pests with beneficial insects. We also performed statistical analysis of growers' reliance on Aphytus melinus, a predatory wasp, to control California red scale. The survey results suggest that growers with greater citrus acreage and more education are more likely to use biological control. Marketing outlets, ethnicity and primary information sources also influenced ...

  5. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  6. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Programme book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of this International Conference on the Areawide Approach to the Control of Insect Pests is appropriate and timely. There is increasing interest in the holistic approach to dealing with major insect pest problems. This interest has been prompted by the steady progress scientists have made in the development of the sterile insect technique for eliminating the screwworm from North America, the melon fly from Okinawa, the elimination and containment of the medfly in various countries and the progress that scientists have made in eradicating tsetse fly populations from isolated areas. Increased interest has also been shown by agriculturalists because of the realization that the farm-to-farm reactive method of insect control is only a temporary solution to problems and that pests continue to be about as numerous as ever from year-to-year. In the meantime, there is increasing public concern over the environmental hazards created by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides to deal with insect pest problems. The sterile insect technique provides a feasible way to manage total insect pest populations. However, other techniques and strategies appropriately integrated into management programs can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of area-wide management programs. These include the augmentation of massproduced biological organisms and the use of semiochemicals such as the insect sex pheromones. This conference will give pest management scientists from many countries the opportunity to exchange information on the area-wide approach to insect pest management - an approach that if fully developed can be highly effective, low in cost and at the same time make a major contribution to alleviating the environmental concerns associated with primary reliance on broad-spectrum insecticides for controlling insect pests. This document contains 200 abstracts of papers presented at the conference

  7. Prospects for the biological control of Tuta absoluta in tomatoes of the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbaneja, Alberto; González-Cabrera, Joel; Arnó, Judit; Gabarra, Rosa

    2012-09-01

    Since its detection in the Mediterranean basin at the end of 2006 and later in other European countries, the South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), has become a serious threat to tomato crops. In newly infested areas, it is especially problematic during the first years of its presence. Nevertheless, after 2-3 years, the incidence of T. absoluta has become less severe in certain areas. There are several factors contributing to this decline, such as the increase in growers' knowledge of pest behaviour and biology and the correct application of integrated pest control strategies. The impact of opportunistic native natural enemies (fortuitous biological control) should be considered as one of the key factors in this decline. In this review, available information on indigenous natural enemies is updated, and the current pest management approaches used against T. absoluta are addressed. Finally, future scenarios for biological control of this pest are discussed. PMID:22730076

  8. Late pest control in determinate tomato cultivars Controle de pragas tardias em cultivares de tomateiro de crescimento determinado

    OpenAIRE

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior; Marcos Aurélio Anequini Macedo; Adalci Leite Torres; Marina Robles Angelini

    2007-01-01

    The usage of insecticidal plants and others insect resistant varieties can be strong allies to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM), being able to reduce the number of insecticides applications and to minimize its effect to the man and the environment.The following control techniques were compared in field conditions, investigating the late pest control of two determinate tomato cultivars: a) Conventional - sprayings of metamidophos, buprofezin, acephate, cipermetrin, abamectin, permetrin, te...

  9. Time Delayed Stage-Structured Predator-Prey Model with Birth Pulse and Pest Control Tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally, chemical pesticides kill not only pests but also their natural enemies. In order to better control the pests, two-time delayed stage-structured predator-prey models with birth pulse and pest control tactics are proposed and analyzed by using impulsive differential equations in present work. The stability threshold conditions for the mature prey-eradication periodic solutions of two models are derived, respectively. The effects of key parameters including killing efficiency rate, pulse period, the maximum birth effort per unit of time of natural enemy, and maturation time of prey on the threshold values are discussed in more detail. By comparing the two threshold values of mature prey-extinction, we provide the fact that the second control tactic is more effective than the first control method.

  10. Research on the Application of the Super Capacitor in the Solar LED Pest Control Light

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tianhua; Pan Zhengkun

    2014-01-01

    Based on the energy storage characteristics of the super-capacitor and solar panels, this study selects the super-capacitor as the storage device to design the solar LED pest control light, which is energy saving, environmentally friendly, safe and reliable. The solar LED pest control light is easy to use and there is no need erecting and maintaining wires. However, the current storage battery is weak in charge control due to the instability of the sun light and this unstable charge state may...

  11. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests. PMID:25516715

  12. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist public health pest control officials in meeting the certification required under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The four sections included describe: (1) Insects of public health significance in Michigan; (2) Other arthropods that affect man; (3) Swimmers' itch parasite and snail host; and (4)…

  13. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. 35.7 Section 35.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control...

  14. Effect of gaseous ozone for control of stored product pests at low and high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Hansen, Peer; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous ozone (O3) has shown potential for control of insects in stored grain. A previous laboratory study determined doses of ozone necessary to control freely exposed and internal stages of eleven stored product pest species at 20 C. In this study the impact of temperature on the effect of ozone...... was tested on two species of stored product pests: Sitophilus granarius and Plodia interpunctella. Insects were exposed to continuous flows of ozone in doses of approximately 33 ppm for 6 d or approximately 131 ppm for 8 d at low temperatures between 7.3 and 7.9 C and high temperatures between 29...

  15. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of arthropod pests in egg production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    Beauveria bassiana and other species of entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for microbial control of major pests in egg layers, e.g. the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), the housefly (Musca domestica) and the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus). We have selected an isolate...... of B. bassiana with high efficacy against all target pests in laboratory assays, and will review the existing information on the natural occurrence of these fungi in farms with confined animals and discuss the possibilities and constraints for exploitation of entomopathogenic fungi as control agents...

  16. Biological characteristics of Acanthocinus carinulatus, a new record insect pest in Aershan, Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Fei; LUO You-qing; SHI Juan; Kari KELI(O)VAARA; QI Guo-xin; CHEN Yu-jie; MA Ling-yun

    2008-01-01

    Biological characteristics of a new record pest insect Acanthocinus carinulatus Gebler has been reported in China. During the last few years, outbreaks of this insect in larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) plantations of Aershan, Inner Mongolia have occurred. Each year one generation is born. The insects only damage the phloem in L. gmelinii, overwinter in galleries as larvae and pupate in May of the following year. The pupation culminates in late May. The pupal phase lasts about 45 d. Adults emerge in early June and require nutrition after emergence. Mating and oviposition occur from late June to early August and the adult males and females and may copulate many times in their lifetime. The female adults lay eggs in bark crevices. Oviposition sites with one egg occupy 70.5% of all sites, sites with three eggs occupy 6.8% and 22.7% of all crevices are without eggs. Eggs stay in this stage for a period of 7 to 11 d.Larvae hatch in early July and hibernate in early September. The rate of successful hatching is only 37.8%.

  17. Manipulating behaviour with substrate-borne vibrations--potential for insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polajnar, Jernej; Eriksson, Anna; Lucchi, Andrea; Anfora, Gianfranco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the potential use of substrate-borne vibrations for the purpose of achieving insect pest control in the context of integrated pest management. Although the importance of mechanical vibrations in the life of insects has been fairly well established, the effect of substrate-borne vibrations has historically been understudied, in contrast to sound sensu stricto. Consequently, the idea of using substrate-borne vibrations for pest control is still in its infancy. This review therefore focuses on the theoretical background, using it to highlight potential applications in a field environment, and lists the few preliminary studies that have been or are being performed. Conceptual similarities to the use of sound, as well as limitations inherent in this approach, are also noted. PMID:24962656

  18. On an integro-differential model for pest control in a heterogeneous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Insect pests pose a major threat to a balanced ecology as it can threaten local species as well as spread human diseases; thus, making the study of pest control extremely important. In practice, the sterile insect release method (SIRM), where a sterile population is introduced into the wild population with the aim of significantly reducing the growth of the population, has been a popular technique used to control pest invasions. In this work we introduce an integro-differential equation to model the propagation of pests in a heterogeneous environment, where this environment is divided into three regions. In one region SIRM is not used making this environment conducive to propagation of the insects. A second region is the eradication zone where there is an intense release of sterile insects, leading to decay of the population in this region. In the final region we explore two scenarios. In the first case, there is a small release of sterile insects and we prove that if the eradication zone is sufficiently large the pests will not invade. In the second case, when SIRM is not used at all in this region we show that invasions always occur regardless of the size of the eradication zone. Finally, we consider the limiting equation of the integro-differential equation and prove that in this case there is a critical length of the eradication zone which separates propagation from obstruction. Moreover, we provide some upper and lower bound for the critical length. PMID:24819831

  19. Area-wide integration of lepidopteran F1 sterility and augmentative biological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide pest management (APM) and integrated pest management (IPM) originated from two different efforts to combine two or more control techniques into programmes in which each method could synergise the effectiveness of others and thus create a level of pest control that was greater than that of a single technique (Perkins 1982). Since then, the concept of APM has evolved to include many aspects of IPM and often is now referred to as area-wide IPM. Still, the element of total population management is central to this approach of insect pest management. In support of APM, Knipling (1998) stated that of the insect pests that were of major concern to agriculture before the newer classes of insecticides were available, most are still pests today, the major exceptions being the screw-worm fly and the boll weevil in the southeastern US cotton growing region. Knipling also noted that both of these pest species were subjected to area-wide suppression programmes. In response to the USDA IPM Initiative (USDA 1993, 1994) which seeks to achieve the national goal of having 75% of the crop acres under IPM by the year 2000, the Agricultural Research Service developed an Area-wide IPM Programme. This programme combines environmentally-sound pest control techniques with the advantages of APM and develops partnerships with other federal, state, local and private sector entities. Technologies such as the integration of lepidopteran F1 sterility and augmentative biological control may be considered for future programmes

  20. Crop association to improve aphid biological control

    OpenAIRE

    Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas; Bosquée, Emilie; Bodson, Bernard; Francis, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods to control aphids, giving special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within crops may have several beneficial effects on pest control, creating attractive habitats for indigenous beneficial fauna and simultaneously deterring pests (“push-pull” approach). In this field study, two wheat/pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) where compared to monocultures ...

  1. PTP-PEST controls EphA3 activation and ephrin-induced cytoskeletal remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mariam; Nievergall, Eva; Gegenbauer, Kristina; Llerena, Carmen; Atapattu, Lakmali; Hallé, Maxime; Tremblay, Michel L; Janes, Peter W; Lackmann, Martin

    2016-01-15

    Eph receptors and their corresponding membrane-bound ephrin ligands regulate cell positioning and establish tissue patterns during embryonic and oncogenic development. Emerging evidence suggests that assembly of polymeric Eph signalling clusters relies on cytoskeletal reorganisation and underlies regulation by protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). PTP-PEST (also known as PTPN12) is a central regulator of actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that an N-terminal fragment of PTP-PEST, generated through an ephrinA5-triggered and spatially confined cleavage mediated by caspase-3, attenuates EphA3 receptor activation and its internalisation. Isolation of EphA3 receptor signalling clusters within intact plasma membrane fragments obtained by detergent-free cell fractionation reveals that stimulation of cells with ephrin triggers effective recruitment of this catalytically active truncated form of PTP-PEST together with key cytoskeletal and focal adhesion proteins. Importantly, modulation of actin polymerisation using pharmacological and dominant-negative approaches affects EphA3 phosphorylation in a similar manner to overexpression of PTP-PEST. We conclude that PTP-PEST regulates EphA3 activation both by affecting cytoskeletal remodelling and through its direct action as a PTP controlling EphA3 phosphorylation, indicating its multifaceted regulation of Eph signalling. PMID:26644181

  2. Mixed cropping systems for control of weeds and pests in organic oilseed crops

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, H. M.; Schochow, M; Ulber, B; Kuhne, S; Rahmann, G

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural advantages of mixed cropping are gained from biological effects like light competition offering weed-suppressing capacities, or by diversification of plant covers to break development cycles of pests. These effects were measured in a two-year project on mixed cropping with organic oilseed crops. It was found that weeds can be efficiently suppressed in organic linseed (Linum usitatissivum) grown in combination with wheat (Triticum aestivum) or false flax (Camelina sativa). Linseed...

  3. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  4. Farmers' knowledge and perception of cotton pests and pest control practices in Benin: results of a diagnostic study

    OpenAIRE

    Sinzogan, A.A.C.; Huis, van, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Vodouhè, S.

    2004-01-01

    Cotton production constraints in Benin as perceived by farmers were studied from May to July 2003. The knowledge, perceptions and practices of farmers growing cotton under different pest management regimes were analysed. The methods used were open and semi-structured interviews with groups and individuals, as well as participatory exercises (brainstorming, prioritization, and problem analysis). Pest damage, low price of produce, late payment for seed cotton, and increasing input costs were th...

  5. 吴茱萸病虫害防治研究进展%RecentAdvances in Integrated Control of Evodia rutaecarpa Diseases and Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丹; 张寿文; 吴波

    2012-01-01

      The paper reviewed the species of Evodia rutaecarpa diseases and pests. Integrated control techniques were introduced in several aspects, such as forecasts, agricultural control techniques, physical control techniques, chemical control techniques and other control techniques. Biological control techniques and genetic engineering were put forward for controlling Evodia rutaecarpa diseases and pests.%  概述了吴茱萸主要病虫害种类,介绍其了预测预报、农业防治、物理防治、化学防治等防治方法,并提出了生物防治技术和基因工程技术在其病虫害研究中的应用前景。

  6. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  7. 9 CFR 3.11 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another dog or cat, or social grouping of dogs or cats. (2) Used primary enclosures and food and water..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... prevent an excessive accumulation of feces and food waste, to prevent soiling of the dogs or...

  8. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1E: Animal Pest Control. CS-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jerald R.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The areas discussed include the economic insect pests on livestock and control treatments; the toxicity and hazards of livestock pesticides; and special considerations when applying pesticides. (CS)

  9. Assessment of methods for methyl iodide emission reduction and pest control using a simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various methods have been developed to reduce atmospheric emissions from the agricultural use of highly volatile pesticides and mitigate their adverse environmental effects. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using simulation model in this study...

  10. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 2: Forest Pest Control. CS-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Jerald R., Ed.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The pamphlet discusses the recognition and control of forest pests such as weeds, insects, disease and vertebrates by application of pesticides. Special attention is given to application methods and precautions to minimize human and…

  11. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiligmann, R. B.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The primary focus of this publication is on forest pest control. An introduction with the explanation of pesticide applications in forestry is presented. The ten sections included describe: (1) Principal…

  12. Predicting methyl iodide emission, soil concentration, and pest control in a two-dimensional chamber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to ever increasing state and federal regulations, the future use of fumigants is predicted on negative environmental impacts while offering sufficient pest control efficacy. To foster the development of the best management practice (BMP), an integrated tool is needed to simultaneously predict fu...

  13. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to…

  14. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  15. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

  16. Effects of Surface Seals on Pest Control Efficacy with 1,3-Dichloropropene/Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil fumigation has been used for many years for control of soil-borne pests including parasitic nematodes, disease pathogens, and weeds in high value cropping systems. The phase-out of methyl bromide has resulted in increasing use of alternative fumigants such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and ch...

  17. LOW TEMPERATURE PHOSPHINE FUMIGATION FOR POSTHARVEST PEST CONTROL ON FRESH VEGETABLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Fumigation with pure phosphine at a low temperature of 2°C was studied to control western flower t...

  18. Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhang; Hai-Chao Li; Xue-Xia Miao

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi)could lead to insect death.This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control,and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection.However,there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control,with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA(dsRNA)delivery being two of the major challenges.With respect to target gene selection,at present,the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers.Once the target gene is identified,dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component.However,micro-injection,which is the most common method,can only be used in laboratory experiments.Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects.Hence,RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control,or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies;however,further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary.In this review,we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management.Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures.To accelerate its practical application in crop protection,further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed.

  19. Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Hai-Chao; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) could lead to insect death. This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control, and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection. However, there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control, with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA (dsRNA) delivery being two of the major challenges. With respect to target gene selection, at present, the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers. Once the target gene is identified, dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component. However, micro-injection, which is the most common method, can only be used in laboratory experiments. Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects. Hence, RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control, or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies; however, further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary. In this review, we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management. Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures. To accelerate its practical application in crop protection, further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed. PMID:23955822

  20. Cultivar Selection and Pest Control Techniques on Organic White Cabbage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile V. STOLERU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, as in many other countries, white cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crop species. The experiment was performed in the NE of the country during 2008-2009 in order to measure the impact of cultivar choice and pest control techniques on organic white cabbage [Brassica oleracea (L. var. capitata f. alba (D.C.]. This experiment included early, summer and autumn crops. The early crop compared four cultivars, the summer crop two cultivars, and the autumn crop three cultivars. The effect of various common organic pest control techniques was also measured. These techniques included: treatments with extract from neem (Azadirachta indica, potassium soap, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki toxins, application of a parasitic wasp (Trichogramma evanescens and covering the crop with an agrotextile. Data were collected regarding the effect of cultivar selection and pest control technique on common local cabbage pests: cabbage flea beetle (Phyllotreta atra, cabbage fly (Delia brassicae, cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae and cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae. The highest yields for each respective growing season were obtained using the following combinations: Flavius agrotextile (early crop, Copenhagen Market agrotextile + 4 lha-1 azadirachtin + 12104 wasps/ha (summer crop and Buzau 4 lha-1 azadirachtin (autumn crop.

  1. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" (0.80) < "applying trap devices and environment-friendly insecticides 9 times" (0.83) < "applying common insecticides 14 times" (1.08). The treatment "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" was considered as the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  2. Development and improvement of biological insecticides for pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strains of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals) Vuill. were submitted to UV-light irradiation at doses inducing mutations. Three UV-light-resistant mutants were obtained from strain PL 256 and two from strain PL 196. The wild and mutant strains were tested for viability in 3 different manners: A) by incorporation a suspension into the soil of a field with newly emerged sugar cane; B) by applying the suspension only to the soil surface in a field with newly emerged sugar cane; C) by applying the suspension only to the surface in a field with 6-month old sugar cane. Soil samples were collected in different days after application, Conidia were counted and their viability was tested. Cytological studies were also carried out to determine the morphological traits of the strains. (M.A.C.)

  3. Biological control of Colletotrichum panacicola on Panax ginseng by Bacillus subtilis HK-CSM-1

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Hojin; Park, Hoon; Suh, Dong-Sang; Jung, Gun Ho; Park, Kyungseok; Lee, Byung Dae

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological control of plant pathogens using benign or beneficial microorganisms as antagonistic agents is currently considered to be an important component of integrated pest management in agricultural crops. In this study, we evaluated the potential of Bacillus subtilis strain HK-CSM-1 as a biological control agent against Colletotrichum panacicola. Methods The potential of B. subtilis HK-CSM-1 as a biological control agent for ginseng anthracnose was assessed. C. panacicola was i...

  4. Manipulation of arthropod pathogens for integrated pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    A great diversity of pathogenic microorganisms and nematodes has been developed for microbial biological control of insect and other arthropod pests. These control agents have many characteristics that determine their capacities to provide reliable pest control, and these characteristics must be ta...

  5. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  6. Engineered repressible lethality for controlling the pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil I Morrison

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders, a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects' progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests.

  7. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  8. Advances in postharvest pest control on perishable commodities using ultralow oxygen treatment and low temperature phosphine funigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research in postharvest pest control on fresh fruits and vegetables for export to markets have resulted in promising ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments and low temperature phosphine fumigation treatments for a variety of pests on different commodities. Lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri), wes...

  9. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  10. Use of Radiation Disinfestation in the Control of Rice Insect Pests during Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaeneum), saw-toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis), and flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella) are commonly found in Egyptian stored rice. The aim of this project is to carry out a study of a pilot-scale radiation disinfestation of these rice insect pests in an amount large enough to extrapolate data for later commercial practice. Fumigation treatments with phostoxin, methyl bromide and a combination treatment (methyl bromide + 7.5 krad) were also performed as a comparison to reveal the most effective way to control these rice pests. The most effective of all treatments tested was the 50-krad treatment. Complete sterility for the adults of these pests was obtained after treating rice directly, while complete mortality was reached within 30-60 days. Regarding fumigation treatments — phostoxin, methylbromide and combined treatment (methylbromide + 7.5 krad), the living stages of the four insect pests in rice varied during the storage period. However, the combination treatment gave the best results. Adults of the three Coleopteran species appeared in rice after four months because the 7.5-krad dose was not enough to kill the eggs which might have been laid by young females before being killed by fumigants. (author)

  11. Use of radiation disinfestation in the control of rice insect pests during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaeneum), saw-toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis), and flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella) are commonly found in Egyptian stored rice. The aim of this project is to carry out a study of a pilot-scale radiation disinfestation of these rice insect pests in an amount large enough to extrapolate data for later commercial practice. Fumigation treatments with phostoxin, methyl bromide and a combination treatment (methyl bromide + 7.5 krad) were also performed as a comparison to reveal the most effective way to control these rice pests. The most effective of all treatments tested was the 50-krad treatment. Complete sterility for the adults of these pests was obtained after treating rice directly, while complete mortality was reached within 30-60 days. Regarding fumigation treatments - phostoxin, methylbromide and combined treatment (methylbromide + 7.5 krad), the living stages of the four insect pests in rice varied during the storage period. However, the combination treatment gave the best results. Adults of the three Coleopteran species appeared in rice after four months because the 7.5-krad dose was not enough to kill the eggs which might have been laid by young females before being killed by fumigants. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Orius species for biological control of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Tommasini, M. G.

    2003-01-01

    Key words: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Heteroptera, Orius leavigatu, Orius majusculu, Orius niger, Orius insidiosus, Biology, Diapause, Biological control.The overall aim of this research was to develop a biological control programme for F. occidentalis through the selection of an efficient beneficial arthropod. First, a general review of the literature about thrips pest species in Europe and in particular of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Western Flower Thrips) was made...

  13. Control of important stored pest sitophilus granarius with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to determine susceptibility of Sitophilus granarius (L.) to gamma radiation at all the developmental stages and to evaluate dose level for effective control. During experiment to grain weevils were reaced and maintained on Sivas bread wheat at 26 C and 70 per cent relative humidity. Irradiation was carried out between 0-100 krad doses and totally 22 different radiation doses were applied. (author)

  14. Biology and management of insect pests in North American intensively managed hardwood forest systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, David R.; Nebeker, T., E.; Hart, E., R.; Mattson, W., J.

    2005-01-01

    Annu. Rev. Entomol. 50:1-29. Abstract Increasing demand for wood and wood products is putting stress on traditional forest production areas, leading to long-term economic and environmental concerns. Intensively managed hardwood forest systems (IMHFS), grown using conventional agricultural as well as forestry methods, can help alleviate potential problems in natural forest production areas. Although IMHFS can produce more biomass per hectare per year than natural forests, the ecologically simplified, monocultural systems may greatly increase the crops susceptibility to pests. Species in the genera Populus and Salix comprise the greatest acreage in IMHFS in North America, but other species, including Liquidambar styracifua and Platanus occidentalis, are also important. We discuss life histories, realized and potential damage, and management options for the most economically infuential pests that affect these hardwood species. The substantial inherent challenges associated with pest management in the monocultural environments created by IMHFS are reviewed. Finally, we discuss ways to design IMHFS that may reduce their susceptibility to pests, increase their growth and productivity potential, and create a more sustainable environment.

  15. Collection of entomological baseline data for tsetse area-wide integrated pest management programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Leak, Stephen G. A.; Vreysen, M.J.B.; Ejigu, Dejene

    2015-01-01

    Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) entails the integration of different control tactics against an entire pest population within a circumscribed area, while given adequate attention to human health and the environment. For most insect pests including tsetse, AW-IPM results in more sustainable pest control and the concept has gained significantly in importance in the last decade. These guidelines provide, aside from some basic information on the biology of tsetse flies, guidance o...

  16. The Effect of Farmers' Decisions on Pest Control with Bt Crops: A Billion Dollar Game of Strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice E Milne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A farmer's decision on whether to control a pest is usually based on the perceived threat of the pest locally and the guidance of commercial advisors. Therefore, farmers in a region are often influenced by similar circumstances, and this can create a coordinated response for pest control that is effective at a landscape scale. This coordinated response is not intentional, but is an emergent property of the system. We propose a framework for understanding the intrinsic feedback mechanisms between the actions of humans and the dynamics of pest populations and demonstrate this framework using the European corn borer, a serious pest in maize crops. We link a model of the European corn borer and a parasite in a landscape with a model that simulates the decisions of individual farmers on what type of maize to grow. Farmers chose whether to grow Bt-maize, which is toxic to the corn borer, or conventional maize for which the seed is cheaper. The problem is akin to the snow-drift problem in game theory; that is to say, if enough farmers choose to grow Bt maize then because the pest is suppressed an individual may benefit from growing conventional maize. We show that the communication network between farmers' and their perceptions of profit and loss affects landscape scale patterns in pest dynamics. We found that although adoption of Bt maize often brings increased financial returns, these rewards oscillate in response to the prevalence of pests.

  17. The Effect of Farmers' Decisions on Pest Control with Bt Crops: A Billion Dollar Game of Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Bell, James R; Hutchison, William D; van den Bosch, Frank; Mitchell, Paul D; Crowder, David; Parnell, Stephen; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-12-01

    A farmer's decision on whether to control a pest is usually based on the perceived threat of the pest locally and the guidance of commercial advisors. Therefore, farmers in a region are often influenced by similar circumstances, and this can create a coordinated response for pest control that is effective at a landscape scale. This coordinated response is not intentional, but is an emergent property of the system. We propose a framework for understanding the intrinsic feedback mechanisms between the actions of humans and the dynamics of pest populations and demonstrate this framework using the European corn borer, a serious pest in maize crops. We link a model of the European corn borer and a parasite in a landscape with a model that simulates the decisions of individual farmers on what type of maize to grow. Farmers chose whether to grow Bt-maize, which is toxic to the corn borer, or conventional maize for which the seed is cheaper. The problem is akin to the snow-drift problem in game theory; that is to say, if enough farmers choose to grow Bt maize then because the pest is suppressed an individual may benefit from growing conventional maize. We show that the communication network between farmers' and their perceptions of profit and loss affects landscape scale patterns in pest dynamics. We found that although adoption of Bt maize often brings increased financial returns, these rewards oscillate in response to the prevalence of pests. PMID:26720851

  18. The state of commercial augmentative biological control: plenty of natural enemies, but a frustrating lack of uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Augmentative biological control concerns the periodical release of natural enemies. In com- mercial augmentative biological control, natural enemies are mass-reared in biofactories for release in large numbers to obtain an immediate control of pests. The history of commercial mass production of natu

  19. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities.

    OpenAIRE

    Kupferschmied P.; Maurhofer M.; Keel C.

    2013-01-01

    Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficientl...

  20. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficientl...

  1. Spatial Externalities of Pest Control Decisions in the California Citrus Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E

    2012-01-01

    Predaceous and parasitic insects provide control of important citrus pests. However, many pesticides are toxic to these beneficials. Using California citrus grower survey data, this article tests whether landscape-level use of pesticides affects the presence of and reliance on Aphytis melinus, an important beneficial insect. Results show that landscape-level pesticide use decreases the presence of A. melinus and increases reliance on insecticides. Pesticide use on non-citrus crops has a signi...

  2. PLANT PROTEASE INHIBITORS: STRATEGY FOR PEST CONTROL IN CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.DHANDE1 N.J.CHIKHALE2

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors (PIs are naturally occurring proteins in living organisms and are able to inhibit & control the activity of proteases. PIs are a diverse group of proteins that share a common biochemical activity. The role of plant proteinase inhibitors was investigated by Mickel and Standish in 1947 when they observed the insects larvae were unable to develop normally on soybean products. Subsequently, the soybean trypsin inhibitors were found to be lethal to the flour beetle larvae, Tribolium confusum (Lipke et. al., 1954. Now there are diverse examples of protease inhibitors active against many insect species both in vitro (Pannetier et. al., 1997; Koiwa et. al., 1998 and in vivo (Urwin et. al., 1997; Vain et. al., 1998 bioassays.

  3. Sterility method of pest control and its potential role in an integrated sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lee H.; Manion, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    The sterility method of pest control could be an effective tool in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program in the Great Lakes. Some of the requirements for its successful application have been met. A field study demonstrated that the release of male sea lampreys, sterilized by the injection of 100 mg/kg of P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir), will reduce the number of viable larvae produced. The actual reduction in reproductive success that occurred was directly related to the ratio of sterile to normal males in the population. The technique can be used in many ways in an integrated control program and has considerable potential for the more effective control of the sea lamprey. Eradication is a distinct possibility.Key words: sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus; pest control, fish control, sterile-male technique, sterilization, chemosterilants, bisazir, Great Lakes

  4. Synergistic interactions of ecosystem services: florivorous pest control boosts crop yield increase through insect pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Louis; Albrecht, Matthias

    2016-02-10

    Insect pollination and pest control are pivotal functions sustaining global food production. However, they have mostly been studied in isolation and how they interactively shape crop yield remains largely unexplored. Using controlled field experiments, we found strong synergistic effects of insect pollination and simulated pest control on yield quantity and quality. Their joint effect increased yield by 23%, with synergistic effects contributing 10%, while their single contributions were 7% and 6%, respectively. The potential economic benefit for a farmer from the synergistic effects (12%) was 1.8 times greater than their individual contributions (7% each). We show that the principal underlying mechanism was a pronounced pest-induced reduction in flower lifetime, resulting in a strong reduction in the number of pollinator visits a flower receives during its lifetime. Our findings highlight the importance of non-additive interactions among ecosystem services (ES) when valuating, mapping or predicting them and reveal fundamental implications for ecosystem management and policy aimed at maximizing ES for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26865304

  5. Pest control. Full crop protection from an insect pest by expression of long double-stranded RNAs in plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang; Khan, Sher Afzal; Hasse, Claudia; Ruf, Stephanie; Heckel, David G; Bock, Ralph

    2015-02-27

    Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeted against essential genes can trigger a lethal RNA interference (RNAi) response in insect pests. The application of this concept in plant protection is hampered by the presence of an endogenous plant RNAi pathway that processes dsRNAs into short interfering RNAs. We found that long dsRNAs can be stably produced in chloroplasts, a cellular compartment that appears to lack an RNAi machinery. When expressed from the chloroplast genome, dsRNAs accumulated to as much as 0.4% of the total cellular RNA. Transplastomic potato plants producing dsRNAs targeted against the β-actin gene of the Colorado potato beetle, a notorious agricultural pest, were protected from herbivory and were lethal to its larvae. Thus, chloroplast expression of long dsRNAs can provide crop protection without chemical pesticides. PMID:25722411

  6. Diseases and pests in biomass production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of disease and pest problems in willow and poplar biomass systems for energy within Canada, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States is described. The IEA Disease and Pest Activities within the recent Task XII (1995-1997), and previous Tasks since 1987, have provided outstanding opportunities for international co-operation which has served substantially to augment national research programmes. Work is described on recognizing different forms of an insect pest or pathogen and understanding the genetic basis of its variability, which is of fundamental importance in developing pest management strategies that exclude inputs of energy-rich materials such as pesticides. Options for more natural pest control are considered including breeding for resistance, plantation designs based on host genotype diversity and biological control 16 refs, 2 figs

  7. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  8. Laboratory Investigation of the Biology of Bactericera tremblayi Wag. (Homoptera: Triozidae) a New Pest in Onion Fields of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad H. Kazemi; Mohammad M. Jafarloo

    2008-01-01

    Problem statement: Psyllids as a small group of insects with plant feeding adult and nymphal stages, not only could have direct feeding damages but they could also transmit plant diseases especially viruses. Bactericera tremblayi had recently increased to high densities in onion fields in East Azarbaijan province in Iran and the pest had become widespread. This was the first study of the biology of the pest in Iran and probably in the world. Approach: After ...

  9. Harmless Control of Flowers and Trees Key Pests of Yinchuan City%银川市市树市花主要有害生物无公害防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红玲; 于洁; 庞亚平

    2012-01-01

    The species and the occurrence of the key pests of flowers and trees of Yinchuan City were investigated. There were four types of pests and disease, including leaf-eating pests, boring pests, piercing-sucking pests and underground pests were clarified. The occurrence regularity of pests and disease was also investigated. The paper put forward several non-e vironmental-pollution control methods as biological control, application of pheromone, plant pesticides,bionic pesticides, artificial and mechanical methods and plant quarantine.%通过对银川市市树市花主要有害生物的种类和危害情况的调查,摸清了银川市市树市花主要有害生物有食叶类害虫、蛀干类害虫、剃吸类害虫和地下害虫4大类及病害,并对病虫害发生规律进行了调查,摸索出生物防治、信息素应用、植物农药、仿生农药、人工和物理机械防治及植物检疫等无公害防治方法。

  10. Biology of two key palaearctic larval ectoparasitoids when parasitizing the invasive pest Tuta absoluta

    OpenAIRE

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Arno, Judit; Gabarra, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years following the invasion of European tomato crops by the invasive South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), several indigenous larval parasitoid species were recorded as natural enemies of this pest. Necremnus cf. artynes (Walker) and to a lesser extent Stenomesius sp. nr. japonicus (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) have been frequently reported attacking T. absoluta in tomato greenhouses in Europe and they are considered as...

  11. Application of benefit/cost analysis to insect pest control using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before embarking on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes involving eradication, exclusion, or suppression of insect pests using the sterile insect technique (SIT), and/or other area-wide control measures, not only their technical but also their economic feasibility needs to be assessed. They may require significant initial capital investments to achieve long-term returns in subsequent periods, and may raise questions about the distribution of benefits or the justification of public or private pest control efforts. A consistent and transparent system is needed to analyse the benefits and costs of such programmes and to demonstrate their value, or in some cases to assess appropriate contributions to the costs by the various stakeholders who gain the benefits. Benefit/cost analysis (BCA) provides such a framework, and has been applied to many AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT, in which it has been used to demonstrate the expected value of area-wide eradication, exclusion or suppression. This chapter outlines the process of BCA in which itemized future costs and benefits are compared in terms of present values. It also provides a review and examples of the application of BCA to the SIT. A checklist of BCA inputs, and some examples of benefit/cost outputs, are also presented. (author)

  12. Assessment of methods for methyl iodide emission reduction and pest control using a simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lifang; Ashworth, Daniel J.; Šimunek, Jirka; Xuan, Richeng; Yates, Scott R.

    2013-02-01

    The increasing registration of the fumigant methyl iodide within the USA has led to more concerns about its toxicity to workers and bystanders. Emission mitigation strategies are needed to protect the public and environmental health while providing effective pest control. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using a process-based mathematical model in this study. Firstly, comparisons between the simulated and laboratory measured emission fluxes and cumulative emissions were made for methyl iodide (MeI) under four emission reduction treatments: 1) control, 2) using soil with high organic matter content (HOM), 3) being covered by virtually impermeable film (VIF), and 4) irrigating soil surface following fumigation (Irrigation). Then the model was extended to simulate a broader range of emission reduction strategies for MeI, including 5) being covered by high density polyethylene (HDPE), 6) increasing injection depth from 30 cm to 46 cm (Deep), 7) HDPE + Deep, 8) adding a reagent at soil surface (Reagent), 9) Reagent + Irrigation, and 10) Reagent + HDPE. Furthermore, the survivability of three types of soil-borne pests (citrus nematodes [Tylenchulus semipenetrans], barnyard seeds [Echinochloa crus-galli], fungi [Fusarium oxysporum]) was also estimated for each scenario. Overall, the trend of the measured emission fluxes as well as total emission were reasonably reproduced by the model for treatments 1 through 4. Based on the numerical simulation, the ranking of effectiveness in total emission reduction was VIF (82.4%) > Reagent + HDPE (73.2%) > Reagent + Irrigation (43.0%) > Reagent (23.5%) > Deep + HDPE (19.3%) > HOM (17.6%) > Deep (13.0%) > Irrigation (11.9%) > HDPE (5.8%). The order for pest control efficacy suggests, VIF had the highest pest control efficacy, followed by Deep + HDPE, Irrigation, Reagent + Irrigation, HDPE, Deep, Reagent + HDPE, Reagent, and HOM. Therefore, VIF is the optimal method disregarding

  13. Obligate symbiont involved in pest status of host insect

    OpenAIRE

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-01-01

    The origin of specific insect genotypes that enable efficient use of agricultural plants is an important subject not only in applied fields like pest control and management but also in basic disciplines like evolutionary biology. Conventionally, it has been presupposed that such pest-related ecological traits are attributed to genes encoded in the insect genomes. Here, however, we report that pest status of an insect is principally determined by symbiont genotype rather than by insect genotyp...

  14. Stage-Structured Impulsive SI Model for Pest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Lansun Chen; Ruiqing Shi

    2007-01-01

    An SI epidemic model with stage structure is investigated. In the model, impulsive biological control is taken, that is, we release infected pests to the field at a fixed time periodically. We get a sufficient condition for the global asymptotical stability of the pest-eradication periodic solution (0,0,I˜(t)), and a condition for the permanence of the system. At last, a brief discussion shows that our results will be helpful for pest management.

  15. Biological control in greenhouse systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulitz, T C; Bélanger, R R

    2001-01-01

    The controlled environment of greenhouses, the high value of the crops, and the limited number of registered fungicides offer a unique niche for the biological control of plant diseases. During the past ten years, over 80 biocontrol products have been marketed worldwide. A large percentage of these have been developed for greenhouse crops. Products to control soilborne pathogens such as Sclerotinia, Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Fusarium include Coniothyrium minitans, species of Gliocladium, Trichoderma, Streptomyces, and Bacillus, and nonpathogenic Fusarium. Products containing Trichoderma, Ampelomyces quisqualis, Bacillus, and Ulocladium are being developed to control the primary foliar diseases, Botrytis and powdery mildew. The development of Pseudomonas for the control of Pythium diseases in hydroponics and Pseudozyma flocculosa for the control of powdery mildew by two Canadian research programs is presented. In the future, biological control of diseases in greenhouses could predominate over chemical pesticides, in the same way that biological control of greenhouse insects predominates in the United Kingdom. The limitations in formulation, registration, and commercialization are discussed, along with suggested future research priorities. PMID:11701861

  16. Application of the Industrial Hygiene Hierarchy of Controls to Prioritize and Promote Safer Methods of Pest Control: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Justine Lew; Bunin, Lisa J.; Das, Rupali

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the California Department of Public Health, Occupational Health Branch (OHB) investigated an incident of pesticide exposure and identified 27 vineyard workers who became ill due to drift of cyfluthrin, a pesticide being applied to a neighboring orange field to control katydids. Another pest, citrus thrips, was also present in the field. We investigated safer alternatives for katydid and thrips control to prevent illness due to pesticide exposure and used the industrial hygiene hierar...

  17. Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, Mark S.; Bachelet, Ido; Raman, Rahul; Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2009-01-01

    Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect immunity that might lead to the development of nontoxic, sustainable pest control methods. Gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) are critical for sensing pathogenic infection and triggering effector responses. We report that termite GNBP-2 (tGNBP-2) shows β(1,3)-glucanase effector activity previously unknown in animal immunity and is a pleiotropic pattern recognition receptor and an antimicrobial effector protein. Termites incorporate this protein into the nest building material, where it functions as a nest-embedded sensor that cleaves and releases pathogenic components, priming termites for improved antimicrobial defense. By means of rational design, we present an inexpensive, nontoxic small molecule glycomimetic that blocks tGNBP-2, thus exposing termites in vivo to accelerated infection and death from specific and opportunistic pathogens. Such a molecule, introduced into building materials and agricultural methods, could protect valuable assets from insect pests. PMID:19506247

  18. Mobile robot based electrostatic spray system for controlling pests on cotton plants in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mamury, M; Manivannan, N; Al-Raweshidy, H; W. Balachandran

    2015-01-01

    A mobile robot based electrostatic spray system was developed to combat pest infestation on cotton plants in Iraq. The system consists of a charged spray nozzle, a CCD camera, a mobile robot (vehicle and arm) and Arduino microcontroller. Arduino microcontroller is used to control the spray nozzle and the robot. Matlab is used to process the image from the CCD camera and to generate the appropriate control signals to the robot and the spray nozzle. COMSOL multi-physics FEM software was used to...

  19. Insect pathogens as biological control agents: Back to the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, L A; Grzywacz, D; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Frutos, R; Brownbridge, M; Goettel, M S

    2015-11-01

    The development and use of entomopathogens as classical, conservation and augmentative biological control agents have included a number of successes and some setbacks in the past 1years. In this forum paper we present current information on development, use and future directions of insect-specific viruses, bacteria, fungi and nematodes as components of integrated pest management strategies for control of arthropod pests of crops, forests, urban habitats, and insects of medical and veterinary importance. Insect pathogenic viruses are a fruitful source of microbial control agents (MCAs), particularly for the control of lepidopteran pests. Most research is focused on the baculoviruses, important pathogens of some globally important pests for which control has become difficult due to either pesticide resistance or pressure to reduce pesticide residues. Baculoviruses are accepted as safe, readily mass produced, highly pathogenic and easily formulated and applied control agents. New baculovirus products are appearing in many countries and gaining an increased market share. However, the absence of a practical in vitro mass production system, generally higher production costs, limited post application persistence, slow rate of kill and high host specificity currently contribute to restricted use in pest control. Overcoming these limitations are key research areas for which progress could open up use of insect viruses to much larger markets. A small number of entomopathogenic bacteria have been commercially developed for control of insect pests. These include several Bacillus thuringiensis sub-species, Lysinibacillus (Bacillus) sphaericus, Paenibacillus spp. and Serratia entomophila. B. thuringiensis sub-species kurstaki is the most widely used for control of pest insects of crops and forests, and B. thuringiensis sub-species israelensis and L. sphaericus are the primary pathogens used for control of medically important pests including dipteran vectors. These pathogens

  20. Systems to advance and enhance exotic pest control: A case study of a global partnership in developing monitoring systems for use in SIT management of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: incidence of introduction of exotic insect pests into pest-free areas of the world, threatening crop and ornamental plant production. The threat of invasion is very pronounced in areas of the world that receive plant and produce shipments from countries with established populations. There are a number of pests identified from these areas that pose a serious threat to global agriculture. This threat is exacerbated by the loss of methyl bromide and other strategies used as quarantine treatments. The continuous threat of exotic pest introduction has mandated that scientists and regulatory agencies initiate proactive efforts to understand the biology and to develop management strategies that will mitigate the threat of exotic insect pest introduction. A critical component is development of detection systems that will provide an early warning of pest presence in pathways vulnerable to pest invasion. This presentation will appraise critically the decade of efforts to develop and implement female-biased trapping system(s) for the Mediterranean fruit fly that is critical to the success of SIT programmes used to control this insect. A historical review of basic and applied research, and implementation of new technologies will be presented, together with a review of the successful partnership at local, national and global levels. The advancement and subsequent enhancement of research related to development and use of female-targeted Mediterranean fruit fly systems in SIT under the stewardship of FAO/IAEA will be presented. (author)

  1. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  2. PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEMS IN PEST MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Harper, Carolyn R.

    1991-01-01

    The use of chemical pesticides frequently causes minor pests to become serious problems by disturbing the natural controls that keep them in check. As a result, it is possible to suffer heavier crop losses after pesticides are introduced than before their introduction. Efficient use of pesticides requires complete biological modeling that takes the appropriate predator-prey relationships into account. A bioeconomic model is introduced involving three key species: a primary target pest, a seco...

  3. Improving Pest Management with Farmscaping

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Chris; Kuhar, Thomas Patrick, 1969-; Morse, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Farmscaping is a holistic ecologically-based approach to pest management that emphasizes the arrangement or configuration of plants that promote biological pest management by attracting and sustaining beneficial organisms.

  4. Biocontrol of fouling pests: Effect of diversity, identity and density of control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2016-04-01

    Augmentative biocontrol, using native natural enemies, has been suggested as a promising tool to control marine biofouling pests on artificial structures. However, there are still important knowledge gaps to be addressed before biocontrol can be considered as a management tool. In a field experiment on floating marine structures we examined intra- and interspecific consumer interactions among biocontrol agents on different surface orientations. We tested the effect of identity, density and diversity of three invertebrates (the 11-arm seastar Coscinasterias muricata, the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus and the gastropod Cook's turban Cookia sulcata) to reduce established biofouling and to prevent fouling growth on defouled surfaces. High densities of biocontrol agents were not more effective at fouling control (cover and biomass) than low densities. Nor did multi-species treatments function more effectively than mono-specific ones. However, biocontrol agent identity was important, with the 11-arm seastar and Cook's turban being the most effective at fouling reduction and prevention, respectively. Surface orientation had a strong effect on the effectiveness of control agents, with the best results obtained on vertical compared to diagonal and underside surfaces. This study confirmed the potential of biocontrol as a management tool for marine pest, indicating that identity is more important than richness and density of control agents. It also highlighted the limitations of this approach on diagonal and underside surfaces, where control agents have limited retention ability. PMID:26845376

  5. Soil nematode assemblages indicate the potential for biological regulation of pest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Hanne; Ferris, Howard

    2016-05-01

    In concept, regulation or suppression of target nematode pest species should be enhanced when an abundance of predator species is supported by ample availability of bacterial- fungal- and non-damaging plant-feeding prey species. We selected soils from natural and managed environments that represented different levels of resource availability and disturbance. In microcosm chambers of each soil, in its natural state or after heat defaunation, we introduced test prey species not already resident in the soils (Meloidogyne incognita and Steinernema feltiae). Survival of the test prey was determined after a 5-day bioassay exposure. Across the soils tested, predator abundance and biomass were greater in undisturbed soils with plentiful resources and lower in soils from agricultural sites. Suppressiveness to the two introduced species increased with both numerical abundance and metabolic footprint of the predator assemblages. The magnitude of the increase in suppressiveness was greater at low numbers of predators then dampened to an asymptotic level at greater predator abundance, possibly determined by temporal and spatial aspects of the bioassay system and/or satiation of the predators. The more resource-limited the predators were and the higher the metabolic predator footprint, the greater the suppressiveness. The applied implications of this study are that soil suppressiveness to pest species may be enhanced by increasing resources to predators, removing chemical and physical constraints to their survival and increase, and altering management practices so that predators and target prey are co-located in time and space.

  6. Desk study to apply knowledge developed for conventional horticulture to the control of pests in organic vegetables (OF0179)

    OpenAIRE

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report for Defra project OF0179. The demand for organic vegetable and salad crops is likely to increase as a result of the projected requirements of the multiple retailers. The threat of yield and quality reductions due to pest damage is a major constraint to increasing the organic vegetable crop area. The aim of this project is to demonstrate how methods of pest control developed for conventional vegetable production can be adapted for use by organic growers. The proje...

  7. Dynamic Analysis of a Predator-Prey (Pest) Model with Disease in Prey and Involving an Impulsive Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Min Zhao; Yanzhen Wang; Lansun Chen

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic behaviors of a predator-prey (pest) model with disease in prey and involving an impulsive control strategy to release infected prey at fixed times are investigated for the purpose of integrated pest management. Mathematical theoretical works have been pursuing the investigation of the local asymptotical stability and global attractivity for the semitrivial periodic solution and population persistent, which depicts the threshold expression of some critical parameters for carrying o...

  8. Life cycle of Puccinia crupinae, a candidate fungal biological control agent for Crupina vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupina vulgaris (Common crupina, Asteraceae) is an introduced weed pest in the western United States. An isolate of the rust fungus Puccinia crupinae from the Greece is currently under evaluation as a candidate for biological control of C. crupina in a Biosafety Level 3 (BL-3) containment greenhou...

  9. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF OLIVE FLY: BALANCING PARASITOID EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST NON-TARGET IMPACTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), has become an important pest of California olives, and is the target of a classical biological control program. We report here on the pre-release screening of imported parasitoids Hymenoptera:Braconidae), conducted in the University of California ...

  10. Ex-ante analysis of economic returns from biological control of coconut mite in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Oleke; V. Manyong; D. Mignouna; A. Isinika; K. Mutabazi; R. Hanna; M. Sabelis

    2013-01-01

    The coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, has been identified as one of the pests that pose a threat to the coconut industry in Benin. The study presents the simulation results of the economic benefits of the biological control of coconut mites in Benin using a standard economic surplus model. In

  11. Trichogramma spp. as biological control agents in the Philippines: history and current practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichogramma parasitoids have long been recognized as important and viable biological control agents against lepidopteran pests of rice, corn and sugarcane in the Philippines. We describe the history of research and use of Trichogramma spp. in the Philippines in three main areas: 1) field surveys – ...

  12. The Door-To-Door Mormon Pest Control Salesman: A Novel

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, John Charles

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of a critical introduction followed by a novel told in twentyfive chapters. The novel begins in the first person with the eighteen-year-old protagonist Kirtland Grant beginning a summer job as a door-to-door pest control salesman in Florida. Trained using Mormon missionary techniques, his office of relocated Utah boys, all of them Mormon, dodge angry homeowners and evade police in gated communities while insects root the brand-new houses from below and corrupt banking pus...

  13. Gamma-radiation control of the Sitophilus-orizae insect pest in the wheat grain storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insects produce very important grain lost in the cereal storage. This lost is highly variable according to the type of cereal and the stored time. The principal pest among coleopters is Sitophilus orizae which attacks wheat grains. Ionizing radiation allowed us to develope an alternative control method to the chemical insecticides which have serious disadvantages. Our results expressed as the DL50, showed a considerable reduction of adult life spanning from 250 Gy. Post-irradiation adquired sterility was observed in the stored grain due to the absence of descendents. (Autor)

  14. A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Guoping; Chen, Lansun; Xu, Weijian; Fu, Gang

    2015-06-01

    A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control is investigated. We get the sufficient condition for the existence of the order-1 periodic solution by differential equation geometry theory and successor function. Further, we obtain a new judgement method for the stability of the order-1 periodic solution of the semi-continuous systems by referencing the stability analysis for limit cycles of continuous systems, which is different from the previous method of analog of Poincarè criterion. Finally, we analyze numerically the theoretical results obtained.

  15. International Issues in Relation to Biological Control Regulation, Coordination and Accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control has been an accepted and effective method of pest management for over 100 years. Several recent reports from the Office of Technology Assessment, the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and others have advised increasing research and development of biologically-based technologies (BBTs) for pest management. In addition, several reports have identified elements of regulation, coordination, and accountability that should be in place for a biological control program to be highly successful. This report summarizes perspectives on regulation, coordination and accountability that were presented in key documents important to the future of biological control, particularly Carruthers and Petroff (1997), Delfosse et al. (1996a,b), NRC (1996) and OTA (1995). (author)

  16. Efficacy of Controlled Atmosphere Treatments to Manage Arthropod Pests of Dry-Cured Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mahbub; Aikins, Michael J; Schilling, Wes; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Research here explored the use of controlled atmospheres (CA) for managing arthropod pests that infest dry-cured hams. Experiments were conducted with low oxygen (O₂) achieved with low pressure under a vacuum, high carbon dioxide (CO₂), and ozone (O₃). Results showed that both low O₂ and high CO₂ levels required exposures up to 144 h to kill 100% of all stages of red-legged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and ham mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) at 23 °C. In addition, both low O₂ and high CO₂ had no significant mortality against the ham beetle and ham mites at short exposures ranging from 12 to 48 h. Ham beetles were more tolerant than ham mites to an atmosphere of 75.1% CO₂ and low pressure of 25 mm Hg, which imposed an atmosphere estimated at 0.9% O₂. Both low O₂ and high CO₂ trials indicated that the egg stages of both species were more tolerant than other stages tested, but N. rufipes eggs and pupae were more susceptible than larvae and adults to high concentration ozone treatments. The results indicate that O₃ has potential to control ham beetles and ham mites, particularly at ≈166 ppm in just a 24 h exposure period, but O₃ is known from other work to have poor penetration ability, thus it may be more difficult to apply effectively than low O₂ or high CO₂. would be. CA treatment for arthropod pests of dry-cured hams show promise as components of integrated pest management programs after methyl bromide is no longer available for use. PMID:27598209

  17. Parasitoids of Queensland Fruit Fly Bactrocera tryoni in Australia and Prospects for Improved Biological Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia L. Reynolds

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This review draws together available information on the biology, methods for study, and culturing of hymenopteran parasitoids of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni, and assesses prospects for improving biological control of this serious pest. Augmentative release of the native and naturalised Australian parasitoids, especially the braconid Diachasmimorpha tryoni, may result in better management of B. tryoni in some parts of Australia. Mass releases are an especially attractive option for areas of inland eastern Australia around the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone that produces B. tryoni-free fruits for export. Diachasmimorpha tryoni has been successful in other locations such as Hawaii for the biological control of other fruit fly species. Biological control could contribute to local eradication of isolated outbreaks and more general suppression and/or eradication of the B. tryoni population in endemic areas. Combining biological control with the use of sterile insect technique offers scope for synergy because the former is most effective at high pest densities and the latter most economical when the pest becomes scarce. Recommendations are made on methods for culturing and study of four B. tryoni parasitoids present in Australia along with research priorities for optimising augmentative biological control of B. tryoni.

  18. Intestinal nematodes: biology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epe, Christian

    2009-11-01

    A variety of nematodes occur in dogs and cats. Several nematode species inhabit the small and large intestines. Important species that live in the small intestine are roundworms of the genus Toxocara (T canis, T cati) and Toxascaris (ie, T leonina), and hookworms of the genus Ancylostoma (A caninum, A braziliense, A tubaeforme) or Uncinaria (U stenocephala). Parasites of the large intestine are nematodes of the genus Trichuris (ie, whipworms, T vulpis). After a comprehensive description of their life cycle and biology, which are indispensable for understanding and justifying their control, current recommendations for nematode control are presented and discussed thereafter. PMID:19932365

  19. Torymus sinensis: a viable management option for the biological control of Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbs, Melanie; Schoenrogge, Karsten; Alma, Alberto; Melika, George; Quacchia, Ambra; Stone, Graham N.; Aebi, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    The chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a global pest of chestnut (Castanea spp). Established as a pest in the mid-twentieth century in Japan, Korea and North America, this species was first reported in Europe in 2002. Following the successful release of a biological control agent Torymus sinensis in Japan, this parasitoid species has been released in Italy since 2005. Here we discuss the potential of T. sinensis as a viable management option for the biological control of D. kuriphil...

  20. Damage by insect pests to the Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu: detection and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maistrello

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu (Mali is one of the most significant earthen construction in West Africa. Originally constructed in 1327, it was included in 1988 on the World Heritage UNESCO List for its unique architecture and historical importance. During its restoration, recently undertaken by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, the wooden parts of the roof and architraves showed clear signs of threatening insect presence. In order to identify the pests responsible of the damage, evaluate its extent and suggest a proper control strategy, a detailed survey was performed inside the Mosque complex and in its immediate surroundings. The entomological inspection, performed in the dry-cold season, allowed to detect signs of insect damage in most of the wooden elements, even in the recently replaced beams, but also in walls, pillars and the precious decorated panels. Damages in the wood elements could be attributed to Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri (Termitidae, Bostrychoplites zycheli Marseuli (Bostrichidae and Lyctus africanus Lesne (Lyctidae, which were collected alive on site. Injures in the walls and decorated panels appeared to be performed by hymenopterans such as “plasterer bees” (Colletidae and Sphecidae. From the evaluation of the type and extent of damage in relation to the architecture and materials used in its construction and decoration, the most serious pest and the worse threat for the mosque is represented by termites. Control and preventive measures, in the view of a sustainable, long-lasting integrated management are suggested.

  1. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eKupferschmied

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/ Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework.

  2. Review of Pasteuria penetrans: Biology, Ecology, and Biological Control Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z. X.; Dickson, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last 10 years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, and biological control potential of P. penetrans and other P...

  3. Reduced population control of an insect pest in managed willow monocultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dalin

    improve our ability to predict insect pest outbreaks and could facilitate the development of sustainable pest control in managed systems.

  4. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Björkman, Christer

    2009-01-01

    predict insect pest outbreaks and could facilitate the development of sustainable pest control in managed systems. PMID:19424439

  5. The small hive beetle Aethina tumida: A review of its biology and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. CUTHBERTSON et al

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The small hive beetle Aethina tumida is an endemic parasitic pest and scavenger of colonies of social bees indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. In this region this species rarely inflicts severe damage on strong colonies since the bees have develo­­ped strategies to combat them. However, A. tumida has since ‘escaped’ from its native home and has recently invaded areas such as North America and Australia where its economic impact on the apiculture industry has been significant. Small hive beetle, should it become established within Europe, represents a real and live threat to the UK bee keeping industry. Here we review the biology and current pest status of A. tumida and up to-date research in terms of both chemical and biological control used against this honey bee pest [Current Zoology 59 (5: 644–653, 2013].

  6. Trichogramma chilonis (Hymenoptera : trichogrammatidae) as a biological control agent of Chilo sacchariphagus (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) in Reunion Island : initial field trials

    OpenAIRE

    Soula B.,; Goebel F.R.,; Caplong P.,; Karimjee H.,; Tibere R.,; Tabone, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    The spotted stalk borer, Chilo sacchariphagus Bojer, is a major pest of sugarcane in southern Asia, the Indian Ocean islands and Mozambique in southern Africa. Since 1999, a biological control programme has been developed on this pest in Reunion Island through a partnership between research and development organisations. Trichogramma chilonis Ishii has been shown to be the most naturally efficient parasitoid of the borer in Reunion, following a comparison of the bionomics of di...

  7. Legacy of a Pest. A Science, Technology, and Society Curriculum Guide for Understanding and Dealing with Biological Problems. Illinois Natural History Survey Special Publication 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Laurie J.; And Others

    The gypsy moth, an insect brought from Europe to the United States over a century ago, has become the most serious leaf-feeding forest pest in the eastern United States. This packet of instructional materials tells the teacher how to encourage students to explore a biological problem and its impact on society and the environment. It introduces the…

  8. Late pest control in determinate tomato cultivars Controle de pragas tardias em cultivares de tomateiro de crescimento determinado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of insecticidal plants and others insect resistant varieties can be strong allies to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM, being able to reduce the number of insecticides applications and to minimize its effect to the man and the environment.The following control techniques were compared in field conditions, investigating the late pest control of two determinate tomato cultivars: a Conventional - sprayings of metamidophos, buprofezin, acephate, cipermetrin, abamectin, permetrin, teflubenzuron and lufenuron, applied every three to six days; b IPM - action threshold of each pest to the spraying of imidacloprid, triflumuron, lufenuron and abamectin; c IPM - Azadirachta indica (neem - Action threshold of each pest to the spraying of the nim oil (1.2% of azadirachtin at a concentration of 0.5%. The IPM and IPM - Neem control techniques were efficient controlling the late pest of the tomato cultivar, not differing from the conventional treatment that presented the lowest levels of infestation. The conventional control technique, IPM and IPM-neem promoted bigger tomato production with increasements of up to 74%. The number of sprayings was reduced up to 77% with the IPM and IPM - neem techniques, when compared to the conventional method. The neem product may be a promising alternative to the late pest control in the tomato field that adjusts to the IPM.O uso de plantas inseticidas e de variedades pode ser forte aliado ao Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP, podendo reduzir o número de aplicações de inseticidas e minimizar seus efeitos ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Em condições de campo, visando o controle de pragas tardias do tomateiro em duas cultivares de crescimento determinado, compararam-se as seguintes táticas de controle: a Convencional - pulverizações com os produtos metamidofós, buprofezin, acefato, cipermetrina, abamectina, permetrina, teflubenzuron e lufenuron, aplicados em intervalos de três a seis dias; b MIP - nível de a

  9. Theoretical study and control optimization of an integrated pest management predator-prey model with power growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaibiao; Zhang, Tonghua; Tian, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a pest control predator-prey model, where rate of change in prey density follows a scaling law with exponent less than one and the control is by an integrated management strategy. The aim is to investigate the change in system dynamics and determine a pest control level with minimum control price. First, the dynamics of the proposed model without control is investigated by taking the exponent as an index parameter. And then, to determine the frequency of spraying chemical pesticide and yield releases of the predator, the existence of the order-1 periodic orbit of the control system is discussed in cases. Furthermore, to ensure a certain robustness of the adopted control, i.e., for an inaccurately detected species density or a deviation, the control system could be stabilized at the order-1 periodic orbit, the stability of the order-1 periodic orbit is verified by an stability criterion for a general semi-continuous dynamical system. In addition, to minimize the total cost input in pest control, an optimization problem is formulated and the optimum pest control level is obtained. At last, the numerical simulations with a specific model are carried out to complement the theoretical results. PMID:27378223

  10. Investigation on occurrence damage and control technology of insect pests in red bayberry from Guiyang region%贵阳地区杨梅害虫发生危害调查及防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德友; 廖国会; 李崇慧; 袁洁; 张斌; 耿坤

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解贵阳地区杨梅害虫发生种类危害情况,为杨梅生产及害虫防治提供依据.[方法]2010~2011年对贵阳地区杨梅害虫种类进行定点、定时系统调查和收集标样鉴定.[结果]贵阳地区杨梅主要害虫有21种,属昆虫纲的6目、16科,其中发生危害严重害虫3种,次重害虫3种,其他种类为危害轻.[结论]在生产中要针对不同害虫发生特点及危害特性,加强抚育管理,提高杨梅树体抗虫害能力,同时合理采用农业防治、生物防治、诱杀防治、药剂防治等综合防治技术措施,以确保杨梅产业健康持续发展.%[Objective]This study aimed to understand the occurrence and damages of insect pests species in red bay-berry in order to provide basis for pest control in red bayberry production in Guiyang. [ Method ] From 2010 to 2011, fixed-location and fixed-time investigations were conducted on red bayberry insect pests species and collected species samples were identified. [ResultjThere were 21 species of red bayberry insect pests identified in Guiyang region, which belonged to 16 families of 6 insecta orders. Damages from various species of insect pests exhibited different characteristics and degree of injuries. [Conclusion]According to the investigation results, there were 3 species of insect pests causing serious damages and 3 species of insect pests causing secondary serious damages; all other species caused only negligible damages. To control the insect pests species causing serious damages, field comprehensive prevention and control technology were puts forward. During the production process, different insect pests should be controlled according to their corresponding occurrence and damage characteristics, the cultivation and management of red bayberry should be strengthened to improve the pest resistant ability of red bayberry trees. At the same time, reasonably using agricultural prevention methods, biological prevention methods, trapping

  11. Reevaluation of the value of autoparasitoids in biological control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Sheng Zang

    Full Text Available Autoparasitoids with the capacity of consuming primary parasitoids that share the same hosts to produce males are analogous to intraguild predators. The use of autoparasitoids in biological control programs is a controversial matter because there is little evidence to support the view that autoparasitoids do not disrupt and at times may promote suppression of insect pests in combination with primary parasitoids. We found that Encarsia sophia, a facultative autoparasitoid, preferred to use heterospecific hosts as secondary hosts for producing males. The autoparasitoids mated with males originated from heterospecifics may parasitize more hosts than those mated with males from conspecifics. Provided with an adequate number of males, the autoparasitoids killed more hosts than En. formosa, a commonly used parasitoid for biological control of whiteflies. This study supports the view that autoparasitoids in combination with primary parasitoids do not disrupt pest management and may enhance such programs. The demonstrated preference of an autoparasitoid for heterospecifics and improved performance of males from heterospecifics observed in this study suggests these criteria should be considered in strategies that endeavor to mass-produce and utilize autoparasitoids in the future.

  12. Nanoinsecticidas: Nuevas perspectivas para el control de plagas Nanoinsecticides: New perspectives on insect pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Stadler

    2010-12-01

    diatomeas. La masiva aparición de productos a base de nanomateriales en el mercado ha superado la velocidad a la que se evalúa su potencial impacto, de modo que la aplicación avanza por delante de la regulación para su uso. Esto sugiere la urgente necesidad de investigar los potenciales riesgos que surgen del empleo de estos productos en general, de los nanoinsecticidas en particular y sus efectos sobre organismos no blancos, así como sobre las nuevas tecnologías de aplicación más seguras y eficientes. Los actuales niveles de aplicación de nanopartículas y los desarrollos por venir, sugieren que la nanotecnología tendrá un efecto directo sobre las tendencias de la evolución de la agricultura para el control de plagas.Sustainable agriculture demands new environmentally friendly pesticides that adhere to strict international regulations. Part of the research on new biorational pesticides focuses on natural products such as plant extracts, oils, and inorganic insecticides. Insecticidal dusts represent the oldest group of substances used by men for pest management, and their efficacy is based on physical phenomena. With the advent of synthetic pesticides, insecticidal dusts were used as carriers for other active ingredients in formulated insecticides. Organic dusts made a come-back as insecticides with the discovery of hidrophobic kaolin in the 90's. Recently, the discovery of nanoinsecticides brings new alternatives to expand the spectrum of applications of inorganic dusts. Development and registry of nanomaterials is based on the idea that they are not new materials, although they have different properties than the products with the same chemical structure, given that novel properties emerge from products when they are at the nanoscale. For example, reactivity, specific area, electric charge and quantum effects may differ. These substances with new properties are promising as tools for crop protection and food production, opening new frontiers for

  13. Evaluation of Plant Extracts from Illicium verum for the Control of Museum Insect Pest Demestes maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the insecticidal activity of extracts from Illicium verum against museum insect pest Demestes maculates, mortalities of its larvae and adults under different dose or treatment time were investigated by bioassay methods. Results showed that both extracts (anise oil and (E-anethole were highly toxic to both life stages (larvae and adults of D. maculatus. Furthermore, the insecticidal activity was dependent upon both dose and exposure time. With the increasing of the dose level and the exposure time, higher mortality was obtained. On the other hand, results also indicated that D. maculatus adults were more tolerant against the extracts from I. verum than larvae. At the same time, it was interesting to demonstrate that the toxicity of anise oil was more effective than (E-anethole against D. maculatus under the same experimental condition. The highest mortality 95% was achieved at 72 h with anise oil against larvae at a dose of 32/cm3. As naturally occurring insect-control agents, the I. verum extracts described could be useful for managing populations of museum pest D. maculates.

  14. The Feasibility of Using Low-oxygen Atmospheres to Control Insect Pests for Taxidermies in Natural History Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To find the environmental friendly alternative methods for control taxidermy pests in natural history museum, six species insect pests at various stages of their development were exposed to a low-oxygen atmosphere of 1.5% for a period of one week. Apart from a 50% survival rate for the larval stage of Anthrenus verbasci, the modified atmosphere was observed to have a lethal effect on all insect stages tested. When the exposure period was extended to periods of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks, respectively 100% mortality was recorded for all insects tested. Evidence from this investigation supports the view that atmospheres reduced in oxygen may represent a viable alternative to chemical control methods. The feasibility of using this technique for the routine control and eradication of insect pests in natural history museums is discussed.

  15. Mobile robot based electrostatic spray system for controlling pests on cotton plants in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamury, M.; Manivannan, N.; Al-Raweshidy, H.; Balachandran, W.

    2015-10-01

    A mobile robot based electrostatic spray system was developed to combat pest infestation on cotton plants in Iraq. The system consists of a charged spray nozzle, a CCD camera, a mobile robot (vehicle and arm) and Arduino microcontroller. Arduino microcontroller is used to control the spray nozzle and the robot. Matlab is used to process the image from the CCD camera and to generate the appropriate control signals to the robot and the spray nozzle. COMSOL multi-physics FEM software was used to design the induction electrodes to achieve maximum charge transfer onto the fan spray liquid film resulting in achieving the desired charge/mass ratio of the spray. The charged spray nozzle was operated on short duration pulsed spray mode. Image analysis was employed to investigate the spray deposition on improvised insect targets on an artificial plant.

  16. Control of sugar beet pests at early season by seed treatment with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2001-2004, experiments were conducted in the region of Bačka (northern Serbia to assess the efficiency of insecticide treatment of sugar beet seeds in controlling soil pests (larvae of Elateridae family and reducing the damage caused by beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris G e r m and flea beetle (Chaetocnema tibialis I l l i g. Several insecticides mostly systemic ones (carbofuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and their combinations with pyrethroids in different doses were tested in field conditions. Stand density, percentages of plants damaged by B. punctiventris and C. tibialis, injury level and weight of juvenile plants served as parameters for evaluation of insecticide efficiency. Most of the insecticides applied to seeds provided a significantly better stand density compared with the untreated control. Because of their systemic action, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and their mixtures with pyrethroids provided very good protection of juvenile plants from C. tibialis and in some cases from B. punctiventris.

  17. A review of Spinosyns, a derivative of biological acting substances as a class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Bacci, L.; D. Lupi; Savoldelli, S.; B. Rossaro

    2016-01-01

    Spinosyns are a class of insecticides with a broad range of action against many insect pests belonging to different orders, noxious to a wide variety of agricultural crops; spinosyns were also used against insects of sanitary interest. Spinosyns are derivative of biological active substances produced by soil Actinomycete Saccharopolyspora spinosa; being of biological origin, they are considered to have a low environmental impact and they are not much aggressive against nontarget species. They...

  18. Biological control of diamondback moth

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Ortiz, Freddy

    2011-01-01

    The diamondback moth Plutella xylostella L. (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) is a serious pest of economically important crucifer crops such as cabbage. The moth has developed resistance to all tested insecticides and further studies on the potential role of factors affecting P. xylostella survival, including natural enemies, are urgently needed. One aim of this thesis was to identify the species that are natural enemies of P. xylostella and to evaluate their role in the natural biol...

  19. Safety and advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-protected plants to control insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, F S; Hammond, B G; Fuchs, R L

    2000-10-01

    Plants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in 1999. The extremely rapid adoption of these Bt-protected crops demonstrates the outstanding grower satisfaction of the performance and value of these products. These crops provide highly effective control of major insect pests such as the European corn borer, southwestern corn borer, tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm, pink bollworm, and Colorado potato beetle and reduce reliance on conventional chemical pesticides. They have provided notably higher yields in cotton and corn. The estimated total net savings to the grower using Bt-protected cotton in the United States was approximately $92 million in 1998. Other benefits of these crops include reduced levels of the fungal toxin fumonisin in corn and the opportunity for supplemental pest control by beneficial insects due to the reduced use of broad-spectrum insecticides. Insect resistance management plans are being implemented to ensure the prolonged effectiveness of these products. Extensive testing of Bt-protected crops has been conducted which establishes the safety of these products to humans, animals, and the environment. Acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicology studies conducted over the past 40 years establish the safety of the microbial Bt products, including their expressed insecticidal (Cry) proteins, which are fully approved for marketing. Mammalian toxicology and digestive fate studies, which have been conducted with the proteins produced in the currently approved Bt-protected plant products, have confirmed that these Cry proteins are nontoxic to humans and pose no significant concern for allergenicity. Food and feed derived

  20. Biological control of the chestnut gall wasp with \\emph{T. sinensis}: a mathematical model

    OpenAIRE

    Paparella, Francesco; Ferracini, Chiara; Portaluri, Alessandro; Manzo, Alberto; Alma, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The Asian chestnut gall wasp \\emph{Dryocosmus kuriphilus}, native of China, has become a pest when it appeared in Japan, Korea, and the United States. In Europe it was first found in Italy, in 2002. In 1982 the host-specific parasitoid \\emph{Torymus sinensis} was introduced in Japan, in an attempt to achieve a biological control of the pest. After an apparent initial success, the two species seem to have locked in predator-prey cycles of decadal length. We have developed a spatially explicit ...

  1. The Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera): A Model for Studies of Development and Pest Biology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brown, S. J.; Shippy, T. D.; Miller, S.; Bolognesi, R.; Beemam, R. W.; Lorenzen, M. D.; Bucher, G.; Wimmer, E. A.; Klingler, M.; Posnien, N.; Schinko, J.; Grossmann, D.; Konopová, Barbora; Coleman, C. M.; Tomoyasu, Y.; Kittelmann, S.; Koniszewski, N.; Berghammer, A. J.; Weber, M.; Trauner, J.

    Vol. 2. Plainview: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2010, s. 299-333. ISBN 978-0-87969-872-0 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : genetics-linkage maps * transgene expression * larval RNAi Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  2. The applicability of remote sensing to Earth biological problems. Part 2: The potential of remote sensing in pest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polhemus, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    Five troublesome insect pest groups were chosen for study. These represent a broad spectrum of life cycles, ecological indicators, pest management strategies, and remote sensing requirements. Background data, and field study results for each of these subjects is discussed for each insect group. Specific groups studied include tsetse flies, locusts, western rangeland grasshoppers, range caterpillars, and mosquitoes. It is concluded that remote sensing methods are aplicable to the pest management of the insect groups studied.

  3. Susceptibility of non-target invertebrates to Brazilian microbial pest control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino; Muniz, Daphne Heloisa Freitas; Freire, Ingrid Souza; Ramos, Felipe Rosa; Alves, Roberto Teixeira; Jonsson, Claudio Martin; Grisolia, Cesar Koppe; Monnerat, Rose Gomes

    2011-08-01

    Microbial pest control agents or entomopathogens have been considered an interesting alternative to use instead of chemical insecticides. Knowledge of ecotoxicity data is very important to predict the hazard of any product released in the environment and subsidize the regulation of these products by governmental agencies. In the present study four new Brazilian strains of Bacillus and one fungus were tested to evaluate their acute toxicity to the microcrustacean Daphnia similis, the snail Biomphalaria glabrata and the dung beetle Digitonthophagus gazella. The microcrustaceans and the snails were exposed to entomopathogens in synthetic softwater and the beetles were exposed directly in cattle dung. Obtained data reveal low susceptibility of the non-target species to tested microorganisms, with lethal concentrations being observed only at much higher concentrations than that effective against target insects. These results show that the tested strains are selective in their action mode and seem to be non-hazardous to non-target species. PMID:21533653

  4. Ecological risks of biological control agents: impacts on IPM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hokkanen, H.M.T.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Menzler-Hokkanen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Since the early days of integrated pest management a sound ecological foundation has been considered essential for the development of effective systems. From time to time, there have been attempts to evaluate the ways in which ecological theory is exploited in pest control, and to review the lessons

  5. Environmentally-safe pest control using novel bioelectrostatic techniques: Initial results and prospects for area-wide usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    active materials. Long-lasting charge retention is perhaps the most important factor. Pesticide Slow-acting approved insecticides in a dry powder formulation can be applied to an insect long enough for it to be killed. The knock-down time can be varied between one and three days for certain synthetic insecticides, or over four days for biological insecticides, during which time the insect behaves normally. Spores of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium can be used as biological insecticides, for example. Dry spores of the fungus can be formulated with suitable electrostatically chargeable particles. Particle Transfer There is a high rate of loss of particles during the first 48 hours, particularly from hairs and other projections of the insect (after which the loss is very low). This means that particles are readily transferred to females in mating attempts. A Selective Attractant Pheromones or parapheromone attractants for males are available for almost all of the major insect pest species. Control by trapping males alone, however, is generally not a viable method because over 90% must be trapped to ensure that sufficient eggs in the next generation are infertile. A Dissemination Station Bait stations have been developed which retain formulated powders, minimising their loss by wind and facilitating transfer to insects (Patent applied for). This method mimics a natural epidemic infective process (such as a sexually-transmitted disease), with the following advantages: insecticides do not come into contact with the crop or soil, extremely small amounts of insecticide are used, the method targets the pest species only, and others (beneficial insects etc.) are unaffected materials are all low-cost, unskilled labour is required only for placing devices around the crop, does not preclude the use of other methods that might be used in integrated pest management, the way is open to using a range of pesticides to which insects have not previously been exposed and to which

  6. Controlling Sulfuryl-Transfer Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ian; Wang, Ting; Wang, Wei; Kopp, Felix; Wu, Peng; Leyh, Thomas S

    2016-05-19

    In humans, the cytosolic sulfotransferases (SULTs) catalyze regiospecific transfer of the sulfuryl moiety (-SO3) from 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate to thousands of metabolites, including numerous signaling small molecules, and thus regulates their activities and half-lives. Imbalances in the in vivo set points of these reactions leads to disease. Here, with the goal of controlling sulfonation in vivo, molecular ligand-recognition principles in the SULT and nuclear receptor families are integrated in creating a strategy that can prevent sulfonation of a compound without significantly altering its receptor affinity, or inhibiting SULTS. The strategy is validated by using it to control the sulfonation and estrogen receptor (ER) activating activity of raloxifene (a US Food and Drug Administration-approved selective estrogen receptor modulator) and its derivatives. Preventing sulfonation is shown to enhance ER-activation efficacy 10(4)-fold in studies using Ishikawa cells. The strategy offers the opportunity to control sulfuryl transfer on a compound-by-compound basis, to enhance the efficacy of sulfonated drugs, and to explore the biology of sulfuryl transfer with unprecedented precision. PMID:27203377

  7. Chemical control of main diseases and insect pests of vegetable pests protection%保护地蔬菜主要病虫害的化学防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤新

    2013-01-01

    Combined with the author’s own work practice,control technology,the current status of protection of main diseases and insect pests of vegetables and lead to improved plant diseases and insect pests,pest control technology of inadequate pest control technology and the main insect pests were discussed summary of chemical control techniques,and hope to provide some useful reference for protection vegetable pest management aspects of colleagues.%  本文作者结合自身工作实践,就目前保护地蔬菜主要病虫害的防治技术现状、引发病虫害防治技术不足的成因、病虫害防治技术的改进和主要的病虫害化学防治技术进行了探讨总结,希望能为从事保护地蔬菜病虫害治理方面的各位同行提供一些有益的参考与借鉴。

  8. Rationale for classical biological control of cattle fever ticks and proposed methods for field collection of natural enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical biological control using specialist parasitoids, predators and/or nematodes from the native ranges of cattle fever ticks Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus could complement existing control strategies for this livestock pest in the transboundary region between Mexico and T...

  9. The Feasibility of Using Low-oxygen Atmospheres to Control Insect Pests for Taxidermies in Natural History Museums

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    To find the environmental friendly alternative methods for control taxidermy pests in natural history museum, six species insect pests at various stages of their development were exposed to a low-oxygen atmosphere of 1.5% for a period of one week. Apart from a 50% survival rate for the larval stage of Anthrenus verbasci, the modified atmosphere was observed to have a lethal effect on all insect stages tested. When the exposure period was extended to periods of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks, respecti...

  10. Codling moth control by release of radiation-sterilized moths in a pome fruit orchard and observations of other pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Release of radiation-sterilized male and female Laspeyresia pomonella (L.) in a 40-ha pome fruit orchard from 1969-72 in the Similkameen Valley of British Columbia reduced the wild population of this pest to a very low level without causing serious problems in control of other apple and pear pests. Percent apples injured by codling moth larvae at harvest were 0.1 in 1968 (after 3 sprays of azinphosmethyl), and 0.05, 0.02, 0.007, and 0.001 from 1969-72

  11. How to produce male-only progeny in pest insects for SIT: a biotech approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Petrella, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Insects represent the most abundant group of animals on earth, comprising about 800,000 described species, and approximately 10,000 of these species can be actually destructive for human activities. Pest control interventions, alternative to pesticides, are increasingly being implemented within the concept of Integrated Pest Management, involving the biological control to eradicate a pest from the area of interest. This concept has been recently extended also to those hemathoph...

  12. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was m

  13. Demonstration and Research Pest Control: A Training Program for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators, Manual No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Harry K.; And Others

    This manual is intended to provide the information necessary to meet EPA standards for demonstration and research pest control and prepare for the written examination required for certification. Emphasis is placed on the principles of safe pesticide use. Chapters are included on pesticide applicator certification in Virginia, basics of pest…

  14. Applicator Training Manual for: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health-Related Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian M.; Scheibner, R. A.

    This manual gives descriptions and diagrams for identification of the following types of pests: four species of cockroach; ants; bees and wasps; parasitic pests of man such as bedbugs, fleas, and ticks; occasional invaders such as flies and millipedes; silverfish and firebrats; beetles; termites; moths; fungi; and vertebrates including rodents,…

  15. Insect Pests of Field Crops. MP-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Chris C.

    This document addresses the principles of field crop insect control through biological, mechanical, and chemical processes. Identification, life history, damage, pesticides, pesticide use and environmental considerations are presented for the major pests of corn, alfalfa, beans, small grains, sugar beets, and potatoes. Each section is accompanied…

  16. Biotechnological prospects for managing insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounting problems with resistance and residues threaten the long term utility of many chemical insecticides and drive the search for biotechnological alternatives. The potential impact that molecular and other biotechnologies may have on three pest control strategies, involving biological insecticides, insect resistant hosts and genetically engineered insects, is discussed in this article. 46 refs

  17. Characterization of microbial communities in pest colonized books by molecular biology tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Palla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the identification of bacteria and fungi colonies in insect infesting books, by cultural-independent methodologies based on molecular biology techniques. Microbial genomic DNA extraction, in vitro amplification of specific target sequences by polymerase chain reactions (PCR, sequencing and sequence analysis were performed. These procedures minimized the samples amount, optimized the diagnostic studies on bacteria and fungi colonization and allowed the identification of many species also in complex microbial consortia. The molecular techniques for sure accomplish and integrate the microbiological standard methods (in vitro culture and morphological analyses (OM, SEM, CLSM, in order to understand the role of microorganisms in bio-deterioration of cultural assets. This monitoring is also indispensable to shed light on the risk for visitors and/or professionals to contract potential illnesses within indoor environments.

  18. Biological control of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through parasitoid augmentative releases: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruit flies are among the main pests affecting the world fruit industry (Aluja 1993). Bait sprays have traditionally been used successfully to control them; however, the side effects on the environment and health hazards commonly associated with pesticides, have resulted in strong public opposition to the use of bait sprays. This is particularly so when sprays are applied in urban areas or in coffee plantations where, although Medflies are present, they do not pose a danger to crops. Alternative methods that are effective and environmental friendly to suppress fruit fly populations are highly desirable. Biological control, the use of natural enemies to suppress pest populations, represents such an alternative. Some of the most successful cases of biological control are the control of Iceria purchasi Maskell (Homoptera: Margarodidae) by Rodolia cardinalis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in California (De Bach 1968, van den Bosch et al. 1982), and the control of Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) mainly by Encarsia (=Prospaltella) opulenta Silv. (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in Mexico (Jimenez 1961, 1971), both using the classical approach. However, this approach has been limited to certain conditions of environmental stability and biodiversity which are only found in a few ecosystems. Other factors, such as types of pests, the economic threshold and product quality requirements represent additional limitations. The best option in many cases could be augmentative biological control, which could overcome some of the deficiencies of the classical approach (Sivinski 1996). According to Knipling (1992) and Barclay (1987), augmentative biological control can be considered as a formal alternative for suppressing pest populations and even for use in eradication programmes, after integration with the sterile insect technique (SIT). In this approach, mass production of natural enemies is required and this production has to be cost effective

  19. Controlled atmospheres against insect pests in museums: a review and some considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Berzolla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Controlled atmospheres using nitrogen represent a safe and effective method for both objects and human health. The use of this technique against pests in museums has received an increasing amount of interest during the last twenty years. This paper looks at the researches into anoxic treatments that use nitrogen from the late ‘80s until now. At the moment, the recommended protocol suggests an oxygen percentage below 1% for at least three weeks. Considering that the major practical problems of controlled atmospheres are connected to treatment time and low oxygen percentage, it is very important to develop more flexible protocols that consider higher oxygen percentages or shorter treatment times, exploiting temperature and/or relative humidity. At oxygen percentage higher than those commonly used, temperature and relative humidity are very critical to insects’ development and success. Preliminary data (unpublished show that it is possible to adapt the application of the controlled atmospheres to different situations, taking advantage of favorable conditions already present in the considered situation and at the same time to use the other parameters at more favorable levels.

  20. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique involves the mass-rearing of insects, which are sterilized by gamma rays from a 60Co source before being released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produce no progeny, and so if enough of these matings occur the pest population can be controlled or even eradicated. A modification of the technique, especially suitable for the suppression of the moths and butterflies, is called the F, or inherited sterility method. In this, lower radiation doses are used such that the released males are only partially sterile (30-60%) and the females are fully sterile. When released males mate with native females some progeny are produced, but they are completely sterile. Thus, full expression of the sterility is delayed by one generation. This article describes the use of the sterile insect technique in controlling the screwworm fly, the tsetse fly, the medfly, the pink bollworm and the melon fly, and of the F1 sterility method in the eradication of local gypsy moth infestations. 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  1. Use of gamma radiation to control three Lepidopteran pests in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma radiation quarantine treatments were developed to control three lepidopteran pests harmful to Brazilian agriculture. All stages of Ecdytolopha aurantiana (Lima, 1927) (Lep.: Tortricidae), and all immature stages of Tuta absoluta and Neoleucinodes elegantalis were treated with gamma radiation using Cobalt-60. All stages of E. aurantiana, the orange fruit borer, were irradiated in oranges at target doses of 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 Gy, and a dose rate between 1.4 and 1.5 kGy per hour. Immature stages of T. absoluta and N. elegantalis, were irradiated in tomatoes at target doses of 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 Gy, and dose rates of 1.11 and 1.24 kGy per hour, respectively. An irradiation dose of 500 Gy caused 100% mortality in E. aurantiana pupae, and an irradiation dose of 300 Gy applied to any life stage was sufficient to prevent development to the adult stage or reproduction. An irradiation dose of 400 Gy applied to T. absoluta and N. elegantalis was sufficient to prevent reproduction. (author)

  2. A Stably Transgenic INA Enterobacter cloacae for Control of Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-jian; SUN Fu-zai; ZHAO Ting-chang; DING Ai-yun; TANG Chao-rong

    2003-01-01

    Using the minitransposon pMini-Tn5 and the ice-nucleation active (INA) gene of iceA, a suicide recombinant plasmid pTnice1 was constructed, which has the ability of broad-host-range conjugal mobilization and integration of iceA into chromosomal DNA of many gram-negative bacteria by Tn5 transposition.We used this plasmid to integrate the iceA into chromosomal DNA of Ent. cloacae and obtained the transgentic strain Enc1. 2022ina. In this transgenic Ent. cloacae, iceA would never be transferred elsewhere through transposition, and constantly expressed high ice nucleation activity even in the absence of antibiotic pressure.The transgenic strain was ingested by corn borer larvae. Over the 7 d after ingestion, the mean supercooling points (SCPs) of the larvae was about 10℃ higher than those of larvae treated with distilled water (control).The maintenance of these high SCPs was related to the stable gut colonization of transgenic strain. At 6th day post ingestion, the larva was exposed at - 5 or - 7℃ for 12 h, the percentages of larvae frozen to death were 85and 100%, respectively. In contrast, none or a small proportion of control larvae was frozen to death under the same conditions. Further studies demonstrated that this transgenic strain bore weak epiphytic ability.Therefore, this genetically engineered strain may be a promising candidate for control of insect pests in agricultural fields.

  3. Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

  4. Economic Benefit for Cuban Laurel Thrips Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shogren, C; Paine, T D

    2016-02-01

    The Cuban laurel thrips, Gynaikothrips ficorum Marchal (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is a critical insect pest of Ficus microcarpa in California urban landscapes and production nurseries. Female thrips feed and oviposit on young Ficus leaves, causing the expanding leaves to fold or curl into a discolored leaf gall. There have been attempts to establish specialist predator natural enemies of the thrips, but no success has been reported. We resampled the same areas in 2013-2014 where we had released Montandoniola confusa (= morguesi) Streito and Matocq (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) in southern California in 1995 but had been unable to recover individuals in 1997-1998. Thrips galls were significantly reduced in all three of the locations in the recent samples compared with the earlier samples. M. confusa was present in all locations and appears to be providing successful biological control. The value of the biological control, the difference between street trees in good foliage condition and trees with poor foliage, was $58,766,166. If thrips damage reduced the foliage to very poor condition, the value of biological control was $73,402,683. Total cost for the project was $61,830. The benefit accrued for every dollar spent on the biological control of the thrips ranged from $950, if the foliage was in poor condition, to $1,187, if the foliage was in very poor condition. The value of urban forest is often underappreciated. Economic analyses that clearly demonstrate the very substantial rates of return on investment in successful biological control in urban forests provide compelling arguments for supporting future efforts. PMID:26503345

  5. Use of controlled release formulations of insecticides for the control of termites as pests of crops and forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Termites are major pests of crops and forestry in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Until recently, they were controlled by organochlorine (cyclodiene) insecticides whose persistence protected the crops till harvest and exotic trees through the susceptible seedling stage. These insecticides have been banned or withdrawn from use in agriculture in most countries and existing alternative insecticides lack the persistence to provide protection against termites. Controlled release formulations of some of these short-lived insecticides have been shown to provide protection for trees and crops as good as that provided by the cyclodiene insecticides without the environmental problems. Current formulations are much more expensive than conventional formulations using the same active ingredient and their use is limited to high value crops and forestry. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Integration of physical, chemical and biological tactics against insect pests and virus diseases in horticultural crops

    OpenAIRE

    Dáder Alonso, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Actualmente, la gestión de sistemas de Manejo Integrado de Plagas (MIP) en cultivos hortícolas tiene por objetivo priorizar los métodos de control no químicos en detrimento del consumo de plaguicidas, según recoge la directiva europea 2009/128/CE ‘Uso Sostenible de Plaguicidas’ (OJEC, 2009). El uso de agentes de biocontrol como alternativa a la aplicación de insecticidas es un elemento clave de los sistemas MIP por sus innegables ventajas ambientales que se utiliza ampliamente en nuestro país...

  7. Biological Control in Brazil: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    José Roberto Postali Parra

    2014-01-01

    The use of Biological Control methods is on the increase, mainly as a result of the mobilization of human resources in entomology studies since the establishment of graduate programs in this country in the 1960s. This review approaches the retrospective of Biological Control in Brazil in recent decades, with an emphasis on the "culture of applying agrochemicals" adopted by Brazilian growers, which constrains progress in this area. Successful cases of Biological Control have been reported on i...

  8. 小反刍兽疫分子生物学研究进展%Advance in Molecular Biology of Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董浩; 段小波

    2011-01-01

    小反刍兽疫(peste des petits ruminants,PPR)是由小反刍兽疫病毒(peste des petits ruminants virus,PPRV)引起的一种急性、烈性、接触性传染病.山羊高度易感;牛、猪等动物也可以感染带毒,野生动物偶有发生.作者主要介绍了小反刍兽疫病毒各基因结构特点,6种结构蛋白的功能,以及小反刍兽疫的诊断技术等方面的最新研究进展.%Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) is the etiological agent of peste des petits ruminants (PPR). Which is an acute and highly contagious viral disease, mainly infectes goats, sheep, antelope and other small ruminants, is especially susceptible to goats. Cattle, pigs, etc. Can also be infected with the virus, but usually appearing subclinical effect, wildlife happen once in a while. This article described the advance in the structure features of PPRV genes, the functions of the six structural protein, expressing protein in vitro and the molecular biological diagnostic techniques.

  9. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  10. Introducing DuPont Exirel™ and Verimark™ new insect control products for pest management and optimizing yield in Florida citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo, Hector E.; Royal, Stanley S.; Taylor, James E; Temple, Joshua H.; Truszkowski, Alex T.; Mares, Joseph T.; Cameron, Rachel A.; Annan, I. Billy; Alvarez, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    DuPont™ Exirel™ and Verimark™ insect control contain DuPont™ Cyazypyr™ insecticide, the second active ingredient from the anthranilic diamide class of chemistry, and the first to control a cross-spectrum of insect pests including Lepidoptera, Dipteran leafminers, fruit flies, beetles, whiteflies, thrips, aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids and weevils, while conserving key predators and parasitoids.  Exirel™ and Verimark™ deliver a novel mode of action that impacts insect behavior by impairing musc...

  11. Use of attractant traps in area-wide control of vegetable insect pests in the Jiangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Plutella xylostella (L.), Prodenia litura (Fabricius) and Laphyqma exiqua Huebner are main insect pests of vegetables in the Jiangxi province. The long-term use of pesticides to control these pests has caused serious problems such as resistance to pesticides and resurgence of pests as well as pollution to environment and vegetables. Sex attractants have been used for area-wide control of these pests to solve these problems and to produce pollution-free vegetables. Based on the principles of effective, economic and operational implementation, two types of traps made of used plastic cola bottles (1.25L) and oil bottles (2.5L), have been used in 2,250 ha of vegetables in 2001-2003. Traps have been baited with pest-specific attractants incorporated in a rubber wick and placed in vegetable fields at a density of 45 traps per ha. The area-wide use of sex attractants to control these pests has resulted in the decrease of densities of male adults, eggs and larva of these pests and the increase of vegetable yield. An average of 2.34, 2.1, 2.85 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively with the cola bottle trap, and 3.22, 0.63, 4.33 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively oil bottle trap. Comparing trap area with non-trap area, egg density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 84.48% and 85.38%, respectively and larva density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 89.62% and 89.93%, respectively. The egg and larva density of L. exiqua Huebner was reduced by 66.67% and 64.47%, respectively and the percent of damaged host plants and leaves was reduced by 83.48% and 75.85%, respectively. The larva density of P. litura (Fabricius) was reduced by 24.92% and the percent of damaged host plants was reduced by 35.52%. The vegetable yield per ha has been increased by 30% on average

  12. Pest Rodent Species Composition, Level of Damage and Mechanism of control in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Kasso

    2013-01-01

    The assessment on the current information on the species composition of pest rodents and the local communities' perception on their pest status was carried out in Dire Dawa Administration from March 2010 to September 2011. Stratified and multistage random sampling techniques were used to sample representative villages (urban and rural) and respondents (n=150). Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered through trapping, observation, questionnaire and interview. The collected data we...

  13. Innate positive chemotaxis to pollen from crops and banker plants in predaceous biological control agents: towards new field lures?

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Li; Xiaoling Tan; Nicolas Desneux; Giovanni Benelli; Jing Zhao; Xinhai Li; Fan Zhang; Xiwu Gao; Su Wang

    2015-01-01

    Predator-prey interactions form the core of biological control of arthropod pests. Which tools can be used to monitor and collect carnivorous arthropods in natural habitats and targeted crops? Eco-friendly and effective field lures are urgently needed. In this research, we carried out olfactometer experiments assess innate positive chemotaxis to pollen of seven crop and banker plant by two important predatory biological control agents: the coccinellid Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and the anth...

  14. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  15. Effect of some Ghanaian plant components on control of two stored-product insect pests of cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu

    2000-01-15

    In an attempt to find natural and cheaper methods for the control of stored-product pests of cereals, some traditionally useful Ghanaian plant materials were evaluated. Hexane+isopropyl alcohol extract of leaves of Ocimum viride proved most effective in the control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), followed by that of Chromolaena odorata. O. viride showed strong repellent activity and thus deterred the insects from feeding. It reduced survival of both insect pests to less than 25% after 10 days of treatment at concentrations of 0.1 mg ml(-1) and above. The results show the potential of O. viride and C. odorata in the control of stored-product insects. PMID:11124372

  16. Improving the biological control of leaf-miners (Diptera: Agromyzidae) using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) (Diptera: Agromyzidae) is a worldwide pest of ornamental and vegetable crops. The most promising nonchemical approach for controlling Liriomiza leafminers in greenhouses is regular releases of the parasitoid Diglyphus isaea (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). In the current study, we examine the hypothesis that the use of D. isaea for biological control of leafminers in greenhouse crops may be more practical and efficient when supplemented with additional control strategies, such as the sterile insect technique (SIT). In small cages, our SIT experiments suggest that releases of sterile L. trifolii males in three sterile-to-fertile male ratios (3:1, 5:1, and 10:1) can significantly reduce the number of the pest offspring. In large cage experiments, when both parasitoids and sterile males were released weekly, the combined methods significantly reduced mine production and the adult leafminer population size. Moreover, a synergistic interaction between these two methods was found, and a model based on our observed data predicts that because of this effect, only the use of both methods can eradicate the pest population. Our study indicates that an integrated pest management approach that combines the augmentative release of the parasitoid D. isaea together with sterile leafminer males is more efficient than the use of either method alone. In addition, our results validate previous theoretical models and demonstrate synergistic control with releases of parasitoids and sterile insects. (author)

  17. Integrated pest management in citrus orchards in Antalya (1995-1999)

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, A.; Akteke, Ş.A.; Kaplan, M.; Gürol, M.; Eray, N.; Dalka, Y.; UYSAL, H.; Aytekin, H.; Akyel, E.; Çelik, G.; ARSLAN, M.; Tuncel, H.

    2008-01-01

    This study relating to integrated pest management citrus orchards consisting Central, Kumluca, Finike and Alanya counties of Antalya has been carried out in 8 orchards in 2124 trees during 1995-1999. The citrus mealybug has been found as the main pest and controlled biologically by releasing Leptomastix dactylopii as parasitoid and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri as predator. Citrus whitefly, Citrus red mite and Carob moth have been found as the secondary pests. Mineral oils and specific aca...

  18. Grape Integrated Pest Prevention and Control Technology%葡萄虫害综合防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤喜良

    2012-01-01

      近几年随着湖南省宁乡县沙田乡葡萄产业的发展,虫害的发生率也有所增加,葡萄虫害属于自然灾害,一旦发生,对葡萄的产量和质量都有严重影响,所以进行葡萄虫害的防治工作尤为重要。从葡萄虫害的种类和其症状表现出发,探讨其防治的方法措施。%  With the development of the industry in recent years, the incidence of pest increase grape pests belonging to natural disasters, the yield and quality of grapes has seriously affected in the event, the grape pest prevention and control work is particularly important. In this paper, starting from the type of grape pests and their symptoms, and to explore its prevention measures.

  19. Impact of Two Ant Species on Egg Parasitoids Released as Part of a Biological Control Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Basso, César; Pintureau, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid wasp, was tested in Uruguay to reduce populations of lepidopteran pests on soybeans. It was observed that the commercial parasitoid dispensers, which were made of cardboard, were vulnerable to small predators that succeeded in entering and emptying the containers of all the eggs parasitized by T. pretiosum. Observations in a soybean crop showed that the only small, common predators presen...

  20. Ionizing energy in food processing and pest control. 1. Wholesomeness of food treated with ionizing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congressional concerns about the use of ionizing energy for food preservation and to control pests in food products for export and domestic use promoted the preparation of this report by a special task force of the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST). An overview surveys research conducted on the toxicological safety, nutritional quality, and microbiological safety of foods treated with ionizing energy. Background information is provided on various types of electromagnetic radiation, effects of ionizing energy level and dose, sources of natural background radiation and induced radioactivity, and the nature and safety of various radiolytic products. Objectives, methodologies, and problems associated with feeding studies of toxicological safety are outlined; results of scientific studies, U.S. government wholesomeness studies, and international feeding studies are summarized. Studies on the nutritional value of food products processed using ionized energy have examined the effects of ionizing energy on 1) composite diets, 2) carbohydrates, 3) fats, 4) proteins and amino acids, 5) vitamins (potatoes, onions, fruits, meat, seafood, cereals, vegetables, dairy products, oils), 6) antivitamins, and 7) minerals. The report concludes that currently available scientific evidence indicates that foods exposed to ionizing energy under the conditions proposed for commercial application are 1) wholesome (safe to eat) and 2) comparable in nutritional adequacy to fresh or conventionally processed foods

  1. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi associated with the main insect pest in the Northeast of Portugal: preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Baptista, Paula; Pereira, Eric Carvalho; Nogueira, Liliana; Bento, Albino; Santiago-Álvarez, C.; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; Pereira, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Due to the problems caused by the use of chemical insecticides for humans and environment alternative pest control methods are an important topic of research. The use of microbial insecticides especially fungal agents are an attractive and promising alternative for biological control of insect pests. The aim of this work was to identify naturally occurring entomophatogenic fungi on the olive moth, Prays oleae Bern., in the northeast of Portugal, as first step to select biological control agen...

  3. Life history of Parafreutreta regalis, (diptera:tephritidae), a candidate agent for biological control of delairea odorata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape-ivy, Delairea odorata Lamaire, is an ornamental vine, native to the eastern part of South Africa, which has escaped into natural areas in many countries and become a serious pest. Exploratory surveys in South Africa located several potential biological control agents. One of these is Parafreu...

  4. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Bezemer, TM; . Bloem, J.; Bonkowski, M.; Christensen, S; Dubois, David; Ekelund , F; Fließbach, Andreas; Gunst, Lucie; K. Hedlund; Mäder, Paul; Mikola, J.; Robin, C.; Setälä, Heikki; Tatin-Froux , F

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological parameters of two organic and two conventional wheat farming systems that primarily differed in fertilization and weed management strategies. Contrast analyses identified management related differences ...

  5. Long-term organic farming fosters below- and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, TM; . Bloem, J.; Bonkowski, M.; Christensen, S; Dubois, D; Ekelund , F; Fließbach, A.; Gunst , L; K. Hedlund; Mäder, P.; Mikola, J.; Robin, C.; Setälä , H; Tatin-Froux , F

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological parameters of two organic and two conventional wheat farming systems that primarily differed in fertilization and weed management strategies. Contrast analyses identified management related differenc...

  6. Long-term organic farming fosters below- and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control, and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Birkhofer, Klaus; Bezemer, T. Martijn; Bloem, Jaap; Bonkowski, Michael; Christensen, Søren; Dubois, David; Ekelund, Fleming; Fließbach, Andreas; Gunst, Lucie; Hedlund, Katarina; Mäder, Paul; Mikola, Juha; Robin, Christophe; Setälä, Heikki; Tatin-Froux, Fabienne

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological parameters of two organic and two conventional wheat farming systems that primarily differed in fertilization and weed management strategies. Contrast analyses identified management related differences ...

  7. THE INSECT PATHOGENIC FUNGUS Verticillium lecanii (Zimm.) Viegas AND ITS USE FOR PESTS CONTROL: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Thiery B C ALAVO

    2015-01-01

    Chemical insecticides play an important role in the control of plant damage and plant diseases. However, extensive use of these products has led to the disruption of ecosystems because of several reasons such as death of non-target species, accumulation of pesticide residues in the environment and food, and buildup of pesticide resistance in the target species. Biological control is one of the alternatives to chemical pesticides and it can be described as the limitation of the abu...

  8. Occurrence and controlling techniques for pests and diseases in vegetable cultivation in modern greenhouse%现代化温室蔬菜病虫害的发生及防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高代守

    2015-01-01

    Occurrence characteristics,and kinds and occurrence regular of main pests and diseases in vegetable cultivated in modern greenhouse were studied,and the corresponding control measures,including cleaning and disinfection,cultivation management,biological control techniques,physical control techniques were proposed to effectively control vegetable pests and diseases occurred in modern greenhouse.%介绍现代化温室蔬菜病虫害的发生特点及主要病虫害种类、发生规律,从清洁消毒、栽培管理、生物防治、物理防治、化学防治等方面总结现代化温室蔬菜病虫害的防治措施。

  9. The use of gamma radiation to control two serious pests of Brazilian agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the application of nuclear techniques to control two of the most important Lepidopteran insects pests in Brazil: Diatraea saccharalis, the sugarcane borer, and Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm. All experiments had the objective of finding the dose of gamma radiation capable of causing sterility in the first and second generations by irradiating the parental generation. For D. saccharalis, five day-old pupae were irradiated with doses of 100, 125 and 150 Gy. Fertility was reduced to 15% when moths were treated with 100 Gy and no egg hatch was recorded at 125 and 150 Gy. Fertility was 4.3% and 10.9% in the F1 generation and was 9.5% and 25.5% in the F2 generation, when treated males were mated to normal females and treated females were mated to normal males, respectively. The results of our research suggest a possible alternative tactic to control or even eradicate sugarcane borer from Brazil. For S. frugiperda, five day-old pupae were treated with doses of 50, 100, 125, 150 and 175Gy. Moths of the F1 and F2 generations were obtained only from parents treated at 50Gy. When higher doses were used, only the crosses where irradiated males were mated to normal (untreated) females produced moths of the F1 and F2 generations. Irradiation of the parental generation induced different sterility levels in the offspring. Female fall armyworm were more radiosensitive than males, and substerilizing doses of gamma radiation did not affect the life cycle of the first and second filial generations in this species. The level of sterility in the F1 and F2 generations was higher than the sterility of the parents irradiated at the same dose. These results are encouraging and indicate that inherited sterility might be used for control of this insect in Brazil. Large field experiments should be conducted to confirm the laboratory findings. (author)

  10. Comprehensive Control Technique of Major Maize Diseases and Insect Pests%玉米主要病虫害综合防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚万义

    2011-01-01

    为提高玉米产量和确保玉米优质,提出玉米病虫害防治策略,详细介绍玉米螟、大斑病、小斑病3种玉米常见病虫害的综合防治技术及其要点,通过协调使用农业、生物、物理、化学防治措施,将重大病虫危害控制在经济水平以下。%In order to improve maize yields and ensure its quality,the author presents comprehensive prevention and control measures to check maize diseases and insect pests,including techniques to control Ostrinia nubilalis,leaf blight,Bipolaris maydis,coordinating a variety of agricultural,biologic,physical and chemical therapeutic measures to keep the damages caused by diseases and insect pests under economic levels.

  11. Pest Rodent Species Composition, Level of Damage and Mechanism of control in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kasso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment on the current information on the species composition of pest rodents and the local communities' perception on their pest status was carried out in Dire Dawa Administration from March 2010 to September 2011. Stratified and multistage random sampling techniques were used to sample representative villages (urban and rural and respondents (n=150. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered through trapping, observation, questionnaire and interview. The collected data were tabulated and organized and appropriate statistical analysis like frequency distribution, percentage and chi-square test were used. For the survey of species composition and relative abundance of pest rodents Sherman live-traps and snap traps were set in the selected standardized and variable trapping grids. Five hundred and nine new individual rodents were captured from the trap nights of 986 Sherman live-traps and 130 snap traps. Twelve species of pest rodents were recorded of which eight were trapped and the four were observed in the study grids. The present result revealed as rodents were the most noxious pests causing substantial damage to agricultural crops, household items and human health through different mechanisms like feeding, discomforting, contaminating and mechanical damage and disease transmission. Techniques like using cat, hunting and trapping, rodenticides and field sanitations were frequently used. The present records of high pest rodent species composition not only indicate as the area is highly infested but it also indicates the existence of a high stock of rodent species diversity that requires an immediate development and application of ecological based rodent pest management strategy.

  12. 通道绿化林主要害虫及防治技术研究%Mainly distributes and control techniques of pest insects of the trees in the passage landscaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菊英; 沈强; 柳建定; 李百万

    2011-01-01

    对余姚市通道绿化林害虫的调查研究结果显示,重要绿化林带上的害虫共有318种,隶属于5目62科240属,其中有6种主要害虫:杨扇舟蛾、茶袋蛾、山东广翅蜡蝉、矩瘤蛎蚧、樟白轮盾蚧、红蜡蚧。防治强化预测预报集营林技术、生物与化学药剂的综合治理措施,能有效抑制通道绿化林虫害的发生。%We investigated the species of pest insects that damaged the trees in the passage landscaping during 2002-2008. The results showed that 318 pest insects belonging to 5 orders, 62 families and 240 genus could damage the trees in the passage landscaping in Yuyao City. Six pest insects, Clostera anachoreta (Fabricius), Clania minuscula Butler, Ricania shantungensis Chou et Lu, Eucornuaspis machili (Maskell), Aulacas~is yabunikkei Kuwana and Ceroplastes rubens Maskell were the main insects. IPM methods including preforecasting, plantation management, biological control and chemical control were put forward in this paper which had been proved to control effectively the pest insects that damaged the trees in the passage landscaping.

  13. Urban Warming Drives Insect Pest Abundance on Street Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Meineke, Emily K.; Robert R Dunn; Sexton, Joseph O.; Frank, Steven D.

    2013-01-01

    Cities profoundly alter biological communities, favoring some species over others, though the mechanisms that govern these changes are largely unknown. Herbivorous arthropod pests are often more abundant in urban than in rural areas, and urban outbreaks have been attributed to reduced control by predators and parasitoids and to increased susceptibility of stressed urban plants. These hypotheses, however, leave many outbreaks unexplained and fail to predict variation in pest abundance within c...

  14. EFFECT OF LIVING MULCH ON PEST/BENEFICIAL INTERACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Burgio, Giovanni; Kristensen, Hanne L.; Campanelli, Gabriele; Bavec, Franc; Bavec, Martina; von Fragstein und Niemsdorff, Peter; Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Canali, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops on pest/beneficial dynamics and to test the potential of living mulch on enhancing biological control against insect pests. The research, carried out in the frame of the InterVeg (Core Organic II) project, involved four European countries: Germany, Slovenia, Denmark and Italy. Three crops were tested: cauliflower, leek and artichoke. The preliminary results obtained in Italy on cauliflower, indicated that the living mulch did not...

  15. Selection of Trichogramma for inundative biological control : a study of behavioural variations among strains and species of an egg-parasite genus.

    OpenAIRE

    Pak, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents a study of the potential for biological control of lepidopterous pests on cabbage crops in the Netherlands, by means of inundative releases of the egg parasite Trichogramma (Hymenoptera, Trichogrammatidae). The objective of this study is to investigate the usefulness of a predictive approach to the development of a biological control program. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the three basic elements of this study: the principles of biological control, the use of Tric...

  16. Development of an integrated pest management strategy for the control of Maruca Vitrata on cowpea in Kebbi state of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Maikai Murna, Abdullahi

    2013-01-01

    The study was undertaken with the objective of developing an IPM control strategy against M. vitrata in cowpea which will replace the existing use of calendar based application of broad spectrum chemical insecticide (Mixture of 30g cypermethrin and 250g dimethoate) in Kebbi State of Nigeria. The study initially made use of a survey backed up by focus group interviews to gather information on the types of farmers’ cowpea cultivation practices, their perceptions on pests and pesticides and the ...

  17. Biocide plants as a sustainable tool for the control of pests and pathogens in vegetable cropping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Trifone D'Addabbo; Sebastiano Laquale; Stella Lovelli; Vincenzo Candido; Pinarosa Avato

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic pesticides have played a major role in crop protection related to the intensification of agricultural systems. In the recent years, environmental side effects and health concerns raised by an indiscriminate use have led the EU to the ban of many synthetic pesticides. As a result of this drastic revision, currently there is a strong need for new and alternative pest control methods. An interesting source of biorational pesticides may be represented by the biocidal compounds naturally...

  18. An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Piñero, Jaime C; Leblanc, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas. PMID:26463186

  19. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  20. Comparing strategies for controlling an African pest rodent: an empirically based theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Leirs, Herwig; Mercelis, Saskia; Mwanjabe, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    1. Small rodents in general and the multimammate rat Mastomys natalensis in particular cause major economic losses in Africa through damage to crops. Attempts to develop dynamic population models for this and other pest rodents are ongoing. Small rodents in general and the multimammate rat in...... particular cause major economic losses in Africa through damage to crops. Attempts to develop dynamic population models for this and other pest rodents are ongoing. 2. Demographic estimates from a capture-mark-recapture (CMR) study in Tanzania were used to parameterize a population model for this species....... Provided that CMR data are available, we recommend developing Leslie-type population models for rodent pests on the basis of CMR-estimated demographic schedules. Such models have great potential in rodent management and allow the evaluation of different strategies.7. Besides improving the ecological basis...

  1. Ultraviolet blocking greenhouse polythene covers for insect pest control on organic crops: May 2003 - September 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Leigh

    2004-01-01

    This report reviews the development work carried out within the ‘UV Blocking Polythene Trial’ on the organic farm at the Welsh College of Horticulture during the period May 2003 to September 2004. Two tunnels were erected in 2003, one covered in UV blocking ‘Sterilite’ film and the other in the non-UV blocking ‘Super Strength 600’. The salad/brassicas crops grown during the first season under the UV blocking film showed significantly less pest attack (both winged and non-winged pests). Less a...

  2. BIOS approach tested for controlling walnut pests in San Joaquin Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph A. Grant; Bentley, Walt; Pickel, Carolyn; Groh-Lowrimore, Jeannine

    2003-01-01

    As concerns increase over changes in pesticide regulations, farmworker safety, surface and groundwater contamination and escalating costs and uncertainties associated with chemical controls, walnut growers need effective and cost-efficient ways to produce walnuts with minimal use of pesticides. This study compared the effectiveness of Biologically Integrated Orchard Systems (BIOS) with conventionally managed walnut orchards in the northern San Joaquin Valley from 1999 to 2001. We found no sig...

  3. The Potential for the Integration of Nuclear Techniques in Arthropod Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is today being practised more widely than ever before and its popularity looks set to increase further in the future. While the discipline has historically been dominated by 'classical' biological control (the one-off introduction of natural enemies to control pests in their adventive range) augmentative biological control (the repeated introduction of biocontrol agents to a particular crop or forest) has increased substantially over the past 20 years and is likely to increase in importance further in the future. This view is supported by an assessment of some of the key issues facing the discipline of biological control today. There is no clear role for nuclear techniques in the future of classical biological control. However the use of irradiation as a means of creating increased rates of mutation in natural enemy populations being selected for enhanced beneficial traits (such as insecticide resistance), might be useful and could be investigated further. There is scope for the use of irradiation in killing or sterilising insect diets and hosts, a technique which has been used for over 25 years without gaining wide acceptance. Augmentative biological control as an adjunct to SIT may have a role in future pest control campaigns, although it is likely to prove difficult to provide a clear economic justification given the technical difficulties of measuring separately the effects of the two techniques. It is suggested that the technical advances in project development and implementation (e.g. insect rearing techniques and field application) which have been made by SIT practitioners have a potentially useful role in assisting the development of improved production and delivery of biological control agents for augmentative release (author)

  4. Mitonuclear interactions, mtDNA-mediated thermal plasticity, and implications for the Trojan Female Technique for pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonci N; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J; Dowling, Damian K

    2016-01-01

    Pest species pose major challenges to global economies, ecosystems, and health. Unfortunately, most conventional approaches to pest control remain costly, and temporary in effect. As such, a heritable variant of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) was proposed, based on the introduction of mitochondrial DNA mutations into pest populations, which impair male fertility but have no effects on females. Evidence for this "Trojan Female Technique" (TFT) was recently provided, in the form of a mutation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (mt:Cyt-b) of Drosophila melanogaster which reduces male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds. However, recent studies have shown that the magnitude of mitochondrial genetic effects on the phenotype can vary greatly across environments, with mtDNA polymorphisms commonly entwined in genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Here we test whether the male-sterilizing effects previously associated with the mt:Cyt-b mutation are consistent across three thermal and three nuclear genomic contexts. The effects of this mutation were indeed moderated by the nuclear background and thermal environment, but crucially the fertility of males carrying the mutation was invariably reduced relative to controls. This mutation thus constitutes a promising candidate for the further development of the TFT. PMID:27443488

  5. Comparison of mineral oil spray with current synthetic pesticides to control important pests in citrus orchards and their side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Damavandian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years the most important citrus pests poorly controlled despite multiple spraying and growers suffered heavy damage. To this end, a study was done to evaluate and compare the conventional insecticides with mineral oil spray (MOS for the control of citrus pests and adverse effects in citrus orchards in Mazandaran province. In this study, the diversity and abundance of carabid beetles, as a specific predator of snails, were compared in conventional and free protocol pesticide (or MOS orchards. The results showed that the frequency and distribution of important citrus pests in free protocol pesticide orchards after three years of treatment was significantly lower than conventional orchards. The comparison showed that continual use of synthetic pesticides in citrus orchards in the province , leading to a sharp reduction in their population and species diversity. The results of this study indicate that the use of mineral oil can be a useful alternative to synthetic pesticides in citrus orchards of the East province.

  6. Biology of Oedophrys hilleri (Faust) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): A Potential New Pest of Peach in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The peach root weevil, Oedophrys hilleri (Faust), is an exotic pest from East Asia that has become established in the northeastern United States. This study examined the feeding preferences of adults in the field and greenhouse, and the larval food and phenology of adults in an unsprayed peach orch...

  7. Investigations on the use of the sterile male technique for the control of codling moth in an integrated pest control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diapause of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella L., was studied in relation to various altitudes of origin. Altitudes of 350 m and 1300 m above sea level showed that low-altitude moths had a longer diapause. Altitude appears to affect the duration of larval diapause. Biological control by virus-induced granulosis was investigated, using 3 to 4 applications of the virus per tree per season, at the rate of 2x1011 to 9x1011 virus capsules per application. Codling moth infestation was reduced by 74.2% to 88.2%. Trichomma enecator and Ascogaster quadridentatus Wesm., both parasites of the codling moth, were both colonized in the laboratory, and population dynamics are being studied. Copulatory behaviour in the males of A. quadridentatus is elicited primarily by pheromones produced by the female. Males emit some sounds which appear primarily intended to convey territorial rights to other males. The frequencies produced by males and by females differ. Codling moth odours stimulate females to oviposit. The effect of pesticides on parasitation is being studied. Details of a planned mass-rearing facility for lepidopteran and other pests are given

  8. Using global information technology to detect, monitor, and control mosquito pest and disease vector populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS), image analysis, and remote sensing comprise global information technologies that are used to characterize pest and vector populations of mosquitoes. At this national meeting, scientists from ARS and McNeese State University organized and convened a half-day sym...

  9. Organic control of oilseed rape pests through natural pesticides and mixed cultivation with turnip rape

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, T.; Jansen, B.; Mayer, J.; Kühne, S.; Böhm, H; Rasmussen, Ilse A.; HERMANSEN John

    2011-01-01

    A mixed cropping system of rapeseed and 10% turnip rape as trap crop was compared with oilseed rape in pure stand to demonstrate the reduction of infestation by insect pests. Furthermore the application of bio-pesticides like pyrethrum/rape oil (Spruzit Neu), spinosad (SpinTor), diatomeen earth (SiO2) /sunflower-oil and rock powder/water was tased.

  10. 砂梨病虫种群动态及其无公害防控技术%Disease and Pest Population Dynamics of Pyrus in Wuhan and the Non-polluted Control Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先琴; 秦仲麒; 李先明; 涂俊凡; 杨夫臣; 关金菊

    2009-01-01

    The investigation showed that pear psylla,lace-bug,stinkbug,leaf eriophyid.the oriental fruit moth,Dasyneura pyri, fruit sawfly, phylloxera, Janus piri, ring rot, rust, black spot were the important disease and pest population in the pear orchards. They had high density, occurrenced in high frequency and seriously. The artificial control technique such as turning, scraping, clearance, luring and bagging were adopted. Natural enemies ladybird, lacewing, Syrphid flies, predatory bugs, spiders in the field were used for biological control. Chemical control time was standardized by the control criteria. The diseases and pests which reached the control criteria were sprayed the suitable pesticide in time. The damage of diseases and pests can be controlled effectively by the measures.%调查表明,梨木虱、网蝽、蝽象、叶瘿螨、梨小食心虫、瘿蚊、实蜂、蚜虫、梨茎蜂、轮纹病、锈病、黑斑病是武昌梨园的重要病虫种群,其发生频次高,密度大,危害重.采用"翻、刮、清、诱、套"进行人工防控;利用田间自然天敌进行生物防控;严格按照防治指标进行药荆防控,能较好地防止砂梨病虫的危害.

  11. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in greenhouse poinsettias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, T J; Kilmer, R L; Glenn, S J

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs of biologically controlling infestations of silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring, in New England greenhouse operations on poinsettia, Euphorbia pulcherrima Wild, ex Koltz, using the parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Gahan (Nile Delta strain). Partial budget analysis was used to compare costs for conventional verses biological control regimens. Four alternative whitefly control budgets are developed; two conventional chemical-based control budgets formulated with and without the use of imidacloprid, and two biological control budgets which demonstrate the impact of possibly greater pest monitoring efforts necessary to implement this type strategy successfully. The analysis shows that biological whitefly control costs were > 300% greater than conventional chemical-based control strategy costs. Most of this increase is caused by the higher costs of Encarsia formosa as the material control input. If monitoring costs are held constant across different strategies, labor costs actually decline for biological control. This is because of a significant reduction in the number of control applications made and the relatively lower cost of applying E. formosa. If more extensive monitoring efforts are required to implement biological control successfully, labor costs increase by 56% over the conventional pre-imidacloprid regimen. Based on these results, the authors conclude that cheaper and more reliable means of producing E. formosa must be developed before this strategy will become economically viable for commercial poinsettia greenhouse production. PMID:10902307

  12. 茶树病虫害智能化防治专家系统研究与应用%Study and Application of the Intelligentized Controlled Expert System on the Tea Plant Diseases and Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪辉进

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the biological characteristics of tea plant diseases and insect pests in the south of Anhui province, and the relevant knowledge of artificial intelligence, the intelligentized controlled expert system was studied, so as to explore a new technology for the intelligentized control of tea plant diseases and insect pests.%根据皖南茶区茶树病虫害的生物学特点,依据人工智能化的相关知识,开展茶树病虫害智能化防治专家系统的研究,力求为我国茶园病虫害智能化防治探索一种新技术.

  13. Controlled release of sugar and toxicant from a novel device for controlling pest insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X P; Shasha, B S; McGuire, M R; Prokopy, R J

    1998-01-01

    A novel biodegradable device, designed for long-lasting residual effectiveness of feeding stimulant (sugar) and insecticide (dimethoate) against apple maggot files and other insects, was formulated. The device is an 8-cm diameter fruit-mimicking sphere, consisting of 42-50% sugar entrapped in a mixture of gelatinized corn flour and wheat flour in the presence of glycerin, and coated with a layer of latex paint containing dimethoate and sugar. We found that the outer layer of paint prevents cracking of the sphere upon drying and creates a barrier to control the release of both sugar and dimethoate. Releases of each ingredient were screened first by chemical analysis and then by bioassays in the laboratory and in field cages against apple maggot flies. Chemical analysis demonstrated strong potential for controlled release of water-soluble feeding stimulant and water-insoluble insecticide measured as a function of the amount of rainfall and duration of exposure time. Field results showed greater than 70% insecticidal activity after 11 weeks of sphere exposure in an orchard. This device has the potential to be used for a variety of insect-control applications through manipulating its shape, color and texture into forms known to be attractive to target insects, and by employing various toxicants designed to be effective against such insects. PMID:9685892

  14. Biological control of chestnut blight in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Luís; Castro, João Paulo; Gouveia, Eugénia

    2013-01-01

    Plant protection is a multi-disciplinary subject and different strategies need to be addressed for sustainable plant health management Biological control is an ecosystem-based approach extending from lab based investigation to fie ld applications. Hipovirulence is a specific method for biological control of Chestnut Blight a lethal disease of the American and European chestnut. The causal pathogen of Chestnut Blight is Cryphonectria parasitica a fungus of Asian origin which ...

  15. Nanoinsecticidas: Nuevas perspectivas para el control de plagas Nanoinsecticides: New perspectives on insect pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Teodoro Stadler; Micaela Buteler; David K. Weaver

    2010-01-01

    La agricultura de bajo impacto ambiental demanda nuevos pesticidas que deben ajustarse a las exigentes normativas internacionales. Parte de la búsqueda de nuevos productos bio-racionales se desarrolla por fuera del marco de la síntesis orgánica, explorando diferentes sustancias de origen natural como extractos vegetales, aceites insecticidas e insecticidas inorgánicos. Los polvos insecticidas representan el grupo más antiguo de sustancias utilizadas por el hombre para el control de plagas, cu...

  16. Studies on the controlled-release pesticide formulations for pest control in cotton and maize using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on controlled release 14C- carbofuran formulations with EVA for pest control in cotton and maize to investigate the fate and degradation of the release carbofuran from the formulation. Cotton plants both in the field and pots were subjected to three different treatments at the time of sowing: application of 14C-carbofuran formulation with EVA; cold carbofuran formulation with EVA, and granular carbofuran pesticide. It has been found that insect attack was much more on control than on treated plants for three months after germination but after 4-5 months granules treated plants offered less resistance to insects as compared to formulation treated plant both hot and cold. The granules treated plants produced much more cotton lint in the first picking which reduced gradually and consequently hot and cold formulation treated plants produced maximum yield. Radiometric analysis indicated that recovered hot formulation pieces retained at least 24% radioactivity after six months. More activity was recovered in plant leaves as compared to roots and stem and similarly from soil samples, highest radioactivity was observed from 10 cm dia samples at a depth of up to 13 cm. The trend of results from pot and field experiments were almost similar. The used 14C-carbofuran formulation with EVA recovered from the field after cotton harvest was reused for maize crop at the time of sowing. Radiometric analysis revealed that the reused formulation pieces after three months still retained 56% radioactivity of the original dose applied. This confirms that the formulation was indeed slow release and even the lower amounts in the used formulation pieces were available to the next crop. The corn ear-worm attacked the crop at the time of maturity but this problem was minor with formulation treated plants resulting in better yield over control plants. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  17. Efficacy of the controlled release of 14C-carbofuran formulation for pest control in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protocols for the treatment of cotton plants with a ring labelled 14C-carbofuran formulation made up of EVA (polyethylene-polyvinyl acetate co-polymer), with a specific activity of 0.0169 mCi/g were modified in these studies as the dose per pot was reduced by half. Twenty-five plastic pots with a 30 cm diameter and lined with polyethylene film were filled with 22 kg of good homogenized soil. To 12 of these prepared pots, 0.5 g of formulation flakes (1.5 to 2 cm) containing 9.6 mg of carbofuran and with 8.45 μCi radioactivity were applied in a circle with a 5 cm diameter and at a depth of 5 cm. Four cotton seeds of the variety NIAB-78 were planted in the centre of each pot. Cotton seeds were planted in the remaining pots to produce the control plants. It has been observed that even the low amount of carbofuran formulation applied to the cotton crop (0.5 g/pot) offered some plant protection, but was not as effective as the higher dose (1 g/pot) applied in previous studies. Initially, the cotton plants looked healthier (up to 3 months) but then their resistance decreased in comparison to that of the control plants. It is suggested that the half dose applied in these studies is lower than desirable and that probably two-thirds of the dose could better serve the purpose. The radioactivity in the formulation flakes fell to almost one-half when the plants were 1 month old and then decreased gradually with the increase in time. In contrast, the radioactivity in the soil increased gradually with the increase in time. The highest radioactivity in the soil was observed from the 10 cm diameter samples at a depth of up to 13 cm. More radioactivity was recovered from the leaves than the roots and stem, which is in accordance with our previous findings. (author). 3 refs, 4 tabs

  18. Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

    2004-08-01

    Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) Piper extracts be restricted to small-scale spot treatments in residential areas where insect pest outbreaks have occurred. PMID:15384353

  19. Quantifying short-term foraging movements in a marsupial pest to improve targeted lethal control and disease surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yockney, Ivor J; Latham, M Cecilia; Rouco, Carlos; Cross, Martin L; Nugent, Graham

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, the introduced marsupial brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is a pest species subject to control measures, primarily to limit its ability to transmit bovine tuberculosis (TB) to livestock and for conservation protection. To better define parameters for targeted possum control and TB surveillance, we here applied a novel approach to analyzing GPS data obtained from 44 possums fitted with radio-tracking collars, producing estimates of the animals' short-term nocturnal foraging patterns based on 1-, 3- or 5-nights' contiguous data. Studies were conducted within two semi-arid montane regions of New Zealand's South Island High Country: these regions support low-density possum populations (control) or monitoring devices (for TB surveillance), set for > 3 consecutive nights at 150 m interval spacings, would likely place >95% of the possums in this type of habitat at risk of encountering these devices, year-round. Modelling control efficacy against operational expenditure, based on these estimations, identified the relative cost-effectiveness of various strategies that could be applied to a typical aerial poisoning operation, to reduce the ongoing TB vectorial risk that possums pose in the High Country regions. These habitat-specific findings are likely to be more relevant than the conventional pest control and monitoring methodologies developed for possums in their more typical forested habitat. PMID:25811977

  20. Producing bulbs and perennials : sustainable control of diseases, pests and weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Boer

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands every year flower bulbs and perennials are produced representing a value of € 500 m (flower bulbs) and of € 65 m (perennials, 2004). The growers are faced with several threatening pests and diseases during the production. They usually deal with these problems by using pesticides. In 2004 the Ministry of Agriculture and the stakeholders in Agribusiness made an agreement on reducing the environmental impact of pesticides by developing and implementing knowledge on Integrated ...

  1. A review of plant materials used for controlling insect pests of stored products (NRI Bulletin 65)

    OpenAIRE

    Dales, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of plant materials for the protection of stored products against insect pests is reviewed. Following an outline of the different methods used for assessing their insecticidal activity, over 120 plants and plant products are listed alphabetically with a brief description of traditional uses (where appropriate), and a summary of the laboratory data currently available; where possible, information on constituents and toxicology is also included. Of these, only a few, all species in the g...

  2. Damage by insect pests to the Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu: detection and control

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Maistrello; Josephine D’Ilario; Gautier Bicheron; Christophe Bouleau

    2011-01-01

    The Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu (Mali) is one of the most significant earthen construction in West Africa. Originally constructed in 1327, it was included in 1988 on the World Heritage UNESCO List for its unique architecture and historical importance. During its restoration, recently undertaken by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, the wooden parts of the roof and architraves showed clear signs of threatening insect presence. In order to identify the pests responsible of the damage, evaluat...

  3. Evaluation of Plant Extracts from Illicium verum for the Control of Museum Insect Pest Demestes maculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    To assess the insecticidal activity of extracts from Illicium verum against museum insect pest Demestes maculates, mortalities of its larvae and adults under different dose or treatment time were investigated by bioassay methods. Results showed that both extracts (anise oil and (E)-anethole) were highly toxic to both life stages (larvae and adults) of D. maculatus. Furthermore, the insecticidal activity was dependent upon both dose and exposure time. With the increasing of the dose level and ...

  4. Essential oil formulations useful as a new tool for insect pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Mario D. L.; Sanna-Passino, Giovanni; Demontis, Stefania; Bazzoni, Emanuela

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of some essential oils onLimantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae, gypsy moth) larvae, one of the most serious pests of cork oak forests. The essential oils were first formulated as oil in water (o/w) emulsions and used in laboratory bioassays to assess their lethal concentration (LC50). Microcapsules containing the most promising, oils (Rosmarinus officinalis andThymus herba-barona) were then prepared by a phase separation process, followed by freeze-dry...

  5. Investigating levels of ICT access and confidence by Wheat Planters in Hamedan Province for (Eurygaster integriceps) Sunn Pest Management and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmatullah Saadi

    2006-01-01

    Varying forms of ICT is used nowadays to disseminate information and innovations among farmers. The present study investigates the level of access and confidence in various information and communication technologies with respect to pest control (e.g. Sunn Pest). A survey was performed over wheat farmers in Hamedan Province. 203 farmers where selected using multi-level, multi-step sampling. The required data was collected using a questionnaire composed of 35 open and two closed questions. Fin...

  6. Assessing the efficacy of spray-delivered 'eco-friendly' chemicals for the control and eradication of marine fouling pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Richard F; Dunmore, Robyn A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2010-01-01

    Despite its frequent use in terrestrial and freshwater systems, there is a lack of published experimental research examining the effectiveness of spray-delivered chemicals for the management of non-indigenous and/or unwanted pests in marine habitats. This study tested the efficacy of spraying acetic acid, hydrated lime and sodium hypochlorite for the control of marine fouling assemblages. The chemicals are considered relatively 'eco-friendly' due to their low toxicity and reduced environmental persistence compared to synthetic biocides, and they were effective in controlling a wide range of organisms. Pilot trials highlighted acetic acid as the most effective chemical at removing fouling cover, therefore it was selected for more comprehensive full-scale trials. A single spray of 5% acetic acid with an exposure time of 1 min effectively removed up to 55% of the invertebrate species present and 65% of the cover on fouled experimental plates, while one application of 10% acetic acid over 30 min removed up to 78% of species present and 95% of cover. Single-spray treatments of 5% acetic acid reduced cover of the tunicate pest species Didemnum vexillum by up to 100% depending on the exposure duration, while repeat-spraying ensured that even short exposure times (1 min) achieved approximately 99% mortality. Both 5 and 10% acetic acid solutions appeared equally effective at removing the majority of algal species. This technique could be used for controlling the introduction of unwanted species or preventing the spread of pests, and is applicable to use on a variety of natural and artificial substrata, or for the treatment of structures that can be removed from the water. PMID:19937489

  7. Biological control component [Management of water hyacinth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both chemical and biological control have been used with limited success for the management of water hyacinth in Fiji. In some cases heavy application of chemicals have been successful in completely killing limited areas of water hyacinth, but have resulted in the destruction of biological agents introduced to control the water hyacinth and high contamination of natural water supplies. It is proposed that under the direction of Mr S R Singh, the Senior Research Scientist (Entomology) of the Koronivia Research Station, Suva, Fiji, a collaborative programme with Dr Harley of Australia on chemical and biological control of water hyacinth be initiated. This programme would be fundamentally short-term with the prime objective being an investigation of levels of insect population following varying levels of application of chemical sprays. By comparison with control areas, observations would be made of both chemical damage and insect damage within the limited time span of the period

  8. Biological control component [Management of water hyacinth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, K.L.S

    1981-11-15

    Both chemical and biological control have been used with limited success for the management of water hyacinth in Fiji. In some cases heavy application of chemicals have been successful in completely killing limited areas of water hyacinth, but have resulted in the destruction of biological agents introduced to control the water hyacinth and high contamination of natural water supplies. It is proposed that under the direction of Mr S R Singh, the Senior Research Scientist (Entomology) of the Koronivia Research Station, Suva, Fiji, a collaborative programme with Dr Harley of Australia on chemical and biological control of water hyacinth be initiated. This programme would be fundamentally short-term with the prime objective being an investigation of levels of insect population following varying levels of application of chemical sprays. By comparison with control areas, observations would be made of both chemical damage and insect damage within the limited time span of the period.

  9. Estimated crop loss due to coconut mite and financial analysis of controlling the pest using the acaricide abamectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Daniela; Melo, José W S; Oliveira, José E M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the losses caused by Aceria guerreronis Keifer has been an arduous task for farmers. However, there are no detailed studies on losses that simultaneously analyse correlated parameters, and very few studies that address the economic viability of chemical control, the main strategy for managing this pest. In this study the objectives were (1) to estimate the crop loss due to coconut mite and (2) to perform a financial analysis of acaricide application to control the pest. For this, the following parameters were evaluated: number and weight of fruits, liquid albumen volume, and market destination of plants with and without monthly abamectin spraying (three harvests). The costs involved in the chemical control of A. guerreronis were also quantified. Higher A. guerreronis incidence on plants resulted in a 60 % decrease in the mean number of fruits harvested per bunch and a 28 % decrease in liquid albumen volume. Mean fruit weight remained unaffected. The market destination of the harvested fruit was also affected by higher A. guerreronis incidence. Untreated plants, with higher A. guerreronis infestation intensity, produced a lower proportion of fruit intended for fresh market and higher proportions of non-marketable fruit and fruit intended for industrial processing. Despite the costs involved in controlling A. guerreronis, the difference between the profit from the treated site and the untreated site was 18,123.50 Brazilian Real; this value represents 69.1 % higher profit at the treated site. PMID:27059867

  10. The use of carbon dioxide in big bags and containers for the control of pest in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pons, M. J.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Modified atmospheres (MA based on high carbon dioxide (CO₂ contents offer an alternative to synthetic chemical fumigation for insect pest control in food commodities during storage and shipment processes. The present study aimed to establish the efficacy of using CO₂ in big bags and containers to prevent pests’ development. Four trials were conducted with gastight big bags (900 x 900 x 1000 or 1600 cm. Two of these trials were conducted with polished rice and samples of Sitophilus oryzae, one trial with chamomile infested with Lasioderma serricorne and one trial with cocoa and samples of Tribolium confusum and Ephestia kuehniella. Initial contents of CO₂ were higher than 75%, which decreased depending on exposure time (13 to 90 d and food product. In all four trials the insects present in the infested samples were controlled with the MA. An additional trial was conducted in a 9 m container containing dried herbs in boxes, big bags and other packaging formats. Twelve infested samples of L. serricorne and Plodia interpunctella were distributed uniformly at the bottom and top of the container. A concentration between 70% and 15% CO₂ was maintained for an exposure time of 18 d. In spite of the decrease in CO₂ content, the treatment was also effective to control all insects present in the samples. Our results confirmed that CO₂ could be applied to food products during the storage in big bags and containers to control the occurrence of pests.

  11. Maize benefits the predatory beetle, Propylea japonica (Thunberg, to provide potential to enhance biological control for aphids in cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Ouyang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological control provided by natural enemies play an important role in integrated pest management. Generalist insect predators provide an important biological service in the regulation of agricultural insect pests. Our goal is to understand the explicit process of oviposition preference, habitat selection and feeding behavior of predators in farmland ecosystem consisting of multiple crops, which is central to devising and delivering an integrated pest management program. METHODOLOGY: The hypotheses was that maize can serve as habitat for natural enemies and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for pest insects in cotton. This explicit process of a predatory beetle, Propylea japonica, in agricultural ecosystem composed of cotton and maize were examined by field investigation and stable carbon isotope analysis during 2008-2010. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Field investigation showed that P. japonica adults will search host plants for high prey abundance before laying eggs, indicating indirectly that P. japonica adults prefer to inhabit maize plants and travel to cotton plants to actively prey on aphids. The δ(13C values of adult P. japonica in a dietary shift experiment found that individual beetles were shifting from a C(3- to a C(4-based diet of aphids reared on maize or cotton, respectively, and began to reflect the isotope ratio of their new C(4 resources within one week. Approximately 80-100% of the diet of P. japonica adults in maize originated from a C(3-based resource in June, July and August, while approximately 80% of the diet originated from a C(4-based resource in September. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Results suggest that maize can serve as a habitat or refuge source for the predatory beetle, P. japonica, and benefits predators to provide potential to enhance biological control for insect pests in cotton.

  12. Global stability and optimisation of a general impulsive biological control model

    CERN Document Server

    Mailleret, Ludovic

    2008-01-01

    An impulsive model of augmentative biological control consisting of a general continuous predator-prey model in ordinary differential equations augmented by a discrete part describing periodic introductions of predators is considered. It is shown that there exists an invariant periodic solution that corresponds to prey eradication and a condition ensuring its global asymptotic stability is given. An optimisation problem related to the preemptive use of augmentative biological control is then considered. It is assumed that the per time unit budget of biological control (i.e. the number of predators to be released) is fixed and the best deployment of this budget is sought after in terms of release frequency. The cost function to be minimised is the time taken to reduce an unforeseen prey (pest) invasion under some harmless level. The analysis shows that the optimisation problem admits a countable infinite number of solutions. An argumentation considering the required robustness of the optimisation result is the...

  13. A Manual of Mosquito Control Projects and Committee Assignments for 4-H and Scouts Biology Class Projects, Organized Community Service Programs, and Individuals Interested in Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Richard A.

    The mosquito control projects presented in this manual were prepared from an educational viewpoint and are intended for use by students in 4-H and Scouts and as a supplement to high school and college biology course work. The major emphasis of the projects is on integrated pest management, an approach utilizing cost-effective control methods which…

  14. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Li

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st to 5(th instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl into the 4(th instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3% after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (P<0.05. About 80% of the surviving insects in the siRNA-treated group of five genes (PGCP, chitinase1, tubulin1, tubulin2 and helicase showed retarded development. In chitinase1-siRNA and chitinase7-siRNA administered groups, 12.5% survivors exhibited "half-ecdysis". In arf1-siRNA and arf2-siRNA groups, the body color of 15% became black 48 h after injections. In summary, the transcriptome could be a valuable genetic resource for identification of genes in S. exigua and this study provided putative targets for RNAi pest

  15. From the ancient times of the agriculture to the biological control in plants: a little of the history

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Margareth Zamboni Pinotti; Julio Cesar Pires Santos

    2013-01-01

    The advancement of technology in agriculture driven by the need to increase efficiency in production transformed agriculture in an eminently anti-ecological activity, with large-scale use of industrialized products. Human beans still live the paradigm of agriculture based on the use of chemical inputs, which often brings harmful consequences to the environment. As an alternative to u the use of pesticides to control pests and diseases, biological control is a practice that has been increasing...

  16. 东源县水稻主要病虫害综合防治技术规程%Integrated Control Technical Specification for Rice Diseases and Insect Pests in Dongyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红梅; 罗伟景

    2012-01-01

    Analyzed the occurrence regularity and characteristics of rice diseases and insect pests in Dongyuan County, and explored a set of agriculture, physical, biological, chemical control measures of rice diseases and insect pests which was recommended to peasants in Dongyuan, all the measures can promote high efficiency and low toxicity application technology extension.%通过近年来东源县水稻常见病虫害的发生规律及其特性.摸索出一套适宜在东源县推广的几种水稻主要病虫害的农业、物理、生物、化学防治措施,以推广高效、低毒应用技术。

  17. Modern Stored-Product Insect Pest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Hagstrum David William; Flinn Paul Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Stored-product entomologists have a variety of new monitoring, decision-making, biological, chemical, and physical pest management tools available to them. Two types of stored-product insect populations are of interest: insects of immediate economic importance infesting commodities, and insects that live in food residues in equipment and facilities. The sampling and control methods change as grain and grain products move from field to consumer. There are also some changes in the major insect ...

  18. Trophic Interactions Within a Parasitoid Guild (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) From Pakistan in the Context of Asian Citrus Psyllid Classical Biological Control in California

    OpenAIRE

    Bistline East, Allison Joy

    2015-01-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (ACP) (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an important agricultural pest of citrus that was recently introduced into California in 2008. The initial response focused on controlling ACP with pesticides, however these efforts were discontinued in favor of a classical biological control program utilizing Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) and Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, and Agarwal). As a part of this biological control program, D. aligarhensis underwent non-target safe...

  19. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  20. The novel ABC transporter ABCH1 is a potential target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests cause serious crop damage and develop high-level resistance to chemical insecticides and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry toxins. A new promising approach for controlling them and overcoming this resistance is RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi-based insect control strategy depends on the selection of suitable target genes. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel ABC transporter gene PxABCH1 in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PxABCH1 is closely related to ABCA and ABCG subfamily members. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that PxABCH1 was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in head and male adult. Midgut sequence variation and expression analyses of PxABCH1 in all the susceptible and Bt-resistant P. xylostella strains and the functional analysis by sublethal RNAi demonstrated that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of this gene. Silencing of PxABCH1 by a relatively high dose of dsRNA dramatically reduced its expression and resulted in larval and pupal lethal phenotypes in both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains. To our knowledge, this study provides the first insight into ABCH1 in lepidopterans and reveals it as an excellent target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management. PMID:26333918