WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological opinions issued

  1. Scientific Opinion on Risk Assessment of Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michelle M; Vermeire, Theo

    2016-08-01

    In 2013, three Scientific Committees of the European Commission (EC) drafted Scientific Opinions on synthetic biology that provide an operational definition and address risk assessment methodology, safety aspects, environmental risks, knowledge gaps, and research priorities. These Opinions contribute to the international discussions on the risk governance for synthetic biology developments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethical Issues in Expert Opinions and Testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Roger O.

    2000-01-01

    This article provides an overview of ethical issues in private for-profit practice, with particular focus on expert testimony, using examples from a sample of claims filed with the National Association of Rehabilitation Professionals in the Private Sector and malpractice insurance companies. Complaints most frequently involve issues related to…

  3. The Copyright Controversy: Issues and Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Stella, Ed.; Stillman, Mary E., Ed.

    1972-01-01

    The edited transcript of the Copyright Panel at the 9th Information Retrieval Colloquium is presented. In addition to the panel presentation and audience discussion, this issue carries, as appendix material, some of the documents which sparked much of the current copyright debate. (Author/NH)

  4. To issue or not to issue a going concern opinion : A study of factors and incentives influencing auditors’ ability and decision to issue going concern opinions

    OpenAIRE

    Nordholm, Elin; Björkstrand, Anette

    2014-01-01

    If auditors question a company’s ability to continue existing, they should issue a going concern opinion in the audit report. Whether or not auditors will issue a going concern opinion depends on auditors’ ability to identify going concern problems, as well as their decision whether or not to issue going concern opinions. In Sweden, the going concern accuracy rate has been low compared to other countries. The aim of this study is therefore to analyse whether it is auditors’ lack of ability to...

  5. 42 CFR 411.380 - When CMS issues a formal advisory opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When CMS issues a formal advisory opinion. 411.380... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.380 When CMS issues a formal advisory opinion. (a) CMS considers an advisory opinion to be issued once it has received payment...

  6. Contemporary issues in evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We are delighted to bring to the readers, a set of peer-reviewed papers on evolutionary biology, published as a special issue of the Journal of Genetics. These papers emanated from ruminations upon and discussions at the Foundations of. Evolutionary Theory: the Ongoing Synthesis meeting at Coorg, India, in February ...

  7. Tritium in the environment. The IRSN's opinion on key issues and on research and development perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report states the opinion of the IRSN on issues related to the behaviour of tritium in the environment, and to the associated risks. This report is based on a set of studies and researches performed on this radionuclide. Thus, the authors address the status of knowledge on the evolution of tritium released by nuclear activities (measurement techniques), the risk of bioaccumulation of tritium by living organisms within ecosystems (behaviour of tritium in the atmosphere, in soils, in ground plants, in continental and sea aquatic media), and the knowledge of risks due to tritium absorbed by living organisms (dose assessment, knowledge of tritium harmful effects and relative biological effectiveness)

  8. Current and Emerging Ethical Issues in Counseling: A Delphi Study of Expert Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Barbara; Dufrene, Roxane L.

    2011-01-01

    A Delphi study was conducted to ascertain the opinions of panel experts regarding the most important current and emerging ethical issues facing the counseling profession. Expert opinions on ethical issues in counselor preparation also were sought. Eighteen panelists responded to 3 rounds of data collection interspersed with feedback. Themes that…

  9. Issues in Biological Shape Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilger, Klaus Baggesen

    This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape or appear......This talk reflects parts of the current research at informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations, modifications, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape...

  10. Contemporary issues in evolutionary biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These discussions included, among others, the possible consequences of nonDNA-based inheritance—epigenetics and cultural evolution, niche construction, and developmental mechanisms on our understanding of the evolutionary process, speciation, complexity in biology, and constructing a formal evolutionary theory.

  11. Issue-Relevant Values and Opinions About Gay Rights: Beyond Equality and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodebeck, Laurie

    2018-01-01

    Although many studies have examined the role of values in shaping public opinion, the number of values that inform this research is limited. This article employs the concept of issue-relevant values as a means to explore the broader range of values associated with policy issues. After discussing the concept in general terms, the article explores issue-relevant values pertinent to public opinion about gay rights. Using the policy examples of employment nondiscrimination and same-sex couple adoption, the present study identifies, measures, and assesses several values that add to the very short list previously used to explain public opinion about gay rights issues. Content from interest-group Web sites and news media coverage of the two issues aided in identifying the values. Data from an original Internet survey yield valid measures of the values. Multivariate analyses indicate that the values behave in predictable ways: they are strongly influenced by partisanship, and they strongly affect opinions about the two issues. The performance of the values is consistent with findings from previous research on the partisan basis of values and the value-based nature of opinions. The article concludes with suggestions for further empirical and theoretical work that could apply and extend the concept of issue-relevant values.

  12. Expert Opinions on Nutrition Issues in Clinical Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Carole A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A survey of 79 experts in dental nutrition sought consensus on the appropriate scope of nutrition in clinical dentistry. Results support the need for greater attention to nutrition issues in dental schools and better models for nutrition interventions in dental practice. (Author/MSE)

  13. The Opinions of Middle School Mathematics Teachers on the Integration of Mathematics Course and Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan Turkkan, Buket; Karakus, Memet

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the opinions of middle school mathematics teachers on the integration of mathematics course and social issues. For this purpose, qualitative research method was used in this study. As for determining the participants of the research, criterion sampling among purposeful sampling methods was used. Being a…

  14. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4 th International BCI conference, which took place in May-June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents' opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, we assessed respondents' expectations on the marketability of different BCI applications (BCIs for healthy people, BCIs for assistive technology, BCIs-controlled neuroprostheses and BCIs as therapy tools). Third, we investigated opinions about ethical issues related to BCI research for the development of assistive technology: informed consent process with locked-in patients, risk-benefit analyses, team responsibility, consequences of BCI on patients' and families' lives, liability and personal identity and interaction with the media. Finally, we asked respondents which issues are urgent in BCI research.

  15. Backlash or a Positive Response?: Public Opinion of LGB Issues After Obergefell v. Hodges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazyak, Emily; Stange, Mathew

    2018-01-10

    Following Obergefell v. Hodges, same-sex marriage remains controversial and anti-LGBT state legislation has been passed, which raises questions about whether the Supreme Court's ruling may have created a backlash. We use data from two waves of a general population survey of Nebraskans conducted before and after the decision to answer three questions. First, we test three theories of how the court decision influenced public opinion. We find that support for same-sex marriage was significantly higher following the ruling, suggesting that there was not a backlash to it. Second, we assess whether people perceive that the court accurately reflects the public's opinion. We find that people who favor same-sex marriage are more likely to think that the ruling refects public opinion very well; those who oppose same-sex marriage are more likely to think that the ruling does not at all reflect public opinion. Third, we examine the association between discussing gay rights and support for same-sex marriage, finding that those who talk about LGB issues very often are more likely to favor same-sex marriage. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to two of the themes of this special issue: the influence of marriage equality on Americans' understandings of marriage and the impact of marriage equality on future LGBT activism.

  16. Analysis of opinions issued in comment letters on the term prudence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ranieri Bomfim Sampaio de Araújo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2001, the International Accounting Standards Board (Iasb has worked to revise the Conceptual Framework (CF. Therefore, it has issued Discussion papers (DP, aiming to collect the stakeholders’ opinions about different aspects of the CF. One of the aspects discussed is the inclusion or not of Prudence in the CF. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the opinions issued in the comment letters in response to the DPs between 2006 and 2013 about the exclusion of the term Prudence from the CF. The research was undertaken through the content analysis of 420 comment letters forwarded to the Iasb, among which 176 were identified that contain the terms Prudence/Conservatism, 117 of which are in favor of including the term. Among those against the inclusion, the main justification is the existence of conflict between Prudence and neutrality. The respondents’ opinions were also separated per location and interest groups, showing that the European respondents are more favorable to the inclusion of the term, while Anglo-Saxon America defends it least. What the interest groups is concerned, the group that was most in favor of the insertion of the term were the Preparers, while the Financial Institutions were the most unfavorable agents. Using Kappa Analysis, it was observed that the level of agreement among the respondents’ opinions indicates weak agreement with the total number of samples, suggesting that further debate and reflection on the theme is needed.

  17. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders? Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    OpenAIRE

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Haselager, Pim

    2011-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place in May–June 2010 in Asilomar, California. We assessed respondents’ opinions about a number of topics. First, we investigated preferences for terminology and definitions relating to BCIs. Second, w...

  18. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2010: series of public opinion surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dagmar; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Benkovic, Vanesa

    2011-10-15

    To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking.

  19. Health care issues in Croatian elections 2005-2009: series of public opinion surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dagmar; Džakula, Aleksandar; Benković, Vanesa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare the results of a series of public opinion surveys on experiences with the health care sector in Croatia conducted in the time of elections and to analyze whether political party affiliation had any influence on issues of priority ranking. Methods The surveys were conducted during 2005, 2007, and 2009. They were administered through a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing method to representative samples of Croatian population and were statistically weighted according to sex, age, level of education, and political party affiliation. The random sampling of the person within the household was done using the table of random numbers. Results Health and health care system was the most important issue (58%) during the 2007 parliamentary election and the second most important issue during the 2005 and 2009 elections (46% and 28%). In the 2007 election, health care was viewed as most important by women, respondents with lower education levels, and respondents with lower income. In 2005, the most important health care issues were corruption and lack of funding (45% and 43%, respectively), in 2007 poor organization and lack of funding (43% and 42%, respectively), and in 2009 lack of funding and corruption (51% and 45%, respectively). Conclusion Health and health care system were consistently among the top two issues in all elections from 2005 to 2009. The top three most important health care sector issues were corruption, poor organization, and lack of funding. This indicates that political parties should include solutions to these issues in their health care policymaking. PMID:21990075

  20. The Opinions of Middle School Mathematics Teachers on the Integration of Mathematics Course and Social Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Turhan Turkkan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the opinions of middle school mathematics teachers on the integration of mathematics course and social issues. For this purpose, qualitative research method was used in this study. As for determining the participants of the research, criterion sampling among purposeful sampling methods was used. Being a middle school mathematics teacher as an occupation was considered as a criterion for determining the participants. The participants of the research consist of 13 middle school mathematics teachers in Turkey. So as to collect the research data, the semi-structured interview form created by the researchers was used. The data analysis was performed according to the content analysis, and Nvivo 10 program was used for the analysis. As a result of this study, the themes of the situation and methods of the integration of mathematics course and social issues, the attainment of democratic values in mathematics course and the ways of its attainment, gaining awareness of social justice and equality in mathematics course and the ways of its gaining, the activities performed by teachers for social issues in mathematics course and the teachers’ suggestions for the integration of mathematics course and social issues were reached and the results were discussed within this frame.

  1. Secondary School Students' Knowledge and Opinions on Astrobiology Topics and Related Social Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreiro, Raquel; Solbes, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin of life on Earth and the distribution of life in the Universe. Its multidisciplinary approach, social and philosophical implications, and appeal within the discipline and beyond make astrobiology a uniquely qualified subject for general science education. In this study, student knowledge and opinions on astrobiology topics were investigated. Eighty-nine students in their last year of compulsory education (age 15) completed a written questionnaire that consisted of 10 open questions on the topic of astrobiology. The results indicate that students have significant difficulties understanding the origin of life on Earth, despite exposure to the topic by way of the assigned textbooks. The students were often unaware of past or present achievements in the search for life within the Solar System and beyond, topics that are far less commonly seen in textbooks. Student questionnaire answers also indicated that students had problems in reasoning and critical thinking when asked for their opinions on issues such as the potential for life beyond Earth, the question of whether UFOs exist, or what our place is in the Universe. Astrobiology might help initiate student awareness as to current thinking on these matters and should be considered for general science education.

  2. Secondary School Students' Knowledge and Opinions on Astrobiology Topics and Related Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreiro, Raquel; Solbes, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin of life on Earth and the distribution of life in the Universe. Its multidisciplinary approach, social and philosophical implications, and appeal within the discipline and beyond make astrobiology a uniquely qualified subject for general science education. In this study, student knowledge and opinions on astrobiology topics were investigated. Eighty-nine students in their last year of compulsory education (age 15) completed a written questionnaire that consisted of 10 open questions on the topic of astrobiology. The results indicate that students have significant difficulties understanding the origin of life on Earth, despite exposure to the topic by way of the assigned textbooks. The students were often unaware of past or present achievements in the search for life within the Solar System and beyond, topics that are far less commonly seen in textbooks. Student questionnaire answers also indicated that students had problems in reasoning and critical thinking when asked for their opinions on issues such as the potential for life beyond Earth, the question of whether UFOs exist, or what our place is in the Universe. Astrobiology might help initiate student awareness as to current thinking on these matters and should be considered for general science education. Key Words: Astrobiology-Students' views-Science education. Astrobiology 17, 91-99.

  3. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on Composting on-farm of dead poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    EFSA’s Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) was asked for a scientific opinion on two alternative methods for processing Category (Cat) 2 Animal By-Products (ABP). The material to be treated consists of poultry manure, straw and dead-on-farm poultry; this implies that the animals died...... due to a disease, which in most cases was not properly diagnosed. The proposed processes are composting methods to be used on-farm. The first method is a continuous open system where composting is done under roof in piles separated by wooden partition walls. The piles are processed without enforced...

  4. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on On-site treatment of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    EFSA’s Scientific Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ) was asked for a scientific opinion on an alternative method for processing Category (Cat) 2 Animal By-Products (ABP). The materials to be treated are placentas and fallen pigs; this implies that the animals died due to a disease, which in most...... of the animals’ death, the presence of more resistant hazards cannot be considered negligible. The sterilisation process defined in the current legislation is able to minimise the risks due to unidentified agents, such as Bacillus anthracis and TSE agents. The BIOHAZ Panel concluded that the process proposed...

  5. Animal Experimentation: Bringing Ethical Issues into Biology Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooy, Wilhelmina

    2000-01-01

    There are many possibilities for the use of controversial issues such as animal experimentation in biology classrooms. Outlines a series of three lessons that asked senior biology students to consider the issue of animal experimentation from three perspectives. (Author/LM)

  6. Biological Diversity. Global Issues Education Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Amy E.

    Biological diversity, also commonly called genetic diversity, refers to the variety of organisms on Earth. Scientists are concerned that many species will become extinct because of extensive development in the tropical regions. This packet is designed to increase student's awareness about direct and indirect causes of extinction, endangered…

  7. Attitudinal, behavioral, and biological outcomes of a community popular opinion leader intervention in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wen, Yi; Wu, Zunyou

    2011-10-01

    The effects of a community popular opinion leader (CPOL) intervention were examined among market vendors in a city on the eastern coast of China. Employees of 40 food markets were enrolled in a study that provided HIV-related education and tests, and treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Twenty markets were randomly assigned to a CPOL intervention (N = 1,695) and 20 markets to a control condition (N = 1,616). Market employees in the intervention condition reported positive attitudes regarding STD/HIV prevention and more frequent discussions about safe sex than those in the control condition. Compared with baseline, the prevalence of unprotected sexual acts and new STDs were significantly lower within each study condition 24 months later. Although the CPOL intervention achieved its goal of shifting attitudes within food markets, the gains did not lead to the expected behavioral and biological outcomes.

  8. BIOLOGY STUDENTS’ TEACHER OPINIONS ABOUT THE INTEGRATION OF ICT INTO THE LEARNING AND TEACHING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Špernjak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biology laboratory work can be performed in various ways, even using information and communication technologies (ICT. Whether a teacher incorporates it into laboratory work is related to different factors, but educators can influence students’ beliefs about the value of ICT through their pedagogical practice. In our study, student teachers of biology gave opinions on how successfully university professors use ICT in the classroom, where they acquired most knowledge about ICT and their attitude towards using of ICT in laboratory work. Student teachers were critical about the knowledge and usage of ICT of university professors in class. During their student teachers mostly failed to acquire knowledge about ICT and practice in incorporating it into daily routines. These results will be presented to our university professors, at which time we will suggest how they could use ICT more effectively in daily practice because, on the one hand, they are responsible for students teacher attitudes and for the level of student teacher knowledge, while, on the others, they precipitate indirectly in forming the pupils’ attitudes and determining the level of the pupils’ knowledge of ICT. The study was done on 85 student teachers of biology. Attitudes toward ICT are statistically significant by gender.

  9. 77 FR 34350 - November 2010 Biological Opinion on the Effects of the Alaska Groundfish Fisheries on Steller Sea...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... 2010 Biological Opinion on the Effects of the Alaska Groundfish Fisheries on Steller Sea Lions and... the Alaska groundfish fisheries on Steller sea lions and other endangered species (Final Biop). The... for fish and marine mammals. The structure and operation of the CIE are designed to ensure the quality...

  10. A Survey of First-Year Biology Student Opinions Regarding Live Lectures and Recorded Lectures as Learning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, D. C.; Chua, W. H.; Hekman, M.; Levin, M. T.; Brown, S.

    2017-01-01

    A cohort of first-year biology students was surveyed regarding their opinions and viewing habits for live and recorded lectures. Most respondents (87%) attended live lectures as a rule (attenders), with 66% attending more than two-thirds of the lectures. In contrast, only 52% accessed recordings and only 13% viewed more than two-thirds of the…

  11. A survey on the public opinion regarding nuclear power and energy issues in Fukui prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko; Tsuchiya, Tomoko

    2007-01-01

    To 2000 people who were randomly sampled from the basic register of residents in Fukui prefecture, we conducted a questionnaire survey asking their interest in, knowledge of and attitude toward nuclear power, to analyze which perceptions and opinions they had and factors influencing them. The ratios of respondents in Fukui prefecture who think nuclear power is safe, necessary, and should be developed more, are higher than those of surveyed residents who live in other regions where nuclear power plants had been in operation. Differences in gender and age are nearly the same as those found in the nation-wide surveys has shown. The respondents in 'Tsuruga' region, one of the centers of nuclear power research and development, are more acceptive and affirmative to the nuclear power than those in other regions, although they have less knowledge and credibility for nuclear power safety measures, such as regulation and monitoring by government, countermeasure of earthquake, training of workers and so on. We analyzed the perception of risk and the sense of security for nuclear power, and the opinions for necessity and development of nuclear power, using a regression model. According to the estimated 'Tsuruga' model, risk perception of Tsuruga respondents does not affect their opinion if nuclear power should be developed. No influence of the risk perception on their opinion for nuclear power suggest a possibility that residents have strong trust in nuclear power technology and electric power companies based on their long term experience. (author)

  12. Public opinion on environmental and energy issues. Result of the census after 3 years of the Great East Japan Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugi, Motoko

    2014-01-01

    The public opinion on the energy and environmental issues has changed greatly in Japan through experiences in and along the Great East Japan Earthquake. We conducted a social survey in order to grasp public opinions for environment and energy issues in March, 2014, which obtained 2313 valid responses (response rate was 64.3%). For the energy and environmental issues, while respondents show high interests in matters related to the Fukushima accident and nuclear power generation as well as electricity prices, they show relatively low interest in every other aspect. With regard to Japan's energy policy in the future, as expectations for renewable and natural sources of energy are large, about 60% of respondents have negative attitude in restart of nuclear power. For nuclear power, as compared to the previous survey conducted in August 2008, evaluation of 'control-ability of environmental impacts' and 'the power companies' risk management ability' was greatly reduced in particular. These results suggest the importance of provoke interest in the energy issues in general, as a premise to seek an understanding of the activities of the government and power companies. Furthermore, in order for the power companies to restore trust from the public, it is important to sympathize to public's anticipations of impacts on the health and environment through uses of nuclear power in the future. (author)

  13. Secondary School Students' Knowledge and Opinions on Astrobiology Topics and Related Social Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Oreiro Rey, Raquel; Solbes Matarredona, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin of life on Earth and the distribution of life in the Universe. Its multidisciplinary approach, social and philosophical implications, and appeal within the discipline and beyond make astrobiology a uniquely qualified subject for general science education. In this study, student knowledge and opinions on astrobiology topics were investigated. Eighty-nine students in their last year of compulsory education (age 15) completed a written questionnaire that c...

  14. The admissibility of offender profiling in courtroom: a review of legal issues and court opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Dario; Zappalà, Angelo; Santtila, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    What is the future of Offender Profiling? Is it an important field of forensic science or is it only a glamorous art? After the trilogy "Daubert-Joiner-Kumho" and after the last version, in 2009, of the Federal Rules of Evidence (F.R.E.), the opinion of American Courts concerning the admissibility of scientific evidence has changed, and the questions above can now have new answers. The change is closely tied to the perceived difference between hard and soft sciences and, in this way, the new gatekeeping role of the Courts also concerns whether offender profiling can be regarded as scientific evidence and if offender profiling should be admitted in the Courtroom as scientific evidence. In this work we present a comprehensive review concerning the most important Court opinions in U.S.A, U.K., Canada and Australia, about reliability and admissibility of offender profiling, in its different forensic application, as scientific evidence, and we suggest how and when an expert witness in the field of offender profiling can, in the light of these opinions, be admitted in Court.

  15. A Rasch analysis of patients' opinions of primary health care professionals' ethical behaviour with respect to communication issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-de Paz, Luis; Kostov, Belchin; López-Pina, Jose A; Solans-Julián, Pilar; Navarro-Rubio, M Dolors; Sisó-Almirall, Antoni

    2015-04-01

    Patients' opinions are crucial in assessing the effectiveness of the ethical theories which underlie the care relationship between patients and primary health care professionals. To study the ethical behaviour of primary health care professionals with respect to communication issues according to patients' opinions. Cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire in patients from a network of 15 urban primary health centres. Participants were patients attended at the centres when the study was conducted. We used a Rasch analysis to verify the structure of the 17 questionnaire items, and to calculate interval level measures for patients and items. We analysed differences according to patient subgroups using analysis of variance tests and differences between the endorsement of each item. We analysed 1013 (70.34%) of questionnaires. Data fit to the Rasch model was achieved after collapsing two categories and eliminating five items. Items with the lowest degree of endorsement were related to the management of differences in conflictive situations between patients and health care professionals. We found significant differences (P communication skills were respected by family physicians and nurses. However, opinions on endorsement were lower when patients disagreed with health care professionals. The differences found between patient subgroups demonstrated the importance of trust and confidence between patients and professionals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Opinions of women towards cesarean delivery and priority issues of care in the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Sezer; Zeyneloğlu, Simge

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted, in order to determine the opinions of women who had a cesarean delivery and the problems that they faced in the postpartum period. This descriptive study was conducted with 337 women who delivered babies by cesarean section. The data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results of the study showed that 53.4% of women underwent cesarean delivery for the first time, and 83.1% said that it was the obstetrician's decision to have a cesarean delivery. More than half of the women (61.1%) had a negative experience with cesarean delivery due to postpartum pain (44.7%) and inability to care for their infant (35.9%). The most common problems associated with cesarean delivery were postpartum pain (96.1%), back pain (68.2%), problems passing gas (62.0%), bleeding (56.1%), breastfeeding problems (49.6%) and limitation of movement (43.6%) respectively. Understanding the the opinions and problems of women towards cesarean delivery assists healthcare professionals in identifying better ways to provide appropriate care and support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Opinions of Illinois Secondary Business Teachers Concerning Political and Socio-Economic Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene Davidson

    1975-01-01

    The results of this study point to a need for business teachers to find ways of discussing political and socio-economic issues in their classrooms and that business teacher education institutions should be certain that graduates are prepared to include these issues in the courses they teach. (Author)

  18. Opinion on the new financial products issued by financial institutions - structured products

    OpenAIRE

    Baranga Laurentiu Paul

    2017-01-01

    Structured products are financial instruments issued by a financial institution where the amount claimed by the investor from the issuer depends on the variation of the price of the underlying instrument based on which the certificate is issued, namely: individual shares, share costs, stock indexes, currencies, commodities or combinations of these according to the prospectus. These products appeared with the development and diversification of financial services during the recent years, as wel...

  19. Oversight of High-Containment Biological Laboratories: Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-04

    Laboratories: Issues for Congress Congressional Research Service 14 Industry and Non-Profit Laboratories Private sector companies and non-profit...resources for these endeavors. Whether public or private sector , high-containment laboratories are planned and designed to minimize the possibility of... equine encephalitis, and yellow fever. Some of the pathogens that cause these diseases have been considered as biological weapons.104 Expanding the number

  20. Altruistic Surrogacy – Ethical Issues and Demographic Differences in Public Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krastev R.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This is the first study of the attitude of Bulgarian people towards the allowing of altruistic surrogacy which is prohibited in Bulgaria. This study used an online survey which was active during one year (July 2010-June 2011 and which was answered by 951 respondents between 18-65 years of age. The majority of them (87% are young people between 18-43 years. The respondents are men and women with secondary, university and medical university education from the capital and the countryside. They have different marital status. The data were treated with statistical package SPSS 16. The link between the demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, marital status and place of residence and the answers of the respondents was identified. The majority of the respondents (73% think that the altruistic surrogacy must be allowed in Bulgaria and the main supporters are the women and the residents in the countryside – married or living with partner. Only 38% of the respondents mostly divorced middle aged persons accept the access of same sex couples to surrogacy. The majority of the respondents (53% fear that the surrogacy may transform poor women into incubators for babies. This opinion is shared by the men, by the youngest and the oldest respondents and by the unmarried persons.

  1. Opinion on the new financial products issued by financial institutions - structured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranga Laurentiu Paul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Structured products are financial instruments issued by a financial institution where the amount claimed by the investor from the issuer depends on the variation of the price of the underlying instrument based on which the certificate is issued, namely: individual shares, share costs, stock indexes, currencies, commodities or combinations of these according to the prospectus. These products appeared with the development and diversification of financial services during the recent years, as well as due to the emergence of liquidity suppliers of international importance. The liquidity providers have developed on their own platforms a new range of derivatives which are different from the classical derivatives. These new derivatives, similar to contracts for difference (CFDs, have given to other institutions the possibility of transferring their risk more easily, regardless of the nature or type of the underlying asset. Thus, the financial institutions issuing structured financial products have found in liquidity providers the possibility of developing the CFDs required for their risk transfer operations. The issuers of structured products do not accept new risky positions when they issue certificates because they neutralize them through suitable risk transfer operations. The issuing financial institutions structure certificates from a variety of financial assets and/or commodities in order to adjust them to the various risk profiles of investors both in terms of expected return and in terms of the response to risk. Thus, products are issued that quickly respond to the trends of the financial or commodity markets. Investors in structured financial products benefit from the economic effect of a derivative but are exposed to financial risks that are more complex and more difficult to understand and at the same time depend on the reliability and stability of the contractual relationships between various financial institutions.

  2. Bridging Water Issue Knowledge Gaps between the General Public and Opinion Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Carter, Hannah S.

    2015-01-01

    Global conflicts have rapidly made water the most contentious issue in the world today. Considering water drives health, industry, recreation, and the agricultural food system it is no surprise that it has become such a hot topic. As a result, the general public has an increased interest in water-focused policy; policy that can have a large impact…

  3. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders' Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, Femke; Clausen, Jens; Allison, Brendan Z.; Haselager, Pim

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place

  4. The Asilomar Survey: Stakeholders’ Opinions on Ethical Issues Related to Brain-Computer Interfacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, F.; Clausen, J.; Allison, B.Z.; Haselager, W.F.G.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) research and (future) applications raise important ethical issues that need to be addressed to promote societal acceptance and adequate policies. Here we report on a survey we conducted among 145 BCI researchers at the 4th International BCI conference, which took place

  5. OPINION OF YOUTH ON ISSUES AND CHALLENGES RELATED TO EMPLOYMENT: A STUDY IN MYSORE CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mohan A.K

    2017-01-01

    Employment status is one of the developmental indicators of nation. For this two things are vital, one is availability of employment opportunities and second is skillful workforce. Employment and skills are linked with many other social, economic and demographic factors. India is hoping to excel economically using its youth power. Hence many skill development programmes linked with employment options are being provided to youth by government and non-government agencies. However, the issue of ...

  6. Committee Opinion No. 653: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  7. Pilot opinions on high level flight deck automation issues: Toward the development of a design philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenney, Yvette J.; Rogers, William H.; Pew, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    There has been much concern in recent years about the rapid increase in automation on commercial flight decks. The survey was composed of three major sections. The first section asked pilots to rate different automation components that exist on the latest commercial aircraft regarding their obtrusiveness and the attention and effort required in using them. The second section addressed general 'automation philosophy' issues. The third section focused on issues related to levels and amount of automation. The results indicate that pilots of advanced aircraft like their automation, use it, and would welcome more automation. However, they also believe that automation has many disadvantages, especially fully autonomous automation. They want their automation to be simple and reliable and to produce predictable results. The biggest needs for higher levels of automation were in pre-flight, communication, systems management, and task management functions, planning as well as response tasks, and high workload situations. There is an irony and a challenge in the implications of these findings. On the one hand pilots would like new automation to be simple and reliable, but they need it to support the most complex part of the job--managing and planning tasks in high workload situations.

  8. Public opinion on energy development: The interplay of issue framing, top-of-mind associations, and political ideology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Christopher E.; Hart, Philip S.; Schuldt, Jonathon P.; Evensen, Darrick T.N.; Boudet, Hilary S.; Jacquet, Jeffrey B.; Stedman, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we examine framing effects regarding unconventional oil and gas extraction using hydraulic fracturing (or fracking): an issue involving considerable controversy over potential impacts as well as terminology used to describe it. Specifically, we explore how two commonly used terms to describe this issue – fracking or shale oil or gas development – serve as issue frames and influence public opinion. Extending existing research, we suggest that these frames elicit different top-of-mind associations that reflect positive or negative connotations and resonate with people's political ideology. These associations, in turn, help explain direct and indirect framing effects on support/opposition as well as whether these effects differ by political ideology. Results of a split-ballot, national U.S. survey (n=1000) reveal that people are more supportive of the energy extraction process when it is referred to as shale oil or gas development versus fracking, and this relationship is mediated by greater perceptions of benefit versus risk. Political ideology did not moderate these effects. Further analysis suggests that these findings are partly explained by the tendency to associate fracking more with negative thoughts and impacts and shale oil or gas development more with positive thoughts and impacts. However, these associations also did not vary by political ideology. We discuss implications for communicating risk regarding energy development. -- Highlights: •How an issue is presented (“framed”) influences how people perceive it. •We applied this premise to oil/gas extraction via hydraulic fracturing (fracking). •We examined two commonly used frames: fracking and shale oil or gas development. •People viewed the former less favorably irrespective of political ideology. •We discuss implications for communicating about energy development impacts

  9. Non-linear behavior of public opinion on the issues regarding inhabitants' polls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki; Suganuma, Jyun-ichi

    2003-01-01

    The observed change of public attitude around the time of inhabitants' poll in Japan was compared with model calculation to investigate its non-linear behavior. Two inhabitants' polls regarding nuclear issues, the approval and disapproval of the construction of Maki nuclear station, and of the MOX fuel use at Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear station, were considered together with the poll on the reconstruction of the tenth weir in Yoshino river carried out in Tokushima. By using a mathematical model such that the individual attitude is mainly subject to two factors of the information environment and the mutual communication between the public, it was found that the change and the unification of public attitude around the time of inhabitants' poll can be interpreted as a manifestation of self-organization resulted from the cooperative phenomenon of those two factors. Moreover, it was also found that the abrupt change of public attitude just before the poll can be interpreted as a result of positive feedback of the information environment formed by the various types of propaganda activities to the attitude change, though the extent of such non-linear effects differs from case to case. (author)

  10. Opinions about the new law on end-of-life issues in a sample of french patients receiving palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, Augustin; Chabal, Théo; Fichaux, Marie; Destandau, Mireille; La Piana, Jean Marc; Auquier, Pascal; Baumstarck, Karine; Salas, Sébastien

    2017-01-21

    In February 2nd 2016, the French government enacted the Claeys-Leonetti law that forbade euthanasia and established the right to deep and continuous sedation for end-of-life patients. Moreover, the law also obliges clinicians to abide by any advance directives regarding treatment and investigation, except in cases where they are "obviously inappropriate" in a given medical situation, or in cases of emergency, in order to allow medical staff to take time to assess the patient's situation. Artificial feeding and hydration are considered as treatment. The aim of this report is to investigate individuals receiving palliative care about their opinion about euthanasia, about advance directives, about the right to deep and continuous sedation, and the right to stopping artificial feeding and hydration. The study was an opinion survey conducted among patients treated in two different palliative care institutions: a palliative care unit at the University Hospital (Timone, Marseille, France) and a non-profit association palliative care home ("La Maison", Gardanne, France). Face-to-face interviews were performed by two investigators. The survey included sociodemographics, clinical data, and opinions about euthanasia, deep and continuous sedation, stopping artificial feeding and hydration, and advance directives. Forty patients were interviewed. The mean age was 59.8 years (standard deviation 12). Fifty three percent reported opposition to legalized euthanasia. Eighty three percent were in favour of the right to deep and continuous sedation in patients with refractory pain, 75% when it concerns a patient unable to express their wishes, and 68% when the patient decides to stop vital treatment. Fifty eight percent reported that artificial nutrition and hydration should be considered as care. Fifty eight percent of the patients interviewed would like to see doctors follow the express wishes contained in advance care directives and 53% that advance directives should be subject to

  11. Emerging issues and methodological advances in fisheries reproductive biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lowerre-Barbieri, Susan K.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Murua, Hilario

    2011-01-01

    Although incorporating detailed reproductive data into all stock assessments is not a practical goal, the need to understand how reproductive biology affects population productivity is being increasingly recognized.More research focused on reproductive biology—coupled with a shift towards...... a resilience perspective in fisheries science—is resulting in challenges to many long-held assumptions; the emergence of important new issues; and identification of the need to improve data and methods used in reproductive studies. Typically, data for reproductive studies are based on an assessment of gonadal...... while introducing improved and new histological techniques. In this introduction, we address the following needs: (1) to employ standardization, thereby improving our ability to conduct comparative studies; (2) to better understand patterns of gonadal development and spawning events over time; and (3...

  12. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Bioreduction application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    A method for on-farm containment of animal by-products (ABPs), called a ‘Bioreduction’ system, was assessed. The material for containment is of ovine origin and classified as a Category (Cat.) 1 ABP material. The proposed process consists of an aerobic degradation of the ABP material in a vented...... the risks related to pathogens such as non-spore forming bacteria and viruses. However, it is highly improbable that the risks related to more resistant biological hazards can be reduced. The application does not provide clear information about the location of the system and the origin of the material...... the risk of aerogenic transmission of biological agents and it is accessible to living vectors. Moreover, there is a risk of release of pathogens to the environment when opening the vessel. Therefore, the whole system cannot be considered as a closed system. The proposed Bioreduction method cannot...

  13. Bragg Curve, Biological Bragg Curve and Biological Issues in Space Radiation Protection with Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honglu, Wu; Cucinotta, F.A.; Durante, M.; Lin, Z.; Rusek, A.

    2006-01-01

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET gamma or X-rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged particle exposure. Since the dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply as the particle approaches the end of its range, a position known as the Bragg peak, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle traversal since biological effects are influenced by the track structure of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the biological Bragg curve is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle, and may vary for different biological endpoints. To achieve a Bragg curve distribution, we exposed cells to energetic heavy ions with the beam geometry parallel to a monolayer of fibroblasts. Qualitative analyses of gamma-H2AX fluorescence, a known marker of DSBs, indicated increased clustering of DNA damage before the Bragg peak, enhanced homogenous distribution at the peak, and provided visual evidence of high linear energy transfer (LET) particle traversal of cells beyond the Bragg peak. A quantitative biological response curve generated for micronuclei (MN) induction across the Bragg curve did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak. However, the ratio of mono-to bi-nucleated cells, which indicates inhibition in cell progression, increased at the Bragg peak location. These results, along with other biological concerns, show that space radiation protection with shielding can be a complicated issue.

  14. Evolution of approaches to viral safety issues for biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiniecki, Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) Approaches to viral safety issues for biological products have evolved during the past 50+ years. The first cell culture products (viral vaccines) relied largely on the use of in vitro and in vivo virus screening assays that were based upon infectivity of adventitious viral agents. The use of Cohn fractionation and pasteurization by manufacturers of plasma derivatives introduced the concepts that purification and treatment with physical and chemical agents could greatly reduce the risk of viral contamination of human albumin and immunoglobulin products. But the limitations of such approaches became clear for thermolabile products that were removed early in fractionation such as antihemophilic factors, which transmitted hepatitis viruses and HIV-1 to some product recipients. These successes and limitations were taken into account by the early developers of recombinant DNA (rDNA)-derived cell culture products and by regulatory agencies, leading to the utilization of cloning technology to reduce/eliminate contamination due to human viruses and purification technologies to physically remove and inactivate adventitious and endogenous viruses, along with cell banking and cell bank characterization for adventitious and endogenous viruses, viral screening of biological raw materials, and testing of cell culture harvests, to ensure virus safety. Later development and incorporation of nanofiltration technology in the manufacturing process provided additional assurance of viral clearance for safety of biotechnology products. These measures have proven very effective at preventing iatrogenic infection of recipients of biotechnology products; however, viral contamination of production cell cultures has

  15. Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Hugh

    2002-12-01

    proliferation in cells maintaining receptivity. Mathematical models describing quantitative relationships between consumption of small amounts of oestrogens in meat in addition to greater concentrations from endogenous production, chemical stoichiometry at cellular level and human pathology have not been developed. Such an approach will be necessary to establish 'molecular materiality' of the additional hormone intake as a component of relative risk assessment. The other hormones, although generally less well researched, are similarly subject to a range of tests to determine potentially adverse effects. The resulting limited international consensus relates to the application of the 'precautionary principle' and non-acceptance by the European Commission of the recommendations of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, which determined that meat from cattle, hormone-treated according to good practice, was safe for human consumers. The present review considers the hormone issue in the context of current international social methodology and regulation, recent advances in knowledge of biological activity of hormones and current status of science-based evaluation of food safety and risk for human consumers.

  16. Special Issue: International Congress of Cell Biology 2016, Prague

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stick, R.; Dráber, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, č. 3 (2017), s. 1141-1142 ISSN 0033-183X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-25159S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : cellular structures and functions, ,, , * tubulin isotypes * actin * transcription regulation * signaling pathways Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2016

  17. Lack of Evolution Acceptance Inhibits Students' Negotiation of Biology-Based Socioscientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, S. R.; Zeidler, D. L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore science content used during college students' negotiation of biology-based socioscientific issues (SSI) and examine how it related to students' conceptual understanding and acceptance of biological evolution. The Socioscientific Issues Questionnaire (SSI-Q) was developed to measure depth of evolutionary…

  18. Survey of United States Army Physician Opinion: The Issue of Written ’Do Not Resuscitate’ Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    Westminister Press, 1975), p. 176-7. 71Cushing, p. 29. 72Alexander, p. 26. 73Kevin M. McIntyre, "Mediolegal Aspects of Decision Making in Resuscitation and Life...34Physicians Opinions Toward Legislation Defining Death and Withholding Life Support," Southern Medical Journal 74 (February 1981): 215-18. 82Norman K...Louis S. Let the Patient Decide. Philadelphia: The Westminister Press, 1978. Browning, Mary H. and Lewis, Edith P. comps. The Dying Patient: A Nursing

  19. A multi-particle model applicable to social issues--time-evolution of Japanese public opinion on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    2002-01-01

    The characteristics of an interacting multi-particle system in natural sciences can form a useful model for the evolution of public attitudes and opinions, provided that each particle corresponds to one individual. A simulation model which uses a multi-particle system to represent society was developed. By using this model, the time evolution of the public attitudes to nuclear energy were investigated. The nuclear attitude of an individual was assumed to be influenced by three factors: a uniform information environment, mutual interactions between members of the public, and spontaneous recovery of the original attitude with time. Also the time-evolution of the socio-psychological position of members of the public was assumed to be given by a Langevin-type equation. Various attributes of individuals obtained by public opinion surveys together with data on the secular variation of availability of nuclear information were used as the input. By numerically solving the simultaneous differential equations for the system of a 1000 particles, the time behavior of Japanese public opinion regarding the promotion of nuclear generation was investigated. It was found from this calculation that the public aversion to nuclear energy is catastrophically aggravated with every large-scale nuclear accident, that the opinions of individual members of the public as to the value of nuclear energy were gradually attracted to a few views with time, and that the unification of such views occurred with the Chernobyl accident as a promoter. It also became clear that the public attitude at a particular time is governed by the information environment over several years immediately prior to that time

  20. Some Issues of Biological Shape Modelling with Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Skoglund, Karl

    2003-01-01

    This paper illustrates current research at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark within biological shape modelling. We illustrate a series of generalizations to, modifications to, and applications of the elements of constructing models of shape or appearance...

  1. Some Fundamental Issues of Mathematical Simulation in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzhevaikin, V. N.

    2018-02-01

    Some directions of simulation in biology leading to original formulations of mathematical problems are overviewed. Two of them are discussed in detail: the correct solvability of first-order linear equations with unbounded coefficients and the construction of a reaction-diffusion equation with nonlinear diffusion for a model of genetic wave propagation.

  2. Teaching Controversial Socio-Scientific Issues in Biology and Geology Classes: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Pedro; Galvão, Cecília

    2009-01-01

    Several educators in science have called for the inclusion of controversial socio-scientific issues’ discussion in science curricula because of its potential for creating a more real, humane image of scientific activity and for promoting scientific literacy, an essential tool for a responsible citizenship regarding decision-making processes related to socio-scientific issues. However, despite all the favourable opinions and empirical evidence concerning the educational potentia...

  3. The role of socioscientific issues in biology teaching – from the perspective of teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Tidemand, Sofie; Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has documented that students who engage with socioscientific issues can acquire some of the complex competences and skills typically related to scientific literacy. But an emerging field of research on science teachers’ understanding and use of socioscientific issues, has documented that a range of challenges hinders the uptake of socioscientific issues. In this study we investigated the interpretation and implementation of socioscientific issues among Danish biology teacher...

  4. The role of socioscientific issues in biology teaching – from the perspective of teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand, Sofie; Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has documented that students who engage with socioscientific issues can acquire some of the complex competences and skills typically related to scientific literacy. But an emerging field of research on science teachers’ understanding and use of socioscientific issues, has...... documented that a range of challenges hinders the uptake of socioscientific issues. In this study we investigated the interpretation and implementation of socioscientific issues among Danish biology teachers – who teach in a curriculum that, on paper, is permeated by socioscientific issues. We conducted five...... harbour a content-centred interpretation of socioscientific issues which manifests itself in at least three separate ways. First, the teachers generally use socioscientific issues as a means to an end of teaching factual biological content. Second, the teachers had a clear emphasis on mastery of factual...

  5. Current Issues in Histology, Biology and Prognosis of Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Goran

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available High risk Hodgkin lymphoma patients may occasionally have borderline characteristics similar to gray zone lymphomas and T-cell/histiocyte rich B cell lymphomas. These entities require different and more aggressive treatment modalities. Aggressive behavior is often associated with disturbances caused by Epstein Barr virus, or immune evasion caused by overexpression of check point inhibitors PDL-1 and PDL-2 coupled with the lack of expression of Class I and II MHC molecules. Galectin-1, TARC, sCD163 and other surrogate markers of immunosuppression in Hodgkin lymphoma may be useful for the assessment of treatment response. The improvements in lymphoma management diminished the importance of prognostic factors unified in the International Prognostic Scoring system, reducing them from 7 to 3 factors that remained relevant. Interim PET analysis is the only method able to identify resistant patients while chemotherapy is ongoing, thus enabling adjustment of treatment according to the treatment response. Efforts for stratification of patients according to disease histology, biology, microenvironment, clinical scoring systems and PET scan are ongoing. Current breakthroughs have set strong background for novel therapies with monoclonal antibodies and check point inhibitors that will result in improvement of management of high risk patients.

  6. Ethical issues of genetic susceptibility testing for occupational diseases: opinions of trainees in a high-risk job

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. J.; Rhebergen, M. D. F.; Kezic, S.; van Dijk, F. J. H.; Willems, D. L.; Verberk, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic research has opened up possibilities for identification of persons with an increased susceptibility for occupational disease. However, regulations considering the ethical issues that are inevitably associated with the use of genetic tests for susceptibility for occupational diseases are

  7. Using clickers in nonmajors- and majors-level biology courses: student opinion, learning, and long-term retention of course material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossgrove, Kirsten; Curran, Kristen L

    2008-01-01

    Student response systems (clickers) are viewed positively by students and instructors in numerous studies. Evidence that clickers enhance student learning is more variable. After becoming comfortable with the technology during fall 2005-spring 2006, we compared student opinion and student achievement in two different courses taught with clickers in fall 2006. One course was an introductory biology class for nonmajors, and the other course was a 200 level genetics class for biology majors. Students in both courses had positive opinions of the clickers, although we observed some interesting differences between the two groups of students. Student performance was significantly higher on exam questions covering material taught with clickers, although the differences were more dramatic for the nonmajors biology course than the genetics course. We also compared retention of information 4 mo after the course ended, and we saw increased retention of material taught with clickers for the nonmajors course, but not for the genetics course. We discuss the implications of our results in light of differences in how the two courses were taught and differences between science majors and nonmajors.

  8. Awareness of Societal Issues among High School Biology Teachers Teaching Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarowitz, Reuven; Bloch, Ilit

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how aware high school biology teachers are of societal issues (values, moral, ethic, and legal issues) while teaching genetics, genetics engineering, molecular genetics, human heredity, and evolution. The study includes a short historical review of World War II atrocities during the Holocaust when…

  9. Committee Opinion No 653 Summary: Concerns Regarding Social Media and Health Issues in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Although there are many positive aspects of social media for adolescents and young adults, there are also risks. Adolescence is a time of significant developmental changes, during which adolescents exhibit a limited capacity for self-regulation and an increased risk of susceptibility to peer pressure and experimentation. Social media can be harmful, and obstetrician-gynecologists may screen their adolescent and young adult patients for high-risk sexual behaviors, especially if sexualized text communication (sexting), exposure to pornography, online dating, or other risk-taking behaviors are present. Victims of cyberbullying and those who engage in sexting are at increased risk of sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy. The effect of social media may be considered in the differential diagnosis of myriad health problems during adolescence. Referrals to mental health care providers or providing outside resources may be indicated. A multidisciplinary approach to address these issues can include the obstetrician-gynecologist, guardians, and school officials and personnel. Knowledge of resources, including those within the schools and community, allows the obstetrician-gynecologist to provide support to adolescents facing these issues.

  10. Students' opinions on welfare and ethics issues for companion animals in Australian and New Zealand veterinary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, C; Fawcett, A; Collins, T; Hazel, S; Johnson, J; Lloyd, J; Phillips, Cjc; Stafford, K; Tzioumis, V; McGreevy, P

    2017-06-01

    To determine what veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand consider important competences in companion animal welfare and ethics (AWE) required on their first day of practice, and to explore how their priorities relate to gender and stage of study. Undergraduate students at all veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand were sent an online survey. A subset of questions required participants to rank the importance of preselected AWE topics pertaining to companion animals. Data were analysed to determine differences in the way students of different gender or academic stage prioritised each of these AWE topics. Of 3220 currently enrolled students, 851 participated in the survey: 79% were female, 17% male, 4% unspecified. Ranking of the AWE topics, from highest to lowest importance, was: neutering, companion animal husbandry, euthanasia, behaviour and training, animal breeding, over-servicing in relation to animal needs and cosmetic surgery. Female students consistently ranked competency in AWE issues surrounding neutering more highly than male students (P = 0.006). Students in senior years of study ranked the importance of competency in animal abuse/hoarding (P = 0.048), shelter medicine (P = 0.012) and animal breeding (P = 0.002) less highly than those in junior years. Australasian veterinary students placed more importance on competency in AWE issues associated with clinical practice (such as neutering and euthanasia) than on professional behaviours (such as over-servicing and animal breeding). However, we consider that emphasis should still be placed on developing graduate competency in the latter categories to reflect growing societal concerns about companion animal over-supply and inappropriate professional conduct. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Prioritizing environmental issues around the world: opinions from an international Central and Eastern European environmental health conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Elena S; Donnelly, Kirby C; Neamtiu, Iulia; McCarty, Kathleen M; Bruce, Erica; Surkova, Irina; Kim, David; Uhnakova, Iveta; Gyorffy, Erika; Tesarova, Eva; Anderson, Beth

    2006-12-01

    As the next generation of scientists enters the field of environmental health, it is imperative that they view their contributions in the context of global environmental stewardship. In this commentary, a group of international graduate students facilitated by three experienced environmental health scientists present their views on what they consider to be the global environmental health concerns of today. This group convened initially in October 2004 at an international health conference in Prague, Czech Republic. In this report we identify perceived environmental health concerns that exist around the world, with a focus on Central and Eastern Europe. Additionally, we address these perceived problems and offers some potential solutions. At the meeting, students were invited to participate in two panel discussions. One group of young international scientists identified several significant global environmental health concerns, including air pollution, occupational hazards, and risk factors that may exacerbate current environmental health issues. The second panel determined that communication, education, and regulation were the mechanisms for addressing current environmental challenges. In this commentary we expand on the views presented at the meeting and represent the concerns of young investigators from nine different countries. We provide ideas about and support the exchange of information between developed and developing countries on how to handle the environmental health challenges that face the world today.

  12. A 2017 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J; Barnard, Phoebe; Broad, Steven; Clout, Mick; Connor, Ben; Côté, Isabelle M; Dicks, Lynn V; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Fox, Marie; Gaston, Kevin J; Gibbons, David W; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Wintle, Bonnie C; Ockendon, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of our eighth annual horizon scan of emerging issues likely to affect global biological diversity, the environment, and conservation efforts in the future. The potential effects of these novel issues might not yet be fully recognized or understood by the global conservation community, and the issues can be regarded as both opportunities and risks. A diverse international team with collective expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, and conservation research, practice, and policy reviewed 100 potential issues and identified 15 that qualified as emerging, with potential substantial global effects. These issues include new developments in energy storage and fuel production, sand extraction, potential solutions to combat coral bleaching and invasive marine species, and blockchain technology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. How Important Is the Assessment of Practical Work? An Opinion Piece on the New Biology A-Level from BERG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Biological Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    As education in England emerges from a major curriculum review (DfE 2013), the next few years will see significant changes in what is taught in schools and how this is assessed. As a core subject, under the current proposals, all students, from the beginning of primary school until age 16, will study science in some detail. Biology is an exciting,…

  14. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2011 update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    ) assessment was developed by EFSA for its own use to provide a generic risk assessment approach applicable across EFSA’s scientific Panels, for biological agents notified for intentional use in the whole food chain. The safety of unambiguously defined biological agents at the highest taxonomic unit......EFSA is requested to assess the safety of a broad range of biological agents (including microorganisms and viruses) in the context of notifications for market authorisation as sources of food and feed additives, enzymes and plant protection products. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS...

  15. Public opinions and antinuclear contestations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira, P.R.N. da

    1978-01-01

    With the aim of demonstrating the importance of public opinion in the development of a nuclear program, a historical analysis of the different forms of anti-technological reactions is shown, starting with a study of the general aspects of mass communication and public opinion. The world-wide communication strategy adopted in the implantation of nuclear programs is discussed and, finally, the nuclear energy issue and public opinion in Brazil are analysed. (F.E.) [pt

  16. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on Composting and incineration of dead-on-farm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    of biological hazards throughout the farm environment. Major deficiencies were noted in relation to the risk containment. Moreover, a formal HACCP plan was not provided, and some deficiencies were also noted in the identification of interdependent processes. Provided that the deficiencies identified......A method for on-farm processing of Category (Cat) 2 Animal By-Products (ABP) alternative to the ones already approved in the current legislation was assessed. The materials to be treated are placentas and dead-on-farm pigs. The proposed process consists of three sequential steps, i.e. composting......, storage of mature compost and incineration of mature compost in authorized plants. The applicant identified the main biological, physical and chemical hazards that could be present in the material to be treated and in the compost substrate. Since the compost is only intended for incineration the applicant...

  17. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the maintenance of the list of QPS biological agents intentionally added to food and feed (2013 update)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Tine Rask; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    EFSA is requested to assess the safety of a broad range of biological agents in the context of notifications for market authorisation as sources of food and feed additives, enzymes and plant protection products. The qualified presumption of safety (QPS) assessment was developed to provide...... a harmonised generic pre-assessment to support safety risk assessments performed by EFSA’s scientific Panels. The safety of unambiguously defined biological agents (at the highest taxonomic unit appropriate for the purpose for which an application is intended), and the completeness of the body of knowledge...... is the one in the most recently published scientific opinion. The 2013 update reviews previously assessed microorganisms including bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, oomycetes and viruses used for plant protection purposes. All taxonomic units previously recommended for the QPS list had their status...

  18. PROBLEMS OF RISK COMMUNICATION: NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND THEIR ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PUBLIC OPINION ON ISSUES OF POPULATION’S RADIATION PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Biblin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Events connected with the development and improvement of the nuclear industry are usually ambiguously perceived by the public. Mass-media and Internet play a leading role in the development of the public opinion on the most relevant public life issues, ecology and radiation safety in particular. Non-governmental organizations can impact the adequate perception of the issues of the radiation safety in the region by the public. Materials and methods: this study is focused on the primary evaluation of the data on the results of the sociological survey of three regions of the North-West of the Russian Federation: St-Petersburg, Leningrad and Murmansk regions; and the assessment of the websites of the non-governmental organizations, activities of the non-governmental organizations in the Internet and social networks. Results: the study indicated that non-governmental organizations actively use Internet and social networks in their practice. All the relevant non-governmental organizations have websites and social network accounts. Based on the number of the subscribers in social networks, it was possible to mark two non-governmental organizations: Greenpeace and World Wildlife Fund (WWF with more than 400000 subscribers each. VKontakte social network was assessed as the most effective mean of communicating with the public; a total number of subscribers on the groups of major non-governmental organizations exceeds 500000 persons. These two organizations are the most popular and trusted by the public. Greenpeace is known to 26% of respondents; WWF – to 11%. The population of the Murmansk region is more informed about the actions of the non-governmental organizations. 48% of the respondents in the Murmansk region named at least one non-governmental organization answering the question “What non-governmental organizations active in the field of radiation protection do you know?” with the corresponding 18% and 29% in St-Petersburg and Leningrad region

  19. Key Issues Concerning Biolog Use for Aerobic and Anaerobic Freshwater Bacterial Community-Level Physiological Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Bradley W.; Lind, Owen T.

    2006-06-01

    Bacterial heterotrophy in aquatic ecosystems is important in the overall carbon cycle. Biolog MicroPlates provide information into the metabolic potential of bacteria involved in carbon cycling. Specifically, Biolog EcoPlatesTM were developed with ecologically relevant carbon substrates to allow investigators to measure carbon substrate utilization patterns and develop community-level physiological profiles from natural bacterial assemblages. However, understanding of the functionality of these plates in freshwater research is limited. We explored several issues of EcoPlate use for freshwater bacterial assemblages including inoculum density, incubation temperature, non-bacterial color development, and substrate selectivity. Each of these has various effects on plate interpretation. We offer suggestions and techniques to resolve these interpretation issues. Lastly we propose a technique to allow EcoPlate use in anaerobic freshwater bacterial studies.

  20. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on Reflecting on the experiences and lessons learnt from modelling on biological hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    methodological uncertainties, and therefore, preferences for types of models cannot be specified. Newer approaches need to be identified and considered. Fit for purpose and simplicity are key issues when developing QMRA models. However, limits on time and resources may restrict the model selection. At the start......” should be used carefully, with scientific criteria and context clearly defined, or avoided....

  1. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on Carbapenem resistance in food animal ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    -1-encoding genes were located on IncHI2 plasmids. A methodology including selective culture is proposed for the detection of CP strains of Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter spp. The choice of selective media for the surveillance of carbapenem resistance for testing animal and food samples needs...... and effective option. As genes encoding carbapenemase production are mostly plasmid-mediated, and co-resistance may be an important issue in the spread of such resistance mechanisms, decreasing the frequency of use of antimicrobials in animal production in the EU in accordance with prudent use guidelines......Carbapenems are broad-spectrum β-lactam antimicrobials used for the treatment of serious infections in humans. To date only sporadic studies have reported the occurrence of carbapenemase-producing (CP) bacteria in food-producing animals and their environment. The bacteria and enzymes isolated...

  2. [Interaction of the bodies and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the protection of consumer rights and human welfare on sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and issuing sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes problems in the organization of the interaction of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare in Moscow and the Center for Hygiene and Epidemiology in Moscow to perform sanitary-and-epidemiological examinations and to issue sanitary-and-epidemiological opinions. The goals of setting up a one-window service and measures required for its effective work are defined. Positive results of one-window activities are shown.

  3. Biologic agents in rheumatology: unmet issues after 200 trials and $200 billion sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, John P A; Karassa, Fotini B; Druyts, Eric; Thorlund, Kristian; Mills, Edward J

    2013-11-01

    Anti-TNF agents and other biologic therapies are widely prescribed for a variety of indications, with total sales that exceed $200 billion to date. In rheumatic diseases, biologic agents have now been studied in more than 200 randomized clinical trials and over 100 subsequent meta-analyses; however, the information obtained does not always meet the needs of patients and clinicians. In this Review, we discuss the current issues concerning the evidence derived from such studies: potential biases favouring positive results; a paucity of head-to-head comparisons between biologically active agents; overwhelming involvement of manufacturer sponsors in trials and in the synthesis of the evidence; the preference for trials with limited follow-up; and the potential for spurious findings on adverse events, leading to endless debates about malignancy risk. We debate the responsibilities of regulatory authorities, the pharmaceutical industry and academia in attempting to solve these shortcomings and challenges. We propose that improvements in the evidence regarding biologic treatments that are continually being added to the therapeutic armamentarium for rheumatic diseases might require revisiting the design and conduct of studies. For example, trials with long-term follow-up that are independent of the pharmaceutical industry, head-to-head comparisons of therapeutic agents and the use of rigorous clinical outcomes should be considered, and public availability of raw data endorsed.

  4. Public opinion polls on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, E.D.

    1980-07-01

    Future developments in the attitude towards nuclear energy can not be predicted on account of this public opinion survey. The survey shows just how many different factors influence the attitude towards issues of public and political interst. For this reason in particular, it would be desirable to include such aspects into future surveys. The survey shows that public opinion polls quite often investigate on the ordering party's opinion rather than the pollees opinion. The attempt at making public opinion polls a means of forming political opinions, implying a certain desired opinion to be the majority opinion has brought those polls into disrepute. If real results are not required and manipulation prevails, results are prevented, which must not be blamed on the principle of public opinion polls as such. (orig.) [de

  5. A 2018 Horizon Scan of Emerging Issues for Global Conservation and Biological Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J; Butchart, Stuart H M; Connor, Ben; Culshaw, Caroline; Dicks, Lynn V; Dinsdale, Jason; Doran, Helen; Entwistle, Abigail C; Fleishman, Erica; Gibbons, David W; Jiang, Zhigang; Keim, Brandon; Roux, Xavier Le; Lickorish, Fiona A; Markillie, Paul; Monk, Kathryn A; Mortimer, Diana; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Peck, Lloyd S; Pretty, Jules; Seymour, Colleen L; Spalding, Mark D; Tonneijck, Femke H; Gleave, Rosalind A

    2018-01-01

    This is our ninth annual horizon scan to identify emerging issues that we believe could affect global biological diversity, natural capital and ecosystem services, and conservation efforts. Our diverse and international team, with expertise in horizon scanning, science communication, as well as conservation science, practice, and policy, reviewed 117 potential issues. We identified the 15 that may have the greatest positive or negative effects but are not yet well recognised by the global conservation community. Themes among these topics include new mechanisms driving the emergence and geographic expansion of diseases, innovative biotechnologies, reassessments of global change, and the development of strategic infrastructure to facilitate global economic priorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Introduction to the Special Issue: Beyond traits: integrating behaviour into plant ecology and biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, James F

    2015-10-26

    The way that plants are conceptualized in the context of ecological understanding is changing. In one direction, a reductionist school is pulling plants apart into a list of measured 'traits', from which ecological function and outcomes of species interactions may be inferred. This special issue offers an alternative, and more holistic, view: that the ecological functions performed by a plant will be a consequence not only of their complement of traits but also of the ways in which their component parts are used in response to environmental and social conditions. This is the realm of behavioural ecology, a field that has greatly advanced our understanding of animal biology, ecology and evolution. Included in this special issue are 10 articles focussing not on the tried and true metaphor that plant growth is similar to animal movement, but instead on how application of principles from animal behaviour can improve our ability to understand plant biology and ecology. The goals are not to draw false parallels, nor to anthropomorphize plant biology, but instead to demonstrate how existing and robust theory based on fundamental principles can provide novel understanding for plants. Key to this approach is the recognition that behaviour and intelligence are not the same. Many organisms display complex behaviours despite a lack of cognition (as it is traditionally understood) or any hint of a nervous system. The applicability of behavioural concepts to plants is further enhanced with the realization that all organisms face the same harsh forces of natural selection in the context of finding resources, mates and coping with neighbours. As these ecological realities are often highly variable in space and time, it is not surprising that all organisms-even plants-exhibit complex behaviours to handle this variability. The articles included here address diverse topics in behavioural ecology, as applied to plants: general conceptual understanding, plant nutrient foraging, root

  7. Decontamination issues for chemical and biological warfare agents: how clean is clean enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raber, E; Jin, A; Noonan, K; McGuire, R; Kirvel, R D

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this assessment is to determine what level of cleanup will be required to meet regulatory and stakeholder needs in the case of a chemical and/or biological incident at a civilian facility. A literature review for selected, potential chemical and biological warfare agents shows that dose information is often lacking or controversial. Environmental regulatory limits or other industrial health guidelines that could be used to help establish cleanup concentration levels for such agents are generally unavailable or not applicable for a public setting. Although dose information, cleanup criteria, and decontamination protocols all present challenges to effective planning, several decontamination approaches are available. Such approaches should be combined with risk-informed decision making to establish reasonable cleanup goals for protecting health, property, and resources. Key issues during a risk assessment are to determine exactly what constitutes a safety hazard and whether decontamination is necessary or not for a particular scenario. An important conclusion is that cleanup criteria are site dependent and stakeholder specific. The results of a modeling exercise for two outdoor scenarios are presented to reinforce this conclusion. Public perception of risk to health, public acceptance of recommendations based on scientific criteria, political support, time constraints, and economic concerns must all be addressed in the context of a specific scenario to yield effective and acceptable decontamination.

  8. Looking at complicating non-biological issues in women with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Chaturaka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increasing number of women acquiring Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV has resulted in a ′feminization′ of the epidemic. In this article we are reviewing whether females are disadvantaged in the epidemic, due to factors independent of the biological differences in sexes. Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles with key words ′Women′, ′Gender,′ and ′HIV′ in any field. The search was restricted to articles published in English within the last 10 years (1999-2009. Data were coded independently by two reviewers from 94 selected sources. The coded data were categorized under five commonly encountered concepts; violence, poverty, gender norms, prevention-/treatment-related issues, and Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Treatment (HAART. Results: The link between inter-partner violence (IPV and HIV risk for women is observed by many authors. In assessing the link between poverty and HIV, indicators such as food insufficiency and income inequality may be better indicators compared to wealth itself. Although women are disadvantaged with male-dominated gender norms, evidence suggests that the traditional norms are changing in many societies. A positive association between living in urban communities, education, and better HIV knowledge has been observed in females, although it is not always synonymous with reduced risk behavior. Conclusions: Women are still disadvantaged in many HIV-related issues such as poverty, violence, and gender norms. At least in Africa, there is evidence of a positive change in spheres of education and gender norms. However, the situation in Asia is largely unexplored.

  9. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on public health risks represented by certain composite products containing food of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    products requires information on their composition, processing and further handling, which can largely differ for foods belonging to the same category. Further conditions may influence the risk and should be verified, i.e. hygienic conditions during preparation of the composite products......This Opinion reviews the factors that affect microbial survival and growth in composite products, and in foods in general. It concludes that the main factors to be considered are: water activity, pH, temperature and duration of storage, processing, and intensity and duration of other non......-thermal physical processes applied. Prevalence and concentration of the pathogens in food are important to determine the risk for consumers. The opinion presents a review of the quantitative microbiology models and databases that can be used to provide quantitative estimations of the impact of the above factors...

  10. Demographic and Social Factors Influencing Public Opinion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    macuser

    the pressing need for empirical research into these opinions, to inform and make .... understanding public opinion on the issue of prostitution has critical relevance. For ..... prostitution and presented three options for legal reform in South Africa: ...

  11. Connecting pre-marketing clinical research and medical practice : opinion-based study of core issues and possible changes in drug regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, N.F; Peschar, J.L.; Denig, P; de Graeff, P.A.; Vos, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To identify core issues that contribute to the gap between pre-marketing clinical research and practice as seen from the perspective of medical practice, as well as possible changes and potential barriers for closing this gap. Methods: Interviews with 47 physicians and pharmacists who

  12. Effects of socioscientific issues-based instruction on argumentation ability and biology concepts of upper secondary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faelt, Surasak; Samiphak, Sara; Pattaradilokrat, Sittiporn

    2018-01-01

    Argumentation skill is an essential skill needed in students, and one of the competencies in scientific literacy. Through arguing on socioscientific issues, students may gain deeper conceptual understanding. The purpose of this research is to examine the efficacy of a socioscientific issues-based instruction compared with an inquirybased instruction. This is to determine which one is better in promoting 10th grade students' argumentation ability and biology concepts of digestive system and cellular respiration. The forty 10th grade students included in this study were from two mathematics-science program classes in a medium-sized secondary school located in a suburb of Buriram province, Thailand. The research utilizes a quasi-experimental design; pre-test post-test control group design. We developed and implemented 4 lesson plans for both socioscientific issues-based instruction and inquiry-based instruction. Ten weeks were used to collect the data. A paper-based questionnaire and informal interviews were designed to test students' argumentation ability, and the two-tier multiple-choice test was designed to test their biology concepts. This research explore qualitatively and quantitatively students' argumentation abilities and biology concepts, using arithmetic mean, mean of percentage, standard deviation and t-test. Results show that there is no significant difference between the two group regarding mean scores of the argumentation ability. However, there is significant difference between the two groups regarding mean scores of the biology concepts. This suggests that socioscientific issues-based instruction could be used to improve students' biology concepts.

  13. Statistical issues in biological radiation dosimetry for risk assessment using stable chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J.B.; Preston, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Biological dosimeters are useful for epidemiologic risk assessment in populations exposed to catastrophic nuclear events and as a means of validating physical dosimetry in radiation workers. Application requires knowledge of the magnitude of uncertainty in the biological dose estimates and an understanding of potential statistical pitfalls arising from their use. This paper describes the statistical aspects of biological dosimetry in general and presents a detailed analysis in the specific case of dosimetry for risk assessment using stable chromosome aberration frequency. Biological dose estimates may be obtained from a dose-response curve, but negative estimates can result and adjustment must be made for regression bias due to imprecise estimation when the estimates are used in regression analyses. Posterior-mean estimates, derived as the mean of the distribution of true doses compatible with a given value of the biological endpoint, have several desirable properties: they are nonnegative, less sensitive to extreme skewness in the true dose distribution, and implicitly adjusted to avoid regression bias. The methods necessitate approximating the true-dose distribution in the population in which biological dosimetry is being applied, which calls for careful consideration of this distribution through other information. An important question addressed here is to what extent the methods are robust to misspecification of this distribution, because in many applications of biological dosimetry it cannot be characterized well. The findings suggest that dosimetry based solely on stable chromosome aberration frequency may be useful for population-based risk assessment

  14. The Role of Socioscientific Issues in Biology Teaching: From the Perspective of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidemand, Sofie; Nielsen, Jan Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has documented that students who engage with socioscientific issues can acquire some of the complex competences and skills typically related to scientific literacy. But an emerging field of research on science teachers' understanding and use of socioscientific issues, has documented that a range of challenges hinders the uptake…

  15. A US-China Interview Study: Biology Students' Argumentation and Explanation about Energy Consumption Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Hokayem, Hayat; Wang, Sasha; Wei, Xin

    2016-01-01

    As China and the United States become the top two carbon emitters in the world, it is crucial for citizens in both countries to construct a sophisticated understanding of energy consumption issues. This interview study examines how U.S. and Chinese students compare in explaining and arguing about two critical energy consumption issues: burning…

  16. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on the risk of transmission of classical scrapie via in vivo derived embryo transfer in ovine animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    . Under natural exposure conditions, animals that are heterozygous or homozygous A136R154R171 display respectively a low or negligible risk of being infected. The genetic control of the susceptibility to classical scrapie is also likely to impact on the risk of transmitting the disease via embryo transfer......The risk of transmission of classical scrapie via the transfer of in vivo derived embryo in ovines was assessed, taking into account the scientific information made available since the last EFSA opinion on this topic (2010) (see http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/1429.htm). The potential...... impact of PrP genotype of the embryo and/or of the ram and donor ewe on this risk was also assessed. The new data made available over the last three years further reinforce the view that classical scrapie could be vertically transmitted in sheep. Since the possibility of such vertical transmission...

  17. Synthetic Biology between Self-Regulation and Public Discourse: Ethical Issues and the Many Roles of the Ethicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Gardar

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the roles of ethicists in the governance of synthetic biology. I am particularly concerned with the idea of self-regulation of bioscience and its relationship to public discourse about ethical issues in bioscience. I will look at the role of philosophical ethicists at different levels and loci, from the "embedded ethicist" in the laboratory or research project, to ethicists' impact on policy and public discourse. In a democratic society, the development of governance frameworks for emerging technologies, such as synthetic biology, needs to be guided by a well-informed public discourse. In the case of synthetic biology, the public discourse has to go further than merely considering technical issues of biosafety and biosecurity, or risk management, to consider more philosophical issues concerning the meaning and value of "life" between the natural and the synthetic. I argue that ethicists have moral expertise to bring to the public arena, which consists not only in guiding the debate but also in evaluating arguments and moral positions and making normative judgments. When ethicists make normative claims or moral judgments, they must be transparent about their theoretical positions and basic moral standpoints.

  18. Opinion Integration and Summarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yue

    2011-01-01

    As Web 2.0 applications become increasingly popular, more and more people express their opinions on the Web in various ways in real time. Such wide coverage of topics and abundance of users make the Web an extremely valuable source for mining people's opinions about all kinds of topics. However, since the opinions are usually expressed as…

  19. 'Quicksand' of public opinion - trust in nuclear after Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieci, Adam; Maly, Stanislav; Palecek, Milos

    2012-01-01

    The following public opinion surveys are described: public opinion on nuclear power plants by the end of 2010; first public opinion polls after Fukushima in the US, UK and France; and public opinion and the future of nuclear in Japan. The following issues are discussed: Has nuclear any perspective after Fukushima? Will public opinion change after the Fukushima accident like it did after the TMI event? Will public opinion change after the Fukushima accident like it did after the oil spill accident in the Gulf of Mexico? In conclusion the new approaches to the fight for public confidence after Fukushima are described. (orig.)

  20. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (bovine animals)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    for the farm-to-chilled carcass continuum using a risk-based approach was proposed. Key elements of the system are risk-categorisation of slaughter animals for high-priority biological hazards based on improved food chain information, as well as risk-categorisation of slaughterhouses according......A risk ranking process identified Salmonella spp. and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) as current high-priority biological hazards for meat inspection of bovine animals. As these hazards are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system...... to their capability to control those hazards. Omission of palpation and incision during post-mortem inspection for animals subjected to routine slaughter may decrease spreading and cross-contamination with the high-priority biological hazards. For chemical hazards, dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls...

  1. Web-Site as an Educational Tool in Biology Education: A Case of Nutrition Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol; Usak, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of using website in biology education. We have explored the World Wide Web as a possible tool for education about health and nutrition. The websites were teaching tools for primary school students. Control groups used the traditional educational materials as books or worksheets,…

  2. Marine biotechnologies and synthetic biology, new issues for a fair and equitable profit-sharing commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Jean-François; Tardieu-Guigues, Elisabeth

    2014-10-01

    The sea will be a source of economic development in the next years. Today the research works in marine biotechnologies supply new products and processes. The introduction in the laboratories of a new technology, synthesis biology, is going to increase the possibilities of creation of new products. Exploitation of product stemming from marine biodiversity has to be made with regard to various rights among which industrial property law, maritime law and the Convention on BioDiversity. All participants involved in the promotion of research in marine biotechnology must address the fair and equitable sharing of any commercial exploitation. Carrying out work involving synthetic biology has increased the number of unanswered questions about how operators should manage in order to avoid any threat of being sued for infringements of IP rights or for alleged bio-piracy. This paper, by no means exhaustive in the field, analyzes some of the issues raised on the modification to the landscape in marine biotechnology by the advent of synthetic biology. Such issues indicate how important the collaboration between researchers, industrialists, lawyers is for allowing proper use of marine biotech. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nutrition Labelling: Applying Biological Concepts and Reasoning to Socio-Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeung Chung

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition labelling, which helps consumers to make informed choices, can be used as both a context and a vehicle for students to consolidate and apply their knowledge of food and nutrition to improve health. It also facilitates students' ability to negotiate socio-scientific issues from scientific and other perspectives. This article reports a…

  4. UK Public Opinion Review - Working Paper - An overview of public opinion polls since the Edward Snowden revelations in June 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Cable, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This document charts public opinion of the Edward Snowden leaks and associated issues\\ud since June 2013. This includes people’s opinions on surveillance, the intelligence services\\ud and personal privacy. Since the Snowden leaks there have been 38 opinion polls on these\\ud topics concerning public opinion in the UK and conducted by large polling organisations,\\ud such as YouGov, ComRes and Ipsos MORI among others.

  5. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from farmed game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    ranked as medium or lower potential concern. More effective control of biological hazards could be achieved using an integrated farm to chilled carcass approach, including improved food chain information (FCI) and risk-based controls. Further studies are required on Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar...... and T. gondii in farmed wild boar and farmed deer. If new information confirms a high risk to public health from meat from these species, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Palpation and incision should be omitted, as it will not detect biological hazards considered to be a high......Salmonella spp. in farmed wild boar and Toxoplasma gondii in farmed deer and farmed wild boar were ranked as a high priority for meat inspection. Trichinella spp. in wild boar was ranked as low priority due to current controls, which should be continued. For chemical hazards, all substances were...

  6. State-of-the-art technologies, current opinions and developments, and novel findings: news from the field of histochemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Esther; Drenckhahn, Detlev

    2008-12-01

    Investigations of cell and tissue structure and function using innovative methods and approaches have again yielded numerous exciting findings in recent months and have added important data to current knowledge, inspiring new ideas and hypotheses in various fields of modern life sciences. Topics and contents of comprehensive expert reviews covering different aspects in methodological advances, cell biology, tissue function and morphology, and novel findings reported in original papers are summarized in the present review.

  7. Non-proliferation issues in the field of biological technologies and dual-use materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamadaliev, S.M.; Troitskij, E.N.; Ibraev, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of the DTRA 01-00-C-0030 'Strengthening of physical and biological protection' project at the Research Agricultural Institute (Kazakhstan) are discussed. The project was directed on the organization of a reliable physical integrity of dangerous pathogens, on the provision reliable protection around the periphery and outside security of the whole object as well as on the exclusion of possibility of pathogens expansion of dangerous infection material out the controlled working conditions. The central section of the protection is storehouse of microorganism culture

  8. Collaborative international research: ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to human biological materials at a South African institutional research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathar, Aslam; Dhai, Amaboo; van der Linde, Stephan

    2014-12-01

    Human Biological Materials (HBMs) are an invaluable resource in biomedical research. To determine if researchers and a Research Ethics Committee (REC) at a South African institution addressed ethical issues pertaining to HBMs in collaborative research with developed countries. Ethically approved retrospective cross-sectional descriptive audit. Of the 1305 protocols audited, 151 (11.57%) fulfilled the study's inclusion criteria. Compared to other developed countries, a majority of sponsors (90) were from the USA (p = 0.0001). The principle investigators (PIs) in all 151 protocols informed the REC of their intent to store HBMs. Only 132 protocols informed research participants (P ethical and regulatory issues pertaining to HBMs. There was a lack of congruence between the ethical guidelines of developed countries and their actions which are central to the access to HBMs in collaborative research. HBMs may be leaving South Africa without EPs and MTAs during the process of international collaborative research. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Competing opinion diffusion on social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibo

    2017-11-01

    Opinion competition is a common phenomenon in real life, such as with opinions on controversial issues or political candidates; however, modelling this competition remains largely unexplored. To bridge this gap, we propose a model of competing opinion diffusion on social networks taking into account degree-dependent fitness or persuasiveness. We study the combined influence of social networks, individual fitnesses and attributes, as well as mass media on people's opinions, and find that both social networks and mass media act as amplifiers in opinion diffusion, the amplifying effect of which can be quantitatively characterized. We analytically obtain the probability that each opinion will ultimately pervade the whole society when there are no committed people in networks, and the final proportion of each opinion at the steady state when there are committed people in networks. The results of numerical simulations show good agreement with those obtained through an analytical approach. This study provides insight into the collective influence of individual attributes, local social networks and global media on opinion diffusion, and contributes to a comprehensive understanding of competing diffusion behaviours in the real world.

  10. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymoprhisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David. A Micklos

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms – which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nation’s oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human polymorphism

  11. The Science and Issues of Human DNA Polymorphisms: A Training Workshop for High School Biology Teachers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micklos, David A.

    2006-10-30

    This project achieved its goal of implementing a nationwide training program to introduce high school biology teachers to the key uses and societal implications of human DNA polymorphisms. The 2.5-day workshop introduced high school biology faculty to a laboratory-based unit on human DNA polymorphisms â which provides a uniquely personal perspective on the science and Ethical, Legal and Social Implications (ELSI) of the Human Genome Project. As proposed, 12 workshops were conducted at venues across the United States. The workshops were attended by 256 high school faculty, exceeding proposed attendance of 240 by 7%. Each workshop mixed theoretical, laboratory, and computer work with practical and ethical implications. Program participants learned simplified lab techniques for amplifying three types of chromosomal polymorphisms: an Alu insertion (PV92), a VNTR (pMCT118/D1S80), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the mitochondrial control region. These polymorphisms illustrate the use of DNA variations in disease diagnosis, forensic biology, and identity testing - and provide a starting point for discussing the uses and potential abuses of genetic technology. Participants also learned how to use their Alu and mitochondrial data as an entrée to human population genetics and evolution. Our work to simplify lab techniques for amplifying human DNA polymorphisms in educational settings culminated with the release in 1998 of three Advanced Technology (AT) PCR kits by Carolina Biological Supply Company, the nationâÂÂs oldest educational science supplier. The kits use a simple 30-minute method to isolate template DNA from hair sheaths or buccal cells and streamlined PCR chemistry based on Pharmacia Ready-To-Go Beads, which incorporate Taq polymerase, deoxynucleotide triphosphates, and buffer in a freeze-dried pellet. These kits have greatly simplified teacher implementation of human PCR labs, and their use is growing at a rapid pace. Sales of human

  12. Opinion and Persuasion

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Constantin Dima; Daniela Gîfu

    2014-01-01

    The research proves that persuasion has two types of objectives. Its main objective is the change of opinion. Its fundamental and foundational objectives are the change in attitude, generic conduct and situational behaviour. The main objective controls the fundamental objectives. The change in attitudes and conduct/behaviour is presided by changes in opinion. Persuasion is thus shown to be primarily and ultimately a matter of opinion. As such, its mechanism to manage and generate ...

  13. Right of residence under Article 20 TFEU of the Primary Carer of a Minor Union Citizen: Summary of an expert opinion on issues arising from the pending case of Chavez-Vilchez and others (C-133/15)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziedzic, Lukasz; Davies, Gareth; De Lange, Janneke; Biersteker, Anouk; Navia-Rodriguez, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    This is an English language summary of an extensive Dutch expert opinion concerning a pending ECJ case of wide relevance - a follow up to Ruiz Zambrano and Dereci which explores some of the more complex and realistic scenarios which may arise. That expert opinion provides a legal analysis of the

  14. Methodological issues in analyzing time trends in biologic fertility: protection bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Key, Jane; Best, Nicky; Joffe, Michael

    2009-01-01

    One method of assessing biologic fertility is to measure time to pregnancy (TTP). Accidental pregnancies do not generate a valid TTP value and lead to nonrandom missing data if couples experiencing accidental pregnancies are more fertile than the general population. If factors affecting the rate...... of fertility trends in Europe over the past 50 years. Couples experiencing accidental pregnancies tended to be more fertile than the general population. However, trends in accidental pregnancy rates were inconsistent across countries and were insufficient to produce substantial bias in fertility trends...... of accidental pregnancies, such as availability of effective contraception and induced abortion, vary over time, then the result may be protection bias in the estimates of fertility time trends. Six European data sets were analyzed to investigate whether evidence of protection bias exists in TTP studies...

  15. Impotent science, omnipotent public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays public opinion has become prominent when political leaders have themselves to vote. Even scientific or economical decisions are often taken more in accordance to these trends than to rational reasons. For a long time it has been widely accepted that a clear and pedagogical explanation was enough to make scientific issues understandable. For nearly 20 years, a true scientific and professional communication has been developed in France towards the general public to make nuclear industry acceptable. Nevertheless today, we notice that the acceptance of the nuclear option has lost many points in public polls. An accident, in the nuclear fields or in another fields, in one point or another of the planet can ruin the work of many years in communication. 1) In order to draw a more precise picture of public opinion, to follow these trends and make them more understandable, the CEA communication direction has built a 'public opinion barometer' dealing with the following fields: - Information on nuclear fields; - The nuclear actors; - The future of nuclear option; - Radioactive waste; - Risks perception; - Nuclear energy and other sources of energy; - Economy and nuclear power; - Image of nuclear. 2) Come and visit our labs to make up your own opinion: As communication methods through the classical media has, up to now, failed in changing public opinion regarding nuclear, the decision was made to offer to people the opportunity to meet searchers at work.400 'Communicating researchers' to day are volunteers to receive the public .They are trained to be able to explain their work to non specialists; they receive documents dealing with current events to help them answer to questions and they are invited to an annual general meeting (last one in January 2001). 85 laboratories are opened (civil and military ones). In 2000, nearly 10,000 visitors have come to us. In 2001, new additional operations will be lead toward young people, teachers, associations. (author)

  16. The Opinions of Economics Majors before and after Learning Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Michael R.; Routon, P. Wesley; Walker, Jay K.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on undergraduates from 463 American colleges and universities from 1994-99, the authors examine how majoring in economics affects student opinions on 13 social, political, and economic issues. Economics majors were found to begin and end their college tenure with differing opinions on several issues when compared to other…

  17. Microbial load in indoor sport environments: new quality issues by molecular biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Romano Spica

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The quality of hygiene found in sporting environments represents an emergent requirement in societies of industrialised countries.

    Besides safety issues, the microbial load of indoor air, water and surfaces affects comfort and performance. Recent studies have identified fungi as the quantitatively most important component, of unhealthy indoor air.

    Few studies have been carried out regarding indoor sport, recreational and rehabilitative facilities, such as swimming pools, saunas and spas. The aim of our study is to determine the extent of fungal and microbial contamination in indoor swimming pool environments, by means of both morphological and molecular typing of isolated species.

    Establishment of appropriate standardised monitoring procedures prevents infections and improves quality.

  18. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards, 2013. Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    A risk ranking process identified Toxoplasma gondii and pathogenic verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) as the most relevant biological hazards for meat inspection of sheep and goats. As these are not detected by traditional meat inspection, a meat safety assurance system using risk......-based interventions was proposed. Further studies are required on T. gondii and pathogenic VTEC. If new information confirms these hazards as a high risk to public health from meat from sheep or goats, setting targets at carcass level should be considered. Other elements of the system are risk...... the extensive production systems used, and the ranking of chemical substances, which should be regularly updated and include new hazards. Control programmes across the food chain, national residue control plans, feed control and monitoring of environmental contaminants should be better integrated. Meat...

  19. Trendwatch combining expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrix, E.M.T.; Kornelis, M.; Pegge, S.M.; Galen, van M.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, focus is on a systematic way to detect future changes in trends that may effect the dynamics in the agro-food sector, and on the combination of opinions of experts. For the combination of expert opinions, the usefulness of multilevel models is investigated. Bayesian data analysis is

  20. Opinion survey on energy and climate in 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jean-Philippe

    2013-08-01

    This issue comments the results of a survey on the opinion of French people on the reality of climate change (for the whole population and with respect to age), on the opinion of French people on nuclear energy (in relationship with the opinion on climate change, globally in terms of benefit or drawback with evolution of the opinion since 1994), on the feeling of having suffered from the cold during the winter of 2012-2013, on the dwelling temperature in winter, and on the opinion on energy price

  1. Quantification of informed opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this session, Quantification of Informed Opinion, is to provide the statistician with a better understanding of this important area. The NRC uses informed opinion, sometimes called engineering judgment or subjective judgment, in many areas. Sometimes informed opinion is the only source of information that exists, especially in phenomenological areas, such as steam explosions, where experiments are costly and phenomena are very difficult to measure. There are many degrees of informed opinion. These vary from the weatherman who makes predictions concerning relatively high probability events with a large data base to the phenomenological expert who must use his intuition tempered with basic knowledge and little or no measured data to predict the behavior of events with a low probability of occurrence. The first paper in this session provides the reader with an overview of the subject area. The second paper provides some aspects that must be considered in the collection of informed opinion to improve the quality of the information. The final paper contains an example of the use of informed opinion in the area of seismic hazard characterization. These papers should be useful to researchers and statisticians who need to collect and use informed opinion in their work

  2. Opinion Analysis on Rohingya using Twitter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochmawati, N.; Wibawa, S. C.

    2018-04-01

    Rohingya is an ethnicity in Myanmar. Recently there was a conflict in the area between the Rakhine population and the Myanmar army. Many opinions are pro and contra in addressing this issue. There is a critic, there is a support and there is a neutral. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the world public opinion about the case of Rohingya. The opinion data to be processed is taken from twitter. the reason for using twitter is because twitter has become one of the popular social media and includes the most frequently visited social media. Therefore, it would be a lot of data that can be taken from twitter to be processed in the process of sentiment analysis. The grouping of opinions will be divided into 3 parts of positive, negative and neutral. the method used in grouping is the naïve Bayes method.

  3. Opinion data mining based on DNA method and ORA software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ru-Ya; Wu, Lei; Liang, Xiao-He; Zhang, Xue-Fu

    2018-01-01

    Public opinion, especially the online public opinion is a critical issue when it comes to mining its characteristics. Because it can be formed directly and intensely in a short time, and may lead to the outbreak of online group events, and the formation of online public opinion crisis. This may become the pushing hand of a public crisis event, or even have negative social impacts, which brings great challenges to the government management. Data from the mass media which reveal implicit, previously unknown, and potentially valuable information, can effectively help us to understand the evolution law of public opinion, and provide a useful reference for rumor intervention. Based on the Dynamic Network Analysis method, this paper uses ORA software to mine characteristics of public opinion information, opinion topics, and public opinion agents through a series of indicators, and quantitatively analyzed the relationships between them. The results show that through the analysis of the 8 indexes associating with opinion data mining, we can have a basic understanding of the public opinion characteristics of an opinion event, such as who is important in the opinion spreading process, the information grasping condition, and the opinion topics release situation.

  4. Measurement issues associated with quantitative molecular biology analysis of complex food matrices for the detection of food fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Malcolm; Wiseman, Gordon; Knight, Angus; Bramley, Peter; Foster, Lucy; Rollinson, Sophie; Damant, Andrew; Primrose, Sandy

    2016-01-07

    Following a report on a significant amount of horse DNA being detected in a beef burger product on sale to the public at a UK supermarket in early 2013, the Elliott report was published in 2014 and contained a list of recommendations for helping ensure food integrity. One of the recommendations included improving laboratory testing capacity and capability to ensure a harmonised approach for testing for food authenticity. Molecular biologists have developed exquisitely sensitive methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or mass spectrometry for detecting the presence of particular nucleic acid or peptide/protein sequences. These methods have been shown to be specific and sensitive in terms of lower limits of applicability, but they are largely qualitative in nature. Historically, the conversion of these qualitative techniques into reliable quantitative methods has been beset with problems even when used on relatively simple sample matrices. When the methods are applied to complex sample matrices, as found in many foods, the problems are magnified resulting in a high measurement uncertainty associated with the result which may mean that the assay is not fit for purpose. However, recent advances in the technology and the understanding of molecular biology approaches have further given rise to the re-assessment of these methods for their quantitative potential. This review focuses on important issues for consideration when validating a molecular biology assay and the various factors that can impact on the measurement uncertainty of a result associated with molecular biology approaches used in detection of food fraud, with a particular focus on quantitative PCR-based and proteomics assays.

  5. Polling and public opinion: a Canadian perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Peter Marshall

    2007-01-01

    ..., advertising, and government policy. Using such controversial issues such as free trade, health care, same-sex marriage, and national security, Butler argues that popular opinion on such hot-button topics as these can be guided and changed according to how polls are interpreted for and presented to the public. As well as analysing the impact of po...

  6. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter in...

  7. University Opinion Poll 9: Child Care, MPIRG, Lettuce. Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matross, Ronald; And Others

    The University Opinion Poll conducted a survey of student opinion on issues related to University-sponsored day care, the role of the Minnesota Public Interest Research Group (MPIRG) and the University's policy on buying lettuce for its food services. Four hundred fifty-two respondents, 76% of a random sample of University of Minnesota students,…

  8. Spanish opinion polls 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nufiez Lopez, Maria Pilar

    1999-01-01

    one of the three most important problems. The disadvantages of nuclear power mentioned by 28 percent of the population centre on the issue of pollution - without specifying the type of pollution - and 35 percent refer to the risk of radioactive releases. The information and communication work carried out by the nuclear industry since the country's first nuclear power plant went on line in 1968 has had obvious positive effects on public opinion in the areas surrounding the plants. Comparison of the replies provided by the general population and those from interviewees forming part of populations living close to nuclear power plants clearly demonstrates that opinions are directly related to the greater or lesser degree of ignorance of the subject. Knowledge of the location of Spain's nuclear power plants provides equally curious results. Seventy-five percent of the population claims to know that there are nuclear plants in Spain, but twenty-eight percent does not know or does not answer where these installations are. Evaluation of the data obtained allows the following conclusions to be drawn: Only 8 percent of the interviewees claims to be, pro-nuclear, i.e. in favour of new nuclear power plants being built if there were a need to extend the current generating capacity; 20 percent of the population respects the assumptions made in the Spanish nuclear moratorium: they consider that the plants currently in operation should not be closed down, and that no new plants should be built; 19 percent, thinks that the current plants should be closed, in spite of their recognizing that these installations are necessary and contribute to electricity generation; 24 percent is in favour of gradually replacing the nuclear power plants with other energy sources; 29 percent thinks that the currently operating plants should be shut down. This includes two percent of the population that openly claim to be actively antinuclear in their approach. The future of the Spanish nuclear industry

  9. Do Others’ Opinion Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fei; Xiao, Bo Sophia; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2016-01-01

    when experiencing dissonance in e-WOM, male consumers value opinionated review over numerical rating and vice versa for their female counterparts. The results of our field survey on a custom developed website with 115 college students empirically validated our hypothesized relationships and also...

  10. Anisotropic opinion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neirotti, Juan

    2016-07-01

    We consider the process of opinion formation in a society of interacting agents, where there is a set B of socially accepted rules. In this scenario, we observed that agents, represented by simple feed-forward, adaptive neural networks, may have a conservative attitude (mostly in agreement with B ) or liberal attitude (mostly in agreement with neighboring agents) depending on how much their opinions are influenced by their peers. The topology of the network representing the interaction of the society's members is determined by a graph, where the agents' properties are defined over the vertexes and the interagent interactions are defined over the bonds. The adaptability of the agents allows us to model the formation of opinions as an online learning process, where agents learn continuously as new information becomes available to the whole society (online learning). Through the application of statistical mechanics techniques we deduced a set of differential equations describing the dynamics of the system. We observed that by slowly varying the average peer influence in such a way that the agents attitude changes from conservative to liberal and back, the average social opinion develops a hysteresis cycle. Such hysteretic behavior disappears when the variance of the social influence distribution is large enough. In all the cases studied, the change from conservative to liberal behavior is characterized by the emergence of conservative clusters, i.e., a closed knitted set of society members that follow a leader who agrees with the social status quo when the rule B is challenged.

  11. Classifying Life, Reconstructing History and Teaching Diversity: Philosophical Issues in the Teaching of Biological Systematics and Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reydon, Thomas A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Classification is a central endeavor in every scientific field of work. Classification in biology, however, is distinct from classification in other fields of science in a number of ways. Thus, understanding how biological classification works is an important element in understanding the nature of biological science. In the present paper, I…

  12. French opinion on Nuclear Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucaille, A.

    2003-01-01

    Contrary to what many think or say, most French people do not have a clear-cut opinion about nuclear power. And until public opinion can be accurately assessed, we should be worried of speaking on its behalf. More than half the population of France believes that nuclear power is the cheapest option, but 40% of them have no idea what the situation really is. The French are keenly aware of the what is at stake at the international level, and the fact that energy is becoming a worldwide issue. What they are most concerned about is nuclear waste and the possibility of a catastrophe of the Chernobyl type occurring. Disquiet about the first is now dissipating, after having increased. But attitudes about the second are ambivalent. A quarter of the French are very ignorant about radioactivity. 20% of the population complain that not enough information is forthcoming, particularly as concerns advances in technology. As can be anticipated, awareness of the question of climate change is growing year by year, with increased reporting of storms, floods and heat waves

  13. Implications of Public Opinion for Space Program Planning, 1980 - 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, W.; Wiener, A. J.; Yokelson, D.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of public opinion on future space programs is discussed in terms of direct support, apathy, or opposition, and concern about the tax burden, budgetary pressures, and national priorities. Factors considered include: the salience and visibility of NASA as compared with other issues, the sources of general pressure on the federal budget which could affect NASA, the public's opinions regarding the size and priority of NASA'S budget, the degree to which the executive can exercise leverage over NASA's budget through influencing or disregarding public opinion, the effects of linkages to other issues on space programs, and the public's general attitudes toward the progress of science.

  14. TOOL: The Open Opinion Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Masum, Hassan

    2002-01-01

    Shared opinions drive society: what we read, how we vote, and where we shop are all heavily influenced by the choices of others. However, the cost in time and money to systematically share opinions remains high, while the actual performance history of opinion generators is often not tracked. This article explores the development of a distributed open opinion layer, which is given the generic name of TOOL. Similar to the evolution of network protocols as an underlying layer for many comput...

  15. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years sp...

  16. Opinion, energy and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-02-01

    The author comments the evolution of the results of various opinion surveys on energy in France and more particularly the high support for electricity production from renewable energies, the acceptance of the financial burden associated to energy, the fact that nuclear energy has more benefits than pitfalls but is still considered as a hazardous activity, the fact that consumers are aware of environmental risks for the planet but still have an incomplete knowledge of the energy sector and new technologies

  17. Dynamic neuronal ensembles: Issues in representing structure change in object-oriented, biologically-based brain models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahie, S.; Zeigler, B.P.; Cho, H. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the structure of dynamic neuronal ensembles (DNEs). DNEs represent a new paradigm for learning, based on biological neural networks that use variable structures. We present a computational neural element that demonstrates biological neuron functionality such as neurotransmitter feedback absolute refractory period and multiple output potentials. More specifically, we will develop a network of neural elements that have the ability to dynamically strengthen, weaken, add and remove interconnections. We demonstrate that the DNE is capable of performing dynamic modifications to neuron connections and exhibiting biological neuron functionality. In addition to its applications for learning, DNEs provide an excellent environment for testing and analysis of biological neural systems. An example of habituation and hyper-sensitization in biological systems, using a neural circuit from a snail is presented and discussed. This paper provides an insight into the DNE paradigm using models developed and simulated in DEVS.

  18. Should over-treatment of axial spondyloarthritis with biologics remain a concern after the issue of the new ASAS criteria? Data from REGISPONSERBIO (Spanish Register of Biological Therapy in Spondyloarthritides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Mireia; Gratacós, Jordi; Navarro-Compán, Victoria; de Miguel, Eugenio; Font, Pilar; Clavaguera, Teresa; Linares, Luis Francisco; Joven, Beatriz; Juanola, Xavier

    2018-05-08

    To study whether disease status at treatment initiation has changed after the issue of the ASAS classification criteria. REGISPONSERBIO registers patients with axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) on biological treatment since 2013. It includes patients starting biological treatment (incident) or already on biological therapies (prevalent). Patients in both groups were compared in terms of: age at disease onset and at treatment start, disease duration, gender, HLA-B27, body mass index (BMI), BASDAI, BASFI, C-reactive protein, ESR, metrological data, ASQoL, WAPAI, extra-articular manifestations, comorbidities, radiological study, type of biological treatment and concomitant treatments. 256 patients were included, of whom 174 (65%) were already on biologic therapy. Compared to incident patients, prevalent patients started treatment with longer disease duration (15 vs. 8.6 years; p<0.001), a higher proportion of them were men (83% vs. 67%; p=0.01), a smaller proportion of them showed non-radiographic axial spondylarthritis (nr-axSpA)(17% vs. 32%; p<0.01), and a higher proportion had HLAB27 (85% vs. 73%; p=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences in terms of disease activity, degree of disability, quality of life, or prevalence of extra-articular manifestations. Data suggest that, after the issue of the new classification criteria for SpA, biological therapy is being administered earlier than previously in SpA patients and in a higher proportion of patients with nr-axSpA. However, this change in prescribing profile, apparently, has not caused an over-treatment, as patients do not seem to have a lower disease burden than prior to the issue of the criteria.

  19. Travel opinion leaders and seekers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoo, Kyung-Hyan; Gretzel, Ulrike; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    While opinion leadership has been recognized as important in tourism, there has been very little empirical research investigating the phenomenon. Given new developments in social media technologies, it is especially important to understand whether travel opinion leadership and seeking are drivers...... of specific social media perceptions and behaviours. Based on an online survey of US online travellers, this paper seeks to identify travel opinion leaders and seekers and their characteristics. Further, the research conducted investigated linkages between travel opinion leadership/seeking and travel social...... media use. The findings suggest that travel opinion leadership and seeking are distinct but connected. Both opinion leaders and seekers are technology savvy, young, educated, involved in travel planning and engaged in social media use for travel. What distinguishes opinion leaders is their greater...

  20. To What Extent Do Biology Textbooks Contribute to Scientific Literacy? Criteria for Analysing Science-Technology-Society-Environment Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Florbela M.; Scharfenberg, Franz-Josef; Bogner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    Our article proposes a set of six criteria for analysing science-technology-society-environment (STSE) issues in regular textbooks as to how they are expected to contribute to students' scientific literacy. We chose genetics and gene technology as fields prolific in STSE issues. We derived our criteria (including 26 sub-criteria) from a literature…

  1. The Auditor's Going-Concern Opinion Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Tae G. Ryu; Chul-Young Roh

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we expand on several previous studies related to the materiality judgments and the auditor's propensity to issue a going-concern opinion to financially troubled but non-bankrupt companies. We test the auditor's materiality thresholds by investigating whether there is any significant difference in accuracy among audit firms, especially between Big Six (Five) and non-Big Six (Five) audit firms. Binary logit regression is used to analyze 1,332 firms that were non-bankrupt but fina...

  2. Studies in Swedish Energy Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren; Hedberg, Per

    2012-07-01

    -length studies of Swedish mass attitudes toward nuclear power appeared already in the late 1970-ies. Since then all SNES surveys have included measurements of Swedish opinions on various energy issues. A special election study was done in 1980 covering the nuclear power referendum. Beginning in 1986, SNES's election year measurements were supplemented by annual studies done by the newly founded SOM Institute at Univ. of Gothenburg. These annual measurements were from the start designed and coordinated by the research project Energy Opinion in Sweden, originally financially supported by the now non-existent National Board for Spent Fuel, but since 1999 financed by The Swedish Energy Agency. The analyses in the chapters in this English language book compendium have all been done and published under the auspices of the research project Energy Opinion in Sweden. The time span is quite long, over twenty years. The writing in Chapter 1 appeared already in 1991, while the results in Chapters 7 and 8 are from 2011.

  3. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  4. Recent advances, and unresolved issues, in the application of computational modelling to the prediction of the biological effects of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Nanomaterials research is one of the fastest growing contemporary research areas. The unprecedented properties of these materials have meant that they are being incorporated into products very quickly. Regulatory agencies are concerned they cannot assess the potential hazards of these materials adequately, as data on the biological properties of nanomaterials are still relatively limited and expensive to acquire. Computational modelling methods have much to offer in helping understand the mechanisms by which toxicity may occur, and in predicting the likelihood of adverse biological impacts of materials not yet tested experimentally. This paper reviews the progress these methods, particularly those QSAR-based, have made in understanding and predicting potentially adverse biological effects of nanomaterials, and also the limitations and pitfalls of these methods. - Highlights: • Nanomaterials regulators need good information to make good decisions. • Nanomaterials and their interactions with biology are very complex. • Computational methods use existing data to predict properties of new nanomaterials. • Statistical, data driven modelling methods have been successfully applied to this task. • Much more must be learnt before robust toolkits will be widely usable by regulators.

  5. [State school children's opinions regarding violence in the media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita S, Laura E

    2009-01-01

    To describe the opinion of schoolage children, from a public school, regarding the violence they perceive in the media. Descriptive-exploratory research with a sample, selected according to the child's age in a public school. Quantitative data were collected. There were found common issues related to the child's opinion about the violence present in the media such as frequent exposure to the media violence and lack of parental supervision. Social context and constant exposure to the media violence affect the children's opinion about the violence phenomenon and their predisposition to it.

  6. Your opinion counts

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The Human Resources Department will soon be launching an opinion poll for CERN staff members In his message to the CERN personnel, the new Director-General said "My New Year’s resolution involves managing CERN in a participative, democratic and inclusive manner". In the same spirit, the Human Resources (HR) Department plans to develop new channels of communication with CERN personnel. Dialogue is not always easy in an organization the size of CERN and, with this, its first survey, HR hopes to contribute towards it. In March this year, the HR Department will be sending an on-line questionnaire to all staff, giving you the opportunity to comment on your personal experiences of working life at CERN, your expectations and your commitment to the Organization. The initiative is the brainchild of the Head of the HR Department, Enrico Chiaveri, and the Deputy Department Head, Anne-Sylvie Catherin. A...

  7. 42 CFR 57.1511 - Opinion of legal counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... indebtedness to the lender, stating that the credit and security instruments executed by the applicant are duly... memorandum or opinion of legal counsel with respect to the legality of any proposed note issue, the legal authority of the applicant to issue the note and secure it by the proposed collateral, and the legality of...

  8. Mini Review - Analysis of Artemether and Dihydroartemisinin by high performance high liquid chromatography in biological fluids-issues and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shabana; Jafery, Nusrat; Farhat, Kulsoom; Waheed, Akbar

    2017-07-01

    Artemether-Lumefantrine is the most widely recommended antimalarial combination used to treat millions of patients suffering from malaria. Artemether undergoes rapid metabolism and gets converted to its active metabolite dihydroartemisisn. Drug analysis is a vital aspect to evaluate drugs in research. There are a number of methods available for the determination of artemether in biological fluids. These methods include HPLC based UV detection, GS-MS, HPLC-ECD and HPLC-MS/MS. This article reviews different methods for the determination of artemether in the biological fluids. Among the available methods HPLC-MS/MS proves to be the most accurate and reliable one for analysis. This has the advantage of improved sensitivity and selectivity with smaller sample volume.

  9. Opinions on Current Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents eight reviews of current books, covering issues of particular interest to black educators and historians. Topics considered include slavery, college admissions and affirmative action, the marginalization of black scientists, black politics, bigotry, and higher education. (SLD)

  10. How Public Opinion is Formed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Edward M.

    1977-01-01

    Investigates the evolution of the definition of public relations by examining cultural and personal determinants of public opinion. Outlines functions of communicators and opinionmakers in forming and influencing public opinion. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park,…

  11. Analysis of waste management issues arising from a field study evaluating decontamination of a biological agent from a building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, P; Wood, J; Drake, J; Minamyer, S; Silvestri, E; Yund, C; Nichols, T; Ierardi, M; Amidan, B

    2016-01-01

    The Bio-response Operational Testing and Evaluation (BOTE) Project was a cross-government effort designed to operationally test and evaluate a response to a biological incident (release of Bacillus anthracis [Ba] spores, the causative agent for anthrax) from initial public health and law enforcement response through environmental remediation. The BOTE Project was designed to address site remediation after the release of a Ba simulant, Bacillus atrophaeus spp. globigii (Bg), within a facility, drawing upon recent advances in the biological sampling and decontamination areas. A key component of response to a biological contamination incident is the proper management of wastes and residues, which is woven throughout all response activities. Waste is generated throughout the response and includes items like sampling media packaging materials, discarded personal protective equipment, items removed from the facility either prior to or following decontamination, aqueous waste streams, and materials generated through the application of decontamination technologies. The amount of residual contaminating agent will impact the available disposal pathways and waste management costs. Waste management is an integral part of the decontamination process and should be included through "Pre-Incident" response planning. Overall, the pH-adjusted bleach decontamination process generated the most waste from the decontamination efforts, and fumigation with chlorine dioxide generated the least waste. A majority of the solid waste generated during pH-adjusted bleach decontamination was the nonporous surfaces that were removed, bagged, decontaminated ex situ, and treated as waste. The waste during the two fumigation rounds of the BOTE Project was associated mainly with sampling activities. Waste management activities may represent a significant contribution to the overall cost of the response/recovery operation. This paper addresses the waste management activities for the BOTE field test

  12. Your opinion counts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Would you say that your work is stimulating? How do you feel about your working environment and working relationships? Are you proud to be part of this Organization? To find the answers to these questions, the Human Resources Department (HR) will be launching, for the first time, a staff member survey. Via an on-line questionnaire, you will have the opportunity to express your opinions about how you see your work, your expectations and your commitment to the Organization. This will promote dialogue at a turning point in CERN’s history with the start-up of the LHC. An HR steering group is now working on the preparation of this survey. A partnership is being developed with a university, which will play an active role in drawing up the questionnaire and will then carry out a confidential and objective analysis of your replies. Your participation will help the Management, in collaboration with HR, to identify action plans in line with the Organization’s aspirations and t...

  13. The ICRP opinion of the calculation of doses and risks associated with exposures to tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquetla, F.; Harrison, J.

    2009-01-01

    As the management of exposures to tritium, just like for other radionuclides, relies on the effective dose calculation, it also requires the application of coefficients to take the variety of radiations and the sensitivity of the different irradiated tissues into account. The authors discuss the determination and the use of the weighting factor (Wr) which reflects the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of different types of radiation. They outline that some researchers asked for a review of this factor, and that the RBE is related to several parameters. All this and other issues entail uncertainties. The authors then give the opinion of the ICRP on this issue and notably for the assessment of the individual risk of cancer after exposure to tritium

  14. Opinion dynamics with confirmation bias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen E Allahverdyan

    Full Text Available Confirmation bias is the tendency to acquire or evaluate new information in a way that is consistent with one's preexisting beliefs. It is omnipresent in psychology, economics, and even scientific practices. Prior theoretical research of this phenomenon has mainly focused on its economic implications possibly missing its potential connections with broader notions of cognitive science.We formulate a (non-Bayesian model for revising subjective probabilistic opinion of a confirmationally-biased agent in the light of a persuasive opinion. The revision rule ensures that the agent does not react to persuasion that is either far from his current opinion or coincides with it. We demonstrate that the model accounts for the basic phenomenology of the social judgment theory, and allows to study various phenomena such as cognitive dissonance and boomerang effect. The model also displays the order of presentation effect-when consecutively exposed to two opinions, the preference is given to the last opinion (recency or the first opinion (primacy -and relates recency to confirmation bias. Finally, we study the model in the case of repeated persuasion and analyze its convergence properties.The standard Bayesian approach to probabilistic opinion revision is inadequate for describing the observed phenomenology of persuasion process. The simple non-Bayesian model proposed here does agree with this phenomenology and is capable of reproducing a spectrum of effects observed in psychology: primacy-recency phenomenon, boomerang effect and cognitive dissonance. We point out several limitations of the model that should motivate its future development.

  15. A Difference of Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliniak, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Disagreements are an inevitable part of life, but what happens if a school issue becomes truly divisive? It's impossible to go through this world without coming into conflict with someone at some point, and music educators are no more immune to this than anyone else. However, there are details and procedures peculiar to the teaching world, and…

  16. Opinion Change: Information or Partisanship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Mogens K.; Klemmensen, Robert; Leavitt, Thomas

    Currently two paradigms seek to explain how voters change their opinion when they are confronted with new information. One school argues that voters are bayesian updaters who rationally change their opinion. Another school argues that voters are inherently biased in their evaluation of new...... information. According to this line of thought voters are more likely to accept information that con_rms their opinion compared to information that contradict their point of view. Using a quasi experiment we investigate the extent to which voters rely on bayesian updating or on motivated reasoning when...

  17. Nuclear installations inspectorate a public opinion survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennie, S.E.; Davies, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (HMNII) is the regulator responsible for the safety of licensed nuclear sites in the UK. Recognizing the need for public approval on future policy with respect to nuclear waste management, the NII commissioned a public opinion research programme amongst the UK general public. Opinion was sought on a number of issues including attitudes towards the industry in general, perception of nuclear waste and its management, tolerability of risk and attitudes towards current decommissioning plans. In response to the primary objectives of the survey the main findings are: current spontaneous level of concern over the industry in general is low (7%), and lower still for nuclear waste (3%). However, on prompting, 47% of respondents were very concerned about nuclear waste. Top of mind issues of concern about the industry are: nuclear waste; risk of accidents; health risks. Personal risk from nuclear waste is not of overt concern and is significantly less worrisome to respondents than risk from diseases like meningitis or cancer, smoking or road accidents. On being presented with a statement describing current UK decommissioning plans, the sample was generally in favour. However, this issue will require further research. (authors)

  18. Opinion dynamics on an adaptive random network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benczik, I. J.; Benczik, S. Z.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2009-04-01

    We revisit the classical model for voter dynamics in a two-party system with two basic modifications. In contrast to the original voter model studied in regular lattices, we implement the opinion formation process in a random network of agents in which interactions are no longer restricted by geographical distance. In addition, we incorporate the rapidly changing nature of the interpersonal relations in the model. At each time step, agents can update their relationships. This update is determined by their own opinion, and by their preference to make connections with individuals sharing the same opinion, or rather with opponents. In this way, the network is built in an adaptive manner, in the sense that its structure is correlated and evolves with the dynamics of the agents. The simplicity of the model allows us to examine several issues analytically. We establish criteria to determine whether consensus or polarization will be the outcome of the dynamics and on what time scales these states will be reached. In finite systems consensus is typical, while in infinite systems a disordered metastable state can emerge and persist for infinitely long time before consensus is reached.

  19. The spreading of opposite opinions on online social networks with authoritative nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shu; Tang, Shaoting; Pei, Sen; Jiang, Shijin; Zhang, Xiao; Ding, Wenrui; Zheng, Zhiming

    2013-09-01

    The study of opinion dynamics, such as spreading and controlling of rumors, has become an important issue on social networks. Numerous models have been devised to describe this process, including epidemic models and spin models, which mainly focus on how opinions spread and interact with each other, respectively. In this paper, we propose a model that combines the spreading stage and the interaction stage for opinions to illustrate the process of dispelling a rumor. Moreover, we set up authoritative nodes, which disseminate positive opinion to counterbalance the negative opinion prevailing on online social networking sites. With analysis of the relationship among positive opinion proportion, opinion strength and the density of authoritative nodes in networks with different topologies, we demonstrate that the positive opinion proportion grows with the density of authoritative nodes until the positive opinion prevails in the entire network. In particular, the relationship is linear in homogeneous topologies. Besides, it is also noteworthy that initial locations of the negative opinion source and authoritative nodes do not influence positive opinion proportion in homogeneous networks but have a significant impact on heterogeneous networks. The results are verified by numerical simulations and are helpful to understand the mechanism of two different opinions interacting with each other on online social networking sites.

  20. Leader's opinion priority bounded confidence model for network opinion evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meixia; Xie, Guangqiang

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at the weight of trust someone given to participate in the interaction in Hegselmann-Krause's type consensus model is the same and virtual social networks among individuals with different level of education, personal influence, etc. For differences between agents, a novelty bounded confidence model was proposed with leader's opinion considered priority. Interaction neighbors can be divided into two kinds. The first kind is made up of "opinion leaders" group, another kind is made up of ordinary people. For different groups to give different weights of trust. We also analyzed the related characteristics of the new model under the symmetrical bounded confidence parameters and combined with the classical HK model were analyzed. Simulation experiment results show that no matter the network size and initial view is subject to uniform distribution or discrete distribution. We can control the "opinion-leader" good change the number of views and values, and even improve the convergence speed. Experiment also found that the choice of "opinion leaders" is not the more the better, the model well explain how the "opinion leader" in the process of the evolution of the public opinion play the role of the leader.

  1. Abbott Opinions #1-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Law Center, Inc., Newark, NJ.

    This document contains the following "Abbott Opinions": (1) "Early Childhood Education"; (2) "Adequate School Facilities"; (3) "Supplemental Programs and Whole School Reform in Elementary Schools"; (4) "Supplemental Programs in Middle and High Schools"; and (5) "Planning Programs and Budgets…

  2. Evolution of floral symmetry Peter K Endress, Current Opinion in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Evolution of floral symmetry Peter K Endress, Current Opinion in Plant Biology 2001, 4:86–91. Polysymmetric (more than one plane of symmetry) to monosymmetric in angiosperm (flowering plants) evolution; the other way in Antirrhinaceae. Left and right handed helicity. Bees ...

  3. An exploratory survey of male and female learner opinions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An exploratory survey was undertaken to determine whether secondary school learners have certain preferences regarding the biology they study at school and whether learners from co-educational and single-sex schools hold the same opinions. A survey schedule comprising two components was developed. The first ...

  4. Chernobyl, an opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freslon, Herve; Vignon, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    After having recalled the circumstances of the Chernobyl accident, and given some indications of associated releases (iodine 131, caesium 134 and 137), the authors gives an overview of biological effects of radiations: generalities (doses, biological effects), results of epidemiological studies in terms of stochastic effects of radiations (for survivals of atomic explosions, in other epidemiological studies, in epidemiological studies related to thyroid), of relationship between dose and effect in the case of low doses (generalities, risk coefficients), and of extrapolation. In the next part, the authors discuss the health consequences of the accident in the former USSR and in the world: consequences noticed by the end of 2000 (non stochastic effects, stochastic effects like occurrence of thyroid cancers or of leukaemia, exposed populations, occurrence of other cancers), predictions of impacts and death on a long term due to stochastic effects (for thyroid cancers, leukaemia and other cancers), global assessment. Then, they discuss the impact of the Chernobyl accident: generalities, doses delivered to the whole body, thyroid cancers

  5. Model Attorney General's Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  6. The rational thinking of expert opinion and communicating in courtroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the past half century, expert testimony has played an increasingly important role in Chinese litigation. As the amount of expert testimony has grown, the issues about its admissibility and scientific foundation related to evidence are becoming to be questioned commonly. Since eighteenth central committee (China adopted the decision of the Central Committee of China on several important issues in promoting the legal system, the evidence was redefined to become the predominance in the whole proceeding. This article reviews the expert knowledge implicit in the opinions. It argues that the expert opinions ask judges to be aware of the role of communicationg between participants. Expert opinion is not only gained from laboratory, but also socially constructed in the rational expression and communication, which requir us think logically in terms of legal perceptions of science and expert knowledge in the empirical world.

  7. The role of opinion research in communications programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Nirex is a company financed by the UK nuclear industry to dispose of intermediate and some long-lived low-level radioactive waste. The company has no responsibility for high-level radioactive waste. Most low-level waste is disposed of at a shallow site owned by BNFL, one of Nirex's shareholders. At Nirex, we use opinion research in a number of ways: as a map to guide communications programmes; to set baselines and targets to isolate issues of concern to our publics. The Company carries out market research covering three key audiences: the general public, politicians, and journalists. For Nirex, opinion research is a map. It guides our communication programmes in dealing with our key audiences. Without it, we would be driving blind. Opinion research allows us to isolate key issues for communication. It also allows us to measure performance and to see which initiatives are successful and which are not

  8. Opinion dynamics in activity-driven networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Han, Dun; Ma, Jing; Sun, Mei; Tian, Lixin; Khouw, Timothy; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2017-10-01

    Social interaction between individuals constantly affects the development of their personal opinions. Previous models such as the Deffuant model and the Hegselmann-Krause (HK) model have assumed that individuals only update their opinions after interacting with neighbors whose opinions are similar to their own. However, people are capable of communicating widely with all of their neighbors to gather their ideas and opinions, even if they encounter a number of opposing attitudes. We propose a model in which agents listen to the opinions of all their neighbors. Continuous opinion dynamics are investigated in activity-driven networks with a tolerance threshold. We study how the initial opinion distribution, tolerance threshold, opinion-updating speed, and activity rate affect the evolution of opinion. We find that when the initial fraction of positive opinion is small, all opinions become negative by the end of the simulation. As the initial fraction of positive opinions rises above a certain value —about 0.45— the final fraction of positive opinions sharply increases and eventually equals 1. Increased tolerance threshold δ is found to lead to a more varied final opinion distribution. We also find that if the negative opinion has an initial advantage, the final fraction of negative opinion increases and reaches its peak as the updating speed λ approaches 0.5. Finally we show that the lower the activity rate of individuals, the greater the fluctuation range of their opinions.

  9. Radiation safety and formation of public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qurbanov, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Team-administrative system of long years has been a reason of environmental pollution and health consequences and still does. This includes soil pollution with pesticides, ecological condition of micro and macro flora of the Caspian Sea, soil pollution with oil, deforestation and etc. Scientists and environmental NGOs have given some information to public and public opinion has already been formed on this issue. But public opinion is not necessarily formed on radiation - the most important and invisible problem. The reason of this is that radiation danger has been hidden as a closed theme from the public. After the soviet collapse this problem is also being revealed. Number of NGOs have held the seminar on this issue and given some information to public. The researches cover the following problems:To hold the public monitoring in the fields polluted with oil and separate it from the other fields by determining the fields polluted with radiation. To take measures in order to prevent public entrance to these fields; To inform about the usage of radiation based equipment in the industrial fields and to hold the regular monitoring; To advertise the differential signs of radiation sources in the city landfill and other polluted zones; To broaden the advocacy on ultraviolet rays and their influence to human health; To disseminate the brochures and advertisement papers on high technical radiation and their influence to human health; To analyze the radio environmental condition around the Gabala Radar Station; To advocate the possible radiation danger in using the x-ray and other medical equipment; Analyze the possible radon danger in shipping materials; To create the idea on possible transition of radioactive gases and elements from neighbor countries; Creation of idea on possible danger around the high voltage. The formation of public opinion on mentioned problem will depend on combining the scientists' and NGOs activities

  10. Plutonium - the ultrapoison? An expert's opinion about an expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, W.; Becker, K.

    1989-01-01

    In an expert opinion written by Professor H. Kuni, Marburg, for the North Rhine-Westphalian state government, plutonium is called by far the most dangerous element in the Periodic Table. The Marburg medical expert holds that even improved legal instruments are unable to warrant effective protection of the workers handling this material, in the light of the present standards of industrial safety, because of radiological conditions and measuring problems with plutonium isotopes. In this article by an internationally renowned expert in the field, the ideas expressed in the expert opinion about the toxicity of plutonium, the cause-and-effect relationship in radiation damage by plutonium, and recent findings about the toxicity are subjected to a critical review. On the basis of results of radiation protection and of case studies, the statements in the expert opinion are contrasted with facts which make them appear in a very different light. (orig./RB) [de

  11. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  12. Moral opinion polarization and the erosion of trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin

    2016-01-01

    generalized trust, we focus on opinion polarization as another potential impact factor on trust. In more detail, we investigate the extent to which polarization over morally charged issues such as homsexuality, abortion and euthanasia affects individuals' likelihood to trust others. We hypothesize that moral...

  13. Opinion: Autopsy practice in northern Nigeria | Malami | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Surgical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 3 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Opinion: Autopsy practice in northern Nigeria.

  14. The Misperception of Public Opinion Toward Capital Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarrell, Edmund F.; Sandys, Marla

    1996-01-01

    Contends that often lawmakers misread their constituents' opinions on important issues. Presents data from an Indiana survey that suggest support for the death penalty vanishes when citizens are given the option of life in prison without possibility of parole combined with a requirement of work and restitution. (MJP)

  15. Current Opinion on Nanotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pourmand

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is one of the premiere technologies available today, having expanded both as field of scientific study and in the public consciousness. Despite this growth, the drawbacks, limitations and potential safety hazards associated with the incorporation of nanotechnology into existing industries are still being learned. Thenoticeable point is that there is no enough data available yet to analyze global use of nanotechnology from a meta-perspective. Three challenges can be defined in light of nanotoxicology. One, materials that might prove to be significantly toxic must be identified. Two, a system for the categorization of NP materials must be codified andmade available to toxicologists. Third, a better understanding of nanoparticles biological interactions must be obtained, in order to make the best use of the first two goals. For all three, it must be remembered that research standards need to be developed for the gathering of data on the nanoscale, as that level is where the NPs and the patient’s biosystems will be interacting.As requiring toxicologists to become nanotechnology experts would not be feasible, to properly incorporate the care of nanotoxicity into the existing medical framework, a range of experts across multiple fields of study must work in close synchronization. The focus needs to be on mechanism-driven research to ensure a solid scientificfoundation for the assessment of NP and their role in healthcare.

  16. Current Opinion on Nanotoxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourmand Ali

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology is one of the premiere technologies available today, having expanded both as field of scientific study and in the public consciousness. Despite this growth, the drawbacks, limitations and potential safety hazards associated with the incorporation of nanotechnology into existing industries are still being learned. The noticeable point is that there is no enough data available yet to analyze global use of nanotechnology from a meta-perspective. Three challenges can be defined in light of nanotoxicology. One, materials that might prove to be significantly toxic must be identified. Two, a system for the categorization of NP materials must be codified and made available to toxicologists. Third, a better understanding of nanoparticles biological interactions must be obtained, in order to make the best use of the first two goals. For all three, it must be remembered that research standards need to be developed for the gathering of data on the nanoscale, as that level is where the NPs and the patient’s biosystems will be interacting. As requiring toxicologists to become nanotechnology experts would not be feasible, to properly incorporate the care of nanotoxicity into the existing medical framework, a range of experts across multiple fields of study must work in close synchronization. The focus needs to be on mechanism-driven research to ensure a solid scientific foundation for the assessment of NP and their role in healthcare.

  17. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  18. Ethical issues in the export, storage and reuse of human biological samples in biomedical research: perspectives of key stakeholders in Ghana and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindana, Paulina; Molyneux, Catherine S; Bull, Susan; Parker, Michael

    2014-10-18

    For many decades, access to human biological samples, such as cells, tissues, organs, blood, and sub-cellular materials such as DNA, for use in biomedical research, has been central in understanding the nature and transmission of diseases across the globe. However, the limitations of current ethical and regulatory frameworks in sub-Saharan Africa to govern the collection, export, storage and reuse of these samples have resulted in inconsistencies in practice and a number of ethical concerns for sample donors, researchers and research ethics committees. This paper examines stakeholders' perspectives of and responses to the ethical issues arising from these research practices. We employed a qualitative strategy of inquiry for this research including in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with key research stakeholders in Kenya (Nairobi and Kilifi), and Ghana (Accra and Navrongo). The stakeholders interviewed emphasised the compelling scientific importance of sample export, storage and reuse, and acknowledged the existence of some structures governing these research practices, but they also highlighted the pressing need for a number of practical ethical concerns to be addressed in order to ensure high standards of practice and to maintain public confidence in international research collaborations. These concerns relate to obtaining culturally appropriate consent for sample export and reuse, understanding cultural sensitivities around the use of blood samples, facilitating a degree of local control of samples and sustainable scientific capacity building. Drawing on these findings and existing literature, we argue that the ethical issues arising in practice need to be understood in the context of the interactions between host research institutions and local communities and between collaborating institutions. We propose a set of 'key points-to-consider' for research institutions, ethics committees and funding agencies to address these issues.

  19. Knowledge and Opinion on the Nuclear Freeze: A Test of Three Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankard, James W., Jr.

    To explore how knowledge influences opinion in foreign policy, results of a survey on voter familiarity with and attitude toward nuclear policy issues were compared with three theoretical models of the knowledge/opinion relationship: (1) the enlightenment model--as knowledge increases, support for belligerent foreign policy stands decreases; (2)…

  20. Genetically modified foods in the opinion of the second-year students of biology, biotechnology and tourism and recreation of the Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmielewski Jarosław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess knowledge of and to identify awareness in second-year students of biology, biotechnology and tourism and recreation, regarding the use of genetically modified organisms (GMO in food. The analysis of obtained results shows that about 98% of respondents know the concept of GMO and highly appreciate their knowledge of this topic. The main source of knowledge about GMO for the students is the Internet and the University. It is worth noting that 59% of respondents are aware of the use of GMO in food, while more than half do not know how the GMO in food should be labeled. In particular, students of biotechnology showed a distinctive knowledge about GMO. Over half of students of the Jan Kochanowski University in the fields of biology, biotechnology, and tourism and recreation (55% recognized that the use of GMO poses a threat to human health.

  1. Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Sentiment analysis and opinion mining is the field of study that analyzes people's opinions, sentiments, evaluations, attitudes, and emotions from written language. It is one of the most active research areas in natural language processing and is also widely studied in data mining, Web mining, and text mining. In fact, this research has spread outside of computer science to the management sciences and social sciences due to its importance to business and society as a whole. The growing importance of sentiment analysis coincides with the growth of social media such as reviews, forum discussions

  2. Urban Sloths: Public Knowledge, Opinions, and Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissia Ferreira Pereira

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-range sloths living in an urban environment are rare. In this study, the opinions, attitudes, and interactions with a population of Bradypus variegatus were investigated through short, structured interviews of people in the pubic square where the sloths live, in addition to informal, opportunistic observations of human-sloth interactions. A questionnaire was applied to people in the square where the sloths reside, and informal, opportunistic observations of human-sloth interactions were made. 95% of respondents knew of the sloths’ existence in the square and 87.8% liked their presence. Opinions about population size differed greatly and younger people were concerned as to whether the square was an appropriate place for them. Some human-sloth interactions showed the consequences of a lack of biological knowledge. People initiated all sloth-human interactions. The fact that sloths are strictly folivorous has avoided interactions with humans and, consequently, mitigated any negative impacts of the human-animal interaction on their wellbeing. These results demonstrate that, while there is a harmonious relationship between people and sloths, actions in environmental education of the square’s public could be beneficial for the sloths.

  3. Public opinion on Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Hirotada

    2013-01-01

    This article showed trend of public opinion on nuclear power after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, for which the survey had been done five times under the same method and inquiries. Most unreliable source of information at disaster was government ministries and offices, whose unreliability sharply increased from 20% to about 50% after 3 months later and one year later after March 11 and reliability after 2 year and 5 months later (August 2013) was not high and almost comparable with unreliability of 27%. Nuclear disaster was most serious cause of Great East Japan earthquake disaster (60%) and not entirely ended due to such increase of contaminated water. Public opinion survey in August 2013 showed nuclear power stoppage totaled about 80% with immediate of about 30% and phaseout of about 50%, and possibility of occurrence of another nuclear accident comparable with Fukushima disaster was almost 80% with a belief not only earthquakes, tsunamis, terrorism but also human errors might initiate nuclear disaster if nuclear power restarted. Future most serious disaster would be earthquake (50%) and nuclear disaster (35%). Nuclear accident preparedness of government and local government was not enough (58% and 24%) and nothing (33% and 24%). Residents within UPZ (Urgent Protection action Planning Zone) of 30 km radius could not evacuate safely (57%) and entirely (22%). If government and local government encouraged damaged residents to come home with declaration of safety for evacuation area of nuclear accident, damaged residents might not return almost (46%) and entirely (9%). Notwithstanding people's strong feeling against nuclear power, LDP (Liberal Democratic Party) promoting nuclear power won an overwhelming victory at the election of House of Councilors in July 2013. Public opinion survey in August 2013 showed most important issue of voters was party's image (25%), economic measures (20%) and candidate's personality (13%), and nuclear power policy was only 5%. (T

  4. The effect of network biology on drug toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Laurent; Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The high failure rate of drug candidates due to toxicity, during clinical trials, is a critical issue in drug discovery. Network biology has become a promising approach, in this regard, using the increasingly large amount of biological and chemical data available and combining...... it with bioinformatics. With this approach, the assessment of chemical safety can be done across multiple scales of complexity from molecular to cellular and system levels in human health. Network biology can be used at several levels of complexity. Areas covered: This review describes the strengths and limitations...... of network biology. The authors specifically assess this approach across different biological scales when it is applied to toxicity. Expert opinion: There has been much progress made with the amount of data that is generated by various omics technologies. With this large amount of useful data, network...

  5. EFSA Panels on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), and on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (swine)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative risk assessment identified Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of swine. A comprehensive pork carcass safety assurance is the only way to ensure their effective...... treatments if necessary. At farm level, risk reduction measures are based on herd health programmes, closed breeding pyramids and GHP/GFP. Chemical substances listed in Council Directive 96/23/EC were ranked into four categories. Dioxins, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and chloramphenicol were ranked...

  6. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of the potential establishment of the apple snail in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH)

    2013-01-01

    EFSA requested the PLH Panel to review the current state of the art of the biology and ecology of apple snails, reported in this opinion, and to perform an environmental risk assessment for validation of the Plant Health environment guidance document, which will be provided in a second opinion. The Panel presents in this opinion the current state of the art of the biology of apple snails, and develops and uses a population dynamics model to assess the potential establishment of apple snails i...

  7. Public opinion and terrorist acts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malečková, Jitka; Stanišić, Dragana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 27, Sup. 1 (2011), S107-S121 ISSN 0176-2680 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : support for terrorism * public opinion * international terrorism Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.437, year: 2011

  8. Opinion Summarizationof CustomerComments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Miao; Wu, Guoshi

    Web 2.0 technologies have enabled more and more customers to freely comment on different kinds of entities, such as sellers, products and services. The large scale of information poses the need and challenge of automatic summarization. In many cases, each of the user-generated short comments implies the opinions which rate the target entity. In this paper, we aim to mine and to summarize all the customer comments of a product. The algorithm proposed in this researchis more reliable on opinion identification because it is unsupervised and the accuracy of the result improves as the number of comments increases. Our research is performed in four steps: (1) mining the frequent aspects of a product that have been commented on by customers; (2) mining the infrequent aspects of a product which have been commented by customers (3) identifying opinion words in each comment and deciding whether each opinion word is positive, negative or neutral; (4) summarizing the comments. This paper proposes several novel techniques to perform these tasks. Our experimental results using comments of a number of products sold online demonstrate the effectiveness of the techniques.

  9. Public opinion, information and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De La Poza Galiano, A.

    1994-01-01

    The molding of public opinion by media, concerning nuclear energy, is analyzed, and the assumptions such as: nuclear plants equal atomic bombs or 'nuclear plants, no thanks', are emphasized. A response to this media hammering in Spain has been developed through teachers' education seminars organized by the Spanish Atomic forum and the Book on Energy, edited by specialized educators

  10. Nonconformity defines the self: the role of minority opinion status in self-concept clarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kimberly Rios; Wheeler, S Christian

    2010-03-01

    Drawing on distinctiveness and social identity theories, the present studies tested whether minority opinion holders would have a more clearly defined sense of self than majority opinion holders. In Study 1, participants who were induced to believe that they held a minority opinion on a controversial issue had higher subsequent self-concept clarity scores than did those who were induced to believe that they held a majority opinion, controlling for self-esteem. Furthermore, the relationship between minority opinion status and self-concept clarity was strongest among participants whose opinions were highly expressive of their values (Studies 2 and 3), as well as among participants who identified strongly with the group in which they were a minority (Study 3). Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  11. How does public opinion become extreme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D S; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A

    2015-05-19

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are "very conservative" versus "moderate to very conservative" ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual "stubbornness" that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to extreme views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people's ties.

  12. How does public opinion become extreme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Marlon; Shao, Jia; Reis, Saulo D. S.; Anteneodo, Celia; Andrade, José S.; Havlin, Shlomo; Makse, Hernán A.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme opinion trends in society by employing statistical physics modeling and analysis on polls that inquire about a wide range of issues such as religion, economics, politics, abortion, extramarital sex, books, movies, and electoral vote. The surveys lay out a clear indicator of the rise of extreme views. The precursor is a nonlinear relation between the fraction of individuals holding a certain extreme view and the fraction of individuals that includes also moderates, e.g., in politics, those who are “very conservative” versus “moderate to very conservative” ones. We propose an activation model of opinion dynamics with interaction rules based on the existence of individual “stubbornness” that mimics empirical observations. According to our modeling, the onset of nonlinearity can be associated to an abrupt bootstrap-percolation transition with cascades of extreme views through society. Therefore, it represents an early-warning signal to forecast the transition from moderate to extreme views. Moreover, by means of a phase diagram we can classify societies according to the percolative regime they belong to, in terms of critical fractions of extremists and people’s ties.

  13. Major Deficiencies Preventing Auditors From Rendering Audit Opinions on DOD General Fund Financial Statements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rauu, Russell

    1995-01-01

    .... We plan to issue a similar report each year. The audit objective was to identify and summarize the major deficiencies that prevented auditors from rendering audit opinions, other than disclaimers, on Army and Air Force general fund financial...

  14. Regulatory and biosafety issues in relation to transgenic animals in food and agriculture, feeds containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) and veterinary biologics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochhar, H.P.S.; Gifford, G.A.; Kahn, S.

    2005-01-01

    Development of an effective regulatory system for genetically engineered animals and their products has been the subject of increasing discussion among researchers, industry and policy developers, as well as the public. Since transgenesis and cloning are relatively new scientific techniques, transgenic animals are new organisms for which there is limited information. The issues associated with the regulation and biosafety of transgenic animals pertain to environmental impact, human food safety, animal health and welfare, trade and ethics. To regulate this new and powerful technology predicated on limited background information is a challenge not only for the regulators, but also for the developers of such animals, who strive to prove that the animals are safe and merit bio-equivalency to their conventional counterparts. In principle, an effective regulatory sieve should permit safe products while forming a formidable barrier for those assessed of posing an unacceptable risk. Adoption of transgenic technology for use in agriculture will depend upon various factors that range from perceived benefits for humans and animals, to safe propagation, animal welfare considerations and integrity of species, as well as effects on bio-diversity. A regulatory framework designed to address the concerns connected with the environmental release of transgenic animals needs to also take into account the ability of genetically modified animals to survive and compete with conventional populations. Regulatory initiatives for biotechnology-derived animals and their products should ensure high standards for human and animal health; a sound scientific basis for evaluation; transparency and public involvement; and maintenance of genetic diversity. Feeds obtained by use of biotechnology have to be evaluated for animal and human safety by using parameters that define their molecular characterization, nutritional qualities and toxicological aspects, while veterinary biologics derived from

  15. EFSA Panels on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ), on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM), and on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW); Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat (poultry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    2012-01-01

    be risk categorisation of flocks based on FCI and classification of abattoirs according to their capability to reduce carcass faecal contamination. It is proposed that post-mortem visual inspection is replaced by setting targets for the main hazards on the carcass, and by verification of the food business......A qualitative risk assessment identified Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and ESBL/AmpC gene-carrying bacteria as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of poultry. As none of these are detected by traditional visual meat inspection, establishing an integrated...... food safety assurance system, achievable through improved food chain information (FCI) and risk-based interventions, was proposed. This includes setting targets at carcass level and, when appropriate, flock level indicating what should be achieved for a given hazard. Elements of the system would...

  16. University Students' Opinions Concerning Science-Technology-Society Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolu, Gamze

    2016-01-01

    Determining what students think about science, technology, and society (STS) is of great importance. This also provides the basis for scientific literacy. As such, this study was conducted with a total of 102 senior students attending a university located in western Turkey. This study utilized the survey model as a research model and the…

  17. Opinion of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists on Ethical Issues in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... or framework which should be developed, implemented and its implementation ... les conclusions d'une publication antérieure, prouvant clairement que, même ... mis en application et son application doit être contrôlée par un organisme ...

  18. The inaugural issue of Current Opinion in Toxicology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Martin; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2016-01-01

    During the 20th century the industrial revolution has allowed mankind to synthesize a tremendous number of synthetic chemicals, which without doubt provided us with many beneficial aspects in our way of living. However, not all chemicals that were synthesized were later found to be harmless for

  19. Are public opinion polls self-fulfilling prophecies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rothschild

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Psychologists have long observed that people conform to majority opinion, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as the ‘bandwagon effect’. In the political domain people learn about prevailing public opinion via ubiquitous polls, which may produce a bandwagon effect. Newer types of information – published probabilities derived from prediction market contract prices and aggregated polling summaries – may have similar effects. Consequently, polls can become self-fulfilling prophecies whereby majorities, whether in support of candidates or policies, grow in a cascading manner. Despite increased attention to whether the measurement of public opinion can itself affect public opinion, the existing empirical literature is surprisingly limited on the bandwagon effects of polls. To address this gap, we conducted an experiment on a diverse national sample in which we randomly assigned people to receive information about different levels of support for three public policies. We find that public opinion as expressed through polls affects individual-level attitudes, although the size of the effect depends on issue characteristics.

  20. Sifting Through Chaos: Extracting Information from Unstructured Legal Opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno Miguel; Guimarães, Rui Vasconcellos; Antunes, Luís; Rodrigues, Pedro Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Abiding to the law is, in some cases, a delicate balance between the rights of different players. Re-using health records is such a case. While the law grants reuse rights to public administration documents, in which health records produced in public health institutions are included, it also grants privacy to personal records. To safeguard a correct usage of data, public hospitals in Portugal employ jurists that are responsible for allowing or withholding access rights to health records. To help decision making, these jurists can consult the legal opinions issued by the national committee on public administration documents usage. While these legal opinions are of undeniable value, due to their doctrine contribution, they are only available in a format best suited from printing, forcing individual consultation of each document, with no option, whatsoever of clustered search, filtering or indexing, which are standard operations nowadays in a document management system. When having to decide on tens of data requests a day, it becomes unfeasible to consult the hundreds of legal opinions already available. With the objective to create a modern document management system, we devised an open, platform agnostic system that extracts and compiles the legal opinions, ex-tracts its contents and produces metadata, allowing for a fast searching and filtering of said legal opinions.

  1. Democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russett, B.

    1989-01-01

    To the degree that people's fears of nuclear war are deep and pervasive, they become subject to manipulation by cynical or politically utopian promises, whether those promises be to abolish nuclear weapons from the earth or to create a leakproof peace shield (SDI). But the basic yearning for protection could also be mobilized to support serious arms reduction and arms control agreements. Nuclear weapons provide the basis for a vivid form of symbolic politics, perhaps equivalent in foreign policy considerations to the Korean and Vietnam wars during their durations, and in similar ways (although not necessarily as severe) as unemployment does among domestic policy issues. This paper presents survey research directed specifically at the role of public opinion on nuclear imagery (difference between expectation of nuclear war versus any kind of weapon war; willingness to spend on nuclear weapons versus conventional ones or general defense spending) can help in understanding these phenomena

  2. In black and white: Media's role in shaping public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi Yearn-hong

    2004-01-01

    In a modern, democratic society, the newspaper's role is important and critical in shaping citizens' opinions on nuclear power and other issues. Citizens acquire knowledge on current issues in their society, nation, and the world through newspapers. Today, television and internet media is increasingly becoming more popular among citizens, but newspaper media continues to affect intellectual citizens, policy makers and think tanks. Therefore, assessing major daily newspaper editorials covering nuclear issues and affairs is necessary for their sound bridging between nuclear science and engineering and the public. Bridging the two cultures, science and humanities, is an enormous task for modern democratic society

  3. More than 30 years of opinion of French people on nuclear risks - Special release of the 2012 IRSN opinion survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Rollinger, Francois; Mur, Emmanuelle; Schuler, Matthieu; Tchernia, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    Illustrated by many graphs and tables, this report comments and discusses the evolution of opinion surveys performed in France on the perception of nuclear risks through thirty annual IRSN opinion surveys. It appears that the opinion on nuclear is rather steady, and that French people have a rather rational perception of risk hierarchy. The first part outlines that unemployment is the main concern for French people, and that environmental concerns depend on current events. The second part analyses the perception of the nuclear risk with respect to other societal concerns and to other risks, and discusses the evolution of opinion from a quantitative to a qualitative sensitivity. The third part addresses the representations people have of nuclear activities and how they challenge the reality: perception of nuclear plants and of radioactive wastes, fear of a serious accident. The last part deals with issues related to responsibilities, abilities and governance: how actors of nuclear risk management are perceived, and expectations in terms of transparency and opinion plurality

  4. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-06-08

    Jun 8, 2017 ... jiroveci. Most of them had recently been diagnosed with Kaposi sarcoma, a rare malignancy, which is the "trademark" of this new immune .... De Buck E, Dieltjens T, Compernolle V, Vandekerckhove P. Is having sex with other ...

  5. OPINION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... THE SOUTHERN AFRICAN JOURNAL OF HIV MEDICINE. 14 ... In this article, we explore how three factors (a belief .... Delius P, Glaser C. The myths of polygamy: a history of extra-marital and multi-partnership sex in South.

  6. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-07-24

    Jul 24, 2012 ... Challenges in disclosure of adverse events and errors in surgery; perspectives from sub-Saharan Africa. Abdulrasheed Ibrahim1,&, Ekundayo Stephen Garba1, Malachy Eneye Asuku1. 1Department of surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital P.M.B 06 Shika Zaria, Nigeria. &Corresponding ...

  7. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-23

    Aug 23, 2011 ... Reporting epidemics: newspapers, information dissemination and the story of Ebola in the Ugandan district of Luweero. Allan Mwesiga1,&. 1Pan African Medical Journal, African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET), Kampala, Uganda. &Corresponding author: Pan African Medical Journal, African Field ...

  8. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-02-10

    Feb 10, 2015 ... thrombophilia, an antiphospholipids syndrome, Behçet´s disease and neoplasia. Medical therapy and surgical resection can be mentioned these thrombotic complication. Surgical treatment could be considered because the right atrial thrombus was mobile and it caused a massive pulmonary embolism.

  9. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    23 mai 2011 ... Abstract. Le Cameroun utilise un système de budgétisation historique et une approche «top - down» pour allouer ses ressources de santé publique. Cependant, le pays compte 175 districts de santé dont les fortes disparités de nature épidémiologique, économique, géographique et culturelle, devraient ...

  10. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... In Kenya, universities offering undergraduate training in medicine include the university of Nairobi and Moi .... road traffic accident. .... more knowledgeable about its pharmacology but because they have the solution that will.

  11. Opinion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    endeavours in such fields as the short-story, the novel, folklore, criticisms and play writing, it is not hard to ... tively little critical attention deserving of his three or so decades of artistic output. Apart from ... them current [have now] faded into the limbo of memory? .... to be desired as a novel in terms of fonn and style. After all the ...

  12. OPINION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    decrease trainee exposure to rare and complex as well as and to common paediatric surgical pathologies.1 ... nurses, anaesthetists and intensivists), and overall shortage of health care workers and resources pose ... order to gain the skills, knowledge and maturity necessary to practice independently as professionals.

  13. STEM field courses that increase interest, opinions and confidence in conservation- related fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. A.; Freeman, A. S.; Donovan, C.; Cooperstein, D.; Foellmer, M.; Ward, A.

    2016-12-01

    Students in the Environmental Studies and Biology programs at Adelphi University, situated in the NYC metropolitan area, have had little exposure to the outdoors or nature and are often reluctant to engage in field activities. We developed three courses to provide outdoor experiences at different levels of intensity, financial and travel/ time commitments. Adelphi in Australia is a three-week field course taught mostly at a marine station that includes day and night hikes, snorkeling on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and independent research. Adelphi in the U.S. Virgin Islands is a one-week field `starter course' focusing on snorkeling and hiking. Observing Nature is an on-campus, once a week course with nature-based readings, weekend hikes and camping. It was developed after Hurricane Sandy revealed a lack of experience and confidence living without some modern infrastructure. We evaluated student opinions, interests and career goals in a survey administered at the start and at the end of the course that focused on knowledge, skills, opinion, and interest in STEM. Opinion questions addressed confidence, awareness of conservation issues, and interest in outdoor activities. The survey confirmed most of our students have a limited relationship with the outdoors when they start our field classes. More than half had never camped. Most had learned about nature through school trips and family. When asked to rank hiking against other activities, the majority regularly placed hiking below `going to the beach' and 'watching a movie'. The post-survey asked how students would apply what they had learned (interest in the environment; staying in the sciences). The generally positive results indicate the courses play an important role in connecting our students with the outdoors, and may have a lasting impact if they in turn connect others or get involved with local conservation programs.

  14. Identifying Opinion Leaders to Promote Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Thomas W.; Pumpuang, Patchareeya

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews 10 techniques used to identify opinion leaders to promote behavior change. Opinion leaders can act as gatekeepers for interventions, help change social norms, and accelerate behavior change. Few studies document the manner in which opinion leaders are identified, recruited, and trained to promote health. The authors categorize…

  15. Changes in alcohol policies and public opinions in Finland 2003-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österberg, Esa; Lindeman, Mikaela; Karlsson, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    There is a constant and ongoing interplay between public opinions and public policies, alcohol policies being no exception. This article describes the development of public opinions regarding alcohol policy in Finland during a 10-year period between 2003 and 2013. Fluctuations in the alcohol policy opinion climate are put in context by looking at concurrent changes in alcohol policies and in total alcohol consumption. The study is based on data from opinion surveys on alcohol policies commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Welfare and the Finnish Social and Health Association. The opinion polls include questions about the general acceptance of prevailing alcohol policies, appropriate sales channels of different alcoholic beverage categories and opinions about the legal age limits and prices of alcoholic beverages. In the study, changes in alcohol policy during 2003-2013 are surveyed, and their relationship with changes in alcohol policy opinion is examined. There seem to be a strong positive correlation during the study period between the level of alcohol consumption and the share of those wanting a more restrictive alcohol policy in Finland. It seems that an increased level of awareness of alcohol-related issues among the general public created a more restrictive opinion climate on alcohol policy issues after the big alcohol excise duty decrease in 2004. The reverse seems to happen but in a lesser degree when alcohol excise duties has been increased after the year 2007. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Media Influence On Public Opinion Attitudes Toward The Migration Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Kosho

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many studies or facts from the practical experience of many journalist politicians and professors show that the media impact on public opinion is enormous and essential. Many issues of everyday life human crisis or mainstream policies once covered and analyzed from the lenses of the media become the main concerns of the citizens and have a meaningful impact on the attitudes of the public opinion. The migration crisis that is challenging the European countries nowadays is a big concern not only for the host countries citizens but a life challenge for the immigrants themselves. This study will examine of the connection between media reports on immigration and public attitudes and actions and how migration issues presented in the mainstream media impact the public and political discourse on international migration.

  17. Utility opinions on energy supply. Praise and reprimand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the opinions expressed by several electricity utilities on the cost-covering remuneration of electricity produced using renewable resources. Positive and negative aspects of the system - in the opinion of the utilities - are listed. Positive issues discussed include the improved economic viability of installations using renewable energy sources, preservation of know-how, increased use of renewables and the minimisation of economic risk for the builders of such installations. Negative issues noted include the general financial burden placed on all electricity consumers, the limits placed by parliament on the remuneration scheme, various hindrances still active in the implementation of such installations and possible competition with other schemes that further the use of electricity from renewable resources.

  18. Using the mixed media according to internet-based on the instructional multimedia for developing students' learning achievements in biology course on foundational cell issue of secondary students at the 10th grade level in Rangsit University demonstration school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangloan, Pichet; Chayaburakul, Kanokporn; Santiboon, Toansakul

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this research study were 1) to develop students' learning achievements in biology course on foundational cell issue, 2) to examine students' satisfactions of their learning activities through the mixed media according to internet-based multi-instruction in biology on foundational cell issue at the 10th grade level were used in the first semester in the academic year 2014, which a sample size of 17 students in Rangsit University Demonstration School with cluster random sampling was selected. Students' learning administrations were instructed with the 3-instructional lesson plans according to the 5-Step Ladder Learning Management Plan (LLMP) namely; the maintaining lesson plan on the equilibrium of cell issue, a lesson plan for learning how to communicate between cell and cell division. Students' learning achievements were assessed with the 30-item Assessment of Learning Biology Test (ALBT), students' perceptions of their satisfactions were satisfied with the 20-item Questionnaire on Students Satisfaction (QSS), and students' learning activities were assessed with the Mixed Media Internet-Based Instruction (MMIBI) on foundational cell issue was designed. The results of this research study have found that: statistically significant of students' post-learning achievements were higher than their pre-learning outcomes and indicated that the differences were significant at the .05 level. Students' performances of their satisfaction to their perceptions toward biology class with the mixed media according to internet-based multi instruction in biology on foundational cell issue were the highest level and evidence of average mean score as 4.59.

  19. The public opinion and ATC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballera, J.

    2010-01-01

    The role of the media is essential to adopt a final decision in relation to the location of a Centralized Temporary Storage (ATC)in Spain. to the deliberative process is public, open and transparent, as included in Royal Decree that created the Inter ministerial Commission responsible for overseeing the procedure, it is necessary for that citizens has information, clear and unequivocal. indicators such as the special edition of the Eurobarometer survey published in June 2008 showed that it is moving towards a truly informed public opinion in these matters. (Author)

  20. Opinion of women about elective abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Çakmak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of women who presented to the hospital for elective abortion. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was designed and conducted at our university hospital between March 2013-April 2013 by the method of face-to-face interviews with 500 women who presented to the hospital as patient or relatives of patients. Poll consisted of 6 questions about demographic characteristics and 14 questions evaluating the opinions and attitudes about abortion. Results: The age of the women who participated in the study was ranging between 18 and 75 years with the mean age of 31.5±11.9 years. Twenty-six women (5.2% were illiterate, while 109 (21.8% were university graduates. 70.8% of women stated that they were against elective abortion. Among the reasons against abortion on request were: “forbidden by the religion”-53.1% of women, “against human rights”-35.3%, and “unhealthy for the mother”-7.1% of women. About the prohibition of abortion, 82.4% of women said that “it may be performed under necessary conditions”, 9.6% “it should be completely forbidden”, and 8% stated that “it should never be forbidden”. Conclusion: A large number of respondents reported that they have negative attitude towards elective abortion, however, in case of medical necessity, abortion should be performed. During the legal arrangements done about situations that may affect the public health, such as abortion regulations, we believe it would be useful to assess the perspective of the society on this issue.

  1. College Students Opinions on Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rhonda K; LoCurto, Jamie; Brown, Kyrah; Stowell, David; Maryman, J'Vonnah; Dean, Amber; McNair, Thoi; Ojeda, Debbie; Siwierka, Julia

    2016-06-01

    Gun violence and control issues have become serious public health problems. This study gathered the opinions from 419 college students from a Midwestern University. Participants were asked about beliefs about purchasing assault weapons, beliefs about bringing handguns to college campuses and beliefs about contributing factors that lead to gun violence. Participants completed surveys online. The findings showed that overall 54 % of respondents believed that military assault weapons should be banned and 53 % agree that teachers should be allowed to carry a registered handgun on campus. There were statistically significant differences between males and females on these issues. For instance, females believed military assault weapons and high capacity magazines should be banned more than 1.9 times (p = .004) p gun violence were decline in parenting and family values (17 %), gang involvement (14 %), bullying (13.8 %) and guns being easy to obtain (13.8 %). Limitations and implications for policy work are discussed.

  2. Trust in the CODA model: Opinion dynamics and the reliability of other agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, André C.R., E-mail: amartins@usp.br

    2013-11-08

    A model for the joint evolution of opinions and how much the agents trust each other is presented, using the framework of the Continuous Opinions and Discrete Actions (CODA) model. Instead of a fixed probability that the other agents will decide in the favor of the best choice, each agent considers that other agents might be one of two types: trustworthy or untrustworthy. Each agent its opinion and also the probability for each one of the other agents it interacts with being trustworthy. The dynamics of opinions and the evolution of the trust between the agents are studied. Clear evidences of the existence of two phases, one with strong polarization and the other tending to agreement, are observed. The transition shows signs of being a first-order transition. This happens despite the fact that the trust network evolves much slower than the opinion on the central issue.

  3. Trust in the CODA model: Opinion dynamics and the reliability of other agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, André C.R.

    2013-01-01

    A model for the joint evolution of opinions and how much the agents trust each other is presented, using the framework of the Continuous Opinions and Discrete Actions (CODA) model. Instead of a fixed probability that the other agents will decide in the favor of the best choice, each agent considers that other agents might be one of two types: trustworthy or untrustworthy. Each agent its opinion and also the probability for each one of the other agents it interacts with being trustworthy. The dynamics of opinions and the evolution of the trust between the agents are studied. Clear evidences of the existence of two phases, one with strong polarization and the other tending to agreement, are observed. The transition shows signs of being a first-order transition. This happens despite the fact that the trust network evolves much slower than the opinion on the central issue.

  4. Nuclear power and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazanikov, I.A.; Klykov, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    The public opinion on Nuclear Power is not favorable. A purposeful work with public perception is necessary. One way to create a positive image of the nuclear industry is to improve public radiological education. This challenge can be resolved in the close cooperation with state school and preschool education. The formation about nuclear power should be simple and symbolical. Our society can be divided into 4 parts which can be called as target groups: First group - People from the nuclear industry with special education working at nuclear facilities or related to the industry. Second group - People working in the fields connected with nuclear power. Third group - People not related to nuclear power or even with negative impression to the industry. This group is the largest and the work required is the most difficult. Fourth group - The number of this group's members is the least, but it has strong influence on public opinion. 'Greens' and a broad spectrum of ecological organizations can be included in this group. (Authors)

  5. The influence of persuasion in opinion formation and polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rocca, C. E.; Braunstein, L. A.; Vazquez, F.

    2014-05-01

    We present a model that explores the influence of persuasion in a population of agents with positive and negative opinion orientations. The opinion of each agent is represented by an integer number k that expresses its level of agreement on a given issue, from totally against k=-M to totally in favor k = M. Same-orientation agents persuade each other with probability p, becoming more extreme, while opposite-orientation agents become more moderate as they reach a compromise with probability q. The population initially evolves to (a) a polarized state for r=p/q\\gt 1 , where opinions' distribution is peaked at the extreme values k=+/- M , or (b) a centralized state for r < 1, with most opinions around k=+/- 1 . When r \\gg 1 , polarization lasts for a time that diverges as r^M \\ln N , where N is the population's size. Finally, an extremist consensus (k = M or -M ) is reached in a time that scales as r^{-1} for r \\ll 1 .

  6. Using Spatial, Economic, and Ecological Opinion Data to Inform Gray Wolf Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Meredith S.; Nickerson, Norma P.; Metcalf, Elizabeth Covelli

    2018-01-01

    Public opinion can be an influential factor in wildlife management decisions. Evaluating public opinions can help legitimize, or delegitimize, management and facilitate long-term conservation goals. This is especially true for the controversial issues surrounding the management of predators. We surveyed Montana, USA, residents during summer of 2013 to measure public opinion regarding economic and ecological impacts of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), and current management of this species. Although opinions were polarized in some areas, a greater percentage of Montanans think that wolves negatively affect the economy, but impact tourism (which contributes to the economy) positively. These differences may reflect the belief that rancher economic losses from wolf predation of cattle is greater than overall tourism gains related to wolves (e.g., wolf-watching), in addition to the perception of wolves negatively affecting big game (e.g., elk [Cervus canadensis]). Results also show that a slightly greater percentage of Montanans feel that wolves positively rather than negatively affect the ecosystem. Regarding specific practices, more Montanans than not have a positive opinion of maintaining wolves on the landscape and also support hunting of wolves. More Montanans hold negative rather than positive opinions, however, regarding wolf trapping. This result was most evident in western Montana as assessed by a spatial distribution of opinions by county and has implications for current wolf management and nontarget species. Results of ordinal regression analyses revealed that big game hunters, males, and those who held negative opinions of the effect of wolves on the Montana ecosystem and economy were significantly more likely to support both hunting and trapping practices. Living in western Montana predicted positive opinions of hunting, but alternatively, negative opinions of trapping. These results provide an understanding of public opinion of wolf management by county as

  7. Using Spatial, Economic, and Ecological Opinion Data to Inform Gray Wolf Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Meredith S; Nickerson, Norma P; Metcalf, Elizabeth Covelli

    2016-09-01

    Public opinion can be an influential factor in wildlife management decisions. Evaluating public opinions can help legitimize, or delegitimize, management and facilitate long-term conservation goals. This is especially true for the controversial issues surrounding the management of predators. We surveyed Montana, USA, residents during summer of 2013 to measure public opinion regarding economic and ecological impacts of the gray wolf ( Canis lupus ), and current management of this species. Although opinions were polarized in some areas, a greater percentage of Montanans think that wolves negatively affect the economy, but impact tourism (which contributes to the economy) positively. These differences may reflect the belief that rancher economic losses from wolf predation of cattle is greater than overall tourism gains related to wolves (e.g., wolf-watching), in addition to the perception of wolves negatively affecting big game (e.g., elk [ Cervus canadensis ]). Results also show that a slightly greater percentage of Montanans feel that wolves positively rather than negatively affect the ecosystem. Regarding specific practices, more Montanans than not have a positive opinion of maintaining wolves on the landscape and also support hunting of wolves. More Montanans hold negative rather than positive opinions, however, regarding wolf trapping. This result was most evident in western Montana as assessed by a spatial distribution of opinions by county and has implications for current wolf management and nontarget species. Results of ordinal regression analyses revealed that big game hunters, males, and those who held negative opinions of the effect of wolves on the Montana ecosystem and economy were significantly more likely to support both hunting and trapping practices. Living in western Montana predicted positive opinions of hunting, but alternatively, negative opinions of trapping. These results provide an understanding of public opinion of wolf management by county as

  8. Energy policy decision making and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstein, L.

    1989-09-01

    By the example of nuclear the author demonstrates the interactions of short-term fluctuations on the world energy market, energy forecasts, specific events and discussions on energy policy both within political parties and in the general public, and draws conclusions which are valid beyond the Federal Republic of Germany: An analysis of the general public's attitude towards nuclear energy shows two initial phases, i.e. euphoria and scepticism/ideology/agitation. The early eighties, then, led to a third phase - realism. Up to 1983 a consensus prevailed between the leading political parties in Germany regarding the basic energy-policy objective of minimizing the supply risk by providing for a well-balanced use of all available energy sources. The resulting attitude had a positive bearing on the public opinion: more than two thirds of the population were in favour of nuclear. In the mid-eighties, the development of nuclear was by and large completed in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as in the United States and other western industrialized countries and the capacity of nuclear power plants is considered sufficient for the years to come. In addition, abundant long-term reserves of domestic lignite and hardcoal are available: this also should have furnished a good reason to envisage calmly the issues of power supply. Instead, we are again facing emotional discussions on the acceptance of nuclear. Public opinion in the Federal Republic of Germany has changed since the Social Democrats followed the example of the Ecologists and advocated a rapid withdrawal from nuclear. In a recent poll four-fifths of the persons asked did not rule out the possibility of a major accident in a German power station. The wish to ignore today's energy supply problems by escaping into a supposedly safe but yet distant and vague future is part of every public debate. Technical and scientific issues are examined no longer in this global context. Predictions of experts and counter

  9. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 64; Issue 6. Fusion of biological membranes. K Katsov M Müller M Schick. Invited Talks:- Topic 11. Biologically motivated problems (protein-folding models, dynamics at the scale of the cell; biological networks, evolution models, etc.) Volume 64 Issue 6 June 2005 pp ...

  10. Conciliatory and contradictory dynamics in opinion formation

    OpenAIRE

    Boudin , Laurent; Mercier , Aurore; Salvarani , Francesco

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this article, we study, via a kinetic description, the effect of different psychologies on the evolution of the opinion with respect to a binary choice, in a closed group. We show that the interaction between individuals with different reactions regarding the exchange of opinion induces some phenomena, such as the concentration of opinions or the cyclic-in-time behaviour of the distribution function. We provide an existence and uniqueness result for the model and nu...

  11. The IRSN 2006 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (about the society, about the environment, about their opinion on industrial risks, on scientific expertise, on who should control a risky installation), the opinion on 28 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 28 situations, acceptability of installations), the opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners, and the issue of radioactive wastes and public debate)

  12. Opinion dynamics of learning agents: does seeking consensus lead to disagreement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Renato; Martins, André C R; Caticha, Nestor

    2009-01-01

    We study opinion dynamics in a population of interacting adaptive agents voting on a set of issues represented by vectors. We consider agents who can classify issues into one of two categories and can arrive at their opinions using an adaptive algorithm. Adaptation comes from learning and the information for the learning process comes from interacting with other neighboring agents and trying to change the internal state in order to concur with their opinions. The change in the internal state is driven by the information contained in the issue and in the opinion of the other agent. We present results in a simple yet rich context where each agent uses a Boolean perceptron to state their opinion. If the update occurs with information asynchronously exchanged among pairs of agents, then the typical case, if the number of issues is kept small, is the evolution into a society torn by the emergence of factions with extreme opposite beliefs. This occurs even when seeking consensus with agents with opposite opinions. If the number of issues is large, the dynamics becomes trapped, the society does not evolve into factions and a distribution of moderate opinions is observed. The synchronous case is technically simpler and is studied by formulating the problem in terms of differential equations that describe the evolution of order parameters that measure the consensus between pairs of agents. We show that for a large number of issues and unidirectional information flow, global consensus is a fixed point; however, the approach to this consensus is glassy for large societies

  13. Opinion dynamics of learning agents: does seeking consensus lead to disagreement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Renato; Martins, André C. R.; Caticha, Nestor

    2009-03-01

    We study opinion dynamics in a population of interacting adaptive agents voting on a set of issues represented by vectors. We consider agents who can classify issues into one of two categories and can arrive at their opinions using an adaptive algorithm. Adaptation comes from learning and the information for the learning process comes from interacting with other neighboring agents and trying to change the internal state in order to concur with their opinions. The change in the internal state is driven by the information contained in the issue and in the opinion of the other agent. We present results in a simple yet rich context where each agent uses a Boolean perceptron to state their opinion. If the update occurs with information asynchronously exchanged among pairs of agents, then the typical case, if the number of issues is kept small, is the evolution into a society torn by the emergence of factions with extreme opposite beliefs. This occurs even when seeking consensus with agents with opposite opinions. If the number of issues is large, the dynamics becomes trapped, the society does not evolve into factions and a distribution of moderate opinions is observed. The synchronous case is technically simpler and is studied by formulating the problem in terms of differential equations that describe the evolution of order parameters that measure the consensus between pairs of agents. We show that for a large number of issues and unidirectional information flow, global consensus is a fixed point; however, the approach to this consensus is glassy for large societies.

  14. Public opinion survey on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of a public opinion survey on energy, conducted by Prime Minister's Office from November 26 to December 2, 1980, are described. Of the sampling of 5,000 adults throughout the nation, 4,113 replied the questions. The contents are as follows: awaraness of energy conservation, projection of the future of nuclear power, uneasiness about nuclear power, and energy policies. Concerning the major power generation system of the future, 47% of the people mentioned nuclear energy, followed by 18% mentioned solar energy. As to the future share of nuclear power, 38% favored its increase, 28% its maintaining at the current level, and only 5% wanted its decrease. About the feeling of uneasiness, 56% felt uneasiness and 44% were secure, making it clear that the uneasiness has not yet been eliminated. (J.P.N.)

  15. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  16. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokjae Lee

    Full Text Available Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  17. Fashion clothing involvement, opinion leadership and opinion seeking amongst black generation Y students / Pulaki Joseph Tshabalala

    OpenAIRE

    Tshabalala, Pulaki Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Opinion leadership and opinion seeking are central constructs in academic studies of new product innovations. Fashion opinion leaders as those individuals who accelerate the fashion maturity process by legitimising a fashionable trend and influence other consumers to adopt the new innovative style as a replacement for the current accepted one. Consumers who accept information and adopt new style innovations are called opinion seekers and are important to the diffusion of new fashions because ...

  18. Opinion evolution in different social acquaintance networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Zhan; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Guohua; Li, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Social acquaintance networks influenced by social culture and social policy have a great impact on public opinion evolution in daily life. Based on the differences between socio-culture and social policy, three different social acquaintance networks (kinship-priority acquaintance network, independence-priority acquaintance network, and hybrid acquaintance network) incorporating heredity proportion p h and variation proportion p v are proposed in this paper. Numerical experiments are conducted to investigate network topology and different phenomena during opinion evolution, using the Deffuant model. We found that in kinship-priority acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese traditional acquaintance networks, opinions always achieve fragmentation, resulting in the formation of multiple large clusters and many small clusters due to the fact that individuals believe more in their relatives and live in a relatively closed environment. In independence-priority acquaintance networks, similar to Western acquaintance networks, the results are similar to those in the kinship-priority acquaintance network. In hybrid acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese modern acquaintance networks, only a few clusters are formed indicating that in modern China, opinions are more likely to reach consensus on a large scale. These results are similar to the opinion evolution phenomena in modern society, proving the rationality and applicability of network models combined with social culture and policy. We also found a threshold curve p v +2p h =2.05 in the results for the final opinion clusters and evolution time. Above the threshold curve, opinions could easily reach consensus. Based on the above experimental results, a culture-policy-driven mechanism for the opinion dynamic is worth promoting in this paper, that is, opinion dynamics can be driven by different social cultures and policies through the influence of heredity and variation in interpersonal relationship networks. This

  19. Opinion evolution in different social acquaintance networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Zhang, Xiao; Wu, Zhan; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Guohua; Li, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Social acquaintance networks influenced by social culture and social policy have a great impact on public opinion evolution in daily life. Based on the differences between socio-culture and social policy, three different social acquaintance networks (kinship-priority acquaintance network, independence-priority acquaintance network, and hybrid acquaintance network) incorporating heredity proportion ph and variation proportion pv are proposed in this paper. Numerical experiments are conducted to investigate network topology and different phenomena during opinion evolution, using the Deffuant model. We found that in kinship-priority acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese traditional acquaintance networks, opinions always achieve fragmentation, resulting in the formation of multiple large clusters and many small clusters due to the fact that individuals believe more in their relatives and live in a relatively closed environment. In independence-priority acquaintance networks, similar to Western acquaintance networks, the results are similar to those in the kinship-priority acquaintance network. In hybrid acquaintance networks, similar to the Chinese modern acquaintance networks, only a few clusters are formed indicating that in modern China, opinions are more likely to reach consensus on a large scale. These results are similar to the opinion evolution phenomena in modern society, proving the rationality and applicability of network models combined with social culture and policy. We also found a threshold curve pv+2 ph=2.05 in the results for the final opinion clusters and evolution time. Above the threshold curve, opinions could easily reach consensus. Based on the above experimental results, a culture-policy-driven mechanism for the opinion dynamic is worth promoting in this paper, that is, opinion dynamics can be driven by different social cultures and policies through the influence of heredity and variation in interpersonal relationship networks. This

  20. Spent fuel storage choices: What public opinion polls tell us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The crux of the issue of spent nuclear fuel for much of the American public is that taking car of our waste now instead of leaving it for future generations is the safe and environmentally responsible think to do. This article summarizes a number of public opinion surveys. Although it is important to recognize that most people are not familiar with specifics, much of the American public has a strong opinions about the fundamental guiding principles for safely managing radioactive waste. First there is clear agreement that we need action. Second, safety means taking the waste to a permanent disposal facility instead of leaving it in many different locations. Third, most of the public would like to keep nuclear energy as a supply option. Fourth, the majority of the public agreed with the statement that the availability of nuclear energy as an option for future energy supply depends on building a national waste storage or disposal facility

  1. French public opinion and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the year French media have dealt with a lot of negative information concerning nuclear industry: the dire financial situation of AREVA, the questioning about the state of the pressure vessel of the Flamanville EPR or the EDF and Chinese investments in the british Hinkley point project. All these issues have impacted the opinion of the French people about nuclear energy: more people are against nuclear energy but nuclear accident appears to be only the tenth source of concern after unemployment (first) and terrorism. The debate about the energetic transition that will lead to the decrease of the nuclear share in the production of electricity marks the end of a political consensus in favour of the atom. Solar energy is the favorite energy source, more than 55% of the population wish solar energy to achieve a bigger share in the 15 next years while only 32% wish the same thing for wind energy. For most people nuclear energy appears to be necessary to complement renewable energies for at least the next 15-30 years. (A.C.)

  2. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

    2014-10-01

    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  3. Opinion competition dynamics on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, R.; Kouvaris, N. E.; San Miguel, M.; Díaz-Guilera, A.

    2017-12-01

    Multilayer and multiplex networks represent a good proxy for the description of social phenomena where social structure is important and can have different origins. Here, we propose a model of opinion competition where individuals are organized according to two different structures in two layers. Agents exchange opinions according to the Abrams-Strogatz model in each layer separately and opinions can be copied across layers by the same individual. In each layer a different opinion is dominant, so each layer has a different absorbing state. Consensus in one opinion is not the only possible stable solution because of the interaction between the two layers. A new mean field solution has been found where both opinions coexist. In a finite system there is a long transient time for the dynamical coexistence of both opinions. However, the system ends in a consensus state due to finite size effects. We analyze sparse topologies in the two layers and the existence of positive correlations between them, which enables the coexistence of inter-layer groups of agents sharing the same opinion.

  4. Swedish Opinion on Nuclear Power 1986 - 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report contains the Swedish opinion on Nuclear Power and European Attitudes on Nuclear Power. It also includes European Attitudes Towards the Future of Three Energy Sources; Nuclear Energy, Wind Power and Solar Power - with a focus on the Swedish opinion. Results from measurements done by the SOM Inst. are presented.

  5. French and european opinions about energy questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This paper presents a statistical study of french and european opinions in 1989 about energy questions. The main subjects studied are: qualities of different energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, renewable energies); perception in public opinion of nuclear industry; energy and environmental effects. 6 figs., 1 tab., 4 appendices

  6. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elstner, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Getting a Second Opinion Before Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for a second opinion before surgery. When your doctor says you have a health problem that needs surgery, you have the right to: • Know and understand your treatment choices • Have another doctor look at those choices with you (second opinion) • ...

  8. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  9. Ethical Issues in Media Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马慧

    2009-01-01

    Journalists are always confronted by ethical definitions on the daily basis during their media practice.In this article,some ethical issues happened in media practice are analyzed,and aspects of both news reporters and public opinion are deeply studied,and the balance between both professional and ethics is probed seriously as well.

  10. Reporting on a Talk I Gave Some Months Ago, the Headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' Premier Spanish Language Newspaper, Declared the City's School System "en crisis permanente." No One Wrote in to Disagree. The Claremont Letter. Volume 3, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerchner, Charles T.

    2008-01-01

    Reporting on a talk the author gave some months ago, the headline in "La Opinion," Los Angeles' premier Spanish language newspaper, declared the city's school system "en crisis permanente." No one wrote in to disagree. Indeed, at the end of "Learning from L.A.: Institutional Change in American Public Education" (Harvard Education Press) the author…

  11. Orthopedic surgeons’ and neurologists’ attitudes towards second opinions in the Israeli healthcare system: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenfield Geva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second opinion is a treatment ratification tool that may critically influence diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Second opinions constitute one of the largest expenditures of the supplementary health insurance programs provided by the Israeli health funds. The scarcity of data on physicians’ attitudes toward second opinion motivated this study to explore those attitudes within the Israeli healthcare system. Methods We interviewed 35 orthopedic surgeons and neurologists in Israel and qualitatively analyzed the data using the Grounded Theory approach. Results As a common tool, second opinion reflects the broader context of the Israeli healthcare system, specifically tensions associated with health inequalities. We identified four issues: (1 inequalities between central and peripheral regions of Israel; (2 inequalities between private and public settings; (3 implementation gap between the right to a second opinion and whether it is covered by the National Health Insurance Law; and (4 tension between the authorities of physicians and religious leaders. The physicians mentioned that better mechanisms should be implemented for guiding patients to an appropriate consultant for a second opinion and for making an informed choice between the two opinions. Conclusions While all the physicians agreed on the importance of the second opinion as a tool, they raised concerns about the way it is provided and utilized. To be optimally implemented, second opinion should be institutionalized and regulated. The National Health Insurance Law should strive to provide the mechanisms to access second opinion as stipulated in the Patient’s Rights Law. Further studies are needed to assess the patients' perspectives.

  12. Survey Methods, Traditional, Public Opinion Polling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Hopmann, David Nicolas; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Traditional public opinion polls are surveys in which a random sample of a given population is asked questions about their attitudes, knowledge, or behavior. If conducted properly, the answers from such surveys are approximately representative of the entire population. Traditional public opinion...... polling is typically based on four different methods of data gathering, or combinations hereof: face-to-face, postal surveys, phone surveys, and web surveys. Given that opinion polls are based on a sample, we cannot be sure that the sample reflects public opinion perfectly, however—even if randomness...... is perfect. Moreover, responses may be highly dependent on the contextual information provided with the question. Also, it may be difficult to capture past or complex causes of attitudes or behavior. In short, surveys are a precise way of measuring public opinion, but they do not come without challenges....

  13. Opinion formation models on a gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Gastner

    Full Text Available Statistical physicists have become interested in models of collective social behavior such as opinion formation, where individuals change their inherently preferred opinion if their friends disagree. Real preferences often depend on regional cultural differences, which we model here as a spatial gradient g in the initial opinion. The gradient does not only add reality to the model. It can also reveal that opinion clusters in two dimensions are typically in the standard (i.e., independent percolation universality class, thus settling a recent controversy about a non-consensus model. However, using analytical and numerical tools, we also present a model where the width of the transition between opinions scales proportional g(-1/4, not proportional g(-4/7 as in independent percolation, and the cluster size distribution is consistent with first-order percolation.

  14. A Short History of the Hatching Enzyme Studies in Medaka(Issue>Development of Medaka Biology in Japan-Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    Yamagami, Kenjiro

    1997-01-01

    The studies on the hatching enzyme of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, have a history of about 50 years, which is only a half of whole history of the studies on the hatching enzyme in animals since the first conjecture of it in a lung fish in 1900. Medaka, however, has served as the material most intensively studied for the enzyme, and the studies have given invaluable information to establish some significant concepts in the field of developmental and cell biology as well as the hatching biology...

  15. (Miscommunication across the Borders: Politics, Media and Public Opinion in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Baybars-Hawks

    2015-08-01

    surveys may not only yield important insights into public's opinion regarding contemporary agendas of the country, but also into the correlates shaping public policies. This article focuses on variables setting the current agenda in Turkey. For that purpose, two surveys were carried out in December of 2014 and consecutively in April 2015 to determine the social and political trends and perceptions on gender issues in Turkey.

  16. Current Issues in Maritime Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2008-01-01

     In the early part of 2008, Maria Anne Wagtmann had the opportunity to interview the former president of the International Maritime Health Association, Dr. Tim Carter, in London about a number of current maritime health issues. In this interview, Dr. Tim Carter, who is cur­rently employed...... as the Chief Medical Advisor for the British government's Department for Transport, gives his personal - and thus non-official - opinions on these issues....

  17. Reproducible research: a minority opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Chris

    2018-01-01

    Reproducible research, a growing movement within many scientific fields, including machine learning, would require the code, used to generate the experimental results, be published along with any paper. Probably the most compelling argument for this is that it is simply following good scientific practice, established over the years by the greats of science. The implication is that failure to follow such a practice is unscientific, not a label any machine learning researchers would like to carry. It is further claimed that misconduct is causing a growing crisis of confidence in science. That, without this practice being enforced, science would inevitably fall into disrepute. This viewpoint is becoming ubiquitous but here I offer a differing opinion. I argue that far from being central to science, what is being promulgated is a narrow interpretation of how science works. I contend that the consequences are somewhat overstated. I would also contend that the effort necessary to meet the movement's aims, and the general attitude it engenders would not serve well any of the research disciplines, including our own.

  18. Food irradiation: Public opinion surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Canadian government are discussing the legislation, regulations and practical protocol necessary for the commercialization of food irradiation. Food industry marketing, public relations and media expertise will be needed to successfully introduce this new processing choice to retailers and consumers. Consumer research to date including consumer opinion studies and market trials conducted in the Netherlands, United States, South Africa and Canada will be explored for signposts to successful approaches to the introduction of irradiated foods to retailers and consumers. Research has indicated that the terms used to describe irradiation and information designed to reduce consumer fears will be important marketing tools. Marketers will be challenged to promote old foods, which look the same to consumers, in a new light. Simple like or dislike or intention to buy surveys will not be effective tools. Consumer fears must be identified and effectively handled to support a receptive climate for irradiated food products. A cooperative government, industry, health professional, consumer association and retailer effort will be necessary for the successful introduction of irradiated foods into the marketplace. Grocery Products Manufacturers of Canada is a national trade association of more than 150 major companies engaged in the manufacture of food, non-alcoholic beverages and array of other national-brand consumer items sold through retail outlets

  19. OpinionFlow: Visual Analysis of Opinion Diffusion on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Liu, Shixia; Yan, Kai; Liu, Mengchen; Wu, Fangzhao

    2014-12-01

    It is important for many different applications such as government and business intelligence to analyze and explore the diffusion of public opinions on social media. However, the rapid propagation and great diversity of public opinions on social media pose great challenges to effective analysis of opinion diffusion. In this paper, we introduce a visual analysis system called OpinionFlow to empower analysts to detect opinion propagation patterns and glean insights. Inspired by the information diffusion model and the theory of selective exposure, we develop an opinion diffusion model to approximate opinion propagation among Twitter users. Accordingly, we design an opinion flow visualization that combines a Sankey graph with a tailored density map in one view to visually convey diffusion of opinions among many users. A stacked tree is used to allow analysts to select topics of interest at different levels. The stacked tree is synchronized with the opinion flow visualization to help users examine and compare diffusion patterns across topics. Experiments and case studies on Twitter data demonstrate the effectiveness and usability of OpinionFlow.

  20. Opinions on Energy and Nuclear Power. Research project energy public opinion in Sweden; Aasikter om energi och kaernkraft. Forskningsprojektet Energiopinionen i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedberg, Per; Holmberg, Soeren

    2012-11-01

    This report includes results from a survey concerning the following issues: opinions on the use of nuclear power in Sweden in the long term, to phase out nuclear power or not, risk analysis, which energy sources should Sweden use, trust in stakeholders, as well as ways to decrease energy consumption.

  1. Choice Shift in Opinion Network Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Michael

    Choice shift is a phenomenon associated with small group dynamics whereby group discussion causes group members to shift their opinions in a more extreme direction so that the mean post-discussion opinion exceeds the mean pre-discussion opinion. Also known as group polarization, choice shift is a robust experimental phenomenon and has been well-studied within social psychology. In opinion network models, shifts toward extremism are typically produced by the presence of stubborn agents at the extremes of the opinion axis, whose opinions are much more resistant to change than moderate agents. However, we present a model in which choice shift can arise without the assumption of stubborn agents; the model evolves member opinions and uncertainties using coupled nonlinear differential equations. In addition, we briefly describe the results of a recent experiment conducted involving online group discussion concerning the outcome of National Football League games are described. The model predictions concerning the effects of network structure, disagreement level, and team choice (favorite or underdog) are in accord with the experimental results. This research was funded by the Office of Naval Research and the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.

  2. Nuclear power and public opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The diversity of factors involved in nuclear power development and the complexity of public attitudes towards this source of energy have raised the nuclear debate to a topic of national significance in all the OECD countries with nuclear programmes and even in some countries which have not embarked on the nuclear course. This study examines the different experiences of seventeen member countries and underlines basic approaches and practices aimed at winning greater public acceptance for nuclear power. The first part of the study is a country-by-country presentation of public acceptance activities and the role of the various public or private bodies involved. There is also a description of the background energy situation and the place of nuclear power, the evolution of the nuclear debate and a review of present public and political attitudes to nuclear energy. In the second part, some of the notable factors which determine public attitudes to, and perception of, nuclear energy have been assembled. The study points, in particular, to a number of general principles which require continuous implementation, not least because they contribute to placing nuclear energy in its proper context for the public. Vigorous government leadership in making energy choices, long term efforts in energy education, and open information policies can go a long way towards resolving many doubts about nuclear energy in the public mind. But, perhaps, above all, it is the continuing demonstration of the safe and efficient industrial operation of plants in the nuclear fuel cycle which will have the strongest influence on public opinion. In addition to these basic principles, the study calls attention to some of the most successful means of improving communication between the authorities and the public, notably at the local level. The contribution to the decision-making process of public participation is also evaluated in the light of recent national experiences.

  3. Nuclear power and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The diversity of factors involved in nuclear power development and the complexity of public attitudes towards this source of energy have raised the nuclear debate to a topic of national significance in all the OECD countries with nuclear programmes and even in some countries which have not embarked on the nuclear course. This study examines the different experiences of seventeen member countries and underlines basic approaches and practices aimed at winning greater public acceptance for nuclear power. The first part of the study is a country-by-country presentation of public acceptance activities and the role of the various public or private bodies involved. There is also a description of the background energy situation and the place of nuclear power, the evolution of the nuclear debate and a review of present public and political attitudes to nuclear energy. In the second part, some of the notable factors which determine public attitudes to, and perception of, nuclear energy have been assembled. The study points, in particular, to a number of general principles which require continuous implementation, not least because they contribute to placing nuclear energy in its proper context for the public. Vigorous government leadership in making energy choices, long term efforts in energy education, and open information policies can go a long way towards resolving many doubts about nuclear energy in the public mind. But, perhaps, above all, it is the continuing demonstration of the safe and efficient industrial operation of plants in the nuclear fuel cycle which will have the strongest influence on public opinion. In addition to these basic principles, the study calls attention to some of the most successful means of improving communication between the authorities and the public, notably at the local level. The contribution to the decision-making process of public participation is also evaluated in the light of recent national experiences

  4. Legislative Regulation of Traditional Medicinal Knowledge in Eritrea vis-à-vis Eritrea's Commitments under the Convention on Biological Diversity: Issues and Alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senai Andemariam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On 21 March 1996, Eritrea acceded to the Convention on Biological Diversity which, among others, obliges states to sustainably conserve and develop customary uses of biological resources. Among the many forms of traditional practices of biological resources is traditional medicinal knowledge. Research has revealed that Eritrea has abundant pool of such knowledge and a high percentage of its population, as it is true with many developing and underdeveloped countries, resorts to traditional medicine for curing numerous ailments. However, no specific policy or legislative framework has yet been developed to sift, preserve and encourage the practice. Analysis of existing Eritrean laws and policies will show that they are neither adequate nor specific enough to be used in the preservation and development of Eritrean traditional medicinal knowledge. This article will, therefore, in view of the rich, yet unregulated, traditional medicinal knowledge resource in Eritrea, highlight the need for the development of a specific legal instrument legislation for Eritrea from the perspective of international and country level experiences. It will be argued that the development of a specific legislation is preferred to the alternative of keeping traditional medicinal knowledge as a component of a legal instrument developed for a larger mass such as health or traditional knowledge.

  5. Perception of risks by opinion leaders 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The authors report a survey made just after the Fukushima accident on a panel of opinion leaders (belonging to political, economical or media sector) in order to compare their perception of risks with that of the public. The questions addressed the perception of risks, the role of scientific experts, the usefulness and breaks on the diffusion of expertise results, the perception of pluralist bodies, and the Fukushima accident. The answers are analysed and discussed with respect to fifteen hazardous situations, to their opinion of expertise, and to their opinion on safety audit and information

  6. Concierge and Second-Opinion Radiology: Review of Current Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Shehbaz; Bafana, Rounak; Halabi, Safwan S

    2016-01-01

    Radiology's core assets include the production, interpretation, and distribution of quality imaging studies. Second-opinion services and concierge practices in radiology aim to augment traditional services by providing patient-centered and physician-centered care, respectively. Patient centeredness enhances patients' understanding and comfort with their radiology tests and procedures and allows them to make better decisions about their health care. As the fee-for-service paradigm shifts to value-based care models, radiology practices have begun to diversify imaging service delivery and communication to coincide with the American College of Radiology Imaging 3.0 campaign. Physician-centered consultation allows for communication of evidence-based guidelines to assist referring physicians and other providers in making the most appropriate imaging or treatment decision for a specific clinical condition. There are disparate practice models and payment schema for the various second-opinion and concierge practices. This review article explores the current state and payment models of second-opinion and concierge practices in radiology. This review also includes a discussion on the benefits, roadblocks, and ethical issues that surround these novel types of practices. Copyright © 2015 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Opinion of gastroenterologists towards quality assurance in endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Vincent; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E

    2011-03-01

    Quality assurance has become an important issue. Many societies are adopting quality assurance programs in order to monitor and improve quality of care. To assess the opinion of gastroenterologists towards quality assurance on the endoscopy department. A survey was sent to all gastroenterologists (n=319) in the Netherlands. It assessed their opinion on a quality assurance program for endoscopy units, including its design, logistics, and content. 200 gastroenterologists (63%) completed the questionnaire. 95% had a positive opinion towards quality assurance and 67% supposed an increase in quality. 28% assumed a negative impact on the time available for patient contact by introducing a quality assurance program and 35% that the capacity would decrease. A negative attitude towards disclosure of results to insurance companies (23%) and media (53%) was reported. Female gastroenterologists were less positive to share the results with other stakeholders (pquality measurements were assessment of complications (97%), standardised reporting (96%), and adequate patient information (95%). Gastroenterologists have a positive attitude towards quality assurance. However, concerns do exist about time investment and disclosure of results to others. Information provision and procedure characteristics were considered the most important aspects of quality assurance. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting online ratings based on the opinion spreading process

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xing-Sheng; Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    Predicting users' online ratings is always a challenge issue and has drawn lots of attention. In this paper, we present a rating prediction method by combining the user opinion spreading process with the collaborative filtering algorithm, where user similarity is defined by measuring the amount of opinion a user transfers to another based on the primitive user-item rating matrix. The proposed method could produce a more precise rating prediction for each unrated user-item pair. In addition, we introduce a tunable parameter λ to regulate the preferential diffusion relevant to the degree of both opinion sender and receiver. The numerical results for Movielens and Netflix data sets show that this algorithm has a better accuracy than the standard user-based collaborative filtering algorithm using Cosine and Pearson correlation without increasing computational complexity. By tuning λ, our method could further boost the prediction accuracy when using Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) as measurements. In the optimal cases, on Movielens and Netflix data sets, the corresponding algorithmic accuracy (MAE and RMSE) are improved 11.26% and 8.84%, 13.49% and 10.52% compared to the item average method, respectively.

  9. Nuclear Energy and Public Opinion: Chile's Case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, G.

    2015-01-01

    Public opinion is as old as history itself. Its origins date back to the ancient Greece where the Agora was consulted about matters of interest and at the same time it was practiced the art of persuasion through dialogue. Philosophers such as Socrates, Plato and Aristotle gave proof of their knowledge and skills of persuasion. These aspects were inherited by the Roman Empire, which sought through the senate the idea of transmitting what we know as “Vox Populi” (The Greek doxa), a term that together with the “Consensus” used by Medieval thinkers, constitute its pre-modern origin. From a conceptual point of view, public opinion comes alongside the creation of the idea of the state and as a result of the historical process called the Enlightenment. Thinkers such as Rousseau, Locke, Montesquieu, Kant and Hegel contextualised it within the legal system of the state. For Rousseau, it should be understood as a expression of the general will; for Kant it was the highest realization of the Enlightenment era and a result of the use of reason and law and for Locke human behaviour was defined by three fundamental laws: the divine, civil and…Public Opinion!. Hegel was much more specific and expressed that public opinion was called to be the instrument by which society expressed its support or rejection to the rulers’ decisions. It was in coffee shops and gatherings where opinion was born; for this reason, it was only the elite who was able to expressed about general interest’s topics, therefore the importance of sociability during modern times. This is how we arrive to the contemporary definition of the term. Since the French Revolution the concept has been associated with the sovereignty of the states and people, i.e. the rule of the majority. Today due to the massive participation of people in issues of importance, the opinion delivered by the media, and the globalization of communications, it is difficult to arrive at a definition of the term we have been

  10. Formation of public opinion on the question of nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asp, K.; Hedberg, P.

    1988-06-01

    The aim of the report is double. Firstly will bases and issues behind the media studies within the research project be presented. Secondly will the empirical investigations which are included in this part of the project be shown. Headings: - The question of nuclear waste - a controversial question. - The mass media as intermediaries of information and opinion. - The information merit of the mass media. The bias of the mass media. - The decision merit of the mass media. - Empirical investigations. * The question of nuclear waste in the news-distribution. * The question of nuclear waste in the public debate. (O.S.)

  11. Developing convolutional neural networks for measuring climate change opinions from social media data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, H.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2016-12-01

    Understanding public opinions on climate change is important for policy making. Public opinion, however, is typically measured with national surveys, which are often too expensive and thus being updated at a low frequency. Twitter has become a major platform for people to express their opinions on social and political issues. Our work attempts to understand if Twitter data can provide complimentary insights about climate change perceptions. Since the nature of social media is real-time, this data source can especially help us understand how public opinion changes over time in response to climate events and hazards, which though is very difficult to be captured by manual surveys. We use the Twitter Streaming API to collect tweets that contain keywords, "climate change" or "#climatechange". Traditional machine-learning based opinion mining algorithms require a significant amount of labeled data. Data labeling is notoriously time consuming. To address this problem, we use hashtags (a significant feature used to mark topics of tweets) to annotate tweets automatically. For example, hashtags, #climatedenial and #climatescam, are negative opinion labels, while #actonclimate and #climateaction are positive. Following this method, we can obtain a large amount of training data without human labor. This labeled dataset is used to train a deep convolutional neural network that classifies tweets into positive (i.e. believe in climate change) and negative (i.e. do not believe). Based on the positive/negative tweets obtained, we will further analyze risk perceptions and opinions towards policy support. In addition, we analyze twitter user profiles to understand the demographics of proponents and opponents of climate change. Deep learning techniques, especially convolutional deep neural networks, have achieved much success in computer vision. In this work, we propose a convolutional neural network architecture for understanding opinions within text. This method is compared with

  12. Synthetic biology: Novel approaches for microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Vaca, Felipe; Anaya-Velázquez, Fernando; Franco, Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    In the past twenty years, molecular genetics has created powerful tools for genetic manipulation of living organisms. Whole genome sequencing has provided necessary information to assess knowledge on gene function and protein networks. In addition, new tools permit to modify organisms to perform desired tasks. Gene function analysis is speed up by novel approaches that couple both high throughput data generation and mining. Synthetic biology is an emerging field that uses tools for generating novel gene networks, whole genome synthesis and engineering. New applications in biotechnological, pharmaceutical and biomedical research are envisioned for synthetic biology. In recent years these new strategies have opened up the possibilities to study gene and genome editing, creation of novel tools for functional studies in virus, parasites and pathogenic bacteria. There is also the possibility to re-design organisms to generate vaccine subunits or produce new pharmaceuticals to combat multi-drug resistant pathogens. In this review we provide our opinion on the applicability of synthetic biology strategies for functional studies of pathogenic organisms and some applications such as genome editing and gene network studies to further comprehend virulence factors and determinants in pathogenic organisms. We also discuss what we consider important ethical issues for this field of molecular biology, especially for potential misuse of the new technologies. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  13. Villain of Molecular Biology: Why are we not reproducible in research? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5ou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikash Bhardwaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, there is an issue of irreproducibility in life science research. In the USA alone $28 billion per year spent on preclinical research is not reproducible. Within this opinion article, I provide a brief historical account of the discovery of the Watson-Crick DNA model and introduce another neglected model of DNA. This negligence may be one of the fundamental reasons behind irreproducibility in molecular biology research.

  14. EMOTION BASED ANALYSIS OF TURKISH CUSTOMER OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kahya-Ozyirmidokuz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Firms should manage their customer feedback so they can adapt to rapid changes in the environment. They have to interact with their customers to understand them and to turn their opinions into useful knowledge. Understanding customers' feelings about a product gives firmS competitive advantage through continuous market monitoring. They can thus generate improving strategies about the system to change perceptions that drive the behaviours of the customers. Firms can view their customers' happiness as a key tool for decision-making. This study calculates online product happiness by using the average emotional valence values of customer opinions. We analyse Turkish opinions about a product over a period of 3 months. We find the averages of the online emotional valence values of the product per month. We also determined the increase in happiness over time. According to the opinion valence values, we found the relations between the documents.

  15. OGC Precedent Opinion 2-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Osborn v. Nicholson 21 Vet. App. 223 (2007) - Effect on Existing General Counsel Opinions, Application to other Benefit Programs, and Applicability to Series HH U.S....

  16. Social opinion dynamics is not chaotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chjan; Zhang, Weituo

    2016-08-01

    Motivated by the research on social opinion dynamics over large and dense networks, a general framework for verifying the monotonicity property of multi-agent dynamics is introduced. This allows a derivation of sociologically meaningful sufficient conditions for monotonicity that are tailor-made for social opinion dynamics, which typically have high nonlinearity. A direct consequence of monotonicity is that social opinion dynamics is nonchaotic. A key part of this framework is the definition of a partial order relation that is suitable for a large class of social opinion dynamics such as the generalized naming games. Comparisons are made to previous techniques to verify monotonicity. Using the results obtained, we extend many of the consequences of monotonicity to this class of social dynamics, including several corollaries on their asymptotic behavior, such as global convergence to consensus and tipping points of a minority fraction of zealots or leaders.

  17. African Journals Online: Biology & Life Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 71 of 71 ... The journal publishes original articles in the broad discipline of basic genetics ... review articles, issues and opinions, special communications, letters to ... Ostrich: Journal of African Ornithology is a scientific journal published ...

  18. Opinion of women about elective abortion

    OpenAIRE

    ?akmak, B?lent; Metin, Fulya Zeynep; ?zsoy, Asker Zeki; ??t?l, R?za; ?nder, Yal??n; Y?lmaz Do?ru, Hatice

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of women who presented to the hospital for elective abortion. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was designed and conducted at our university hospital between March 2013-April 2013 by the method of face-to-face interviews with 500 women who presented to the hospital as patient or relatives of patients. Poll consisted of 6 questions about demographic characteristics and 14 questions evaluating the opinions and attitude...

  19. Discrete Opinion Dynamics on Online Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan-Li; Bai, Liang; Zhang, Wei-Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamics of binary opinions {+1, -1} on online social networks consisting of heterogeneous actors. In our model, actors update their opinions under the interplay of social influence and self- affirmation, which leads to rich dynamical behaviors on online social networks. We find that the opinion leading to the consensus features an advantage of the initially weighted fraction based on actors' strength over the other, instead of the population. For the role of specific actors, the consensus converges towards the opinion that a small fraction of high-strength actors hold, and individual diversity of self-affirmation slows down the ordering process of consensus. These indicate that high-strength actors play an essential role in opinion formation with strong social influence as well as high persistence. Further investigations show that the initial fraction of high-strength actors to dominate the evolution depends on the heterogeneity of the strength distribution, and less high-strength actors are needed in the case of a smaller exponent of power-law distribution of actors' strength. Our study provides deep insights into the role of social influence and self-affirmation on opinion formation on online social networks.

  20. Discrete Opinion Dynamics on Online Social Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yan-Li; Bai Liang; Zhang Wei-Ming

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamics of binary opinions {+1, −1} on online social networks consisting of heterogeneous actors. In our model, actors update their opinions under the interplay of social influence and self- affirmation, which leads to rich dynamical behaviors on online social networks. We find that the opinion leading to the consensus features an advantage of the initially weighted fraction based on actors' strength over the other, instead of the population. For the role of specific actors, the consensus converges towards the opinion that a small fraction of high-strength actors hold, and individual diversity of self-affirmation slows down the ordering process of consensus. These indicate that high-strength actors play an essential role in opinion formation with strong social influence as well as high persistence. Further investigations show that the initial fraction of high-strength actors to dominate the evolution depends on the heterogeneity of the strength distribution, and less high-strength actors are needed in the case of a smaller exponent of power-law distribution of actors' strength. Our study provides deep insights into the role of social influence and self-affirmation on opinion formation on online social networks. (general)

  1. Topological evolution of the internet public opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ying; Dong, Xuefan; Liu, Yijun

    2017-11-01

    The Internet forms a platform featured with high liquidity, accessibility and concealment for the public to express their respective views on certain events, thus leading to a large network graph. Due to such environmental features, the public opinions formed on the Internet are different from those on traditional media. Studies focusing on the former area are relatively fewer. In addition, the majority of existing methods proposed for constructing the Internet public opinion topological structure are based on the classic BA model, thus resulting in drawbacks in the range of simplicity and a lack of strict deduction. Therefore, based on the complex networks theory, a model applied to describe the topology of the Internet public opinion is deduced with rigorous derivation in the present paper. Results show that the proposed expression could well reflect the degree distribution of Internet public opinion which follows an analogous power law distribution, and that the peak value and the degree distribution are not correlative to each other. Moreover, it has been also proved that compared to the classic BA model, the proposed model has better accuracy performance in the description of the degree distribution of the Internet public opinion, which contributes to future studies focusing on this area. Thus, an attempt has been made to give the first theoretical description of the Internet public opinion topology in the present paper. In addition, it is also the first paper focusing on the solution of networks degree distribution with an exponential growth form.

  2. Measuring and Understanding Public Opinion on Human Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwon, Misook

    The theory of evolution has long generated controversy in American society, but Americans' attitudes about human evolution are often neglected in studies of "culture wars" and the nature of mass belief systems more generally (Berkman and Plutzer 2010; Freeland and Houston 2009). Gallup and other survey organizations have polled about evolution, but offered limited response categories that mask complexity in public opinion (Bishop 2006; Moore 2008). The main problems concerning the leading survey questions about evolution are: first, questions measure only a single dimension, thus they ignore the potential for multidimensionality in people's attitudes. Second, depending on question wording and response options, the results of public opinion surveys vary by polling groups. This is an example of measurement error which misleads the interpretation and impression of American public opinion on the origin of humankind. A number of studies have analyzed Americans' beliefs about evolution and hypothesized about the influential effects of several factors (Deckman 2002; Mazur 2005; Mooney 2005; Miller et al. 2006; Newport 2006; Forrest 2007;Nisbet and Goidel 2007;Scott 2009). However, there remains a lack of complete understanding of what Americans know and believe about human evolution. Given the salience of this issue and the significant influence of public opinion on policy-making in America (Page and Shapiro 1992; Stimson 2004; Newport 2004), the measurement error and explanation of polling results on controversial issues related to this topic are in need of clarification. In this study, I address these deficiencies with analyses of data from a 2008 national survey by Harris Interactive (n= 4,626) that included numerous measures of factual knowledge and beliefs about evolution. The items offer more nuanced response options than the standard three-category question asked for decades by the Gallup poll. The Harris survey also had multiple measures of religiosity and the

  3. Experts' opinions on the role of diet in caries prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loveren, C; Duggal, M S

    2004-01-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 54 experts in preventive dentistry in 23 European countries in order to make an inventory of existing national dietary guidelines for the prevention of dental caries. In addition, the experts were asked to give their personal opinion on several issues concerning the relationship between diet and dental caries. Forty-five experts from 20 countries returned the questionnaire. In 13 European countries dietary guidelines for caries prevention were available issued by a National (Dental) Association or a Government Body. All guidelines emphasised a reduction of the frequency of intakes of cariogenic foods. Two of them included a threshold level for the amount of sugar. When asked for their personal opinions, almost all experts mentioned reduction of frequency of 'cariogenic' intakes as the principal dietary messages for caries prevention. Four experts, however, explicitly mentioned that proper oral hygiene with fluoride toothpaste is more important. There was no agreement among the experts about a daily number of cariogenic intakes in between meals that can be regarded as safe, nor whether the message: 'Use products with sugar substitutes' should be part of the dietary guidelines for the prevention of dental caries. There was no agreement amongst experts on preventive dentistry in Europe on the contemporary validity of the paradigm: 'Sucrose is the arch criminal of dental caries.' Taking the variation in opinions into account and the fact that a balanced diet may lead to a moderate eating and snacking frequency, the authors propose that the emphasis on good versus bad foods for caries prevention should be replaced by an emphasis on good versus bad diets. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. Biological activity during co-composting of sludge issued from the OMW evaporation ponds with poultry manure-Physico-chemical characterization of the processed organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Salma; Sellami, Fatma; Cegarra, Juan; Hachicha, Ridha; Drira, Noureddine; Medhioub, Khaled; Ammar, Emna

    2009-02-15

    Olive mill sludge (OMS), a by-product resulting from natural evaporation of olive oil processing effluent, poses a major environmental threat. A current cost-effective practice of OMS management is composting. A mixture of OMS (60%) with poultry manure (PM) was successfully composted for 210 days. During the process, effluents of olive oil mill and confectionary were used to keep moisture at optimal level (40-60%). Biological indicators reflecting stability of the compost (microbial biota respiration and enumeration, and germination index) were analysed for the assessment of the product quality. The composted mixture showed a high microbial activity with a succession of microbial populations depending on the temperature reached during the biodegradation. The pathogen content from PM decreased with composting as did phytotoxic compounds. Phenols and lipids were reduced, respectively, by 40% and 84% while germination index increased with composting progress. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis revealed that the final compost improved the aromatic content compared to the starting materials, with a decrease in aliphatic groups and a reduction in the easily assimilated components by the microflora acting during the biological process. The final compost was characterized by relatively high organic matter content (26.21%), a low C/N ratio (16.21), an alkaline pH (8.32), a relatively high electrical conductivity (9.21mS/cm) and a high level of nutrients. The germination index for Lepidium sativum L. was 87.71% after 210 days of composting, showing that the final compost was not phytotoxic.

  5. Participatory sensing, opinions and collective awareness

    CERN Document Server

    Haklay, Muki; Hotho, Andreas; Servedio, Vito; Stumme, Gerd; Theunis, Jan; Tria, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces and reviews recent advances in the field in a comprehensive and non-technical way by focusing on the potential of emerging citizen-science and social-computation frameworks, coupled with the latest theoretical and modeling tools developed by physicists, mathematicians, computer and social scientists to analyse, interpret and visualize complex data sets. There is overwhelming evidence that the current organisation of our economies and societies is seriously damaging biological ecosystems and human living conditions in the short term, with potentially catastrophic effects in the long term. The need to re-organise the daily activities with the greatest impact – energy consumption, transport, housing – towards a more efficient and sustainable development model has recently been raised in the public debate on several global, environmental issues. Above all, this requires the mismatch between global, societal and individual needs to be addressed. Recent advances in Information and Communica...

  6. Public Opinion and frames: crisis of the dugout canoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Raquel Rodríguez Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available According to public opinion the increasing number of foreign population has became one of the most problematic issues in the last decade. Since 2005 immigration is the second biggest concern for Spaniards after unemployment and followed by terrorism. It is has became a state issue and a central government worry of utmost importance. The media coverage given to immigration is very important, specifically the way in which it is approached and presented to the readers. This paper shows the different perspectives or frames used by two key nationwide Spanish newspapers, El País y El Mundo, to cover one of the migration crises that took place in the Canary Islands in spring 2006. Following Framing theory, media content has been analyzed using variables to show the different ways in which these media depict the phenomenon of migration and the approach which each newspaper follows.

  7. An exploration of the dynamics and influences upon second medical opinion consultations in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Jennifer; Gold, Michelle; Schwarz, Max; Komesaroff, Paul

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the dynamics within second medical opinion consultations in patients with cancer. Semi-structured interviews were held with four oncologists and were subjected to a thematic analysis to define the broad issues. These formed the basis of a survey distributed to Australian medical oncologists. Overall 65 surveys were returned representing an overall response rate of 30% (10% and 63% electronic and hardcopy response rates, respectively). The dynamics in giving second medical opinions are influenced by the collegiate relationships of the doctors. Nearly two-thirds of oncologists believed that the first doctors' treatment and recommendations influenced the outcome of the second opinion, more than one-third believed the outcome was influenced by the relationship between the two doctors, and 41% believed the public nature of a second opinion was influential. In each case, these figures were more than double their assessments of patients' beliefs of these influences. Care was taken not to criticise the primary doctor. Second medical opinions provide an opportunity for oncologists to review medical care and engage in enhanced communication with patients who have additional needs. These consultations do not, however, occur in a vacuum but are influenced by the need to attend to relationships between the patient and their primary doctor and between the doctors themselves. The second medical opinion is embedded within a network of relationships and within the illness journey. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Opinions of veterinarians on antimicrobial use in farm animals in Flanders and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, D. C.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Verheij, T. J. M.; Wagenaar, J. A.; Dewulf, J.

    2016-01-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in the reduction of antimicrobial use in farm animals. This study aims to quantify opinions of veterinarians from the Netherlands and Flanders regarding antimicrobial use and resistance issues in farm animals. An online survey was sent out to 678 and 1100 farm

  9. Public Opinion and Capital Punishment: A Close Examination of the Views of Abolitionists and Retentionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Phoebe C.; Ross, Lee

    1983-01-01

    Examined the attitudinal and informational bases of people's (N=500) opinions about the death penalty. Results showed 58.8 percent were proponents of capital punishment, 30.8 percent were opponents, and 10.4 percent were undecided. Respondents were generally ignorant on factual issues. Opponents favored due process guarantees more than did…

  10. Public Opinion regarding Juvenile Life without Parole in Consecutive Statewide Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Allen, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Abolition of the death penalty results in life without parole (LWOP) as the most severe sanction for convicted juveniles. Although internationally the use of LWOP for juveniles is rare, 2,225 youth have been sentenced to LWOP within the United States. To address the dearth of public opinion on the issue, the authors proposed questions to the…

  11. 45 CFR 73.735-806 - Documentation and publication of opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-806 Section 73.735-806 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... Department Ethics Counselor, deputy ethics counselors, and any other individuals required to be involved in... Department Ethics Counselor shall publish summaries of advisory opinions issued by his or her office...

  12. Effects of Groups’ Spatial Segregation on Processes of Opinion Polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feliciani, Thomas; Flache, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    We contribute to the literature about processes of opinion formation, investigating theoretically how the spatial segregation of two groups affects opinion polarization as a possible outcome of opinion formation. We focus on two processes of opinion polarization (negative influence and persuasive

  13. A Self-Categorization Explanation for Opinion Consensus Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinguang; Reid, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The public expression of opinions (and related communicative activities) hinges upon the perception of opinion consensus. Current explanations for opinion consensus perceptions typically focus on egocentric and other biases, rather than functional cognitions. Using self-categorization theory we showed that opinion consensus perceptions flow from…

  14. Information Filtering Based on Users' Negative Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Li, Yang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2013-05-01

    The process of heat conduction (HC) has recently found application in the information filtering [Zhang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.99, 154301 (2007)], which is of high diversity but low accuracy. The classical HC model predicts users' potential interested objects based on their interesting objects regardless to the negative opinions. In terms of the users' rating scores, we present an improved user-based HC (UHC) information model by taking into account users' positive and negative opinions. Firstly, the objects rated by users are divided into positive and negative categories, then the predicted interesting and dislike object lists are generated by the UHC model. Finally, the recommendation lists are constructed by filtering out the dislike objects from the interesting lists. By implementing the new model based on nine similarity measures, the experimental results for MovieLens and Netflix datasets show that the new model considering negative opinions could greatly enhance the accuracy, measured by the average ranking score, from 0.049 to 0.036 for Netflix and from 0.1025 to 0.0570 for Movielens dataset, reduced by 26.53% and 44.39%, respectively. Since users prefer to give positive ratings rather than negative ones, the negative opinions contain much more information than the positive ones, the negative opinions, therefore, are very important for understanding users' online collective behaviors and improving the performance of HC model.

  15. 2003/04 public opinion survey Nuclear energy - the present and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.

    2004-01-01

    During the academic years 2000/01, 2001/02 and 2002/03 the Croatian Nuclear Society Young Generation Network (CYGN) carried out public opinion surveys among student population of around 600 individuals age 18-20. The results of the surveys have shown that the participants are rather ignorant on nuclear issues but still very negative, especially towards nuclear power plants and radioactive waste disposal sites with emphasized Not In My Back Yard (NIMBY) syndrome. As a part of the active involvement of CYGN members in upgrading of the positive public opinion, especially, young generations towards nuclear issues, a brochure on radioactivity has been prepared and distributed at the beginning of the 2002/03 school year to third and fourth graders in high schools. Hopefully a part of the 2003/04 academic year, freshman student population received a brochure during their high school education. Therefore, CYGN decided to carry out 2003/04 public opinion survey Nuclear Energy - the Present and the Future in order to investigate the effects of the brochure on student opinions on nuclear subjects. The results of the survey should also provide information on the quality of the distributed materials, as well as the quality of the distribution strategy. The results and the analyses of the 2003/04 public opinion survey, as well as the comparison of the results with the previous surveys are presented in this paper.(author)

  16. Evaluation of the Modern State of Water Ecosystems and the Issues with Protecting Biological Resources During Development of the Kruzenshternskoye Gas Condensate Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dmitrievich Bogdanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the studies of the present state of freshwater ecosystems and their biotic components in the western part of the Yamal Peninsula are presented. Based on the evaluation of the structure of the communities of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and whitefishes, the range of the problems related to the protection of biological resources at the development of the Kruzenshternskoye gas field is defined. Data on species composition and quantitative indicators of hydrobionts of different types of waterbodies and watercourses in the lower reaches of the Mordyyakha and Naduyyakha rivers basins are the basis for environmental monitoring of water objects at development and exploitation of the Kruzenshternskoye gas field. According to the monitoring program, evaluation of the fish fauna state and their food base on the territory of the Kruzenshternskoye gas condensate field (GCF, is present. The zones of rivers deltas are the most important areas of the salmonid and whitefishes valuable fish species feeding at the territory of Kruzenshternskoye GCF. In the cases where complete demolish of waterbodies and watercourses for construction of facilities for GCF does not occur, changes of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of communities of hydrobionts after cease of works are reversible. River ecosystems are restored within a more short period of time in comparison to lacustrine ones. On the basis of conducted comprehensive studies, the proposals for the protection of fisheries resources and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems are reported. Recommendations for reducing the anthropogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems in the development period are presented. The results of the investigation were used in the designing the environmental protection part of the Kruzenshternskoye deposit project. At present, the disturbances in the territory of Kruzenshternskoye deposit of gas does not impact the aquatic ecosystems

  17. Integration of Biological, Physical/Chemical and Energy Efficient Systems in the CELSS Antarctic Analog: Performance of Prototype Systems and Issues for Life Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Flynn, Michael T.; Lamparter, Richard; Bates, Maynard; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Antarctic Analog Project (CAAP) is a joint endeavor between the National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs (NSF-OPP), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The fundamental objective is to develop, deploy, and operate a testbed of advanced life support technologies at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station that enable the objectives of both the NSF and NASA. The functions of food production, water purification, and waste treatment, recycle, and reduction provided by CAAP will improve the quality of life for the South Pole inhabitants, reduce logistics dependence, enhance safety, and minimize environmental impacts associated with human presence on the polar plateau. Because of the analogous technical, scientific, and mission features with Planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, CAAP provides NASA with a method for validating technologies and overall approaches to supporting humans. Prototype systems for waste treatment, water recycle, resource recovery and crop production are being evaluated in a testbed at Ames Research Center. The combined performance of these biological and physical/chemical systems as an integrated function in support of the human habitat will be discussed. Overall system performance will be emphasized. The effectiveness and efficiency of component technologies will be discussed in the context of energy and mass flow within the system and contribution to achieving a mass and energy conservative system. Critical to the discussion are interfaces with habitat functions outside of the closed-loop life support: the ability of the system to satisfy the life support requirements of the habitat and the ability to define input requirements. The significance of analog functions in relation to future Mars habitats will be discussed.

  18. THE LANGUAGE AND IDEOLOGY OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENT FOR DRUG CONVICTS FOUND IN SELECTED OPINIONS IN THE JAKARTA POST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arina Isti’anah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is an investigation into the language use in peoples opinions of capital punishment for drug convicts in The Jakarta Post. Capital punishment was executed to six drug convicts on January 18th , 2015. Controversy about this action has risen before and after the execution. People give their opinions in social media, such as Facebook, Twitter, blogs, and newspapers. The Jakarta Post is a well-known English newspaper in Indonesia which has a lot of readers. People choose this newspaper to convey their ideas so that their opinions will be read by people around the world. As the issue about capital punishment is popular recently, this research attempts at finding out peoples ideology about capital punishment for drug convicts. Critical discourse analysis was conducted in this research as an approach to figure out how language use by the people can reveal their ideology of capital punishment. This research focused on observing four opinions of capital punishment for drug convicts in The Jakarta Post. The analysis shows that material processes dominate the opinions, followed by relational, mental and verbal processes. The ideologies revealed in the opinions are power, pessimism, and criticism. Before the execution, pessimism dominates the opinions, while after the execution criticism appears most in the opinions.

  19. Public opinion on water reuse options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvold, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Public policy on waste water reuse options must be informed by public opinion because it is the public who must pay the cost of developing the option and who will be served by the option in the future. For public policy on reuse, guidance for innovative reuse is not as simple as first believed. It seems that public opinion regarding actual community reuse options is affected by the linkage of several factors, including water conservation, health protection, treatment and distribution costs, and environmental enhancement. Probability sampling was used in 7 studies to select respondents who were queried regarding their opinions on various reclaimed water uses such as ranging from cooling tower water to full domestic use. These 7 are briefly reviewed

  20. CIGEO public debate. Presentation of the Citizens' Conference - Press file. Presentation of the citizens panel opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermitte, Marie-Angele; Bedu, Clemence; Besnus, Francois; Brom, Jean-Marie; Grambow, Bernd; Ruedinger, Andreas; Fourniau, Jean-Michel; Bobbio, Luigi; Blatrix, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    After a presentation of the organisation and implementation of the Citizens' Conference, a presentation of the members of the steering committee and of the assessment committee of this conference, this document presents the opinion of the citizen panel in the framework of the public debate on the Cigeo project of deep underground disposal of radioactive wastes. This opinion notably outlines the waste issue as an inter-generational issue, comments the calendar and condition of the Cigeo project, states the panel opinion on risks which are specific to the Cigeo project, discusses the issue of recoverability and reversibility, discusses the issue of site memory, evokes the possibility of exploitation of geothermal energy, outlines the importance of health and environmental monitoring, comments opportunities for local development, and discusses cost and financing assessments. An appendix presents the different training programmes proposed during the citizens' conference

  1. Etiological explanation, treatability and preventability of childhood autism: a survey of Nigerian healthcare workers' opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo Kevin O

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This study assessed the opinions of healthcare workers in Nigeria on aspects of etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism, and relates their opinions to the sociodemographic variables. Methods Healthcare workers working in four tertiary healthcare facilities located in the south-east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with a sociodemographic questionnaire, personal opinion on etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism (POETPCA questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire to assess their knowledge and opinions on various aspects of childhood autism. Results A total of 134 healthcare workers participated in the study. In all, 78 (58.2%, 19 (14.2% and 36 (26.9% of the healthcare workers were of the opinion that the etiology of childhood autism can be explained by natural, preternatural and supernatural causes, respectively. One (0.7% of the healthcare workers was unsure of the explanation of the etiology. Knowledge about childhood autism as measured by scores on the KCAHW questionnaire was the only factor significantly associated with the opinions of the healthcare workers on etiology of childhood autism. In all, 73 (54.5% and 43 (32.1%, of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that childhood autism is treatable and preventable respectively. Previous involvement with managing children with ASD significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare

  2. Determination of student opinions in augmented reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Bicen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and descriptive statistics. The results show that, with gamification methods, augmented reality content affected students’ opinions in a positive way. When QR codes are used in the classroom, students feel independent from classroom materials and can access various resources. Moreover, students think that, when augmented reality in the classroom is used, education is more enjoyable.

  3. Forming of political opinion and decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, K.

    1980-01-01

    Taking the SNR-300 reactor in Kalkar as an example, the process of forming of political opinion and decision is reconstructed in order to get a picture of typical consensus- and conflict patterns in the discussion of safety problems. On this basis, it should be possible to derive a freedom of action for the political and administrative managing of safety matters by means of feed back with social groups. As a crucial point the aspects concerning the steps of the forming of political opinion and decision are examined. (DG) [de

  4. Analysing Customer Opinions with Text Mining Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoli, Domenico

    2009-08-01

    Knowing what the customer thinks of a particular product/service helps top management to introduce improvements in processes and products, thus differentiating the company from their competitors and gain competitive advantages. The customers, with their preferences, determine the success or failure of a company. In order to know opinions of the customers we can use technologies available from the web 2.0 (blog, wiki, forums, chat, social networking, social commerce). From these web sites, useful information must be extracted, for strategic purposes, using techniques of sentiment analysis or opinion mining.

  5. [Ethical issues in transfusion medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissot, J-D; Danic, B; Cabaud, J-J; Garraud, O

    2016-09-01

    Ethics is on the cross road of off values that are present along the ways of transfusion medicine. This is an important tool to afford opinions as well as debates that always emerge when discussing transfusion medicine. The wording is particularly important; this was one among several others that characterized the soul of Jean-Jacques Lefrère when he opened the doors of the ethical issues of transfusion medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. USING STATISTICAL METHODS FOR ESTIMATING STUDENTS’ OPINION ON THE PURPOSE OF HUMAN LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aivaz M. KAMER AINUR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, two anthropological models are dominant in Romania. The first is the atheistic-evolutionary model and the second is the Christian model. The purpose of this article is to assess the students’ opinion on the two anthropological models and, in particular, on the purpose of human life. To that effect, there have been used the coefficients of association between the main aspects of the two models. Starting from the two outlined approaches, this paper aims to investigate the opinions of the students from two different specializations within Ovidius University of Constanta – the Faculty of Economics and the Faculty of Theology – on the issues mentioned above

  7. Psychiatric Opinion and Homosexuality: A Short Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, R. F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    In a survey of opinion among 100 psychiatrists and 93 trainees in Australia, the majority endorsed the view either that "homosexuality is a developmental anomaly not necessarily or commonly associated with neurotic symptoms" or that "homosexuality is a normal variant like left-handedness." (Author)

  8. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible

  9. FY16 Brazil Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Brazil assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Brazil perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Brazil on 1) their views regarding the general environment in Bra...

  10. Determination of Student Opinions in Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicen, Huseyin; Bal, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development of the new technology has changed classroom teaching methods and tools in a positive way. This study investigated the classroom learning with augmented reality and the impact of student opinions. 97 volunteer undergraduate students took part in this study. Results included data in the form of frequencies, percentages and…

  11. Students and Instructors Opinions about Piano Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the opinions of the students and piano instructors in the Turkish Education Faculties' Fine Arts Instruction Departments' music instruction programs about piano instruction. The study data were collected using a questionnaire administered to the piano instructors and the students who took lessons from them. The study results…

  12. Farmers' Opinions about Third-Wave Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasley, Paul; Bultena, Gordon

    The opinions of 1,585 Iowa farmers about 8 emergent agricultural technologies (energy production from feed grains and oils; energy production from livestock waste; genetic engineering research on plants, livestock, and humans; robotics for on-farm use; confinement livestock facilities; and personal computers for farm families) were found to be…

  13. survey of opinions in a paediatric department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-05-04

    May 4, 1991 ... Doctors working at 3 teaching hospitals of the University of the Witwatersrand were .... study. It can therefore be assumed that the opinions put forth were largely .... and will, it is hoped, provide some food for thought for other departments. ... Puhlic Health 'Service guidelioes for counselliog and antibody ...

  14. Reliability of the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James R.; DeShon, Richard P.

    The lack of systematic psychometric information on the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ) was addressed by investigating the factor structure and reliability of the eight-factor clinical scale model (mental illness, cry for help, right to die, religion, impulsivity, normality, aggression, and moral evil), developed for interpreting responses to…

  15. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  16. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  17. Opinion about nuclear energy and social evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demuth, Gerard; Millat, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    The authors study people's attitudes regarding social evolution in French contemporary society. In this field, they analyze public opinion trends about nuclear energy. Taking into account these basic datas, they put forward some proposals that could lead to a better information and communication about nuclear energy [fr

  18. 19 CFR 210.79 - Advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advisory opinions. 210.79 Section 210.79 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE... of the Tariff Act of 1930, would be in the public interest, and would benefit consumers and...

  19. Opinion dynamics model based on quantum formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artawan, I. Nengah, E-mail: nengahartawan@gmail.com [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Physics, Udayana University (Indonesia); Trisnawati, N. L. P., E-mail: nlptrisnawati@gmail.com [Biophysics, Department of Physics, Udayana University (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Opinion dynamics model based on quantum formalism is proposed. The core of the quantum formalism is on the half spin dynamics system. In this research the implicit time evolution operators are derived. The analogy between the model with Deffuant dan Sznajd models is discussed.

  20. FY15 Djibouti Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Djibouti assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Djibouti perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Djibouti on 1) their views regarding the general environment ...

  1. FY16 Honduras Country Opinion Survey Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Country Opinion Survey in Honduras assists the World Bank Group (WBG) in gaining a better understanding of how stakeholders in Honduras perceive the WBG. It provides the WBG with systematic feedback from national and local governments, multilateral/bilateral agencies, media, academia, the private sector, and civil society in Honduras on 1) their views regarding the general environment ...

  2. The assessment of argumentation from expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, J.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, I will develop a comprehensive tool for the reconstruction and evaluation of argumentation from expert opinion. This is done by analyzing and then combining two dialectical accounts of this type of argumentation. Walton’s account of the ‘appeal to expert opinion’ provides a

  3. FACTORS INFLUENCING AUDITORS' GOING CONCERN OPINION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasnah Haron

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of our study is to provide evidence the practically consideration of auditor judgement on going concern opinion. By using quasi experimental, we found strong evidence that auditors' judgement is affected by financial indicators, evidence, and disclosure. We have another finding that consensus among auditors' judgement and the interaction effects between the three independent variables is significant.

  4. USING EXPERT OPINION IN HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT: A GUIDELINE REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Theresa; Schnell-Inderst, Petra; Sahakyan, Narine; Siebert, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    External experts can be consulted at different stages of an HTA. When using vague information sources, it is particularly important to plan, analyze, and report the information processing in a standardized and transparent way. Our objective was to search and analyze recommendations regarding where and how to include expert data in HTA. We performed a systematic database search and screened the Internet pages of seventy-seven HTA organizations for guidelines, recommendations, and methods papers that address the inclusion of experts in HTA. Relevant documents were downloaded, and information was extracted in a standard form. Results were merged in tables and narrative evidence synthesis. From twenty-two HTA organizations, we included forty-two documents that consider the use of expert opinion in HTA. Nearly all documents mention experts in the step of preparation of the evidence report. Six documents address their role for priority setting of topics, fifteen for scoping, twelve for the appraisal of evidence and results, another twelve documents mention experts when considering the dissemination of HTA results. During the assessment step, experts are most often asked to amend the literature search or to provide expertise for special data analyses. Another issue for external experts is to appraise the HTA results and refer them back to a clinical and social context. Little is reported on methods of expert elicitation when their input substitutes study data. Despite existing recommendations on the use of expert opinion in HTA, common standards for elicitation are scarce in HTA guidelines.

  5. The Fukushima Accident and the Public Opinion in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jencic, I.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear Training Center (ICJT) at the Jozef Stefan Institute is actively involved also in public information of nuclear issues in Slovenia. After the accident in Fukushima ICJT was one of the main sources of technical information and explanation for the journalists. Organized groups, mainly schoolchildren, traditionally come to ICJT, where they listen to a live lecture and visit the permanent exhibition on nuclear energy. Each year in spring, around 1000 of visitors are polled regarding their knowledge and attitude towards nuclear energy. As the visitors of ICJT are not a representative sample of general population, the results of the poll can not be taken absolutely, but they are valuable when compared to previous years' results - to monitor trends in the (younger) public. In the year 2011, the poll was conducted one month after the accident in Fukushima. ICJT is also analysing media reports by following articles in all types of media: TV, radio, press and web. The first two months after the Fukushima accident the frequency of reports increased drastically and then slowly faded away to reach pre-accident level in about 6 months. Naturally there were a lot of concerned reports, some of them also very negative, but given the circumstances and compared with some other countries, e.g. Austria or Germany, the reporting was relatively objective. The paper will analyze the trends in public opinion in Slovenia based on direct contacts with journalists, opinion polls and media analyses.(author).

  6. Gas/electricity convergence : where is public opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.G. [Gallup Canada Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The current status of public opinion regarding gas and electricity convergence was discussed. Gallup Canada Inc. has been in the business of conducting public opinion polls on important issues facing society for over 50 years. Citizens from coast to coast responded with a great deal of confusion, uncertainty and wariness when asked a question on the convergence and privatization of gas and electric utilities. Many expressed the hope that convergence and privatization of the energy industry will have the same effect as deregulation of long distance telephone services has had on choices and costs. For some, the answer meant satisfaction with the notion of competition. Others wanted to know what constituted the local `frozen` rate portion of the delivery. Still others expressed the view that they ought to be rewarded for using less energy and thus help in meeting conservation goals. At the same time, a not insignificant minority thought that they should be rewarded with better prices for consuming more. Improvement in the quality of service was another change that Canadian consumers expect to result from convergence and privatization. In the utility industry `branding` and `value added` to the product, i.e. moving beyond the basic and expected quality, might well be the key to success in developing customer loyalty.

  7. Breast Imaging Second Opinions Impact Surgical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Tara Lynn; Carlson, Kjirsten Ayn; Janssen, Imke; Witt, Thomas R; Jokich, Peter; Madrigrano, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Breast surgeons often see women for second opinions for abnormalities found on breast imaging. For second opinions, these images are submitted for review and interpretation by dedicated breast imagers. This study evaluated the conformity of results among interpretation of imaging submitted from outside hospitals both from tertiary care centers, as well as community programs, in an attempt to evaluate the utility of this practice for the sake of clinical management and resource utilization. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all breast patients that submitted outside imaging films for the years 2011 to 2013 at Rush University Medical Center (RUMC). The radiologic diagnosis and each patient's proposed management plan was collected and evaluated for concordance between the outside institutions and RUMC. A total of 380 patients who presented for second opinions with an interpretation of outside exams were evaluated. In 47.4 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 42.4-52.4] of cases there was distinct variance in radiologic impression. For 53.5 % (95 % CI 48.4-58.5) of patients, there was a change in recommended management plan, which included recommendations for either additional imaging or need for additional biopsy. In total, this changed the overall surgical management in 27.1 % (95 % CI 22.8-31.9) of cases. In six patients, the reinterpretation of outside imaging detected new malignancies not previously identified. Overall, 83.7 % (95 % CI 79.7-87.1) of patients who submitted imaging from outside institutions chose to complete the remainder of their treatment at RUMC. The practice of second opinion review changed overall definitive management at our specialty center in more than one in four cases. In addition, the review identified six previously unrecognized malignancies. Given this data, the practice of second opinions and interpretation of outside exams should continue despite the additional resources required.

  8. Practical Problems of Giving Opinions by Regional Chambers of Accounting on the Possibility of Repayment of Obligations in Local Government Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Tyniewicki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Opinions of the regional accounting chambers on the possibility of repayment of the credit, loan or redemption of the securities by local government units have some specific features compared with the other opinions concerning the financial management of the local government. Firstly, they are only issued at the request of the unit that they concerned. Secondly, for the reason they relate to public debt issues, to some extent their content may be similar or “partial reproduction” of the standpoint of the regional chamber of accounting within already issued opinions referring to acts on budgetary planning process in local government units. The purpose of this article is to assess the legitimacy of issuing such opinions and to identify the relationship between the ordinances (resolutions on the possibility of repayment of the credit, loan or redemption of the securities and provisions of local government budget.

  9. The IRSN 2012 barometer. The opinion on risks and security of the French population. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Jammal, Marie-Helene; Rollinger, Francois; Mur, Emmanuelle

    2012-01-01

    This report presents and comments the results of a survey during which a sample of the French population has been questioned on their current concerns (what is the most concerning issue in the present society and in the environment, science within concerns), on their opinion on scientific expertise (who should control a risky installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist structures), on their opinion on 33 risk situations (risks to which French people feel exposed, confidence in authorities to protect them, truth of information on hazards, hierarchy of the 33 situations), on their opinion on the nuclear activity and industry (the nuclear risk, the credibility and expertise of interveners), and on the Fukushima accident (perception of the accident, quality of information, expectations on the assessment of nuclear power stations)

  10. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R

    2016-01-01

    There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  11. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Brandon R.

    2016-01-01

    There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM) foods and human involvement in global warming (GW). Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual) or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community. PMID:27829008

  12. Examining the Gap between Science and Public Opinion about Genetically Modified Food and Global Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon R McFadden

    Full Text Available There is great uncertainty due to challenges of escalating population growth and climate change. Public perception that diverges from the scientific community may decrease the effectiveness of scientific inquiry and innovation as tools to solve these challenges. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with the divergence of public opinion from scientific consensus regarding the safety of genetically modified (GM foods and human involvement in global warming (GW. Results indicate that the effects of knowledge on public opinion are complex and non-uniform across types of knowledge (i.e., perceived and actual or issues. Political affiliation affects agreement with science; Democrats were more likely to agree that GM food is safe and human actions cause GW. Respondents who had relatively higher cognitive function or held illusionary correlations about GM food or GW were more likely to have an opinion that differed from the scientific community.

  13. Climate of opinion and information behaviour in the context of nuclear energy and the ENSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfadelli, H.; Kristiansen, S.

    2012-11-01

    This interim report issued by the University of Zurich for the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) was elaborated as a result of the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. The report discusses the questions raised concerning the independence of certain members of the inspectorate and discusses the results of an initial survey on the profile and reputation of the inspectorate. The development of public opinion concerning various aspects of nuclear energy over several years and for various categories of the population is noted in tables. Also, large changes in opinion after the Fukushima accident are noted. Risk assessments, confidence in the regulatory instances as well as opinions on how nuclear energy should be regulated are examined. Also, information and media use in connection with nuclear energy are looked at. Finally, the most important conclusions of the study are presented and discussed

  14. Diversity Issues in the Army as Perceived by Army Students at the United States Army War College

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Webster, Cecil

    1997-01-01

    .... This flag issue, as well as other class discussions on social and domestic programs, highlighted significant differences of opinion between Blacks and Whites on equal opportunity, affirmative action...

  15. Epidemic spreading in multiplex networks influenced by opinion exchanges on vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Zuzek, Lucila G; La Rocca, Cristian E; Iglesias, José R; Braunstein, Lidia A

    2017-01-01

    Through years, the use of vaccines has always been a controversial issue. People in a society may have different opinions about how beneficial the vaccines are and as a consequence some of those individuals decide to vaccinate or not themselves and their relatives. This attitude in face of vaccines has clear consequences in the spread of diseases and their transformation in epidemics. Motivated by this scenario, we study, in a simultaneous way, the changes of opinions about vaccination together with the evolution of a disease. In our model we consider a multiplex network consisting of two layers. One of the layers corresponds to a social network where people share their opinions and influence others opinions. The social model that rules the dynamic is the M-model, which takes into account two different processes that occurs in a society: persuasion and compromise. This two processes are related through a parameter r, r 1 the society tends to have extremist opinions, while r = 1 represents a neutral society. This social network may be of real or virtual contacts. On the other hand, the second layer corresponds to a network of physical contacts where the disease spreading is described by the SIR-Model. In this model the individuals may be in one of the following four states: Susceptible (S), Infected(I), Recovered (R) or Vaccinated (V). A Susceptible individual can: i) get vaccinated, if his opinion in the other layer is totally in favor of the vaccine, ii) get infected, with probability β if he is in contact with an infected neighbor. Those I individuals recover after a certain period tr = 6. Vaccinated individuals have an extremist positive opinion that does not change. We consider that the vaccine has a certain effectiveness ω and as a consequence vaccinated nodes can be infected with probability β(1 - ω) if they are in contact with an infected neighbor. In this case, if the infection process is successful, the new infected individual changes his opinion from

  16. Epidemic spreading in multiplex networks influenced by opinion exchanges on vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila G Alvarez-Zuzek

    Full Text Available Through years, the use of vaccines has always been a controversial issue. People in a society may have different opinions about how beneficial the vaccines are and as a consequence some of those individuals decide to vaccinate or not themselves and their relatives. This attitude in face of vaccines has clear consequences in the spread of diseases and their transformation in epidemics. Motivated by this scenario, we study, in a simultaneous way, the changes of opinions about vaccination together with the evolution of a disease. In our model we consider a multiplex network consisting of two layers. One of the layers corresponds to a social network where people share their opinions and influence others opinions. The social model that rules the dynamic is the M-model, which takes into account two different processes that occurs in a society: persuasion and compromise. This two processes are related through a parameter r, r 1 the society tends to have extremist opinions, while r = 1 represents a neutral society. This social network may be of real or virtual contacts. On the other hand, the second layer corresponds to a network of physical contacts where the disease spreading is described by the SIR-Model. In this model the individuals may be in one of the following four states: Susceptible (S, Infected(I, Recovered (R or Vaccinated (V. A Susceptible individual can: i get vaccinated, if his opinion in the other layer is totally in favor of the vaccine, ii get infected, with probability β if he is in contact with an infected neighbor. Those I individuals recover after a certain period tr = 6. Vaccinated individuals have an extremist positive opinion that does not change. We consider that the vaccine has a certain effectiveness ω and as a consequence vaccinated nodes can be infected with probability β(1 - ω if they are in contact with an infected neighbor. In this case, if the infection process is successful, the new infected individual changes his

  17. American Institute of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staff Issues AIBS Position Statements Funding for the Biological Sciences Supporting Scientific Collections Advocating for Research Policy ... Public Policy Leadership Award Graduate students in the biological sciences who have demonstrated initiative and leadership in ...

  18. Discrete model of opinion changes using knowledge and emotions as control variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality) is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda.

  19. Discrete model of opinion changes using knowledge and emotions as control variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sobkowicz

    Full Text Available We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda.

  20. THE IMPACT OF AUDITOR`S OPINION ON EARNINGS MANAGEMENT: EVIDENCE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra GAJEVSZKY

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the relation between modified audit opinion and abnormal accruals in the case of listed Romanian entities. In order to investigate the influence of auditor`s opinion on earnings management, a multiple regression was designed. The final sample, after eliminating the financial institutions due to homogeneity considerations, consists of 61 companies listed on Bucharest Stock Exchange – tier I, II and III- through a period of five years, from 2008 until 2012. The dependent variable of the regression which measures the discretionary accruals is represented by abnormal accruals, while the independent variables, namely audit opinion, audit firm size, firm size and current ratio of liquidity, constitute the explanatory variables of the regression which aims to capture properly the impact of auditor`s opinion on reducing earnings management in order to improve the quality of financial reporting process. This research contributes to the existent literature in several ways. First of all, at this point, it is the first article that tackles the issue of auditor`s opinion impact on earnings management in Romania. Second, the results of this study might influence the academic environment by contributing to a better understanding of the theoretical implications that can be adapted into an improved practice for the Romanian listed entities.

  1. Discrete Model of Opinion Changes Using Knowledge and Emotions as Control Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality) is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda. PMID:22984516

  2. A mobile phone application for the collection of opinion data for forest planning purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Annika; Rasinmäki, Jussi; Eyvindson, Kyle; Chambers, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The last 30 years has seen an increase in environmental, socio-economic, and recreational objectives being considered throughout the forest planning process. In the Finnish context these are considered mainly at the regional level potentially missing out on more local issues and problems. Such local information would be most efficiently collected with a participatory GIS approach. A mobile participatory GIS application called Tienoo was developed as a tool for collecting location-specific opinions of recreational and aesthetical characteristics of forests and forest management. The application also contains information the user can access regarding the practical details of the area, for instance about the recreational infrastructure. The application was tested in Ruunaa National Hiking Area, North Karelia, Eastern Finland. Through this application it is possible to continuously collect geolocated preference information. As a result, the collected opinions have details which can be located in both time and space. This allows for the possibility to monitor the changes in opinions when the stands are treated, and it also allows for easily analyzing the effect of time of year on the opinions. It is also possible to analyze the effect of the spatial location and the forest characteristics on the opinions using GIS analysis.

  3. Breaking The Traditional Communication Flow: Exploration of Social Media Opinion Leaders in Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Emma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Opinion leaders play an important role in mitigating health issues and are able to influence attitudes and health behaviors to a certain extent. However, in the world we are living today, individual health decision making no longer rely fully on doctor’s advice, but often persuaded by people or organisations deemed reliable and trustworthy. Interestingly, one does not have to have a medical degree to be seen as “reliable” or “trustworthy” in giving out medical advices. Computer-mediated-communication changes the way opinion leaders emerge in virtual communities, specifically in the context of health. Through increased access to both traditional and online media, people have a fair access to communication technology and therefore, our definition of opinion leaders have shifted from how we used to understand it through Lazarsfeld’s two-steps flow theory. In fact, the way opinion leaders operate via social media platform is very different from how it used to be through the traditional mass media. This paper will discuss on the characteristics of new media opinion leaders, particularly in the context of health, in hopes to learn new ways to promote health in future communication campaigns.

  4. The brazilian nuclear policy with respect to the public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Brandao Bittencourt, C.

    1988-01-01

    Four decades of the Brazilian nuclear history have been analysed with special emphasis placed on government policy and its repercussion on public opinion. The implications of the new constitutional regulations which rule the issue are discussed. it is also studied the change in the nuclear program structure, enforced in August 1988. At different times, the government decisions on nuclear energy could be classified as miser, extravagant, dissimulated and frank, successively. Their aftermaths, which show little consistency with the expectations laid on them, have led to discredit by part of the society, which is controlled by a scientific - intellectual elite. However, recent successes are likely to reverse this trend, if the government explores them properly. (author) [pt

  5. Public opinion survey 'Nuclear energy - the present and the future'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matani, R.; Lebegner, J.; Jurkovi, I.-A.; Prah, M.

    2000-01-01

    As a part of Croatian Nuclear Society Young Generation Network efforts in improving relations with the general public, a survey on nuclear energy issues among a student population (18-22 years old) has been planned. The survey, although somewhat modified, is based on a similar one that has been conducted at high schools as a part of organized educational program by the Museum of Technical Sciences and Hrvatska Elektroprivreda. Preliminary results show a positive altitude among the student population when it comes to nuclear power plants. As it can be seen from the obtained data (preliminary analysis), this opinion is mostly built on student awareness of nuclear power plants as a clean energy source. (authors)

  6. Chaotic Modes in Scale Free Opinion Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusmartsev, Feo V.; Kürten, Karl E.

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate processes associated with formation of public opinion in varies directed random, scale free and small-world social networks. The important factor of the opinion formation is the existence of contrarians which were discovered by Granovetter in various social psychology experiments1,2,3 long ago and later introduced in sociophysics by Galam.4 When the density of contrarians increases the system behavior drastically changes at some critical value. At high density of contrarians the system can never arrive to a consensus state and periodically oscillates with different periods depending on specific structure of the network. At small density of the contrarians the behavior is manifold. It depends primary on the initial state of the system. If initially the majority of the population agrees with each other a state of stable majority may be easily reached. However when originally the population is divided in nearly equal parts consensus can never be reached. We model the emergence of collective decision making by considering N interacting agents, whose opinions are described by two state Ising spin variable associated with YES and NO. We show that the dynamical behaviors are very sensitive not only to the density of the contrarians but also to the network topology. We find that a phase of social chaos may arise in various dynamical processes of opinion formation in many realistic models. We compare the prediction of the theory with data describing the dynamics of the average opinion of the USA population collected on a day-by-day basis by varies media sources during the last six month before the final Obama-McCain election. The qualitative ouctome is in reasonable agreement with the prediction of our theory. In fact, the analyses of these data made within the paradigm of our theory indicates that even in this campaign there were chaotic elements where the public opinion migrated in an unpredictable chaotic way. The existence of such a phase

  7. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  8. Speech language pathologists' opinions of constraint-induced language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stephen J; Wallace, Sarah E

    2014-01-01

    Constraint-induced language therapy (CILT) has received recent attention as a possible intervention to improve expressive language in people with nonfluent aphasia. Difficulties have been reported with the practical implementation of constraint-induced movement therapy due to its intensive treatment parameters. It remains unknown whether similar challenges may exist with CILT. To determine the opinions of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) about CILT for people with nonfluent aphasia. One hundred sixty-seven SLPs completed an electronic survey assessing their opinions of various aspects of CILT. Over 60% of participants felt that people with aphasia would be very unlikely or somewhat unlikely to adhere to CILT. The majority felt that people with aphasia would hold high or moderate concerns with the number of hours spent in therapy (high, 41.8%; moderate, 31.4%), the number of days spent in therapy (high, 44.4%; moderate, 24.8%), likelihood for managed care reimbursement (high, 74.8%; moderate, 15.2%), and other logistical issues (high, 39.2%; moderate, 30.7%). With respect to providing CILT, participants cited the number of hours of therapy (high, 37.3%; moderate, 21.6%) and the number of consecutive days of therapy (high, 29.4%; moderate, 20.3%) as concerns. There were 70.6% who indicated that their facilities lacked resources to provide CILT, and 90.9% felt that most facilitates do not have the resources to provide CILT. Some SLPs hold significant concerns with the administration of CILT, particularly related to its dosing and reimbursement parameters. Additional work is needed to investigate the issues that were identified in this survey using qualitative methods with SLPs and people with aphasia and to examine modified CILT protocols.

  9. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  10. The importance of opinion leaders in agricultural production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of opinion leaders in agricultural production among male and ... farmers do not have adequate access to extension services due to, amongst others, the ... In view of these problems, the role of opinion leaders is important and ...

  11. European dental students' opinions on their local anaesthesia education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H.S.; Tan, L.L.S.; van der Spek, S.J.; Baart, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate students’ opinion about theoretical and clinical training in local anaesthesia at different European dental schools. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed to collect information about local anaesthesia teaching. Students’ opinion was quantified with five-point

  12. Differing professional opinions: 1987 special review panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In November 1987, the five-member Differing Professional Opinions Special Review Panel established by the Executive Director for Operations of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review agency policies and procedures for handling differing professional opinions (DPOs) presented its findings and recommendations in NUREG-1290. The issuance of that report completed the first task of the panel's charter. In accordance with Manual chapter 4125, Section L, and the charter of the Special Review Panel, the panel's second task was to ''...review...the DPOs submitted subsequent to the previous Panel's review, in order to identify any employee whose DPO made a significant contribution to the Agency or to the public safety but who has not yet been recognized for such contribution.'' This Addendum provides the findings of that review

  13. Employee benefits managers' opinions about addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Bentson H; Lierman, Walter K; Penner, Norman R; McCamant, Lynn E; Zani, Brigid G

    2003-01-01

    Employee benefits managers arrange addictive disease treatment insurance coverage for the majority of people in the United States but little is known about these decision-makers. Managers were surveyed to learn their opinions about addiction treatment. Subjects were 131 people (61 percent female, 94 percent white, average age 46, average of 14 years in the human resources field). Managers were asked to rank health benefits (physical health, dental, alcohol-drug, vision, mental health, employee assistance program, and pharmaceuticals) on 15 dimensions. Managers ranked alcohol-drug abuse treatment worst on fiveitems and second to the worst on another four of the 15 dimensions. On the item considered most important by the managers, respondents noted that employees often (2.8) ask for improved physical health benefits but rarely do so for alcohol and drug (4.1) benefits (p < .001). Education of workers and payers will be needed to change opinions about treatment of addictive disorders.

  14. Genetic Discrimination: A Legal Or Biological Issue?

    OpenAIRE

    Myssior, Bárbara Augusta de Paula Araujo; Silva, Luís Eduardo Gomes

    2016-01-01

    This essay debates the technological evolution that, from the decoding of the human genome has opened up many scientific benefits, and yet brings up a new kind of segregation: genetic discrimination. Based on the right to privacy, as well as the concept of genetic identity, as well as data protection and information, worked up the genetic discrimination. Therefore, documentary research and critical analysis of scientific papers were taken, using up of the inductive reasoning method. As a resu...

  15. Genetic Discrimination: A Legal Or Biological Issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Augusta de Paula Araujo Myssior

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay debates the technological evolution that, from the decoding of the human genome has opened up many scientific benefits, and yet brings up a new kind of segregation: genetic discrimination. Based on the right to privacy, as well as the concept of genetic identity, as well as data protection and information, worked up the genetic discrimination. Therefore, documentary research and critical analysis of scientific papers were taken, using up of the inductive reasoning method. As a result, elucidate how such discrimination affects individuals, it is possible to conclude that regardless of the type of discrimination, all should be restrained by law.

  16. Great Explanations: Opinionated Explanations for Recommendation

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Khalil; Lawlor, Aonghus; Rafter, Rachael; Smyth, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Explaining recommendations helps users to make better, more satisfying decisions. We describe a novel approach to explanation for recommender systems, one that drives the recommendation process, while at the same time providing the user with useful insights into the reason why items have been chosen and the trade-os they may need to consider when making their choice. We describe this approach in the context ofa case-based recommender system that harnesses opinions mined from user-generated re...

  17. Distributed Time Synchronization Algorithms and Opinion Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manita, Anatoly; Manita, Larisa

    2018-01-01

    We propose new deterministic and stochastic models for synchronization of clocks in nodes of distributed networks. An external accurate time server is used to ensure convergence of the node clocks to the exact time. These systems have much in common with mathematical models of opinion formation in multiagent systems. There is a direct analogy between the time server/node clocks pair in asynchronous networks and the leader/follower pair in the context of social network models.

  18. Opinion Mining in Web 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Gallego, Pablo José

    2012-01-01

    During the last years we are assisting to an intense Web transformation process. It is no longer a mere static information repository but a dynamic system in which users have become the main content contributors. They actively participate in sharing their opinions, thoughts and views about products, events and almost anything in social networks, forums, blogs, etc. With the latest advances in mobile technologies, users can actually interact anytime from anywhere; real time info...

  19. Opinions and attitudes of women towards breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Bień

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. The most positive beliefs related to breastfeeding refer to the special relation between an infant and its mother, the belief that breastfeeding is an ideal solution for a baby and the appreciation of its economical aspect. Women are aware of the fact that breastfeeding is a challenge for them. Two main factors influence their opinion: the age of women and the number of births.

  20. Chefs' opinions of restaurant portion sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condrasky, Marge; Ledikwe, Jenny H; Flood, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-08-01

    The objectives were to determine who establishes restaurant portion sizes and factors that influence these decisions, and to examine chefs' opinions regarding portion size, nutrition information, and weight management. A survey was distributed to chefs to obtain information about who is responsible for determining restaurant portion sizes, factors influencing restaurant portion sizes, what food portion sizes are being served in restaurants, and chefs' opinions regarding nutrition information, health, and body weight. The final sample consisted of 300 chefs attending various culinary meetings. Executive chefs were identified as being primarily responsible for establishing portion sizes served in restaurants. Factors reported to have a strong influence on restaurant portion sizes included presentation of foods, food cost, and customer expectations. While 76% of chefs thought that they served "regular" portions, the actual portions of steak and pasta they reported serving were 2 to 4 times larger than serving sizes recommended by the U.S government. Chefs indicated that they believe that the amount of food served influences how much patrons consume and that large portions are a problem for weight control, but their opinions were mixed regarding whether it is the customer's responsibility to eat an appropriate amount when served a large portion of food. Portion size is a key determinant of energy intake, and the results from this study suggest that cultural norms and economic value strongly influence the determination of restaurant portion sizes. Strategies are needed to encourage chefs to provide and promote portions that are appropriate for customers' energy requirements.

  1. Opinion Dynamics with Heterogeneous Interactions and Information Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir Tabatabaei, Seydeh Anahita

    2013-01-01

    In any modern society, individuals interact to form opinions on various topics, including economic, political, and social aspects. Opinions evolve as the result of the continuous exchange of information among individuals and of the assimilation of information distributed by media. The impact of individuals' opinions on each other forms a network,…

  2. the nature and determinants of opinion leadership in lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    opinion leadership, 39 percent have been nominated and thus qualify ... It obviously cannot be ruled out that with increased consultations more fields of ... 30. 40. 50. 60. 70. 80. 90. 100. %. >3. 3. 2. 1. Opinion leadership (No. of nominations) .... Frequency distribution per gender. Male. Female. Total. Opinion leadership.

  3. 28 CFR 80.8 - Attorney General opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attorney General opinion. 80.8 Section 80.8 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OPINION PROCEDURE § 80.8 Attorney General opinion. The Attorney General or his designee shall, within 30 days after...

  4. cultural variations regarding the nature and determinants of opinion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Keywords: Opinion leaders, cultural influence, diffusion and determinants of opinion leadership. ABSTRACT. This paper compares the findings from different countries regarding the nature and determinants of opinion leadership. ..... agricultural production among male and female farmers of the Kusenge. Parish in the ...

  5. Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific contributions in the field of freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One issue is published annually but this number may be increased. Original research papers and short communications on any aspect of tropical freshwater ...

  6. The crucial contribution of veterinarians to conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Richard P; Kenny, David E; Fitzgerald, Kevin T

    2013-11-01

    Conservation biology is a relatively new (began in the 1980s), value-based discipline predicated on the belief that biological diversity-from genes to populations to species to communities to ecosystems-is good and extinction is bad. Conservation biology grew from the recognition that the Earth has entered its sixth great extinction event, one that differs from previous great extinctions in that a single species-Homo sapiens-has caused this biodiversity crisis. A diverse, interacting set of variables drive current extinctions. As such, to succeed, conservation efforts usually require broad-based, interdisciplinary approaches. Conservationists increasingly recognize the importance of contributions by veterinary science, among many other disciplines, to collaborative efforts aimed at stemming the loss of biodiversity. We argue that, to improve success rates, many wildlife conservation programs must incorporate veterinarians as part of an interdisciplinary team to assess and address problems. Ideally, veterinarians who participate in conservation would receive specialized training and be willing to work as partners as part of a larger team of experts who effectively integrate their work rather than work independently (i.e., work as interdisciplinary, as opposed to multidisciplinary, teams, respectively). In our opinion, the most successful and productive projects involve interdisciplinary teams involving both biological and nonbiological specialists. Some researchers hold multiple degrees in biology and veterinary medicine or the biological and social sciences. These experts can often offer unique insight. We see at least 3 major areas in which veterinarians can immediately offer great assistance to conservation efforts: (1) participation in wildlife capture and immobilization, (2) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife health issues, and (3) leadership or assistance in addressing wildlife disease issues, including using wildlife as sentinels to identify new

  7. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  8. Monte Carlo simulations of a model for opinion formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordogna, C. M.; Albano, E. V.

    2007-04-01

    A model for opinion formation based on the Theory of Social Impact is presented and studied by means of numerical simulations. Individuals with two states of opinion are impacted due to social interactions with: i) members of the society, ii) a strong leader with a well-defined opinion and iii) the mass media that could either support or compete with the leader. Due to that competition, the average opinion of the social group exhibits phase-transition like behaviour between different states of opinion.

  9. A Survey of Key Technology of Network Public Opinion Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Su Ying

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The internet has become an important base for internet users to make comments because of its interactivity and fast dissemination. The outbreak of internet public opinion has become a major risk for network information security. Domestic and foreign researchers had carried out extensive and in-depth study on public opinion. Fruitful results have achieved in the basic theory research and emergency handling and other aspects of public opinion. But research on the public opinion in China is still in the initial stage, the key technology of the public opinion analysis is still as a starting point for in-depth study and discussion.

  10. OpinionSeer: interactive visualization of hotel customer feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Wei, Furu; Liu, Shixia; Au, Norman; Cui, Weiwei; Zhou, Hong; Qu, Huamin

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development of Web technology has resulted in an increasing number of hotel customers sharing their opinions on the hotel services. Effective visual analysis of online customer opinions is needed, as it has a significant impact on building a successful business. In this paper, we present OpinionSeer, an interactive visualization system that could visually analyze a large collection of online hotel customer reviews. The system is built on a new visualization-centric opinion mining technique that considers uncertainty for faithfully modeling and analyzing customer opinions. A new visual representation is developed to convey customer opinions by augmenting well-established scatterplots and radial visualization. To provide multiple-level exploration, we introduce subjective logic to handle and organize subjective opinions with degrees of uncertainty. Several case studies illustrate the effectiveness and usefulness of OpinionSeer on analyzing relationships among multiple data dimensions and comparing opinions of different groups. Aside from data on hotel customer feedback, OpinionSeer could also be applied to visually analyze customer opinions on other products or services.

  11. Determinants of favourable opinions about euthanasia in a sample of French physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany, Lionel; Baumstarck, Karine; Dudoit, Eric; Duffaud, Florence; Auquier, Pascal; Salas, Sébastien

    2015-11-05

    The question whether euthanasia should be legalised has led to substantial public debate in France. The objective of this study in a sample of French physicians was to establish the potential determinants of a favourable opinion about euthanasia in general and when faced with a specific situation as embodied in the Humbert affair. The study was a cross-sectional survey investigating two different samples of medical doctors: (1) those specialised in palliative care and affiliated to the French Society for Patient Accompaniment and Palliative Care; (2) medical interns (medical doctors in training course) in a French medical university (Marseille). A questionnaire was sent (email) to each voluntary participant including sociodemographics, professional status, mention of believing in God, and opinion about euthanasia (the question was designed to assess the general opinion about euthanasia and the opinion about a specific case, the Vincent Humbert' case (a man who was rendered quadriplegic, blind, and mute after an accident and has requested euthanasia). A total of 413 physicians participated in the research (participation rate: 48.5%). Less than half of the population were favourable to euthanasia in general and almost two-thirds of the population were favourable to Vincent Humbert's request for euthanasia. Based on the multivariate analysis, individuals believing in God and being a medical intern were significant independent factors linked to having a favourable opinion about euthanasia in general and about the Vincent Humbert's request. There is still no study in France on the development of opinion about euthanasia and its impact. The issue goes beyond the strictly professional sphere and involves broader socio-political stakes. These stakes do not necessarily take into account medical practices and experiences or the desires of end-of-life patients. The professional upheaval that the future French legal framework will doubtlessly trigger will require further

  12. Non-consensus Opinion Models on Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Wang, Huijuan; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-04-01

    Social dynamic opinion models have been widely studied to understand how interactions among individuals cause opinions to evolve. Most opinion models that utilize spin interaction models usually produce a consensus steady state in which only one opinion exists. Because in reality different opinions usually coexist, we focus on non-consensus opinion models in which above a certain threshold two opinions coexist in a stable relationship. We revisit and extend the non-consensus opinion (NCO) model introduced by Shao et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 103:01870, 2009). The NCO model in random networks displays a second order phase transition that belongs to regular mean field percolation and is characterized by the appearance (above a certain threshold) of a large spanning cluster of the minority opinion. We generalize the NCO model by adding a weight factor W to each individual's original opinion when determining their future opinion (NCO W model). We find that as W increases the minority opinion holders tend to form stable clusters with a smaller initial minority fraction than in the NCO model. We also revisit another non-consensus opinion model based on the NCO model, the inflexible contrarian opinion (ICO) model (Li et al. in Phys. Rev. E 84:066101, 2011), which introduces inflexible contrarians to model the competition between two opinions in a steady state. Inflexible contrarians are individuals that never change their original opinion but may influence the opinions of others. To place the inflexible contrarians in the ICO model we use two different strategies, random placement and one in which high-degree nodes are targeted. The inflexible contrarians effectively decrease the size of the largest rival-opinion cluster in both strategies, but the effect is more pronounced under the targeted method. All of the above models have previously been explored in terms of a single network, but human communities are usually interconnected, not isolated. Because opinions propagate not

  13. OPINION GIVING SERVICES AS A SOURCE OF CONSUMER INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Wyrwisz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is to determine the place and role of opinion giving services in consumer behaviours. The discussion is conducted around the thesis saying that in the information society, opinion giving services constitute an important source of information for consumers in the process of selecting and purchasing both products and services. In the article the research approach based on the theoretical and empirical examinations was presented. The discussion starts with presenting a defi nition and types of opinion giving services which constitute the base for the characteristics of activities and usefulness of web portals collecting consumers opinions. The use of opinion giving services provided in the purchase process was evaluated. An essential interest in other consumers opinions, placed in Internet, was observed together with perceiving them as credible. Positive assessment of the functionality of opinion giving services was noticed.

  14. Six recommendations on “Synthetic Biology & Intellectual Property Rights”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Rutz, Berthold; van Zimmeren, Esther

    2015-01-01

    In September 2014 the European Commission’s Scientific Committees published a Final Opinion, which defines synthetic biology (SB) as follows: “SynBio is the application of science, technology and engineering to facilitate and accelerate the design, manufacture and/or modification of genetic...... materials in living organisms”. This operational definition offered by the Scientific Committees is derived from a working understanding of SynBio as a collection of conceptual and technological advances. It is sufficiently broad to include new developments in the field and also addresses the need...... for a definition that enables risk assessment.In order to promote an adequate development of SB that will secure innovation and cooperation and prevent fragmentation, it is important to identify and assess new risks and other issues early on to enable scientists, industry, funding agencies and other stakeholders...

  15. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  16. Resolving regional conflicts and public opinion: The Nigerian experience in Liberian crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami, B.O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria played an important role which led to the resolution of the Liberian crisis between 1990 and 1997. But between 1990 and 1993 towards the end of General Ibrahim Babangida’s regime (1985-1993, Nigeria’s role in the Liberian peace process became a major issue which preoccupied Nigeria’s external relations within the West African Sub-region. This paper examines in how public opinion influences government attitude and posture towards the Liberian situation.

  17. The News Media PRISM: Shaping America’s Opinion of Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    public gleans much of its knowledge of the political process. Accordingly, the tone of media coverage has a remarkable impact as people form their opinions...conditions in sweatshops and the corruption of public officials. This activist journalism, dubbed "muckraking" by President Theodore Roosevelt, led to...then rush to buy a paper and read all the shocking details." 1 9 Both Hearst and Pulitzer, along with E.W. Scripps, covered social and political issues

  18. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND OPINION SURVEY UPON DICTATORSHIP AS A PEDAGOGICAL STRATEGY OF THE TEACHING OF HISTORY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitória A. da Fonseca

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practice of teaching, whose purpose was to make students of high school capable of understanding the issues upon the dictatorship as a theme in the teaching of history. Considering the importance of practice as a tool which makes up a learning path, the activity has involved debate, survey and statistical analysis. It is worth highlighting the engagement of students in this activity and mapping of their opinions about the dictatorship.

  19. Public Opinion Survey - Energy, The Present and The Future, 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Matijevic, M.; Jecmenica, R.; Duckic, P.; Lebegner, J.

    2016-01-01

    During the year 2015 the Department of Applied Physics of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb conducted a public opinion survey entitled 'Energy - The Present and the Future' among student population of 1115 individuals. The tested population consisted of the University of Zagreb six faculties' students: the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Technology, the Faculty of Mining, Geology and Petroleum Engineering, the Faculty of Science, and the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. The questions in the survey covered several different energy issues, including the present and the future energy resources, the acceptability of different fuel type power plants, the environmental protection and global warming, the radioactivity, the radioactive waste issues, reliable information sources, and position of participants towards climate change issues, as well as European Union and Croatian goals set for the year 2020. The basic results of survey analysis for nuclear oriented questions, as well as the comparison of results of the current survey with the results of the similar surveys conducted in the academic years 2007/08, and 2012/2013, are reported in this paper. Participants generally express high level of formal environmental awareness. However, their choices and attitudes are in a contradiction to claimed eco-orientation, as well as to the scientific facts. The discrepancies are particularly noticeable in parts of the survey dealing with the nuclear energy and the nuclear power plants. The participants are also demonstrating lack of knowledge on nuclear issues especially regarding radioactive waste management, as well as economics and operational safety of nuclear power plants. (author).

  20. Students’ opinions about modern lecture: development path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana A. Astashova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As an objective of the research, the author set the task of identifying students’ opinion and opinion of lecturers about the purpose of the lectures at the university, about the role of the lecturer and preferred form of lectures. As a result of the research, it was necessary to answer the following important questions: What are the objectives of the lecture and the role of the lecturer? Which lectures are more preferable: traditional or interactive? What do lecturers expect from the lecture, do they consider it an advantage or an unnecessary educational activity?The materials were developed for the survey (questionnaire to conduct the research and analyze the results obtained. The students were surveyed before training and after completion of the semester. The study involved 200 students of all areas of Mechanics and Technology Faculty of Novosibirsk State Technical University. Statistical analysis was used for the analysis of the results.As a result, the experiment revealed nonconformity of opinions of students about the purpose of the lecture and the role of a lecturer before the training and after the end of the semester. Lectures, according to students, should help to implement all kinds of practical and independent assignments.Educational standards imply a reduction in the hours of classroom training and an increase in independent work, and the majority of students are not ready (do not want to to study the materials on the topics of discipline completely independently or partially.It revealed a contradiction in opinion, what form of organization of the lecture classes is more interesting to students, which can increase the motivation of the visit and work on the lectures.The technology of designing the educational process in the conditions of the mixed training is proposed, applying the technological map.The technological map is presented in the form of stages of designing the educational process, including recommendations on the use of

  1. Global Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, J.L.

    2001-10-15

    Global Issues is an introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. This new edition of this text has been fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. Fully updated throughout and features expanded sections on issues such as global warming, biotechnology, and energy. An introduction to the nature and background of some of the central issues - economic, social, political, environmental - of modern times. Covers a range of perspectives on a variety of societies, developed and developing. Extensively illustrated with diagrams and photographs, contains guides to further reading, media, and internet resources, and includes suggestions for discussion and studying the material. (author)

  2. Trends in Public Opinion on Nuclear Energy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jencic, I.

    2008-01-01

    Slovenia is considering building a second nuclear power plant in the next 10-15 years, 'if no other, better option to generate electricity becomes feasible in this period.' It is quite obvious that this cautious wording is used in the official government plan because of sensitivity of public towards nuclear energy and potential political feedback. The Nuclear Training Centre was established in 1989 as an organizational unit of Jozef Stefan Institute. Its main mission was - and still is - the initial, theoretical training of NPP operators. Over the years, this mission was complemented by an increasingly intensive activity in public information. The core of this activity is the Information centre which was set up in the basement of the Training Centre in 1993 and which received the 100.000th visitor in May 2007. Public information of the Nuclear Training Centre is based of live lectures, visit of the permanent exhibition, demonstration laboratory, printed materials and web page. A selected group of visitors is also polled each year on the topic of nuclear energy. The poll is performed before the visit in order to receive unbiased opinion. We are aware that the results of these polls are not representative for general public in Slovenia, but to some extent they do reflect public opinion and, even more important, they can be used to monitor changes over the years and also to serve as a guide to information activities. This year we have also started to follow the reports on nuclear energy in the media: what are the topics that media report most, how do they report and in which types of media these reports appear. The paper will describe the results of public opinion polls in the last year and their comparison with the results of polls in the previous years, as well as their comparison with a recent Eurobarometer poll on nuclear safety. Furthermore, analysis of media coverage will be presented. All these data are considered in estimating the strong and the weak points of

  3. Risk-Informed SSCs Categorization: Elicitation Method of Expert's Opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Mee Jeong; Yang, Joon Eon; Kim, Kil Yoo

    2005-01-01

    The regulations have been performing by deterministic way since nuclear power plants have been operating. However, some SSCs identified as safety-significance by deterministic way, were turned out to be low or non safety-significant and some SSCs identified as non-safety significance were turned out to be high safety-significant according to the results of PSA. Considering these risk insights, Regulatory Guide 1.174 and 10CFR50.69 were drawn up, and we can re-categorize the SSCs according to their safety significance. Therefore, a study and an interest about the risk-informed SSCs re-categorization and treatment has been continued. The objective of this regulatory initiative is to adjust the scope of equipment subject to special regulatory treatment to better focus licensee and regulatory attention and resources on equipment that has safety significance. Current most regulations define the plant equipment necessary to meet deterministic regulatory basis as 'safety-related.' This equipment is subject to special treatment regulations. Other plant equipment is categorized as 'non-safety related,' and is not subject to a select number of special treatment requirement or a subset of those requirement. However, risk information is not a magic tool making a decision but a supporting tool to categorize SSCs. This is because only small parts of a plant are modeled in PSA model. Thus, engineering and deterministic judgments are also used for risk-informed SSCs categorization, and expert opinion elicitation is very important for risk-informed SSCs categorization. Therefore, we need a rational method to elicit the expert's opinions, and in this study, we developed a systematic method for expert elicitation to categorize the nuclear power plants' SSCs. Current states for SSCs categorization of the USA and the existing methods for expert elicitation were surveyed and more systematic way eliciting the expert opinions and combining was developed. To validate the developed method

  4. Contribution of records management to audit opinions and accountability in government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodreck David

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Auditing can support national democratic processes, national development and government good will. Supreme Audit Institutions (SAI, such as offices of Auditor General, publish consolidated reports on audit outcomes for local authorities, government departments, parastatals and related public entities. These reports identify broad areas analysed during audit exercises that often include financial management, governance, asset management, risk management, revenue collection and debt recovery. They highlight trends that were detected during audit exercises at the end of a financial year. The reports further show how records and records management affect audit exercises as well as financial management within the audited institutions. Objectives: The intention of the research was to ascertain the contribution of records management to audit opinions and accountability in financial management in Zimbabwean government entities. Method: A document analysis of Comptroller and Auditor General of Zimbabwe (CAGZ’s reports was used to identify the types of decisions and recommendations (audit opinions issued, in juxtaposition to the records management issues raised. Results and Conclusion: This study shows that there is a strong correlation between records management concerns and audit opinions raised by the CAGZ’s narrative audit reports. Inadequate records management within government entities was associated with adverse and qualified opinions and, in some cases, unqualified opinions that had emphases of matter. There was a causal loop in which lack of documentary evidence of financial activities was the source cause of poor accounting and poor audit reports. Errors resulting from incomplete or inaccurate records meant that government entities were not showing a true picture of their financial status and their financial statements could be materially misstated. As an important monitoring and control system, records management should be

  5. The Hidden Lincoln in French Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Portes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abraham Lincoln has never served as a model for French politicians. He was indeed compared to Carnot, the organizer of the French Revolutionary wars. But when Clemenceau led France in WWI, when De Gaulle stood for France’s independence in WWII, nobody thought of comparing them to Lincoln. This essay analyzes French public opinion during the American Civil War with a focus on Lincoln, based on a study of the few French books published between 1860 and 1865 on the US, diaries, a sample of conservative and republican daily papers, weekly reviews and illustrated newspapers.

  6. Risk perception: expert opinion versus public understanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Jennifer

    1987-01-01

    A research project looking at the public's attitudes towards the siting of radioactive waste depositories is reported. The risk perception studies seek to compare expert and lay understanding of risk. Adverse public reactions to risk can only be understood if it is known how people relate to risks in their everyday or working lives. Social trends and experiences are important, for example, the adverse public opinion on the siting of nuclear waste facilities. A number of elements have been identified as common to different risk areas such as chemicals, drugs, food or radioactive waste. These are the clashing of values, polarization of beliefs or clashes of interest. (UK)

  7. A model of public opinion management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patacconi, Andrea; Vikander, Nicholas Edward

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers often motivate their decisions using information collected by government agencies. While more information can help hold the government to account, it may also give policymakers an incentive to meddle with the work of bureaucrats. This paper develops a model of biased information...... information is always unbiased, may also not be socially optimal. A biased information-gathering process can benefit the government by helping it to shape public opinion. But it can also benefit the public, by curbing the government's tendency to implement its ex ante favored policy, thus mitigating...... the agency conflict between policymakers and the public....

  8. Nuclear energy and european public opinions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    This document presents four texts related to the crucial question of the attitude towards nuclear energy in the countries of the European Union: the first text comments the results of a European Commission inquiry (2006), and is more especially concerned with a comparison between Germany and France where rather similar public opinions lead to very different political approaches; the second text presents a synthesis of inquiries concerning Germany; the third is a review of the main national studies realized in various european countries; the last text is drawn from a study realized by the Cnrs on the position of the French towards nuclear wastes

  9. [Use of ineffective practices in Primary Health Care: professional opinions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Bustillo, L; Barrasa Villar, J I; Castán Ruíz, S; Moliner Lahoz, F J; Aibar Remón, C

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the frequency of ineffective practices in Primary Health Care (PHC) based on the opinions of clinical professionals from the sector, and to assess the significance, implications and factors that may be contributing to their continuance. An on line survey of opinion from a convenience sample of 575 professionals who had published articles over the last years in Atención Primaria and Semergen medical journals. A total of 212 professionals replied (37%). For 70.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64.5 to 73.3) the problem of ineffective practices is frequent or very frequent in PHC, and rate their importance with an average score of 7.3 (standard deviation [SD]=1.8) out of 10. The main consequences would be endangering the sustainability of the system (48.1%; 95% CI, 41.2 to 54.9) and harming patients (32.1%; 95% CI, 25.7 to 38.5). These ineffective practices are the result of the behaviour of the patients themselves (28%; 95% CI, 22.6 to 35.0) workload (26.4%; 95% CI, 20.3 to 32.5), and the lack of the continuous education (19.3%; 95% CI, 13.9 to 24.7). Clinical procedures of greatest misuse are the prescribing of antibiotics for certain infections, the frequency of cervical cancer screening, rigorous pharmacological monitoring of type 2 diabetes in patients over 65 years, the use of psychotropic drugs in the elderly, or the use of analgesics in patients with hypertension or renal failure. The use of ineffective procedures in PHC is considered a very important issue that negatively affects many patients and their treatment, and possibly endangering the sustainability of the system and causing harm to patients. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of national representative opinion surveys concerning gestational surrogacy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kohta; Hoshi, Kazuhiko; Minai, Junko; Yanaihara, Takumi; Takeda, Yasuhisa; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2006-05-01

    Although gestational surrogacy offers several advantages, this procedure has given rise to some ethical and legal issues. We aimed to clarify the factors affecting the attitude of the Japanese toward gestational surrogacy. Cross-sectional study. Nationwide opinion surveys concerning assisted reproductive technologies (ART) were carried out in 1999 and 2003. Participants included 2568 and 3647 people from the general public surveyed in 1999 and 2003, respectively (1564 people received only the questionnaire, and 2083 people received a questionnaire and brochure about ART). Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval from logistic regression models for factors affecting the attitude toward gestational surrogacy. In both surveys, approximately half of respondents approved of gestational surrogacy; 20-30% disapproved of the procedure. People with high socioeconomic status clearly expressed their opinion on this issue. A liberal attitude toward gender role promoted approval of gestational surrogacy; a liberal attitude toward family had the opposite effect. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic status affects people's expression of their opinion regarding this issue, while attitudes toward this procedure were influenced by individual belief. Considering socioeconomic status and diversity of individual belief is required for further discussion on this topic.

  11. Biological anti-TNF drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mônica Simon; Bendtzen, Klaus; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho

    2017-01-01

    practice shows a significant percentage of individuals who do not exhibit the desired response. Loss of therapeutic benefit after initial successful response is designated secondary failure. Immune-biological agents are not self-antigens and are therefore potentially immunogenic. Secondary failure...... is frequently caused by antibodies against immune-biologicals, known as anti-drug antibodies (ADA). ADA that neutralize circulating immune-biologicals and/or promote their clearance can reduce treatment efficacy. Furthermore, ADA can induce adverse events by diverse immunological mechanisms. This review...... provides a comprehensive overview of ADA in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with anti-TNF immune-biologicals, and explores the concept of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) as an effective strategy to improve therapeutic management. Expert opinion: Monitoring circulating ADA and therapeutic immune-biological...

  12. Pediatric biobanking: a pilot qualitative survey of practices, rules and researcher opinions in ten European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvaterra, Elena; Giorda, Roberto; Bassi, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Ethical, legal, and social issues related to the collection, storage, and use of biospecimens and data derived from children raise critical concerns in the international debate. So far, a number of studies have considered a variety of the individual issues crucial to pediatric biobanking such as ......Ethical, legal, and social issues related to the collection, storage, and use of biospecimens and data derived from children raise critical concerns in the international debate. So far, a number of studies have considered a variety of the individual issues crucial to pediatric biobanking...... such as decision making, privacy protection, minor recontact, and research withdrawal by focusing on theoretical or empirical perspectives. Our research attempted to analyze such issues in a comprehensive manner by exploring practices, rules, and researcher opinions regarding proxy consent, minor assent, specimens...

  13. Perspectives and reconciliation of viewpoints on risk assessment issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    It is important to recognize the distinction between risk assessment and its components which include risk analysis, perspectives study, and decision analysis. Divergence of opinion within the scientific community as well as the public at large is a characteristic of issues related to nuclear power. The divergent opinions can largely be characterized as either optimistic or pessimistic in nature. Reconciliation of divergent viewpoints presents some difficult challenges. It is doubtful that issues which have an emotional or philosophical basis can be resolved through technical efforts. Public education on the technical issues might prove helpful

  14. Analysis and application of opinion model with multiple topic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun; Wang, Liang; Wang, Ximeng

    2017-08-01

    To reveal heterogeneous behaviors of opinion evolution in different scenarios, we propose an opinion model with topic interactions. Individual opinions and topic features are represented by a multidimensional vector. We measure an agent's action towards a specific topic by the product of opinion and topic feature. When pairs of agents interact for a topic, their actions are introduced to opinion updates with bounded confidence. Simulation results show that a transition from a disordered state to a consensus state occurs at a critical point of the tolerance threshold, which depends on the opinion dimension. The critical point increases as the dimension of opinions increases. Multiple topics promote opinion interactions and lead to the formation of macroscopic opinion clusters. In addition, more topics accelerate the evolutionary process and weaken the effect of network topology. We use two sets of large-scale real data to evaluate the model, and the results prove its effectiveness in characterizing a real evolutionary process. Our model achieves high performance in individual action prediction and even outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Meanwhile, our model has much smaller computational complexity. This paper provides a demonstration for possible practical applications of theoretical opinion dynamics.

  15. Public opinion about energy: a literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, B.C.; Weis, P.; Unseld, C.T.; Burns, B.A.

    1979-06-01

    A review and analysis of 115 surveys of the general population between 1973 and 1978 (before the Three Mile Island accident, sudden gasoline price increases, and spot gasoline shortages) are presented. The survey data are organized and analyzed according to a set of categories described in Chapter 2. The public's definition of the energy situation is the focus of Chapter 3. Chapter 4 describes public opinion concerning energy conservation pertaining to transportation and domestic energy use -- whether it is efficacious, how knowledgeable people are about conservation, whether they favor it, and whether they engage in it. Findings on the solar energy alternative are described in Chapter 5. Public opinion concerning more conventional sources of energy -- oil and natural gas, coal, and nuclear energy -- are discussed in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7, a summary of analytical findings by 10 major sociodemographic characteristics is presented. Chapter 8 describes analytical findings using various social-psychological variables. A summary is presented in Chapter 9.

  16. USSR Space Life Sciences Digest, issue 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Lydia Razran (Editor); Teeter, Ronald (Editor); Rowe, Joseph (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    This is the twenty-ninth issue of NASA's Space Life Sciences Digest. It is a double issue covering two issues of the Soviet Space Biology and Aerospace Medicine Journal. Issue 29 contains abstracts of 60 journal papers or book chapters published in Russian and of three Soviet monographs. Selected abstracts are illustrated with figures and tables from the original. A review of a book on environmental hygiene and a list of papers presented at a Soviet conference on space biology and medicine are also included. The materials in this issue were identified as relevant to 28 areas of space biology and medicine. The areas are: adaptation, aviation medicine, biological rhythms, body fluids, botany, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, developmental biology, digestive system, endocrinology, equipment and instrumentation, genetics, habitability and environment effects, hematology, human performance, immunology, life support systems, mathematical modeling, metabolism, musculoskeletal system, neurophysiology, nutrition, personnel selection, psychology, radiobiology, reproductive system, space biology and medicine, and the economics of space flight.

  17. Gender Issues in Popular Cinema | Agba | Annals of Humanities and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender issue in cinema like all other media of communication is the product of stereotyping in the ego formations for both male and female folks. The image of a person or group of persons must sell or be destroyed. Discussion on gender issue is often brought into focus to equalize public opinion and treatment for both men ...

  18. Ethics issues in retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.; Larsson, C.M.; Norden, M.

    2000-01-01

    We can isolate some issues, which should not be unresolved for a longer period of time. Disputes over well-defined waste management options fall in this category. The concept of retrievability has a possibility to invoke a series of questions in the minds of both specialists and non-specialists. It is intrinsically vague, in that it may refer to different phases in the repository's life, and to both open and closed repositories in the long time frame. Requirements for retrievability opens a series of issues, including open-ended philosophical question, which may give the impressions that things are not properly taken care of, since the experts differ in opinion. If such disputes cannot be resolved by consulting the existing legal framework, efforts should be made to put them to trial in the proper forum, i.e. parliament and national or local government or authorities, depending on the problem. In contrast, the value of institutional controls can easily be seen as an ethical value, whether included in the regulation of not. It has the potential to deter human intrusion and to allow remedial action by carrying information about a repository. (author)

  19. Emotions, Public Opinion, and U.S. Presidential Approval Rates: A 5-Year Analysis of Online Political Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra; Banchs, Rafael E.; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how emotional reactions to political events shape public opinion. We analyze political discussions in which people voluntarily engage online to approximate the public agenda: Online discussions offer a natural approach to the salience of political issues and the means to analyze emotional reactions as political events take…

  20. Public opinion about condoms for HIV and STD prevention: a Midwestern state telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarber, William L; Milhausen, Robin R; Crosby, Richard A; Torabi, Mohammad R

    2005-09-01

    Public opinion is important in determining condom and condom education policies in public high schools. A random telephone survey of 517 Indiana residents was conducted from July through October 2003 to assess public opinion about education on correct condom use for HIV and STD prevention; condom availability in Indiana public high schools; and issues related to condom use, effectiveness and promotion. Data were analyzed using bivariate and linear regression techniques. A majority of respondents strongly or somewhat agreed that instruction on correct condom use for HIV and STD prevention should be provided in public high schools (77%), classroom instruction should include condoms (71%), only medically accurate information about condoms should being given (94%) and the federal government should promote condoms (70%). Fewer than half (48%) strongly or somewhat agreed that condoms should be made available to teenagers in public high schools without parental permission. Nearly all (92%) considered condoms at least somewhat effective in preventing HIV and other STDs. Non-Republican party affiliation, younger age and condom use within the previous five years were each significantly associated with having positive opinions on many of the condom-related statements. Public opinion appears to support the provision of correct condom use information in Indiana public schools. Schools should consider providing only medically accurate information about condoms and including condoms in instruction so students can see and touch them.

  1. Sentiment classification of Roman-Urdu opinions using Naïve Bayesian, Decision Tree and KNN classification techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bilal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sentiment mining is a field of text mining to determine the attitude of people about a particular product, topic, politician in newsgroup posts, review sites, comments on facebook posts twitter, etc. There are many issues involved in opinion mining. One important issue is that opinions could be in different languages (English, Urdu, Arabic, etc.. To tackle each language according to its orientation is a challenging task. Most of the research work in sentiment mining has been done in English language. Currently, limited research is being carried out on sentiment classification of other languages like Arabic, Italian, Urdu and Hindi. In this paper, three classification models are used for text classification using Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (WEKA. Opinions written in Roman-Urdu and English are extracted from a blog. These extracted opinions are documented in text files to prepare a training dataset containing 150 positive and 150 negative opinions, as labeled examples. Testing data set is supplied to three different models and the results in each case are analyzed. The results show that Naïve Bayesian outperformed Decision Tree and KNN in terms of more accuracy, precision, recall and F-measure.

  2. Drivers of going concern audit opinions: empirical evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suroto Lina Rahmawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of the going concern audit opinions is an important component within the enhancement of firms’ responsibility and stewardship. A going concern audit opinions implies that the independent auditor doubt the future of the firm. This study aimed to examine the drivers of the likelihood of the going-concern audit opinions. Previous studies revealed that there were inconsistent drivers influencing the going-concern audit opinion. This study shows similar results to prior works. The result indicates that firms’ financial condition and profitability significantly affect the likelihood of the going-concern audit opinion, while firms’ size and leverage are not the determinants of the intensity of the going concern audit opinion.

  3. Public opinion on atomic energy after JCO accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Sosuke; Ishikawa, Masayori; Shimomura, Hideo; Hori, Hiromoto; Suzuki, Yasuko; Kamise, Yumiko

    2004-04-01

    JCO accident happened on September 30, 1999. This book deals with the public opinion of atomic energy after JCO accident in Japan and comparison with that of USA and France. The analysis of public opinion structure is also shown. The important chapter is the eighth chapter a n opinion survey after the accident , of which sampling areas consisted of three areas such as JCO accident area, the nuclear power plants and the general cities. The analytical results of data showed that the public opinion in Tokai-mura and Naka-machi, the JCO accident area, indicated moderate opinions. It is the interesting results were obtained that the moderate tendency of opinion was in order JCO accident area, the nuclear power plants and the general cities. People's attitude toward nuclear energy related to their social values. Abstract of JCO accident, JCO structure, the effects of accident on the environment and news stories about the accident are reported. (S.Y.)

  4. On the opinion formation of mobile agents with memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhong; Liu, Qipeng; Wang, Zhenling; Zhang, Siying

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the opinion formation problem in a group of mobile agents using a multi-agent modeling method. Suppose that all agents move in a two-dimensional space following a certain rule. The interaction range of each agent is determined by its physical location and its opinion similarity with other agents. Moreover, agents have memory of the opinions of their previous interactive neighbors. We investigate the influence of three factors on the formation of group opinion: moving probability, interactive radius, and population density. Using simulations, we find that an opinion consensus can be achieved easily under a small moving probability and a small interactive radius, which is a relatively counterintuitive phenomenon. We also find that a large interactive radius or the model with memory can facilitate the convergence of opinions in a group to either consensus or clusters.

  5. 78 FR 53138 - South Carolina Public Service Authority; Notice of Meeting to Discuss Santee-Cooper Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 199-205] South Carolina Public Service Authority; Notice of Meeting to Discuss Santee-Cooper Biological Opinion On July 15, 2010, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) filed its Biological Opinion (BO) on the relicensing of...

  6. EDITORIAL: 50th anniversary issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddoe, Alun H.

    2006-07-01

    In July 1956, 50 years ago, the first issue of Physics in Medicine and Biology (PMB) was published. It was subtitled The Journal of the Hospital Physicists' Association and published in association with the Philosophical Magazine by Taylor and Francis. Subscriptions were £1 per part or £3 10s for an annual subscription. The Editor, Professor J E Roberts, prefaced the first issue with a cautious editorial noting: The appearance of a new journal is usually greeted with mixed feelings by scientific workers, a common response being that there are far too many journals already. Justification for a new publication is only possible if there is a clearly defined gap in the publishing facilities available to workers in a particular scientific field.... Professor Roberts ended by seeking support from the scientific community for the new venture. He certainly got it! From a tentative few hundred pages in four issues a year for the first few years, the journal is now issued twice monthly with nearly 8000 pages expected in volume 51. In this anniversary issue we have invited some 28 senior authors to submit papers on a range of subjects spanning the discipline. We decided that to be an author one had to be old, but age was not to be the only criterion! Indeed readers will recognize all names as major contributors to both the development of medical physics and the success of PMB. Authors were not asked to write formal topical reviews of the state-of-the-art of the sub-disciplines which make up medical physics, but rather to present short historical reviews, didactic in style, perhaps highlighting the role of PMB in the development of their fields. Nevertheless, other than a page limit (which many subsequently ignored!) no formal format was imposed on authors, so what follows is a range of contributions from the almost conversational, personal statement to the more formal and familiar scientific paper. Whatever the writing style we are confident that readers will gain some

  7. PageRank model of opinion formation on Ulam networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhmakhchyan, L.; Shepelyansky, D.

    2013-12-01

    We consider a PageRank model of opinion formation on Ulam networks, generated by the intermittency map and the typical Chirikov map. The Ulam networks generated by these maps have certain similarities with such scale-free networks as the World Wide Web (WWW), showing an algebraic decay of the PageRank probability. We find that the opinion formation process on Ulam networks has certain similarities but also distinct features comparing to the WWW. We attribute these distinctions to internal differences in network structure of the Ulam and WWW networks. We also analyze the process of opinion formation in the frame of generalized Sznajd model which protects opinion of small communities.

  8. Correlation between information diffusion and opinion evolution on social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Zhenjiang

    2014-12-01

    Information diffusion and opinion evolution are often treated as two independent processes. Opinion models assume the topic reaches each agent and agents initially have their own ideas. In fact, the processes of information diffusion and opinion evolution often intertwine with each other. Whether the influence between these two processes plays a role in the system state is unclear. In this paper, we collected more than one million real data from a well-known social platform, and analysed large-scale user diffusion behaviour and opinion formation. We found that user inter-event time follows a two-scaling power-law distribution with two different power exponents. Public opinion stabilizes quickly and evolves toward the direction of convergence, but the consensus state is prevented by a few opponents. We propose a three-state opinion model accompanied by information diffusion. Agents form and exchange their opinions during information diffusion. Conversely, agents' opinions also influence their diffusion actions. Simulations show that the model with a correlation of the two processes produces similar statistical characteristics as empirical results. A fast epidemic process drives individual opinions to converge more obviously. Unlike previous epidemic models, the number of infected agents does not always increase with the update rate, but has a peak with an intermediate value of the rate.

  9. Correlation between information diffusion and opinion evolution on social media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Fei; Liu, Yun; Zhang, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    Information diffusion and opinion evolution are often treated as two independent processes. Opinion models assume the topic reaches each agent and agents initially have their own ideas. In fact, the processes of information diffusion and opinion evolution often intertwine with each other. Whether the influence between these two processes plays a role in the system state is unclear. In this paper, we collected more than one million real data from a well-known social platform, and analysed large-scale user diffusion behaviour and opinion formation. We found that user inter-event time follows a two-scaling power-law distribution with two different power exponents. Public opinion stabilizes quickly and evolves toward the direction of convergence, but the consensus state is prevented by a few opponents. We propose a three-state opinion model accompanied by information diffusion. Agents form and exchange their opinions during information diffusion. Conversely, agents' opinions also influence their diffusion actions. Simulations show that the model with a correlation of the two processes produces similar statistical characteristics as empirical results. A fast epidemic process drives individual opinions to converge more obviously. Unlike previous epidemic models, the number of infected agents does not always increase with the update rate, but has a peak with an intermediate value of the rate. (paper)

  10. Word of mouth and opinion leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The new, alternative thinking patterns in marketing highlight the fact that exchanges per se are not the focus of marketing analysis and researches; rather than that, they must surrender this position to relationships between different sides in the marketing setting - the company and consumers, internal relations within companies, and relations between consumers themselves. A new philosophy, relationship marketing, is taking over the position of the old transaction marketing philosophy. The greatest challenge for marketing professionals at the beginning of the 21st century is this third dimension of relationships - relations between consumers, their mutual impact on preferences and purchase decisions, and, most notably, the possibility of involving consumers in companies marketing mix programs. Opinion leaders - their identification, creation, their word-of-mouth communication, its emergence and impact are currently the focus of marketing theory and practice.

  11. Adolescents' knowledge and opinions about smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Aryal, Umesh Raj; Petzold, Max

    2018-01-01

    also created environments for smoking. Some expressed confidence to resist peer pressure and refuse to start smoking, but also expressed the need for prevention strategies in schools and for governmental initiatives, such as more strict implementation of tobacco control and regulations to prevent......, whereas qualitative studies exploring adolescents' smoking behavior and their views, knowledge and experiences are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To gain a deep understanding of Nepalese adolescents' knowledge and opinions about smoking and reasons for smoking initiation. SUBJECTS: Adolescents from four secondary...... schools in the Bhaktapur district, Nepal. METHODS: Eight focus-group discussions were conducted with 71 adolescents aged 13-16 years and from grades 8-10. Data were analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The participants knew that smoking represents health risks as well as socio...

  12. Wind energy - Opinions of the ADEME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    This publication proposes brief presentations and discussions and some data related to the production of electricity by means of wind energy: principle and description, key data (international context, electric power production in France, economic development of the sector), status of knowledge regarding various aspects (assets of wind energy, a clean and local energy, a predictable and manageable source, an increasing competitiveness, a focus on offshore wind energy, control of acoustic and landscape impacts, protection of biodiversity, management of interactions with radars, a steady and clear regulation), perspectives of evolution (a sector of innovations, an opportunity for the development of circular economy, promotion of a participative and citizen wind energy), the case a small units, actions undertaken by the ADEME, and global opinion by the ADEME

  13. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, B.

    1991-07-25

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions.

  14. Advanced nuclear reactor public opinion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This Interim Report summarizes the findings of our first twenty in-depth interviews in the Advanced Nuclear Reactor Public Opinion Project. We interviewed 6 industry trade association officials, 3 industry attorneys, 6 environmentalists/nuclear critics, 3 state officials, and 3 independent analysts. In addition, we have had numerous shorter discussions with various individuals concerned about nuclear power. The report is organized into the four categories proposed at our April, 1991, Advisory Group meeting: safety, cost-benefit analysis, science education, and communications. Within each category, some change of focus from that of the Advisory Group has been required, to reflect the findings of our interviews. This report limits itself to describing our findings. An accompanying memo draws some tentative conclusions

  15. Public-opinion poll on energy saving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A public-opinion poll was carried out on energy saving from November 26 to December 2, 1981, across the country. The number of persons participated in the survey was 5,000, whose age was 20 and above. The recovery ratio was 4,007 persons (80.1 %). The results of the survey and also the question-answer form are given with respective percentages. The questions were in the following three categories: (1) cognizance of energy saving - space-heating temperature, energy saving conscience use of private cars, purchase of highenergy consumption appliances; (2) energy for future - energy consumption, energy consumption trend, new types of energy, main sources of power generation, nuclear power in the overall electric power, apprehension toward nuclear power plants, safety measures in nuclear power plants; (3) governmental energy policy measures. (J.P.N.)

  16. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  17. Ustekinumab in the management of Crohn's disease: Expert opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuzzi, Alessandro; Ardizzone, Sandro; Biancone, Livia; Castiglione, Fabiana; Danese, Silvio; Gionchetti, Paolo; Orlando, Ambrogio; Rizzello, Fernando; Scribano, Maria Lia; Vecchi, Maurizio; Daperno, Marco

    2018-03-11

    This expert-opinion paper reviews available evidence for the use of ustekinumab, a human interleukin 12/23 monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of Crohn's disease and discusses its potential role in the current treatment scenario for the condition. Ustekinumab appears to be associated with rapid and sustained clinical effect, as reported from the clinical research program, with additional support for potential mucosal healing. These characteristics are paralleled by a favorable safety profile, lack of immunogenicity and the presence of systemic anti-inflammatory activity. Importantly, ustekinumab requires only one single intravenous administration, while subsequent dosing is administered subcutaneously, with potential advantages for home-based therapy. Lastly, the dosage of ustekinumab is flexible. On the basis of the evidence, ustekinumab has a role in patients with primary failure or secondary loss of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, as well as in those who have adverse events on front-line biologics or are reinitiating therapy after a treatment holiday. Current evidence suggests that ustekinumab may be particularly suitable in patients who present extra-intestinal manifestations of the disease or are at risk of infections. Ustekinumab may also be considered in the first-line setting, especially in frail patients, in young subjects or in those who have concomitant immune-mediated diseases. Copyright © 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Creating informed public opinion: citizen deliberation about nanotechnologies for human enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Many people believe that ordinary citizens should influence scientific and technological developments, but the American public is routinely uninformed about these issues. As a solution, some scholars advocate creating informed public opinions by encouraging citizens to deliberate about the issues. Although this idea is currently widely applauded in the science and technology literature, deliberative outcomes are infrequently measured and the practice of deliberation is routinely criticized in other disciplines. This research contributes to our understanding of the effectiveness of citizen deliberation as a method for increasing public engagement with science. I report data measuring results of deliberation in a national citizens’ technology forum (NCTF) about nanotechnologies for human enhancement. The NCTF was a month-long process involving six groups of 9–15 ordinary citizens who deliberated in different locations across the United States with the goal of reaching consensus about policy recommendations within their groups. I find that structured deliberation generated informed opinions, sometimes meaningful shifts in preferences, and increased trust and internal efficacy among the participants. Nevertheless, the NCTF has important shortcomings, and it is not obvious that consensus conferences should be preferred over other mechanisms for creating informed opinions. Future research is needed to corroborate the findings of this study and to systematically compare outcomes of structured citizen deliberation to other less resource intensive forms of engagement.

  19. Fertility treatment for the transgender community: a public opinion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Randi H; Kaser, Daniel J; Missmer, Stacey A; Farland, Leslie V; Scout; Ashby, Rachel K; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2017-11-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate public opinion regarding fertility treatment and gamete cryopreservation for transgender individuals and identify how support varies by demographic characteristics. This is a cross-sectional web-based survey study completed by a representative sample of 1111 US residents aged 18-75 years. Logistic regression was used to calculate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of support for/opposition to fertility treatments for transgender people by demographic characteristics, adjusting a priori for age, gender, race, and having a biological child. Of 1336 people recruited, 1111 (83.2%) agreed to participate, and 986 (88.7%) completed the survey. Most respondents (76.2%) agreed that "Doctors should be able to help transgender people have biological children." Atheists/agnostics were more likely to be in support (88.5%) than Christian-Protestants (72.4%; OR = 3.10, CI = 1.37-7.02), as were younger respondents, sexual minorities, those divorced/widowed, Democrats, and non-parents. Respondents who did not know a gay person (10.0%; OR = 0.20, CI = 0.09-0.42) or only knew a gay person without children (41.4%; OR = 0.29, CI = 0.17-0.50) were more often opposed than those who knew a gay parent (48.7%). No differences in gender, geography, education, or income were observed. A smaller majority of respondents supported doctors helping transgender minors preserve gametes before transitioning (60.6%) or helping transgender men carry pregnancies (60.1%). Most respondents who support assisted and third-party reproduction also support such interventions to help transgender people have children.

  20. To drill or not to drill? An econometric analysis of US public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Deep; Rahman, Mohammad Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Offshore drilling in the United States (US) has been the subject of public and political discourse due to multiple reasons which include economic impact, energy security, and environmental hazard. Consequently, several polls have been conducted over time to gauge public attitude towards offshore drilling. Nevertheless, the economic literature on this issue is sparse. This paper contributes to the literature and analyzes support for offshore drilling based on demographic, economic, social, belief, and shock (e.g. spill) factors. The data is taken from ten nationwide surveys conducted before, during and after the British Petroleum (BP) oil spill and analyzed within the framework of discrete choice model. The results from an ordinal probit model demonstrate that age, annual household income, affiliation to Republican Party, and residence in oil-rich states positively affect the probability of strong support and reduce the probability of strong opposition for offshore drilling. In contrast, the female gender, higher education, association to Democratic Party, and environmental concern affect opinion in opposite direction. Marginal effects show that belief about environmental consequences of drilling has the highest impact on opinion. Binary probit model also yields a similar result and suggests that BP oil disaster resulted in a transient decrease in support for offshore drilling. - Highlights: •US public opinion on offshore drilling is analyzed based on ten national polls. •Ordinal and binary probit models are utilized to identify the underlying factors that shape public opinion. •Belief about environmental cost of drilling and educational attainment have the highest negative impact on opinion. •Age, income, affiliation to Republican party and oil-rich states positively affect support for drilling. •BP oil spill resulted in a transient decrease in support for offshore drilling.

  1. Workforce Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented during a symposium on work force issues moderated by Jan DeJong at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Rethinking the Ties that Bind: An Exploratory Study of Employee Development in Utilities in Canada and the United States" (Michael Aherne, David…

  2. Sanskrit Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara Stoler, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    This issue of "Mahfil" is devoted to Sanskrit literature and contains a note on Sanskrit pronunciation and selections of Sanskrit literature. It also contains articles analyzing and discussing various aspects of the literature, including "Sanskrit Rhetoric and Poetic,""The Creative Role of the Goddess Vac in the…

  3. Bond Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Rachel H.

    2000-01-01

    Notes trends toward increased borrowing by colleges and universities and offers guidelines for institutions that are considering issuing bonds to raise money for capital projects. Discussion covers advantages of using bond financing, how use of bonds impacts on traditional fund raising, other cautions and concerns, and some troubling aspects of…

  4. IRSN 2011 opinion survey. The perception of risks and safety by French people. Global results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Like every year, this report presents and comments the results of an opinion survey on risks, and more particularly on nuclear and radiological risks. The first part addresses the current concerns of French people (the main concerns in the present society and with respect to the environment, how science is considered). The second part addresses the opinion on expertise (who should control a hazardous installation, the role and image of experts, the access to expertise files, the perception of pluralist bodies). The third part examines the reaction of people in front of 33 different hazardous situations (risks to which people feel being exposed, confidence in authorities, confidence in information on hazards, hierarchy of 33 situations and relationship with installation acceptability). The fourth part addresses the nuclear issue (nuclear risk, ability and credibility of nuclear actors, the Chernobyl accident, radioactive wastes, demand of information on the nuclear risk).

  5. A study on effects of cash flow patterns and auditors’ opinions in predicting financial distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Namvar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Bankruptcy has been one of the most important issues among investors in stock market and there are literally different techniques for predicting bankruptcy. In this paper, we study on effects of cash flow patterns and auditors’ opinions in predicting financial distress on some 80 selected firms traded on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period 2005-2011. In this study, the combination of cash flow patterns represent firm’s resource allocations and operational capabilities interacted with their strategy choices. In additions, predictions about each individual cash flow components, operational, investment, financial, are derived from economic theory, which forms a basis for the life proxy. We use cash flow patterns in the decline stage and compare the results with auditors’ opinions. The results indicate that cash flow patterns could predict financial distress companies in Iran. In addition, the effective cash flow patterns in predicting financial distress is more than auditors’ feedbacks.

  6. Social media effects on opinion polarization and political participation during the 2015 European immigration movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    The selective exposure to likeminded political viewpoints on algorithmic social media platforms is seen as a potential source for opinion polarization. But so far, little is known about how realistic this proposed mechanism is. It is furthermore an open question, what effects a potential opinion...... polarization invoked by social media use has on citizens’ democratic behavior, especially in a non-electoral context. Focusing on the issue of immigration during the refugee influx to Europe in autumn 2015, this study investigates the effects of social media usage on attitude polarization and connects...... it to political participation in refugee-related activities. A panel study conducted among Danish citizens (n=847) reveals that frequent social media usage contributes to a reinforcement of existing attitudes and at the same time mobilizes political participation. However, citizens who become more extreme...

  7. Because Political Knowledge Matters: The Impact of Deliberation on Young Citizens’ Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Deligiaouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the importance of “knowledge” and “access to information” in the formation of young citizens’ opinion through deliberative procedures. The research presented in this paper is grounded in the theoretical framework of deliberative democracy as a democratic model and procedure that allows participants to be engaged in a rational and open dialogue before deciding on a particular issue. Our research draws empirically upon a deliberative event that took place in October 2014 at the Western Macedonia University of Applied Sciences in Greece. The topic of deliberation was “Political Public Opinion Polls.” The results of this study are commensurate with the dominant thesis in the relevant literature, which underlines that the deliberative procedure enriches the knowledge of citizens and thus enables them to participate effectively in the decision making process.

  8. Formal reporting of second-opinion CT interpretation: experience and reimbursement in the emergency department setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Adam B; Saghir, Amina; Camacho, Marc

    2012-06-01

    exams (61%), although only 18 were formal, signed radiology reports from the referring facility. Discrepancies between available outside reports and second-opinion interpretations were noted for 17 out of 112 exams. Need for reimaging was substantially curtailed, with only ten exams repeated within 24 h. A formal process for issuing second-opinion interpretations of cross-sectional exams performed at outside institutions is feasible in the emergency department setting. In the majority of cases, reimbursement for full professional fees can be obtained.

  9. Conformity, Anticonformity and Polarization of Opinions: Insights from a Mathematical Model of Opinion Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyll Krueger

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and quantifying polarization in social systems is important because of many reasons. It could for instance help to avoid segregation and conflicts in the society or to control polarized debates and predict their outcomes. In this paper, we present a version of the q-voter model of opinion dynamics with two types of responses to social influence: conformity (like in the original q-voter model and anticonformity. We put the model on a social network with the double-clique topology in order to check how the interplay between those responses impacts the opinion dynamics in a population divided into two antagonistic segments. The model is analyzed analytically, numerically and by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Our results show that the system undergoes two bifurcations as the number of cross-links between cliques changes. Below the first critical point, consensus in the entire system is possible. Thus, two antagonistic cliques may share the same opinion only if they are loosely connected. Above that point, the system ends up in a polarized state.

  10. The results of opinion tracking in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.; Margerison, T.

    1991-01-01

    The British Nuclear Forum, or more accurately its predecessor, the Nuclear Electricity Information Group, undertook its first public attitudes survey in 1986 during the weekend following the Chernobyl accident. The original idea was to obtain guidance on the public's attitude to the relative credibility of the different authorities who might be offering information and advice. But the opportunity was also taken to measure the changing attitudes to nuclear energy and this proved to be the more rewarding part of the exercise. The most important question asked was 'Are you in favour or not of Britain producing electricity by means of nuclear power stations? The results of the surveys show there is a difference in the attitudes of men and women and between socio-economic class groups. The survey was continued at monthly intervals over the year following Chernobyl. Since then public attitudes have been surveyed at three monthly intervals with some changes in the questions and sampling procedure. The results of this monitoring are shown. Specific events, such as the issuing of the Gardner report suggesting a link between a father's exposure to radiation and the subsequent susceptibility of his children to leukaemia, are shown to influence public opinion. (UK)

  11. Ethics in medicine: students' opinions on disclosure of true diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulanić, Drazen; Vrazić, Hrvoje; Cuk, Mario; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2002-02-01

    To determine students opinions about diagnosis disclosure to the patient and other interested parties. During 2000/2001 academic year, an anonymous survey was conducted among the first-year (200 questionnaires) and sixth-year medical students (200 questionnaires) at the Zagreb University School of Medicine. Students were asked what they would say about the diagnosis to the patient, patients family, friend, employer, colleague from work, health insurance agent, another physician, or medical student, if the diagnosis was inoperable lung carcinoma in a 20- and 66-year-old patient vs bacterial pneumonia in patients of the same age. The possibilities were to tell the truth, lie, or refuse to disclose the diagnosis. The response rate was 55%. Students would disclose the true diagnosis to the patient, patients family, friend, and employer in case of benign disease more often than in case of malignant disease (pemployer, and rarely to the patient's colleague from work. First-year students would generally tell the truth more often than sixth-year students (pethical issues should be discussed during the studies.

  12. Reassessing Occupational Licensing Of Tour Guides (Opinion Piece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir SHANI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is conventionally held that to protect tourists from incompetent and/or unscrupulous tour guides, governments should require guides to be licensed in order to legally practice their profession. Despite the implementation of such regulatory statutes in many countries, it is argued in this opinion paper that the severe drawbacks of licensing demands should be re-evaluated by both policy-makers and tourism scholars. The licensing of guides is not only an ineffective means of quality assurance, with negative consequences for many of those involved, but it also undermines the ethical foundations of a free society. Furthermore, licensing is an archaic practice for ensuring standardization among the members of a profession in a way that is no longer suitable for addressing the challenges of the tourism industry in the 21st century, in which a wide variety of specialized and innovative guided tours are offered to tourists. Although this commentary presents a firm stand against the compulsory licensing of tour guides, it should be seen as an invitation for open discussion among tourism researchers regarding the necessity of licensing tour guides in particular, and of government tourism regulation in general. Moreover, further research is needed to clarify key points on the issue of the professional licensing of tour guides.

  13. Nuclear energy and public opinion - a difficult relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaase, M.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear energy remains an explosive subject. Less people demand to give up nuclear energy at once but the emotional and cognitive environment of attitudes to nuclear energy makes this relative 'peaceabilty' seem a very precarious issue. The Chernobyl shock is still active. The future will depend on whether new accidents will occur in nuclear power stations and how dangerous they will be. The highly political nature and the polarization of the subject together with an assumingly still negative coverage by the mass media and a general distrust of the people in established politics will make it very difficult to influence attitudes by means of information. We should attempt to bring sober facts and objectiveness to the discussion of nuclear energy and to involve citizens more actively than in the past while ensuring that there is less auto-selectivity (bias). What we also need is the basic and credible readiness of all participants to accept the results of a democratic process of the development of opinion. (orig./HSCH) [de

  14. Multi-lingual Opinion Mining on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severyn, Aliaksei; Moschitti, Alessandro; Uryupina, Olga; Plank, Barbara; Filippova, Katja

    In order to successfully apply opinion mining (OM) to the large amounts of user-generated content produced every day, we need robust models that can handle the noisy input well yet can easily be adapted to a new domain or language. We here focus on opinion mining for YouTube by (i) modeling

  15. An Investigation of the Intellectual Structure of Opinion Mining Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yongjun; Kim, Meen Chul; Chen, Chaomei

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Opinion mining has been receiving increasing attention from a broad range of scientific communities since early 2000s. The present study aims to systematically investigate the intellectual structure of opinion mining research. Method: Using topic search, citation expansion, and patent search, we collected 5,596 bibliographic records…

  16. Discrete opinion dynamics on networks based on social influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haibo; Wang Xiaofan

    2009-01-01

    A model of opinion dynamics based on social influence on networks was studied. The opinion of each agent can have integer values i = 1, 2, ..., I and opinion exchanges are restricted to connected agents. It was found that for any I ≥ 2 and self-confidence parameter 0 ≤ u i ) of the population that hold a given opinion i is a martingale, and the fraction q i of opinion i will gradually converge to (q i ). The tendency can slow down with the increase of degree assortativity of networks. When u is degree dependent, (q i ) does not possess the martingale property, however q i still converges to it. In both cases for a finite network the states of all agents will finally reach consensus. Further if there exist stubborn persons in the population whose opinions do not change over time, it was found that for degree-independent constant u, both q i and (q i ) will converge to fixed proportions which only depend on the distribution of initial obstinate persons, and naturally the final equilibrium state will be the coexistence of diverse opinions held by the stubborn people. The analytical results were verified by numerical simulations on Barabasi-Albert (BA) networks. The model highlights the influence of high-degree agents on the final consensus or coexistence state and captures some realistic features of the diffusion of opinions in social networks

  17. The relevance of security analyst opinions for investment decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, D.F.

    2014-01-01

    Security analysts analyze information regarding publicly traded companies after which they publish their opinion regarding these companies’ stocks. In this dissertation the published opinions of two different types of analysts are analyzed. Technical analysts derive a recommendation to buy, hold, or

  18. Students' Opinions on Facebook Supported Blended Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Mukaddes; Kibar, Pinar Nuhoglu

    2014-01-01

    The first purpose of this study was to determine students' opinions on blended learning and its implementation. The other purpose was to explore the students' opinions on Facebook integration into blended learning environment. The participants of this study were 40 undergraduate students in their fourth semester of the program.…

  19. Opinions of Physical Education Teachers on the Concept of Sportsmanship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Yakup; Esentürk, Oguz Kaan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the opinions of physical education teachers on the concept of sportsmanship. This study, which has been based on the qualitative research paradigm, involves opinions of 13 physical education teachers (9 males and 4 females) which serve in public schools of Turkey and which have been specified through a…

  20. Understanding public opinion regarding transit in southeast Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report presents findings from a study on public opinion regarding transit in Southeast Michigan. The overall goals of this : study were to assess the nature of public opinion regarding regional transit and to understand its relation to socio-dem...

  1. Open Primary Education School Students' Opinions about Mathematics Television Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenilmez, Kursat

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes. This study indicated that to determine differences among open primary education school students' opinions about mathematics television programmes point of view students' characteristics like gender, age, grade,…

  2. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Maes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or

  3. Nanotechnology Awareness, Opinions and Risk Perceptions among Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Ekli, Emel

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates awareness, factual knowledge, opinions, and risk perceptions of students from Turkish middle schools with regard to nanotechnology in a very general sense. The study was carried out among 1,396 middle school 6th, 7th, and 8th grade students. The students' perceptions of and opinions about nanotechnology were elicited…

  4. Principals' Opinions of Organisational Justice in Elementary Schools in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Inayet; Karaman-Kepenekci, Yasemin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose--This study aims to present the opinions of public elementary school principals in Turkey about the current organisational justice practices among teachers from the distributive, procedural, interactional, and rectificatory dimensions. Design/methodology/approach--The opinions of 11 public elementary school principals in Ankara about…

  5. 22 CFR 126.9 - Advisory opinions and related authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 126.9 Section 126.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.9 Advisory opinions and related authorizations. (a) Advisory opinion. Any person desiring information as to whether the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls would be...

  6. Gender and personality traits' (BFI-10) effect on opinion leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olexova, Cecilia; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2017-01-01

    Opinion leadership used to be perceived as a highly domain-specific trait but it was found to be multi-faceted, i.e. individuals are influential independent of a specific subject area. Another term is generalized opinion leadership. Impact of Big Five Inventory personality traits on domain...

  7. The nature and determinants of opinion leadership in Lesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research investigates the nature, the occurrence and the factors influencing opinion leadership in Lesotho. The focus is on a typical rural district where 200 maize farmers were randomly selected and their opinion leaders identified by means of sociometric methods with the number of nominations as the major indicator ...

  8. Analysis of Primary School Teachers' Opinions on Family Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Alvaro Capano; Massonnier, Natalie; González Tornaría, Maria del L.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to do an analysis based on the opinion of primary school teachers on family models that are different from the traditional nuclear family. We worked with 60 teachers from Montevideo and the metropolitan area. They answered the Questionnaire: Teachers' Opinion on Family Diversity (CIDF for its Spanish acronym) (Morgado,…

  9. Motives for seeking a second opinion in orthopaedic surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, I. van; Groothoff, J.; Stewart, R.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Groenewegen, P.; Horn, J. van

    2001-01-01

    The number of second opinions in orthopaedic surgery is increading rapidly, yet the grounds on which patients and their doctors decide to seek a second opinion have been little studied. The goal of the study was to identify patient and consultant factors that appeared to contribute to a second

  10. Influence of communication on public opinion about nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Everton de Almeida

    1997-01-01

    Public opinion on risks and benefits associated to nuclear energy is depending on psychological and social factors and mainly on the communication strategy used to transfer knowledge and facts about nuclear technology to the public. In this work, the individual and collective communication process and the influences on the public opinion on nuclear energy will be analyzed. (author)

  11. 49 CFR 604.21 - Special considerations for advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Desist Orders § 604.21 Special considerations for advisory opinions. Based on new facts involving significant financial considerations, the Chief Counsel may take appropriate enforcement action contrary to an... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special considerations for advisory opinions. 604...

  12. Opinions of the Geography Teacher Candidates toward Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyihoglu, Aysegul

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the opinions of the teacher candidates about mind mapping technique used in Geography education of undergraduate program. In this study, the qualitative research techniques were used. The study group consists of 55 teacher candidates. The teacher candidates have been asked for their opinions about the process…

  13. opinions of nigerian students in tertiary institutions on family size

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The study examined the opinions of Nigerian students in tertiary institutions on their ideal family size. It was conducted among students in four ... opinions of male and female students on family size. KEY WORD: Family Size, Nigerian ... two children per woman, with many couples who desire to remain childless and some ...

  14. [Medical data security in medico-legal opinioning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susło, Robert; Swiatek, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Medical data security can be approached in medico-legal opinioning in three main situations: security of medical data, on which the opinion should be based, opinioning itself and whether the medical data security was properly ensured and ensuring medical data security during medico-legal opinion giving. The importance of medical data security, during collecting, processing and storing, as well in medical as in legal institutions, is of major importance for the possibility of providing a proper medico-legal opinion. Theoretically speeking, it is possible to give a proper medico-legal opinion using incorrect data, but the possibility is low. When the expert is given improper, unreadable, incomplete or even bogus in part or in the whole medical data it is extremely possible, that he fails in giving his opinion. The term "medical data" was defined and subsequently there was a brief review of medical data storing methods made and specific threats bound with them, based on modern literature. The authors also pointed out possible methods of preventing the threats. They listed Polish as well as international regulations and laws concerning the problem, accenting the importance of preserving medical data for the purposes of medico-legal opinioning.

  15. factors contributing to the accessibility of opinion leaders in lesotho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    male opinion leaders was only 33.3 percent. These findings emphasise the necessity of extension to focus knowledge support on female opinion leaders in order to promote the diffusion process among the many female farmers. 3.3.3. Friendship. Friendship epitomises accessibility and consequently it is expected that.

  16. 20 CFR 416.927 - Evaluating opinion evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the record as a whole, the more weight we will give to that opinion. (5) Specialization. We generally... “disabled” or “unable to work” does not mean that we will determine that you are disabled. (2) Other... opinions from treating sources, nontreating sources, and other nonexamining sources who do not work for us...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1527 - Evaluating opinion evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... weight we will give to that opinion. (5) Specialization. We generally give more weight to the opinion of... statement that you are disabled. A statement by a medical source that you are “disabled” or “unable to work... other nonexamining sources who do not work for us. (iii) Administrative law judges may also ask for and...

  18. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. 18.701 Section 18.701 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS... Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. If the witness is not testifying as an expert, the witness' testimony...

  19. Nuclear power: Public opinion in social crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear power in Russia found itself in new conditions, if compared with first five years after Chernobyl. It is coming out of the technology crisis from 1986 and the political crisis of 1991, going deeper and deeper in the hard economic crisis, when the nuclear power plants receive about 10 percent of payments for electricity, produced and supplied to the customers. Economic crisis forms the public attitude about nuclear power under conditions, different from opinion formed during the previous decades, when energy supply was considered practically free of charge. These realities have moved ecological problems to the periphery of public conscience. This was, in particular, shown with all evidence during the parliamentary elections in Russia in 1993, when the Russian 'Green Party' had not achieved any seats in the State Duma. This is also confirmed by sociological polls of Russians done in the last two years. It seems, however, that change of priorities in public opinion had increased attention to the problems of environment in the nearest future are as inevitable, as the forthcoming Russia's and Its nearest neighbours getting out of the state of economic fail down. In these conditions the possibility of nuclear power development will be determined not only by economic factors, but also by the factor of public confidence. The progress in the development of public information programme in the field of nuclear power, if compared with the first years after Chernobyl, is evident. Several governing and coordinating structures exist and work in Russia (Department of Minatom, Inter-departmental Council for information and public relations, similar Department in Rosenergoatom Concern), regional public information centres, special services at many nuclear science and industry enterprises. Similar system works in Ukraine and is being established in Kazakhstan. In antinuclear Belarus, where, nevertheless, the objective need of nuclear power is already reflected in the national

  20. Theoretical Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2007-04-01

    The theoretical issues in the interpretation of the precision measurements of the nucleon-to-Delta transition by means of electromagnetic probes are highlighted. The results of these measurements are confronted with the state-of-the-art calculations based on chiral effective-field theories (EFT), lattice QCD, large-Nc relations, perturbative QCD, and QCD-inspired models. The link of the nucleon-to-Delta form factors to generalized parton distributions (GPDs) is also discussed.

  1. The interplay of self-reflection, social interaction and random events in the dynamics of opinion flow in two-party democracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenegger, Klaus; Hadzibeganovic, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    We propose a continuous process opinion formation model to study the dynamics of a multi-level relationship between voters, political parties, and facts in two-party democratic elections. In our model, opinions can take any real value between two extremes and an unaligned, moderate opinion state without a preference. Starting with a random opinion configuration, individual voter opinions evolve and change over time due to self-reflection, inter-personal communication, external media influence, and noise. Parties are influenced by their own ideologies, facts, and voters’ opinions. Elections are held periodically and the party that is closer in opinion to the majority of voters forms the new government. The government policy is then expected to be in proximity to the voter opinions and the policies of the currently ruling political party. We analyze the tension of opinions as a measure of how dramatically opinions can disagree within a given sample of voters and the success of the government and parties as the degree of coincidence between the policies and facts. Our model generates realistic quasi-periodic alternations between incumbents and challengers that are typical for two-party systems. Moreover, our model shows that relative to other voters’ strategies, conscious voting can lead to more successful governments of not only fact-oriented but also pragmatic and balanced political parties, irrespective of the strategies of the competing opposition parties. In addition, our simulations uncover several interesting features including less victories for strictly ideological or fact-oriented parties unless they include some aspects of populism or pragmatism. In this sense, our model can also describe situations where election outcomes are not necessarily based on votes for the current programs of competing parties and their placement on relevant issues, but instead result from voters’ dissatisfaction with the previous government and the votes against it.

  2. Watching the Evolution of the American Family? Amazon's Transparent, Ecological Systems Theory, and the Changing Dynamics of Public Opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Amy B; Todd, Maureen E

    2018-01-01

    Using Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological systems theory as an organizing framework, the research closely examines the text of the Amazon Studios hit show Transparent and, by extension, the evolution of public opinion toward transgender individuals. By examining the Pfefferman family in detail and their related microsystem and macrosystem, we are able to closely unpack the transition of Jeffrey Tambor's character from Mort to Maura and the show's connections with broader developments in the Los Angeles LGBT community and the Jewish diaspora in postwar and contemporary Los Angeles. In addition, by focusing on the influence of the chronosystem, we are able to examine how both opinions toward Maura and public opinion toward transgender issues more generally have evolved within the family system and the larger American community over time.

  3. Transmission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradford, J.; Wilson, L.; Thon, S.; Millar, N.

    2005-01-01

    This session on transmission issues focused on the role that transmission plays in electricity markets and the importance of getting the market structure right in terms of generation divestiture with buy back contracts, demand side responsive programs, transmission upgrades and long term contracts. The difficulties of distinguishing between market power and scarcity were examined along with some of the complications that ensue if transmission experiences congestion, as exemplified by the August 2003 blackout in eastern North America. The presentations described the best ways to handle transmission issues, and debated whether transmission should be deregulated or follow market forces. Issues of interconnections and reliability of connections were also debated along with the attempt to integrate renewables into the grid. Some presentations identified what new transmission must be built and what must be done to ensure that transmission gets built. The challenges and business opportunities for transmission in Alberta were discussed with reference to plans to invest in new infrastructure, where it is going outside of the province and how it works with other jurisdictions. Manitoba's Conawapa Hydro Project and its 2000 MW tie line to Ontario was also discussed. Some examples of non-optimal use of interconnections in Europe were also discussed in an effort to learn from these mistakes and avoid them in Canada. tabs., figs

  4. Miscellaneous issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee has examined several issues regarding the restructuring of the province's electricity sector. This report presents issues that require guidance for implementation, with particular focus on options available for their resolutions. The issues include: (1) rate principles for stranded offer service (SOS) supply, (2) the ability of contestable customers to return to SOS after having left it, (3) whether loads embedded in distribution systems are eligible to participate in the bilateral contract market, (4) whether generators or suppliers can offer capacity and energy to SOS suppliers in competition with the SOS supplier, and (5) details for the balancing market, including pricing, bidding protocols, settlements and how intermittent power sources can participate in the market. A section on pricing for SOS explains pricing principles, the use of export profits, pricing for SOS capacity, and time of use pricing. The Committee has made recommendations for the electricity system in the province to have an energy imbalance service that can move towards a market in order to develop an efficient and effective service. This report also explains pricing in the balancing market, penalties, and settlements. 7 refs

  5. The effects of information and social conformity on opinion change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Peter K.

    2018-01-01

    Extant research shows that social pressures influence acts of political participation, such as turning out to vote. However, we know less about how conformity pressures affect one’s deeply held political values and opinions. Using a discussion-based experiment, we untangle the unique and combined effects of information and social pressure on a political opinion that is highly salient, politically charged, and part of one’s identity. We find that while information plays a role in changing a person’s opinion, the social delivery of that information has the greatest effect. Thirty three percent of individuals in our treatment condition change their opinion due to the social delivery of information, while ten percent respond only to social pressure and ten percent respond only to information. Participants that change their opinion due to social pressure in our experiment are more conservative politically, conscientious, and neurotic than those that did not. PMID:29718958

  6. The effects of information and social conformity on opinion change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, Daniel J; Hatemi, Peter K

    2018-01-01

    Extant research shows that social pressures influence acts of political participation, such as turning out to vote. However, we know less about how conformity pressures affect one's deeply held political values and opinions. Using a discussion-based experiment, we untangle the unique and combined effects of information and social pressure on a political opinion that is highly salient, politically charged, and part of one's identity. We find that while information plays a role in changing a person's opinion, the social delivery of that information has the greatest effect. Thirty three percent of individuals in our treatment condition change their opinion due to the social delivery of information, while ten percent respond only to social pressure and ten percent respond only to information. Participants that change their opinion due to social pressure in our experiment are more conservative politically, conscientious, and neurotic than those that did not.

  7. On the empirical relevance of the transient in opinion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banisch, Sven, E-mail: sven.banisch@universecity.d [Mathematical Physics, Physics Department, Bielefeld University, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Institute for Complexity Science (ICC), 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Araujo, Tanya, E-mail: tanya@iseg.utl.p [Research Unit on Complexity in Economics (UECE), ISEG, TULisbon, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Institute for Complexity Science (ICC), 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-07-12

    While the number and variety of models to explain opinion exchange dynamics is huge, attempts to justify the model results using empirical data are relatively rare. As linking to real data is essential for establishing model credibility, this Letter develops an empirical confirmation experiment by which an opinion model is related to real election data. The model is based on a representation of opinions as a vector of k bits. Individuals interact according to the principle that similarity leads to interaction and interaction leads to still more similarity. In the comparison to real data we concentrate on the transient opinion profiles that form during the dynamic process. An artificial election procedure is introduced which allows to relate transient opinion configurations to the electoral performance of candidates for which data are available. The election procedure based on the well-established principle of proximity voting is repeatedly performed during the transient period and remarkable statistical agreement with the empirical data is observed.

  8. An opinion formation based binary optimization approach for feature selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedmoghadam, Homayoun; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposed a novel optimization method based on opinion formation in complex network systems. The proposed optimization technique mimics human-human interaction mechanism based on a mathematical model derived from social sciences. Our method encodes a subset of selected features to the opinion of an artificial agent and simulates the opinion formation process among a population of agents to solve the feature selection problem. The agents interact using an underlying interaction network structure and get into consensus in their opinions, while finding better solutions to the problem. A number of mechanisms are employed to avoid getting trapped in local minima. We compare the performance of the proposed method with a number of classical population-based optimization methods and a state-of-the-art opinion formation based method. Our experiments on a number of high dimensional datasets reveal outperformance of the proposed algorithm over others.

  9. On the empirical relevance of the transient in opinion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banisch, Sven; Araujo, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    While the number and variety of models to explain opinion exchange dynamics is huge, attempts to justify the model results using empirical data are relatively rare. As linking to real data is essential for establishing model credibility, this Letter develops an empirical confirmation experiment by which an opinion model is related to real election data. The model is based on a representation of opinions as a vector of k bits. Individuals interact according to the principle that similarity leads to interaction and interaction leads to still more similarity. In the comparison to real data we concentrate on the transient opinion profiles that form during the dynamic process. An artificial election procedure is introduced which allows to relate transient opinion configurations to the electoral performance of candidates for which data are available. The election procedure based on the well-established principle of proximity voting is repeatedly performed during the transient period and remarkable statistical agreement with the empirical data is observed.

  10. SOME ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS IN IMMUNE PATHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Tousankina

    2010-01-01

    Present lecture contains an author's opinion concerning diagnostic issues in immunopathology, including primary and secondary immune deficiencies, immune-dependent states that are based on immunopathological syndromes. Original formulations are suggested for some key categories of clinical immunology, physical, instrumental and laboratory diagnostics of immune deficiencies and immune-dependent diseases. The results of original long-term observations, as well as data on Sverdlovsk Regional Reg...

  11. SOME ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS IN IMMUNE PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tousankina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present lecture contains an author's opinion concerning diagnostic issues in immunopathology, including primary and secondary immune deficiencies, immune-dependent states that are based on immunopathological syndromes. Original formulations are suggested for some key categories of clinical immunology, physical, instrumental and laboratory diagnostics of immune deficiencies and immune-dependent diseases. The results of original long-term observations, as well as data on Sverdlovsk Regional Register of primary immune deficiencies are presented in the work.

  12. Issues of environmental (irresponsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Dundelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author reflects the questions of humans’ relationship to the environment and of their ecological behaviour that becomes together with the development of modern technologies increasingly relevant just as the question whether humans are able to affect fundamentally the environment on the Earth by their activities. According to some authors (e.g. Ehrlich, 1968; Gore, 2006; Wilson, 1995; Winter, Koger, 2009; Šmajs, 2005 human survival is directly connected with people’s relationship to the nature; but other influential authors have contradictory opinions or they are at least afraid of overestimation of ecological activities that can lead to neglecting of other important problems (e.g. Simon, 1981; Goklany, 2007; Lomborg, 2007; Klaus, 2007, 2009.These issues are dealt in this article mainly from the perspective of psychological theories and concepts – the Freud’s concept of unconsciousness is discussed as well as groupthink, theory of dissonance, contingency trap, Milgram’s theory of autonomous and agentic state of consciousness, group and intergroup behaviour, social dilemma – tragedy of the commons. Achieving a sustainable way of life depends on the equilibrium between consumption of individuals and regenerative abilities of the natural environment. However, people still behave as if they were separated from the nature. The linking axis of this article is the question of psychic powers causing individual and collective ecological (irresponsibility and the resulting consequences.

  13. The learning continuum of ecology based on teachers' opinion about student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramesti, Indah Cahaya; Subali, Bambang

    2017-08-01

    This study aims at designing learning continuum for developing a curriculum based on teachers' opinion about student's level of competence and specific pedagogical learning material on ecological aspect targeted for students of Primary and Secondary Education. This research is a descriptive research using survey methods. The researchers conducted a census by distributing questionnaires that had been validated from the aspects of construct validity and experts judgements to 147 natural science teachers at junior high school and 134 Biology teachers at senior high school as a population throughout 4 regencies and 1 city in Yogyakarta Special Region.. Data analysis techniques used descriptive analysis. In conclusion, teacher's opinion is influenced by curriculum that exist today. According to the opinions of Natural Science teachers at Junior High School, most of the ecological aspects such as characteristics of biomes, characteristics of ecosystems, characteristics of communities, characteristics of populations, etc. should be taught in grade VII with the level of competence: to understand (C2), while Biology teachers at Senior High School state that the ecological aspect should be taught in class X with the level of competence: to understand (C2), apply (C3) and analyze (C4). Teachers should be a privy in the formulation of the curriculum, so they're not only accept and apply the existing curriculum but also give opinions to improve the curriculum, especially in terms of ecology.

  14. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  15. Opinion Dynamics on Complex Networks with Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, Wang; Li-Ping, Chi

    2008-01-01

    The Ising or Potts models of ferromagnetism have been widely used to describe locally interacting social or economic systems. We consider a related model, introduced by Sznajd to describe the evolution of consensus in the scale-free networks with the tunable strength (noted by Q) of community structure. In the Sznajd model, the opinion or state of any spins can only be changed by the influence of neighbouring pairs of similar connection spins. Such pairs can polarize their neighbours. Using asynchronous updating, it is found that the smaller the community strength Q, the larger the slope of the exponential relaxation time distribution. Then the effect of the initial up- spin concentration p as a function of the final all up probability E is investigated by taking different initialization strategies, the random node-chosen initialization strategy has no difference under different community strengths, while the strategies of community node-chosen initialization and hub node-chosen initialization are different in final probability under different Q, and the latter one is more effective in reaching final state

  16. Understanding Public Opinions from Geosocial Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanqi Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, social media data are linked to locations through embedded GPS coordinates. Many local governments are showing interest in the potential to repurpose these firsthand geo-data to gauge spatial and temporal dynamics of public opinions in ways that complement information collected through traditional public engagement methods. Using these geosocial data is not without challenges since they are usually unstructured, vary in quality, and often require considerable effort to extract information that is relevant to local governments’ needs from large data volumes. Understanding local relevance requires development of both data processing methods and their use in empirical studies. This paper addresses this latter need through a case study that demonstrates how spatially-referenced Twitter data can shed light on citizens’ transportation and planning concerns. A web-based toolkit that integrates text processing methods is used to model Twitter data collected for the Region of Waterloo (Ontario, Canada between March 2014 and July 2015 and assess citizens’ concerns related to the planning and construction of a new light rail transit line. The study suggests that geosocial media can help identify geographies of public perceptions concerning public facilities and services and have potential to complement other methods of gauging public sentiment.

  17. Opinion poll tests support for democratic initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhart, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A national opinion poll designed to test public support for a position paper on energy policy for the Clinton Administration and the new Congress, was released February 9 at a Capitol Hill press conference sponsored by the Environmental and Energy Study Institute. The poll, conducted by the Democratic polling firm Greenberg/Lake and Republican pollster Lance Tarrance, found voters want energy efficiency, conservation, and renewable energy as top priorities for the nation's energy policy. It also found voters are willing to seek these policies with tough regulation, tax incentives, and their own behavior. Also, voters appear to support taxes on pollution and energy use, whether the income is used to decrease taxes on personal income, or to reduce the deficit. However, voters oppose gas taxes and are divided on taxes for fossil fuels. Support for energy taxes increases if revenues generated by them are dedicated to deficit reduction. The poll also revealed: the public's desire for less emphasis on polluting sources of energy such as oil and coal; low levels of support for nuclear power; support for government initiatives to increase the fuel efficiency of consumer goods such as appliances and automobiles; opposition to a substantial increase in the gasoline tax; and support for green taxes on polluting sources of energy use at the same time policy makers remove federal tax subsidies on fuels that pollute

  18. Attitude and opinion towards essential medicine formulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangeeta; Kh, Reeta; Chaudhury, R Roy

    2010-06-01

    The Delhi State Drug Policy was adopted in 1994 following which the first Essential Medicines List (EML) was developed in 1996. The Delhi State Essential Medicines Formulary was brought out in 1997. A need was felt to revise the formulary to match with the EML as the EML is renewed every 2 years. A survey was undertaken to elicit the opinions of the doctors practicing in the state on the usefulness of the formulary before revising and printing the updated version. The survey covered dispensaries, 10-20 bedded hospitals, 100-bedded hospitals and two tertiary care hospitals. Discussions were focused on questionnaires on attitudes toward adopting Essential Medicines Formulary using a 10-point scale. Of the 200 doctors approached, only 90 doctors completed the questionnaire. Sixty-nine respondents (76.6%) had received the copy of the formulary. Most practitioners welcomed the formulary and were satisfied with the coverage and selection of the medicines. Most respondents (76.9%) agreed that a well-developed formulary would improve the quality of the public health care system, although they had reservations about the authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. About 74% of the respondents used the formulary in clinical practice as a source of medicine information, which makes its regular revision necessary.

  19. Attitude and opinion towards essential medicine formulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangeeta; Kh, Reeta; Chaudhury, R. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Delhi State Drug Policy was adopted in 1994 following which the first Essential Medicines List (EML) was developed in 1996. The Delhi State Essential Medicines Formulary was brought out in 1997. A need was felt to revise the formulary to match with the EML as the EML is renewed every 2 years. Materials and Methods: A survey was undertaken to elicit the opinions of the doctors practicing in the state on the usefulness of the formulary before revising and printing the updated version. The survey covered dispensaries, 10–20 bedded hospitals, 100-bedded hospitals and two tertiary care hospitals. Discussions were focused on questionnaires on attitudes toward adopting Essential Medicines Formulary using a 10-point scale. Results: Of the 200 doctors approached, only 90 doctors completed the questionnaire. Sixty-nine respondents (76.6%) had received the copy of the formulary. Most practitioners welcomed the formulary and were satisfied with the coverage and selection of the medicines. Most respondents (76.9%) agreed that a well-developed formulary would improve the quality of the public health care system, although they had reservations about the authority, relevance and effect on professional autonomy. Conclusion: About 74% of the respondents used the formulary in clinical practice as a source of medicine information, which makes its regular revision necessary. PMID:20871765

  20. Young students's opinion about atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, Belen; Martin, Hugo R.

    2006-01-01

    The present research work was performed in answer to a requirement that the CNEA-RC made to students of the Public and Institutional Relations Degree of the UES21, as a part of activities carried out in the framework of the Academic Cooperation Agreement between both institutions. In this case the students had to attend the Professional Practical course during the first semester of 2006, which included a short period in some company or organization. The Degree of Knowledge and the Opinion of the students from the Cycle of Specialization of the Province of Cordoba Educational System (ages between 15 and 17 years old), on the activities that are made in the site of CNEA-RC and DIOXITEK SA at Alta Cordoba neighborhood in Cordoba city has been analyzed. The same aspects were analyzed for Dioxitek's activities (equipment, raw materials, risk performance, etc.). Although the activities made at CNEA-RC involved during 2005/6 about 4000 students, due to the short time available for the practical part only the data of two schools located near the facilities were processed. Three aspects of the space conformed between the public and the general opinion were analyzed: the customs, the stereotypes and the attitudes of the people. These aspects were taken as the characteristics to describe to the opinions, their direction and intensity. The analysis was based on an exploratory investigation of type, characterized by its flexibility. The field work was of quantitative character. The surveys were structured with closed questions (categories of answers delimited previously on which the students must answer). For its design we used diverse sources of intelligence, such as pages of Internet, pamphlets, magazines, annual balances of the organizations, etc. The main results were the following: 1) The greater percentage of students declared to have little information on Atomic Energy. Only 4% declared to have abundant knowledge on the subject. 2) A 38% of the students indicated that

  1. Consumer opinions of emergency room medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, J R; Younger, M S; DeWine, L C

    1984-12-01

    If hospital management is to adapt successfully to an increasingly competitive environment, and to retain a viable emergency department, it well be necessary to objectively and accurately assess the hospital's image in the community served. Knowledge of the consumers' views is an essential input into the formulation of strategic plans. This article reports on a study in which consumer opinions on 15 dimensions of emergency room health care were obtained from 723 respondents using a mail questionnaire. Findings reveal that consumers view the emergency room as being more expensive than other health care providers. Except for being available or convenient, little or no advantage is perceived for the emergency room over the personal physician. Even though the emergency room has specialized staff and equipment, consumers do not believe patients receive better or faster treatment in an emergency room than would be obtained in a physician's office. Unless changed, these perceptions will diminish the role of the emergency room in the delivery of health care services.

  2. Current Opinions in Pediatric Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Irazuzta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our aim is to describe the current clinical practice related to the management of septic shock (SS. Methods: Review of medical literature using the MEDLINE database. Articles were selected according to their relevancy to the objective and according to the author’s opinion. Summary of the findings: The outcome from SS is dependent on an early recognition and a sequential implementation of time-sensitive goal-directed therapies. The goals of the resuscitation are rapid restoration of micro circulation and improved organ tissue perfusion. Clinical and laboratory markers are needed to assess the adequacy of the treatments. Initial resuscitation involves the use of isotonic solutions (>60ml/kg either crystalloid (normal saline or colloid infusion often followed by vasoactive medications. Altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics responses dictate that vasoactive agents should be adjusted to achieve predetermined goals. An assessment of central venous pressure complements clinical and serological findings to tailor therapies. Elective airway instrumentation and mechanical ventilation as well as adjunctive therapy with stress dose of corticosteroid are indicated in selected populations. In neonates, a special attention to the presence of electrolyte imbalance and increase pulmonary vascular resistance needs to be considered early. Conclusions: Septic shock hemodynamic is a changing process that requires frequent assessment and therapeutic adjustments.

  3. Objectification of injuries and consequences in expert medical opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Vrabl

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Only unequivocal evidence confirming the total extent of injury. Biomechanical analysis, objectifications of permanent consequences after injury and objectification, whether such injuries influence life activities of an injured person, should be the basics for preparation of expert medical opinion. To make a necessary distinction from the previous injuries or illnesses that might have influence on current health state of a patient and its treatment, analysis of all medical records of a certain injured person is needed. Therefore this are inevitable steps in preparation of an expert medical opinion. In cases when medical opinion should explain disability of a patient as a consequence of a certain contractual relationship, the contract should be taken into consideration when such opinions is prepared.Methods: 500 opinions have been retrospectively analysed, selected at random out of 3452 opinions, submitted in claims for damages at Zavarovalnica Maribor, d. d., in the period from January 2001 until January 2006. Thirteen typical data have been analysed and evaluated on the basis of objective evidences.Results: On the basis of analyses it has been established that there is a great difference between principles of objectification and the data in analysed opinions. It has been noticed the most obvious deviation in biomechanical analysis (95 %, in records of decreased life activities (90 %, in all medical records of an injured person (65 % and in objectification of permanent consequences after injuries (55 %.Conclusions: As results of analysis demonstrate, there are significant differences in preparations of expert and medical opinions in Slovenia, particularly when basic principles are analysed that need to be considered when writing such opinions. Irrational avoidance of basic principle of objectification, nomination of experts without licence in certain fields of medicine, avoidance of objectification of subjective statements of injured

  4. Liability Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Donoghue, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear liability conventions try to provide a set of rules to govern third party liability. Not all States are parties to one of the existing liability conventions. There are a number of reasons why individual States may choose not to join one of the existing conventions. These include limits of compensation, jurisdiction issues, complexity, cost and definition of damage among others. This paper looks at the existing conventions and identifies some of the main issues in the existing conventions which prevent some States from signing them. The paper attempts to tease out some of the perceived gaps in the existing conventions and give a brief description of the reasons why non-Contracting Parties have difficulty with the provisions of the conventions. The paper recognizes that there has been work done in this area previously by the International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX) and others to try to develop the existing frameworks to enhance global adherence by nuclear and non-nuclear States to an effective nuclear liability regime. (author)

  5. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  6. Zealotry effects on opinion dynamics in the adaptive voter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamser, Pascal P.; Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Donner, Reik V.

    2017-11-01

    The adaptive voter model has been widely studied as a conceptual model for opinion formation processes on time-evolving social networks. Past studies on the effect of zealots, i.e., nodes aiming to spread their fixed opinion throughout the system, only considered the voter model on a static network. Here we extend the study of zealotry to the case of an adaptive network topology co-evolving with the state of the nodes and investigate opinion spreading induced by zealots depending on their initial density and connectedness. Numerical simulations reveal that below the fragmentation threshold a low density of zealots is sufficient to spread their opinion to the whole network. Beyond the transition point, zealots must exhibit an increased degree as compared to ordinary nodes for an efficient spreading of their opinion. We verify the numerical findings using a mean-field approximation of the model yielding a low-dimensional set of coupled ordinary differential equations. Our results imply that the spreading of the zealots' opinion in the adaptive voter model is strongly dependent on the link rewiring probability and the average degree of normal nodes in comparison with that of the zealots. In order to avoid a complete dominance of the zealots' opinion, there are two possible strategies for the remaining nodes: adjusting the probability of rewiring and/or the number of connections with other nodes, respectively.

  7. THE LAWYER`S OPINION IN MODERN CIVIL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Evgenyevna Dubovaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose to define value of freedom and fight of opinions, views and lawyer’s positions in development of science of civil law.Methodology theoretical analysis, inductive and deductive methods.Results It is established that fight of opinions, collision of various positions allows to understand more deeply the discussed problem, to come nearer to truth. So, free expression of opinions is the engine of development of civil law.Practical implications introduction in educational process on disciplines of civil jurisprudence, further research of fight of opinions in civil law.Tendencies of the present stage of development of legal system are characterized by aspiration to fix in the Russian legal system of the beginning of private law, where at the head of a corner – people as a legal entity. Opinions of lawyers on various legal problems, and the attitudes towards these opinions are subject to considerable dynamics. The centuries-old history of development of the right showed that fight of opinions, collision of various positions allows to understand more deeply the discussed problem, to come nearer to truth. The modern civil law widely uses a method of comparative jurisprudence, studying experience of the civilized countries which promoted in development of the civil legislation.

  8. Continuous Opinion Dynamics Under Bounded Confidence:. a Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jan

    Models of continuous opinion dynamics under bounded confidence have been presented independently by Krause and Hegselmann and by Deffuant et al. in 2000. They have raised a fair amount of attention in the communities of social simulation, sociophysics and complexity science. The researchers working on it come from disciplines such as physics, mathematics, computer science, social psychology and philosophy. In these models agents hold continuous opinions which they can gradually adjust if they hear the opinions of others. The idea of bounded confidence is that agents only interact if they are close in opinion to each other. Usually, the models are analyzed with agent-based simulations in a Monte Carlo style, but they can also be reformulated on the agent's density in the opinion space in a master equation style. The contribution of this survey is fourfold. First, it will present the agent-based and density-based modeling frameworks including the cases of multidimensional opinions and heterogeneous bounds of confidence. Second, it will give the bifurcation diagrams of cluster configuration in the homogeneous model with uniformly distributed initial opinions. Third, it will review the several extensions and the evolving phenomena which have been studied so far, and fourth it will state some open questions.

  9. The public opinion and ATC; La opinion publica y el ATC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballera, J.

    2010-07-01

    The role of the media is essential to adopt a final decision in relation to the location of a Centralized Temporary Storage (ATC)in Spain. to the deliberative process is public, open and transparent, as included in Royal Decree that created the Inter ministerial Commission responsible for overseeing the procedure, it is necessary for that citizens has information, clear and unequivocal. indicators such as the special edition of the Eurobarometer survey published in June 2008 showed that it is moving towards a truly informed public opinion in these matters. (Author)

  10. Systems biology at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Damborsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    In his editorial overview for the 2008 Special Issue on this topic, the late Jaroslav Stark pointedly noted that systems biology is no longer a niche pursuit, but a recognized discipline in its own right “noisily” coming of age [1]. Whilst general underlying principles and basic techniques are now

  11. Feedback dynamics and cell function: Why systems biology is called Systems Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Mesarovic, Mihajlo

    2005-05-01

    A new paradigm, like Systems Biology, should challenge the way research has been conducted previously. This Opinion article aims to present Systems Biology, not as the application of engineering principles to biology but as a merger of systems- and control theory with molecular- and cell biology. In our view, the central dogma of Systems Biology is that it is system dynamics that gives rise to the functioning and function of cells. The concepts of feedback regulation and control of pathways and the coordination of cell function are emphasized as an important area of Systems Biology research. The hurdles and risks for this area are discussed from the perspective of dynamic pathway modelling. Most of all, the aim of this article is to promote mathematical modelling and simulation as a part of molecular- and cell biology. Systems Biology is a success if it is widely accepted that there is nothing more practical than a good theory.

  12. Social influence and the collective dynamics of opinion formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaïd, Mehdi; Kämmer, Juliane E; Analytis, Pantelis P; Neth, Hansjörg

    2013-01-01

    Social influence is the process by which individuals adapt their opinion, revise their beliefs, or change their behavior as a result of social interactions with other people. In our strongly interconnected society, social influence plays a prominent role in many self-organized phenomena such as herding in cultural markets, the spread of ideas and innovations, and the amplification of fears during epidemics. Yet, the mechanisms of opinion formation remain poorly understood, and existing physics-based models lack systematic empirical validation. Here, we report two controlled experiments showing how participants answering factual questions revise their initial judgments after being exposed to the opinion and confidence level of others. Based on the observation of 59 experimental subjects exposed to peer-opinion for 15 different items, we draw an influence map that describes the strength of peer influence during interactions. A simple process model derived from our observations demonstrates how opinions in a group of interacting people can converge or split over repeated interactions. In particular, we identify two major attractors of opinion: (i) the expert effect, induced by the presence of a highly confident individual in the group, and (ii) the majority effect, caused by the presence of a critical mass of laypeople sharing similar opinions. Additional simulations reveal the existence of a tipping point at which one attractor will dominate over the other, driving collective opinion in a given direction. These findings have implications for understanding the mechanisms of public opinion formation and managing conflicting situations in which self-confident and better informed minorities challenge the views of a large uninformed majority.

  13. Applications of flow-networks to opinion-dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupikina, Liubov; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Networks were successfully applied to describe complex systems, such as brain, climate, processes in society. Recently a socio-physical problem of opinion-dynamics was studied using network techniques. We present the toy-model of opinion-formation based on the physical model of advection-diffusion. We consider spreading of the opinion on the fixed subject, assuming that opinion on society is binary: if person has opinion then the state of the node in the society-network equals 1, if the person doesn't have opinion state of the node equals 0. Opinion can be spread from one person to another if they know each other, or in the network-terminology, if the nodes are connected. We include into the system governed by advection-diffusion equation the external field to model such effects as for instance influence from media. The assumptions for our model can be formulated as the following: 1.the node-states are influenced by the network structure in such a way, that opinion can be spread only between adjacent nodes (the advective term of the opinion-dynamics), 2.the network evolution can have two scenarios: -network topology is not changing with time; -additional links can appear or disappear each time-step with fixed probability which requires adaptive networks properties. Considering these assumptions for our system we obtain the system of equations describing our model-dynamics which corresponds well to other socio-physics models, for instance, the model of the social cohesion and the famous voter-model. We investigate the behavior of the suggested model studying "waiting time" of the system, time to get to the stable state, stability of the model regimes for different values of model parameters and network topology.

  14. Opinions and attitudes on the relationship between spirituality, religiosity and health: A comparison between nursing students from Brazil and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Rocío de Diego; Romero, Bárbara Badanta; de Matos, Filomena Adelaide; Costa, Emília; Espinha, Daniele Corcioli Mendes; Tomasso, Claudia de Souza; Lucchetti, Alessandra Lamas Granero; Lucchetti, Giancarlo

    2018-03-08

    To compare the opinions and attitudes of Portuguese-speaking nursing students from Brazil and Portugal on the relationship between religiosity/spirituality and the ability to approach these issues with patients, in their undergraduate training and practice. Although there are studies investigating nursing students' opinions concerning religiosity and spirituality in clinical practice, few have investigated if there are cross-cultural differences between countries. Observational, cross-sectional and multicenter study carried out in 2010 and 2011 in Brazil and in 2016 in Portugal. A total of 260 third and fourth year nursing students (139 from Portugal and 121 from Brazil) from four nursing schools were included. Religious beliefs (Duke Religion Index), attitudes and opinions about spirituality and health (Curlin's questionnaire) were assessed. A comparison between students from both countries was carried out. Significant differences were found between nursing students from Brazil and Portugal, which are countries with the same language, but with different nursing training programs and population characteristics. Brazilian students were more religious and have stronger opinions on the influence and appropriateness of spirituality in clinical practice than Portuguese students. However, both groups of students indicated they should be prepared to address religiosity and spirituality with patients, that these subjects should be included in the curriculum and that they were not properly prepared to address spiritual issues. Although different opinions and attitudes were found between Brazilian and Portuguese nursing students, more training in these issues should be implemented in the undergraduate education. Cross-cultural studies could help fostering a broad discussion in the field. These findings could contribute to raise awareness on the importance of improving the training of relational competencies that prepare students to address the dimension of spirituality and

  15. Medical faculty opinions of peer tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudland, Joy R; Rennie, Sarah C

    2014-01-01

    Peer tutoring is a well-researched and established method of learning defined as 'a medical student facilitating the learning of another medical student'. While it has been adopted in many medical schools, other schools may be reluctant to embrace this approach. The attitude of the teaching staff, responsible for organizing and or teaching students in an undergraduate medical course to formal peer teaching will affect how it is introduced and operationalized. This study elicits faculty opinions on how best to introduce peer tutoring for medical students. Structured telephone interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. The interviews were with medically qualified staff responsible for organizing or teaching undergraduate medical students at a New Zealand medical school. Six questions were posed regarding perceived advantages and disadvantages of peer tutoring and how the school and staff could support a peer-tutoring scheme if one was introduced. Staff generally supported the peer tutoring concept, offering a safe environment for learning with its teachers being so close in career stage to the learners. They also say disadvantages when the student-teachers imparted wrong information and when schools used peer tutoring to justify a reduction in teaching staff. Subjects felt that faculty would be more accepting of peer tutoring if efforts were made to build staff 'buy in' and empowerment, train peer tutors and introduce a solid evaluation process. Staff of our school expressed some concerns about peer tutoring that are not supported in the literature, signaling a need for better communication about the benefits and disadvantages of peer tutoring.

  16. The patient's opinion of informed consent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, I.; Paul, L.; Chimeno, P.; Fernandez, J. L.; Vigil, D.

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of the information provided by informed consent forms for angiography and interventional radiology on the basis of the patients opinion. A descriptive study was performed based on an anonymous survey distributed among patients who were to undergo angiography and interventional radiology, and had previously been informed and provided with the corresponding informed consent form. A descriptive and analytical statistical study was carried out to compare the responses to the questions concerning different factors (Mann-Whitney U test). Of the 182 surveys completed 75.3% corresponded to diagnostic procedures and the remaining 24.7% to therapeutic procedures. When the responses to closed-ended questions were analyzed, 90.1% of respondents considered the amount of information provided by the document to be sufficient 75.3% declared that they found the form easy to comprehend and 34.1% responded that reading it had calmed their nerves. Statistically significant differences were observed, depending on whether the form corresponded to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, concerning the questions related to comprehension of the document and to the feeling upon reading it, with those used for diagnostic procedures obtaining better scores. There was a statistically significant difference between the responses of the patients to the question concerning their feeling upon reading the document and the responses of family members, with the patients responding more favorably than their relatives. The consent forms prepared for angiography and interventional radiology procedures are acceptable to the patients concerned with respect to both the quantity and the quality of the information. (Author) 22 refs

  17. 21 CFR 10.85 - Advisory opinions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... informal communication that represents the best judgment of that employee at that time but does not... request.) The undersigned certifies that, to the best of his/her knowledge and belief, this request... performance standard for diagnostic X-ray systems, issued before July 1, 1975, and filed in a permanent public...

  18. Track leading to decision of 'framework for nuclear energy policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions (the first). Contents of a new plan (as of June 2005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    The Government decides to respect the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy', which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission on October 11th, 2005, as a basic principle for the nuclear energy policy and promote research, development and utilization of nuclear science and engineering. The Planning Council asked public opinion and received 758 opinions from 393 citizens. The Council continued the deliberation taking these opinions and compiled a preliminary draft of the 'Framework for Nuclear Energy Policy'. Reading the public attitude with public opinions had been conducted by the author, which showed the necessity for the nation to communicate crucial issues such as the nation's role of nuclear program's implementation, reasons for further promotion of nuclear program and its impacts on environments as well as more preferable introduction of new energy or energy conservation in stead of nuclear power, more to the public. (T. Tanaka)

  19. Opinion Spreading with Mobility on Scale-Free Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiang, Guo; Xing-Wen, Chen; Jian-Guo, Liu; Bing-Hong, Wang; Tao, Zhou; Yu-Hua, Yao

    2008-01-01

    A continuum opinion dynamic model is presented based on two rules. The first one considers the mobilities of the individuals, the second one supposes that the individuals update their opinions independently. The results of the model indicate that the bounded confidence in c , separating consensus and incoherent states, of a scale-free network is much smaller than the one of a lattice. If the system can reach the consensus state, the sum of all individuals' opinion change O c (t) quickly decreases in an exponential form, while if it reaches the incoherent state finally O c (t) decreases slowly and has the punctuated equilibrium characteristic

  20. Licensing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.P.; Desell, L.J.; Birch, M.L.; Berkowitz, L.; Bader, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    To provide guidance for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a draft regulatory guide on the Format and Content for the License Application for the High-Level Waste Repository (FCRG). To facilitate the development of the FCRG, NRC suggested that DOE use the draft guide as the basis for preparing an annotated outline for a license application. DOE is doing so using an iterative process called the Annotated Outline Initiative. DOE;s use of the Initiative will assist in achieving the desired incorporation of actual experience in the FCRG, contribute to the development of shared interpretation and understanding of NRC regulations, and provide other important programmatic benefits described in this paper