The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.
Kolb, James A.
This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for students in grades 9-12. The unit, focusing on sea plants/animals and their interactions with each other and the non-living environment, has sections dealing with: marine ecology; marine bacteriology;…
Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.
Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.
All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or…
open water? Jeffrey A Nystuen Applied Physics Laboratory University of Washington 1013 NE 40th Street Seattle, Washington 98105 phone: 206... Laboratory ,1013 NE 40th St,Seattle,WA,98105 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR...Listening to Glaciers: Passive Hydroacoustics Near Marine-Terminating Glaciers”, Oceanography, vol. 25. Stabeno, P.J, Falry, E.V., Kachel, N.B
Stephen, R.; Jayalakshmi, K.J.; Rahman, H.; Karuppasamy, P.K.; Nair, K.K.C.
/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 TSUNAMI 2004 AND THE BIOLOGICAL OCEANOGRAPHY OF BAY OF BENGAL ROSAMMA STEPHEN, K.J. JAYALAKSHMI, HABEEB RAHMAN, P.K. KARUPPUSWAMY and K.K.C. NAIR National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, P.B.1913, Dr. Salim Ali Road...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Atlas presents primary data on meteorology, oceanography, and hydrobiology from the Barents, Kara, Laptev, and White Seas, which were collected during the...
Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.
This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index
Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.
A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)
Theil, Hjalmar; Weikert, Horst
1. In 1977, 1979 and 1980-81, investigations were carried out which aimed at evaluating the potential risks from mining metalliferous muds precipating in the Atlantis II Deep of the central Red Sea. This environmental research was initiated by the Saudi Sudanese Red Sea Joint Commission in order to avoid any danger for the Red Sea ecosystem. The broad environmental research programme coherent studies in physical, chemical, biological, and geological oceanography as well as toxicological investigations in the oceanic and in reef zones. We summarise the results from our biological fiels studies in the open sea. 2. The biological investigations were concentrated on the area of the Atlantis II Deep. Benthos was sampled between 700-2000m. For comparison a few samples were also taken further north in the central Red Sea, and to east and west along the flanking deep terraces (500-1000m). Plankton studies covered the total water column above the Deep, and were extended along the axial through to north and south. 3. Benthos sampling was carried out using a heavy closing trawl, a large box grab (box size 50 × 50 cm), Van Veen grabs and traps; photographic surveys were made a phototrap and a photosled. Community respiration was measured with a ship-board method using grab subsamples. Nutrient concentrations, seston and phytoplankton standing stocks as well as in situ primary production were determined from hydrocast samples. Data on zooplankton and micronekton composition and standing stock were obtained from samples collected using different multiple opening-and-closing nets equipped with 100 μm, 300 μm, and 1000 μm mesh sizes. Daily and ontogenetical vertical migration patterns were studied by comparisons of data from midday and midnight tows. 4. Throughout the whole area the sediment is a pteropod ooze containing low contentrations of organic matter; measured organic carbon and nitrogen contents were 0.5 and 0.05% respectively, and chloroplastic pigment equivalents
Full Text Available To understand the seasonal variation of biological and biogeochemical cycles in the seasonal ice zone in the Southern Ocean, the cruise of JARE-STAGE (Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition-Studies on Antarctic Ocean and Global Environment was conducted in February 2002 with R/V Tangaroa. Physical oceanography implementations of the cruise are described. The results of the manufacturers' CTD conductivity calibrations were consistent between before and after the cruise, and the difference in salinity estimate was expected to be within 0.0014. Two casts were made to validate the XCTD accuracy and comparisons with the CTD are discussed. Generally, it is concluded that reasonably accurate observations were completed in this cruise.
A retired soldier and his timid girlfriend. Two teenagers who are underemployed and overaged. A man who knows what he wants but not how to get it and his ex who knows how to get what she wants but not exactly what that is.What do all of these people have in common? They live in Westfield, New York, a town with just as many traffic lights as panoramic views of nearby Lake Erie and with about as many bartenders as schoolteachers. Everyone wants to leave, but nobody knows where to go.Marine Biol...
Somers, Lee H.
Most people find that the life of the marine environment is beautiful and fascinating. Of the thousands of marine animals and plants, relatively few constitute a real hazard to the diver. Although some species are dangerous and may, in some instances, inflict serious wounds, with a few exceptions marine animals are not aggressive. Most…
Full Text Available Plankton ecology has been the object of intense research and progress in the last few decades. This has been partly due to technological advances that have facilitated the multidisciplinary and high-resolution sampling of ecosystems and improved experimentation and analytical methodologies, and to sophisticated modelling. In addition, exceptional researchers have had the vision to integrate all these innovative tools to form a solid theoretical background in ecology. Here we provide an overview of the outstanding research work conducted by Professor Marta Estrada and her pioneering contribution to different areas of research in the last four decades. Her research in biological oceanography has mainly focussed on phytoplankton ecology, taxonomy and physiology, the functional structure of plankton communities, and physical and biological interactions in marine ecosystems. She has combined a variety of field and laboratory approaches and methodologies, from microscopy to satellite observations, including in-depth statistical data analysis and modelling. She has been a reference for scientists all over the world. Here, her contributions to plankton ecology are summarized by some of her students and closest collaborators, who had the privilege to share their science and everyday experiences with her.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Geological Samples Laboratory (MGSL) of the Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO), University of Rhode Island is a partner in the Index to Marine and...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...
Russell, F. S.
Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)
Chemical Oceanography presents a comprehensive examination of the chemistry of oceans through discussions of such topics as descriptive physical oceanography, the composition of seawater and the major...
Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others
Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)
Allison, M. D.; Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C. L.; Glover, D. M.; Wiebe, P. H.
The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created from the U.S. Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (U.S. JGOFS) and the U.S. GLOBal ocean ECosystems dynamics (U.S. GLOBEC) Data Management Offices. The BCO-DMO is a NSF funded project that provides support for scientists funded by either the NSF's Biological or Chemical Oceanography Program Office to facilitate making their projects' data publically accessible. To extend the domains of the U.S. JGOFS and U.S. GLOBEC programs and to enable new capabilities, the BCO-DMO formalized our metadata collection efforts and designed and created the BCO-DMO metadata database. This database, together with our new website content (http://www.bco-dmo.org) and a geospatial interface based on the University of Minnesota's MapServer software, currently provide access to information and data from nine science programs and their associated 27 projects. This poster highlights some of the details of our system's design decisions that support the data discoverability, access, display, download and interoperability features, and capabilities of the BCO-DMO data interface. Initial efforts to use existing metadata schemas were unsuccessful as they did not address our specific needs or were overly generalized and therefore more complicated than necessary. The database design has evolved over time as we have learned more about what information needs to be preserved to support multiple interfaces and to enable machine-to-machine interoperability. Our latest enhancements include database tables to store additional information about the field or variable names that further describe the experimental, at sea, and historical data in order to support our new geospatial interface. Other features will facilitate data interoperability, provide flexibility in supporting different input data formats, capture data provenance information and allow creation of metadata records that are in compliance with community adopted
Manzano Muñoz, Fernando; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Petit de la Villeon, Loic; Carval, Thierry; Loubrieu, Thomas; Wedhe, Henning; Sjur Ringheim, Lid; Hammarklint, Thomas; Tamm, Susanne; De Alfonso, Marta; Perivoliotis, Leonidas; Chalkiopoulos, Antonis; Marinova, Veselka; Tintore, Joaquin; Troupin, Charles
Copernicus, previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security), is the European Programme for the establishment of a European capacity for Earth Observation and Monitoring. Copernicus aims to provide a sustainable service for Ocean Monitoring and Forecasting validated and commissioned by users. From May 2015, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) is working on an operational mode through a contract with services engagement (result is regular data provision). Within CMEMS, the In Situ Thematic Assembly Centre (INSTAC) distributed service integrates in situ data from different sources for operational oceanography needs. CMEMS INSTAC is collecting and carrying out quality control in a homogeneous manner on data from providers outside Copernicus (national and international networks), to fit the needs of internal and external users. CMEMS INSTAC has been organized in 7 regional Dissemination Units (DUs) to rely on the EuroGOOS ROOSes. Each DU aggregates data and metadata provided by a series of Production Units (PUs) acting as an interface for providers. Homogeneity and standardization are key features to ensure coherent and efficient service. All DUs provide data in the OceanSITES NetCDF format 1.2 (based on NetCDF 3.6), which is CF compliant, relies on SeaDataNet vocabularies and is able to handle profile and time-series measurements. All the products, both near real-time (NRT) and multi-year (REP), are available online for every CMEMS registered user through an FTP service. On top of the FTP service, INSTAC products are available through Oceanotron, an open-source data server dedicated to marine observations dissemination. It provides services such as aggregation on spatio-temporal coordinates and observed parameters, and subsetting on observed parameters and metadata. The accuracy of the data is checked on various levels. Quality control procedures are applied for the validity of the data and correctness tests for the
Gomes, P.R.S.; Anjos, R.M.; Macario, K.D.; Santos, G.M.
The first experiment discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. In the southern Brazilian coast there is a high density of these shellmounds, dated in general between 6,000 and 2,000 BP. A charcoal sample from a coastal shellmound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by 14 C-AMS to 7,860±80 years BP. This is an unexpected result that pulls back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. We performed an experiment concerning the isotopic signature of the local waters of an important Brazilian coastal upwelling, located in Arraial do Cabo, R.J., with applications in the fields of Oceanography and Marine Ecology. We assess the contribution of the wind-driven coastal upwelling of Arraial do Cabo to the local biological production. The variation of the carbon isotopic compositions was investigated in a population of a seaweed. Upwelling events were simulated in the laboratory, in order to study three regimes: total upwelling (SACW), partial upwelling (mixed water) and no-upwelling (TW). Water samples were collected at 70 m depth (SACW) and at 10 m (TW). The seaweed was cultivated during seven days, in controlled conditions, into the three mentioned types of water. The results of 14 C-AMS measurements in the seaweed tissue show a clear indication of difference in the isotopic signature of the water sources, allowing to infer the differences of the water sources. We believe that the present results contribute to opening new perspectives for the use of 14 C as a tracer of the biological production in upwelling areas all over the world. The next reported experiment is on climate at the Amazon region. An increase in the Hg flux is a strong indicator of disturbance in a forest ecosystem related to abrupt changes in the water balance, and its changes reflect changes in the ocean and average regional temperatures. In regions where the geological background of mercury is
Aggarwal, Suresh K.
Mass spectrometry plays an important role in oceanography for various applications. Different types of inorganic as well as organic mass spectrometric techniques are being exploited world-wide to understand the different aspects of marine science, for palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology and palaeoecology, for isotopic composition and concentrations of different elements as well as for speciation studies. The present paper reviews some of the applications of atomic mass spectrometric techniques in the area of oceanography
Petrocelli, S.R.; Anderson, J.W.; Neff, J.M.
Tracers have been used in a great variety of experimentation. More recently, labeled materials have been applied in marine biological research. Some of the existing tracer techniques have been utilized directly, while others have been modified to suit the specific needs of marine biologists. This chapter describes some of the uses of tracers in marine biological research. It also mentions the problems encountered as well as offering possible solutions and discusses further applications of these techniques. Only pertinent references are cited and additional information may be obtained by consulting these references. Due to their relative ease of maintenance, freshwater species are also utilized in studies which involve radiotracer techniques. Since most of these techniques e directly applicable to marine species, some of these studies will also be included
Discusses ways in which marine biology can be integrated into the physics classroom. Topics suggested for incorporation include the harmonic motion of ocean waves, ocean currents, the interaction of visible light with ocean water, pressure, light absorption, and sound transfer in water. (MDH)
Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G
An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.
Department of the Interior — We conducted a survey of seabirds, fishes, marine mammals and oceanographic conditions near the Pribilof Islands, Alaska (Fig. 1) from the M/V Tiˆglaˆx during 20-26...
El Gamal, Ali A
Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry.
Murty, C.S.; Murty, V.S.N.
The chapter on physical oceanography of the Indian Ocean is written keeping in mind the graduate students and researchers. It starts with a brief introduction (citing latest expeditions) followed by the coastal and near processes (wave climate...
ment. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships between humans and the coastal and marine environment. In addition, Western Indian Ocean Journal of ...
The journal publishes original research articles dealing with all aspects of marine science and coastal manage- ment. Topics include, but are not limited to: theoretical studies, oceanography, marine biology and ecology, fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/ ...
Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn
This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…
Clark, C. D.; Prairie, J. C.; Walters, S. A.
In the context of undergraduate education in oceanography, we are constantly striving for innovative ways to enhance student learning and enthusiasm for marine science. Community engagement is a form of experiential education that not only promotes a better understanding of concepts among undergraduate students but also allows them to interact with the community in a way that is mutually beneficial to both parties. Here I present on my experience in incorporating a community engagement project in my undergraduate physical oceanography course at the University of San Diego (USD) in collaboration with Mission Bay High School (MBHS), a local Title 1 International Baccalaureate high school with a high proportion of low-income students and students from underrepresented groups in STEM. As part of this project, the undergraduate students from my physical oceanography course were challenged to develop interactive workshops to present to the high school students at MBHS on some topic in oceanography. Prior to the workshops, the USD students met with the high school students at MBHS during an introductory meeting in which they could learn about each other's interests and backgrounds. The USD students then worked in teams of three to design a workshop proposal in which they outlined their plan for a workshop that was interactive and engaging, relying on demonstrations and activities rather than lecture. Each of the three teams then presented their workshops on separate days in the Mission Bay High School classroom. Finally, the USD students met again with the high school students at MBHS for a conclusion day in which both sets of students could discuss their experiences with the community engagement project. Through the workshop itself and a reflection essay written afterwards, the USD students learned to approach concepts in oceanography from a different perspective, and think about how student backgrounds can inform teaching these concepts. I will describe preliminary
Full Text Available This bibliography was sponsored by the Marine Biology Section of the South African National Committee for Oceanographic Research (SANCOR). It has been attempted to include all publications which appeared before the end of 1977, either in South...
Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre (INODC) is engaged in developing a marine biological data and information management system (BIODIMS). This system will contain the information on zooplankton in the water column, zoobenthic biomass...
.... Phytoplankton and seaweeds are discussed together in chapters on photosynthesis, growth and productivity, and geographical distribution, in order to provide an integrated picture of the biology...
CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography being one of its kind in the country The article describes the on-going researches and projects in contributing to the science in the field of Marine science....
Norton, P.; de March, L.; Smiley, B.D.
The pace of offshore development in the Canadian Arctic has emphasized the need to review the sufficiency and suitability of available scientific information for design, regulatory, and planning purposes. This report presents part of the results of the first stage of this review process, the compilation and appraisal of existing data sets on whales in the Northwest Passage. Measurements were made of narwhales, white whales, bowhead whales, and killer whales, and most commonly concern numbers, identification, movements, reproduction, food, and color. Overall, 143 data sets are inventoried for the period from 1820 to 1984. Times and locations of sampling efforts are listed in tables and are also shown on computer-drawn maps. Sampling methodology and intensity, whale measurements and observations obtained by species, and concurrent biological, physical, and chemical measurements are described in the tables. A 5-level rating system, based on sampling methodology, is outlined and has been applied to each measurement in each data set as a rough indication of data reliability. Data sets are indexed according to geographic coverage, study methods, species, specific measurements and observations made, and published references. The form, location, and availability of original data are provided if known. 415 figs., 3 tabs.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.
A group of marine science education educators from several countries were requested to provide guidelines for the education and training of marine scientists and formulate recommended curricula in the following disciplines: marine biology (including fisheries biology), physical oceanography, and marine geology. Included in the report are: (1)…
Miller, Peter I.
Ocean front detection and aggregation techniques were recently applied to 300m resolution Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) satellite ocean colour data for the first time, to describe frequently occurring shelf-sea fronts near to the Scottish coast (Miller et al., in press). This resolution enabled the location of smaller frontal zones and those in close proximity to a convoluted coastline, and was used to identify zones of ecological importance that could assist the process of defining marine protected areas. Frequent front zones are associated with higher abundance of plankton, certain pelagic fish and megafauna. This paper anticipates the improved insights into submesoscale sediment and plankton dynamics that will result from application of these techniques to the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) on Sentinel-3a and 3b. Looking to the global scale, we show global chlorophyll-a fronts, eddies and other structures detected from the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative daily 4 km resolution merged dataset derived from MERIS, SeaWiFS and MODIS data. This emphasises the importance of the Sentinel missions to improving study of both physical and biological ocean processes.
.... Based on courses taught over a ten-year period at the University of Miami, the book presents useful information for oceanographers and other marine scientists, in addition to providing a solid...
The International System of Units (SI) in Oceanography. Report of IAPSO Working Group on Symbols, Units and Nomenclature in Physical Oceanography (SUN). Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science 45. IAPSO Publication Scientifique No. 32.
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.
This report introduces oceanographers to the International System of Units (SI) in physical oceanography. The SI constitutes a universal language, designed to be understood by all scientists. It facilitates their mutual comprehension and exchange of views and results of their work. The first part of the report is devoted to physical quantities,…
Reynolds, John D; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Goodwin, Nicholas B; Hutchings, Jeffrey A
We review interactions between extrinsic threats to marine fishes and intrinsic aspects of their biology that determine how populations and species respond to those threats. Information is available on the status of less than 5% of the world's approximately 15500 marine fish species, most of which are of commercial importance. By 2001, based on data from 98 North Atlantic and northeast Pacific populations, marine fishes had declined by a median 65% in breeding biomass from known historic levels; 28 populations had declined by more than 80%. Most of these declines would be sufficient to warrant a status of threatened with extinction under international threat criteria. However, this interpretation is highly controversial, in part because of a perception that marine fishes have a suite of life history characteristics, including high fecundity and large geographical ranges, which might confer greater resilience than that shown by terrestrial vertebrates. We review 15 comparative analyses that have tested for these and other life history correlates of vulnerability in marine fishes. The empirical evidence suggests that large body size and late maturity are the best predictors of vulnerability to fishing, regardless of whether differences among taxa in fishing mortality are controlled; there is no evidence that high fecundity confers increased resilience. The evidence reviewed here is of direct relevance to the diverse criteria used at global and national levels by various bodies to assess threat status of fishes. Simple life history traits can be incorporated directly into quantitative assessment criteria, or used to modify the conclusions of quantitative assessments, or used as preliminary screening criteria for assessment of the approximately 95% of marine fish species whose status has yet to be evaluated either by conservationists or fisheries scientists.
Rossi, Vincent; Dubois, Mélodie; Ser-Giacomi, Enrico; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Lopez, Cristobal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio
A major challenge in marine ecology is to describe properly larval dispersal and marine connectivity since they structure marine populations and are thus crucial criteria to design Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Focusing on larval dispersal by ocean currents in the entire Mediterranean Sea, I present a new approach coupling Lagrangian modeling and Network Theory tools to characterize broad-scale connectivity of marine populations. The Mediterranean basin is subdivided into an ensemble of sub-regions that are interconnected through oceanic transport. Passive larvae of different pelagic durations and seasons are advected in a simulated surface flow from which a network of connected areas is constructed. First, the global analysis of the transport network using a community detection algorithm enables the extraction of hydrodynamical provinces which are delimited by frontiers matching multiscale oceanographic features. By examining the repeated occurrence of such boundaries, we identify the spatial scales and geographic structures that control larval dispersal across the entire seascape. We also analyze novel connectivity metrics for the existing marine reserves and we discussed our results in the context of ocean biogeography and MPAs design. Secondly, we studied the local properties of the network with the computation of proxies commonly used in population ecology to measure local retention, self-recruitment and larval sources/sinks. Our results confirmed that retention processes are favored along certain coastlines due to specific oceanographic conditions while they are weak in the open ocean. Moreover, we found that divergent (convergent) oceanic zones resulting from Ekman theory are systematically characterized by larval sources (sinks). Finally, although these proxies are often studied separately in the literature, we suggest they are inter-related under certain conditions. Their integrated interpretation leads to a better understanding of population dynamics and
Sciences Special Issue on Coastal & Marine Biodiversity of Indian Ocean Guest Editor Mohideen Wafar Biological Oceanography Division National Institute of Oceanography Dona-Paula, Goa 403 004 India National... in this workshop. Fourteen out of them got translated into written texts, passed through peer reviews and form collectively this special issue of the Indian Journal of Marine Sciences. The subjects covered by them range from national and regional inventories...
,; Goldberg, E.D.; Butler, P.; Meier, P.; Menzel, D.; Paulik, G.; Risebrough, R.; Stickel, L.F.
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS : The oceans are an ultimate accumulation site for the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons. As much as 25 percent of the DDT compounds produced to date may have been transferred to the sea. The amount of DDT compounds in the marine biota is estimated to be less than 0.1 percent of total production, yet this amount has produced a demonstrable impact upon the marine environment. Populations of fish-eating birds have experienced reproductive failure and decline. With continued accumulations of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine ecosystem, additional species will be threatened. Continued release of these pollutants to the environment can only accelerate the accumulation of unacceptable levels of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in the tissues of marine food fish. Certain risks in the utilization of chlorinated hydrocarbons are especially hard to quantify, but they require serious consideration. The rate at which such substances degrade to harmless products in the marine system is unknown; the half-lives of some of the more persistent materials are certainly of the order of years, and perhaps even of decades or centuries. If most of the remaining 75 percent of the persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons is now in reservoirs that will in time transfer their contents to the sea, we may expect an increased level of these substances in marine organisms, despite future improvements of manufacturing practices. In fact, if these compounds degrade with half-lives of decades or longer, there will be no opportunity to redress the consequences. The more the problems are studied, the more unexpected effects are identified. In view of the findings of the past decade, our prediction of the potential hazards of chlorinated hydrocarbons in the marine environment may be vastly underestimated. The Panel makes the following recommendations, which will be developed and expanded in the remainder of the report: ? A massive national effort should be
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) compiled data on the geochemistry of marine ferromanganese nodules, funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation...
Full Text Available Marine environments are greatly affected by climate change, and understanding how this perturbation affects marine vertebrates is a major issue. In this context, it is essential to identify the environmental drivers of animal distribution. Here, we focused on the little auk (Alle alle, one of the world's most numerous seabirds and a major component in Arctic food webs. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we show how little auks adopt specific migratory strategies and balance environmental constraints to optimize their energy budgets. Miniature electronic loggers indicate that after breeding, birds from East Greenland migrate >2000 km to overwinter in a restricted area off Newfoundland. Synoptic data available from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR indicate that this region harbours some of the highest densities of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus found in the North Atlantic during winter. Examination of large-scale climatic and oceanographic data suggests that little auks favour patches of high copepod abundance in areas where air temperature ranges from 0°C to 5°C. These results greatly advance our understanding of animal responses to extreme environmental constraints, and highlight that information on habitat preference is key to identifying critical areas for marine conservation.
Fort, Jérôme; Beaugrand, Grégory; Grémillet, David; Phillips, Richard A
Marine environments are greatly affected by climate change, and understanding how this perturbation affects marine vertebrates is a major issue. In this context, it is essential to identify the environmental drivers of animal distribution. Here, we focused on the little auk (Alle alle), one of the world's most numerous seabirds and a major component in Arctic food webs. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we show how little auks adopt specific migratory strategies and balance environmental constraints to optimize their energy budgets. Miniature electronic loggers indicate that after breeding, birds from East Greenland migrate >2000 km to overwinter in a restricted area off Newfoundland. Synoptic data available from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) indicate that this region harbours some of the highest densities of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus found in the North Atlantic during winter. Examination of large-scale climatic and oceanographic data suggests that little auks favour patches of high copepod abundance in areas where air temperature ranges from 0°C to 5°C. These results greatly advance our understanding of animal responses to extreme environmental constraints, and highlight that information on habitat preference is key to identifying critical areas for marine conservation.
Fisheries oceanography can be applied to fisheries ecology, fisheries management and practical fishing. Physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, currents, waves, light, oxygen and salinity) have profound effect on fish...
Ecological Effects of Channelization on a Tropical Marine Ecosystem: Impact on Intertidal Fish Communities in the Cross River, Nigeria. I. O. Ewa-Oboho. Marine Biology/Ecological Unit, Institute of Oceanography, University of Calabar, P.M.B 1115, Calabar, Nigeria. Abstract. The impact of bulk density silt/clay sedimentation ...
Eric Willem Maria Stienen
Full Text Available In order to develop management strategies for sustainable useand conservation in the marine environment, reliable and meaningful,but integrated ecological information is needed. Biological valuationmaps that compile and summarize all available biological andecological information for a study area, and that allocate anoverall biological value to subzones, can be used as baselinemaps for future spatial planning at sea. This paper providesa concept for marine biological valuation which is based on aliterature review of existing valuation criteria and the consensusreached by a discussion group of experts.
Tello, Olvido; Gómez, María; González, Sonsoles
Since 1914, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) performs multidisciplinary studies of the marine environment. In same case are systematic studies and in others are specific studies for special requirements (El Hierro submarine volcanic episode, spill Prestige, others.). Different methodologies and data acquisition techniques are used depending on studies aims. The acquired data are stored and presented in different formats. The information is organized into different databases according to the subject and the variables represented (geology, fisheries, aquaculture, pollution, habitats, etc.). Related to physical and chemical oceanography data, in 1964 was created the DATA CENTER of IEO (CEDO), in order to organize the data about physical and chemical variables, to standardize this information and to serve the international data network SeaDataNet. www.seadatanet.org. This database integrates data about temperature, salinity, nutrients, and tidal data. CEDO allows consult and download the data. http://indamar.ieo.es On the other hand, related to data about marine species in 1999 was developed SIRENO DATABASE. All data about species collected in oceanographic surveys carried out by researches of IEO, and data from observers on fishing vessels are incorporated in SIRENO database. In this database is stored catch data, biomass, abundance, etc. This system is based on architecture ORACLE. Due to the large amount of information collected over the 100 years of IEO history, there is a clear need to organize, standardize, integrate and relate the different databases and information, and to provide interoperability and access to the information. Consequently, in 2000 it emerged the first initiative to organize the IEO spatial information in an Oceanography Information System, based on a Geographical Information System (GIS). The GIS was consolidated as IEO institutional GIS and was created the Spatial Data Infrastructure of IEO (IDEO) following trend of INSPIRE. All
Von Dassow , Peter; Collado-Fabbri , Silvana
International audience; The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre (SPSG), putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (1905-2010). We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environm...
Kamat, S.Y.; Wahidullah, S.; Naik, C.G.; DeSouza, L.; Jayasree, V.; Ambiye, V.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Garg, H.S.; Srimal, R.C.
Ethanolic extracts from Indian marine algae have been tested for anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fertility, hypoglycaemic and a wide range of pharmacological activities. Of 34 species investigated 17 appeared biologically active. Six...
Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A.N.; Muller, W.E.G.
products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages...
Mooers, Christopher N. K.
With the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) currently in development, the worldwide oceanographic community is on the brink of “operational oceanography,” which essentially means provision of “operational ocean services” where “operational” means “routine” and “ocean services” means “marine environmental information.” GOOS is a joint campaign of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, the World Meteorological Organization, the United Nations Environmental Program, and the International Council for Science. GOOS will integrate expanded real-time in situ and satellite observations with numerical models to form model-based information products for a multiplicity of societal needs, including scientific research [Stel, 1997].Operational oceanography has become a popular tune without a copyright but with many bandmasters. While Europeans and northeast Asians are moving ahead aggressively with GOOS activities, the United States has been hesitant, lacking in foresight, and awash in planning activities. It is time to ask, What has happened?, What is happening?, and What should happen?
With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML) making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.
Full Text Available With the development of the Human Genome Project, a heated debate emerged on biology becoming 'big science'. However, biology already has a long tradition of collaboration, as natural historians were part of the first collective scientific efforts: exploring the variety of life on earth. Such mappings of life still continue today, and if field biology is gradually becoming an important subject of studies into big science, research into life in the world's oceans is not taken into account yet. This paper therefore explores marine biology as big science, presenting the historical development of marine research towards the international 'Census of Marine Life' (CoML making an inventory of life in the world's oceans. Discussing various aspects of collaboration--including size, internationalisation, research practice, technological developments, application, and public communication--I will ask if CoML still resembles traditional collaborations to collect life. While showing both continuity and change, I will argue that marine biology is a form of natural history: a specific way of working together in biology that has transformed substantially in interaction with recent developments in the life sciences and society. As a result, the paper does not only give an overview of transformations towards large scale research in marine biology, but also shines a new light on big biology, suggesting new ways to deepen the understanding of collaboration in the life sciences by distinguishing between different 'collective ways of knowing'.
Paulsen, Sara Skøtt; Andersen, Birgitte; Gram, Lone
Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae) for chitin degradation using...
Strategies and methodologies for using marine organisms to monitor radioactivity in marine waters are presented. When the criteria for monitoring radioactivity is to determine routes of radionuclide transfer to man, the ''critical pathway'' approach is often applied. Alternatively, where information on ambient radionuclide levels and distributions is sought, the approach of selecting marine organisms as ''bioindicators'' of radioactivity is generally used. Whichever approach is applied, a great deal of knowledge is required about the physiology and ecology of the specific organism chosen. In addition, several criteria for qualifying as a bioindicator species are discussed; e.g., it must be a sedentary species which reflects the ambient radionuclide concentration at a given site, sufficiently long-lived to allow long-term temporal sampling, widely distributed to allow spatial comparisons, able to bioconcentrate the radionuclide to a relatively high degree, while showing a simple correlation between radionuclide content in its tissues with that in the surrounding waters. Useful hints on the appropriate species to use and the best way to collect and prepare organisms for radioanalysis are also given. It is concluded that benthic algae and bivalve molluscs generally offer the greatest potential for use as a ''bioindicator'' species in radionuclide biomonitoring programmes. Where knowledge on contribution to radiological dose is required, specific edible marine species should be the organisms of choice; however, both purposes can be served when the edible species chosen through critical pathway analysis is also an excellent bioaccumulator of the radionuclide of interest. (author)
This volume is an outcome of the presentation of selected 74 papers at the International Symposium on the Oceanography of the Indian Ocean held at National Institute of Oceanography during January 1991. The unique physical setting of the northern...
Sandro Mascena Gomes Filho
Full Text Available Marine sponges are primitive metazoans that produce a wide variety of molecules that protect them against predators. In studies that search for bioactive molecules, these marine invertebrates stand out as promising sources of new biologically-active molecules, many of which are still unknown or little studied; thus being an unexplored biotechnological resource of high added value. Among these molecules, lectins are proteins that reversibly bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. In this review, various structural features and biological activities of lectins derived from marine sponges so far described in the scientific literature are discussed. From the results found in the literature, it could be concluded that lectins derived from marine sponges are structurally diverse proteins with great potential for application in the production of biopharmaceuticals, especially as antibacterial and antitumor agents.
Sara Skøtt Paulsen; Birgitte Andersen; Lone Gram; Henrique Machado
Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae) for chitin degradation using in silico and phenotypic assays. Of 10 chitinolytic strains, three strains, Photobacterium galatheae S2753, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040 and S2724, produced large clearing zones on chitin plates....
Applied Physics Laboratory , University of Washington 1013 NE 40th Street Seattle, Washington 98105 Phone: 206-543-1343 email: Nystuen...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Applied Physics Laboratory ,University of Washington... Hydroacoustics Near Marine-Terminating Glaciers”, Oceanography, vol. 25. Stabeno, P.J, Falry, E.V., Kachel, N.B., Moore, S., Mordy, C.W., Napp, J.M
Vilchez, C.; Forján, E.; Cuaresma, M.; Bédmar, F.; Garbayo, I.; Vega, J.M.
Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological
An introduction to the marine biota, and how the biota interact with their physico-chemical environment, is given in this chapter. In particular, food web and trophic level relationships are discussed, from phytopIankton production through consumer organisms and the ''microbial loop''. The effects of organism size and functional relationships within the food web paradigm are emphasized, rather than taxonomic relationships. Examples initially given in terms of carbon, nitrogen, or energy transfer through food webs are placed in context with radionuclide transfer and the concept of biomagnification. (author)
Sara Skøtt Paulsen
Full Text Available Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria (Pseudoalteromonadaceae, Vibrionaceae for chitin degradation using in silico and phenotypic assays. Of 10 chitinolytic strains, three strains, Photobacterium galatheae S2753, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040 and S2724, produced large clearing zones on chitin plates. All strains were antifungal, but against different fungal targets. One strain, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040, had a pronounced antifungal activity against all seven fungal strains. There was no correlation between the number of chitin modifying enzymes as found by genome mining and the chitin degrading activity as measured by size of clearing zones on chitin agar. Based on in silico and in vitro analyses, we cloned and expressed two ChiA-like chitinases from the two most potent candidates to exemplify the industrial potential.
Paulsen, Sara Skøtt; Andersen, Birgitte; Gram, Lone; Machado, Henrique
Chitinolytic microorganisms secrete a range of chitin modifying enzymes, which can be exploited for production of chitin derived products or as fungal or pest control agents. Here, we explored the potential of 11 marine bacteria ( Pseudoalteromonadaceae , Vibrionaceae ) for chitin degradation using in silico and phenotypic assays. Of 10 chitinolytic strains, three strains, Photobacterium galatheae S2753, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040 and S2724, produced large clearing zones on chitin plates. All strains were antifungal, but against different fungal targets. One strain, Pseudoalteromonas piscicida S2040, had a pronounced antifungal activity against all seven fungal strains. There was no correlation between the number of chitin modifying enzymes as found by genome mining and the chitin degrading activity as measured by size of clearing zones on chitin agar. Based on in silico and in vitro analyses, we cloned and expressed two ChiA-like chitinases from the two most potent candidates to exemplify the industrial potential.
TEEL, WARD; AND OTHERS
DURING THE SUMMER OF 1966, FACULTY MEMBERS OF THE COLLEGE CONDUCTED AN INTERVIEW SURVEY TO DETERMINE THE FEASIBILITY OF ESTABLISHING A MARINE SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM. MANPOWER NEEDS OF 70 INDUSTRIES, INSTITUTIONS, AND GOVERNMENTAL AGENCIES CONCERNED WITH THE FIELDS OF OCEANOGRAPHY AND MARINE BIOLOGY WERE STUDIED IN TERMS OF JOBS PERFORMED BY…
We tested the effects of marine reserve status on the reproductive biology and recruitment rates of two commonly exploited (Helcion concolor, Scutellastra longicosta) and two rarely exploited (Cellana capensis, Scutellastra granularis) limpet species using two reserve and two non-reserve sites on the south coast of South ...
A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...
José M. Vega
Full Text Available Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon.
Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M.
Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162
Benson, Keith R
At the present time, there is considerable interest for the physical setting of science, that is, its actual 'place' of practice. Among historians of biology, place has been considered to be a crucial component for the study of ecology. Other historians have noted the 'built' environments (laboratories) for the study of biology along the seashore, even referring to these places in terms more applicable to vacation sites. In this paper, I examine the place of intertidal ecology investigations, both in terms of the physical space and the built space. Part of the examination will investigate the aesthetic aspect of the Pacific Coast, part will evaluate the unique character of the intertidal zone, and part will consider the construction of natural laboratories and built laboratories as characteristic places for biology.
Basic concepts in oceanography include major wind patterns that drive ocean currents, and the effects that the earth's rotation, positions of land masses, and temperature and salinity have on oceanic circulation and hence global distribution of radioactivity. Special attention is given to coastal and near-coastal processes such as upwelling, tidal effects, and small-scale processes, as radionuclide distributions are currently most associated with coastal regions. (author)
Peter von Dassow
Full Text Available The Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile defined by Easter Island and Salas y Gómez Island is in the South Pacific Sub-tropical Gyre (SPSG, putting it at the center of the most oligotrophic and biomass poor waters in the world. Only 10 biological oceanographic expeditions have entered this zone in 105 years (19052010. We review key aspects of the plankton ecosystem and biogeochemical function relevant for the understanding of and conservation planning for marine environments. Plankton production is limited by lack of dissolved inorganic fixed nitrogen, not phosphorous. Higher organic nitrogen levels might be biologically unavailable. Short-term experiments suggested iron is not limiting, yet iron still likely limits nitrogen fixation, and thus production, at longer time scales, as the presence of nitrogen-fixers is exceptionally low compared to other ocean gyres. Plankton function is dominated by the smallest unicellular organisms, picoplankton (<3 μm in diameter. The SPSG represents a center of high biodiversity for picoplankton, as well as heterotrophic organisms such as tinntinids, siphonophores, and possibly amphipods, although data for key zooplankton, such as copepods, are lacking. Many groups exhibit negative relationships between diversity and total plankton biomass. High diversity might result from dispersal from a very large metacommunity and minimal competition within functional groups. Whether an island-mass effect causes a real or apparent increase in plankton biomass around Easter Island must be confirmed by high-resolution sampling in situ. Long-term threats to the planktonic ecosystem may include climate change-enhanced ocean stratification and plastic marine debris accumulation. Finally, priorities for future research are highlighted.
Full Text Available As is the case for terrestrial organisms, carotenoids represent the most common group of pigments in marine environments. They are generally biosynthesized by all autotrophic marine organisms, such as bacteria and archaea, algae and fungi. Some heterotrophic organisms also contain carotenoids probably accumulated from food or partly modified through metabolic reactions. These natural pigments are divided into two chemical classes: carotenes (such as lycopene and α- and β-carotene that are composed of hydrogen and carbon; xanthophylls (such as astaxanthin, fucoxanthin and lutein, which are constituted by hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. Carotenoids, as antioxidant compounds, assume a key role in the protection of cells. In fact, quenching of singlet oxygen, light capture and photosynthesis protection are the most relevant biological functions of carotenoids. The present review aims at describing (i the biological functions of carotenoids and their benefits for human health, (ii the most common carotenoids from marine organisms and (iii carotenoids having large success in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmeceutical industries, highlighting the scientific progress in marine species cultivation for natural pigments production.
Seghal Kiran, G; Ramasamy, Pasiyappazham; Sekar, Sivasankari; Ramu, Meenatchi; Hassan, Saqib; Ninawe, A S; Selvin, Joseph
The discovery of genes responsible for the production of bioactive metabolites via metabolic pathways combined with the advances in synthetic biology tools, has allowed the establishment of numerous microbial cell factories, for instance the yeast cell factories, for the manufacture of highly useful metabolites from renewable biomass. Genome mining and metagenomics are two platforms provide base-line data for reconstruction of genomes and metabolomes which is based in the development of synthetic/semi-synthetic genomes for marine natural products discovery. Engineered biofilms are being innovated on synthetic biology platform using genetic circuits and cell signalling systems as represillators controlling biofilm formation. Recombineering is a process of homologous recombination mediated genetic engineering, includes insertion, deletion or modification of any sequence specifically. Although this discipline considered new to the scientific domain, this field has now developed as promising endeavor on the accomplishment of sustainable exploitation of marine natural products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Beauregard, J. L.
Capturing and retaining the interest of non-science majors in science classes can be difficult, no matter what type of science. At Berklee College of Music, this challenge is especially significant, as all students are music majors. In my Introductory Oceanography course, I use a final project as a way for the students to link class material with their own interests. The students may choose any format to present their projects to the class; however, many students write and perform original music. The performances of ocean-themed music have become a huge draw of the Introductory Oceanography course. In an effort to expand the reach of this music, several colleagues and I organized the first Earth Day event at Berklee, `Earthapalooza 2015.' This event included performances of music originally written for the final projects, as well as other musical performances, poetry readings, guest talks, and information booths. Although the idea of an Earth Day event is not new, this event is unique in that student performances really resonate with the student audience. Additionally, since many of these students will enter professional careers in the performance and recording industries, the potential exists for them to expose large audiences to the issues of oceanography through music. In this presentation, I will play examples of original student compositions and show video of the live student performances. I will also discuss the benefits and challenges of the final projects and the Earth Day event. Finally, I will highlight the future plans to continue ocean-themed music at Berklee.
West Hackberry Strategic Petroleum Reserve site brine disposal monitoring, Year I report. Volume V. Supporting data for estuarine hydrology, discharge plume analysis, chemical oceanography, biological oceanography, and data management. Final report
DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)
This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume V contains appendices for the following: supporting data for estuarine hydrology and hydrography; supporting data analysis of discharge plume; supporting data for water and sediment chemistry; CTD/DO and pH profiles during biological monitoring; supporting data for nekton; and supporting data for data management.
Murray, Patrick M; Moane, Siobhan; Collins, Catherine; Beletskaya, Tanya; Thomas, Olivier P; Duarte, Alysson W F; Nobre, Fernando S; Owoyemi, Ifeloju O; Pagnocca, Fernando C; Sette, L D; McHugh, Edward; Causse, Eric; Pérez-López, Paula; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma T; Rubiolo, Juan; Leirós, Marta; Botana, Luis M; Pinteus, Susete; Alves, Celso; Horta, André; Pedrosa, Rui; Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Allewaert, Celine; Verween, Annick; Vyverman, Wim; Laptev, Ivan; Sineoky, Sergei; Bisio, Angela; Manconi, Renata; Ledda, Fabio; Marchi, Mario; Pronzato, Roberto; Walsh, Daniel J
The marine environment offers both economic and scientific potential which are relatively untapped from a biotechnological point of view. These environments whilst harsh are ironically fragile and dependent on a harmonious life form balance. Exploitation of natural resources by exhaustive wild harvesting has obvious negative environmental consequences. From a European industry perspective marine organisms are a largely underutilised resource. This is not due to lack of interest but due to a lack of choice the industry faces for cost competitive, sustainable and environmentally conscientious product alternatives. Knowledge of the biotechnological potential of marine organisms together with the development of sustainable systems for their cultivation, processing and utilisation are essential. In 2010, the European Commission recognised this need and funded a collaborative RTD/SME project under the Framework 7-Knowledge Based Bio-Economy (KBBE) Theme 2 Programme 'Sustainable culture of marine microorganisms, algae and/or invertebrates for high value added products'. The scope of that project entitled 'Sustainable Production of Biologically Active Molecules of Marine Based Origin' (BAMMBO) is outlined. Although the Union is a global leader in many technologies, it faces increasing competition from traditional rivals and emerging economies alike and must therefore improve its innovation performance. For this reason innovation is placed at the heart of a European Horizon 2020 Strategy wherein the challenge is to connect economic performance to eco performance. This article provides a synopsis of the research activities of the BAMMBO project as they fit within the wider scope of sustainable environmentally conscientious marine resource exploitation for high-value biomolecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The University of California San Diego (UCSD) Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS)...
...) Detailed information on the biology of marine mammals within the area, including estimated population size... Important Marine Mammal Areas. 216.191 Section 216.191 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS...
Ponganis, Paul J.
Bio-logging of physiological parameters in higher marine vertebrates had its origins in the field of bio-telemetry in the 1960s and 1970s. The development of microprocessor technology allowed its first application to bio-logging investigations of Weddell seal diving physiology in the early 1980s. Since that time, with the use of increased memory capacity, new sensor technology, and novel data processing techniques, investigators have examined heart rate, temperature, swim speed, stroke frequency, stomach function (gastric pH and motility), heat flux, muscle oxygenation, respiratory rate, diving air volume, and oxygen partial pressure (P) during diving. Swim speed, heart rate, and body temperature have been the most commonly studied parameters. Bio-logging investigation of pressure effects has only been conducted with the use of blood samplers and nitrogen analyses on animals diving at isolated dive holes. The advantages/disadvantages and limitations of recording techniques, probe placement, calibration techniques, and study conditions are reviewed.
Wang, Xiao Hua; Cho, Yang-Ki; Guo, Xinyu; Wu, Chau-Ron; Zhou, Junliang
Coastal environments are a key location for transport, commercial, residential and defence infrastructure, and have provided conditions suitable for economic growth. They also fulfil important cultural, recreational and aesthetic needs; have intrinsic ecosystem service values; and provide essential biogeochemical functions such as primary productivity, nutrient cycling and water filtration. The rapid expansion in economic development and anticipated growth of the population in the coastal zones along the Yellow and East China Sea basin has placed this region under intense multiple stresses. Here we aim to: 1) synthesize the new knowledge/science in coastal oceanography since 2010 within the context of the scientific literature published in English; 2) report on a citation analysis that assesses whether new research topics have emerged and integrated over time, indicate the location of modelling and field-based studies; and 3) suggest where the new research should develop for heavily impacted estuaries and coastal seas of East Asia. The conclusions of the synthesis include: 1) China has emerged as a dominant force in the region in producing scientific literature in coastal oceanography, although the area of publications has shifted from its traditional fields such as physical oceanography; 2) there has been an increasing number of publications with cross-disciplinary themes between physical oceanography and other fields of the biological, chemical, and geological disciplines, but vigorous and systematic funding mechanisms are still lacking to ensure the viability of large scale multi-disciplinary teams and projects in order to support trans-disciplinary research and newly emerging fields; 3) coastal oceanography is responding to new challenges, with many papers studying the impacts of human activities on marine environment and ecology, but so far very few studying management and conservation strategies or offering policy solutions.
Kapkov V. I.
Full Text Available The possibility of using marine unicellular algae from natural plankton community in biomonitoring of pollution by heavy metals has been investigated. Algae of different taxa from the Mediterranean Sea have been allocated to culture. In the laboratory the culture conditions – i. e. growth medium, temperature, photoperiod, level of artificial light and initial density – have been selected for every species. The impact of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb in the form of chloride salts on the growth of axenic algae culture has been studied in the modelling experiments. The unicellular marine algae have a very short life cycle, therefore it is possible to use them in the experiments of studying the effect of anthropogenic factors at cellular and population levels on the test-object. With biomonitoring pollution of marine environment by heavy metals and others dangerous toxicants, the major indicators of algae community condition are the cellular cycle and the condition of the photosynthetic apparatus of the cell. The subsequent lysis of cells under the influence of heavy metals leads to the excretion of secondary metabolites which can essentially affect the metal toxicity. The established scales of threshold and lethal concentration of heavy metals for algae of different taxon make it possible to use the ratio of sensitive and resistant species to heavy metals as biological markers when forecasting ecological consequences of pollution of the marine environment by heavy metals. Distinctions in the resistance of different taxon to heavy metals can result in implementing the strategy of selection of test-objects depending on the purposes of the research.
Ransdorf, Angela; Satzinger, Viktoria
The "Wiedner Gymnasium" is an academic high school with two branches: one focusses on languages and the other one on science. In the language branch the students learn at least three languages; one of which is Latin, whereas the students of the scientific branch can learn geometrical drawing and have to attend a scientific laboratory throughout the last four upper classes. As incentive highlights the language classes have a one week's school trip to France, Italy or Spain at the beginning of their 7th form in order to attend a language school and to practice their language skills. As a counterbalance, there was introduced the "marine biological week" several years ago, in which the students of the scientific branch take part whilst their colleagues have their language trips. The marine biological week takes place in Rovinj, Croatia. A team of biologists and divers leads through a programme, by which the students get an overview of different habitats, their conditions and the different ways of adaptation organisms find. Thus, they also become acquainted with several species of animals and plants which are characteristic for this area. They become familiar with some methods of scientific work and also get to know some of the problems marine ecosystems are confronted with. They also learn a little bit if the Mediterranean history and culture. Back in school all the findings are reviewed and brought into an ecological context. The insights can be used for many other topics, too, such as e.g. evolution. This week has proved to be a good start as well for the topic of ecology as for learning to think scientifically in general. So, you can call it a pivot for the scientific branch of our school.
During six week survey (August - September 2008) in Southern and Eastern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. A total of 102 CTD stations were conducted along selected hydrographical transects and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, the first section between latitude 25o-26oS showed sea surface temperature values ranging between 25oC to 15oC upper 250m depth. As part of the south-west, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the tip south of the Island coast. In contrast of the west coast, in all transects performed along the south and the east coast, in most cases, the isotherms showed non stratified waters from the coast to offshore. The presence of the upwelling system in the south-east coast modifies drastically the patterns of all measured parameters. Fluorescence had a maximum values (0.25 µg/l) at surface near the coast in 2nd to 5th transects. Inversely, low temperature values were observed along the south and south-east with minimum values in the range of 18. 5oC-11oC at 50-250 m depth. These conditions were consistent along and between the 2nd to 5th transects, with more variation observed at transect 5. The salinity values (5 m depth) decreased from 35.7 psu in the south to 34.5 psu in the east. The horizontal distribution of oxygen showed non homogenous conditions with values between 5 ml/l (south) and 2.5 ml/l (south-east). Also starting from the coast to offshore, surface temperatures and surface salinities, surface
Moore, J. Keith; Fu, Weiwei; Primeau, Francois; Britten, Gregory L.; Lindsay, Keith; Long, Matthew; Doney, Scott C.; Mahowald, Natalie; Hoffman, Forrest; Randerson, James T.
Climate change projections to the year 2100 may miss physical-biogeochemical feedbacks that emerge later from the cumulative effects of climate warming. In a coupled climate simulation to the year 2300, the westerly winds strengthen and shift poleward, surface waters warm, and sea ice disappears, leading to intense nutrient trapping in the Southern Ocean. The trapping drives a global-scale nutrient redistribution, with net transfer to the deep ocean. Ensuing surface nutrient reductions north of 30°S drive steady declines in primary production and carbon export (decreases of 24 and 41%, respectively, by 2300). Potential fishery yields, constrained by lower–trophic-level productivity, decrease by more than 20% globally and by nearly 60% in the North Atlantic. Continued high levels of greenhouse gas emissions could suppress marine biological productivity for a millennium.
Gordon, Arnold L.
Oceanography is a young science, close to its historical roots, but it's maturing fast as “state-of-the-art” technology and computer-aided numerical modeling play an increasing role. Our ability to obtain, process, and analyze enormous volumes of data would stun an oceanographer of the 1930's. (I hope he would be equally impressed by the quality of modern data.) The Third International Congress on the History of Oceanography and the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) were both held in September 1980 at WHOI; and both events were taken as an opportunity to improve our understanding of the past and present of oceanography, and future of the ocean sciences with the thought that we could thereby better influence future trends.
Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange
In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results show...
Le Traon, P. Y.
initial joint venture between CLIVAR and GODAE. Argo has been an outstanding success. The 3000 Argo profiling floats now provide the most important global in-situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate. This is a third revolution in oceanography. I was lucky enough to be involved with many colleagues and friends in these three revolutions or breakthroughs in oceanography. The presentation will provide some historical background on the development of the SSALTO/DUACS merged altimeter products and an overview of their utility and use for ocean research and operational oceanography. I will thengo throughthe development of operational oceanography and Argo over the past 15 years focussing on European contributions, in particular, in the framework of the GMES Marine Service, EuroGOOSand the Euro-Argo research infrastructure. Perspectives and new challenges for the integrated global ocean observing system will be finally discussed.
This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil shortage cavers are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. This volume contains chapter 9 on zooplankton.
Jacques, Peter J.
The decline of top oceanic predators (TOPs), such as great sharks, and worldwide erosion of the marine food web is among the most important functional changes in marine systems. Yet, even though human pressures on sharks are one of the most important factors in the collapse of TOPs, the social science of shark fishing has not kept pace with the biophysical science. Such a gap highlights the need for a marine social science, and this paper uses the case of sharks to illustrate some advances that a coherent marine social science community could bring to science and sustainability, and calls for the development of this new field. Social oceanography is proposed as a “discursive space” that will allow multiple social science and humanities disciplines to holistically study and bring insight to a diverse but essential community. Such a community will not provide answers for the physical sciences, but it will add a new understanding of the contingencies that riddle social behavior that ultimately interact with marine systems. Such a field should reflect the broad and diverse approaches, epistemologies, philosophies of science and foci that are in the human disciplines themselves. Social oceanography would complete the triumvirate of biological and physical oceanography where human systems profoundly impact these other areas. This paper tests the theory that institutional rules are contingent on social priorities and paradigms. I used content analysis of all available (1995-2006) State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture (SOFIA) reports from the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) to measure the symbolic behavior-i.e., what they say-as an indication of the value of sharks in world fisheries. Similar tests were also performed for marine journals and the Convention on Migratory Species of Wild Animals to corroborate these findings. Then, I present an institutional analysis of all international capacity building and regulatory institutions as they
Topcuoğlu, Sayhan; Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Kalaycı, Halim Aytekin Ergül and Gülşah; Kalaycı, Gülşah
Abstract The heavy metal concentrations were reviewed in marine algae species collected from Turkish marine environment and the new data also given in the marine algae samples at some stations at the Turkish coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Some data also reviewed at the neighbors countries of the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea.
Topcuoğlu, Sayhan; Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Kalaycı, Halim Aytekin Ergül and Gülşah
Abstract The heavy metal concentrations were reviewed in marine algae species collected from Turkish marine environment and the new data also given in the marine algae samples at some stations at the Turkish coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Some data also reviewed at the neighbors countries of the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Mediterranean Sea.
Richard M. Magsino
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine students' perspectives of their learning in marine biology in the collaborative group context of Problem-based Learning (PBL. Students’ higher order thinking skills (HOTS using PBL involves the development of their logical thinking and reasoning abilities which stimulates their curiosity and associative thinking. This study aimed to investigate how critical thinking skills, particularly analysis, synthesis and evaluation were enhanced in a marine biology class through PBL. Qualitative research approach was used to examine student responses in a questionnaire involving 10 open-ended questions that target students’ HOTS on a problem presented in a marine biology class for BS Biology students. Using axial coding as a qualitative data analysis technique by which grounded theory can be performed, the study was able to determine how students manifest their higher reasoning abilities when confronted with a marine biology situation. Results show student responses yielding affirmative remarks on the 10 questions intended to know their level of analysis (e.g., analyzing, classifying, inferring, discriminating and relating or connecting, synthesis (e.g., synthesizing and collaborating, and evaluation (e.g., comparing, criticizing, and convincing of information from the presented marine biology problem. Consequently, students were able to effectively design experiments to address the presented issue through problem-based learning. Results of the study show that PBL is an efficient instructional strategy embedded within a conventional curriculum used to develop or enhance critical thinking in marine biology.
Cane, M. A.
In this talk I will review some of Jule Charney's impacts on current oceanographic research. He was of course a major seminal figure in geophysical fluid dynamics, an approach to understanding the atmosphere and oceans that has been thoroughly absorbed in contemporary thinking. In oceanography, his publications make vorticity dynamics the centerpiece of his analysis. Here I pursue two other aspects of his work. The first is to note that his 1955 paper "The Gulf Stream as an inertial boundary layer" appears to be the earliest numerical model in oceanography. The second is that his work on the equatorial undercurrent leads to a simplification of equatorial ocean structure that was exploited by Zebiak and Cane in their model for ENSO, and thus structures later views of how equatorial ocean dynamics influence sea surface temperature.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC), in support of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored a marine biological survey at Wake...
Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won
Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.
Full Text Available Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations.
Wang, Chonglong; Kim, Jung-Hun; Kim, Seon-Won
Carotenoids are a class of diverse pigments with important biological roles such as light capture and antioxidative activities. Many novel carotenoids have been isolated from marine organisms to date and have shown various utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. In this review, we summarize the pathways and enzymes of carotenoid synthesis and discuss various modifications of marine carotenoids. The advances in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for carotenoid production are also reviewed, in hopes that this review will promote the exploration of marine carotenoid for their utilizations. PMID:25233369
Australia's Sunshine coast is located to the south of the Great Barrier Reef and Fraser Island between about 25 oS to 28 oS. With a width of nearly 70-80 km, the eastern Australian continental shelf is at its widest here. The shelf region is referred to as the Southeast Queensland Marine Coastal Zone due to its unique physical oceanographic characteristics. The most prominent large-scale oceanic feature is the southward flowing East Australian Current (EAC). It forms to the north of Fraser Island from Coral Sea outflows, intensifies, and follows the continental shelf as a swift continental shelf hugging current but variable in strength; stronger in the southern hemisphere summer and weaker in winter. Little attention has been paid to the physical oceanography of this region, although important physical processes take place that drive regional marine environmental conditions, drive cross-shelf exchanges and interactions with the EAC, and that represent marine connectivity processes significant to the larger scale eastern Australian fisheries. This presentation reviews recent discoveries that include the Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System, the Fraser Island Gyre, and document the role of cyclonic mesoscale eddies in driving cross-shelf exchanges and contribute to the formation of the Fraser Island Gyre. The Southeast Fraser Island Upwelling System appears to be predominately driven by the interaction of the EAC with the continental shelf leading to the establishment of one of eight important marine ecological hotspots along the east Australian coast. The Fraser Island Gyre is most prominent during the southern hemisphere autumn and winter months. It is characterised by on-shelf northerly flow, turning eastward south of Fraser Island before joining the EAC. It emerges that cyclonic eddy formation as well as the south-easterly trade winds drive the gyre's establishment and strength. A census of short-lived (7-28 days) cyclonic eddies, the first for any western
Teachers are always on the lookout for material to give their brightest students, in order to keep them occupied, stimulated and challenged, while the teacher gets on with helping the rest. They are also looking for material that can inspire and enthuse those who think that school is 'just boring!' Oceanography, well presented, has the capacity to do both. As a relatively young science, oceanography is not a core curriculum subject (possibly an advantage), but it draws on the traditional sciences of biology, chemistry, physic and geology, and can provide wonderful examples for teaching concepts in school sciences. It can also give good reasons for learning science, maths and technology. Exciting expeditions (research cruises) to far-flung places; opportunities to explore new worlds, a different angle on topical debates such as climate change, pollution, or conservation can bring a new life to old subjects. Access to 'real' data from satellites or Argo floats can be used to develop analytical and problem solving skills. The challenge is to make all this available in a form that can easily be used by teachers and students to enhance the learning experience. We learn by doing. Active teaching methods require students to develop their own concepts of what they are learning. This stimulates new neural connections in the brain - the physical manifestation of learning. There is a large body of evidence to show that active learning is much better remembered and understood. Active learning develops thinking skills through analysis, problem solving, and evaluation. It helps learners to use their knowledge in realistic and useful ways, and see its importance and relevance. Most importantly, properly used, active learning is fun. This paper presents experiences from a number of education outreach projects that have involved the National Oceanography Centre in Southampton, UK. All contain some element of active learning - from quizzes and puzzles to analysis of real data from
Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin
Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed by the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical products due to their various health beneficial effects. Hence, it can be suggested that bioactive functional ingredients from marine bioresources and their by-products are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Marine-derived fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites including terpenes, steroids, polyketides, peptides, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. These secondary metabolites serve many biopharmaceutical purposes. This chapter discusses about marine fungi-derived terpenoids and presents an overview of their beneficial health effects. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Songlin; Wang, Min; Feng, Qi; Lin, Yingying; Zhao, Huange
In recent years, marine fungi have become an important source of active marine natural products. Former researches are limited in habitats selection of fungi with bioactive compounds. In this paper were to measure antibacterial and antitumor cell activity for secondary metabolites of marine fungi, which were isolated from different habitats in coastal regions. 195 strains of marine fungi were isolated and purified from three different habitats. They biologically active experiment results showed that fungi isolation from the mangrove habitats had stronger antibacterial activity than others, and the stains isolated from the estuarial habitats had the least antibacterial activity. However, the strains separated from beach habitats strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro, and fungi of mangrove forest habitats had the weakest activity of inhibiting tumor. Meanwhile, 195 fungal strains belonged to 46 families, 84 genera, 142 species and also showed 137 different types of activity combinations by analyzing the inhibitory activity of the metabolites fungi for 4 strains of pathogenic bacteria and B-16 cells. The study investigated the biological activity of marine fungi isolated from different habitats in Haikou coastal regions. The results help us to understand bioactive metabolites of marine fungi from different habitats, and how to selected biological activity fungi from various marine habitats effectively.
Stivala, Craig E; Benoit, Evelyne; Aráoz, Rómulo; Servent, Denis; Novikov, Alexei; Molgó, Jordi; Zakarian, Armen
From a small group of exotic compounds isolated only two decades ago, Cyclic Imine (CI) toxins have become a major class of marine toxins with global distribution. Their distinct chemical structure, biological mechanism of action, and intricate chemistry ensures that CI toxins will continue to be the subject of fascinating fundamental studies in the broad fields of chemistry, chemical biology, and toxicology. The worldwide occurrence of potent CI toxins in marine environments, their accumulation in shellfish, and chemical stability are important considerations in assessing risk factors for human health. This review article aims to provide an account of chemistry, biology, and toxicology of CI toxins from their discovery to the present day.
She, Jun; Allen, Icarus; Buch, Erik; Crise, Alessandro; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Le Traon, Pierre-Yves; Lips, Urmas; Nolan, Glenn; Pinardi, Nadia; Reißmann, Jan H.; Siddorn, John; Stanev, Emil; Wehde, Henning
Operational approaches have been more and more widely developed and used for providing marine data and information services for different socio-economic sectors of the Blue Growth and to advance knowledge about the marine environment. The objective of operational oceanographic research is to develop and improve the efficiency, timeliness, robustness and product quality of this approach. This white paper aims to address key scientific challenges and research priorities for the development of operational oceanography in Europe for the next 5-10 years. Knowledge gaps and deficiencies are identified in relation to common scientific challenges in four EuroGOOS knowledge areas: European Ocean Observations, Modelling and Forecasting Technology, Coastal Operational Oceanography and Operational Ecology. The areas "European Ocean Observations" and "Modelling and Forecasting Technology" focus on the further advancement of the basic instruments and capacities for European operational oceanography, while "Coastal Operational Oceanography" and "Operational Ecology" aim at developing new operational approaches for the corresponding knowledge areas.
Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.
Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692
1001/PKIMIA/811187); and the authors. (F.A.) and (Y.C.K.) are also grateful to. Universiti Sains Malaysia for the USM fellowship awards. . REFERENCES. 1. John Faulkner D. Marine natural products. Natural. Product Reports, 1999; 16(2): 155-198. 2. Bowden BF, Coll JC, Mitchell SJ. Studies of. Australian soft corals. XXI.
Sánchez Lizaso, J. L.
Full Text Available The SIEBM (Iberian Symposium of Studies on Marine Biology has a long tradition. The conference was first convened in 1979 and it has since been held approximately biannually. It was originally focused on marine benthos, but two editions ago it was decided to widen its objectives to include other related subjects. The 15th edition was held at the University of Alicante from 6th to 10th September 2010.
Kapkov V. I.; Shoshina E. V.; Belenikina O. A.
The possibility of using marine unicellular algae from natural plankton community in biomonitoring of pollution by heavy metals has been investigated. Algae of different taxa from the Mediterranean Sea have been allocated to culture. In the laboratory the culture conditions – i. e. growth medium, temperature, photoperiod, level of artificial light and initial density – have been selected for every species. The impact of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb) in the form of chloride salts on the growth...
Hayes, Marshall L.; Bonaventura, Joseph; Mitchell, Todd P.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Shinn, Eugene A.; Van Dolah, Frances; Barber, Richard T.
Since the mid-1970s, large-scale episodic events such as disease epidemics, mass mortalities, harmful algal blooms and other population explosions have been occurring in marine environments at an historically unprecedented rate. The variety of organisms involved (host, pathogens and other opportunists) and the absolute number of episodes have also increased during this period. Are these changes coincidental? Between 1972 and 1976, a global climate regime shift took place, and it is manifest most clearly by a change in strength of the North Pacific and North Atlantic pressure systems. Consequences of this regime shift are: (1) prolonged drought conditions in the Sahel region of Africa; (2) increased dust supply to the global atmosphere, by a factor of approximately four; (3) increased easterly trade winds across the Atlantic; (4) increased eolian transport of dust to the Atlantic and Caribbean basins; and (5) increased deposition of iron-rich eolian dust to typically iron-poor marine regions. On the basis of well-documented climate and dust observations and the widely accepted increase in marine outbreak rates, this paper proposes that the increased iron supply has altered the micronutrient factors limiting growth of opportunistic organisms and virulence of pathogenic microbes, particularly in macronutrient-rich coastal systems.
Bruner de Miranda, Luiz; Kjerfve, Björn; Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de
This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.
Simmons, Samantha; Chavez, Francisco; Pearlman, Jay
Over the last two decades or more, physical oceanography has seen a significant growth in in-situ sensors and platforms including fixed point and cable observatories, Argo floats, gliders and AUVs to supplement satellites for creating a 3-D view of the time-varying global ocean temperature and salinity structures. There are important developments recently for biogeochemists for monitoring nitrate, chemical contaminants, oxygen and pH that can now be added to these autonomous systems. Biologists are still lagging. Given the importance of biology to ocean health and the future earth, and the present reliance on humans and ships for observing species and abundance, it is paramount that new biological sensor systems be developed. Some promising sensor systems based on, but not limited to acoustic, chemical, genomic or imaging techniques, can sense from microbes to whales, are on the horizon. These techniques can be applied in situ with either real time or recorded data and can be captured and returned to the laboratory using the autonomous systems. The number of samples is limiting, requiring adaptive and smart systems. Two steps are envisioned to meeting the challenges. The first is to identify the priority biological variables to focus observation requirements and planning. The second is to address new sensors that can fill the gaps in current capabilities for biological observations. This abstract will review recent efforts to identify core biological variables for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System and address new sensors and innovations for observing these variables, particularly focused on availability and maturity of sensors.
Akey, David L; Gehret, Jennifer J; Khare, Dheeraj; Smith, Janet L
The world's oceans are a rich source of natural products with extremely interesting chemistry. Biosynthetic pathways have been worked out for a few, and the story is being enriched with crystal structures of interesting pathway enzymes. By far, the greatest number of structural insights from marine biosynthetic pathways has originated with studies of curacin A, a poster child for interesting marine chemistry with its cyclopropane and thiazoline rings, internal cis double bond, and terminal alkene. Using the curacin A pathway as a model, structural details are now available for a novel loading enzyme with remarkable dual decarboxylase and acetyltransferase activities, an Fe(2+)/α-ketoglutarate-dependent halogenase that dictates substrate binding order through conformational changes, a decarboxylase that establishes regiochemistry for cyclopropane formation, and a thioesterase with specificity for β-sulfated substrates that lead to terminal alkene offloading. The four curacin A pathway dehydratases reveal an intrinsic flexibility that may accommodate bulky or stiff polyketide intermediates. In the salinosporamide A pathway, active site volume determines the halide specificity of a halogenase that catalyzes for the synthesis of a halogenated building block. Structures of a number of putative polyketide cyclases may help in understanding reaction mechanisms and substrate specificities although their substrates are presently unknown.
Sikorski, J. J.; Briggs, B. R.
The ocean is essential for life on our planet. It covers 71% of the Earth's surface, is the source of the water we drink, the air we breathe, and the food we eat. Yet, the exponential growth in human population is putting the ocean and thus life on our planet at risk. However, based on student evaluations from our introductory oceanography course it is clear that our students have deficiencies in ocean literacy that impact their ability to recognize that the ocean and humans are inextricably connected. Furthermore, life present in deep subsurface marine environments is also interconnected to the study of the ocean, yet the deep biosphere is not typically covered in undergraduate oceanography courses. In an effort to improve student ocean literacy we developed an instructional module on the deep biosphere focused on gas hydrate deposits. Specifically, our module utilizes Google Earth and cutting edge research about microbial life in the ocean to support three inquiry-based activities that each explore different facets of gas hydrates (i.e. environmental controls, biologic controls, and societal implications). The relevant nature of the proposed module also makes it possible for instructors of introductory geology courses to modify module components to discuss related topics, such as climate, energy, and geologic hazards. This work, which will be available online as a free download, is a solid contribution toward increasing the available teaching resources focused on the deep biosphere for geoscience educators.
Kalinin, Vladimir I.; Ivanchina, Natalia V.; Krasokhin, Vladimir B.; Makarieva, Tatyana N.; Stonik, Valentin A.
Literature data about glycosides from sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) are reviewed. Structural diversity, biological activities, taxonomic distribution and biological functions of these natural products are discussed. PMID:23015769
Biological nitrogen (N)2 fixation is of paramount importance for marine N cycling and for life in the oceans in general. It represents the sole mechanism by which microorganisms can channel inert atmospheric N2 gas into biomass and hence it may fuel a significant fraction of primary production...... cyanobacterial endosymbionts of diatoms, and recently also unicellular cyanobacteria, have been considered the dominant marine diazotrophs. However, phylogenetic analyses of the functional genes involved in N2 fixation seem to suggest that heterotrophic N2-fixing organisms are present and active in various...... marine systems as well. Their role and ecological significance is, however currently unknown. By combining in situ analyses of the distribution and activity of diazotrophs in various marine environments with culture-based examinations of the potential of N2 fixation and its regulation in representative...
Poli, Caroline L; Harrison, Autumn-Lynn; Vallarino, Adriana; Gerard, Patrick D; Jodice, Patrick G R
During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra), in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m-35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level), the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance understanding of seabird
Poli, Caroline L.; Harrison, Autumn-Lynn; Vallarino, Adriana; Gerard, Patrick D.; Jodice, Patrick G.R.
During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra), in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m—35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level), the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance understanding of seabird
Caroline L Poli
Full Text Available During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions. Our objective was to examine foraging behavior of a pan-tropical seabird, the Masked Booby (Sula dactylatra, in the understudied Caribbean province, a moderately productive region driven by highly dynamic currents and fronts. We tracked 135 individuals with GPS units during May 2013, November 2013, and December 2014 at a regionally important breeding colony in the southern Gulf of Mexico. We measured foraging behavior using characteristics of foraging trips and used area restricted search as a proxy for foraging events. Among individual attributes, nest stage contributed to differences in foraging behavior whereas sex did not. Birds searched for prey at nested hierarchical scales ranging from 200 m-35 km. Large-scale coastal and shelf-slope fronts shifted position between sampling periods and overlapped geographically with overall foraging locations. At small scales (at the prey patch level, the specific relationship between environmental variables and foraging behavior was highly variable among individuals but general patterns emerged. Sea surface height anomaly and velocity of water were the strongest predictors of area restricted search behavior in random forest models, a finding that is consistent with the characterization of the Gulf of Mexico as an energetic system strongly influenced by currents and eddies. Our data may be combined with tracking efforts in the Caribbean province and across tropical regions to advance
Until recently biological research in the sea off Suriname had not received much attention. There was no fishery in the open sea and there was no incentive to investigate this unknown world. But in the last twenty years, experiments have gradually led to serious study of the subject. Before the
Chandika, Pathum; Ko, Seok-Chun; Jung, Won-Kyo
Wound healing is a complex biological process that depends on the wound condition, the patient's health, and the physicochemical support given through external materials. The development of bioactive molecules and engineered tissue substitutes to provide physiochemical support to enhance the wound healing process plays a key role in advancing wound-care management. Thus, identification of ideal molecules in wound treatment is still in progress. The discovery of natural products that contain ideal molecules for skin tissue regeneration has been greatly advanced by exploration of the marine bioenvironment. Consequently, tremendously diverse marine organisms have become a great source of numerous biological macromolecules that can be used to develop tissue-engineered substitutes with wound healing properties. This review summarizes the wound healing process, the properties of macromolecules from marine organisms, and the involvement of these molecules in skin tissue regeneration applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lyons, B.P.; Thain, J.E.; Hylland, K.; Davis, I.; Vethaak, A.D.
The use of biological effects tools offer enormous potential to meet the challenges outlined by the European Union Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) whereby Member States are required to develop a robust set of tools for defining 11 qualitative descriptors of Good Environmental Status
From the smallest plankton to the most massive whales, marine biology is the study of the flora and fauna, the living creatures of the ocean. This Zephyr self-directed study unit was developed to bridge the gap between students as passive learners to students as active participants. Originally developed for gifted students, these units emphasize…
Biological field stations and marine laboratories (FSMLs) serve as places to study the natural environment in a variety of ways, from the level of the molecule to the globe. Undergraduate opportunities at FSMLs reflect the diversity of study options -- formal courses, research and service internships, and field-trip experiences -- and students are responding to those...
This paper highlights history of the oceanography of the Indian Ocean. Oceanographic activities during Ancient period, Medieval period, British period, Post-Independence period are briefly discussed. The role of the IIOE, IOC, UNESCO are also...
Marine geochemistry uses chemical elements and their isotopes to study how the ocean works. It brings quantitative answers to questions such as: What is the deep ocean mixing rate? How much atmospheric CO2 is pumped by the ocean? How fast are pollutants removed from the ocean? How do ecosystems react to the anthropogenic pressure? The book provides a simple introduction to the concepts (environmental chemistry, isotopes), the methods (field approach, remote sensing, modeling) and the applications (ocean circulation, carbon cycle, climate change) of marine geochemistry with a particular emphasis on isotopic tracers. Marine geochemistry is not an isolated discipline: numerous openings on physical oceanography, marine biology, climatology, geology, pollutions and ecology are proposed and provide a global vision of the ocean. It includes new topics based on ongoing research programs such as GEOTRACES, Global Carbon Project, Tara Ocean. It provides a complete outline for a course in marine geochemistry. To favor a...
Fowler, S.W.; Heyraud, M.
Zinc which occurs in sea water as a trace element exists in several different stable or meta-stable forms in the aquatic environment. One of them is ''complexed'' form which is relatively stable. Radiotracer studies were carried out to investigate the mode of formation of the complexed zinc fraction and to find whether this fraction once formed by biological means is available for accumulation by marine biota. Sea water solutions used in the experiments were filtered through double 0.45 μm Millipore filters. Chelex-100 resin which quantitatively removes zinc from sea water was used to measure the relative degree of binding of different species of 65 Zn formed by association with marine organisms. 65 Zn in exometabolites from living animals represented in this case by shrimp (Lymata seticaudata), influence of organic detritus represented in this case by dead shrimp on the conversion of different forms of zinc and bioavailability of biologically processed 65 Zn were studied. It was observed that: (1) living and dead marine animals can produce a soluble species of complexed, possibly organically bound, zinc, (2) uptake of this species is reduced relative to that of the ionic form indicating that zinc which has passed through biological cycles may be less available for bioaccumulation than zinc which has been directly introduced into the marine environment in inorganic forms. (M.G.B.)
Biological nitrogen (N)2 fixation is of paramount importance for marine N cycling and for life in the oceans in general. It represents the sole mechanism by which microorganisms can channel inert atmospheric N2 gas into biomass and hence it may fuel a significant fraction of primary production...... cyanobacterial endosymbionts of diatoms, and recently also unicellular cyanobacteria, have been considered the dominant marine diazotrophs. However, phylogenetic analyses of the functional genes involved in N2 fixation seem to suggest that heterotrophic N2-fixing organisms are present and active in various...
Coad, Lauren; Burgess, Neil David; Fish, Lucy
Protected area coverage targets set by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) for both terrestrial and marine environments provide a major incentive for governments to review and upgrade their protected area systems. Assessing progress towards these targets will form an important component...... of the work of the Xth CBD Conference of Parties meeting to be held in Japan in 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) is the largest assembly of data on the world's terrestrial and marine protected areas and, as such, represents a fundamental tool in tracking progress towards protected area...
Cosme, Nuno Miguel Dias; Koski, Marja; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky
routes from primary (cell aggregates) and secondary producers (faecal pellets, carcasses, and active vertical transport). Carbon export production (PE) and ecosystems eXposure Factors (XF), which represents a nitrogen-to-oxygen 'conversion' potential, were estimated at a spatial resolution of 66 large......Emissions of nitrogen (N) from anthropogenic sources enrich marine waters and promote planktonic growth. This newly synthesised organic carbon is eventually exported to benthic waters where aerobic respiration by heterotrophic bacteria results in the consumption of dissolved oxygen (DO......). This pathway is typical of marine eutrophication. A model is proposed to mechanistically estimate the response of coastal marine ecosystems to N inputs. It addresses the biological processes of nutrient-limited primary production (PP), metazoan consumption, and bacterial degradation, in four distinct sinking...
Livingston, H.D.; Bowen, V.T.
Whether in lakes or the oceans the transuranic elements plutonium and americium are taken up by marine organisms, with concentration factors that would class them as nice, typical heavy metals. There is no evidence for strong, widespread discrimination against the transuranics by either plant or animal absorptive surfaces. In both freshwater and marine situations the major reservoir of Pu and Am soon becomes the sediments, and organisms are more exposed to uptake of these nuclides the closer is their ecological involvement with the sediments. Although there is little evidence that this can be an ionic strength effect, it does appear that Pu may be somewhat more available, biologically, in marine environments, and Am, conversely, in fresh water. We incline to the belief that details of these behaviors are usually controlled by local availability of organic complexers. No compelling evidence exists of increase in Pu concentration at higher levels of food chains; in marine situations this appears true of Am as well, but a few data suggest that in fresh water fish there is a progressive increase, in higher trophic levels, in the ratio Am to Pu. Although marine and fresh water biogeochemistries of transuranics are much more similar than we had expected, it will generally be dangerous to extrapolate from one to the other. In both systems there appears to us no question that we are observing real element biogeochemistry, not the redistribution of inert, labelled, fallout fragments
This report describes molecular techniques that could be invaluable in addressing process-oriented problems in the ocean sciences that have perplexed oceanographers for decades, such as understanding the basis for biogeochemical processes, recruitment processes, upper-ocean dynamics, biological impacts of global warming, and ecological impacts of human activities. The coupling of highly sophisticated methods, such as satellite remote sensing, which permits synoptic monitoring of chemical, physical, and biological parameters over large areas, with the power of modern molecular tools for ``ground truthing`` at small scales could allow scientists to address questions about marine organisms and the ocean in which they live that could not be answered previously. Clearly, the marine sciences are on the threshold of an exciting new frontier of scientific discovery and economic opportunity.
Sponges are the most primitive multicellular organisms belonging to Animalia kingdom. They lack symetry and do not have differentiated tissues or organs. However, as a consequence of this primitive organization it is very likely that sponges are the richest source of marine organisms for biological properties and pharmaceutical applications. Attached for life on their substrate and devoid of mecanical protection against predators sponges have elaborated a lot of sophisticated means of chemica...
Fang, Wan-Yin; Dahiya, Rajiv; Qin, Hua-Li; Mourya, Rita; Maharaj, Sandeep
Peptides have gained increased interest as therapeutics during recent years. More than 60 peptide drugs have reached the market for the benefit of patients and several hundreds of novel therapeutic peptides are in preclinical and clinical development. The key contributor to this success is the potent and specific, yet safe, mode of action of peptides. Among the wide range of biologically-active peptides, naturally-occurring marine-derived cyclopolypeptides exhibit a broad range of unusual and potent pharmacological activities. Because of their size and complexity, proline-rich cyclic peptides (PRCPs) occupy a crucial chemical space in drug discovery that may provide useful scaffolds for modulating more challenging biological targets, such as protein-protein interactions and allosteric binding sites. Diverse pharmacological activities of natural cyclic peptides from marine sponges, tunicates and cyanobacteria have encouraged efforts to develop cyclic peptides with well-known synthetic methods, including solid-phase and solution-phase techniques of peptide synthesis. The present review highlights the natural resources, unique structural features and the most relevant biological properties of proline-rich peptides of marine-origin, focusing on the potential therapeutic role that the PRCPs may play as a promising source of new peptide-based novel drugs.
Josep L. Pelegrí
Full Text Available The field of physical oceanography has undergone exponential growth in Spain during the last few decades. From a handful of self-taught researchers in the late 1960s there are now several hundred physical oceanographers distributed in some 20 Spanish institutions, and many more working overseas. The First Spanish Physical Oceanography Meeting (EOF1, held in Barcelona in October 2010, was a good example of the high quality and large variety of this research. The facilities and human resources are excellent but the alarming decrease in public investment in science due to the economic crisis must lead the Spanish physical oceanography community to define its current priorities. In this introductory paper to EOF1 we revise our history and where we are now, and suggest that progress in the near future will rely on our intelligence to sustain and enhance human capital, partnership and society-oriented research.
Science communication through the use of social media is a rapidly evolving and growing pursuit in academic and scientific circles. Online tools and social media are being used in not only scientific communication but also scientific publication, education, and outreach. Standards and usage of social media as well as other online tools for communication, networking, outreach, and publication are always in development. Caution and a conservative attitude towards these novel "Science 2.0" tools is understandable because of their rapidly changing nature and the lack of professional standards for using them. However there are some key benefits and unique ways social media, online systems, and other Open or Open Source technologies, software, and "Science 2.0" tools can be utilized for academic purposes such as education and outreach. Diverse efforts for ocean conservation and education will continue to utilize social media for a variety of purposes. The BioOceanography project is an informal communication, education, outreach, and conservation initiative created for enhancing knowledge related to Oceanography and Marine Science with an unbiased yet conservation-minded approach and in an Open Source format. The BioOceanography project is ongoing and still evolving, but has already contributed to ocean education and conservation communication in key ways through a concerted web presence since 2013, including a curated Twitter account @_Oceanography and BioOceanography blog style website. Social media tools like those used in this project, if used properly can be highly effective and valuable for encouraging students, networking with researchers, and educating the general public in Oceanography.
Matthias-Maser, Sabine; Brinkmann, Jutta; Schneider, Wilhelm
The marine atmosphere is characterized by particles which originate from the ocean and by those which reached the air by advection from the continent. The bubble-burst mechanism produces both sea salt as well as biological particles. The following article describes the determination of the size distribution of marine aerosol particles with special emphasis on the biological particles. Th data were obtained on three cruises with the German Research Vessel "METEOR" crossing the South Atlantic Ocean. The measurements showed that biological particles amount to 17% in number and 10% in volume concentration. Another type of particle became obvious in the marine atmosphere, the biologically contaminated particle, i.e. particles which consist partly (approximately up to one-third) of biological matter. Their concentration in the evaluated size class ( r>2 μm) is higher than the concentration of the pure biological particles. The concentrations vary over about one to two orders of magnitude during all cruises.
Hill, Martin; Galameau, Mike; Pang, Gerry; Konoske, Paula
... to treat victims of biochemical agents on the battlefield. This study reviewed Marine Corps medical supply blocks for biological and chemical warfare casualties - Authorized Medical Allowance Lists (AMALs) 687 and 688...
Wooster, W. S.
When I started graduate study at Scripps in 1947, both the text, "The Oceans", and the curriculum - all students took the introductory courses in physics, chemistry, biology, and geology - conspired to create awareness of the interactions among these fields. In their preface, the authors spoke of the book as "an aid to the beginner and specialist alike in the coordination of the various fields of oceanography." Harald Sverdrup, perhaps the best known physical oceanographer of his day, introduced us to the interdisciplinary organization, ICES, wrote an important paper (1953) on "the vernal blooming of phytoplankton", and together with fishery biologist O.E.Sette, launched the world renowned CalCOFI program. Another noted physical oceanographer, Henry Stommel, 1949, teamed up with biologist Gordon Riley in a major study of the quantitative ecology of plankton. At the time, physical and biological oceanographers often seemed to be engaged in the same mission. The curriculum format, with its four basic courses, spread to most other graduate programs in oceanography, but the forces of specialization also spread. While the biological oceanographers have always seen the need to understand the milieu within which their creatures function, the physicists often seemed to chafe against wasting their time on squishy subjects like biology when there were so many more important and fascinating things to study. Interactions were further complicated by the confusion between "biological oceanography" and "marine biology", and by the status of "fishery biology" which was often disdained by oceanographers of all stripes. I propose to discuss the evolution of the relationship among these fields during the 60 years since "The Oceans" was first published, concluding with the present marriage of convenience, or at least amicable co-habitation, forced by the widespread concern over the threat of global warming and the need to understand its consequences. It has become clear that
Reen, F Jerry; Gutiérrez-Barranquero, José A; Dobson, Alan D W; Adams, Claire; O'Gara, Fergal
The vast oceans of the world, which comprise a huge variety of unique ecosystems, are emerging as a rich and relatively untapped source of novel bioactive compounds with invaluable biotechnological and pharmaceutical potential. Evidence accumulated over the last decade has revealed that the diversity of marine microorganisms is enormous with many thousands of bacterial species detected that were previously unknown. Associated with this diversity is the production of diverse repertoires of bioactive compounds ranging from peptides and enzymes to more complex secondary metabolites that have significant bioactivity and thus the potential to be exploited for innovative biotechnology. Here we review the discovery and functional potential of marine bioactive peptides such as lantibiotics, nanoantibiotics and peptidomimetics, which have received particular attention in recent years in light of their broad spectrum of bioactivity. The significance of marine peptides in cell-to-cell communication and how this may be exploited in the discovery of novel bioactivity is also explored. Finally, with the recent advances in bioinformatics and synthetic biology, it is becoming clear that the integration of these disciplines with genetic and biochemical characterization of the novel marine peptides, offers the most potential in the development of the next generation of societal solutions.
Morison, J. H.; McPhee, M. G.; Curtin, T. B.; Paulson, C. A.
Leads in pack ice have long been considered important to the thermodynamics of the polar regions. A winter lead affects the ocean around it because it is a density source. As the surface freezes, salt is rejected and forms more dense water which sinks under the lead. This sets up a circulation with freshwater flowing in from the sides near the surface and dense water flowing away from the lead at the base of the mixed layer. If the mixed layer is fully turbulent, this pattern may not occur; rather, the salt rejected at the surface may simply mix into the surface boundary layer. In either event the instability produced at the surface of leads is the primary source of unstable buoyancy flux and, as such, exerts a strong influence on the mixed layer. Here as many as possible of the disparate and almost anecdotal observations of lead oceanography are assembled and combined with theoretical arguments to predict the form and scale of oceanographic disturbances caused by winter leads. The experimental data suggest the velocity disturbances associated with lead convection are about 1-5 cm s-1. These appear as jets near the surface and the base of the mixed layer when ice velocities across the lead are less than about 5 cm s-1. The salinity disturbances are about 0.01 to 0.05 psu. Scaling arguments suggest that the geostrophic currents set up by the lead density disturbances are also of the order of 1-5 cm s-1. The disturbances are most obvious when freezing is rapid and ice velocity is low because the salinity and velocity disturbances in the upper ocean are not smeared out by turbulence. In this vein, lead convection may be characterized at one extreme as free convection in which the density disturbance forces the circulation. At the other extreme, lead convection may be characterized as forced convection in which the density disturbance is mixed rapidly by boundary layer turbulence. The lead number Lo, which is the ratio of the pressure term to the turbulence term in the
Louis P. Sandjo
Full Text Available This review focuses on pyridoacridine-related metabolites as one biologically interesting group of alkaloids identified from marine sources. They are produced by marine sponges, ascidians and tunicates, and they are structurally comprised of four to eight fused rings including heterocycles. Acridine, acridone, dihydroacridine, and quinolone cores are features regularly found in these alkaloid skeletons. The lack of hydrogen atoms next to quaternary carbon atoms for two or three rings makes the chemical shift assignment a difficult task. In this regard, one of the aims of this review is the compilation of previously reported, pyridoacridine 13C NMR data. Observations have been made on the delocalization of electrons and the presence of some functional groups that lead to changes in the chemical shift of some carbon resonances. The lack of mass spectra information for these alkaloids due to the compactness of their structures is further discussed. Moreover, the biosynthetic pathways of some of these metabolites have been shown since they could inspire biomimetic synthesis. The synthesis routes used to prepare members of these marine alkaloids (as well as their analogues, which are synthesized for biological purposes are also discussed. Pyridoacridines were found to have a large spectrum of bioactivity and this review highlights and compares the pharmacophores that are responsible for the observed bioactivity.
Agersted, Mette Dalgaard
) and by production of fast sinking carbon-rich faecal pellets. Hence, the large schools of krill greatly influence the pelagic food web and the flux of organic matter in the sea. However, knowledge of the distribution and feeding biology in krill from northern areas is scarce, although of importance to get a better...... understanding of the marine ecosystems and food webs. This thesis aimed to gain more knowledge of krill in northern hemisphere and to study their trophic position and grazing impact in a sub-Arctic fjord. The project investigated i) species and population composition of krill in the area of Godthåbsfjord, SW...... assumed to be the main grazers in marine ecosystems. This suggests that krill could be and are - in the case of Godthåbsfjord - important grazers that deserve more attention in future monitoring and research programs...
Fukai, R.; Oregioni, B.
During the course of 1974-75 atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) has been used extensively in our laboratory for measuring various trace elements in marine biological materials in order to conduct homogeneity tests on the intercalibration samples for trace metal analysis as well as to obtain baseline data for trace elements in various kinds of marine organisms collected from different locations in the Mediterranean Sea. Several series of test experiments have been conducted on the current methodology in use in our laboratory to ensure satisfactory analytical performance in measuring a number of trace elements for which analytical problems have not completely been solved. Sensitivities of the techniques used were repeatedly checked for various elements and the accuracy of the analyses were always critically evaluated by analyzing standard reference materials. The results of these test experiments have uncovered critical points relevant to the application of the AAS to routine analysis
M.B., 2002. Understanding uncertain enviromental systems. In: Grasman, J., van Straten, G. (Eds.), Predictability and Nonlinear Modelling in Natural...Lekien, F., 2006. Quantifying uncertainities in ocean predictions. In: Paluszkiewicz, T., Harper, S. (Eds.), Oceanography, special issue on Advances in
Arthurs, L.; Marchitto, T.
Concept inventories are one type of assessment that can be used to evaluate whether a student has an accurate and working knowledge of a specific set of concepts. Although such assessment tools have been developed in astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, fluid mechanics, geology, and physics, none has been available. Our development of an Introductory Oceanography Concept Inventory Survey (IO-CIS) serves to fill this gap. Much of the development of the IO-CIS utilized students enrolled in the Spring 2008 Introduction to Oceanography course taught at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The first step in the development of IO-CIS involved the identification and selection of the critical concepts to be addressed in the course and the survey. Next, learning goals were defined for each critical concept. These learning goals then provided the basis for framing open-ended questions that were administered to students in pre-module in-class Concept Inventory Exercises (CIEs). These open-ended questions each underwent validation and revision with expert and novice input prior to being administered in a CIE. Each CIE comprised 4-5 open-ended questions, which each contained 1-4 parts. During the semester, 4 different CIEs were administered, with the number of respondents for each CIE ranging from 57-134. Student responses were then binned according to misconceptions and alternate conceptions, tallied, and "distractors" were written based on the most popular bins using the same language employed by students in their responses. Student responses were also used as part of the validation process to ensure that the questions were interpreted by students in the manner intended. Student responses were also used as a basis to discard particular questions from inclusion in the overall IO-CIS. After the initial IO-CIS questions and distractors had been designed as described above, 23 one-on-one student interviews were conducted as part of the validation process. As a result of
Kawashima, Tatsuro; Koda, Yoshio; Yamamoto, Toshio.
The losses of elements in marine biological samples during dry ashing were evaluated on 34 elements by neutron activation analysis. Following biological samples were employed: Eisenia bicyclis (phacophyceae), Sargassum tortile (phaeophyceae), Zostera marina (phanerogamae), small dried sardines (marine fish), and leaves of Crinum asiaticum (angiospermae). Before ashing, samples were freeze-crushed with liquid nitrogen. These samples were ashed at 100 0 C in low temperature plasma ashing and at 500 0 C in high temperature ashing. Both the dried and the ashed samples were irradiated simultaneously by thermal neutrons of a KUR reactor for activation analysis. Radioactivity measurements were carried out with a 63 cm 3 well type Ge(Li) detector and a Canberra-2048 channel pulse-height analyser over one year after the irradiation. Chlorine, arsenic, selenium, bromine, iodine, gold, and mercury were obviously lost during high temperature ashing. Low temperature plasma ashing was effective for reducing the losses of arsenic and selenium. Depending on the kind of biological samples, there were remarkable differences in losses of halogen elements. (author)
Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.
of poten tial fishery resources from the E x- clusive Economic Zone of India (EEZ) are about 3.5 to 4.7 mt (million tonnes) 1 ? 4 . The recent estimates on a n- nual marine landings from the I n dian coast show that they fluctuate between 2.2 and 2... given by the Central Marine Fis h eries Research Institute (CMFRI) 5 for the period 1985 ? 1993. General oceanography and the lower food c hain Based on the atmospheric forcing, the seasonality in the Arabian Sea could be clearly defined...
Hylland, Ketil; Robinson, Craig D; Burgeot, Thierry; Martínez-Gómez, Concepción; Lang, Thomas; Svavarsson, Jörundur; Thain, John E; Vethaak, A Dick; Gubbins, Mattew J
This paper reports a full assessment of results from ICON, an international workshop on marine integrated contaminant monitoring, encompassing different matrices (sediment, fish, mussels, gastropods), areas (Iceland, North Sea, Baltic, Wadden Sea, Seine estuary and the western Mediterranean) and endpoints (chemical analyses, biological effects). ICON has demonstrated the use of a framework for integrated contaminant assessment on European coastal and offshore areas. The assessment showed that chemical contamination did not always correspond with biological effects, indicating that both are required. The framework can be used to develop assessments for EU directives. If a 95% target were to be used as a regional indicator of MSFD GES, Iceland and offshore North Sea would achieve the target using the ICON dataset, but inshore North Sea, Baltic and Spanish Mediterranean regions would fail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fouillaud, Mireille; Venkatachalam, Mekala; Girard-Valenciennes, Emmanuelle; Caro, Yanis; Dufossé, Laurent
Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s) due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi's productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.
Full Text Available Anthraquinones and their derivatives constitute a large group of quinoid compounds with about 700 molecules described. They are widespread in fungi and their chemical diversity and biological activities recently attracted attention of industries in such fields as pharmaceuticals, clothes dyeing, and food colorants. Their positive and/or negative effect(s due to the 9,10-anthracenedione structure and its substituents are still not clearly understood and their potential roles or effects on human health are today strongly discussed among scientists. As marine microorganisms recently appeared as producers of an astonishing variety of structurally unique secondary metabolites, they may represent a promising resource for identifying new candidates for therapeutic drugs or daily additives. Within this review, we investigate the present knowledge about the anthraquinones and derivatives listed to date from marine-derived filamentous fungi′s productions. This overview highlights the molecules which have been identified in microorganisms for the first time. The structures and colors of the anthraquinoid compounds come along with the known roles of some molecules in the life of the organisms. Some specific biological activities are also described. This may help to open doors towards innovative natural substances.
A. C. Granato
Full Text Available The present work describes the study of the growth and the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of the extracts of the marine microorganisms Streptomyces acrymicini and Streptomyces cebimarensis, the latter a new strain. Both microorganisms were collected from coastal marine sediments of the north coast of São Paulo state. Growth was performed in a shaker and in a bioreactor using Gym medium and the broths of both microorganisms were extracted with ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Three extracts, two organic and one aqueous, from each microorganism were obtained and tested for cytotoxic and antitumor activity using the SF-295 (Central Nervous System, HCT-8 (Colon cell lines, and the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The growth methods were compared and show that, although the shaker presented reasonable results, the bioreactor represents the best choice for growth of these microorganisms. The biological activity of the different extracts was evaluated and it was demonstrated that the growth methodology may influence the secondary metabolite production and the biological activity.
Timi, Juan T
The use of parasites as biological tags in population studies of marine fish in the south-western Atlantic has proved to be a successful tool for discriminating stocks for all species to which it has been applied, namely: Scomber japonicus, Engraulis anchoita, Merluccius hubbsi and Cynoscion guatucupa, the latter studied on a broader geographic scale, including samples from Uruguayan and Brazilian waters. The distribution patterns of marine parasites are determined mainly by temperature-salinity profiles and by their association with specific masses of water. Analyses of distribution patterns of some parasite species in relation to gradients in environmental (oceanographic) conditions showed that latitudinal gradients in parasite distribution are common in the study area, and are probably directly related to water temperature. Indeed, temperature, which is a good predictor of latitudinal gradients of richness and diversity of species, shows a latitudinal pattern in south-western Atlantic coasts, decreasing southwards, due to the influence of subtropical and subantarctic marine currents flowing along the edge of the continental slope. This pattern also determines the distribution of zooplankton, with a characteristic specific composition in different water masses. The gradient in the distribution of parasites determines differential compositions of their communities at different latitudes, which makes possible the identification of different stocks of their fish hosts. Other features of the host-parasite systems contributing to the success of the parasitological method are: (1) parasites identified as good biological tags (i.e. anisakids) are widely distributed in the local fauna; (2) many of these species show low specificity and use paratenic hosts; and (3) the structure of parasite communities are, to a certain degree, predictable in time and space.
Tel, Elena; Balbin, Rosa; Cabanas, Jose-Manuel; Garcia, Maria-Jesus; Garcia-Martinez, M. Carmen; Gonzalez-Pola, Cesar; Lavin, Alicia; Lopez-Jurado, Jose-Luis; Rodriguez, Carmen; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; Sánchez-Leal, Ricardo F.; Vargas-Yáñez, Manuel; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro
Since its foundation, 100 years ago, the Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) has been observing and measuring the ocean characteristics. Here is a summary of the initiatives of the IEO in the field of the operational oceanography. Some systems like the tide gauges network has been working for more than 70 years. The standard sections began at different moments depending on the local projects, and nowadays there are more than 180 coastal stations and deep-sea ones that are systematically sampled, obtaining physical and biochemical measurements. At this moment, the Observing System includes six permanent moorings equipped with current meters, an open-sea ocean-meteorological buoy offshore Santander and a sea-surface temperature satellite image station. It also supports the Spanish contribution to the Argo international programme with 47 deployed profilers, and continuous monitoring thermosalinometers, meteorological stations and vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers on the research vessel fleet. The system is completed with the contribution to the Northwest Iberian peninsula and Gibraltar observatories, and the development of regional prediction models. All these systematic measurements allow the IEO to give responses to ocean research activities, official agencies requirements and industrial and main society demands such as navigation, resource management, risks management, recreation, as well as for management development pollution-related economic activities or marine ecosystems. All these networks are linked to international initiatives, framed largely in supranational programmes of Earth observation sponsored by the United Nations or the European Union. The synchronic observation system permits a spatio-temporal description of some events, such as new deep water formation in the Mediterranean Sea and the injection of heat to intermediate waters in the Bay of Biscay after some colder northern storms in winter 2005.
Full Text Available One of the most important natural aerosol systems at the global level is marine aerosol that comprises both organic and inorganic components of primary and secondary origin. The present paper reviews some new results on primary and secondary organic marine aerosol, achieved during the EU project MAP (Marine Aerosol Production, comparing them with those reported in the recent literature. Marine aerosol samples collected at the coastal site of Mace Head, Ireland, show a chemical composition trend that is influenced by the oceanic biological activity cycle, in agreement with other observations. Laboratory experiments show that sea-spray aerosol from biologically active sea water can be highly enriched in organics, and the authors highlight the need for further studies on the atmospheric fate of such primary organics. With regard to the secondary fraction of organic aerosol, the average chemical composition and molecular tracer (methanesulfonic-acid, amines distribution could be successfully characterized by adopting a multitechnique analytical approach.
Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.
StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.
Peral, Eva; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Fernandez, Daniel Esteban; Johnson, Michael P.; Blumstein, Denis
The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission would demonstrate a new measurement technique using radar interferometry to obtain wide-swath measurements of water elevation at high resolution over ocean and land, addressing the needs of both the hydrology and oceanography science communities. To accurately evaluate the performance of the proposed SWOT mission, we have developed several data product simulators at different levels of fidelity and complexity.
Harvey, Ben P; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J
Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible. PMID:23610641
. Heavy metals Editorial Guest The special issue of Environment International has come up with selected papers presented in the International workshop on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology held at the National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa..., India during 25– 26 February 2004. The theme of the special issue is bMarine Pollution and EcotoxicologyQ. The International workshop was organized in honour of a distinguished scientist, Dr. S.N. De Souza, Deputy Director who superannuated on 29...
Full Text Available Diatoms constitute a major group of phytoplankton, accounting for ~20% of the world's primary production. It has been shown that iron (Fe can be the limiting factor for phytoplankton growth, in particular, in the HNLC (High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll regions. Iron plays thus an essential role in governing the marine primary productivity and the efficiency of biological carbon pump. Oceanic systems are undergoing continuous modifications at varying rates and magnitudes as a result of changing climate. The objective of our research is to evaluate how changing environmental conditions (dust deposition, ocean warming and acidification can affect marine Fe biogeochemistry and diatom growth. Laboratory culture experiments using a marine diatom Chaetoceros socialis were conducted at two temperatures (13°C and 18°C and under two pCO2 (carbon dioxide partial pressure (400 μatm and 800 μatm conditions. The present study clearly highlights the effect of ocean acidification on enhancing the release of Fe upon dust deposition. Our results also confirm that being a potential source of Fe, dust provides in addition a readily utilizable source of macronutrients such as dissolved phosphate (PO4 and silicate (DSi. However, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations may also have an adverse impact on diatom growth, causing a decrease in cell size and possible further changes in phytoplankton composition. Meanwhile, ocean warming may lead to the reduction of diatom production and cell size, inducing poleward shifts in the biogeographic distribution of diatoms. The changing climate has thus a significant implication for ocean phytoplankton growth, cell size and primary productivity, phytoplankton distribution and community composition, and carbon (C, nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, silicon (Si and Fe biogeochemical cycles in various ways.
Li, Xuefeng; Roevros, Nathalie; Dehairs, Frank; Chou, Lei
Diatoms constitute a major group of phytoplankton, accounting for ~20% of the world's primary production. It has been shown that iron (Fe) can be the limiting factor for phytoplankton growth, in particular, in the HNLC (High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll) regions. Iron plays thus an essential role in governing the marine primary productivity and the efficiency of biological carbon pump. Oceanic systems are undergoing continuous modifications at varying rates and magnitudes as a result of changing climate. The objective of our research is to evaluate how changing environmental conditions (dust deposition, ocean warming and acidification) can affect marine Fe biogeochemistry and diatom growth. Laboratory culture experiments using a marine diatom Chaetoceros socialis were conducted at two temperatures (13°C and 18°C) and under two pCO2 (carbon dioxide partial pressure) (400 μatm and 800 μatm) conditions. The present study clearly highlights the effect of ocean acidification on enhancing the release of Fe upon dust deposition. Our results also confirm that being a potential source of Fe, dust provides in addition a readily utilizable source of macronutrients such as dissolved phosphate (PO4) and silicate (DSi). However, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations may also have an adverse impact on diatom growth, causing a decrease in cell size and possible further changes in phytoplankton composition. Meanwhile, ocean warming may lead to the reduction of diatom production and cell size, inducing poleward shifts in the biogeographic distribution of diatoms. The changing climate has thus a significant implication for ocean phytoplankton growth, cell size and primary productivity, phytoplankton distribution and community composition, and carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), silicon (Si) and Fe biogeochemical cycles in various ways.
Mark A. Moline
Full Text Available The ocean environment and the physical and biological processes that govern dynamics are complex. Sampling the ocean to better understand these processes is difficult given the temporal and spatial domains and sampling tools available. Biological systems are especially difficult as organisms possess behavior, operate at horizontal scales smaller than traditional shipboard sampling allows, and are often disturbed by the sampling platforms themselves. Sensors that measure biological processes have also generally not kept pace with the development of physical counterparts as their requirements are as complex as the target organisms. Here, we attempt to address this challenge by advocating the need for sensor-platform combinations to integrate and process data in real-time and develop data products that are useful in increasing sampling efficiencies. Too often, the data of interest is only garnered after post-processing after a sampling effort and the opportunity to use that information to guide sampling is lost. Here we demonstrate a new autonomous platform, where data are collected, analyzed, and data products are output in real-time to inform autonomous decision-making. This integrated capability allows for enhanced and informed sampling towards improving our understanding of the marine environment.
The phylum Mollusca represents an enormous diversity of species with eight distinct classes. This review provides a taxonomic breakdown of the published research on marine molluscan natural products and the medicinal products currently derived from molluscs, in order to identify priority targets and strategies for future research. Some marine gastropods and bivalves have been of great interest to natural products chemists, yielding a diversity of chemical classes and several drug leads currently in clinical trials. Molluscs also feature prominently in a broad range of traditional natural medicines, although the active ingredients in the taxa involved are typically unknown. Overall secondary metabolites have only been investigated from a tiny proportion (molluscs. Conversely, most molluscan medicines are derived from shelled gastropods and bivalves. The complete disregard for several minor classes of molluscs is unjustified based on their evolutionary history and unique life styles, which may have led to novel pathways for secondary metabolism. The Polyplacophora, in particular, have been identified as worthy of future investigation given their use in traditional South African medicines and their abundance in littoral ecosystems. As bioactive compounds are not always constitutively expressed in molluscs, future research should be targeted towards biosynthetic organs and inducible defence reactions for specific medicinal applications. Given the lack of an acquired immune system, the use of bioactive secondary metabolites is likely to be ubiquitous throughout the Mollusca and broadening the search field may uncover interesting novel chemistry. © 2010 The Author. Biological Reviews © 2010 Cambridge Philosophical Society.
Arias Pullaguari, Ines Yolanda
The objective of this study was to establish the biological effects on occupational workers. In this study, have made a bibliographic review of the changes on skin of 217 professionals; between 21 and 70 years radiologists, X-ray technicians, radioisotope workers, nurses and others, which were exposed to ionizing radiation, in the departments of Diagnosis and Treatment of the Hospital Carlos Andrade Marin of the Quito city. From this universe 133 workers were excluded of the analysis. From the totality of lesions produced on the skin; the depilation constituted 40.18%, hyper pigmentation 19.34%, hypo pigmentation 9 %, capillary fragility 13.39%, erythema 13.39%, alopecia 5.37%. From the totality of lesions produced in blood: the leukopenia constituted 20.23% between all workers. The percentage method was used for statical calculation. A bibliographic update is done and the most relevant clinical aspects are reviewed. (The author)
Govers, L.; Man in 't Veld, W.A.; Meffert, J.P.; Bouma, T.J.; van Rijswick, P.C.; Heusinkveld, J.H.T.; Orth, R.J.; van Katwijk, M.M.; van der Heide, T.
Phytophthora species are potent pathogens that can devastate terrestrial plants, causing billions of dollars of damage yearly to agricultural crops and harming fragile ecosystems worldwide. Yet, virtually nothing is known about the distribution and pathogenicity of their marine relatives.
Full Text Available Heterotrophic dinoflagellates are prevalent protists in marine environments, which play an important role in the carbon cycling and energy flow in the marine planktonic community. Oxyrrhis marina (Dinophyceae, a widespread heterotrophic dinoflagellate, is a model species used for a broad range of ecological, biogeographic, and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing research effort on this species, there lacks a synthesis of the existing data and a coherent picture of this organism. Here we reviewed the literature to provide an overview of what is known regarding the biology of O. marina, and identify areas where further studies are needed. As an early branch of the dinoflagellate lineage, O. marina shares similarity with typical dinoflagellates in permanent condensed chromosomes, less abundant nucleosome proteins compared to other eukaryotes, multiple gene copies, the occurrence of trans-splicing in nucleus-encoded mRNAs, highly fragmented mitochondrial genome, and disuse of ATG as a start codon for mitochondrial genes. On the other hand, O. marina also exhibits some distinct cytological features (e.g., different flagellar structure, absence of girdle and sulcus or pustules, use of intranuclear spindle in mitosis, presence of nuclear plaque, and absence of birefringent periodic banded chromosomal structure and genetic features (e.g., a single histone-like DNA-associated protein, cob-cox3 gene fusion, 5′ oligo-U cap in the mitochondrial transcripts of protein-coding genes, the absence of mRNA editing, the presence of stop codon in the fused cob-cox3 mRNA produced by post-transcriptional oligoadenylation, and vestigial plastid genes. The best-studied biology of this dinoflagellate is probably the prey and predators types, which include a wide range of organisms. On the other hand, the abundance of this species in the natural waters and its controlling factors, genome organization and gene expression regulation that underlie the unusual
Abd El-Hady, Faten K; Fayad, Walid; Iodice, Carmine; El-Shahid, Zeinab A; Abdel-Aziz, Mohamed S; Crudele, Egle; Tommonaro, Giuseppina
Marine organisms have been considered as the richest sources of novel bioactive metabolites, which can be used for pharmaceutical purposes. In the last years, the interest for marine microorganisms has grown for their enormous biodiversity and for the evidence that many novel compounds isolated from marine invertebrates are really synthesized by their associated bacteria. Nevertheless, the discovery of a chemical communication Quorum sensing (QS) between bacterial cells and between bacteria and host has gained the researchers to expand the aim of their study toward the role of bacteria associated with marine invertebrates, such as marine sponge. In the present paper, we report the evaluation of biological activities of different extracts of bacteria Vibrio sp. and Bacillus sp. associated with marine sponges Dysidea avara and Ircinia variabilis, respectively. Moreover, we evaluated the biological activities of some diketopiperazines (DKPs), previously isolated, and able to activate QS mechanism. The results showed that all extracts, fractions, and DKPs showed low scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion, low cytotoxic and anti-tyrosinase activities, but no antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. One DKP [cyclo-(trans-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-L-leucine)] has the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity even than the standard acarbose.
Babica, Pavel (ed.); Capelli, C. (ed.); Drobac, D. (ed.); Gkelis, S. (ed.)
Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), s. 1-178 ISSN 1947-573X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : cyanobacteria l water blooms * cyanobacteria l water blooms * cyanobacteria Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Marine biology, freshwater biology, limnology http://pagepressjournals.org/index.php/aiol/issue/view/460
Bloch, Jean-François; Tardieu-Guigues, Elisabeth
The sea will be a source of economic development in the next years. Today the research works in marine biotechnologies supply new products and processes. The introduction in the laboratories of a new technology, synthesis biology, is going to increase the possibilities of creation of new products. Exploitation of product stemming from marine biodiversity has to be made with regard to various rights among which industrial property law, maritime law and the Convention on BioDiversity. All participants involved in the promotion of research in marine biotechnology must address the fair and equitable sharing of any commercial exploitation. Carrying out work involving synthetic biology has increased the number of unanswered questions about how operators should manage in order to avoid any threat of being sued for infringements of IP rights or for alleged bio-piracy. This paper, by no means exhaustive in the field, analyzes some of the issues raised on the modification to the landscape in marine biotechnology by the advent of synthetic biology. Such issues indicate how important the collaboration between researchers, industrialists, lawyers is for allowing proper use of marine biotech. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Marine biological valuation provides a comprehensive concept for assessing the intrinsic value of subzones within a study area. This paper gives an update on the concept of marine biological valuation as described by Derous et al. (2007. This concept was based on a literature review of existing ecological valuation criteria and the consensus reached by a discussion group of experts during an international workshop in December 2004. The concept was discussed during an ENCORA-MARBEF workshop in December 2006, which resulted in the fine-tuning of the concept of marine biological valuation, especially with respect to its applicability to marine areas.
Originally designed for the gifted student, these reproducible marine biology units emphasize the use of higher order thinking skills and are appropriate for use in any classroom. Interdisciplinary in content, the units provide a broad view of marine biology. Included are two complete units, one created for the upper elementary gifted student and…
Based on the assumption that most students have a natural curiosity about the plant and animal life residing in the oceans, this document provides students in grades five through eight with activities in marine biology. The book provides illustrated information and learning activities dealing with: (1) diatoms; (2) the life cycle of the jellyfish;…
Atalla, M. M.
Full Text Available In a screening of fungal isolates associated with marine algae collected from Abou-keer, Alexanderia during the four seasons of 2004, to obtain new biologically active compounds. Varicosporina ramulosa isolate was identified and selected as a producer of 13 compounds. Out of 13 pure compounds produced, compounds 3 and 10 were considered as antibacterial and antifungal compounds, respectively as they were active against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and a fungus. Optimization of conditions (fermentation media, incubation period, temperature, initial pH, aeration levels which activate compounds 3 and 10 production were studied. Also the spectral properties (UV, MS, GC/MS, IR and 1H-NMR of the purified compounds were determined. Compound 3 suggested to be dibutyl phthalate and compound 10 may be ergosterol or one of its isomers. Biological evaluation of the two compounds towards 6 different types of tumor cell lines showed weak effect of compound 3 at different concentrations on the viable cell count of the different tumor cell lines. While compound 10 showed different activities against the viable cell count of the 6 different tumor cell lines. It kills 50% of the viable infected liver and lung cells at concentrations equal to 99.7 µg/mL, 74.9µg/mL, respectively. Compound 10 can be recommended as new anticancer compounds.
Gomes, Iracema David; Araújo, Francisco Gerson
Marine catfish are abundant in the Sepetiba Bay, a 305 km2 area in Southeast Brazilian coast (Lat. 22 degrees 54' - 23 degrees 04' S: Long. 43 degrees 44' - 44 degrees 10' W), but the knowledge on their biology is still scanty. The reproductive biology of Sciadeichthys luniscutis (Valenciennes 1840) and Genidens genidens (Valenciennes 1839) was studied through monthly sampling, from October 1998 to September 1999. Fishes were caught with a standardized otter trawl, in the interior of Sepetiba Bay, and near to the confluence with a major freshwater contributor. Six gonadal stages were described, based on macroscopic observations of gonad form, size, weight, color and oocyte diameter, and microscopic observations of differences in size and staining in the nucleus and cytoplasm structures, as viewed through a light microscope. Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) and in stages of gonadal development showed what S. luniscutis spawned in Spring, while G. genidens spawned in Summer. Total spawning was shown for both species as indicated by high concentration of post-ovulatory follicles in spent stages. Fecundity was low (14-38 vitellogenic oocytes for S. luniscutis and 6-24 for G. genidens). when compared with other teleosts. Low fecundity and separation in spawning period suggest that both species are k-strategist, able to avoid interspecific competition in early stages of life cycle to optimize the use of the available niche.
Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui
Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786
Full Text Available Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta, marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.
Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui
Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.
Full Text Available The Biological CO2 assimilation process using marine phytoplankton and marine bivalve was evaluated by carbon assimilation of the green mussel Perna viridis fed with Tetraselmis suecica under laboratory condition. Incorporation of carbon dioxide into phytoplankton biomass was performed through aeration. The experiment consisted of three treatments i.e. mussels without feeding (Control, mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with air (Treatment 1: T-Air, and mussels fed with T. suecica cultured with 1.5% CO2 in air (Treatment 2: T-CO2. The results showed that growth of mussels in T-Air and T-CO2 was 22.4 ± 4.0 mg/individual/day and 28.9 ± 12.3 mg/individual/day, respectively, which was significantly higher than control (mussels without feeding. Growth of mussels in T-Air was significantly lower than in T-CO2. Carbon content in shell (15.59 ± 0.57 % D.W. and meat (38.28 ± 1.72 % D.W. of mussels fed with aerated T. suecica (T-Air was significantly higher than that found in mussels fed with 1.5% CO2 T. suecica (14.2 ± 0.47 and 36.61± 0.43 % D.W. in shell and in meat, respectively (p≤0.05. With T-Air, 1.95±0.27 and 9.36±1.24% of carbon from T. suecica cells was assimilated into shell and meat of the mussel, respectively, while in T-CO2 , carbon assimilation from T. suecica cells in shell and meat was 2.19±0.55 and 11.22±2.76% respectively.
Le Traon, P. Y.
The launch of the French/US mission Topex/Poseidon (T/P) (CNES/NASA) in August 1992 was the start of a revolution in oceanography. For the first time, a very precise altimeter system optimized for large-scale sea level and ocean circulation observations was flying. T/P alone could not observe the mesoscale circulation. In the 1990s, the ESA satellites ERS-1/2 were flying simultaneously with T/P. Together with my CLS colleagues, we demonstrated that we could use T/P as a reference mission for ERS-1/2 and bring the ERS-1/2 data to an accuracy level comparable to T/P. Near-real-time high-resolution global sea level anomaly maps were then derived. These maps have been operationally produced as part of the SSALTO/DUACS system for the last 15 yr. They are now widely used by the oceanographic community and have contributed to a much better understanding and recognition of the role and importance of mesoscale dynamics. Altimetry needs to be complemented with global in situ observations. At the end of the 90s, a major international initiative was launched to develop Argo, the global array of profiling floats. This has been an outstanding success. Argo floats now provide the most important in situ observations to monitor and understand the role of the ocean on the earth climate and for operational oceanography. This is a second revolution in oceanography. The unique capability of satellite altimetry to observe the global ocean in near-real-time at high resolution and the development of Argo were essential for the development of global operational oceanography, the third revolution in oceanography. The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) was instrumental in the development of the required capabilities. This paper provides an historical perspective on the development of these three revolutions in oceanography which are very much interlinked. This is not an exhaustive review and I will mainly focus on the contributions we made together with many colleagues and
Meyer, K M; Ridgwell, A; Payne, J L
The net export of organic matter from the surface ocean and its respiration at depth create vertical gradients in nutrient and oxygen availability that play a primary role in structuring marine ecosystems. Changes in the properties of this 'biological pump' have been hypothesized to account for important shifts in marine ecosystem structure, including the Cambrian explosion. However, the influence of variation in the behavior of the biological pump on ocean biogeochemistry remains poorly quantified, preventing any detailed exploration of how changes in the biological pump over geological time may have shaped long-term shifts in ocean chemistry, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem structure. Here, we use a 3-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantitatively explore the effects of the biological pump on marine chemistry. We find that when respiration of sinking organic matter is efficient, due to slower sinking or higher respiration rates, anoxia tends to be more prevalent and to occur in shallower waters. Consequently, the Phanerozoic trend toward less bottom-water anoxia in continental shelf settings can potentially be explained by a change in the spatial dynamics of nutrient cycling rather than by any change in the ocean phosphate inventory. The model results further suggest that the Phanerozoic decline in the prevalence ocean anoxia is, in part, a consequence of the evolution of larger phytoplankton, many of which produce mineralized tests. We hypothesize that the Phanerozoic trend toward greater animal abundance and metabolic demand was driven more by increased oxygen concentrations in shelf environments than by greater food (nutrient) availability. In fact, a lower-than-modern ocean phosphate inventory in our closed system model is unable to account for the Paleozoic prevalence of bottom-water anoxia. Overall, these model simulations suggest that the changing spatial distribution of photosynthesis and respiration in the oceans has
Sato, Masaaki; Honda, Kentaro; Uy, Wilfredo H; Baslot, Darwin I; Genovia, Tom G; Nakamura, Yohei; Bernardo, Lawrence Patrick C; Kurokochi, Hiroyuki; Pantallano, Allyn Duvin S; Lian, Chunlan; Nadaoka, Kazuo; Nakaoka, Masahiro
The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) can often lead to environmental differences between MPAs and fishing zones. To determine the effects on marine dispersal of environmental dissimilarity between an MPA and fishing zone, we examined the abundance and recruitment patterns of two anemonefishes ( Amphiprion frenatus and A. perideraion ) that inhabit sea anemones in different management zones (i.e., an MPA and two fishing zones) by performing a field survey and a genetic parentage analysis. We found lower levels of abundance per anemone in the MPA compared to the fishing zones for both species ( n = 1,525 anemones, p = .032). The parentage analysis also showed that lower numbers of fishes were recruited from the fishing zones and outside of the study area into each anemone in the MPA than into each anemone in the fishing zones ( n = 1,525 anemones, p fishing zones ( n = 384 females, p = .516). Because the ocean currents around the study site were unlikely to cause a lower settlement intensity of larvae in the MPA, the ocean circulation was not considered crucial to the observed abundance and recruitment patterns. Instead, stronger top-down control and/or a lower density of host anemones in the MPA were potential factors for such patterns. Our results highlight the importance of dissimilarity in a marine environment as a factor that affects connectivity.
Full Text Available Despite the importance of nitrous oxide (N2O in the global radiative balance and atmospheric ozone chemistry, its sources and sinks within the Earth's system are still poorly understood. In the ocean, N2O is produced by microbiological processes such as nitrification and partial denitrification, which account for about a third of global emissions. Conversely, complete denitrification (the dissimilative reduction of N2O to N2 under suboxic/anoxic conditions is the only known pathway accountable for N2O consumption in the ocean. In this work, it is demonstrated that the biological assimilation of N2O could be a significant pathway capable of directly transforming this gas into particulate organic nitrogen (PON. N2O is shown to be biologically fixed within the subtropical and tropical waters of the eastern South Pacific Ocean, under a wide range of oceanographic conditions and at rates ranging from 2 pmol N L(-1 d(- to 14.8 nmol N L(-1 d(-1 (mean ± SE of 0.522 ± 1.06 nmol N L(-1 d(-1, n = 93. Additional assays revealed that cultured cyanobacterial strains of Trichodesmium (H-9 and IMS 101, and Crocosphaera (W-8501 have the capacity to directly fix N2O under laboratory conditions; suggesting that marine photoautotrophic diazotrophs could be using N2O as a substrate. This metabolic capacity however was absent in Synechococcus (RCC 1029. The findings presented here indicate that assimilative N2O fixation takes place under extreme environmental conditions (i.e., light, nutrient, oxygen where both autotrophic (including cyanobacteria and heterotrophic microbes appear to be involved. This process could provide a globally significant sink for atmospheric N2O which in turn affects the oceanic N2O inventory and may also represent a yet unexplored global oceanic source of fixed N.
An Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev has been carried out for the marine biology and sea bottom in the area, and includes vegetation and benthic fauna. The study forms part of a total EIA of the planned offshore wind farm. This EIA study has been drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication, 'Guidelines for preparation of EIAstudies for offshore wind farms. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. The area designated for the wind farm lies directly south of Horns Rev and is dominated by sand with a median particle size of 0.3 mm. Along the edges, towards areas of greater depth, the particle size increases. There are areas of fine sand in the deepest area, and in isolated pockets within the proposed wind farm site. The sediment is characterised by a very low (<1%) organic matter content. On the basis of the expected impact from the establishment of the wind farm, it is not deemed necessary to carry out special programmes during the construction phase for monitoring of the environmental-biological conditions. A monitoring and control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the copper concentration in bivalves, or alternatively to initiate recovery or elimination of the copper-laden waste. A control programme is recommended during the production phase in order to follow the establishment and succession of the fouling community on the wind turbine foundations and scour-protecting revetments. (BA)
Hu, J F; Peng, P A; Liu, M Y; Xi, D P; Song, J Z; Wan, X Q; Wang, C S
Many large paleo-lakes in North China were formed after the Triassic Era. Seawater incursion events (SWIEs) in these lakes have been extensively discussed in the literature, yet lack reliable methodology and solid evidence, which are essential for reconstructing and confirming SWIEs. The present study employs specific marine biological markers (24-n-propyl and 24-isopropyl cholestanes) to trace SWIEs in a dated core taken from the Songliao Basin (SLB). Two SWIEs were identified. The first SWIE from 91.37 to 89.00 Ma, was continuous and variable but not strong, while the second SWIE from 84.72 to 83.72 Ma was episodic and strong. SWIEs caused high total organic carbon (TOC) and negative δ(13)Corg values in the sediments, which were interpreted as an indication of high productivity in the lake, due to the enhancement of nutrient supplies as well as high levels of aqueous CO2, due to the mixing of alkaline seawater and acidic lake water. The SWIEs in SLB were controlled by regional tectonic activity and eustatic variation. Movement direction changes of the Izanagi/Kula Plate in 90 Ma and 84 Ma created faults and triggered SWIEs. A high sea level, from 90 to 84 Ma, also facilitated the occurrence of SWIEs in SLB.
Alessandra Mirtes Marques Neves Gonçalves
Full Text Available Cancer continues to be one of the most important health problems worldwide, and the identification of novel drugs and treatments to address this disease is urgent. During recent years, marine organisms have proven to be a promising source of new compounds with action against tumoral cell lines. Here, we describe the synthesis and anticancer activity of eight new 3-alkylpyridine alkaloid (3-APA analogs in four steps and with good yields. The key step for the synthesis of these compounds is a Williamson etherification under phase-transfer conditions. We investigated the influence of the length of the alkyl chain attached to position 3 of the pyridine ring on the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Biological assays demonstrated that compounds with an alkyl chain of ten carbon atoms (4c and 5c were the most active against two tumoral cell lines: RKO-AS-45-1 and HeLa. Micronucleus and TUNEL assays showed that both compounds are mutagenic and induce apoptosis. In addition, Compound 5c altered the cellular actin cytoskeleton in RKO-AS-45-1 cells. The results suggest that Compounds 4c and 5c may be novel prototype anticancer agents.
Full Text Available In the last two decades, large scale axenic cell cultures of the marine species comprising the family Euplotidae have resulted in the isolation of several new classes of terpenoids with unprecedented carbon skeletons including the (i euplotins, highly strained acetylated sesquiterpene hemiacetals; (ii raikovenals, built on the bicyclo[3.2.0]heptane ring system; (iii rarisetenolides and focardins containing an octahydroazulene moiety; and (iv vannusals, with a unique C30 backbone. Their complex structures have been elucidated through a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemical calculations. Despite the limited number of biosynthetic experiments having been performed, the large diversity of ciliate terpenoids has facilitated the proposal of biosynthetic pathways whereby they are produced from classical linear precursors. Herein, the similarities and differences emerging from the comparison of the classical chemotaxonomy approach based on secondary metabolites, with species phylogenesis based on genetic descriptors (SSU-rDNA, will be discussed. Results on the interesting ecological and biological properties of ciliate terpenoids are also reported.
An overview of interactions among oceanography, marine ecosystems, climatic and human disruptions along the eastern margins of the Pacific Ocean Una visión general de las interacciones entre la oceanografía, los ecosistemas marinos y las disrupciones climáticas y antrópicas en los márgenes este del Océano Pacífico
PATRICIA M. HALPIN
Full Text Available Physical processes, biotic processes and human activities all act to shape marine ecosystems. Future management of these valuable ecosystems requires an integrative approach that takes into account complicated organismal interactions, oceanographic processes that span large scales of time and space, and how anthropogenic effects interact with the natural environment. The temperate west coasts of North and South America represent a unique opportunity for comparison, as many of the same oceanographic processes, particularly upwelling, occur off both coasts. Additionally, a number of marine ecosystems in both areas have surprising parallels. Here we present an overview of the oceanographic processes that dominate the coastlines, and give examples of ecosystems and the effects that oceanography, human activities and their interaction have on the communitiesLos procesos físicos y biológicos y las actividades humanas determinan los ecosistemas marinos. El manejo futuro de estos valiosos ecosistemas requiere de una aproximación integrativa que considere las complejas interacciones entre individuos, los procesos oceanográficos que se desarrollan a gran escala espacial y temporal, y la interacción de los efectos antropogénicos con el medio ambiente. Las costas templadas del oeste de Norteamérica y Sudamérica representan una oportunidad única para efectuar comparaciones ya que muchos procesos oceanográficos, particularmente la surgencia costera, ocurren en ambas costas. Adicionalmente, numerosos ecosistemas marinos en ambas áreas presentan sorprendentes paralelos. La presente revisión ofrece una visión general de los procesos oceanográficos dominantes en ambas costas y ofrece ejemplos de ecosistemas y los efectos que la oceanografía, las actividades humanas y las interacciones entre individuos tienen sobre las comunidades marinas
Vance, Tiffany C; Doel, Ronald E
In the last quarter of the twentieth century, an innovative three-dimensional graphical technique was introduced into biological oceanography and ecology, where it spread rapidly. Used to improve scientists' understanding of the importance of scale within oceanic ecosystems, this influential diagram addressed biological scales from phytoplankton to fish, physical scales from diurnal tides to ocean currents, and temporal scales from hours to ice ages. Yet the Stommel Diagram (named for physical oceanographer Henry Stommel, who created it in 1963) had not been devised to aid ecological investigations. Rather, Stommel intended it to help plan large-scale research programs in physical oceanography, particularly as Cold War research funding enabled a dramatic expansion of physical oceanography in the 1960s. Marine ecologists utilized the Stommel Diagram to enhance research on biological production in ocean environments, a key concern by the 1970s amid growing alarm about overfishing and ocean pollution. Before the end of the twentieth century, the diagram had become a significant tool within the discipline of ecology. Tracing the path that Stommel's graphical techniques traveled from the physical to the biological environmental sciences reveals a great deal about practices in these distinct research communities and their relative professional and institutional standings in the Cold War era. Crucial to appreciating the course of that path is an understanding of the divergent intellectual and social contexts of the physical versus the biological environmental sciences.
Dong, Mingmei; Xu, Shanshan; Miao, Qingsheng; Yue, Xinyang; Lu, Jiawei; Yang, Yang
Operational oceanography requires the quantity, quality, and availability of data set and the timeliness and effectiveness of data products. Without steady and strong operational system supporting, operational oceanography will never be proceeded far. In this paper we describe an integrated platform named Argo Workstation. It operates as a data processing and management system, capable of data collection, automatic data quality control, visualized data check, statistical data search and data service. After it is set up, Argo workstation provides global high quality Argo data to users every day timely and effectively. It has not only played a key role in operational oceanography but also set up an example for operational system.
The African (formerly South African) Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the publication of original scientific contributions or critical reviews, involving oceanic, shelf or estuarine waters, inclusive of oceanography, studies of organisms and their habitats, and aquaculture. Papers on the conservation ...
Bouzon, J L; Freire, A S
Eight species of Brachyura and two species of Anomura were registered for the first time on the Santa Catarina coast, in the waters around the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve. The animals were collected by scuba divers, between 3 and 22 meters depth, from September 2001 to February 2003. A total of 31 decapod species were collected, and most of the new occurrences had already been registered in the adjacent northern waters.
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co
Gredzens, Christian; Marsh, Helene; Fuentes, Mariana M P B; Limpus, Colin J; Shimada, Takahiro; Hamann, Mark
Systematic conservation planning is increasingly used to identify priority areas for protection in marine systems. However, ecosystem-based approaches typically use density estimates as surrogates for animal presence and spatial modeling to identify areas for protection and may not take into account daily or seasonal movements of animals. Additionally, sympatric and inter-related species are often managed separately, which may not be cost-effective. This study aims to demonstrate an evidence-based method to inform the biological basis for co-management of two sympatric species, dugongs and green sea turtles. This approach can then be used in conservation planning to delineate areas to maximize species protection. Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry was used to track eleven dugongs and ten green turtles at two geographically distinct foraging locations in Queensland, Australia to evaluate the inter- and intra-species spatial relationships and assess the efficacy of existing protection zones. Home-range analysis and bathymetric modeling were used to determine spatial use and compared with existing protection areas using GIS. Dugong and green turtle home-ranges significantly overlapped in both locations. However, both species used different core areas and differences existed between regions in depth zone use and home-range size, especially for dugongs. Both species used existing protection areas in Shoalwater Bay, but only a single tracked dugong used the existing protection area in Torres Strait. Fast-acquisition satellite telemetry can provide evidence-based information on individual animal movements to delineate relationships between dugongs and green turtles in regions where they co-occur. This information can be used to increase the efficacy of conservation planning and complement more broadly based survey information. These species also use similar habitats, making complimentary co-management possible, but important differences exist between locations making it
.... The Maury Project is an oceanography-based graduate-level precollege teacher enhancement program, designed to promote the scientific literacy of young people by improving the background of pre...
Reid, Noah M; Whitehead, Andrew
Marine pollution is ubiquitous, and is one of the key factors influencing contemporary marine biodiversity worldwide. To protect marine biodiversity, how do we surveil, document and predict the short- and long-term impacts of pollutants on at-risk species? Modern genomics tools offer high-throughput, information-rich and increasingly cost-effective approaches for characterizing biological responses to environmental stress, and are important tools within an increasing sophisticated kit for surveiling and assessing impacts of pollutants on marine species. Through the lens of recent research in marine killifish, we illustrate how genomics tools may be useful for screening chemicals and pollutants for biological activity and to reveal specific mechanisms of action. The high dimensionality of transcriptomic responses enables their usage as highly specific fingerprints of exposure, and these fingerprints can be used to diagnose environmental problems. We also emphasize that molecular pathways recruited to respond at physiological timescales are the same pathways that may be targets for natural selection during chronic exposure to pollutants. Gene complement and sequence variation in those pathways can be related to variation in sensitivity to environmental pollutants within and among species. Furthermore, allelic variation associated with evolved tolerance in those pathways could be tracked to estimate the pace of environmental health decline and recovery. We finish by integrating these paradigms into a vision of how genomics approaches could anchor a modernized framework for advancing the predictive capacity of environmental and ecotoxicological science. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command (SMDC) in support of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) sponsored a marine biological survey at Wake...
Macko, S. A.; Tuite, M.; O'Connell, M.
Students in oceanography classes often request more direct exposure to actual ocean situations or field trips. During regular session (13 week) or shorter term (4 week) summer classes such long trips are logistically difficult owing to large numbers of students involved or timing. This new approach to such a course supplement addresses the requests by utilizing local resources and short field trips for a limited number of students (20) to locations in which Ocean experiences are available, and are often supported through education and outreach components. The vision of the class was a mixture of classroom time, readings, along with paper and actual laboratories. In addition short day-long trips to locations where the ocean was "captured" were also used to supplement the experience as well as speakers involved with aquaculture ("cultivated") . Central Virginia is a fortunate location for such a class, with close access for "day travel" to the Chesapeake Bay and numerous field stations, museums with ocean-based exhibits (the Smithsonian and National Zoo) that address both extant and extinct Earth history, as well as national/state aquaria in Baltimore, Washington and Virginia Beach. Furthermore, visits to local seafood markets at local grocery stores, or larger city markets) enhance the exposure to productivity in the ocean, and viability of the fisheries sustainability. The course could then address not only the particulars of the marine science, but also aspects of ethics, including keeping animals in captivity or overfishing of particular species and the special difficulties that arise from captive or culturing ocean populations. In addition, the class was encouraged to post web-based journals of experiences in order to share opinions of observations in each of the settings.
Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.
Present understanding of the behavior of Tc in the marine environment is summarised. The prevalent valence state of Tc in oxygenated seawater is +7, arguing that pertechnetate ion, TcO - 4 , represents the most likely form of this radioelement in seawater. Laboratory experiments using radio-labeled pertechnetate ion have shown that binding of this anion to different classes of marine sediments is slight. Concentration factors for the majority of marine organisms studied to date are small; notable exceptions are seen in certain species of brown algae, polychaetes and macrocrustaceans. Uptake and loss kinetics are generally rapid with the majority of the Tc being associated with shell, exoskeleton and gut. There are, as yet, no data supporting the contention that stable element analogs such as iodate can be used to predict the long-term behavior of 99 Tc (as pertechnetate) in the marine environment. (author)
John A. Fornshell
Full Text Available The development of acoustic methods for measuring depths and ranges in the ocean environment began in the second decade of the twentieth century. The two world wars and the “Cold War” produced three eras of rapid technological development in the field of acoustic oceanography. By the mid-1920s, researchers had identified echoes from fish, Gadus morhua, in the traces from their echo sounders. The first tank experiments establishing the basics for detection of fish were performed in 1928. Through the 1930s, the use of SONAR as a means of locating schools of fish was developed. The end of World War II was quickly followed by the advent of using SONAR to track and hunt whales in the Southern Ocean and the marketing of commercial fish finding SONARs for use by commercial fisherman. The “deep scattering layer” composed of invertebrates and fish was discovered in the late 1940s on the echo sounder records. SONARs employing high frequencies, broadband, split beam, and multiple frequencies were developed as methods for the detection, quantification and identification of fish and invertebrates. The study of fish behavior has seen some use of passive acoustic techniques. Advancements in computer technology have been important throughout the last four decades of the twentieth century.
marine mammals to perform outside of preferred physiological states represent a graded risk to metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis during diving ...programs we intend to develop several predictive models integrating depth with physiological capacity and stability for different classes of diving ... dive response, and 2) physiological mapping to predict when during a dive and where in the water column marine mammals may be especially vulnerable to
boonstra/ LONG-TERM GOALS This research will improve our ability to measure stress in marine mammals. Stress hormones (glucocorticoids...are best estimated by measuring “free glucocorticoid” levels (i.e. that hormone not bound by CBG). This project will improve the capacity of marine...stage, and stress history , so it is critical to measure CBG binding capacity from as diverse a group of individuals as possble. APPROACH
Bacterial community structure influenced by Coscinodiscus sp. in the Vistula river plume* This research was carried out with the support of a grant from the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (No. NN304 025334 and statutory activities of the Department of Fisheries Oceanography and Marine Ecology of the National Marine Fisheries Research Institute (project P1-2.
Full Text Available The Gulf of Gdańsk is influenced by freshwater inflow from the River Vistula and by a wind-driven current along the coast. Bacterial communities from five stations along a salinity gradient were sampled during one day and analysed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP, catalysed reporter deposition-fluorescence in situ hybridisation (CARD-FISH and 16S rRNA gene libraries. On the day of sampling, we observed a probable current-driven seawater influx into the inner part of the gulf that separated the gulf into distinct water bodies. Members of the diatom Coscinodiscus sp. dominated one of these water bodies and influenced the bacterial community. The coexistence of typically freshwater and marine bacterioplankton populations in the Vistula river plume suggested an integration of some freshwater populations into the Baltic Sea bacterioplankton.
Hutchinson, Thomas H; Lyons, Brett P; Thain, John E; Law, Robin J
Natural and synthetic chemicals are essential to our daily lives, food supplies, health care, industries and safe sanitation. At the same time protecting marine ecosystems and seafood resources from the adverse effects of chemical contaminants remains an important issue. Since the 1970s, monitoring of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT) chemicals using analytical chemistry has provided important spatial and temporal trend data in three important contexts; relating to human health protection from seafood contamination, addressing threats to marine top predators and finally providing essential evidence to better protect the biodiversity of commercial and non-commercial marine species. A number of regional conventions have led to controls on certain PBT chemicals over several years (termed 'legacy contaminants'; e.g. cadmium, lindane, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). Analytical chemistry plays a key role in evaluating to what extent such regulatory steps have been effective in leading to reduced emissions of these legacy contaminants into marine environments. In parallel, the application of biomarkers (e.g. DNA adducts, CYP1A-EROD, vitellogenin) and bioassays integrated with analytical chemistry has strengthened the evidence base to support an ecosystem approach to manage marine pollution problems. In recent years, however,the increased sensitivity of analytical chemistry, toxicity alerts and wider environmental awareness has led to a focus on emerging chemical contaminants (defined as chemicals that have been detected in the environment, but which are currently not included in regulatory monitoring programmes and whose fate and biological impacts are poorly understood). It is also known that natural chemicals (e.g. algal biotoxins) may also pose a threat to marine species and seafood quality. Hence complex mixtures of legacy contaminants, emerging chemicals and natural biotoxins in marine ecosystems represent
pollution and bioremediation Anupam Sarkar Accepted: 1 February 2006 / Published online: 4 May 2006 C211 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2006 This special issue of Ecotoxicology is dealt with selected papers presented at the ‘International Workshop... on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology’ held during February 25–26, 2004 at the National Institute of oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India. The theme of this special issue is ‘Biomarkers of marine pollution and microbial degradation of pollutants. Marine...
Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A
Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO 2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ∼30%. (letter)
Reny B. Tyson
Full Text Available Increases in the spatial scale and intensity of activities that produce marine anthropogenic sound highlight the importance of understanding the impacts and effects of sound on threatened species such as marine turtles. Marine turtles detect and behaviorally respond to low-frequency sounds, however few studies have directly examined their behavioral responses to specific types or intensities of anthropogenic or natural sounds. Recent advances in the development of bio-logging tools, which combine acoustic and fine-scale movement measurements, have allowed for evaluations of animal responses to sound. Here, we describe these tools and present a case study demonstrating the potential application of a newly developed technology (ROTAG, Loggerhead Instruments, Inc. to examine behavioral responses of freely swimming marine turtles to sound. The ROTAG incorporates a three-axis accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer to record the turtle's pitch, roll, and heading; a pressure sensor to record turtle depth; a hydrophone to record the turtle's received underwater acoustic sound field; a temperature gauge; and two VHF radio telemetry transmitters and antennas for tag and turtle tracking. Tags can be programmed to automatically release via a timed corrodible link several hours or days after deployment. We describe an example of the data collected with these tags and present a case study of a successful ROTAG deployment on a juvenile green turtle (Chelonia mydas in the Paranaguá Estuary Complex, Brazil. The tag was deployed for 221 min, during which several vessels passed closely (<2 km by the turtle. The concurrent movement and acoustic data collected by the ROTAG were examined during these times to determine if the turtle responded to these anthropogenic sound sources. While fine-scale behavioral responses were not apparent (second-by-second, the turtle did appear to perform dives during which it remained still on or near the sea floor during several
Iracema David Gomes
Full Text Available Marine catfish are abundant in the Sepetiba Bay, a 305 km 2 area in Southeast Brazilian coast (Lat. 22º 54’-23º 04’S; Long. 43 o 44’-44 o 10’W, but the knowledge on their biology is still scanty. The reproductive biology of Sciadeichthys luniscutis (Valenciennes 1840 and Genidens genidens (Valenciennes 1839 was studied through monthly sampling, from October 1998 to September 1999. Fishes were caught with a standardized otter trawl, in the interior of Sepetiba Bay, and near to the confluence with a major freshwater contributor. Six gonadal stages were described, based on macroscopic observations of gonad form, size, weight, color and oocyte diameter, and microscopic observations of differences in size and staining in the nucleus and cytoplasm structures, as viewed through a light microscope. Changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI and in stages of gonadal development showed what S. luniscutis spawned in Spring, while G. genidens spawned in Summer. Total spawning was shown for both species as indicated by high concentration of post-ovulatory follicles in spent stages. Fecundity was low (14-38 vitellogenic oocytes for S. luniscutis and 6-24 for G. genidens, when compared with other teleosts. Low fecundity and separation in spawning period suggest that both species are k-strategist, able to avoid interspecific competition in early stages of life cycle to optimize the use of the available nicheEl pez-gato de mar es abundante el la Bahía Sepetiba, un área de 305 km² en la costa del sureste brasileño, pero el conocimiento de su biología es aun escaso. La biología reproductiva de Sciadeichthys luniscutis y Genidens genidens fue estudiada a través de muestreos mensuales, desde octubre de 1998 a setiembre de 1999. Los peces fueron capturados con una red barredera estandarizada, en el interior de la Bahía Sepetiba, y cerca de la confluencia con un río tributario principal. Seis estadíos gonadales fueron descritos, basados en
Lanyon, Janet M; Burgess, Elizabeth A
Historical overexploitation of marine mammals, combined with present-day pressures, has resulted in severely depleted populations, with many species listed as threatened or endangered. Understanding breeding patterns of threatened marine mammals is crucial to assessing population viability, potential recovery and conservation actions. However, determining reproductive parameters of wild fully-marine mammals (cetaceans and sirenians) is challenging due to their wide distributions, high mobility, inaccessible habitats, cryptic lifestyles and in many cases, large body size and intractability. Consequently, reproductive biologists employ an innovative suite of methods to collect useful information from these species. This chapter reviews historic, recent and state-of-the-art methods to examine diverse aspects of reproduction in fully-aquatic mammals.
Lunagariya, Jignesh; Bhadja, Poonam; Zhong, Shenghui; Vekariya, Rohit; Xu, Shihai
Marine bis-indole alkaloids comprise a large and increasingly growing class of secondary metabolites, and continue to deliver a great variety of structural templates. The alkaloids derived from marine resources play a crucial role in medicinal chemistry and as chemical agents. In particular, bis-indole alkaloid caulerpin isolated from marine green algae Caulerpa and a red algae Chondria armata at various places around the world, and tested against several therapeutic areas such as anti-diabetic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-larvicidal, anti-herpes, anti-tubercular, anti-microbial and immunostimulating activity as well as means of other chemical agents. Herein, we summarized discovery of caulerpin, and its potential medicinal and chemical applications in chronological order with various aspects. Additionally, synthesis of caulerpin, its functional analogues, and structural isomer have also been reviewed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at email@example.com.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This CD-ROM was produced in cooperation with the Texas A&M University (TAMU), Department of Oceanography. It includes hydrographic and marine mammal sighting...
Martínez-Gómez, C.; Vethaak, A.D.; Hylland, K.; Burgeot, T.; Köhler, A.; Lyons, B.P.; Thain, J.; Gubbins, M.J.; Davies, I.M.
The usefulness of applying biological-effects techniques (bioassays and biomarkers) as tools to assist in evaluating damage to the health of marine ecosystems produced by oil spills has been demonstrated clearly during recent decades. Guidelines are provided for the use of biological-effects
Agersted, Mette Dalgaard
understanding of the marine ecosystems and food webs. This thesis aimed to gain more knowledge of krill in northern hemisphere and to study their trophic position and grazing impact in a sub-Arctic fjord. The project investigated i) species and population composition of krill in the area of Godthåbsfjord, SW...... assumed to be the main grazers in marine ecosystems. This suggests that krill could be and are - in the case of Godthåbsfjord - important grazers that deserve more attention in future monitoring and research programs...
DINOFLAGELLATA, * MOLECULAR BIOLOGY , *PHOTOSYNTHESIS, ALGAE, CELLS, CLONES, DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACIDS, ENVIRONMENTS, GENES, LIGHT, NUTRIENTS, OCEANS, OPTICAL PROPERTIES, PHYTOPLANKTON, PRODUCTION, PROTEINS, REGULATIONS.
Thingstad, T. Frede; Bratbak, Gunnar
The finding that marine environments with high levels of host microbes have fewer viruses per host than when host abundance is low challenges a theory on the relative roles of lysogenic and lytic viral-survival strategies. See Article p.466
Agostini, Paola; Coppini, Giovanni; Martinelli, Sara; Bonarelli, Roberto; Lecci, Rita; Pinardi, Nadia; Cretì, Sergio; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Ciliberti, Stefania Angela; Federico, Ivan; Mannarini, Gianandrea; Verri, Giorgia; Jansen, Eric; Lusito, Letizia; Macchia, Francesca; Montagna, Fabio; Buonocore, Mauro; Marra, Palmalisa; Tedesco, Luca; Cavallo, Arturo
According to a common definition, ocean literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on people and people influence on the ocean. An ocean-literate person is able to make informed and responsible decisions regarding the ocean and its resources. To this aim, this paper presents operational oceanographic tools developed to meet the needs of different users, and activities performed in collaboration with high school students to support new developments of the same tools. Operational oceanography allows to deal with societal challenges such as maritime safety, coastal and marine environment management, climate change assessment and marine resources management. Oceanographic products from the European Copernicus Marine Monitoring Service - CMEMS are transformed and communicated to public and stakeholders through adding-value chains (downstreaming), which consider advanced visualization, usage of multi-channels technological platforms and specific models and algorithms. Sea Situational Awareness is strategically important for management and safety purposes of any marine domain and, in particular, the Mediterranean Sea and its coastal areas. Examples of applications for sea situational awareness and maritime safety are here presented, through user-friendly products available both by web and mobile channels (that already reach more than 100.000 users in the Mediterranean area). Further examples of ocean literacy are web bulletins used to communicate the technical contents and information related to oceanographic forecasts to a wide public. They are the result of a collaboration with high school students, with whom also other activities on improving products visualization and online communication have been performed.
Thomas J Webb
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the distribution of marine biodiversity is a crucial first step towards the effective and sustainable management of marine ecosystems. Recent efforts to collate location records from marine surveys enable us to assemble a global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. They also effectively highlight gaps in our knowledge of particular marine regions. In particular, the deep pelagic ocean--the largest biome on Earth--is chronically under-represented in global databases of marine biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use data from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System to plot the position in the water column of ca 7 million records of marine species occurrences. Records from relatively shallow waters dominate this global picture of recorded marine biodiversity. In addition, standardising the number of records from regions of the ocean differing in depth reveals that regardless of ocean depth, most records come either from surface waters or the sea bed. Midwater biodiversity is drastically under-represented. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The deep pelagic ocean is the largest habitat by volume on Earth, yet it remains biodiversity's big wet secret, as it is hugely under-represented in global databases of marine biological records. Given both its value in the provision of a range of ecosystem services, and its vulnerability to threats including overfishing and climate change, there is a pressing need to increase our knowledge of Earth's largest ecosystem.
Arbic, B. K.; Ansong, J. K.; Johnson, W.; Nyadjro, E. S.; Nyarko, E.
Because oceanography is a global science, it clearly benefits from the existence of a world-wide network of oceanographers. As with most STEM disciplines, sub-Saharan Africa is not as well represented in the field of oceanography as it should be, given its large population. The need for oceanographers in sub-Saharan Africa is great, due to a long list of ocean-related issues affecting African development, including but not limited to fishing, oil drilling, sea level rise, coastal erosion, shipping, and piracy. We view this as an opportunity as well as a challenge. Many of the world's fastest growing economies are in sub-Saharan Africa, and STEM capacity building could further fuel this growth. With support from the US National Science Foundation, we ran an oceanography summer school from August 24-27, 2015, at the Regional Maritime University (RMU) in Ghana, West Africa. This first summer school was lecture-based, with a focus on basic chemical oceanography, basic physical oceanography, ocean modeling, and satellite oceanography. About 35 participants came to almost every lecture, and about 20 other participants came to some of the lectures as their time permitted. The participants included RMU faculty, 12 students from the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, one Associate Oceanographer from the University of Ghana, and some participants from private sector companies and Ghanaian governmental agencies. There were long and lively discussions at the end of each lecture, and there was a lengthy discussion at the conclusion of the school on how to improve future summer schools. In 2016 and 2017, we plan to divide into smaller groups so that participants can pursue their particular interests in greater depth, and to allow time for student presentations. We also plan to begin exploring the potential for research partnerships, and to utilize distance learning to involve more faculty and students from locations throughout Ghana and perhaps from even other
Iris Aparecida Soares
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Soares I.A. & Luque J.L. [Parasites as biological tags for the discrimination of marine fish stocks in Brazil: current status and perspectives.] Parasitos como marcadores biológicos para discriminação de estoques de peixes marinhos no Brasil: estado atual e perspectivas. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:99-113, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The global state of marine fisheries and its effects endanger the future of fishery resources, which may result in extinction of several species as well as threatening the overall integrity of the ecosystems. As the fish consumption growths, marine fishing and related market activities are stimulated increasing the incidence of threatened or exploited species. Aiming the future sustainability, fishery inventories need to be properly identified as a tool for implementation of more efficient policies on the management and conservation of the natural resources. Thus, by the high heterogeneity observed in the Atlantic coast of Brazil as well as the lack of related studies using this tool, the country represents great potential for the use of this technique, to improve our knowledge of local fishing resources. Therefore, the present study highlights the use of parasites as biological markers on identifying fish populations through robust statistical analysis, which represents an efficient and low cost approach and the lack of similar studies in Brazil showing the need of more research efforts on this subject in Brazil.
of the marine fish species are important prey for larger predators, such as larger fish in the ocean, marine mammals, birds and humans. Every individual female fish can produce many thousands to millions of eggs every year during the spawning season. The eggs (usually less than 2 mm in diameter) that live free...... in the environment, and depending on species, eggs either drift/float in the water or are attached to the bottom close to each other. The larvae that hatch from the eggs grow in size continuously until they reach a certain size and become adults. The first few weeks of its life are the riskiest and most of the eggs...... range that maximizes survival among different species, but the sensitivity of egg development rate in a degree of temperature increase is similar among the 32 species and populations I analysed. I also found that adults spawn at temperature conditions that are generally close to the egg preferences...
Erbe, Christine; Verma, Arti; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander; Parnum, Iain
The Perth Canyon is a submarine canyon off Rottnest Island in Western Australia. It is rich in biodiversity in general, and important as a feeding and resting ground for great whales on migration. Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) has moorings in the Perth Canyon monitoring its acoustical, physical and biological oceanography. Data from these moorings, as well as weather data from a near-by Bureau of Meteorology weather station on Rottnest Island and ship traffic data from the Australian Maritime Safety Authority were correlated to characterise and quantify the marine soundscape between 5 and 3000 Hz, consisting of its geophony, biophony and anthrophony. Overall, biological sources are a strong contributor to the soundscape at the IMOS site, with whales dominating seasonally at low (15-100 Hz) and mid frequencies (200-400 Hz), and fish or invertebrate choruses dominating at high frequencies (1800-2500 Hz) at night time throughout the year. Ships contribute significantly to the 8-100 Hz band at all times of the day, all year round, albeit for a few hours at a time only. Wind-dependent noise is significant at 200-3000 Hz; winter rains are audible underwater at 2000-3000 Hz. We discuss how passive acoustic data can be used as a proxy for ocean weather. Passive acoustics is an efficient way of monitoring animal visitation times and relative densities, and potential anthropogenic influences.
David A. Caron
Full Text Available Advances in genetic and immunological approaches during the last few decades have transformed medicine and biomedical research. The human genome and the genomes of numerous model organisms are now fully sequenced. Initial exploitation of this wealth of genetic information has begun to revolutionize research on these species, and the applications derived from it. Progress in understanding the ecology of microorganisms (including marine taxa has followed closely on the heels of these advances, owing to the tremendous benefit afforded by major technological advances in biomedicine. Through the application of these novel approaches and new technologies, marine microbial ecology has moved from a minor footnote within marine biology and biological oceanography during the 1950s and ‘60s to the focus of much of our present interest in the ocean. During the intervening half-century we have learned a great deal regarding the overall abundances, distributions and activities of microorganisms in the sea. Recognition of the extraordinary diversity of marine microbes, the predominant role that they play in global biogeochemical processes, and the potential for natural or engineered microbial products to benefit humankind, has placed marine microbes in the spotlight of both scientific and popular attention. Our fascination with these minute denizens of the ocean is not likely to wane anytime soon. Recent studies have indicated that we still know relatively little about the breadth of microbial diversity in marine ecosystems. In addition, many (most? of the predominant marine microbial forms in nature have not yet been brought into laboratory culture. Thus, our knowledge is still rudimentary with respect to the spectra of biochemical, physiological and behavioral abilities of these species, and the study of marine microbes will remain a major focus of investigations in marine science well into the foreseeable future. As a large cadre of researchers moves
Brief summaries are presented of ecological studies carried out at Enewetak from July 1973 through June 30, 1974. Data are included on the content of 90 Sr in the skeleton of coral. Other studies included measurements of the chemical composition of 60 marine animals; and the growth rate, interactions of prey populations, food supply, food chains, and population dynamics of communities of crustaceans, molluscs, corals, sponges, algae, reef fishes, and shore birds. (U.S.)
Taira, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Shinichi; Hamano, Toshikazu; Yamaguchi, Hitoshi
From results of radionuclide analysis for tiger globefish cultivated on the surface of the sea around the Genkai nuclear power plant, it was confirmed that tiger globefish took 137 Cs into their bodies and this radionuclide mainly accumulated in their muscle and bone via seawater as a mediation route. Radionuclide analysis of 137 Cs as a tracer for marine life, is extremely useful as the basic data to understand behavior of the artificial radionuclides in the environment. (author)
Reiss, Henning; Hoarau, Galice; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Wolff, Wim J.
An essential prerequisite of a sustainable fisheries management is the matching of biologically relevant processes and management action. In fisheries management and assessment, fish stocks are the fundamental biological unit, but the reasoning for the operational management unit is often indistinct
Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith
A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change...... ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC...
offered: available in school catalog, shop, and sea turtle conservation and incubation area. Faculty appointments: available in school catalog. Large...to: total 20 semester hours, are: biochemistry, genetics, Chairman, Department of Zoology developmental biology ( embryology ), ecology, and com- ... 106
Jul 31, 2007 ... A Refresher Course on 'Marine Geology and Geophysics' for Post-graduate College/University teachers, will be held during October 22 – November 2, 2007 at the National Institute of. Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa. For details, please see the June 2007 issue of Resonance. Course Directors: Dr. V ...
Naqvi, S.W.A; Solimabi; Kamat, S.Y.; De; Reddy, C.V.G.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Dhawan, B
Extracts of twenty five seaweeds from Indian coast have been put through a broad biological screen which includes tests for antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antifertility activities and a wide range of pharmacological activities...
Majik, M.S.; Parvatkar, R.R.; Tilvi, S.; Gawas, S.G.
)-3β-hydroxy-5α,6α,8α,14α-diepoxyergosta- 22-en-7-one (4), both of which displayed weak cytotoxic activity towards the lung cancer cell line A549 . Conformational analysis on the basis of the observed NOEs in the ROESY spectrum indicated... against several cancer cell lines . Moreover, fellutamide C (9) isaderivative of the previously described fellutamides A and B, metabolites of a marine fish-derived Penicillium fellutanum , which were not detected in the extract of A. versicolor...
Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, T.V.R.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.
National Institute of Oceanography (NIO, RC, Visakhapatnam, India) had taken up the Integrated Coastal and Marine Area Management (ICMAM) project funded by Department of Ocean Development (DOD), New Delhi, India. The main objective of this project...
Morales, M A; Rojas, J F; Oliveros, J; Hernández S, A A
In this work the skin coating of some vertebrate marine animals is modeled considering only dermis, epidermis and basal layers. The biological process takes into account: cellular diffusion of the epidermis, diffusion inhibition and long-range spatial interaction (nonlocal effect on diffusive dispersal) for cells of dermal tissue. The chemical and physical interactions between dermis and epidermis are represented by coupling quadratic terms and nonlinear terms additional. The model presents an interesting property associated with their gradient form: a connection between some physical, chemical and biological systems. The model equations proposed are solved with numerical methods to study the spatially stable emergent configurations. The spatiotemporal dynamic obtained of the numerical solution of these equations, present similarity with biological behaviors that have been found recently in the cellular movement of chromatophores (as contact-dependent depolarization and repulsion movement between melanophores, xanthophores and iridophores). The numerical solution of the model shows a great variety of beautiful patterns that are robust to changes of boundary condition. The resultant patterns are very similar to the pigmentation of some fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The naturalist Charles Darwin founded modern ecology, considering in a single conceptual framework the manifold aspects regarding the organization of life at various levels of complexity and its relationship with the physical world. The development of powerful analytical tools led to abandon Darwin's natural history and to transform naturalists, as Darwin labelled himself, into the practitioners of more focused disciplines, aimed at tackling specific problems that considered the various aspects of the organization of life in great detail but, also, in isolation from each other. Among the various disciplines that stemmed from the Darwinian method, ecology was further split into many branches, and marine ecology was no exception. The compartmentalization of the marine realm into several sub-domains (e.g., plankton, benthos, nekton led to neglect of the connections linking the various parts that were separated for the ease of analyses that, in this way, prevented synthetic visions. The way marine sciences were studied also led to separate visions depending on the employed tools, so that ship-based biological oceanography developed almost separately from marine station-based marine biology. The necessity of putting together such concepts as biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is rapidly leading to synthetic approaches that re-discover the historical nature of ecology, leading to the dawn of a new natural history.
Sanz-Lázaro, C.; Fodelianakis, S.; Guerrero-Meseguer, L.; Marín, A.; Karakassis, I.
We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. - Highlights: • We examined the effect of organic enrichment on assemblages of marine biofilms. • Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution. • Diatom and bacterial assemblages were affected under high level of organic enrichment. • Successional patterns were similar to other communities inhabiting hard substrata. • Assemblage modifications induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. - Organic pollution modifies the assemblages of biofilm communities which may affect important ecological functions
Gal-Hemed, Inbal; Atanasova, Lea; Komon-Zelazowska, Monika; Druzhinina, Irina S.; Viterbo, Ada; Yarden, Oded
The scarcity of fresh water in the Mediterranean region necessitates the search for halotolerant agents of biological control of plant diseases that can be applied in arid-zone agriculture irrigated with saline water. Among 29 Trichoderma strains previously isolated from Mediterranean Psammocinia sp. sponges, the greatest number of isolates belong to the Trichoderma longibrachiatum-Hypocrea orientalis species pair (9), H. atroviridis/T. atroviride (9), and T. harzianum species complex (7), all of which are known for high mycoparasitic potential. In addition, one isolate of T. asperelloides and two putative new species, Trichoderma sp. O.Y. 14707 and O.Y. 2407, from Longibrachiatum and Strictipilosa clades, respectively, have been identified. In vitro salinity assays showed that the ability to tolerate increasing osmotic pressure (halotolerance) is a strain- or clade-specific property rather than a feature of a species. Only a few isolates were found to be sensitive to increased salinity, while others either were halotolerant or even demonstrated improved growth in increasingly saline conditions. In vitro antibiosis assays revealed strong antagonistic activity toward phytopathogens due to the production of both soluble and volatile metabolites. Two marine-derived Trichoderma isolates, identified as T. atroviride and T. asperelloides, respectively, effectively reduced Rhizoctonia solani damping-off disease on beans and also induced defense responses in cucumber seedlings against Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrimans. This is the first inclusive evaluation of marine fungi as potential biocontrol agents. PMID:21666030
Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F
Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N(2)) and nitrous...... dissolved oxygen in seawater, however, is much too high to distinguish low oxygen conditions from true anoxia. However, new analytical technologies are revealing vanishingly low oxygen concentrations in nitrite-rich OMZs, indicating that these OMZs are essentially anoxic marine zones (AMZs). Autonomous...... environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two "end points" represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs...
Gomiero, A; Bellerby, R G J; Manca Zeichen, M; Babbini, L; Viarengo, A
Recently, there has been a growing concern that climate change may rapidly and extensively alter global ecosystems with unknown consequences for terrestrial and aquatic life. While considerable emphasis has been placed on terrestrial ecology consequences, aquatic environments have received relatively little attention. Limited knowledge is available on the biological effects of increments of seawater temperature and pH decrements on key ecological species, i.e., primary producers and/or organisms representative of the basis of the trophic web. In the present study, we addressed the biological effects of global warming and ocean acidification on two model organisms, the microbenthic marine ciliate Euplotes crassus and the green alga Dunaliella tertiocleta using a suite of high level ecological endpoint tests and sub-lethal stress measures. Organisms were exposed to combinations of pH and temperature (TR1: 7.9 [pH], 25.5 °C and TR2: 7.8 [pH], 27,0 °C) simulating two possible environmental scenarios predicted to occur in the habitats of the selected species before the end of this century. The outcomes of the present study showed that the tested scenarios did not induce a significant increment of mortality on protozoa. Under the most severe exposure conditions, sub-lethal stress indices show that pH homeostatic mechanisms have energetic costs that divert energy from essential cellular processes and functions. The marine protozoan exhibited significant impairment of the lysosomal compartment and early signs of oxidative stress under these conditions. Similarly, significant impairment of photosynthetic efficiency and an increment in lipid peroxidation were observed in the autotroph model organism held under the most extreme exposure condition tested. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Daphnis De Pooter
Full Text Available The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS is the world’s most comprehensive online, open-access database of marine species distributions. OBIS grows with millions of new species observations every year. Contributions come from a network of hundreds of institutions, projects and individuals with common goals: to build a scientific knowledge base that is open to the public for scientific discovery and exploration and to detect trends and changes that inform society as essential elements in conservation management and sustainable development. Until now, OBIS has focused solely on the collection of biogeographic data (the presence of marine species in space and time and operated with optimized data flows, quality control procedures and data standards specifically targeted to these data. Based on requirements from the growing OBIS community to manage datasets that combine biological, physical and chemical measurements, the OBIS-ENV-DATA pilot project was launched to develop a proposed standard and guidelines to make sure these combined datasets can stay together and are not, as is often the case, split and sent to different repositories. The proposal in this paper allows for the management of sampling methodology, animal tracking and telemetry data, biological measurements (e.g., body length, percent live cover, ... as well as environmental measurements such as nutrient concentrations, sediment characteristics or other abiotic parameters measured during sampling to characterize the environment from which biogeographic data was collected. The recommended practice builds on the Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A standard and on practices adopted by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF. It consists of a DwC Event Core in combination with a DwC Occurrence Extension and a proposed enhancement to the DwC MeasurementOrFact Extension. This new structure enables the linkage of measurements or facts - quantitative and qualitative properties - to
Full Text Available A marine sulfate-reducing bacterium SRB-22 was isolated by means of the agar shake dilution method and identified as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans by morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA analysis. In the bioassay, its extract showed broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity using the paper disc agar diffusion method. This isolate showed a different antimicrobial profile than either ampicillin or nystatin and was found to produce at least eight antimicrobial components by bioautography. Suitable fermentation conditions for production of the active constituents were determined to be 28 day cultivation at 25 °C to 30 °C with a 10% inoculation ratio. Under these conditions, the SRB-22 was fermented, extracted and chemically investigated. So far an antimicrobial compound, mono-n-butyl phthalate, and an inactive compound, thymine, have been isolated and characterized.
Brown, J.E.; Borretzen, P.; Hosseini, A.; Iosjpe, M.
A review on concentration factors (CF) for the marine environment was conducted in order to consider the relevance of existing data from the perspective of environmental protection and to identify areas of data paucity. Data have been organised in a format compatible with a reference organism approach, for selected radionuclides, and efforts have been taken to identify the factors that may be of importance in the context of dosimetric and dose-effects analyses. These reference organism categories had been previously selected by identifying organism groups that were likely to experience the highest levels of radiation exposure, owing to high uptake levels or residence in a particular habitat, for defined scenarios. Significant data gaps in the CF database have been identified, notably for marine mammals and birds. Most empirical information pertains to a limit suite of radionuclides, particularly 137 Cs, 210 Po and 99 Tc. A methodology has been developed to help bridge this information deficit. This has been based on simple dynamic, biokinetic models that mainly use parameters derived from laboratory-based study and field observation. In some cases, allometric relationships have been employed to allow further model parameterization. Initial testing of the model by comparing model output with empirical data sets suggest that the models provide sensible equilibrium CFs. Furthermore, analyses of modelling results suggest that for some radionuclides, in particularly those with long effective half-lives, the time to equilibrium can be far greater than the life-time of an organism. This clearly emphasises the limitations of applying a universal equilibrium approach. The methodology, therefore, has an added advantage that non-equilibrium scenarios can be considered in a more rigorous manner. Further refinements to the modelling approach might be attained by exploring the importance of various model parameters, through sensitivity analyses, and by identifying those
Gårdmark, Anna; Lindegren, Martin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan
in all models, intense fishing prevented recovery, and climate change further decreased the cod population. Our study demonstrates how the biological ensemble modeling approach makes it possible to evaluate the relative importance of different sources of uncertainty in future species responses, as well......Natural resource management requires approaches to understand and handle sources of uncertainty in future responses of complex systems to human activities. Here we present one such approach, the “biological ensemble modeling approach,” using the Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias......) as an example. The core of the approach is to expose an ensemble of models with different ecological assumptions to climate forcing, using multiple realizations of each climate scenario. We simulated the long-term response of cod to future fishing and climate change in seven ecological models ranging from...
Bautista, José M.; Verrez-bagnis, Veronique; Kourti, Naouma
Taxonomy and systematics of most animal species have been described in sufficient detail to permit the classification of practically any organism and, in particular, may be of use in the identification of the species and subspecies for the fish trade and ecological concerns regarding fisheries. However, before FishTrace started there was a lack of fast reference tools that hindered the efficient identification and differentiation of teleosts required in fisheries management, biological and ec...
Simmons, S. E.; Chavez, F.; Pearlman, J.; Working Group, T B S
Physical scientists now have Argo floats, gliders and AUVs to supplement satellites to provide a 3-D view of the time-varying global ocean temperature and salinity structure. Biogeochemists are catching up with evolving sensors for nitrate, optical properties, oxygen and pH that can now be added to these autonomous systems. Biologists are still lagging, although some promising sensor systems based on but not limited to acoustic, chemical, genomic or imaging techniques, that can sense from microbes to whales, are on the horizon. These techniques can not only be applied in situ but also on samples returned to the laboratory using the autonomous systems. The number of samples is limiting, requiring adaptive and smart systems. Given the importance of biology to ocean health and the future earth, and the present reliance on humans and ships for observing species and abundance it is paramount that new biological sensor systems be developed. This abstract will review recent efforts to identify core biological variables for the US Integrated Ocean Observing System and address new sensors and innovations for observing these variables, particularly focused on availability and maturity of sensors. The relevance of this work in a global context will also be touched on.
Raica, Marius; Cimpean, Anca Maria
The nineteenth century was the time of a real revolution in science and medicine. A lot of seminal discoveries in medicine and biology were done in this time, and many of them were coincident with the introduction of the compound microscope by Hermann van Deijl and the standard histological technique by Paul Ehrlich. The main tissue types and individual cells were characterized and originally classified more than hundred years ago, although less attention was paid to their basic functions. This was mainly due to the modality of tissue specimen processing that allowed particularly detailed descriptive studies. Even so, we can notice some attempts to correlate the structure with the function. The German scientist Paul Langerhans, well-known for the discovery of Langerhans islets of the pancreas and Langerhans cells from the epidermis, tried to change the conventional fate of morphological studies introducing in his works functional hypothesis based on traditional microscopic observations even from the beginning of his scientific career. Paul Langerhans was a complex personality of the second half of the nineteenth century, not only in medicine, but also in other fields of biology. In the present review, presented is the life and research activity of Paul Langerhans, not only because of the importance of his discoveries, but also for perspectives that were opened by these findings in unexpected fields of medicine and biology.
In the fall of 2009, I spent 6 weeks aboard the Coast Guard Icebreaker Healy on a mapping expedition in the Arctic Ocean, through participation in the University of Rhode Island's ARMADA Project. Because I grew up in the Midwest, went to college here, and teach in the Chicago suburbs, I had limited first-hand experience in oceanography, as did most of my students. During my time aboard the ship, I primarily served as a member of the mapping team, collecting bathymetric and seismic data. My other science activities included aiding geologists and acoustic engineers in dredging projects and deployment of under-ice recording devices. I collected water data, sent off weather balloons, and assisted marine mammal observers. For the ARMADA Project I kept an on-line journal, which had a far-reaching impact. Students in many schools kept track of my activities and communicated with me via e-mail. Colleagues and friends shared the journal through other media, such as Facebook. Several of my entries were published in blogs belonging to NOAA and the USGS. I received a grant for renting a satellite phone, and through it was able to make "Live from the Arctic" phone calls. After introductory PowerPoints I communicated with more than 420 students in 5 schools in 3 states. When I returned, I made a series of presentations about the Arctic and my adventures to hundreds of people and was featured in an educational magazine with a circulation of more than 90,000. I also participated in an in-depth mentoring program with a new teacher to help her succeed during the first years of her career. The results: My students and I now have a direct connection to the Arctic and to the fields of oceanography, acoustic engineering, and geology. On their own initiative, students have developed individual projects exploring aspects of my research. They have attended presentations from the Extreme Ice Center and have become involved in drilling issues in the Chukchi Sea. A group of students is
Schulz, M.S.; Vivit, D.; Schulz, C.; Fitzpatrick, J.; White, A.
The distribution, chemistry, and morphology of Fe nodules were studied in a marine terrace soil chronosequence northwest of Santa Cruz, California. The Fe nodules are found at depths <1 m on all terraces. The nodules consisted of soil mineral grains cemented by Fe oxides. The nodules varied in size from 0.5 to 25 mm in diameter. Nodules did not occur in the underlying regolith. The Fe-oxide mineralogy of the nodules was typically goethite; however, a subset of nodules consisted of maghemite. There was a slight transformation to hematite with time. The abundance of soil Fe nodules increased with terrace age on the five terraces studied (aged 65,000-226,000 yr). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed Fe-oxide-containing fungal hyphae throughout the nodules, including organic structures incorporating fine-grained Fe oxides. The fine-grained nature of the Fe oxides was substantiated by M??ssbauer spectroscopy. Our microscopic observations led to the hypothesis that the nodules in the Santa Cruz terrace soils are precipitated by fungi, perhaps as a strategy to sequester primary mineral grains for nutrient extraction. The fungal structures are fixed by the seasonal wetting and dry cycles and rounded through bioturbation. The organic structures are compacted by the degradation of fungal C with time. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Hien Minh; Ito, Takuya; Kurimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Ogawa, Mika; Win, Nwet Nwet; Hung, Vo Quoc; Nguyen, Hoai Thi; Kubota, Takaaki; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi; Morita, Hiroyuki
The investigation of the Vietnamese marine sponge Spongia sp. led to the isolation of three new sesquiterpene phenols, langconols A-C (1-3), and one new sesquiterpene hydroxyquinone, langcoquinone C (4), together with two known meroterpenoids (5 and 6). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and comparisons with published data. Furthermore, the antibacterial assays of the isolates 1-6 suggested that 4 and 6 had significant antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, with MICs ranging from 6.25 to 25.0µM, while 1 and 3 possessed significant antibacterial activities against B. subtilis with MICs of 12.5 and 25.0µM, respectively. In contrast, cytotoxic assays of the isolated compounds 1-6, as well as compounds 7-15 previously isolated from this sponge, indicated that 1 and the previously reported anti-B. subtilis and anti-S. aureus sesquiterpene phenol 9 lacked cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cell lines (A549, lung cancer; MCF7, breast cancer; HeLa, cervix cancer) and a human normal cell line (WI-38 fibroblast). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Eight naturally occurring marine-sponge derived sesquiterpenoid quinones wereevaluated as potential inhibitors of pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK, a C4 plantregulatory enzyme. Of these, the hydroxyquinones ilimaquinone, ethylsmenoquinone andsmenoquinone inhibited PPDK activity with IC50Ã¢Â€Â™s (reported with 95% confidenceintervals of 285.4 (256.4 Ã¢Â€Â“ 317.7, 316.2 (279.2 Ã¢Â€Â“ 358.1 and 556.0 (505.9 Ã¢Â€Â“ 611.0 ÃŽÂ¼M,respectively, as well as being phytotoxic to the C4 plant Digitaria ciliaris. The potentialanti-inflammatory activity of these compounds, using bee venom phospholipase A2(PLA2, was also evaluated. Ethylsmenoquinone, smenospongiarine, smenospongidine andilimaquinone inhibited PLA2 activity (% inhibition of 73.2 + 4.8 at 269 ÃŽÂ¼M, 61.5 + 6.1 at242 ÃŽÂ¼M, 41.0 + 0.6 at 224 ÃŽÂ¼M and 36.4 + 8.2 at 279 ÃŽÂ¼M, respectively. SAR analysesindicate that a hydroxyquinone functionality and a short, hydroxide/alkoxide side-chain atC-20 is preferred for inhibition of PPDK activity, and that a larger amine side-chain at C-20 is tolerated for PLA2 inhibitory activity.
Full Text Available We report on screening tests of 66 extracts obtained from 35 marine sponge species from the Caribbean Sea (Curaçao and from eight species from the Great Barrier Reef (Lizard Island. Extracts were prepared in aqueous and organic solvents and were tested for hemolytic, hemagglutinating, antibacterial and anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE activities, as well as their ability to inhibit or activate cell protein phosphatase 1 (PP1. The most interesting activities were obtained from extracts of Ircinia felix, Pandaros acanthifolium, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Verongula rigida and Neofibularia nolitangere. Aqueous and organic extracts of I. felix and V. rigida showed strong antibacterial activity. Topsentia aqueous and some organic extracts were strongly hemolytic, as were all organic extracts from I. felix. The strongest hemolytic activity was observed in aqueous extracts from P. acanthifolium. Organic extracts of N. nolitangere and I. felix inhibited PP1. The aqueous extract from Myrmekioderma styx possessed the strongest hemagglutinating activity, whilst AChE inhibiting activity was found only in a few sponges and was generally weak, except in the methanolic extract of T. ophiraphidites.
Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I
We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farnsworth, K. L.; House, M.; Hovan, S. A.
A recent workshop sponsored by SERC-On the Cutting Edge brought together science educators from a range of schools across the country to discuss new approaches in teaching oceanography. In discussing student interest in our classes, we were struck by the fact that students are drawn to emotional or controversial topics such as whale hunting and tsunami hazard and that these kinds of topics are a great vehicle for introducing more complex concepts such as wave propagation, ocean upwelling and marine chemistry. Thus, we have developed an approach to introductory oceanography that presents students with real-world issues in the ocean sciences and requires them to explore the science behind them in order to improve overall ocean science literacy among non-majors and majors at 2 and 4 year colleges. We have designed a project-based curriculum built around topics that include, but are not limited to: tsunami hazard, whale migration, ocean fertilization, ocean territorial claims, rapid climate change, the pacific trash patch, overfishing, and ocean acidification. Each case study or project consists of three weeks of class time and is structured around three elements: 1) a media analysis; 2) the role of ocean science in addressing the issue; 3) human impact/response. Content resources range from textbook readings, popular or current print news, documentary film and television, and data available on the world wide web from a range of sources. We employ a variety of formative assessments for each case study in order to monitor student access and understanding of content and include a significant component of in-class student discussion and brainstorming guided by faculty input to develop the case study. Each study culminates in summative assessments ranging from exams to student posters to presentations, depending on the class size and environment. We envision this approach for a range of classroom environments including large group face-to-face instruction as well as hybrid
Oliveira Ribeiro, Ângela Maria; Foote, Andrew David; Kupczok, Anne
evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics.......Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag......-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from...
Gårdmark, Anna; Lindegren, Martin; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Blenckner, Thorsten; Heikinheimo, Outi; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Niiranen, Susa; Tomczak, Maciej T; Aro, Eero; Wikström, Anders; Möllmann, Christian
Natural resource management requires approaches to understand and handle sources of uncertainty in future responses of complex systems to human activities. Here we present one such approach, the "biological ensemble modeling approach," using the Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias) as an example. The core of the approach is to expose an ensemble of models with different ecological assumptions to climate forcing, using multiple realizations of each climate scenario. We simulated the long-term response of cod to future fishing and climate change in seven ecological models ranging from single-species to food web models. These models were analyzed using the "biological ensemble modeling approach" by which we (1) identified a key ecological mechanism explaining the differences in simulated cod responses between models, (2) disentangled the uncertainty caused by differences in ecological model assumptions from the statistical uncertainty of future climate, and (3) identified results common for the whole model ensemble. Species interactions greatly influenced the simulated response of cod to fishing and climate, as well as the degree to which the statistical uncertainty of climate trajectories carried through to uncertainty of cod responses. Models ignoring the feedback from prey on cod showed large interannual fluctuations in cod dynamics and were more sensitive to the underlying uncertainty of climate forcing than models accounting for such stabilizing predator-prey feedbacks. Yet in all models, intense fishing prevented recovery, and climate change further decreased the cod population. Our study demonstrates how the biological ensemble modeling approach makes it possible to evaluate the relative importance of different sources of uncertainty in future species responses, as well as to seek scientific conclusions and sustainable management solutions robust to uncertainty of food web processes in the face of climate change.
Coquery, M.; Carvalho, F.P.; Azemard, S.; Horvat, M.
Four major worldwide intercomparison exercises for the determination of trace elements in various environmental matrices were completed by the IAEA Marine Environment Laboratory since 1990: SD-M-2/TM, deep sea marine sediment; IAEA-350, tuna fish homogenate; IAEA-356, contaminated coastal sediment and IAEA-140, sea plant (Fucus sp.). These intercomparison exercises aim at enabling individual laboratories to monitor their performance. The results of these exercises allowed us to make an overall evaluation of the quality of data provided for environmental assessment and to identify the trends of analytical performance in the determination of trace elements over the years. The number of participants in each exercise varied between 68 and 130, and permits statistical evaluation of the performance for a number of elements. For each intercomparison exercise, the performance of the participant laboratories was assessed by comparing reported results with established reference values calculating 'Z-scores'. The results show that for each sample matrix, the values reported by some laboratories were far from satisfactory in the earlier exercises, in particular for Cd, Cr and Pb. Nevertheless, over time, a general improvement of performance can clearly be seen for all elements. Moreover, there was a noticeable increase in the number of laboratories with good performance in the two most recent exercises, observed both for biological and for sediment matrices. However, the determination of trace elements such as Cd, Cr, Pb and Hg in low level environmental samples still remains a major challenge to the analysts. For this reason and in order to assess the current performance of laboratories for low environmental levels of contaminants, the future intercomparison exercises will concentrate on low level sediment and fish samples
Jayakumar, S.; VijayKumar, V.; Kundaikar, T.J.; Venugopal, C.; Sawant, S.S.
The aim of the research was to develop flyash concrete and assess various factors controlling its durability in the marine environment. Hence the research was planned with the following objectives in mind: (1) Development of flyash concrete...
Prahl, Fredrick G.; Mix, Alan C.; Sparrow, Margaret A.
An empirical global core-top calibration that relates the alkenone unsaturation index U37K' to mean annual SST (maSST) is statistically the same as that defined for a subarctic Pacific strain of Emiliania huxleyi (CCMP1742) grown exponentially in batch culture under isothermal conditions. Although both equations have been applied widely for paleoSST reconstruction, uncertainty still stems from two key ecological factors: variability in the details of biosynthesis among genetically distinct alkenone-producing strains, and impacts of non-thermal physiological growth factors on U37K'. New batch culture experiments with CCMP1742 here reveal that U37K' diverge systematically from the core-top calibration in response to nutrient depletion and light deprivation, two physiological stresses experienced by phytoplankton populations in the real ocean. Other aspects of alkenone/alkenoate composition also respond to these stresses and may serve as signatures of such effects, providing an opportunity to detect, understand, and potentially correct for such impacts on the geologic record. A test case documents that sediments from the Southeast Pacific display the alkenone/alkenoate compositional signature characteristic of cells physiologically stressed by light deprivation. Such an observation could be explained if marine snow provided a major vector of sedimentation for these biomarkers. Late Pleistocene U37K' records in the Southeast Pacific yield plausible paleotemperature histories of ice-age cooling, but ice-age alkenone/alkenoate signatures fall outside the range of modern calibration samples of similar U37K'. They better match core-top samples deposited beneath waters characterized by much cooler maSST, suggesting key features of ice-age ecology for alkenone-producing haptophytes were different from today, and that the U37K' index taken alone may misgauge the total range of ice-age cooling at these locations. Analysis of the full spectrum of alkenone/alkenoate compositions
Garvani, Sara; Carmisciano, Cosmo; Locritani, Marina; Grossi, Luigi; Mori, Anna; Stroobant, Mascha; Schierano, Erika; De Strobel, Federico; Manzella, Giuseppe; Muzi, Enrico; Leccese, Dario; Sinapi, Luigi; Morellato, Claudio; La Tassa, Hebert; Talamoni, Roberta; Coelho, Emanuel; Nacini, Francesca
Smart, sustainable and inclusive Blue Growth means also knowing past technology and the paths followed by ancients in order to understand and monitor marine environments. In general, history of Science is a matter that is not enough explored and explained or promoted in high schools or university official programmes, and, usually, scientist do not consider it as an important part of their curricula. However, bad or good ideas, abandoned or forgotten beliefs, concepts, opinions, do still have a great potential for inspiring present and future scientists, no matter in which historical period they may have been formulated: they should be always be taken into consideration, critically examined and observed by a very close point of view, not just as part of the intellectual framework of some obsolete 'Cabinet of Curiosities' with limited access except for the chosen few. Moreover, history of Science should be transmitted in a more practical way, with hands-on labs showing the limits and challenges that prior generations of ocean explorers, investigators and seafarers had to face in order to answer to crucial questions as self-orientation in open sea, understanding main currents and waves, predicting meteorological conditions for a safe navigation. Oceanography is a relatively young branch of science, and still needs further approvals and knowledge (National Science Foundation, 2000). The Scientific Dissemination Group (SDG) "La Spezia Gulf of Science" - made up by Research Centres, Schools and Cultural associations located in La Spezia (Liguria, Italy) - has a decadal experience in initiatives aimed at people and groups of people of all ages, who are keen on science or who can be guided in any case to take an interest in scientific matters (Locritani et al., 2015). Amongst the SDG activities, the tight relationship with the Historical Oceanography Society, the Italian Navy and the Naval Technical Museum (that collects a rich heritage of civilization, technology and
El Baz, F. K.
Full Text Available The sulfolipid classes (SLs in the total lipids of five species of marine algae, two species of Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea, one species of Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, and two species of Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria were separated and purified on DEAE-cellulose column chromatography. The SLs component was identified by IR, gas chromatography MS/MS and liquid chromatography MS/MS. The level of SLs contents va ried from 1.25% (in L. papillose to 11.82% (in D. fasciola of the total lipid contents. However, no significant differences in sulfate content (0.13 – 0.21% were observed among all these algae species. All SLs were characterized by high contents of palmitic acid (C 16:0, which ranged from 30.91% in G. cylindriea to 63.11% in T. atomatia. The main constitutes of algal sulfolipids were identified as sulfoquinovosyl-di-acylglycerol and sulfoquinovosyl acylglycerol. The sulfolipids of different algal species exhibited remarkable antiviral activity against herps simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 with an IC50 ranging from 18.75 to 70. 2 μg mL–1. Moreover, algal sulfolipid inhibited the growth of the tumor cells of breast and liver human cancer cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.40 to 0.67 μg mL–1 for human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7.Se separaron diferentes clases sulfolípidos (SL a partir de los lípidos totales de cinco especies de algas marinas: una especie de Chlorophyta (Ulva fasciata, dos especies de Phaeophyta (Dilophys fasciola, Taonia atomaria y dos especies de Rhodophyta (Laurencia popillose, Galaxoura cylindriea que se purificaron mediante cromatografía en columna de DEAE-celulosa. Los components de SLs fueron identificados por IR, cromatografía de gases MS/MS y cromatografía líquida MS/ MS. Los contenidos de SL en relación al total de lípidos varió de 1,25% (en L. papilosa al 11,82% (en D. fasciola. Sin embargo, no hay diferencias significativas en el contenido de sulfato
Full Text Available A singular evolutive extended Kalman (SEEK filter is used to assimilate real in situ data in a water column marine ecosystem model. The biogeochemistry of the ecosystem is described by the European Regional Sea Ecosystem Model (ERSEM, while the physical forcing is described by the Princeton Ocean Model (POM. In the SEEK filter, the error statistics are parameterized by means of a suitable basis of empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs. The purpose of this contribution is to track the possibility of using data assimilation techniques for state estimation in marine ecosystem models. In the experiments, real oxygen and nitrate data are used and the results evaluated against independent chlorophyll data. These data were collected from an offshore station at three different depths for the needs of the MFSPP project. The assimilation results show a continuous decrease in the estimation error and a clear improvement in the model behavior. Key words. Oceanography: general (ocean prediction; numerical modelling – Oceanography: biological and chemical (ecosystems and ecology
Marcogliese, David J; Jacobson, Kym C
Parasites have been considered as natural biological tags of marine fish populations in North America for almost 75 years. In the Northwest Atlantic, the most studied species include Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) and the redfishes (Sebastes spp.). In the North Pacific, research has centred primarily on salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.). However, parasites have been applied as tags for numerous other pelagic and demersal species on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Relatively few studies have been undertaken in the Arctic, and these were designed to discriminate anadromous and resident salmonids (Salvelinus spp.). Although rarely applied in fresh waters, parasites have been used to delineate certain fish stocks within the Great Lakes-St Lawrence River basin. Anisakid nematodes and the copepod Sphyrion lumpi frequently prove useful indicators in the Northwest Atlantic, while myxozoan parasites prove very effective on the coast and open seas of the Pacific Ocean. Relative differences in the ability of parasites to discriminate between fish stocks on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts may be due to oceanographic and bathymetric differences between regions. Molecular techniques used to differentiate populations and species of parasites show promise in future applications in the field.
Pringgenies, Delianis; Rudiyanti, Siti; Yudiati, Ervia
This research aim was to study the potential of Stichopus hermanii to determine the amino acid, chondroitin, and glucosamine contents, to discover its antibacterial and anti-cancer agent. The samples were rinsed prior to separation, with only the corpus being used in the study. Sea cucumber extract was then processed using HPLC to trace contents of amino acid, chondroitin, and glucosamine contents. The samples were then put into test against several strains of pathogenic bacteria by means of diffusion for any biological activity. The anti-cancer test was performed by human ovarian cancer cell line (KOC7C) method. The study showed that the extract of Stichopus hermanii has the potency to inhibit the growth of active ovarian cancer cells. The qualitative test of the sea cucumber extract showed that it is capable of suppressing the growth of several strains of pathogenic bacteria identified as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Vibrio voinivica, and Pseudomonas sp. HPLC results showed that the extract contained amino acid (mg/100g), the highest being Collagen (11200), followed by Glycine (3760), Glutamic Acid (3700), Aspartic Acid (2540), Alanine (2140), Proline (2050), Arginine (2050), Tyrosine (1430), Threonine (1270), Leucine (1170), Valine (1050), Serine (971), Isoleucine (816), Phenylalanine (713), Lysine (639), Methionine (383), Cystine (263) and Histidine (208). The extract also contained Chondroitin Sulfate (4200) and Glucosamine Hydrochloride (<5.00). In conclusion, the study found that the extract of Stichopus hermanii has potential as anti-cancer, particularly against ovarian cancer, with the highest content being Collagen within amino acids, as well as chondroitin and glucosamine.
Consoli, Pierpaolo; Andaloro, Franco; Altobelli, Chiara; Battaglia, Pietro; Campagnuolo, Silvana; Canese, Simonepietro; Castriota, Luca; Cillari, Tiziana; Falautano, Manuela; Pedà, Cristina; Perzia, Patrizia; Sinopoli, Mauro; Vivona, Pietro; Scotti, Gianfranco; Esposito, Valentina; Galgani, Francois; Romeo, Teresa
Marine litter is commonly observed everywhere in the ocean. In this study, we analyzed 17 km of video footage, collected by a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) at depths ranging between 20 and 220 m, during 19 transects performed on the rocky banks of the Straits of Sicily. Recently, the Contracting Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognized this site as an Ecologically or Biologically Significant Area (EBSA). The research aim was to quantify the abundance of marine litter and its impact on benthic fauna. Litter density ranged from 0 items/100 m 2 to 14.02 items/100 m 2 with a mean (±standard error) of 2.13 (±0.84) items/100 m 2 . The observed average density was higher (5.2 items/100 m 2 ) at depths >100 m than at shallower depths (fishing lines contributed to 98.07% of the overall litter density, then representing the dominant source of marine debris. Litter interactions with fauna were frequently observed, with 30% of litter causing "entanglement/coverage" and 15% causing damage to sessile fauna. A total of 16 species showed interaction (entanglement/coverage or damage) with litter items and 12 of these are species of conservation concern according to international directives and agreements (CITES, Berne Convention, Habitat Directive, SPA/BD Protocol, IUCN Red List); we also observed 7 priority habitats of the SPA/BD Protocol. This research will support the implementation of monitoring "Harm" as recommended by the UN Environment/MAP Regional Plan on Marine Litter Management in the Mediterranean, and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The institution of a SPAMI in the investigated area could represent a good management action for the protection of this hotspot of biodiversity and to achieve a Good Environmental Status (GES) for the marine environment by 2020, under the MSFD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)
This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Volume IV contains the following: bibliography; appendices for supporting data for physical oceanography, and summary of the physical oceanography along the western Louisiana coast.
Menkes, C. E.; Allain, V.; Rodier, M.; Gallois, F.; Lebourges-Dhaussy, A.; Hunt, B. P. V.; Smeti, H.; Pagano, M.; Josse, E.; Daroux, A.; Lehodey, P.; Senina, I.; Kestenare, E.; Lorrain, A.; Nicol, S.
Tuna catches represent a major economic and food source in the Pacific Ocean, yet are highly variable. This variability in tuna catches remains poorly explained. The relationships between the distributions of tuna and their forage (micronekton) have been mostly derived from model estimates. Observations of micronekton and other mid-trophic level organisms, and their link to regional oceanography, however are scarce and constitute an important gap in our knowledge and understanding of the dynamics of pelagic ecosystems. To fill this gap, we conducted two multidisciplinary cruises (Nectalis1 and Nectalis2) in the New Caledonian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) at the southeastern edge the Coral Sea, in 2011 to characterize the oceanography of the region during the cool (August) and the hot (December) seasons. The physical and biological environments were described by hydrology, nutrients and phytoplankton size structure and biomass. Zooplankton biomass was estimated from net sampling and acoustics and micronecton was estimated from net sampling, the SEAPODYM ecosystem model, a dedicated echosounder and non-dedicated acoustics. Results demonstrated that New Caledonia is located in an oligotrophic area characterized by low nutrient and low primary production which is dominated by a high percentage of picoplankton cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus (>90%). The area exhibits a large-scale north-south temperature and salinity gradient. The northern area is influenced by the equatorial Warm Pool and the South Pacific Convergence Zone and is characterized by higher temperature, lower salinity, lower primary production and micronekton biomass. The southern area is influenced by the Tasman Sea and is characterized by cooler temperature, higher salinity, higher primary production and micronekton biomass. The dynamic oceanography and the complex topography create a myriad of mesoscale features including eddies, inducing patchy structures in the ecosystem. During the cool season, a
Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui
Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and...
... graduate and undergraduate marine biology students conducted approximately 600 hours of scientific... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...
..., from May 4 through November 18, 2009, trained graduate and undergraduate marine biology students... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...
van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Nunes, P.A.L.D.; Dottinga, H.M.; Kooistra, W.H.C.F.; Vrieling, E.G.; Peperzak, L.
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are the cause of important damages to marine living resources and human beings. HABs are generated by micro-algae. These marine species are primarily introduced through ballast water of ships and, to a lesser extent, through import of living fish, in particular shellfish.
van den Bergh, JCJM; Nunes, PALD; Dotinga, HM; Kooistra, WHCF; Vrieling, EG; Peperzak, L
Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are the cause of important damages to marine living resources and human beings. HABs are generated by micro-algae. These marine species are primarily introduced through ballast water of ships and, to a lesser extent, through import of living fish, in particular shellfish.
Full Text Available Industrial aquaculture wastewater contains large quantities of suspended particles that can be easily broken down physically. Introduction of macro-bio-filters, such as bivalve filter feeders, may offer the potential for treatment of fine suspended matter in industrial aquaculture wastewater. In this study, we employed two kinds of bivalve filter feeders, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and the blue mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, to deposit suspended solids from marine fish aquaculture wastewater in flow-through systems. Results showed that the biodeposition rate of suspended particles by C. gigas (shell height: 8.67 ± 0.99 cm and M. galloprovincialis (shell height: 4.43 ± 0.98 cm was 77.84 ± 7.77 and 6.37 ± 0.67 mg ind(-1 • d(-1, respectively. The total solid suspension (TSS deposition rates of oyster and mussel treatments were 3.73 ± 0.27 and 2.76 ± 0.20 times higher than that of the control treatment without bivalves, respectively. The TSS deposition rates of bivalve treatments were significantly higher than the natural sedimentation rate of the control treatment (P < 0.001. Furthermore, organic matter and C, N in the sediments of bivalve treatments were significantly lower than those in the sediments of the control (P < 0.05. It was suggested that the filter feeders C. gigas and M. galloprovincialis had considerable potential to filter and accelerate the deposition of suspended particles from industrial aquaculture wastewater, and simultaneously yield value-added biological products.
Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Hounshell, Paul B.
Develops a rationale for integrating oceanography and marine education in land-oriented curriculum at the secondary level. Examples of topics with a multidisciplinary approach are described in the areas of acoustics and music, aquaria, archeology, art, astronomy, literature, careers, ecology, gastronomy, geology, and topics on various aquatic…
Dmochowski, J. E.; Marinov, I.
A decline in enrollment in STEM fields at the university level has prompted extensive research on alternative ways of teaching and learning science. Inquiry-based learning as well as the related "flipped" or "active" lectures, and similar teaching methods and philosophies have been proposed as more effective ways to disseminate knowledge in science classes than the traditional lecture. We will provide a synopsis of our experiences in implementing some of these practices into our Introductory Oceanography, Global Climate Change, and Ocean Atmosphere Dynamics undergraduate courses at the University of Pennsylvania, with both smaller and larger enrollments. By implementing tools such as at-home modules; computer labs; incorporation of current research; pre- and post-lecture quizzes; reflective, qualitative writing assignments; peer review; and a variety of in-class learning strategies, we aim to increase the science literacy of the student population and help students gain a more comprehensive knowledge of the topic, enhance their critical thinking skills, and correct misconceptions. While implementing these teaching techniques with college students is not without complications, we argue that a blended class that flexibly and creatively accounts for class size and science level improves the learning experience and the acquired knowledge. We will present examples of student assignments and activities as well as describe the lessons we have learned, and propose ideas for moving forward to best utilize innovative teaching tools in order to increase science literacy in oceanography and other climate-related courses.
... information collection. Marine recreational anglers are surveyed for catch and effort data, fish biology data... Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program (Marine Recreational Fisheries..., regarding conservation and management of fishery resources. Marine recreational fishing catch and effort...
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Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.
The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.
Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.
The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In August 2001, biologists from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service were asked to conduct an assessment of the national...
Kaplan, I. R.
Research effort was directed toward four projects: development of a rapid technique for the measurement of total uranium content in marine sediments; understanding of the quantitative aspects involved in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter on the sea floor; evaluation of the magnitude of ionic diffusion constants in marine sediments; and development of a rapid monitoring system for dissolved sulfate in sea water and sediments to determine pollution of the ocean floor.
Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the environmental status of European marine waters to be assessed using biodiversity as one out of 11 descriptors, but the complexity of marine biodiversity and its large span across latitudinal and salinity gradients have been a challenge to the scientific community aiming to produce approaches for integrating information from a broad range of indicators. The Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool (NEAT, developed for the integrated assessment of the status of marine waters, was applied to ten marine ecosystems to test its applicability and compare biodiversity assessments across the four European regional seas. We evaluate the assessment results as well as the assessment designs of the ten cases, and how the assessment design, particularly the choices made regarding the area and indicator selection, affected the results. The results show that only 2 out of the 10 case study areas show more than 50 % probability of being in good status in respect of biodiversity. No strong pattern among the ecosystem components across the case study areas could be detected, but marine mammals, birds, and benthic vegetation indicators tended to indicate poor status while zooplankton indicators indicated good status when included into the assessment. The analysis shows that the assessment design, including the selection of indicators, their target values, geographical resolution and habitats to be assessed, has potentially a high impact on the result, and the assessment structure needs to be understood in order to make an informed assessment. Moreover, recommendations are provided for the best practice of using NEAT for marine status assessments.
The oceanography programme of the Federal German Government has the following general aims: 1. To lay the foundation for better understanding of the role of the ocean as a climate factor and repercussions on the ocean from climate change as a basis for future preventive and protective action. 2. Identification of natural and anthropogenous factors of stress to the coastal seas, the coastal regions and the open ocean, research into their dynamics and impact, and development of bases, methods and concepts for describing and evaluating the condition of the coastal seas, coastal regions and open ocean and for projecting and/or remedying relative changes. 3. Development of methods and techniques for climate and environment-related research into and monitoring of the oceans and for careful exploitation of living and non-living resources. (orig.) [de
A discussion of the Arctic Marine Oil Spill Program organized in 1976 by the Canadian Federal Government includes: an Arctic Atlas compiled by Fenco Consultants Ltd. to give background information necessary for developing marine oil spill countermeasures for the Arctic north of 60/sup 0/ including the west Greenland coast and the Labrador shelf (geology, meteorology and oceanography, ice conditions, biology, and social factors); program in emergency transport of spill-combatting equipment; and the factors which influence the choice of conveyance, i.e., accessibility of the site, urgency for response, and quantity of material required; laboratory studies involving the release of oil under artificial sea ice in simulated ice formation and decay purposes to determine the interaction of crude oil and first-year sea ice; inability of companies and government to control a major spill in the Labrador Sea because of poor and inadequate transport facilities, communications, and navigational aids, severe environmental conditions, and logistics problems; and studies on the effects of oil-well blowouts in deep water, including formation of oil and gas hydrates, design of oil skimmers, the use of hovercraft, and specifications for an airborne multisensor system for oil detection in ice-infested waters.
Reynolds, D. J.; Hall, I. R.; Scourse, J. D.; Richardson, C. A.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.
Given the rapid increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO2) over the industrial era, there is a pressing need to construct long-term records of natural carbon cycling prior to this perturbation and to develop a more robust understanding of the role the oceans play in the sequestration of atmospheric carbon. Here we reconstruct the past biological and climate controls on the carbon isotopic (δ13Cshell) composition of the North Icelandic shelf waters over the last millennium, derived from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve mollusk Arctica islandica. Variability in the annually resolved δ13Cshell record is dominated by multidecadal variability with a negative trend (-0.003 ± 0.002‰ yr-1) over the industrial era (1800-2000 Common Era). This trend is consistent with the marine Suess effect brought about by the sequestration of isotopically light carbon (δ13C of CO2) derived from the burning of fossil fuels. Comparison of the δ13Cshell record with Contemporaneous proxy archives, over the last millennium, and instrumental data over the twentieth century, highlights that both biological (primary production) and physical environmental factors, such as relative shifts in the proportion of Subpolar Mode Waters and Arctic Intermediate Waters entrained onto the North Icelandic shelf, atmospheric circulation patterns associated with the winter North Atlantic Oscillation, and sea surface temperature and salinity of the subpolar gyre, are the likely mechanisms that contribute to natural variations in seawater δ13C variability on the North Icelandic shelf. Contrasting δ13C fractionation processes associated with these biological and physical mechanisms likely cause the attenuated marine Suess effect signal at this locality.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PO.DAAC provides several ways to discover and access physical oceanography data, from the PO.DAAC Web Portal to FTP access to front-end user interfaces (see...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PO.DAAC provides several ways to discover and access physical oceanography data, from the PO.DAAC Web Portal to FTP access to front-end user interfaces (see...
which deal with units in physical oceanography, statistical terminology; means, variances and moment generating functions for common con- tinuous variables; statistical tables; correlation coefficients and approximations and non-dimensional numbers...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PO.DAAC provides several ways to discover and access physical oceanography data, from the PO.DAAC Web Portal to FTP access to front-end user interfaces (see...
I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...
Region and season-wise biological production in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of India has been computed from the data of more than twenty years available at the Indian National Oceanographic Data Centre of the National Institute of Oceanography...
Paffenhoefer, G.A.; Yoder, J.A.
Progress is reported on research conducted during 1979 on the biological oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight. The presentation consists of a number of published articles and abstracts of oral presentations. (ACR)
PrasannaKumar, S.; Nuncio, M.; Ramaiah, N.; Sardesai, S.; Narvekar, J.; Fernandes, V.; Paul, J.T.
-1 Eddy-mediated biological productivity in the Bay of Bengal during fall and spring intermonsoons S. Prasanna Kumar, M. Nuncio, N. Ramaiah, S. Sardesai, Jayu Narvekar, Veronica Fernandes, Jane T. Paul National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula...
Estes, James A.; Bodkin, James L.; Ben-David, M.; Perrin, William F.; Würsing, Bernd; Thewissen, J.G.M.
The otters (Mustelidae; Lutrinae) provide an exceptional perspective into the evolution of marine living by mammals. Most extant marine mammals (e.g. the cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians) have been so highly modified by long periods of selection for life in the sea that they bear little resemblance to their terrestrial ancestors. Marine otters, in contrast, are more recent expatriates from freshwater habitats and some species still live in both environments. Contrasts among species within the otters, and among the otters, terrestrial mammals, and the more highly adapted pinnipeds and cetaceans provide powerful insights into mammalian adaptations to life in the sea (Estes, 1989). Among the marine mammals, sea otters (Enhydra lutris, Fig. 1) provide the clearest understanding of consumer-induced effects on ecosystem function. This is due in part to opportunities provided by history and in part to the relative ease with which shallow coastal systems where sea otters live can be observed and studied. Although more difficult to study than sea otters, other otter species reveal the connectivity among the marine, freshwater, and terrestrial systems. These three qualities of the otters – their comparative biology, their role as predators, and their role as agents of ecosystem connectivity – are what make them interesting to marine mammalogy.The following account provides a broad overview of the comparative biology and ecology of the otters, with particular emphasis on those species or populations that live in the sea. Sea otters are features prominently, in part because they live exclusively in the sea whereas other otters have obligate associations with freshwater and terrestrial environments (Kenyon, 1969; Riedman and Estes, 1990).
Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash
Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
...-XA165 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Jennifer Burns, Ph.D., University of Alaska Anchorage, Biology Department, 3101 Science Circle, Anchorage, AK, has been issued a permit to conduct [[Page 25309
SenGupta, R.; Naqvi, S.W.A.
-1200m) resulting in the reduction of nitrate (denitrification). The North Indian Ocean may contribute up to 10% of the global marine denitrification. The "denitrified" nitrogen, when combined with the rate of photo synthetic production reaching below...
Huybers, Peter; Wunsch, Carl
Paleophysical oceanography is the study of the behavior of the fluid ocean of the past, with a specific emphasis on its climate implications, leading to a focus on the general circulation. Even if the circulation is not of primary concern, heavy reliance on deep-sea cores for past climate information means that knowledge of the oceanic state when the sediments were laid down is a necessity. Like the modern problem, paleoceanography depends heavily on observations, and central difficulties lie with the very limited data types and coverage that are, and perhaps ever will be, available. An approximate separation can be made into static descriptors of the circulation (e.g., its water-mass properties and volumes) and the more difficult problem of determining transport rates of mass and other properties. Determination of the circulation of the Last Glacial Maximum is used to outline some of the main challenges to progress. Apart from sampling issues, major difficulties lie with physical interpretation of the proxies, transferring core depths to an accurate timescale (the "age-model problem"), and understanding the accuracy of time-stepping oceanic or coupled-climate models when run unconstrained by observations. Despite the existence of many plausible explanatory scenarios, few features of the paleocirculation in any period are yet known with certainty.
Velden, Christopher; Digirolamo, Larry; Glackin, Mary; Hawkins, Jeffrey; Jedlovec, Gary; Lee, Thomas; Petty, Grant; Plante, Robert; Reale, Anthony; Zapotocny, John
The American Meteorological Society (AMS) held its 11th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography at the Monona Terrace Convention Center in Madison, Wisconsin, during 15-18 October 2001. The purpose of the conference, typically held every 18 months, is to promote a forum for AMS membership, international scientists, and student members to present and discuss the latest advances in satellite remote sensing for meteorological and oceanographical applications. This year, surrounded by inspirational designs by famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright, the meeting focused on several broad topics related to remote sensing from space, including environmental applications of land and oceanic remote sensing, climatology and long-term satellite data studies, operational applications, radiances and retrievals, and new technology and methods. A vision of an increasing convergence of satellite systems emerged that included operational and research satellite programs and interdisciplinary user groups.The conference also hosted NASA's Electronic Theater, which was presented to groups of middle and high school students totaling over 5500. It was truly a successful public outreach event. The conference banquet was held on the final evening, where a short tribute to satellite pioneer Verner Suomi was given by Joanne Simpson. Suomi was responsible for establishing the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin in Madison.
Dupont, S; Carré-Mlouka, A; Descarrega, F; Ereskovsky, A; Longeon, A; Mouray, E; Florent, I; Bourguet-Kondracki, M L
The diversity of the cultivable microbiota of the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea was investigated, and its potential as a source of antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiplasmodial compounds was evaluated. The cultivable bacterial community was studied by isolation, cultivation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Twenty-three bacterial strains were isolated and identified in the Proteobacteria (α or γ classes) and Actinobacteria phyla. Furthermore, three different bacterial morphotypes localized extracellularly within the sponge tissues were revealed by microscopic observations. Bacterial strains were assigned to seven different genera, namely Vibrio, Photobacterium, Shewanella, Pseudomonas, Ruegeria, Pseudovibrio and Citricoccus. The strains affiliated to the same genus were differentiated according to their genetic dissimilarities using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses. Eleven bacterial strains were selected for evaluation of their bioactivities. Three isolates Pseudovibrio P1Ma4, Vibrio P1MaNal1 and Citricoccus P1S7 revealed antimicrobial activity; Citricoccus P1S7 and Vibrio P1MaNal1 isolates also exhibited antiplasmodial activity, while two Vibrio isolates P1Ma8 and P1Ma5 displayed antioxidant activity. These data confirmed the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria associated with marine sponges as a reservoir of bioactive compounds. This study presents the first report on the diversity of the cultivable bacteria associated with the marine sponge Phorbas tenacior, frequently found in the Mediterranean Sea. Evaluation of the antiplasmodial, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the isolates has been investigated and allowed to select bacterial strains, confirming the importance of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria as sources of bioactive compounds. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Hung, Le Dinh; Ly, Bui Minh; Hao, Vo Thi; Trung, Dinh Thanh; Trang, Vo Thi Dieu; Trinh, Phan Thi Hoai; Ngoc, Ngo Thi Duy; Quang, Thai Minh
SFL, a lectin from the marine sponge Stylissa flexibilis was purified by cold ethanol precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sepharose column and Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. SFL is a dimeric glycoprotein of 32kDa subunits linked by a disulfide bridge with a molecular mass of 64kDa by SDS-PAGE and 65kDa by Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration. SFL preferentially agglutinated enzyme treated human A erythrocytes. The activity of lectin was strongly inhibited by monosaccharide d-galactose and glycoproteins asialo-porcine stomach mucin and asialo-fetuin. The lectin was Ca 2+ dependent, stable over a range of pH from 5 to 8, and up to 60°C for 30min. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of SFL was also determined and a blast search on amino acid sequences revealed that the protein showed similarity only with lectins from the marine sponge Spheciospongia vesparia. SFL caused agglutination of Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus in a dose dependent manner and inhibited the growth rates of the virulent bacterial strains. Growth inhibition of V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus with SFL was not observed in the presence of d-galactose or asialo-porcine stomach mucin, suggesting that the lectin caused the agglutination through binding to the target receptor(s) on the surface of Vibrios. Thus, the marine sponge S. flexibilis could promise to be a good source of a lectin(s) that may be useful as a carbohydrate probe and an antibacterial reagent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Vitamin B1, or thiamin, can limit primary productivity in marine environments, however the major marine environmental sources of this essential coenzyme remain largely unknown. Vitamin B1 can only be produced by organisms that possess its complete synthesis pathway, while other organisms meet their cellular B1 quota by scavenging the coenzyme from exogenous sources. Due to high bacterial cell density and diversity, marine sediments could represent some of the highest concentrations of putative B1 producers, yet these environments have received little attention as a possible source of B1 to the overlying water column. Here we report the first dissolved pore water profiles of B1 measured in cores collected in two consecutive years from Santa Monica Basin, CA. Vitamin B1 concentrations were fairly consistent between the two years ranging from 30 pM up to 770 pM. A consistent maximum at ~5 cm sediment depth covaried with dissolved concentrations of iron. Pore water concentrations were higher than water column levels and represented some of the highest known environmental concentrations of B1 measured to date, (over two times higher than maximum water column concentrations suggesting increased rates of cellular production and release within the sediments. A one dimensional diffusion-transport model applied to the B1 profile was used to estimate a diffusive benthic flux of ~0.7 nmol m 2 d-1. This is an estimated flux across the sediment-water interface in a deep sea basin; if similar magnitude B-vitamin fluxes occur in shallow coastal waters, benthic input could prove to be a significant B1-source to the water column and may play an important role in supplying this organic growth factor to auxotrophic primary producers.
Yi, Andy Xianliang; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Jae-Seong; Leung, Kenneth M Y
Triphenyltin compounds (TPTs), as effective biocides for different industrial and agricultural purposes, have been detected in coastal marine environments worldwide, in particular in Asian countries. However, little is known about their toxicity to marine organisms. This study comprehensively investigated the molecular, individual and population responses of the marine copepod, Tigriopus japonicus upon waterborne exposure to TPT chloride (TPTCl). Our results indicated that TPTCl was highly toxic to adult T. japonicus, with a 96-h LC50 concentration at 6.3 μg/L. As shown in a chronic full life-cycle test, T. japonicus exposed to 1.0 μg/L TPTCl exhibited a delay in development and a significant reduction of population growth, in terms of the intrinsic rate of increase (r m ). Based on the negative relationship between the r m and exposure concentration, a critical effect concentration was estimated at 1.6 μg/L TPTCl; at or above which population extinction could occur. At 0.1 μg/L TPTCl or above, the sex ratio of the second generation of the copepod was significantly altered and changed to a male-biased population. At molecular level, the inhibition of the transcriptional expression of glutathione S-transferase related genes might lead to dysfunction of detoxification, and the inhibition of retinoid X receptor mRNA expression implied an interruption of the growth and moulting process in T. japonicus. As the only gene that observed up-regulated in this study, the expression of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) increased in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating its function in protecting the copepod from TPT-mediated oxidative stress. The study advances our understanding on the ecotoxicity of TPT, and provides some initial data on its toxic mechanisms in small crustaceans like copepods.
In the 1990 s, while gliders were being developed and successfully passing first tests, their potential use for ocean research started to be discussed in international conferences because they could help us improve the cost-effectiveness, sampling, and distribution of the ocean observations (see OceanObs'99 Conference Statement - UNESCO). After the prototype phase, in the 2000 s, one could only witness the growing glider activity throughout the world. The first glider experiments in Europe brought together several teams that were interested in the technology and a consortium formed naturally from these informal collaborations. Since 2006, Everyone's Gliding Observatories (EGO - http://www.ego-network.org) Workshops and Glider Schools have been organized, whilst becoming the international forum for glider activities. Some key challenges have emerged from the expansion of the glider system and require now setting up a sustainable European as well as a global system to operate glider and to ensure a smooth and sustained link to the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Glider technology faces many scientific, technological and logistical issues. In particular, it approaches the challenge of controlling many steerable probes in a variable environment for better sampling. It also needs the development of new formats and procedures in order to build glider observatories at a global level. Several geographically distributed teams of oceanographers now operate gliders, and there is a risk of fragmentation. We will here present results from our consortium who intends to solve most of these issues through scientific and technological coordination and networking. This approach is supported by the ESF through Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research (COST). The COST Action ES0904 "EGO" started in July 2010 aiming to build international cooperation and capacities at the scientific, technological, and organizational levels, for sustained observations of the oceans with gliders. A major impact of this Action was the elaboration of the EU Collaborative Project GROOM, Gliders for Research, Ocean Observation and Management for the FP7 call "Capacities - Research Infrastructures", which addresses the topic "design studies for research infrastructures in all S&T fields" (see http://www.groom-fp.eu).
Johnson, Matthew; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Kiliyanpilakkil, Praju; Gasso, Santiago
Modeling and remote sensing techniques were applied to examine the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust and quantify the effect of soluble-iron- laden mineral dust deposition on marine primary productivity in the South Atlantic Ocean (SAO) surface waters. The global chemistry transport model GEOS-Chem, implemented with an iron dissolution scheme, was applied to evaluate the atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust and bioavailable iron during two dust outbreaks originating in the source regions of Patagonia. In addition to this "rapidly released" iron, offline calculations were also carried out to estimate the amount of bioavailable iron leached during the residence time of dust in the ocean mixed layer. Model simulations showed that the horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust plumes were largely influenced by the synoptic meteorological patterns of high and low pressure systems. Model-predicted horizontal and vertical transport pathways of Patagonian dust over the SAO were in reasonable agreement with remotely-sensed data. Comparison between remotely-sensed and offline calculated ocean surface chlorophyll-a concentrations indicated that, for the two dust outbreaks examined in this study, the deposition of bioavailable iron in the SAO through atmospheric pathways was insignificant. As the two dust transport episodes examined here represent typical outflows of mineral dust from South American sources, our study suggests that the atmospheric deposition of mineral dust is unlikely to induce large scale marine primary productivity and carbon sequestration in the South Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean.
Full Text Available In tropical waters resources are usually scarce and patchy, and predatory species generally show specific adaptations for foraging. Tropical seabirds often forage in association with sub-surface predators that create feeding opportunities by bringing prey close to the surface, and the birds often aggregate in large multispecific flocks. Here we hypothesize that frigatebirds, a tropical seabird adapted to foraging with low energetic costs, could be a good predictor of the distribution of their associated predatory species, including other seabirds (e.g. boobies, terns and subsurface predators (e.g., dolphins, tunas. To test this hypothesis, we compared distribution patterns of marine predators in the Mozambique Channel based on a long-term dataset of both vessel- and aerial surveys, as well as tracking data of frigatebirds. By developing species distribution models (SDMs, we identified key marine areas for tropical predators in relation to contemporaneous oceanographic features to investigate multi-species spatial overlap areas and identify predator hotspots in the Mozambique Channel. SDMs reasonably matched observed patterns and both static (e.g. bathymetry and dynamic (e.g. Chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature factors were important explaining predator distribution patterns. We found that the distribution of frigatebirds included the distributions of the associated species. The central part of the channel appeared to be the best habitat for the four groups of species considered in this study (frigatebirds, brown terns, boobies and sub-surface predators.
Poteau, A.; Claustre, H.; Scheurle, C.; Jessin, T.; Fontana, C.
One objective of the "Ocean Autonomous Observation" team of the Laboratory of Oceanography of Villefranche-sur-mer is to develop new means to outreach our science activities to various audiences. Besides the scientific community, this includes students and targets the general public, school pupils, and stakeholders. In this context, we have acquired a digital video globe with tactile capabilities and we will present here the various applications that we have been developing. A first type of products concerns the visualization of oceanic properties (SST, salinity, density, Chla, O2, NO3, irradiance) by diving from the surface (generally from satellite data) into the Ocean interior (through the use of global data bases, Argo, WOA). In second place, specific applications deal with surface animations allowing highlighting the seasonality of some properties (Chla, SST, ice cover, currents; based on satellite as well as modeling outputs). Finally, we show a variety of applications developed using the tactile functionality of the spherical display. In particular real-time vertical profiles acquired by Bio-Argo floats become directly accessible for the entire open ocean. Such a new tool plus its novel applications has been presented to school children, and to the wider public (at the so-called "fête de la science") as well as to potential sponsors of our science-outreach activities. Their feedback has always been highly positive and encouraging in terms of impact. From the scientists point of view, the use of this new support can easily compete with the classical PowerPoint, is much more attractive and fun and undeniably helps to outreach the various aspects of our pluridisciplinary science.
Alves dos Santos, Francisco; da Rocha Fragoso, Maurício; Maturo Marques da Cruz, Leonardo; de Castro Pellegrini, Julio Augusto; de Freitas Assad, Luiz Paulo; Landau, Luiz; Adissi, Flávia
The beginning of 2013 will mark the start for the Project BLUE, one of the greatest efforts in operational oceanography ever proposed in Brazil. The region of interest is located in the continental shelf break between Cabo Frio (23°S) and Floriananópolis Island (28°S). The region is dominated by the Brazil Current system, formed by the Brazil Current, carrying Tropical Water southward from surface down to 400-500 meters and the Intermediate Counter Current, flowing northward in the interface of the South Atlantic Central Water and the Antarctic Intermediate Water. In situ data and operational forecasts efforts in this oil rich region are still few and disperse. Nevertheless, the constant increase of offshore operations is followed by the necessity of both a baseline study and a systematic data collection. All project structure is aimed at optimizing real-time data collection and displaying. Project BLUE is formed by 4 modules: (1) In situ data collection will be performed by 5 gliders, 108 surface drifters and 36 subsurface profiling floats. (2) Remote Sensing module count on a local receiving antenna to provide operational information of Sea Surface Temperature, Height and Ocean Color. (3) Numerical Modelling module aims, initially, to implement a regional grid for long climatological runs, followed by an operational run, with assimilation of the data generated by the first module. One of the great concerns of the Project BLUE is to turn public all collected data, allowing for a greater number of researchers to access the data and, consequently, improving the knowledge on the region. For that purpose, there is an specific module (4) Data displaying focused on easing the access to the data via web services. It is expected, by the end of the first three years, to have a systematic data collection system, a well adapted assimilation scheme and an operational forecast model for the Santos Basin, providing reliable information for offshore operations and emergency
Halversen, Catherine; Strang, Craig
This guide was designed by the Marine Activities, Resources & Education (MARE) Program through the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) ongoing curriculum development program for middle school students. This GEMS guide addresses the concepts of the interconnectedness of the ocean basins, respect for organisms, oceanography, physical…
Dahiya, Rajiv; Singh, Sunil; Sharma, Ajay; Chennupati, Suresh V; Maharaj, Sandeep
A natural heptacyclopeptide, stylissamide G ( 7 ), previously isolated from the Bahamian marine sponge Stylissa caribica from the Caribbean Sea, was synthesized via coupling of the tetrapeptide l-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-proline methyl ester with the tripeptide Boc-l-leucyl-l-isoleucyl-l-proline, followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide fragment. The structure of the synthesized cyclooligopeptide was confirmed using quantitative elemental analysis, FT-IR, ¹H NMR, 13 C NMR and mass spectrometry. Results of pharmacological activity studies indicated that the newly synthesized cycloheptapeptide displayed good anthelmintic potential against Megascoplex konkanensis , Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea at 2 mg/mL and in addition, potent antifungal activity against pathogenic Candida albicans and dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL.
Thakre, Neha A; Shanware, Arti S
In present study, several marine water samples collected from the North Goa Beaches, India for isolation of luminescent bacterial species. Isolates obtained labelled as DP1-5 and AB1-6. Molecular characterization including identification of a microbial culture using 16S rRNA gene based molecular technique and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that DP3 & AB1 isolates were Vibrio harveyi. All of the isolates demonstrated multiple metal resistances in terms of growth, with altered luminescence with variable metal concentration. Present investigations were an attempt towards exploring and reporting an updated diversity of bioluminescent bacterial species from various sites around the Goa, India which would be explored in future for constructing luminescence based biosensor for efficiently monitoring the level of hazardous metals in the environment.
Full Text Available A natural heptacyclopeptide, stylissamide G (7, previously isolated from the Bahamian marine sponge Stylissa caribica from the Caribbean Sea, was synthesized via coupling of the tetrapeptide l-phenylalanyl-l-prolyl-l-phenylalanyl-l-proline methyl ester with the tripeptide Boc-l-leucyl-l-isoleucyl-l-proline, followed by cyclization of the linear heptapeptide fragment. The structure of the synthesized cyclooligopeptide was confirmed using quantitative elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectrometry. Results of pharmacological activity studies indicated that the newly synthesized cycloheptapeptide displayed good anthelmintic potential against Megascoplex konkanensis, Pontoscotex corethruses and Eudrilus eugeniea at 2 mg/mL and in addition, potent antifungal activity against pathogenic Candida albicans and dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Microsporum audouinii at a concentration of 6 μg/mL.
Full Text Available Understanding the effects of chronic chemical contamination on natural populations of marine organisms is complex due to the combined effects of different types of pollutants and environmental parameters that can modulate the physiological responses to stress. Here, we present the effects of a chronic contamination in a marine bivalve by combining multiple approaches that provide information on individual and population health. We sampled variegated scallops (Mimachlamys varia at sites characterized by different contaminants and contamination levels to study the short and long-term (intergenerational responses of this species to physiological stress. We used biomarkers (SOD, MDA, GST, laccase, citrate synthase and phosphatases as indicators of oxidative stress, immune system alteration, mitochondrial respiration and general metabolism, and measured population genetic diversity at each site. In parallel, concentration of 14 trace metals and 45 organic contaminants (PAHs, PCBs, pesticides in tissues were measured. Scallops were collected outside and during their reproductive season to investigate temporal variability in contaminant and biomarker levels. Our analyses revealed that the levels of two biomarkers (Laccase-type phenoloxidase and malondialdehyde were significantly correlated with Cd concentration. Additionally, we observed significant seasonal differences for four of the five biomarkers, which is likely due to the scallop reproductive status at time of sampling. As a source of concern, a location that was identified as a reference site on the basis of inorganic contaminant levels presented the same level of some persistent organic pollutants (DDT and its metabolites than more impacted sites. Finally, potential long-term effects of heavy metal contamination were observed for variegated scallops as genetic diversity was depressed in the most polluted sites.
Kerr, Lisa A.; Hintzen, Niels T.; Cadrin, Steven X.; Clausen, Lotte Worsøe; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Goethel, Daniel R.; Hatfield, Emma M.C.; Kritzer, Jacob P.; Nash, Richard D.M.
Recent advances in the application of stock identification methods have revealed inconsistencies between the spatial structure of biological populations and the definition of stock units used in assessment and management. From a fisheries management perspective, stocks are typically assumed to be
de Almeida Couto, Camila Rattes; Jurelevicius, Diogo de Azevedo; Alvarez, Vanessa Marques; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy
The use of dispersants in different stages of the oil production chain and for the remediation of water and soil is a well established practice. However, the choice for a chemical or biological dispersant is still a controversial subject. Chemical surfactants that persist long in the environment may
Southern Yellow Sea, Inch’on, Korea Bay 10 AD 730 957 31-33 Bonin Islands, Volcano Islands, Marcus I. 11 AD 730 958 SIBERIAN COASTAL MARINE AREAS Areas 1...AD A073 874 Set Easter, Isla San Ambrosia & Isla San Felix,No.(17) Islas Juan Fernandez, Norfolk, Chatham 25-32 Auckland W, Auckland E, Cook Strait
Teske, Peter R.; Sandoval-Castillo, Jonathan; Van Sebille, Erik; Waters, Jonathan; Beheregaray, Luciano B.
The application of high-resolution genetic data has revealed that oceanographic connectivity in marine species with planktonic larvae can be surprisingly limited, even in the absence of major barriers to dispersal. Australia's southern coast represents a particularly interesting system for studying
Dixit, Aabha; Kaiser, Peter
The IAEA assists Member States in using scientific tools to precisely identify and track nuclear and nonnuclear contaminants, as well as to investigate their biological effects on the marine ecosystem
Full Text Available Research projects combining different disciplines are increasingly common and sought after by funding agencies looking for ways to achieve environmental, social, and economic sustainability. Creating and running a truly integrated research project that combines very different disciplines is, however, no easy task. Large-scale efforts to create interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary research efforts have reported on their experiences in trying to achieve this goal. This article shares the methods, challenges and achievements experienced by a smaller group of researchers who have developed an interdisciplinary approach based on former results of Norwegian and Chilean experiments. The project “A Cross-disciplinary Integrated Eco-system Eutrophication Research and Management Approach” (CINTERA, funded by the Research Council of Norway (RCN, project 216607, brings together the fields of political science, economics, marine biology/oceanography and marine bio-geo-chemistry to improve the understanding of marine eutrophication and its possible socio-economic impacts. CINTERA is a multidisciplinary project that evolved into an interdisciplinary project and in so doing, transformed the attitudes of participants. The transformative process was generated particularly by the need to work closely together in making the CINTERA project useful for policy-makers.
Godøl, Olav Rune
Sustainable management of fisheries resources requires quantitative knowledge and understanding of species distribution, abundance, and productivity-determining processes. Conventional sampling by physical capture is inconsistent with the spatial and temporal scales on which many of these processes occur. In contrast, acoustic observations can be obtained on spatial scales from centimetres to ocean basins, and temporal scales from seconds to seasons. The concept of marine ecosystem acoustics (MEA) is founded on the basic capability of acoustics to detect, classify, and quantify organisms and biological and physical heterogeneities in the water column. Acoustics observations integrate operational technologies, platforms, and models and can generate information by taxon at the relevant scales. The gaps between single-species assessment and ecosystem-based management, as well as between fisheries oceanography and ecology, are thereby bridged. The MEA concept combines state-of-the-art acoustic technology with advanced operational capabilities and tailored modelling integrated into a flexible tool for ecosystem research and monitoring. Case studies are presented to illustrate application of the MEA concept in quantification of biophysical coupling, patchiness of organisms, predator-prey interactions, and fish stock recruitment processes. Widespread implementation of MEA will have a large impact on marine monitoring and assessment practices and it is to be hoped that they also promote and facilitate interaction among disciplines within the marine sciences.
Reed, D. L.
All general education courses at the San Jose State University, including those in the sciences, must present a detailed assessment plan of student learning, prior to certification for offering. The assessment plan must state a clear methodology for acquiring data on student achievement of the learning outcomes for the specific course category, as well as demonstrate how students fulfill a strong writing requirement. For example, an online course in oceanography falls into the Area R category, the Earth and Environment, through which a student should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the methods and limits of scientific investigation; distinguish science from pseudo-science; and apply a scientific approach to answer questions about the Earth and environment. The desired learning outcomes are shared with students at the beginning of the course and subsequent assessments on achieving each outcome are embedded in the graded assignments, which include a critical thinking essay, mid-term exam, poster presentation in a symposium-style format, portfolio of web-based work, weekly discussions on an electronic bulletin board, and a take-home final exam, consisting of an original research grant proposal. The diverse nature of the graded assignments assures a comprehensive assessment of student learning from a variety of perspectives, such as quantitative, qualitative, and analytical. Formative assessment is also leveraged into learning opportunities, which students use to identify the acquisition of knowledge. For example, pre-tests are used to highlight preconceptions at the beginning of specific field studies and post-testing encourages students to present the results of small research projects. On a broader scale, the assessment results contradict common misperceptions of online and hybrid courses. Student demand for online courses is very high due to the self-paced nature of learning. Rates of enrollment attrition match those of classroom sections, if students
Full Text Available My goal was to describe how biological and ecological factors give shape to fishing practices that can contribute to the successful self-governance of a small-scale fishing system in the Gulf of California, Mexico. The analysis was based on a comparison of the main ecological and biological indicators that fishers claim to use to govern their day-to-day decision making about fishing and data collected in situ. I found that certain indicators allow fishers to learn about differences and characteristics of the resource system and its units. Fishers use such information to guide their day-to-day fishing decisions. More importantly, these decisions appear unable to shape the reproductive viability of the fishery because no indicators were correlated to the reproductive cycle of the target species. As a result, the fishing practices constitute a number of mechanisms that might provide short-term buffering capacity against perturbations or stress factors that otherwise would threaten the overall sustainability and self-governance of the system. The particular biological circumstances that shape the harvesting practices might also act as a precursor of self-governance because they provide fishers with enough incentives to meet the costs of organizing the necessary rule structure that underlies a successful self-governance system.
Pockalny, R. A.; Donohue, K. A.; Fliegler, J.
The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowships in Oceanography (SURFO) program at the Graduate School of Oceanography/University of Rhode Island is an NSF-funded Research Experience for Undergraduates site program with a programmatic research niche focused on quantitative aspects of Oceanography. Each summer-cohort includes 9-12 participants (rising seniors) who are paired with a primary research advisor and often with a graduate student mentor. The primary components of the 10-week program include a 4-week introductory phase and a 6-week core research phase. A retrospective self-assessment instrument gauged the confidence, attitude and comfort level of participants with; 1) core math and science subjects, 2) oceanography-related subjects, 3) research skills, and 4) SURFO and GSO staff. SURFO participants evaluated themselves at the start of the program, after the introductory phase, and at the end of the program. Participants were also asked to reassess their initial evaluations and provide an updated score. The pre-assessment results indicate that the program recruits students from the target group (e.g., strong physics and math backgrounds, but with limited exposure to oceanography). The results also indicate that the students are initially comfortable with their advising team, but not so comfortable with their research topic and research skills. The post-introductory phase results indicate large increases in comfort level with the advising team and the local research community yet little or no change is indicated for research skills. The final assessments show large changes in oceanography-content knowledge, research topic, and research skills. The retrospective reassessment indicates an initial overconfidence in most categories. Overall, the largest changes occurred during the core research portion of the program. These results reinforce the importance/effectiveness of authentic, hands-on, inquiry-based research for higher learning and training the next
following institutions: The Spanish Institute of Oceanography with headquarters in Madrid and branch laboratories in Malaga, Mar Menor , Palma Mallorca...Mar Menor , Palma Mallorca, Santander, la Coroa, Vigo, and Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the Canary Islands. Key Personnel: Director, Dr. Jose M. Turnay...the adaptation and development of marine plants and ani- mals . The physical oceanographers are also studying wind-induced and oro- graphic upwelling in
Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.
. 36, NO.~, December 20071 Special Issue on Guest Editors Dr. R. Nigam National Institute of Oceanography Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India Dr. R. Saraswat Center for Advance Studies in Geology Geology Department, University of Delhi Delhi- 110... discussed. Therefore, it was felt to bring together the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic inferences from the Indian Ocean region, carried out so far, based on different inicrofossil groups. This special issue of bldiarz Jounlal of Marine Sciences [IJMS...
Werner, S.; Budziak, A.; Franeker, van J.A.; Galgani, F.; Hanke, G.; Maes, T.; Matiddi, M.; Nilsson, P.; Oosterbaan, L.; Priestland, E.; Thompson, R.; Veiga, J.; Vlachogianni, T.
Marine litter is a global concern with a range of problems associated to it, as recognised by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). Marine litter can impact organisms at different levels of biological organization and habitats in a number of ways namely: through entanglement in, or
Laine, E. P.; Field, C.
The Campus Compact for New Hampshire (Gordon, 2003) introduced a practical model for designing service-learning exercises or components for new or existing courses. They divided the design and implementation process into eight concrete areas, the “8-Block Model”. Their goal was to demystify the design process of service learning courses by breaking it down into interconnected components. These components include: project design, community partner relations, the problem statement, building community in the classroom, building student capacity, project management, assessment of learning, and reflection and connections. The project design component of the “8-Block Model” asks that the service performed be consistent with the learning goals of the course. For science courses students carry out their work as a way of learning science and the process of science, not solely for the sake of service. Their work supports the goals of a community partner and the community partner poses research problems for the class in a letter on their letterhead. Linking student work to important problems in the community effectively engages students and encourages them to work at more sophisticated levels than usually seen in introductory science classes. Using team-building techniques, the classroom becomes a safe, secure learning environment that encourages sharing and experimentation. Targeted lectures, labs, and demonstrations build the capacity of students to do their research. Behind the scenes project management ensures student success. Learning is assessed using a variety of tools, including graded classroom presentations, poster sessions, and presentations and reports to community partners. Finally, students reflect upon their work and make connections between their research and its importance to the well being of the community. Over the past 10 years, we have used this approach to design and continually modify an introductory oceanography course for majors and non
Hall, I. R.; Reynolds, D.; Scourse, J. D.; Richardson, C.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.
Given the rapid increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations (pCO2) over the industrial era there is a pressing need to construct longterm records of natural carbon cycling prior to this perturbation and to develop a more robust understanding of the role the oceans play in the sequestration of atmospheric carbon. Here we reconstruct the historical biological and climatic controls on the carbon isotopic (δ13C-shell) composition of the North Icelandic shelf waters over the last millennium derived from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve mollusc Arctica islandica. Variability in the annually resolved δ13C-shell record is dominated by multi-decadal variability with a negative trend (-0.003±0.002‰yr-1) over the industrial era (1800-2000). This trend is consistent with the marine Suess effect brought about by the sequestration of isotopically light carbon (δ13C of CO2) derived from the burning of fossil fuels. Comparison of the δ13C-shell record with contemporary proxy archives, over the last millennium, and instrumental data over the 20th century, suggests that primary productivity and climate conditions over the sub-polar North Atlantic region played a vital role in driving inter-annual to multi-decadal scale variability in the δ13C-shell record. Our results highlight that relative shifts in the proportion of sub-polar mode waters and Arctic intermediate waters entrained onto the North Icelandic shelf, coupled with atmospheric circulation patterns associated with the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (wNAO), are the likely physical mechanisms that drive natural variations in seawater δ13C variability on the North Icelandic shelf.
Belando, M D; Marín, A; Aboal, M; García-Fernández, A J; Marín-Guirao, L
The effects of multiple stressors on marine diatom assemblages are still poorly understood. The interactive effects of metals and nutrients were assessed in two coastal biofilms grown at a reference site and a historically contaminated site. The biofilms were exposed in situ to pulse exposures of metals (Zn and Pb) and nutrients (N and P) individually and in combination to mimic patterns of discharge in the study area. The reference community's structure (composition and abundance of taxa) was modified after metals and/or nutrients exposure, but each stressor acted in different way. Irrespective of the stressors or scenario, the abundance of the dominant species Opephora krumbeinii declined, and it is proposed as sensitive species. Nutrient supply favoured the proliferation of certain species with high nutrient tolerances (Fragilaria famelica, Tabularia ktenoeides), whereas metals promoted the colonisation of metal-tolerant species, e.g., Berkeleya fennica, Opephora marina. Simultaneous exposure induced an amplification of levels of accumulated metals, chlorophyll a and EPS contents and triggered the succession of species towards tolerant species with specific growth. Metals seemed to act as a selective factor of metal-tolerant species, and nutrients favoured the proliferation of those species forming zig-zag colonies (Neosynedra provincialis), mucous tubes (Berkeleya spp.) and motile diatoms (Navicula salinicola, Nitzschia incognita), resulting in biofilms with a more complex architecture. The diatom communities from the historically contaminated site were more resistant to pulse exposure, but metals or nutrients loads induced overproduction of mucilage. We propose that growth forms may complement taxonomic approaches and provide a quick and easy way to detect community changes related to metal and nutrient pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The scope of this work is twofold: i to discuss and analyze some principles, issues and problems related to the development and advancement of Operational Oceanography in Greece and ii to present a real-time monitoring and forecasting system for the Aegean Sea, which is currently under implementation. Operational Oceanography in Greece has become a necessity today, since it can provide aid to find solutions on problems related to societal, economic, environmental and scientific issues. Most of the Greek coastal regions are under pressure, susceptible to damages due to the increasing tendency of the population to move from the inland to the coast, marine environmental pollution, competitive development of the coastal market sector, etc. Moreover, the complex geomorphology of the coastal areas and the interdependence between natural processes and human activities causes significant alterations in this delicate environment. A rational treatment of these problems can be based on integrated coastal zone management (ICZM. An absolutely necessary means for establishing ICZM is the operation of marine moni- toring systems. Such a system ("POSEIDON system" is under implementation by the National Centre for Marine Research. POSEIDON is a comprehensive marine monitoring and forecasting system, that aims to improve environmental surveillance and facilitate sea transport, rescue and safety of life at sea, fishing and aquaculture, protection of the marine ecosystem, etc. POSEIDON is expected to enhance considerably the capabilities to manage, protect and develop the marine resources of the Greek Seas and to promote Greek Operational Oceanography.
Nolasco, R; Gomes, I; Peteiro, L; Albuquerque, R; Luna, T; Dubert, J; Swearer, S E; Queiroga, H
Marine larval dispersal is a complex biophysical process that depends on the effects of species biology and oceanography, leading to logistical difficulties in estimating connectivity among populations of marine animals with biphasic life cycles. To address this challenge, the application of multiple methodological approaches has been advocated, in order to increase confidence in estimates of population connectivity. However, studies seldom account for sources of uncertainty associated with each method, which undermines a direct comparative approach. In the present study we explicitly account for the statistical uncertainty in observed connectivity matrices derived from elemental chemistry of larval mussel shells, and compare these to predictions from a biophysical model of dispersal. To do this we manipulate the observed connectivity matrix by applying different confidence levels to the assignment of recruits to source populations, while concurrently modelling the intrinsic misclassification rate of larvae to known sources. We demonstrate that the correlation between the observed and modelled matrices increases as the number of observed recruits classified as unknowns approximates the observed larval misclassification rate. Using this approach, we show that unprecedented levels of concordance in connectivity estimates (r = 0.96) can be achieved, and at spatial scales (20-40 km) that are ecologically relevant.
Laufkötter, Charlotte; Gruber, Nicolas
If marine algae are impaired severely by global climate change, the resulting reduction in marine primary production would strongly affect marine life and the ocean's biological pump that sequesters substantial amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the ocean's interior. Most studies, including the latest generation of Earth system models, project only moderate global decreases in biological production until 2100 (1, 2), suggesting that these concerns are unwarranted. But on page 1139 of this issue, Moore et al. (3) show that this conclusion might be shortsighted and that there may be much larger long-term changes in ocean productivity than previously appreciated.
The Northeast Fisheries Science Center's (NEFSC) Student Drifters Program is providing education opportunities for students of all ages. Using GPS-tracked ocean drifters, various educational institutions can provide students with hands-on experience in physical oceanography, engineering, and computer science. In building drifters many high school and undergraduate students may focus on drifter construction, sometimes designing their own drifter or attempting to improve current NEFSC models. While learning basic oceanography younger students can build drifters with the help of an educator and directions available on the studentdrifters.org website. Once drifters are deployed, often by a local mariner or oceanographic partner, drifter tracks can be visualised on maps provided at http://nefsc.noaa.gov/drifter. With the lesson plans available for those interested in computer science, students may download, process, and plot the drifter position data with basic Python code provided. Drifter tracks help students to visualize ocean currents, and also allow them to understand real particle tracking applications such as in search and rescue, oil spill dispersion, larval transport, and the movement of injured sea animals. Additionally, ocean circulation modelers can use student drifter paths to validate their models. The Student Drifters Program has worked with over 100 schools, several of them having deployed drifters on the West Coast. Funding for the program often comes from individual schools and small grants but in the future will preferably come from larger government grants. NSF, Sea-Grant, NOAA, and EPA are all possible sources of funding, especially with the support of multiple schools and large marine education associations. The Student Drifters Program is a unique resource for educators, students, and scientists alike.
andwin cotro drft f cebrgsandconideed (Smith, 1931; Budinger, 1960; Kollmeyer, 1965; the primary forces responsible for iceberg drift and Ettle , 1974...unpublished manuscript). Oceanography of the New York Bight, August 1974. Ettle , Robert E. (1974). Statistical Analysis of Observec U.S. Coast Guard
Tapaswi, M.P.; Maheswarappa, B.S.
in oceanography is noticed. The contributions to Indian serials showed a decrease. The implications of this trend are discussed. The rank list of serials cited by Indian oceanographers was correlated with the rank list of serials cited at international level. A...
Keiner, Louis E.; Gilman, Craig
This study measures the effects of increased faculty-student engagement on student learning, success rates, and perceptions in a Physical Oceanography course. The study separately implemented two teaching methods that had been shown to be successful in a different discipline, introductory physics. These methods were the use of interactive…
Stefels, J.; Shenoy, D.M.; Simo, R.; Malin, G.; Levasseur, M.; Belviso, S.; DileepKumar, M.
This Special Issue of Biogeochemistry contains a selection of papers presented at the 5th International Symposium on Biological and Environmental Chemistry of DMS(P) and Related Compounds, organized at the National Institute of Oceanography (NIO...
Full Text Available Bio-logging tags are an important tool for the study of cetaceans, but superficial tags inevitably increase hydrodynamic loading. Substantial forces can be generated by tags on fast-swimming animals, potentially affecting behavior and energetics or promoting early tag removal. Streamlined forms have been used to reduce loading, but these designs can accelerate flow over the top of the tag. This non-axisymmetric flow results in large lift forces (normal to the animal that become the dominant force component at high speeds. In order to reduce lift and minimize total hydrodynamic loading this work presents a new tag design (Model A that incorporates a hydrodynamic body, a channel to reduce fluid speed differences above and below the housing and wing to redirect flow to counter lift. Additionally, three derivatives of the Model A design were used to examine the contribution of individual flow control features to overall performance. Hydrodynamic loadings of four models were compared using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The Model A design eliminated all lift force and generated up to ~30 N of downward force in simulated 6 m/s aligned flow. The simulations were validated using particle image velocimetry (PIV to experimentally characterize the flow around the tag design. The results of these experiments confirm the trends predicted by the simulations and demonstrate the potential benefit of flow control elements for the reduction of tag induced forces on the animal.
Barnett, A; Braccini, J M; Awruch, C A; Ebert, D A
The large size, high trophic level and wide distribution of Hexanchiformes (cow and frilled sharks) should position this order as important apex predators in coastal and deep-water ecosystems. This review synthesizes available information on Hexanchiformes, including information not yet published, with the purpose of evaluating their conservation status and assessing their ecological roles in the dynamics of marine ecosystems. Comprising six species, this group has a wide global distribution, with members occurring from shallow coastal areas to depths of c. 2500 m. The limited information available on their reproductive biology suggests that they could be vulnerable to overexploitation (e.g. small litter sizes for most species and suspected long gestation periods). Most of the fishing pressure exerted on Hexanchiformes is in the form of commercial by-catch or recreational fishing. Comprehensive stock and impact assessments are unavailable for most species in most regions due to limited information on life history and catch and abundance time series. When hexanchiform species have been commercially harvested, however, they have been unable to sustain targeted fisheries for long periods. The potentially high vulnerability to intense fishing pressure warrants a conservative exploitation of this order until thorough quantitative assessments are conducted. At least some species have been shown to be significant apex predators in the systems they inhabit. Should Hexanchiformes be removed from coastal and deep-water systems, the lack of sympatric shark species that share the same resources suggests no other species would be capable of fulfilling their apex predator role in the short term. This has potential ecosystem consequences such as meso-predator release or trophic cascades. This review proposes some hypotheses on the ecology of Hexanchiformes and their role in ecosystem dynamics, highlighting the areas where critical information is required to stimulate research
Davies, Jaime S.; Howell, Kerry L.; Stewart, Heather A.; Guinan, Janine; Golding, Neil
In 2007, the upper part of a submarine canyon system located in water depths between 138 and 1165 m in the South West (SW) Approaches (North East Atlantic Ocean) was surveyed over a 2 week period. High-resolution multibeam echosounder data covering 1106 km2, and 44 ground-truthing video and image transects were acquired to characterise the biological assemblages of the canyons. The SW Approaches is an area of complex terrain, and intensive ground-truthing revealed the canyons to be dominated by soft sediment assemblages. A combination of multivariate analysis of seabed photographs (184-1059 m) and visual assessment of video ground-truthing identified 12 megabenthic assemblages (biotopes) at an appropriate scale to act as mapping units. Of these biotopes, 5 adhered to current definitions of habitats of conservation concern, 4 of which were classed as Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems. Some of the biotopes correspond to descriptions of communities from other megahabitat features (for example the continental shelf and seamounts), although it appears that the canyons host modified versions, possibly due to the inferred high rates of sedimentation in the canyons. Other biotopes described appear to be unique to canyon features, particularly the sea pen biotope consisting of Kophobelemnon stelliferum and cerianthids.
Full Text Available The current decline in dissolved oxygen concentration within the oceans is a sensitive indicator of the effect of climate change on marine environment. However the impact of its declining on marine life and ecosystems' health is still quite unclear because of the difficulty in obtaining in situ data, especially in remote areas, like the Southern Ocean (SO. Southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina proved to be a relevant alternative to the traditional oceanographic platforms to measure physical and biogeochemical structure of oceanic regions rarely observed. In this study, we use a new stage of development in biologging technology to draw a picture of dissolved oxygen concentration in the SO. We present the first results obtained from a dissolved oxygen sensor added to Argos CTD-SRDL tags and deployed on 5 female elephant seals at Kerguelen. From October 2010 and October 2011, 742 oxygen profiles associated with temperature and salinity measurements were recorded. Whether a part of the data must be considered cautiously, especially because of offsets and temporal drifts of the sensors, the range of values recorded was consistent with a concomitant survey conducted from a research vessel (Keops-2 project. Once again, elephant seals reinforced the relationship between marine ecology and oceanography, delivering essential information about the water masses properties and the biological status of the Southern Ocean. But more than the presentation of a new stage of development in animal-borne instrumentation, this pilot study opens a new field of investigation in marine ecology and could be enlarged in a near future to other key marine predators, especially large fish species like swordfish, tuna or sharks, for which dissolved oxygen is expected to play a crucial role in distribution and behaviour.
Ahmed M. Elissawy
Full Text Available Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years’ reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.
DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)
This project centers around the Strategic Petroleum Site (SPR) known as the West Hackberry salt dome which is located in southwestern Louisiana, and which is designed to store 241 million barrels of crude oil. Oil storage caverns are formed by injecting water into salt deposits, and pumping out the resulting brine. Studies described in this report were designed as follow-on studies to three months of pre-discharge characterization work, and include data collected during the first year of brine leaching operations. The objectives were to: (1) characterize the environment in terms of physical, chemical and biological attributes; (2) determine if significant adverse changes in ecosystem productivity and stability of the biological community are occurring as a result of brine discharge; and (3) determine the magnitude of any change observed. Contents of Volume II include: introduction; physical oceanography; estuarine hydrology and hydrography; analysis of discharge plume; and water and sediment quality.
Seys, J.; Copejans, E.; Ameije, K.
neighbourhood. Every answer is found on the website and consists of an animated lecture with pictures, movies, diagrams, simulations, etc.), followed by exercises, hints for field excursions, laboratory experiments, interactive games, etc. The seven major themes worked out in this project are derived from the ESF-Marine Board position paper on future marine research "Navigating the Future III": climate-ocean interactions, biodiversity, living and non-living resources, oceans and society, physical oceanography, harbours and shipping. The 21 topics are spread over the coastal areas, shallow seas and deep ocean habitats of the Atlantic, and make use of the best possible scientific know-how in Belgium and abroad. By providing 21 topics and more than 80 practical exercises, ‘Planeet Zee' hopes to present a challenging format for students and teachers in biology, physics, chemistry and geography (all levels for students as from 16 years). For marine scientists, it may well be a perfect way to have their know-how translated to a young public within a school context.
Jonasdottir, Sigrun; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel; Borg, Christian Marc Andersen
We present a study on the protozooplankton 45 mm and copepods larger than 50 mm at a series of contrasting stations across the Southern Indian Ocean (SIO). Numerically, over 80% of the copepod community across the transect was less than 650 mm in size, dominated by nauplii, and smaller copepods...
Norton, P.; Smiley, B.D.; de March, L.
This data report is an inventory of measurements and observations of white whales, bowhead whales, gray whales, harbour porpoises, narwhal, and killer whales in the Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf. Measurements most commonly reported concern numbers, identification, movements, morphometrics, age behaviour, food, and reproduction. Organization within this inventory is by data set (measurements and observations made by one group of people, for a particular purpose, generally within one year). In all, 143 data sets were inventoried for the 1848 to 1983 period. Times and locations of sampling efforts are listed in tables and also are shown on computer-drawn maps. Sampling methodology and intensity, whale measurements and observations obtained by species, and concurrent bio logical, physical, and chemical measurements are described in the tables. A five-level rating system, based on sampling methodolgy, is outlined and has been applied to each measurement in each data set as a rough indication of the data's reliability. Data sets are indexed according to geographic coverage, study methods, species, measurements and observations made by category, and published references. The form, location, and availability of original data is given if know. 74 refs 115 figs 3 tabs
Effect of Industrial Effluent on the Growth of Marine Diatom, Chaetoceros simplex (Ostenfeld, 1901). P. KARTHIKEYAN*, S. JAYASUDHA, P. SAMPATHKUMAR, K. MANIMARAN,. C. SANTHOSHKUMAR, S. ASHOKKUMAR AND V. ASHOKPRABU. CAS in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, Annamalai University,.
Economics - TANZANIA. Thierry LEVITRA. Marine Biology and Mariculture - MADAGASCAR. Blandina LUGENDO. Marine Ecology - TANZANIA. Aviti MMOCHI. Mariculture - TANZANIA. Nyawira MUTHIGA. Marine Ecology and Management - KENYA. Brent NEWMAN. Contamination and Risk Assessment – SOUTH AFRICA.
Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others
Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)
Addison, P F E; Flander, L B; Cook, C N
Protected area management agencies are increasingly using management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) to better understand, learn from and improve conservation efforts around the globe. Outcome assessment is the final stage of MEE, where conservation outcomes are measured to determine whether management objectives are being achieved. When quantitative monitoring data are available, best-practice examples of outcome assessments demonstrate that data should be assessed against quantitative condition categories. Such assessments enable more transparent and repeatable integration of monitoring data into MEE, which can promote evidence-based management and improve public accountability and reporting. We interviewed key informants from marine protected area (MPA) management agencies to investigate how scientific data sources, especially long-term biological monitoring data, are currently informing conservation management. Our study revealed that even when long-term monitoring results are available, management agencies are not using them for quantitative condition assessment in MEE. Instead, many agencies conduct qualitative condition assessments, where monitoring results are interpreted using expert judgment only. Whilst we found substantial evidence for the use of long-term monitoring data in the evidence-based management of MPAs, MEE is rarely the sole mechanism that facilitates the knowledge transfer of scientific evidence to management action. This suggests that the first goal of MEE (to enable environmental accountability and reporting) is being achieved, but the second and arguably more important goal of facilitating evidence-based management is not. Given that many MEE approaches are in their infancy, recommendations are made to assist management agencies realize the full potential of long-term quantitative monitoring data for protected area evaluation and evidence-based management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
At this workshop a group of expert scientists: (1) assessed the current state of knowledge with regard to the physical oceanographic questions that must be answered generally if high level nuclear waste is to be disposed of on or under the seabed; (2) discussed physical oceanographic science necessarily related to the US Subseabed Disposal Program; (3) recommended necessary research; and (4) identified other ongoing programs with which important liaisons should be made and continued. This report is a collection of workshop presentations, and recommendations, and a synthesis of topical group recommendations into a unified statement of research needs. The US Seabed Disposal Program is described. The goal is to assess the technical, environmental and engineering feasibility of seabed disposal. The environmental studies program will assess possible ecosystem and health effects from radionuclides which may be released due to accidental leakage. Discussion on the following topics are also included: bottom boundary layer; mixing across isopycnal surfaces; circulation modeling; mesoscale dispersion; deep circulation of the Pacific Ocean; vertical transport at edges; instrumentation; chemical oceanography; plutonium distribution in the Pacific; biology report; chemical dumping report; and low-level waste report
Marine Protected Areas, Aquatic Preserves are state-owned sovereign submerged lands in areas which have exceptional biological, aesthetic, and scientific value, as described in Chapter 258.39, Florida Statutes, which have been set aside for the benefit of future generations. The, Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).
NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Marine Protected Areas dataset current as of 2011. Aquatic Preserves are state-owned sovereign submerged lands in areas which have exceptional biological, aesthetic,...
Reed, D. L.
The results of assessing student learning in an online oceanography class offered over the past five years are compiled to reveal several general trends. In order to understand the context of these trends, it is important to first note that SJSU has a two-tiered general education program consisting of a category of core courses for frosh and sophomores and an advanced category for juniors and seniors, most of whom are community college transfers. The course described in this study is in the latter category and therefore composed largely of seniors. Enrollments in the course have exploded from 6 students in a pilot section offered during the 1998 fall semester to over 170 students in the summer semester of 2002. The course is now offered in both semesters of the academic year with four sections offered during 2002 summer session as part of a system-wide conversion to year-round operation. No other course, be it classroom, hybrid or online, in the general education category has experienced the level of student demand as this online course. All sections of the online course reach enrollment limits in the first days of registration with an equal or greater number of students turned away each semester. More female, students of color, returning students and K-12 in-service teachers enroll in the online sections than in the equivalent classroom sections of the course. Students enroll in the online section for the convenience of self-paced learning since attending a classroom section is not a viable option. Enrollments in concurrent classroom sections have not been negatively impacted by the addition of online sections. Enrollment attrition is higher in the first few days of the online course, but similar to that experienced in the classroom sections, once the class is underway. However, student requests for incompletes tend to be somewhat higher in the online course, especially during the summer offerings. Learning outcomes are reviewed at the beginning of the course and
and practical compilation of the essential information and analysis techniques required for the advanced processing and interpretation of digital spatio-temporal data in physical oceanography, as well as in other branches of the geophysical sciences. The book... assumes a fundamental understanding of calculus and is directed primarily towards scientists and engineers in the industry, government and universities, including graduate and advanced undergraduate students. Spanning five chapters and numerous...
1975: The dissolved gases- carbon dioxide . In: Chemical Oceanography, vol. 2, 2nd edition. J.P. Riley and G. Skirrow, eds.. Academic Press. New York, 1...A similar radar was used by the Institut Francais du Petrole in the Shetland Islands (Shearman, 1983). A mul- tifrequency radar constructed at...plied to small- footprint , direction-finding systems. The same techniques can be applied to algorithms used with beam-forming systems (e.g., Barrick
... implement. SAG members will include recognized marine biology and marine bio-acoustic scientific subject... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 218 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals... Part 218 [Docket No. 110808485-2148-02] RIN 0648-BB14 Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking...
Sarupria, J.S.; Bhargava, R.M.S.
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Rogers, D. B.
Geoscience classrooms have benefitted greatly from the use of interactive, dry-erasable globes to supplement instruction on topics that require three-dimensional visualization, such as seismic wave propagation and the large-scale movements of tectonic plates. Indeed, research by Bamford (2013) demonstrates that using three-dimensional visualization to illustrate complex processes enhances student comprehension. While some geoscience courses tend to bake-in lessons on visualization, other disciplines of earth science that require three-dimensional visualization, such as oceanography, tend to rely on students' prior spatial abilities. In addition to spatial intelligence, education on the three-dimensional structure of the ocean requires knowledge of the external processes govern the behavior of the ocean, as well as the vertical and lateral distribution of water properties around the globe. Presented here are two oceanographic activities that utilize RealWorldGlobes' dry-erase globes to supplement traditional oceanography lessons on thermohaline and surface ocean circulation. While simultaneously promoting basic plotting techniques, mathematical calculations, and unit conversions, these activities touch on the processes that govern global ocean circulation, the principles of radiocarbon dating, and the various patterns exhibited by surface ocean currents. These activities challenge students to recognize inherent patterns within their data and synthesize explanations for their occurrence. Spatial visualization and critical thinking are integral to any geoscience education, and the combination of these abilities with engaging hands-on activities has the potential to greatly enhance oceanography education in both secondary and postsecondary settings
Smith, Walker O.; Ainley, David G.; Arrigo, Kevin R.; Dinniman, Michael S.
The continental shelf of the Ross Sea exhibits substantial variations in physical forcing, ice cover, and biological processes on a variety of time and space scales. Its circulation is characterized by advective inputs from the east and exchanges with off-shelf regions via the troughs along the northern portions. Phytoplankton biomass is greater there than anywhere else in the Antarctic, although nitrate is rarely reduced to levels below 10 Î¼mol L-1. Overall growth is regulated by irradiance (via ice at the surface and by the depths of the mixed layers) and iron concentrations. Apex predators reach exceptional abundances, and the world's largest colonies of Adélie and emperor penguins are found there. Krill are represented by two species (Euphausia superba near the shelf break and Euphausia crystallorophias throughout the continental shelf region). Equally important and poorly known is the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum), which is also consumed by most upper-trophic-level predators. Future changes in the Ross Sea environment will have profound and unpredictable effects on the food web.
Moiseev D. V
Full Text Available The paper briefly describes the history of appearance and purpose of the Electronic Marine Atlas ESIMO. The information sources used to build the thematic layers have been introduced. The methodology of data processing for the Atlas has been considered. Main results of the work and examples of the existing atlas have been presented
Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J
The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface.
Sharma, S.; Chatterji, A.; Das, P.
Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 32(1): 77 - 83 (2009) ISSN: 1511-3701 ©Universiti Putra Malaysia Press Received: 20 May 2008 Accepted: 8 October 2008 * Corresponding Author Effect of Different Extraction Procedures on Antimicrobial Activity of Marine... Bivalves: A Comparison Sumita Sharma 1* , Anil Chatterji 2 and Partha Das 1 1 National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa-403 001, India 2 Institute of Tropical Aquaculture, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu...
The publication comprises the programme for the 10th Danish meeting for marine researchers held in Hirtshals (Denmark) on January 21 - 27, 1998, and the abstracts of the papers that were presented at that meeting. Subjects covered are marine biology, sediments and sedimentation, fish, fishing and fishing regulations, marine processes and the monitoring of Danish straits. (EG)
The publication comprises the programme for the 8th Danish meeting for marine researchers held in Odense (Denmark) on January 25th - 27th, 1994, and the abstracts of the papers that were presented at that meeting. Subjects covered are marine biology, sediments and sedimentation, fish, fishing and fishing regulation, marine processes and the monitoring of Danish straits. (AB)
.A.LokaBharathi and D.Chandramohan. 2003. Particle-associated bacterial dynamics in a tropical tidal plain (Zuari estuary,India). Aquatic Microb.Ecol.,33:29-40. Pradeep Ram, A.S., P.A. Loka Bharathi, S. Nair and D.Chandramohan.2001. A deep-sea Bacterium with unique....Nair and D.Chandramohan. 2003b. Seasonal shift in net ecosystem production in a tropical estuary. Limnol.Oceanogr.,48(4): 1601-1607. Ramaiah,N. and D.Chandramohan.1992a. Ecology and biology of luminous bacteria in the Arabian Sea. In: ?Oceanography...
Thalassiosira malaitalic> (Bacillariophyta), a potentially harmful, marine diatom from Chilka Lake and other coastal localities of Odisha, India: Nomenclature, ... Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306–4370, USA; Department of Biology, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA ...
Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong
Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics.
Lauro, Frederico; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Cullen, Jay
Microbial Oceanography has long been an extremely expensive discipline, requiring ship time for sample collection and thereby economically constraining the number of samples collected. This is especially true for under-sampled water bodies such as the Indian Ocean. Specialised scientific equipment...... only adds to the costs.Moreover, long term monitoring of microbial communities and large scale modelling of global biogeochemical cycles requires the collection of high-density data both temporally and spatially in a cost-effective way. Thousands of private ocean-going vessels are cruising around...
Kamala, K; Sivaperumal, P
Marine microbial enzyme technologies have progressed significantly in the last few decades for different applications. Among the various microorganisms, marine actinobacterial enzymes have significant active properties, which could allow them to be biocatalysts with tremendous bioactive metabolites. Moreover, marine actinobacteria have been considered as biofactories, since their enzymes fulfill biomedical and industrial needs. In this chapter, the marine actinobacteria and their enzymes' uses in biological activities and biomedical applications are described. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karavias, J. A.; Kelly, R. P.
Many public school science teachers are "textbook" teachers who lack basic research experience. Conversely, many scientists fail to relate their findings back to the general public in a meaningful way. The ARMADA project, funded by the National Science Foundation, is an effective program that exposes teachers to real-world oceanographic experiences. Additionally, the ARMADA project provides opportunities for teachers to pass on first hand experiences from the research community to their classrooms. After participating in a month long cruise aboard the USCGC Healy during July 2008 as part of the Bering Sea Ecosystem Study (BEST), a new appreciation for field research was developed. As part of a group from the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography, first hand experience was gained on how marine scientists study the effects of global climate change in the Bering Sea. These experiences at sea have resulted in changes to the marine biology class curriculum to include the tools and techniques used by marine scientists to conduct their work. One lesson in particular discusses anthropogenic impacts on polar regions. In addition, students' attitudes toward the class have changed. For example, a lesson on global climate change from a teacher who has first hand experience of climate change research is far more effective than from one who lacks it. The effect of having a teacher who has unique field experience in front of the classroom on students is immeasurable. In addition, the presence of a teacher at sea encourages the scientists to reduce their work to the most significant observations and conclusions on a daily basis during the cruise, helping to prepare the scientists for future public communications. In this manner, the gap between science research and public education is reduced.
Halpern, D.; Wentz, F.
Development of decade-long time series of global surface wind measurements for studies ofseasonal-to-interannual climate variability presents unique challenges for space- borne instrumentationbecause of the necessity to combine data sets of 3- to 5-year lifetimes. Before the first Special SensorMicrowave Imager (SSMI), which was launched on the Defence Meteorological Satellite Program(DMSP) F8 spacecraft in July 1987, stopped recording wind speed in December 1991, another SSMIwas launched on DMSP F10 in December 1991. Interpretation of the 1987 - 1993 composite timeseries is dependent upon the space and time characteristics of the differences between concurrent F8and F10 SSMI measurements. This paper emphasizes large geographical regions and 1-month timescale. The F8-F10 area-weighted difference between 60 degrees S and 60 degrees S during 305 daysof 1991 (-0.12 m s^(-1)) was comparable to the year-to-year wind speed variations during 1988-1991. The 10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 difference was negative (positive) forwind speeds less (greater) than 7.9 m s^(-1), reaching - 0.43(0.32) m s^(-1) at 5(10) m s^(-1). The10 degree-zonal averaged monthly mean F8-F10 bias had considerable variations throughout the yearand between 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, with the largest temporal variation (1.4 m s^(-1)) in the 50degrees - 60 degrees N region from February to April. The 1991 average value of the monthly meanroot-mean-square (rms) difference between F8 and F10 daily wind speeds in 10 degree-longitudinalbands was 2.0 m s^(-1) over 60 degrees S - 60 degrees N, the amplitude of the annual cycle of therms difference was largest in the northern hemisphere middle latitudes, and the rms difference wasrelated to the wind speed (e.g., at 6 and 10 m s^(-1), the rms difference was 1.7 and 2.7 m s^(-1),respectively). The relationship between monthly mean 1/3 degrees x 1/3 degrees F8-F10 SSMI windspeed differences and integrated water vapor and liquid water content in the atmosphere is discussed.
have little effect on the cycles of major elements, except carbon and calcium, they greatly modify transformations of minor constituents. A hydrochemical discontinuity at approx. 10 degrees S latitude separates the low oxygen - high nutrients waters...
S Matthew Drenner
Full Text Available This paper synthesizes tagging studies to highlight the current state of knowledge concerning the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids in the marine environment. Scientific literature was reviewed to quantify the number and type of studies that have investigated behaviour and survival of anadromous forms of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp., Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, brown trout (Salmo trutta, steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss, and cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii. We examined three categories of tags including electronic (e.g. acoustic, radio, archival, passive (e.g. external marks, Carlin, coded wire, passive integrated transponder [PIT], and biological (e.g. otolith, genetic, scale, parasites. Based on 207 papers, survival rates and behaviour in marine environments were found to be extremely variable spatially and temporally, with some of the most influential factors being temperature, population, physiological state, and fish size. Salmonids at all life stages were consistently found to swim at an average speed of approximately one body length per second, which likely corresponds with the speed at which transport costs are minimal. We found that there is relatively little research conducted on open-ocean migrating salmonids, and some species (e.g. masu [O. masou] and amago [O. rhodurus] are underrepresented in the literature. The most common forms of tagging used across life stages were various forms of external tags, coded wire tags, and acoustic tags, however, the majority of studies did not measure tagging/handling effects on the fish, tag loss/failure, or tag detection probabilities when estimating survival. Through the interdisciplinary application of existing and novel technologies, future research examining the behaviour and survival of anadromous salmonids could incorporate important drivers such as oceanography, tagging/handling effects, predation, and physiology.
... Paul E. Nachtigall, PhD, Marine Mammal Research Program Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, P.O. Box... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA384 Marine Mammals; File No. 16053 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...
Baudel, S.; Blanc, F.; Jolibois, T.; Rosmorduc, V.
project (June 2003 to June 2004) sponsored by the European Commission was the first experience of an integrated operational oceanography project. The objective was the assessment of several existing operational in situ and satellite monitoring and numerical forecasting systems for the future elaboration (Mersea Integrated Project, 2004-2008) of an integrated system able to deliver, operationally, information products (physical, chemical, biological) towards end-users in several domains related to environment, security and safety. Five forecasting ocean models with data assimilation coming from operational in situ or satellite data centres, have been intercompared. The main difficulty of this LAS implementation has lied in the ocean model metrics definition and a common file format adoption which forced the model teams to produce the same datasets in the same formats (NetCDF, COARDS/CF convention). Notice that this was a pioneer approach and that it has been adopted by Godae standards (see F. Blanc's paper in this session). Going on these web technologies implementation and entering a more user-oriented issue, perspectives deal with the implementation of a Map Server, a GIS opensource server which will communicate with the OPeNDAP server. The Map server will be able to manipulate simultaneously raster and vector multidisciplinary remote data. The aim is to construct a full complete web oceanic data distribution service. The projects in which we are involved allow us to progress towards that.
Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R
This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.
Dauphin Island Laboratory) in purified form, nor the progenitor organism Prorocentrum lima , supplied by Dr. Carmelo Tomas (Florida Department of...illustrated in #7 of Table I. Samples of F. brevis cells, Prorocentrum lima cells, okadaic acid, or brevetoxin PbTx-3 were incubated I hour as primary...NOTATION / 17/ COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP RA 1; marine toxins
Aneurinifactin, a new lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by a marine Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus SBP-11 isolated from Gulf of Mannar: Purification, characterization and its biological evaluation.
Balan, Shanmugasundaram Senthil; Kumar, C Ganesh; Jayalakshmi, Singaram
Biosurfactants are microbial-derived amphiphilic molecules having hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties produced by bacteria, fungi, yeasts and algae and are extracellular or cell wall-associated compounds. In an ongoing survey for bioactive microbial metabolites from microbes isolated from diverse ecological niches, a new lipopeptide biosurfactant was identified from a marine bacterium; Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus strain SBP-11, which was isolated from a marine diversity hotspot, Gulf of Mannar, India. A new lipopeptide biosurfactant was purified and characterized based on TLC, FT-IR, NMR, GC-MS, HPLC, MALDI-TOF-MS and tandem MS analysis as Stearic acid-Thr-Tyr-Val-Ser-Tyr-Thr (named as Aneurinifactin). The critical micelle concentration of Aneurinifactin was 26mgL -1 at a surface tension of 26mNm -1 . Further, the biosurfactant showed stable emulsification at a wide range of pH (2-9) and temperature up to 80°C. Aneurinifactin showed promising antimicrobial activity and concentration dependent efficient oil recovery. This is the first report on Aneurinifactin, a lipopeptide biosurfactant produced by a marine A. aneurinilyticus SBP-11, which could be explored as a promising candidate for use in various biomedical and industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Hackenberg, Mary; And Others
This guide was developed for earth sciences and marine sciences instruction in the senior high schools of Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida. The subjects covered are: (1) Earth Science for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (2) Marine Biology I for 10th, 11th, and 12th graders; (3) Marine Biology II, Advanced, for 11th and 12th graders; (4) Marine…
... hereby given that (1) Paul Nachtigall, Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P... (Pseudorca crassidens) maintained in captivity at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology in Kaneohe, HI... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine...
... permit has been issued to Paul Nachtigall, Ph.D., Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of... captivity at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology in Kaneohe, Hawaii. Researchers will conduct hearing... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB161 Marine...
Defining Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as a contribution to Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs): A Core Task of the Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) to Accelerate Integration of Biological Observations in the Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)
Pearlman, J.; Muller-Karger, F. E.; Sousa Pinto, I.; Costello, M. J.; Duffy, J. E.; Appeltans, W.; Fischer, A. S.; Canonico, G.; Klein, E.; Obura, D.; Montes, E.; Miloslavich, P.; Howard, M.
The Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) is a networking effort under the umbrella of the Group on Earth Observations Biodiversity Observation Network (GEO BON). The objective of the MBON is to link existing groups engaged in ocean observation and help define practical indices to deploy in an operational manner to track changes in the number of marine species, the abundance and biomass of marine organisms, the diverse interactions between organisms and the environment, and the variability and change of specific habitats of interest. MBON serves as the biodiversity arm of Blue Planet, the initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) for the benefit of society. The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) was established under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) in 1991 to organize international ocean observing efforts. The mission of the GOOS is to support monitoring to improve the management of marine and coastal ecosystems and resources, and to enable scientific research. GOOS is engaged in a continuing, rigorous process of identifying Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs). MBON is working with GOOS and the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS, also under the IOC) to define Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) as those Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs) that have explicit taxonomic records associated with them. For practical purposes, EBVs are a subset of the EOVs. The focus is to promote the integration of biological EOVs including EBVs into the existing and planned national and international ocean observing systems. The definition avoids a proliferation of 'essential' variables across multiple organizations. MBON will continue to advance practical and wide use of EBVs and related EOV. This is an effective way to contribute to several UN assessments (e.g., from IPBES, IPCC, and the World Ocean Assessment under the UN Regular Process), UN Sustainable Development Goals, and to address targets and goals defined under
Louzao, Maite; Navarro, Joan; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; de Sola, Luis Gil; Forero, Manuela G.
Ecotones can be described as transition zones between neighbouring ecological systems that can be shaped by environmental gradients over a range of space and time scales. In the marine environment, the detection of ecotones is complex given the highly dynamic nature of marine systems and the paucity of empirical data over ocean-basin scales. One approach to overcome these limitations is to use stable isotopes from animal tissues since they can track spatial oceanographic variability across marine systems and, in turn, can be used as ecological tracers. Here, we analysed stable isotopes of deep-sea fishes to assess the presence of ecological discontinuities across the western Mediterranean. We were specifically interested in exploring the connection between deep-sea biological activity and particular oceanographic features (i.e., surface fronts) occurring in the pelagic domain. We collected samples for three different abundant deep-sea species in May 2004 from an experimental oceanographic trawling cruise (MEDITS): the Mictophydae jewel lanternfish Lampanyctus crocodilus and two species of the Gadidae family, the silvery pout Gadiculus argenteus and the blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou. The experimental survey occurred along the Iberian continental shelf and the upper and middle slopes, from the Strait of Gibraltar in the SW to the Cape Creus in the NE. The three deep-sea species were highly abundant throughout the study area and they showed geographic variation in their isotopic values, with decreasing values from north to south disrupted by an important change point around the Vera Gulf. Isotopic latitudinal gradients were explained by pelagic oceanographic conditions along the study area and confirm the existence of an ecotone at the Vera Gulf. This area could be considered as an oceanographic boundary where waters of Atlantic origin meet Mediterranean surface waters forming important frontal structures such as the Almeria-Oran front. In fact, our results
Faria, Claudia; Pereira, Goncalo; Chagas, Isabel
The activities presented in this paper are part of a wider project that investigates the effects of infusing the history of science in science teaching, toward students' learning and attitude. Focused on the work of D. Carlos de Braganca, King of Portugal from 1889 to 1908, and a pioneer oceanographer, the activities are addressed at the secondary…
Date of birth: 23 January 1959. Specialization: Biological Oceanography, Marine Ecology, Marine Biology Address: Chief Scientist, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula 403 004, Goa Contact: Office: (0832) 245 0404. Residence: (0832) 241 3765. Mobile: 94238 19755. Fax: (0832) 245 0615
Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 2015 Section: Earth & Planetary Sciences. Anil, Dr Arga Chandrashekar Ph.D. (Karnatak). Date of birth: 23 January 1959. Specialization: Biological Oceanography, Marine Ecology, Marine Biology Address: Chief Scientist, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula 403 004, ...
Diaz, Juan Manuel
One decade ago, the seas and oceans were considered biologically less diverse that the terrestrial environment. Now it is known that it is on the contrary; 33 of the 34 categories of animals (phylum), they are represented in the sea, compared with those solely 15 that exist in earth. The investigation about the diversity of life in the sea has been relatively scorned, but there are big benefits that we can wait if this is protected. The captures of fish depend on it; the species captured by the fisheries are sustained of the biodiversity of their trophic chains and habitats. The marine species are probably the biggest reservoir of chemical substances that can be used in pharmaceutical products. The genetic material of some species can be useful in biotechnical applications. The paper treats topics like the current state of the knowledge in marine biodiversity and it is done a diagnostic of the marine biodiversity in Colombia
A future bilateral SAR program was studied. The requirements supporting a SAR mission posed by science and operations in sea-ice-covered waters, oceanography, renewable resources, and nonrenewable resources are addressed. The instrument, mission, and program parameters were discussed. Research investigations supporting a SAR flight and the subsequent overall mission requirements and tradeoffs are summarized.
Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, in particular on the sustainable use of coastal and marine resources. This is central to the goal of supporting and promoting.
Daletos, Georgios; Ancheeva, Elena; Chaidir, Chaidir; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Proksch, Peter
Marine organisms play an important role in natural product-based drug research due to accumulation of structurally unique and bioactive metabolites. The exploration of marine-derived compounds may significantly extend the scientific knowledge of potential scaffolds for antibiotic drug discovery. Development of novel antitubercular agents is especially significant as the emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains remains threateningly high. Marine invertebrates (i.e., sponges, corals, gorgonians) as a source of new chemical entities are the center of research for several scientific groups, and the wide spectrum of biological activities of marine-derived compounds encourages scientists to carry out investigations in the field of antibiotic research, including tuberculosis treatment. The present review covers published data on antitubercular natural products from marine invertebrates grouped according to their biogenetic origin. Studies on the structure-activity relationships of these important leads are highlighted as well. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available The objective of this research is marine data users clustering using data mining technique. To achieve this objective, marine organizations will enable to know their data and users requirements. In this research, CRISP-DM standard model was used to implement the data mining technique. The required data was extracted from 500 marine data users profile database of Iranian National Institute for Oceanography and Atmospheric Sciences (INIOAS from 1386 to 1393. The TwoStep algorithm was used for clustering. In this research, patterns was discovered between marine data users such as student, organization and scientist and their data request (Data source, Data type, Data set, Parameter and Geographic area using clustering for the first time. The most important clusters are: Student with International data source, Chemistry data type, “World Ocean Database” dataset, Persian Gulf geographic area and Organization with Nitrate parameter. Senior managers of the marine organizations will enable to make correct decisions concerning their existing data. They will direct to planning for better data collection in the future. Also data users will guide with respect to their requests. Finally, the valuable suggestions were offered to improve the performance of marine organizations.
Carballeira, C; De Orte, M R; Viana, I G; Carballeira, A
Environmental monitoring plans (EMP) that include chemical analysis of water, a battery of bioassays and the study of local hydrodynamic conditions are required for land-based marine aquaculture. In this study, the following standardized toxicity tests were performed to assess the toxicity of effluents from eight land-base marine fish farms (LBMFFs) located on the northwest coast of Spain: bacterial bioluminescence (with Vibrio fischeri at 15 and 30 min), microalgal growth (with Phaeodactyllum tricornutum and Isochrysis galbana) and sea urchin larval development (with Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula). These bioassays were evaluated for inclusion in routine fish farm monitoring. Effective concentrations (EC(5), EC(10), EC(20), EC(50)) for each bioassay were calculated from dose-response curves, obtained by fitting the bioassay results to the best parametric model. Moreover, a graphical method of integrating the results from the battery of bioassays and classifying the toxicity was proposed, and the potential ecotoxic effects probe (PEEP) index was calculated. The bacterial bioluminiscence test at 30min, growth of I. galbana and larval development of A. lixula were found to be the most sensitive and useful tests. Graphical integration of these test results enabled definition of the ecotoxicological profiles of the different farms. The PEEP index, considering EC(20), efficiently reflected the toxic loading potential of LBMFF effluents. In conclusion, a battery of bioassays with species from different low trophic levels is recommended as a rapid and cost-effective methodology for assessing LBMFF discharges. The graphical integration method and the PEEP index are proposed for consideration in EMPs for such farms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohd Zanuri, Norlaila Binti; Bentley, Matthew G; Caldwell, Gary S
Exposure to synthetic chemicals is a key environmental challenge faced by aquatic organisms. The time and dose effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac, ibuprofen, and sildenafil citrate on sperm motility and successful fertilisation are studied using the echinoderms, Asterias rubens and Psammechinus miliaris, and the polychaete worm Arenicola marina, all important components of the marine benthos. Motility was reduced for all species when exposed to diclofenac concentrations ≥0.1 μg/L. Exposure to ≥1.0 μg/L of ibuprofen affected only P. miliaris gametes and fertilisation success of A. marina. A. rubens and P. miliaris sperm increased in both percentage motility and swimming velocity when exposed to sildenafil citrate at concentrations ≥18 and ≥ 50 ng/L, respectively. Pre-incubation of sperm with sildenafil citrate significantly increased fertilisation success in A. rubens and P. miliaris but not in A. marina. Pre-incubated A. rubens oocytes fertilised successfully in ibuprofen. According to EU Directive 93/67/EEC, diclofenac is classified as a very toxic substance to gametes of A. rubens, P. miliaris, and A. marina (EC 50 = 100-1000 μg/L) while ibuprofen is classified as very toxic to gametes of P. miliaris but non-toxic to gametes of A. marina (EC 50 > 10,000 μg/L). The present study indicates that diclofenac exposure may have negative impacts on invertebrate reproductive success, whereas ibuprofen potentially may compromise P. miliaris reproduction. This study provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms that allow marine invertebrates to survive and reproduce in contaminated and changing habitats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
May 6, 2015 ... Centre of Advanced Study in Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences,. Annamalai University, Parangipettai - 608 ... are of considerable interest in the area of biology and medicine due to their unique particle ... seashells, pearls and fish bones, and the particles ranged from 1 to 100 nm size. Biological ...
... Ocean Energy, Management, Regulations, and Enforcement, and National Marine Fisheries Service; the... engineering, geology, botany, hydrology, limnology, habitat biology, wildlife biology, biometrics, sociology, cultural anthropology, economics, ornithology, oceanography, fisheries biology, and climatology. The duties...
.... Not only are true insects, such as the Collembola and insect parasites of marine birds and mammals, considered, but also other kinds of intertidal air-breathing arthropods, notably spiders, scorpions...
The effects of petroleum, waste materials, halogenated hydrocarbons, radioactivity and heat on the marine ecosystem, the fishing industry and human health are discussed using the example of the North Sea. (orig.) [de
Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi
Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, (137)Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed (137)Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow (137)Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported (137)Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of (137)Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of (137)Cs, i
Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi
Radiocesium ( 134 Cs and 137 Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct 137 Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, 137 Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed 137 Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow 137 Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported 137 Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of 137 Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of 137 Cs, i.e. contaminated
Marine geology of the Gulf of California : Tj. H. van Andel and G. G. Shor Jr. (editors). American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, Okla., memoir 3, 1964, 408 pp., 228 illus., 52 tables, 1 separate cover with 6 charts, $ 12.50
Bouma, Arnold H.
That an investigation of a certain area made by one or a few scientists can never result in a complete paper is clearly demonstrated by this magnificent book. The combined program for study of the Gulf of California by all available methods, such as geology, oceanography, marine geology,
Thaisa Francielle Souza Domingos
Full Text Available The ability of crude extracts of the brown seaweed Spatoglossum schröederi to counteract some of the biological activities of Lachesis muta snake venom was evaluated. In vitro assays showed that only the extract of S. schröederi prepared in ethyl acetate was able to inhibit the clotting of fibrinogen induced by L. muta venom. On the other hand, all extracts were able to inhibit partially the hemolysis caused by venom and those prepared in dichloromethane or ethyl acetate fully neutralized the proteolysis and hemorrhage produced by the venom. Moreover, the dichloromethane or ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the hemolysis induced by an isolated phospholipase A2 from L. muta venom, called LM-PLA2-I. In contrast, the hexane extract failed to protect mice from hemorrhage or to inhibit proteolysis and clotting. These results show that the polarity of the solvent used to prepare the extracts of S. schröederi algae influenced the potency of the inhibitory effect of the biological activities induced by L. muta venom. Thus, the seaweed S. schröederi may be a promising source of natural inhibitors of the enzymes involved in biological activities of L. muta venom.
The Dissertations Initiative for the Advancement of Limnology and Oceanography (DIALOG) was founded in 1994 to facilitate interdisciplinary, inter-institutional and international aquatic science research, understanding and collaborations...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection comprises data covering meteorology, physical oceanography, transport of water, biogeochemistry, and parameters relevant to the carbon cycle, ocean...
Palacios, S. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Clinton, N. E.; Atkins, N.; Austerberry, D.; Johnson, M.; McGonigle, J.; McIntosh, K.; O'Shea, J. J.; Shirshikova, Z.; Singer, N.; Snow, A.; Woods, R.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.
With over half of the current earth and space science workforce expected to retire within the next 15 years, NASA has responded by cultivating young minds through programs such as the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). SARP is a competitive internship that introduces upper-level undergraduates and early graduate students to Earth System Science research and NASA's Airborne Science Program. The program serves as a model for recruitment of very high caliber students into the scientific workforce. Its uniqueness derives from total vertical integration of hands-on experience at every stage of airborne science: aircraft instrumentation, flight planning, mission participation, field-work, analysis, and reporting of results in a competitive environment. At the conclusion of the program, students presented their work to NASA administrators, faculty, mentors, and the other participants with the incentive of being selected as best talk and earning a trip to the fall AGU meeting to present their work at the NASA booth. We hope lessons learned can inform the decisions of scientists at the highest levels seeking to broaden the appeal of research. In 2011, SARP was divided into three disciplinary themes: Oceanography, Land Use, and Atmospheric Chemistry. Each research group was mentored by an upper-level graduate student who was supervised by an expert faculty member. A coordinator managed the program and was supervised by a senior research scientist/administrator. The program is a model of knowledge transfer among the several levels of research: agency administration to the program coordinator, established scientific experts to the research mentors, and the research mentors to the pre-career student participants. The outcomes from this program include mission planning and institutional knowledge transfer from administrators and expert scientists to the coordinator and research mentors; personnel and project management from the coordinator and expert scientists to the
Paytan, Adina [University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
Carbon (C) sequestration through fertilization of phytoplankton with micronutrients and enhancement of the absorption and retention of atmospheric C by ocean biota heavily depends on the efficiency of the “biological pump”. The long-term effectiveness of this strategy depends on a net transfer of C from the upper ocean-atmosphere system to the deep ocean where the C is removed from contact with the atmosphere for an extended period of time. This C removal can be equated to the amount of C fixation by phytoplankton minus the C cycling and regeneration in the euphotic zone. If the regeneration efficiency is increased, then despite increased C fixation, no net loss (sequestration) of C will result. A reduction in cycling efficiency in the euphotic zone, on the other hand, will increase the effectiveness of the “biological pump” and thus C sequestration. The degree of organic matter biodegradation and recycling depends on the “reactivity” of compounds synthesized by the biota, which in turn, is controlled by the structural characteristic of these compounds. There is considerable evidence that different phytoplankton taxa differ substantially in their biogeochemical characteristics and it is likely that the relative abundance of different compounds synthesized by these distinct taxa, and even within each group at different growth conditions, will differ too. This variability in biosynthesis and thus abundance of a wide range of organic compounds in the water column would lend itself to different susceptibility for biodegradation and regeneration. Knowledge of the distribution of various organic matter structural groups synthesized by distinct taxa, the dependence of the organic matter compound classes on different growth conditions (temperature, light, nutrients) and the selective susceptibility of these compound to regeneration is crucial for estimating the potential for rapid regeneration in the euphotic zone, and thus the effectiveness of the “biological
Ming, Liu; Hansen, Poul Erik; Lin, Xiukun
Marine algae contain various bromophenols that have been shown to possess a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-thrombotic effects. Here, we briefly review the recent progress of these marine algal biomaterials, with respect...
Ballard, R. D.; Coleman, D.
The Graduate School of Oceanography (GSO) at the University of Rhode Island (URI) under the auspices of its new Institute for Archaeological Oceanography (IAO) will soon be offering a Ph.D. program in Archaeological Oceanography. Although based within GSO, this new program is being carried out in cooperation with the Departments of History, Sociology and Anthropology, and Engineering, which will provide graduate course work in support of this effort. Students with strong backgrounds in the earth sciences as well as undergraduate course work in the humanities are being sought to apply for this program in 2003/2004 timeframe and beyond. A new family of remotely operated vehicle systems have been developed to support this effort as well as an on-going field program in the Central and Eastern Mediterranean and Black Seas and the Great Lakes. IAO's next major expedition will occur in the Black Sea and Eastern Mediterranean aboard the R/V KNORR in the summer of 2003 including the use of high-bandwidth ship to shore telecommunications to permit shore-based scientists and engineers the ability to participate in the sea-going program."
Paganelli, Daniele; Marchini, Agnese; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna
The functional diversity index has shown that the functional diversity of the macrobenthic community increased along a spatial gradient of distance from the Po river delta (Emilia-Romagna coast, Italy, North-Adriatic Sea), which suggests that riverine inputs have a detrimental effect on community functioning. This study focuses on two different depths along a southward gradient of increasing distance from the Po river delta where the Po river is the main source of freshwater and nutrient inputs in the North-Adriatic Sea. A Biological Traits Analysis (BTA) was used to examine a dataset of 156 soft-bottom macrobenthic species that were collected at eight stations in this area. Instead of comparing communities on the basis of their taxonomic composition, BTA uses a series of life history, morphological and behavioural characteristics of species to indicate aspects of their ecological functioning. The variability of the Emilia-Romagna dataset was governed by relatively few biological traits: growth form, trophic group, type of movement, habit, adult mobility and bioturbation activity. The community closer to the coastline was mainly composed of moderately mobile vermiform organisms with burrowing or tube-dwelling behaviour, and deposit feeding behaviour. However, the offshore community was mainly characterized by organisms with a laterally compressed or globose body and tube-dwelling behaviour; filter feeders and deposit feeders were dominant.
Microbes such as bacteria, fungi and unicellular algae assume greater importance in the tropical marine ecosystems because of their abundance, biomass and activity in a number of chemical and biological processes that provide the driving force...
Tim P Lynch
Full Text Available Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS. The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected on this cruise included the following: acoustic recordings of marine species detected by sonobuoys; oceanographic measurements including water...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Understanding the processes that regulate early marine survival of salmon is a major goal of the Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) Northeast Pacific (NEP)...
Fiedler, J. W.; Tamsitt, V. M.; Crosby, S. C.; Ludka, B. C.
The GOTO-SEE (Graduate students Onboard Teaching Oceanography - Scripps Educational Experience) cruises were conducted with two days of ship time off of Point Loma, CA, on the R/V Robert Gordon Sproul in July 2016. The cruises, funded through UC Ship Funds program, provided a unique training opportunity for graduate students to design, coordinate and conduct ship-based field experiments as well as teaching and mentoring students. The cruises allowed for instruction at sea for high school students in the UCSD Academic Connections program in two small classes: a two-week long Global Environmental Leadership and Sustainability Program and a 3-week long class entitled Wind, Waves and Currents: Physics of the Ocean World. Students in both classes assisted with the collection of data, including two repeat cross-shore vertical CTD sections with nutrient sampling, and the deployment and recovery of a 10-day moored vertical thermistor array. Additional activities included plankton net tows, sediment sampling, depth soundings, and simple experiments regarding light absorption in the ocean. The students later plotted the data collected as a class assignment and presented a scientific poster to their peers. Here, we present the lessons learned from the cruises as well as student responses to the unique in-the-field experience, and how those responses differed by curriculum.
The objectives of the project were to determine the physical/dynamical processes controlling/affecting the distribution of phytoplankton nutrients on the continental shelf in the South Atlantic Bight. The initial objectives were to determine the short term, i.e., 2 to 10 day and longer term flux of nutrients onto the continental shelf. This is clearly related to the more general problem of combined physical and biogenic control of phytoplankton nutrients. During the period from June, 1975 to March, 1978 the study of the continental shelf processes affecting the oceanography of the South Atlantic Bight has been principally involved with a substantial, coordinated field effort. The success of the data acquisition phase of the program has now required an intensive data analysis phase which has been slowly increasing in effort. Emphasis is placed on the main phase of the field program, located in Onslow Bay, which has beel completed and the data are being analyzed. During the three-year period 20 cruises were made into the Carolina Capes area and samples were collected. A list is included of some 100 publications during the period.
Kalyani. P*, Hemalatha. K. P. J
Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and...
as they are an important food source for various marine animals. For both phytoand zooplankton predation is a major cause of mortality, and strategies for protection or avoidance are important for survival. Diatoms of the genera Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia are known to produce a neuro-toxin, domoic acid (DA). Despite......Phytoplankton species are photosynthetic organisms found in most aquatic habitats. In the ocean, phytoplankton are tremendously important because they produce the energy that forms the base of the marine food web. Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton and mediate the energy to higher trophic levels...
Kenya; 6Gent University, Marine Biology Group, Krijgslaan 281 – S8, 9000 Gent, Belgium. Keywords: Ecological monitoring, no-take area, partially-protected area, Marine. Protected Area, Kenya. Abstract—The abundance, trophic composition and diversity of fish were investigated in the Mombasa Marine Protected Area ...
... mammals at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology through May 31, 2012. The minor amendment (No. 978-1857... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA37 Marine Mammals; File No. 978-1857 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...
... Marine Biology, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, Hawaii 96734, to conduct scientific research on cetaceans stranded... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA384 Marine Mammals; File No. 16053 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...
... Daniel P. Costa, Ph.D., Department of Biology and Institute of Marine Sciences, University of California... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC554 Marine Mammals; File No. 17952 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...
This report presents contributions from the 7th Danish marine research meeting, arranged by the Danish National Oceanologic Board the 21-24 Jan 1992 in the new Marine Geology Research centre of the Aarhus University. 310 participants presented 76 lectures and 35 posters in the field of marine geology, hydrology, biology contamination monitoring etc. (EG)
... has issued a permit to Whitlow Au, Ph.D., University of Hawaii, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY09 Marine Mammals; File No. 14682 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...
... permit has been issued to Daniel P. Costa, Ph.D., Department of Biology and Institute of Marine Sciences... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC554 Marine Mammals; File No. 17952 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric...
DeRouen, L.R.; Hann, R.W.; Casserly, D.M.; Giammona, C.; Lascara, V.J. (eds.)
The Department of Energy's Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program began discharging brine into the Gulf of Mexico from its West Hackberry site near Cameron, Louisiana in May 1981. The brine originates from underground salt domes being leached with water from the Intracoastal Waterway, making available vast underground storage caverns for crude oil. The effects of brine discharge on aquatic organisms are presented in this volume. The topics covered are: benthos; nekton; phytoplankton; zooplankton; and data management.
Randelhoff, Achim; Sundfjord, Arild
The future of Arctic marine ecosystems has received increasing attention in recent years as the extent of the sea ice cover is dwindling. Although the Pacific and Atlantic inflows both import huge quantities of nutrients and plankton, they feed into the Arctic Ocean in quite diverse regions. The strongly stratified Pacific sector has a historically heavy ice cover, a shallow shelf and dominant upwelling-favourable winds, while the Atlantic sector is weakly stratified, with a dynamic ice edge and a complex bathymetry. We argue that shelf break upwelling is likely not a universal but rather a regional, albeit recurring, feature of the new Arctic. It is the regional oceanography that decides its importance through a range of diverse factors such as stratification, bathymetry and wind forcing. Teasing apart their individual contributions in different regions can only be achieved by spatially resolved time series and dedicated modelling efforts. The Northern Barents Sea shelf is an example of a region where shelf break upwelling likely does not play a dominant role, in contrast to the shallower shelves north of Alaska where ample evidence for its importance has already accumulated. Still, other factors can contribute to marked future increases in biological productivity along the Arctic shelf break. A warming inflow of nutrient-rich Atlantic Water feeds plankton at the same time as it melts the sea ice, permitting increased photosynthesis. Concurrent changes in sea ice cover and zooplankton communities advected with the boundary currents make for a complex mosaic of regulating factors that do not allow for Arctic-wide generalizations.
Full Text Available The future of Arctic marine ecosystems has received increasing attention in recent years as the extent of the sea ice cover is dwindling. Although the Pacific and Atlantic inflows both import huge quantities of nutrients and plankton, they feed into the Arctic Ocean in quite diverse regions. The strongly stratified Pacific sector has a historically heavy ice cover, a shallow shelf and dominant upwelling-favourable winds, while the Atlantic sector is weakly stratified, with a dynamic ice edge and a complex bathymetry. We argue that shelf break upwelling is likely not a universal but rather a regional, albeit recurring, feature of the new Arctic. It is the regional oceanography that decides its importance through a range of diverse factors such as stratification, bathymetry and wind forcing. Teasing apart their individual contributions in different regions can only be achieved by spatially resolved time series and dedicated modelling efforts. The Northern Barents Sea shelf is an example of a region where shelf break upwelling likely does not play a dominant role, in contrast to the shallower shelves north of Alaska where ample evidence for its importance has already accumulated. Still, other factors can contribute to marked future increases in biological productivity along the Arctic shelf break. A warming inflow of nutrient-rich Atlantic Water feeds plankton at the same time as it melts the sea ice, permitting increased photosynthesis. Concurrent changes in sea ice cover and zooplankton communities advected with the boundary currents make for a complex mosaic of regulating factors that do not allow for Arctic-wide generalizations.
Sichlau, Mie Hylstofte
Copepods are among the most abundant metazoans on the planet and play an important role in the marine food web. Many aspects of their ecology have consequently been studied, including details of their reproductive biology and mating behaviour. Sexual selection, the part of evolution which selects...
Brander, Keith; Ottersen, Geir; Bakker, J.P.
This chapter presents a review of what is known about the impacts of climate change on the biota (plankton, benthos, fish, seabirds and marine mammals) of the North Sea. Examples show how the changing North Sea environment is affecting biological processes and organisation at all scales, includin...
Stocks, K.; Clark, M.; Rowden, A.; Consalvey, M.
CenSeam (a Global Census of Marine Life on Seamounts) is a network of more than 500 scientists, policy makers and conservationists around the world. These participants are collaborating to increase our understanding of the factors driving seamount community composition and diversity, such that we can better understand and manage the effects of human activities. The major scientific outcomes of the CenSeam community include the findings that 1) Seamount community composition is often similar to surrounding habitats; however, community structure can be different. 2) Contrary to conventional wisdom, few seamounts follow island biogeography predictions. 3) Seamounts can support a higher benthic biomass than surrounding habitats. 4) Seamounts can support species and communities new to science, and represent range extensions for known species, which are being described from CenSeam voyages. 5) For the first time, the extent of the vulnerability and risk to seamount benthic communities from fishing has been quantified. 6) Whilst long assumed, CenSeam researchers have demonstrated that seamount communities are disturbed by fishing and are slow to recover. And 7) Seamounts might act as repositories of biodiversity during future periods of extreme environmental change, as they have likely done in the past. The major products of Censeam include 1) a book synthesizing seamount knowledge: Seamounts: Ecology, Fisheries and Conservation (from Blackwell Publishing); 2) a recent review of the structure and function of seamount benthic communities, human impacts, and seamount management and conservation (Ann Rev Mar Sci); 3) hundreds of scientific publications, including Special Issues in Marine Ecology and Oceanography (in collaboration with the Seamount Biogeogsciences Network), and a Special Collection in PLoSONE; 4) guidance documents and formal advising for seamount management communities, including the United Nations Environment Program, International Seabed Authority
SASMIA), Christy & Sons, P.O. Box 452, Humansdorp 6300, South Africa. 5 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom. 6 Department of Marine Biology, James Cook University, Townsville, 4811 ...
Ancellin, J.; Guegueniat, P.; Germain, P.
This book presents the state-of-the art of the knowledge gained in France and in foreign countries for some 20 years on the points concerning man from the sanitary point of view and radionuclides transfers in the ocean environment especially. The various data of physico-chemistry (viz. behaviour of trace elements), geochemistry, physiology, physical and biological oceanography are included. In situ data are included on various sites of radioactive releases after several years of monitoring. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of concentration factors necessary for impact assessment studies and regulatory provisions governing effluents [fr
fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships between humans .... ally changing marine environment with small island states faced with issues related to rising sea level. Two field notes .... alter the structure of coral tissue, skeletal morphol- ogy and density ...
Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- .... Kaullysing et al. also present a field note on coral-eating gastropods observed around Mauritius. ... and decision making in the field of coral reef studies and management in Mauritius, while contributing.
Mauritius Marine Conservation Society through their. Abstract. While no populations of seals are resident in the tropical Indian Ocean, vagrant animals are occasionally sighted in the region. Here we detail two new sightings of pinnipeds in the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Reunion and Rodri- gues) since 1996 and review ...
A. formosa and P. verrucosa responded significantly to seasonal fluctuation in both solar radiation and sea surface temperature by regulating their ... types from the environmental pool. It is concluded that seasonal fluctuations in both solar ..... photoprotection in symbiotic dinoflagellates from reef-building corals. Marine ...
sues of marine gastropods belonging to these genera contain a higher amount of protein and would there- fore benefit from a higher amount of PK added to the lysis buffer of choice. Moreover, it has been reported that PK is very active in the presence of the detergent. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (SDS) (Gross-Bellard et al,.
fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships between ... ISSN 0856-860X. Western Indian Ocean. J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Editorial Board. Serge ANDREFOUËT. France. Ranjeet BHAGOOLI. Mauritius ...... ence Technology, Rhodes, Greece.
Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…
As in other oceans, anthropogenic activities have a large impact on marine habitats and ... effects of region (north vs south), country (proxy for latitude) and depth stratum on catch composition were con- sidered. Of 243 genera identified from 206 trawls, .... rather than species level. Two survey vessels with unequal fishing ...
Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research ... PAHs are among the persistent organic pollutants that are a worldwide environmental ... combusted and petroleum products are used during boat/dhow making and servicing ...
org/wio-journal-of-marine- science/ and AJOL ... The mangroves around Maputo city in Maputo Bay were studied to assess changes in forest cover area and the effect of cutting ..... factors on forest health condition has not yet been assessed.
determining zonation in intertidal areas (Tomanek &. Helmuth, 2002), it is noteworthy that wave action and. Abstract. This study compared spatial variations in the density and diversity of marine benthic molluscs along Belle Mare and. Gris Gris, a sheltered and an exposed intertidal zone, respectively, in Mauritius. Species ...
Liu, Shuai; Chen, Ge; Yao, Shifeng; Tian, Fenglin; Liu, Wei
This paper presents a novel integrated marine visualization framework which focuses on processing, analyzing the multi-dimension spatiotemporal marine data in one workflow. Effective marine data visualization is needed in terms of extracting useful patterns, recognizing changes, and understanding physical processes in oceanography researches. However, the multi-source, multi-format, multi-dimension characteristics of marine data pose a challenge for interactive and feasible (timely) marine data analysis and visualization in one workflow. And, global multi-resolution virtual terrain environment is also needed to give oceanographers and the public a real geographic background reference and to help them to identify the geographical variation of ocean phenomena. This paper introduces a data integration and processing method to efficiently visualize and analyze the heterogeneous marine data. Based on the data we processed, several GPU-based visualization methods are explored to interactively demonstrate marine data. GPU-tessellated global terrain rendering using ETOPO1 data is realized and the video memory usage is controlled to ensure high efficiency. A modified ray-casting algorithm for the uneven multi-section Argo volume data is also presented and the transfer function is designed to analyze the 3D structure of ocean phenomena. Based on the framework we designed, an integrated visualization system is realized. The effectiveness and efficiency of the framework is demonstrated. This system is expected to make a significant contribution to the demonstration and understanding of marine physical process in a virtual global environment.
Costas, M.; Lavilla, I.; Gil, S.; Pena, F.; Calle, I.; Cabaleiro, N. de la; Bendicho, C.
In this work, the determination of rare earth elements (REEs), i.e. Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Lu in marine biological tissues by inductively coupled-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after a sample preparation method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is described. The suitability of the extracts for ICP-MS measurements was evaluated. For that, studies were focused on the following issues: (i) use of clean up of extracts with a C18 cartridge for non-polar solid phase extraction; (ii) use of different internal standards; (iii) signal drift caused by changes in the nebulization efficiency and salt deposition on the cones during the analysis. The signal drift produced by direct introduction of biological extracts in the instrument was evaluated using a calibration verification standard for bracketing (standard-sample bracketing, SSB) and cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts. Parameters influencing extraction such as extractant composition, mass-to-volume ratio, particle size, sonication time and sonication amplitude were optimized. Diluted single acids (HNO 3 and HCl) and mixtures (HNO 3 + HCl) were evaluated for improving the extraction efficiency. Quantitative recoveries for REEs were achieved using 5 mL of 3% (v/v) HNO 3 + 2% (v/v) HCl, particle size <200 μm, 3 min of sonication time and 50% of sonication amplitude. Precision, expressed as relative standard deviation from three independent extractions, ranged from 0.1 to 8%. In general, LODs were improved by a factor of 5 in comparison with those obtained after microwave-assisted digestion (MAD). The accuracy of the method was evaluated using the CRM BCR-668 (mussel tissue). Different seafood samples of common consumption were analyzed by ICP-MS after UAE and MAD.
Marine microbes include representatives from all three kingdoms of life and collectively carry out virtually all forms of metabolisms found on the planet. Because of this metabolic and genetic diversity, these microbes mediate many of the reactions making up global biogeochemical cycles which govern the flow of energy and material in the biosphere. The goal of this conference is to bring together approaches and concepts from studies of microbial evolution, genomics, ecology, and oceanography in order to gain new insights into marine microbes and their biogeochemical functions. The integration of scales, from genes to global cycles, will result in a better understanding of marine microbes and of their contribution to the carbon cycle and other biogeochemical processes.
Lowman, Frank G.
Present research programme: Marine biology programme (marine biogeochemistry). The programme is designed to provide measurements of the distribution and movements of selected trace elements in a restricted but complete ecological and biogeochemical system. To obtain information on interactions between the marine biosphere and hydrosphere, measurements are being made of biological productivity, amounts of trace elements in the organisms and the environment, biological half-lives of trace elements, characteristics of food webs, and the influence of physical and chemical oceanographic factors upon the distribution patterns of trace elements in the marine waters, organisms and sediments offshore from the west coast of Puerto Rico
Buffett, G. G.; Krahmann, G.; Klaeschen, D.; Schroeder, K.; Sallarès, V.; Papenberg, C.; Ranero, C. R.; Zitellini, N.
We use seismic oceanography to document and analyze oceanic thermohaline fine structure across the Tyrrhenian Sea. Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data were acquired during the MEDiterranean OCcidental survey in April-May 2010. We deployed along-track expendable bathythermograph probes simultaneous with MCS acquisition. At nearby locations we gathered conductivity-temperature-depth data. An autonomous glider survey added in situ measurements of oceanic properties. The seismic reflectivity clearly delineates thermohaline fine structure in the upper 2,000 m of the water column, indicating the interfaces between Atlantic Water/Winter Intermediate Water, Levantine Intermediate Water, and Tyrrhenian Deep Water. We observe the Northern Tyrrhenian Anticyclone, a near-surface mesoscale eddy, plus laterally and vertically extensive thermohaline staircases. Using MCS, we are able to fully image the anticyclone to a depth of 800 m and to confirm the horizontal continuity of the thermohaline staircases of more than 200 km. The staircases show the clearest step-like gradients in the center of the basin while they become more diffuse toward the periphery and bottom, where impedance gradients become too small to be detected by MCS. We quantify the internal wave field and find it to be weak in the region of the eddy and in the center of the staircases, while it is stronger near the coastlines. Our results indicate this is because of the influence of the boundary currents, which disrupt the formation of staircases by preventing diffusive convection. In the interior of the basin, the staircases are clearer and the internal wave field weaker, suggesting that other mixing processes such as double diffusion prevail.
Reed, D. L.; Anglin, J.
General education courses at many universities are required to demonstrate specific student learning outcomes and methodologies of learning assessment that can be measure the success, or lack thereof, of meeting these outcomes. A primary learning outcome of the SJSU general education program is to have students apply a scientific approach to problems of the earth and environment. This requirement can be challenging in high enrollment classes offered at universities without the resources of graduate teaching assistantships. In order to meet this outcome through an active learning environment, we have redesigned a web-based oceanography course, primarily for non-science majors, that has students assume the role of shipboard scientists on a number of ocean-going virtual research experiences. One activity has students participate on a virtual research voyage based on a multi-beam sonar study of the central San Francisco Bay described in USGS Circular 1259 by Chin et al (2004). Students carry out the duties of virtual shipboard scientists, including pre- and post-cruise scientific meetings, sonar data acquisition, processing and visualization, and interpretation of the seafloor mapping data using a combination of scientific visualizations, animations, and audio and video segments. While on the voyage, students are required to: (1) determine the navigational hazards posed by three submerged rocks near the main shipping lane in the bay, (2) assess the long-term viability of a disposal site for mud dredged from the bay, and (3) generate a sediment characteristics map of the bay floor that can be used as a basis for future studies of contaminant transport. Upon completion of the voyage students are required to write an abstract describing their research for publication in the proceedings volume of a virtual scientific conference in the form of an essay question on the mid-term exam. Based on the work of over 200 students, this question has received the highest score of four
Current day's research has been focusing much on the potential pharmacological or nutraceutical agents of selective health benefits with less toxicity. As a consequence of increased demand of nutritional supplements of great medicinal values, development of therapeutic agents from natural sources, in particular, marine environment are being considered much important. A diverse array of marine natural products containing medicinally useful nutritional substances, i.e., marine nutraceuticals have been focused to the benefit of mankind. Carbohydrates, by being constituted in considerable amount of many marine organisms display several nutraceutical and pharmaceutical behavior to defend from various diseases. Moreover, the carbohydrates from algae as well as from shellfish wastes, like chitosan and its derivatives, showed tremendous applications in biology and biomedicine. In the current chapter, several of marine carbohydrates from various marine flora and fauna have been covered with their applications and prospects in the development of nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrey V. Ishin
Full Text Available Marine direction of foreign policy is for Russia one of key. It is determined geographical position of the Russian state banks of which is washed plenty of Maureies. Also it is related to that considerable part of population lives on the coast of Russian Maureies, and industry, located in an off-shore bar brings, in a large contribution to the economy.Many Russian marine travelers were the discoverers of «new» earths. The contribution of the Russian scientists to the hydrophysical, geological and biological study of Maureies and Oceans is great. Russia possesses a navy, to the constituents approximately one-third of total tonnage of world VMF and one of large in the world a rybopromyslovym fleet. Transport ships under the flag of Russian Federation it is possible to meet planets in the remotest corners. In a number of areas of military shipbuilding and civil shipbuilding Russia had and continues to save priority.Enhanceable interest to the Seas and Oceans found the reflection in the fundamental Russian documents, including, in the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation, ratified Russia President in 2015. In it the value of marine spaces for the Russian state is marked. In the Marine doctrine of Russian Federation is writtenin: «The skilled providing, marine teaching and education play an important role in the increase of efficiency of marine activity. They are directed on preparation, bringing in and maintainance of skilled shots of all levels, maintenance of professionalism, marine traditions and not indifferent relation of citizens to marine history of country, serve positive presentation, propaganda and support of national marine policy, to marine activity and marine service in society».Marine direction, marine science about regions found a reflection in the publications of row of the Russian authors, devoted research of policy of Russia in such regions, as: Black Sea region, Caspian region, Arctic, and also in the series of Encyclopaedias
Ribeiro, Ângela M; Foote, Andrew D; Kupczok, Anne; Frazão, Bárbara; Limborg, Morten T; Piñeiro, Rosalía; Abalde, Samuel; Rocha, Sara; da Fonseca, Rute R
Marine ecosystems occupy 71% of the surface of our planet, yet we know little about their diversity. Although the inventory of species is continually increasing, as registered by the Census of Marine Life program, only about 10% of the estimated two million marine species are known. This lag between observed and estimated diversity is in part due to the elusiveness of most aquatic species and the technical difficulties of exploring extreme environments, as for instance the abyssal plains and polar waters. In the last decade, the rapid development of affordable and flexible high-throughput sequencing approaches have been helping to improve our knowledge of marine biodiversity, from the rich microbial biota that forms the base of the tree of life to a wealth of plant and animal species. In this review, we present an overview of the applications of genomics to the study of marine life, from evolutionary biology of non-model organisms to species of commercial relevance for fishing, aquaculture and biomedicine. Instead of providing an exhaustive list of available genomic data, we rather set to present contextualized examples that best represent the current status of the field of marine genomics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Frischer, Marc E. [Skidaway Institute of Oceanography; Verity, Peter G.; Gilligan, Mathew R.; Bronk, Deborah A.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Booth, Melissa G.
Traditionally, the importance of inorganic nitrogen (N) for the nutrition and growth of marine phytoplankton has been recognized, while inorganic N utilization by bacteria has received less attention. Likewise, organic N has been thought to be important for heterotrophic organisms but not for phytoplankton. However, accumulating evidence suggests that bacteria compete with phytoplankton for nitrate (NO3-) and other N species. The consequences of this competition may have a profound effect on the flux of N, and therefore carbon (C), in ocean margins. Because it has been difficult to differentiate between N uptake by heterotrophic bacterioplankton versus autotrophic phytoplankton, the processes that control N utilization, and the consequences of these competitive interactions, have traditionally been difficult to study. Significant bacterial utilization of DIN may have a profound effect on the flux of N and C in the water column because sinks for dissolved N that do not incorporate inorganic C represent mechanisms that reduce the atmospheric CO2 drawdown via the ?biological pump? and limit the flux of POC from the euphotic zone. This project was active over the period of 1998-2007 with support from the DOE Biotechnology Investigations ? Ocean Margins Program (BI-OMP). Over this period we developed a tool kit of molecular methods (PCR, RT-PCR, Q-PCR, QRT-PCR, and TRFLP) and combined isotope mass spectrometry and flow-cytometric approaches that allow selective isolation, characterization, and study of the diversity and genetic expression (mRNA) of the structural gene responsible for the assimilation of NO3- by heterotrophic bacteria (nasA). As a result of these studies we discovered that bacteria capable of assimilating NO3- are ubiquitous in marine waters, that the nasA gene is expressed in these environments, that heterotrophic bacteria can account for a significant fraction of total DIN uptake in different ocean margin systems, that the expression of nasA is
... NMFS to study and document the health and biology of wild marine mammals as well as those marine... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB040 Marine Mammals; File Nos. 1076-1789 and 14502 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...
Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.Y.; Parameswaran, P.S; Das, B.; Battacharya, J.; Ramani, P.; Bhakuni, D.S.; Goel, A.K.; Jain, S.; Srimal, R.C.
Of twenty eight alcoholic extracts of marine organisms screened for a wide range of pharmacological activities, 15 showed biological activity. Of these two were anti implantation, 3 CNS stimulant, 2 hypotensive, 4 diuretic, 4 hypoglycaemic, 2...
the R/V Urania (Italian National Research Council, CNR), the seismic acquisition of G. Bortoluzzi (CNR-ISMAR Bologna) and Exploration Electronics LTD...Langone. L, Miserocchi, S.. Tesi . T., Foglini. F.. 2007. Particle transport in the Bari Canyon (Southern Adriatic Sea). Marine Geology 246(2-4
Full Text Available to monitor wastewater discharge impacts, including toxicity testing, environmental chemistry, benthic community status and bio-accumulation studies. The CSIR laboratories are accredited for the analysis of marine water, sediment and biological tissue... Programme has a history of 45 years, and continues to build capacity in the fi eld of marine pollution research and management. Identify the need for monitoring Monitor physical, biological and chemical parameters in the vicinity of the outfall...
Gaitonde, D.; Sarkar, A.; Kaisary, S.; De; Dias, C.F.M.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.; Ray, D.; Nagarajan, R.; De; Sarkar, S.; Patill, D.
activities in marine snail (Cronia contracta) as a biomarker of neurotoxic contaminants along the Goa coast, West coast of India D. Gaitonde Æ A. Sarkar Æ S. Kaisary Æ C. D. Silva Æ C. Dias Æ D. P. Rao Æ D. Ray Æ R. Nagarajan Æ S. N. De Sousa Æ Subhodeep... Æ D. P. Rao Æ D. Ray Æ R. Nagarajan Æ S. N. De Sousa Marine Pollution Assessment and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India e-mail: email@example.com S. Sarker Department of Biotechnology, Birla...
Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa for being my Research guide, under whose esteemed guidance and guardianship I could complete this work without any stress or strain. I convey my thanks to Dr.S.A.Mastan, Assistant Professor..., 2004 along Mormugao Port Fig. 6 : Regression (R) Values Of Various Physical And Biological Parameters At Transact Stations During High Tide And Low Tide Sampling Fig. 7 : Regression (R) Values Of Various Physical And Biological Parameters at Diurnal...
Richardson, A. H.; Jasnow, M.; Srinivasan, M. S.; Rosmorduc, V.; Blanc, F.
the role of the ocean in sustaining life on Earth. Activities on the back of the poster can be used as supplemental material in a middle school Earth science curriculum, and are suitable for individual instruction and for classroom or group exercises. This poster will be published in both English and French. Educational research indicates that an inquiry-based method of student engagement is an appropriate and effective teaching tool. These posters offer a fun and instructive environment to promote student interest in Earth Science in general and particularly in oceanography.
Hostetler, Chris A.; Behrenfeld, Michael J.; Hu, Yongxiang; Hair, Johnathan W.; Schulien, Jennifer A.
Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ˜20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar. The satellite lidar era in oceanography has arrived. Here, we present a review of the lidar technique, its applications in marine systems, a perspective on what can be accomplished in the near future with an ocean- and atmosphere-optimized satellite lidar, and a vision for a multiplatform virtual constellation of observational assets that would enable a three-dimensional reconstruction of global ocean ecosystems.
Hostetler, Chris A; Behrenfeld, Michael J; Hu, Yongxiang; Hair, Johnathan W; Schulien, Jennifer A
Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar. The satellite lidar era in oceanography has arrived. Here, we present a review of the lidar technique, its applications in marine systems, a perspective on what can be accomplished in the near future with an ocean- and atmosphere-optimized satellite lidar, and a vision for a multiplatform virtual constellation of observational assets that would enable a three-dimensional reconstruction of global ocean ecosystems.
Fassbender, Andrea J.; Palevsky, Hilary I.; Martz, Todd R.; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Gledhill, Martha; Fawcett, Sarah E.; Brandes, Jay; Aluwihare, Lihini; Anderson, Robert M.; Bender, Sara; Boyle, Ed; Bronk, Debbie; Buesseler, Ken; Burdige, David J.; Casciotti, Karen; Close, Hilary; Conte, Maureen; Cutter, Greg; Estapa, Meg; Fennel, Katja; Ferron, Sara; Glazer, Brian; Goni, Miguel; Grand, Max; Guay, Chris; Hatta, Mariko; Hayes, Chris; Horner, Tristan; Ingall, Ellery; Johnson, Kenneth G.; Juranek, Laurie; Knapp, Angela; Lam, Phoebe; Luther, George; Matrai, Paty; Nicholson, David; Paytan, Adina; Pellenbarg, Robert; Popendorf, Kim; Reddy, Christopher M.; Ruttenberg, Kathleen; Sabine, Chris; Sansone, Frank; Shaltout, Nayrah; Sikes, Liz; Sundquist, Eric T.; Valentine, David; Wang, Zhao (Aleck); Wilson, Sam; Barrett, Pamela; Behrens, Melanie; Belcher, Anna; Biermann, Lauren; Boiteau, Rene; Clarke, Jennifer; Collins, Jamie; Coppola, Alysha; Ebling, Alina M.; Garcia-Tigreros, Fenix; Goldman, Johanna; Guallart, Elisa F.; Haskell, William; Hurley, Sarah; Janssen, David; Johnson, Winn; Lennhartz, Sinikka; Liu, Shuting; Rahman, Shaily; Ray, Daisy; Sarkar, Amit; Steiner, Zvika; Widner, Brittany; Yang, Bo
The questions that chemical oceanographers prioritize over the coming decades, and the methods we use to address these questions, will define our field's contribution to 21st century science. In recognition of this, the U.S. National Science Foundation and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration galvanized a community effort (the Chemical Oceanography MEeting: A BOttom-up Approach to Research Directions, or COME ABOARD) to synthesize bottom-up perspectives on selected areas of research in Chemical Oceanography. Representing only a small subset of the community, COME ABOARD participants did not attempt to identify targeted research directions for the field. Instead, we focused on how best to foster diverse research in Chemical Oceanography, placing emphasis on the following themes: strengthening our core chemical skillset; expanding our tools through collaboration with chemists, engineers, and computer scientists; considering new roles for large programs; enhancing interface research through interdisciplinary collaboration; and expanding ocean literacy by engaging with the public. For each theme, COME ABOARD participants reflected on the present state of Chemical Oceanography, where the community hopes to go and why, and actionable pathways to get there. A unifying concept among the discussions was that dissimilar funding structures and metrics of success may be required to accommodate the various levels of readiness and stages of knowledge development found throughout our community. In addition to the science, participants of the concurrent Dissertations Symposium in Chemical Oceanography (DISCO) XXV, a meeting of recent and forthcoming Ph.D. graduates in Chemical Oceanography, provided perspectives on how our field could show leadership in addressing long-standing diversity and early-career challenges that are pervasive throughout science. Here we summarize the COME ABOARD Meeting discussions, providing a synthesis of reflections and perspectives on the
The author of this book has combined his own vast experience as a marine biologist with a critical evaluation of the ever-increasing literature in a work which highlights those longterm effects and dangerous materials most threatening on a global scale. This English translation of the highly acclaimed German original has been revised and expanded to keep pace with the rapid process of research in the field. A particularly large number of changes were made in the chapter on oil pollution, and new chapters on waste heat and radioactivity in the ocean have been added. (orig.)
Constantin, A., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Mathematics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Faculty of Mathematics, University of Vienna, Oskar-Morgenstern-Platz 1, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Johnson, R.S., E-mail: email@example.com [School of Mathematics & Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)
Highlights: • Systematic theoretical methods in studies of equatorial ocean dynamics. • Linear wave-current interactions in stratified flows. • Exact solutions – Kelvin waves, azimuthal non-uniform currents. • Three-dimensional nonlinear currents. • Hamiltonian formulation for the governing equations and for structure-preserving/enhancing approximations. - Abstract: This essay is a commentary on the pivotal role of systematic theoretical methods in physical oceanography. At some level, there will always be a conflict between theory and experiment/data collection: Which is pre-eminent? Which should come first? This issue appears to be particularly marked in physical oceanography, to the extreme detriment of the development of the subject. It is our contention that the classical theory of fluids, coupled with methods from the theory of differential equations, can play a significant role in carrying the subject, and our understanding, forward. We outline the philosophy behind a systematic theoretical approach, highlighting some aspects of equatorial ocean dynamics where these methods have already been successful, paving the way for much more in the future and leading, we expect, to the better understanding of this and many other types of ocean flow. We believe that the ideas described here promise to reveal a rich and beautiful dynamical structure.
Constantin, A.; Johnson, R.S.
Highlights: • Systematic theoretical methods in studies of equatorial ocean dynamics. • Linear wave-current interactions in stratified flows. • Exact solutions – Kelvin waves, azimuthal non-uniform currents. • Three-dimensional nonlinear currents. • Hamiltonian formulation for the governing equations and for structure-preserving/enhancing approximations. - Abstract: This essay is a commentary on the pivotal role of systematic theoretical methods in physical oceanography. At some level, there will always be a conflict between theory and experiment/data collection: Which is pre-eminent? Which should come first? This issue appears to be particularly marked in physical oceanography, to the extreme detriment of the development of the subject. It is our contention that the classical theory of fluids, coupled with methods from the theory of differential equations, can play a significant role in carrying the subject, and our understanding, forward. We outline the philosophy behind a systematic theoretical approach, highlighting some aspects of equatorial ocean dynamics where these methods have already been successful, paving the way for much more in the future and leading, we expect, to the better understanding of this and many other types of ocean flow. We believe that the ideas described here promise to reveal a rich and beautiful dynamical structure.
The book titled “Marine Microbiology: Facets & Opportunities” is an attempt to bring together some facets of marine microbiology as have been made out by many contemporaries in particular from the tropical marine regions. There are 18 contributed...
... Collection; Comment Request; Marine Recreational Information Program AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... for revision of a current information collection. Marine recreational anglers are surveyed to collect catch and effort data, fish biology data, and angler socioeconomic characteristics. These data are...
Majik, M.S.; Tilvi, S.; Parvatkar, P.T.
of biological activities. (+)-Varitriol, isolated from the marine fungus Emericella variecolor, has shown 100-fold increased potency over the mean toxicity towards variety of cancer cell lines. Hence (+)-varitriol, an antitumour marine natural product has been a...
The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…
Debitus, Cécile; Kornprobst, J.M.
Stalked crinoids were, for a long time, known as fossils found in different quarries, and also from ocean depths since the great expeditions of the eighteenth century. The chemical analyses of fossils and also of living organisms led to the discovery of new bioactive pigments, and also confirmed that the core structures of these pigments had been preserved during the fossilization process. The existence of these quinoid pigments also leads to several interesting questions related to ...
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Huang, Ri-Ming; Yi, Xiang-Xi; Zhou, Yuying; Su, Xiangdong; Peng, Yan; Gao, Cheng-Hai
2,5-Diketopiperazines (2,5-DKPs) are an important category of structurally diverse cyclic dipeptides with prominent biological properties. These 2,5-DKPs have been obtained from a variety of natural resources, including marine organisms. Because of the increasing numbers and biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 90 marine originated 2,5-DKPs that were reported from 2009 to the first half-year of 2014. The review will focus on the structure characterizations, biological ...
In a general sense, the main attraction of the marine environment as a repository for the wastes generated by human activities lies in the degree of dispersion and dilution which is readily attainable. However, the capacity of the oceans to receive wastes without unacceptable consequences is clearly finite and this is even more true of localized marine environments such as estuaries, coastal waters and semi-enclosed seas. Radionuclides have always been present in the marine environment and marine organisms and humans consuming marine foodstuffs have always been exposed, to some degree, to radiation from this source. The hazard associated with ionizing radiations is dependent upon the adsorption of energy from the radiation field within some biological entity. Thus any disposal of radioactive wastes into the marine environment has consequences, the acceptability of which must be assessed in terms of the possible resultant increase in radiation exposure of human and aquatic populations. In the United Kingdom the primary consideration has been and remains the safe-guarding of public health. The control procedures are therefore designed to minimize as far as practicable the degree of human exposure within the overall limits recommended as acceptable by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. There are several approaches through which control could be exercised and the strenghs and weaknesses of each are considered. In this review the detailed application of the critical path technique to the control of the discharge into the north-east Irish Sea from the fuel reprocessing plant at Windscale is given as a practical example. It will be further demonstrated that when human exposure is controlled in this way no significant risk attaches to the increased radiation exposure experienced by populations of marine organisms in the area. (orig.) [de
The director's report presents the overall aims and objectives of the laboratory, and some of the significant findings to date. Among these is the different behaviour in oceans of Pu and Am. Thus, fallout Pu, in contrast to Am, tends to remain in the soluble form. The vertical downward transport of Am is much quicker than for Pu. Since 1980, uptake and depuration studies of sup(95m)Tc have been carried out on key marine species. Marine environmental behaviour of Tc is being evaluated carefully in view of its being a significant constituent of nuclear wastes. Growing demands are being made on the laboratory for providing intercalibration and instrument maintenance services, and for providing training for scientists from developing countries. The body of the report is divided into 5 sections dealing with marine biology, marine chemistry, marine geochemistry/sedimentation, environmental studies, and engineering services, respectively. Appendices list laboratory staff, publications by staff members, papers and reports presented at meetings or conferences, consultants to the laboratory from 1967-1980, fellowships, trainees and membership of committees, task forces and working groups
Benjamin B. Albert
Full Text Available Marine oils gained prominence following the report that Greenland Inuits who consumed a high-fat diet rich in long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs also had low rates of cardiovascular disease. Marine n-3 PUFAs have since become a billion dollar industry, which will continue to grow based on current trends. However, recent systematic reviews question the health benefits of marine oil supplements, particularly in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Marine oils constitute an extremely complex dietary intervention for a number of reasons: i the many chemical compounds they contain; ii the many biological processes affected by n-3 PUFAs; iii their tendency to deteriorate and form potentially toxic primary and secondary oxidation products; and iv inaccuracy in the labelling of consumer products. These complexities may confound the clinical literature, limiting the ability to make substantive conclusions for some key health outcomes. Thus, there is a pressing need for clinical trials using marine oils whose composition has been independently verified and demonstrated to be minimally oxidised. Without such data, it is premature to conclude that n-3 PUFA rich supplements are ineffective.
Zhao, X Q; Xu, X N; Chen, L Y
Marine actinobacteria are well recognized for their capabilities to produce valuable natural products, which have great potential for applications in medical, agricultural, and fine chemical industries. In addition to producing unique enzymes responsible for biosynthesis of natural products, many marine actinobacteria also produce hydrolytic enzymes which are able to degrade various biopolymers, such as cellulose, xylan, and chitin. These enzymes are important to produce biofuels and biochemicals of interest from renewable biomass. In this chapter, the recent reports of novel enzymes produced by marine actinobacteria are reviewed, and advanced technologies that can be applied to search for novel marine enzymes as well as for improved enzyme production by marine actinobacteria are summarized, which include ribosome engineering, genome mining, as well as synthetic biology studies. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyeongmin; Seo, Changwon; Park, Taejun; Lee, Kyung Bin; Yoo, Seung-Yup; Hong, Seong-Chul; Kim, Jeong Tae; Lee, Jaehwi
The ocean contains numerous marine organisms, including algae, animals, and plants, from which diverse marine polysaccharides with useful physicochemical and biological properties can be extracted. In particular, fucoidan, carrageenan, alginate, and chitosan have been extensively investigated in pharmaceutical and biomedical fields owing to their desirable characteristics, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and bioactivity. Various therapeutic efficacies of marine polysaccharides have been elucidated, including the inhibition of cancer, inflammation, and viral infection. The therapeutic activities of these polysaccharides have been demonstrated in various settings, from in vitro laboratory-scale experiments to clinical trials. In addition, marine polysaccharides have been exploited for tissue engineering, the immobilization of biomolecules, and stent coating. Their ability to detect and respond to external stimuli, such as pH, temperature, and electric fields, has enabled their use in the design of novel drug delivery systems. Thus, along with the promising characteristics of marine polysaccharides, this review will comprehensively detail their various therapeutic, biomedical, and miscellaneous applications.
Stoecker, Diane K.; Hansen, Per Juel; Caron, David
Mixotrophs are important components of the bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, microzooplankton, and (sometimes) zooplankton in coastal and oceanic waters. Bacterivory among the phytoplankton may be important for alleviating inorganic nutrient stress and may increase primary production in oligotroph....... Modeling has indicated that mixotrophy has a profound impact on marine planktonic ecosystems and may enhance primary production, biomass transfer to higher trophic levels, and the functioning of the biological carbon pump....
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains analyses and data products used in a marine biogeographic assessment of the main Hawaiian Islands. The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management...
Full Text Available This paper summarizes the glider activities carried out in the last 5 years by the IMEDEA Department of Marine Technologies, Operational Oceanography and Sustainability (TMOOS. TMOOS has been operating gliders in the Western Mediterranean Sea since 2006 and has set-up electronic and maintenance laboratories in order to establish a key glider port in the area. Twenty-two glider missions have been performed to date and over 17000 hydrographic and biogeochemical profiles collected. TMOOS is using gliders for operational, technological and scientific objectives. Studies of path planning analysis and adaptive sampling for gliders in combination with other platforms have been undertaken and new methodologies have been developed to process data from gliders. Thus far, IMEDEA gliders have contributed to the better understanding of mesoscale processes in the upper ocean, including the coupling between the physical and biogeochemical process of the marine ecosystem and, in combination with remote sensing observations, high-resolution glider data has enabled advances in new methodologies to improve coastal altimetry. Gliders have also proved to be important platforms for the development of operational oceanography tools and useful vehicles on which to test and implement new sensors for ocean monitoring.
This summer school was a sequel to the summer school on Remote Sensing in Meteorology, Oceanography and Hydrology which was held in Dundee in 1980 and the proceedings of which were published by Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, England. At the present summer scnool we concentrated on only part of the subject area that was covered in 1980. Although there was some repetit ion of material that was presented in 1980, because by and large we had a new set of participants, most subjects were treated in considerably greater detail than had been possible previously. The major topics covered in the present summer school were (i) the general principles of remote sensing with particular reference to marine applications, (ii) applications to physical oceanography, (iii) marine resources applications and (iv) coastal monitoring and protection. The material contained in this volume represents the written texts of most of the lectures presented at the summer school. One important set of lecture notes was not available; this...
This report presents program summaries of the various projects sponsored during 1979 by the Marine Research Program of the Ecological Research Division. Program areas include the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the marine environment; a study of the baseline ecology of a proposed OTEC site near Puerto Rico; the environmental impact of offshore geothermal energy development; the movement of radionuclides through the marine environment; the environmental aspects of power plant cooling systems; and studies of the physical and biological oceangraphy of the continental shelves bordering the United States
This report presents program summaries of the various projects sponsored during 1979 by the Marine Research Program of the Ecological Research Division. Program areas include the effects of petroleum hydrocarbons on the marine environment; a study of the baseline ecology of a proposed OTEC site near Puerto Rico; the environmental impact of offshore geothermal energy development; the movement of radionuclides through the marine environment; the environmental aspects of power plant cooling systems; and studies of the physical and biological oceangraphy of the continental shelves bordering the United States.
Mei, Hong; Yin, Yanjie
The sources of marine oil spills are mainly from accidents of marine oil tankers or freighters, marine oil-drilling platforms, marine oil pipelines, marine oilfields, terrestrial pollution, oil-bearing atmosphere, and offshore oil production equipment. It is concluded upon analysis that there are two main reasons for marine oil spills: (I) The motive for huge economic benefits of oil industry owners and oil shipping agents far surpasses their sense of ecological risks. (II) Marine ecological safety has not become the main concern of national security. Oil spills are disasters because humans spare no efforts to get economic benefits from oil. The present paper draws another conclusion that marine ecological damage caused by oil spills can be roughly divided into two categories: damage to marine resource value (direct value) and damage to marine ecosystem service value (indirect value). Marine oil spills cause damage to marine biological, fishery, seawater, tourism and mineral resources to various extents, which contributes to the lower quality and value of marine resources.
Radionuclides entering the ocean from runoff, fallout, or deliberate release rapidly become involved in marine biogeochemical cycles. Sources, sinks and transport of radionuclides and analogue elements are discussed with emphasis placed on how these elements interact with marine organisms. Water, food and sediments are the source terms from which marine biota acquire radionuclides. Uptake from water occurs by surface adsorption, absorption across body surfaces, or a combination of both. Radionuclides ingested with food are either assimilated into tissue or excreted. The relative importance of the food and water pathway in uptake varies with the radionuclide and the conditions under which exposure occurs. Evidence suggests that, compared to the water and food pathways, bioavailability of sediment-bound radionuclides is low. Bioaccumulation processes are controlled by many environmental and intrinsic factors including exposure time, physical-chemical form of the radionuclide, salinity, temperature, competitive effects with other elements, organism size, physiology, life cycle and feeding habits. Once accumulated, radionuclides are transported actively by vertical and horizontal movements of organisms and passively by release of biogenic products, e.g., soluble excreta, feces, molts and eggs. Through feeding activities, particles containing radionuclides are ''packaged'' into larger aggregates which are redistributed upon release. Most radionuclides are not irreversibly bound to such particles but are remineralized as they sink and/or decompose. In the pelagic zones, sinking aggregates can further scavenge particle-reactive elements thus removing them from the surface layers and transporting them to depth. Evidence from both radiotracer experiments and in situ sediment trap studies is presented which illustrates the importance of biological scavenging in controlling the distribution of radionuclides in the water column. (author)
Madhupratap, M.; Shetye, S.R.; Nair, K.N.V.; Nair, S.R.S.
The sardine and mackerel fishery is commercially exploited successfully along the west coast of India. The fish itself times its appearance to exploit the productive southwest monsoon period. The chain of events-physical, chemical and biological...
Consider this: Mesodinium Rubrum (Myrionecta rubra), a red toxic algae (or marine ciliate), is widely recognized as a major issue in human health, and it is essential that these harmful algal blooms be eradicated over the next decade to avoid a major impact on bathers in US coastal waters. The key agent that makes the plankton red is FD&C Red 40 (US Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act), which has been proven by a number of researchers to accelerate the appearance of disease-resistant t...
Checkley, David M.; Lindegren, Martin
Sea surface temperature (SST) has been measured from near the end of the SIO pier daily since 1916. It is one of the world’s longest instrumental time series of SST. It is widely used in studies of climate and marine ecosystems and in fisheries management. We hypothesized that a discontinuity...... similar results. SSTSIO measured over three days shows a diel cycle and short-term variability consistent with rip current transport of warm surf zone water to the end of the SIO pier. We hypothesize that rip current transport increased with the change from the old to the present pier and contributed...
has had responsibility for one major long term project on the chemistry, physics and biology of particulate matter in the oceans, and for two shorter...MANOP trap intercomparison. These profiles have yielded unique information on the chemistry, biology , morphology and flux of suspended material in the ...only near a large seamount . Wunsch has seen that there are many places where the energy level is substantially and significantly above the universal
Rosana M. da Rocha
Full Text Available A Reserva Biológica Marinha de Arvoredo compreende uma extensa área (17.800 ha, onde se elevam as ilhas do Arvoredo, Galé, Deserta e calhau de São Pedro. O levantamento de espécies de ascídias foi realizado por meio de mergulho autônomo m águas rasas (5-17 m de profundidade. Vinte e seis espécies são aqui registradas, entre as quais Lissoclinum perforatum (Giard, 1872, L. verrilli (Van Name, 1902 e Leptoclinides latus Monniot, 1983 representam novos registros para o Brasil, e outras 19 espécies representam novos registros para o Estado de Santa Catarina. Com este resultado, 34 espécies de ascídias já foram registradas em Santa Catarina, das quais 22 são marcadamente tropicais. Este cenário não representa a diversidade total da Reserva, uma vez que três espécies novas serão descritas em outra publicação e os locais mais expostos e profundos das ilhas não foram amostrados.The Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve covers an extensive area including the islands Arvoredo, Galés and Deserta and a small rocky outcrop called São Pedro. The survey of ascidians was accomplished with scuba dive, only in shallow water (5-17 m deep. Twenty-six species are here registered, among which Lissoclinum perforatum (Giard, 1872, L. verrilli (Van Name, 1902 and Leptoclinides latus Monniot, 1983 represent new reports to Brazil, and other 19 species represent new reports to the State of Santa Catarina. Together with the results of the present work, 34 ascidian species have already been reported from Santa Catarina, of the which 22 are remarkably tropical. This scenery doesn't represent the total diversity of the Reserve, since three new species will be described in another publication and the most exposed and deep places of the islands were not sampled.
Full Text Available Marine reserves have been advocated worldwide as conservation and fishery management tools. It is argued that they can protect ecosystems and also benefit fisheries via density-dependent spillover of adults and enhanced larval dispersal into fishing areas. However, while evidence has shown that marine reserves can meet conservation targets, their effects on fisheries are less understood. In particular, the basic question of if and over what temporal and spatial scales reserves can benefit fished populations via larval dispersal remains unanswered. We tested predictions of a larval transport model for a marine reserve network in the Gulf of California, Mexico, via field oceanography and repeated density counts of recently settled juvenile commercial mollusks before and after reserve establishment. We show that local retention of larvae within a reserve network can take place with enhanced, but spatially-explicit, recruitment to local fisheries. Enhancement occurred rapidly (2 yrs, with up to a three-fold increase in density of juveniles found in fished areas at the downstream edge of the reserve network, but other fishing areas within the network were unaffected. These findings were consistent with our model predictions. Our findings underscore the potential benefits of protecting larval sources and show that enhancement in recruitment can be manifested rapidly. However, benefits can be markedly variable within a local seascape. Hence, effects of marine reserve networks, positive or negative, may be overlooked when only focusing on overall responses and not considering finer spatially-explicit responses within a reserve network and its adjacent fishing grounds. Our results therefore call for future research on marine reserves that addresses this variability in order to help frame appropriate scenarios for the spatial management scales of interest.
... Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) is underway to share acoustic data. Results from the February... Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Navy Training in the Hawaii Range Complex AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Plan. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), as amended, and implementing...
This volume of the proceedings of the Third Annual Student Symposium on Marine Affairs contains 32 papers in eight categories: (1) coastal zone management; (2) marine resources; (3) aquaculture; (4) alternative marine energy sources; (5) ocean engineering; (6) recreational facilities; (7) marine biology; and (8) options. The papers are the…
Full Text Available Nucleosides are glycosylamines that structurally form part of nucleotide molecules, the building block of DNA and RNA. Both nucleosides and nucleotides are vital components of all living cells and involved in several key biological processes. Some of these nucleosides have been obtained from a variety of marine resources. Because of the biological importance of these compounds, this review covers 68 marine originated nucleosides and their synthetic analogs published up to June 2014. The review will focus on the structures, bioactivities, synthesis and biosynthetic processes of these compounds.
Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Benthic Data from Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0000881)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....
Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0052882)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....
Teranes, J. L.; Kohne, L.
The NSF foundation-wide REU program exists to help attract and retain a diverse pool of talented undergraduate students in STEM fields. These goals are particularly relevant in earth and marine sciences because relatively few minority students traditionally seek careers in these fields and only account for an extremely small percentage of Ph.D. degrees earned. The Scripps Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) REU program is a 10-week summer program currently in its third year of funding. The SURF program invites 10-15 undergraduate students from across the country to Scripps to participate in high quality collaborative research with Scripps faculty and researchers. Program components also include research seminars, career and graduate school preparation, GRE-prep courses, field trips and social activities. The project's goal, broadly, is to increase the participation of underrepresented minorities in marine science and related disciplines at a national level. Our program includes a comprehensive evaluation and assessment plan to help us understand the impact of this REU experience on the student participant. Our assessment consists of paired pre- and post-survey questions to estimate student growth in the following areas as related to earth and marine sciences: (1) increased knowledge and skills (2) increased confidence in ability to conduct research (3) improved attitudes and interest in the field and (4) more ambitious career goals. Assessment results from the last two cohorts have helped refine our recruitment and selection strategies. In the first year of our program, we focused almost exclusively on recruiting underrepresented minority students; over of the participants represented ethic groups considered to be underrepresented in STEM fields. However, participants did not demonstrate overall significant pre/post gains in any of the goal areas, mostly because pre-survey scores indicated that the students were already very strong in all goal areas. In years
Gooday, A.J.; Bett, B.J.; Escobar, E.; Ingole, B.S.; Levin, L.A; Neira, C.; Raman, A.V.; Sellanes, J.
Ecology 31 (2010); 125–147 Habitat heterogeneity and its relationship to biodiversity in oxygen minimum zones Gooday, A.J. 1 , Bett, B.J. 1 , Escobar, E. 2 , Ingole, B. 3 , Levin, L.A. 4 , Neira, C. 4 , Raman, A.V. 5 , Sellanes, J. 6,7 1... 3 Biological Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India 4 Integrative Oceanography Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0218 USA 5 Marine Biological Laboratory...