WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological nonproliferation program

  1. Chemical and biological nonproliferation program. FY99 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This document is the first of what will become an annual report documenting the progress made by the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP). It is intended to be a summary of the program's activities that will be of interest to both policy and technical audiences. This report and the annual CBNP Summer Review Meeting are important vehicles for communication with the broader chemical and biological defense and nonproliferation communities. The Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program Strategic Plan is also available and provides additional detail on the program's context and goals. The body of the report consists of an overview of the program's philosophy, goals and recent progress in the major program areas. In addition, an appendix is provided with more detailed project summaries that will be of interest to the technical community.

  2. Chemical and biological nonproliferation program. FY99 annual report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the first of what will become an annual report documenting the progress made by the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP). It is intended to be a summary of the program's activities that will be of interest to both policy and technical audiences. This report and the annual CBNP Summer Review Meeting are important vehicles for communication with the broader chemical and biological defense and nonproliferation communities. The Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program Strategic Plan is also available and provides additional detail on the program's context and goals. The body of the report consists of an overview of the program's philosophy, goals and recent progress in the major program areas. In addition, an appendix is provided with more detailed project summaries that will be of interest to the technical community

  3. Survey and discussion of models applicable to the transport and fate thrust area of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The availability and easy production of toxic chemical and biological agents by domestic and international terrorists pose a serious threat to US national security, especially to civilian populations in and around urban areas. To address this threat, the Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (CBNP) with the goal of focusing the DOE`s technical resources and expertise on capabilities to deny, deter, mitigate and respond to clandestine releases of chemical and biological agents. With the intent to build on DOE core competencies, the DOE has established six technology thrust areas within the CBNP Program: Biological Information Resources; Point Sensor Systems; Stand-off Detection; Transport and Fate; Decontamination; and Systems Analysis and Integration. The purpose of the Transport and Fate Thrust is to accurately predict the dispersion, concentration and ultimate fate of chemical and biological agents released into the urban and suburban environments and has two major goals: (1) to develop an integrated and validated state-of-the-art atmospheric transport and fate modeling capability for chemical and biological agent releases within the complex urban environment from the regional scale down to building and subway interiors, and (2) to apply this modeling capability in a broad range of simulation case studies of chemical and biological agent release scenarios in suburban, urban and confined (buildings and subways) environments and provide analysis for the incident response user community. Sections of this report discuss subway transport and fate models; buildings interior transport and fate modeling; models for flow and transport around buildings; and local-regional meteorology and dispersion models.

  4. Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report: Class of 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, Andrea H.

    2012-08-20

    Annual report for the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP), which PNNL administers for the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Features the Class of 2011. The NGFP is a NNSA program with a mission to cultivate future technical and policy leaders in nonproliferation and international security. Through the NGFP, outstanding graduate students with career interests in nonproliferation are appointed to program offices within the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN). During their one-year assignment, Fellows participate in programs designed to detect, prevent, and reverse the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  5. Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program, Annual Report, Class of 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, Andrea H.

    2013-09-23

    This 32-pp annual report/brochure describes the accomplishments of the Class of 2012 of the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (the last class of this program), which PNNL administers for the National Nuclear Security Administration. The time period covers Sept 2011 through June 2013.

  6. Biological programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  7. On the non-proliferation framework of Japan's peaceful nuclear utilization program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Conference of the States Party to the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (hereinafter referred to as the NPT) convened in New York, from April 17 to May 12, 1995 and decided that the NPT shall continue in force indefinitely, after reviewing the operation and affirming some aspects of the NPT, while emphasizing the ''Decision on Strengthening the Review Process'' for the NPT and the ''Decision on Principles and Objectives for Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament,'' also adopted by the Conference. In parallel, Japan made its basic non-proliferation policy clear in the ''Long-Term Program for Research, Development and Utilization of Nuclear Energy'' which was decided by the Atomic Energy Commission (chaired by Mikio Oomi, then Minister of the Science and Technology Agency of Japan) in June 1994. The Long-Term Program discusses various problems facing post-Cold-War international society and describes Japan's policy for establishing international confidence concerning non-proliferation. This paper summarizes Japan's non-proliferation policy as articulated in the Long-Term Program, and describes some results of an analysis comparing the Long-Term Program with the resolutions on the international non-proliferation frameworks adopted by the NPT conference

  8. Development of Computer-Aided Learning Programs on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fulfillment of international norms for nuclear nonproliferation is indispensable to the promotion of nuclear energy. The education and training for personnel and mangers related to the nuclear material are one of crucial factors to avoid unintended non-compliance to international norms. Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has been providing education and training on nuclear control as its legal duty. One of the legally mandatory educations is 'nuclear control education' performed since 2006 for the observation of the international norms on nuclear nonproliferation and the spread of the nuclear control culture. The other is 'physical protection education' performed since 2010 for maintaining the national physical protection regime effectively and the spread of the nuclear security culture. The 2010 Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington, DC to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism. During the Summit, the South Korea was chosen to host the second Nuclear Summit in 2012. South Korean President announced that South Korea would share its expertise and support the Summit's mission by setting up an international education and training center on nuclear security in 2014. KINAC is making a full effort to set up the center successfully. An important function of the center is education and training in the subjects of nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear safeguards, nuclear security, and nuclear export/import control. With increasing importance of education and training education on nuclear nonproliferation and control, KINAC has been developing computer-aided learning programs on nuclear nonproliferation and control to overcome the weaknesses in classroom educations. This paper shows two learning programs. One is an e-learning system on the nuclear nonproliferation and control and the other is a virtual reality program for training nuclear material accountancy inspection of light water reactor power plants

  9. Development of Computer-Aided Learning Programs on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Chul [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    The fulfillment of international norms for nuclear nonproliferation is indispensable to the promotion of nuclear energy. The education and training for personnel and mangers related to the nuclear material are one of crucial factors to avoid unintended non-compliance to international norms. Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) has been providing education and training on nuclear control as its legal duty. One of the legally mandatory educations is 'nuclear control education' performed since 2006 for the observation of the international norms on nuclear nonproliferation and the spread of the nuclear control culture. The other is 'physical protection education' performed since 2010 for maintaining the national physical protection regime effectively and the spread of the nuclear security culture. The 2010 Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington, DC to enhance international cooperation to prevent nuclear terrorism. During the Summit, the South Korea was chosen to host the second Nuclear Summit in 2012. South Korean President announced that South Korea would share its expertise and support the Summit's mission by setting up an international education and training center on nuclear security in 2014. KINAC is making a full effort to set up the center successfully. An important function of the center is education and training in the subjects of nuclear nonproliferation, nuclear safeguards, nuclear security, and nuclear export/import control. With increasing importance of education and training education on nuclear nonproliferation and control, KINAC has been developing computer-aided learning programs on nuclear nonproliferation and control to overcome the weaknesses in classroom educations. This paper shows two learning programs. One is an e-learning system on the nuclear nonproliferation and control and the other is a virtual reality program for training nuclear material accountancy inspection of light water

  10. NNSA Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report June 2008 - May 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkman, Clarissa O.; Fankhauser, Jana G.

    2010-03-01

    In 2009, the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP) completed its 16th successful year in support of the NNSA’s mission by developing future leaders in nonproliferation and promoting awareness of career opportunities. We provide this annual report to review program activities from June 2008 through May 2009 - the fellowship term for the Class of 2008. Contents include: Welcome Letter Introduction The NGFP Team Program Management Highlights Class of 2008 Incoming Fellows Orientation Travel Career Development Management of the Fellows Performance Highlights Closing Ceremony Encore Performance Where They Are Now Alumnus Career Highlights: Christine Buzzard Class of 2009 Applicant Database Upgrades Fall Recruitment Activities Interviews Hiring and Clearances Introducing the Class of 2009 Class of 2010 Recruitment Strategy On the Horizon Appendix A: Class of 2009 Fellows

  11. NNSA Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report June 2009 - May 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkman, Clarissa O.; Fankhauser, Jana G.

    2011-04-01

    In 2009, the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP) completed its 17th successful year in support of the NNSA’s mission by developing future leaders in nonproliferation and promoting awareness of career opportunities. This annual report to reviews program activities from June 2009 through May 2010 - the fellowship term for the Class of 2009. Contents include: Welcome Letter (Mission Driven: It’s all about results), Introduction, Structure of the NGFP, Program Management Highlights, Annual Lifecycle, Class of 2009 Incoming Fellows, Orientation, Global Support of the Mission, Career Development, Management of the Fellows, Performance Highlights, Closing Ceremony, Where They Are Now, Alumni Highlight - Mission Success: Exceptional Leaders from the NGFP, Class of 2009 Fall Recruitment Activities, Established Partnerships, Face-to-Face, Recruiting Results, Interviews, Hiring and Clearances, Introducing the Class of 2010, Class of 2011 Recruitment Strategy, On the Horizon, Appendix A: Class of 2010 Fellow Biographies

  12. NNSA Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report June 2009 - May 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009, the Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP) completed its 17th successful year in support of the NNSA's mission by developing future leaders in nonproliferation and promoting awareness of career opportunities. This annual report to reviews program activities from June 2009 through May 2010 - the fellowship term for the Class of 2009. Contents include: Welcome Letter (Mission Driven: It's all about results), Introduction, Structure of the NGFP, Program Management Highlights, Annual Lifecycle, Class of 2009 Incoming Fellows, Orientation, Global Support of the Mission, Career Development, Management of the Fellows, Performance Highlights, Closing Ceremony, Where They Are Now, Alumni Highlight - Mission Success: Exceptional Leaders from the NGFP, Class of 2009 Fall Recruitment Activities, Established Partnerships, Face-to-Face, Recruiting Results, Interviews, Hiring and Clearances, Introducing the Class of 2010, Class of 2011 Recruitment Strategy, On the Horizon, Appendix A: Class of 2010 Fellow Biographies.

  13. National Nuclear Security Administration Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program Annual Report in Brief: October 2007 - May 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkman, Clarissa O.; Fankhauser, Jana G.; Sandusky, Jessica A.

    2009-05-01

    This abbreviated Annual Report covers program activities of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Nonproliferation Graduate Fellowship Program (NGFP) from October 2007 through May 2008--the timeframe between the last Annual Report (which covered activities through September 2007) and the next report (which will begin with June 2008 activities). In that timeframe, the NGFP continued building a solid foundation as the program began reaping the benefits of recently implemented changes. This report is organized by Fellowship class and the pertinent program activities for each, including: October 2007 Recruiting events and final applications (Class of 2008) Winter 2007 Selection and hiring (Class of 2008) Spring 2008 Career development roundtables (Class of 2007) Orientation planning (Class of 2008) Recruitment planning and university outreach (Class of 2009) May 2008 Closing ceremony (Class of 2007)

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) assessed alternative nuclear systems to find those with the lowest proliferation risk. The findings of the NASAP studies are: current and future nuclear-power systems can be made more proliferation-resistant. As long as doubts about security and fuel supply remain, more resource-efficient (and potentially less proliferation-resistant) systems will be attractive to some nations. Under some scenarios, domestic uranium supply/demand imbalances are possible beyond the year 2010. The worldwide uranium supply/demand balance is even less certain than the domestic picture. Other nuclear resources are less of a problem than uranium. Doubts about fuel supply can be alleviated in several ways. The approaches available to provide security of supply fall into three categories: resource extenders; supply improvements; and institutional and technical measures. Resource extension options include improvements to once-through cycles, advanced converters, recycle, and breeder reactors. The most promising resource extension options are light water reactor improvements (including reduced enrichment tails assay) and continued development of the plutonium-fueled breeder reactors. Uranium-supply initiatives include measures to reduce uncertainty in the estimated size of the resource base, to exploit it efficiently, and to ensure equitable access. An international nonproliferation regime will require institutional measures and technical approaches

  15. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

    2012-03-06

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  16. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  17. Development and Evaluation of a Program of Regional Collaboration for Non-Proliferation and Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research is to develop and evaluate a Program of Regional Cooperation for Non-proliferation and Transparency in the Pacific Rim arena. There has been interest in the development of regional collaboration in the Pacific Rim for over thirty years, but without the kind of results that have been observed in other areas of the world, such as Europe and South America. While there have been many discussions and many papers written on the topic, there has not been a concept or a program that has been proposed and successfully sustained. This research will identify attributes of existing successful regional collaborations in other parts of the world, research the open literature for past ideas and attempts for regional collaboration in the Pacific Rim, and propose a model for a sustainable regional collaboration in the Pacific Rim. One of the strategies for developing the program of collaboration is to create a Joint Program Plan for the Implementation of Technology Based Regional Cooperation. This plan will be developed jointly by JNC and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with input from the US Dept. of Energy (USDOE), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other interested organizations. The plan will be a 'living plan,' that will be reviewed on a yearly basis to review status, and update the plan as necessary. Another strategy is to implement technical objectives in parallel with the development of the program plan. This would include the completion of the implementation of a Virtual Private Network (VPN) system at JNC and sharing transparency data with SNL, USDOE, IAEA, and other interested Pacific Rim states. The availability of commercial off-the-shelf VPN systems, a technology that allows secure, inexpensive transfer of data across the Internet, will potentially be a key ingredient in the development of a technology-based regional collaboration. Whenever two cooperating sites have VPN systems, they can discuss data content and

  18. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume I. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. The introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings, and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volumn II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  19. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume 1. Program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. This introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volume II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP

  20. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume I. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This report summarizes the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP): its background, its studies, and its results. The introductory chapter traces the growth of the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation and the organization and objectives of NASAP. Chapter 2 summarizes the program's assessments, findings, and recommendations. Each of Volumes II-VII reports on an individual assessment (Volumn II: Proliferation Resistance; Volume III: Resources and Fuel Cycle Facilities; Volume IV: Commercial Potential; Volume V: Economics and Systems Analysis; Volume VI: Safety and Environmental Considerations for Licensing; Volume VII: International Perspectives). Volume VIII (Advanced Concepts) presents a combined assessment of several less fully developed concepts, and Volume IX (Reactor and Fuel Cycle Descriptions) provides detailed descriptions of the reactor and fuel-cycle systems studied by NASAP.

  1. Nuclear Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins-Duffin, C E

    2008-12-10

    With an explosion equivalent of about 20kT of TNT, the Trinity test was the first demonstration of a nuclear weapon. Conducted on July 16, 1945 in Alamogordo, NM this site is now a Registered National Historic Landmark. The concept and applicability of nuclear power was demonstrated on December 20, 1951 with the Experimental Breeder Reactor Number One (EBR-1) lit four light bulbs. This reactor is now a Registered National Historic Landmark, located near Arco, ID. From that moment forward it had been clearly demonstrated that nuclear energy has both peaceful and military applications and that the civilian and military fuel cycles can overlap. For the more than fifty years since the Atoms for Peace program, a key objective of nuclear policy has been to enable the wider peaceful use of nuclear energy while preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Volumes have been written on the impact of these two actions on the world by advocates and critics; pundits and practioners; politicians and technologists. The nations of the world have woven together a delicate balance of treaties, agreements, frameworks and handshakes that are representative of the timeframe in which they were constructed and how they have evolved in time. Collectively these vehicles attempt to keep political will, nuclear materials and technology in check. This paper captures only the briefest abstract of the more significant aspects on the Nonproliferation Regime. Of particular relevance to this discussion is the special nonproliferation sensitivity associated with the uranium isotope separation and spent fuel reprocessing aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  2. The IAEA activities in non-proliferation programs for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For almost 30 years the IAEA is providing a continuous support of international nuclear non-proliferation activities associated with reduction of utilization of highly enriched uranium (HEU) for peaceful needs. For example, the IAEA together with some active Member States has supported projects like the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme and also is actively supporting the efforts on return of highly enriched fuel (both unused fresh and the spent one) from research reactors (RRs) to the country of origin. This paper presents a short retrospective on the work done by the IAEA in the past years and gives an overview of on-going and future activities and projects in support of the global efforts to minimize the use of HEU in civilian applications. Support to the RERTR Programme. The RERTR was initiated by the U.S. in 1978, with the objective of developing the technologies necessary to convert research and test reactors from the use of fuels and targets containing HEU to the use of fuels and targets containing low enriched uranium (LEU). The goal of the RERTR programme is to minimize and eventually eliminate the use of HEU in civil programmes worldwide. The IAEA has been involved with and has fully supported RERTR since its inception. This included, in particular, the development of international guidelines and standards to assist in efforts on reduction of enrichment as well as providing (upon request) assistance to Member States for the conversion of specific RRs through the coordination and facilitation of interactions between Member State reactor organizations and fuel manufacturer. The IAEA is also involved actively in organization of annual RERTR meetings and special workshops since 1979 till present. Our presentation gives an overview Agency activities supporting RERTR objectives, including TECDOCs; on-going regular program and budget (P and B) activates, including highlights of RR several conversion projects since

  3. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) report provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest

  4. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 - Nonproliferation of Chemical and Biological Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Biological Weapons No. Supplement No. 1 to Part 742 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to... ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS Pt. 742, Supp. 1 Supplement No. 1 to Part 742...: (i) Equipment (for producing chemical weapon precursors and chemical warfare agents) described...

  5. Non-proliferation, safeguards, and security for the fissile materials disposition program immobilization alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Tolk, K.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moore, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy is analyzing long-term storage and disposition alternatives for surplus weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of different disposition alternatives are being considered. These include facilities for storage, conversion and stabilization of fissile materials, immobilization in glass or ceramic material, fabrication of fissile material into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for reactors, use of reactor based technologies to convert material into spent fuel, and disposal of fissile material using geologic alternatives. This paper will focus on how the objectives of reducing security and proliferation risks are being considered, and the possible facility impacts. Some of the areas discussed in this paper include: (1) domestic and international safeguards requirements, (2) non-proliferation criteria and measures, (3) the threats, and (4) potential proliferation, safeguards, and security issues and impacts on the facilities. Issues applicable to all of the possible disposition alternatives will be discussed in this paper. However, particular attention is given to the plutonium immobilization alternatives.

  6. Computational Biology: A Programming Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue;

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved...... identify some strengths and shortcomings from a programming perspective. To show concretely what one could see as programming in biocomputing, we outline (from recent work) a computation model and a small programming language that are biologically more plausible than existing silicon-inspired models...... to be computationally universal in some sense, the full step to a bona fide programming language is rarely taken, and one question is noticeable by its absence: If the device is universal, where are the programs? We begin with an extensive review of the literature on programming-related biocomputing; and briefly...

  7. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program has been to provide recommendations for the development and deployment of more proliferation-resistant civilian nuclear-power systems without jeopardizing the development of nuclear energy. In principle, new concepts for nuclear-power systems could be designed so that materials and facilities would be inherently more proliferation-resistant. Such advanced, i.e., less-developed systems, are the subject of this volume. Accordingly, from a number of advanced concepts that were proposed for evaluation, six representative concepts were selected: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor

  8. Programs that support non-proliferation and defense conversion funded by the US Government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proliferation of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons is a serious problem for international security. Consequently the U.S. government has established an array of programs to fund activities that will inhibit this activity. The problem of proliferation and defense conversion, in general, is quite complicated. The most immediate concern is the actual diversion of weapons materials. In the long term; however, weapons of mass destruction must be destroyed in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Ultimately the solution of the proliferation problem lies in the redirection of the intellectual skills of weapons scientists and engineers to peaceful commercial activities. At the present time the economic conditions in the New Independent States create severe pressure on people with critical weapons knowledge to sell their skills to political entities that are dangerous. There are four programs to be discussed in this paper. The first is the open-quotes Nunn-Lugarclose quotes program which is the largest and is administered by the Department of Defense. Between FY92 and FY94 Congress authorized $1.2B for this activity which is aimed at weapons destruction, storage, and safeguards. The second is the International Science and Technology Center in Moscow and the Science Center about to open in Ukraine. These are joint efforts involving the U.S., the European Community, and Japan to fund projects to prevent proliferation and foster commercial technological activity in Russia, Georgia, and Ukraine. The New Independent States - Industrial Partnering Program is a $35M (FY94) program jointly administered by the Department of Energy and the Department of State

  9. Update on the development and evaluation of a program of regional collaboration for non-proliferation and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the research is to develop and evaluate a Program of Regional Cooperation for Non-proliferation and transparency in the Pacific Rim arena. There has been interest in the development of regional collaboration in the Pacific Rim for over thirty years, but without the kind of results that have been observed in other areas of the world, such as Europe and South America. While there have been many discussions and many papers written on the topic, there has not been a concept or a program that has been proposed and successfully implemented. This research will identify attributes of existing successful regional collaborations in other parts of the world, research the open literature for past ideas and attempts for regional collaboration in the Pacific Rim, and propose a model for a sustainable regional collaboration in the Pacific Rim. One of the strategies for developing the program of collaboration is to create a Joint Program Plan for the Implementation of Technology Based Regional Cooperation. This plan will be developed jointly by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), with input from the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration/National Nuclear Security Administration (USDOE/NNSA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and other interested organizations. The plan will be a 'living plan,' that will be reviewed on a yearly basis to review status, and update as necessary. Another strategy is to implement technical objectives in parallel with the development of the program plan. This would include the completion of the implementation of a Virtual Private Network (VPN) system at JNC and sharing transparency data with SNL, USDOE/NNSA, IAEA, and other interested Pacific Rim entities. The availability of commercial off-the-shelf VPN systems, a technology that allows secure, inexpensive transfer of data across the Internet, will potentially be a key ingredient in the development

  10. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VIII. Advanced concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The six advanced concepts for nuclear power systems that were selected for evaluation are: the fast mixed-spectrum reactor; the denatured molten-salt reactor; the mixed-flow gaseous-core reactor; the linear-accelerator fuel-regenerator reactor; the ternary metal-fueled electronuclear fuel-producer reactor; and the tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The design assessment was performed by identifying needs in six specific areas: conceptual plant design; reactor-physics considerations; fuel cycle alternatives; mechanical and thermal-hydraulic considerations; selection, development, and availability of materials; and engineering and operability. While none of the six concepts appears to be a credible commercial alternative to the liquid-metal fast-breeder within the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program horizon of 2025, there are a number of reasons for continued interest in the fast mixed-spectrum reactor: it is a once-through cycle fast reactor with proliferation risk characteristics similar to those of the light-water reactor; only about one-third as much uranium is required as for the once-through light-water reactor; the system will benefit directly from fast-breeder development programs; and, finally, the research and development required to develop the high-burnup metal fuel could benefit the on-going liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor program. Accordingly, a limited research and development effort on the high-burnup fuel seems justified, at present

  11. Nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy has taken some actions to implement a 1981 congressional mandate to limit the dissemination of unclassified information related to atomic defense activities. Nevertheless, sensitive countries--communist-controlled nations, countries suspected of developing nuclear weapons, or those viewed as a national security risk--have obtained information dealing with detonators, explosives, and firing sets that could assist or enhance nuclear weapons development. Foreign nationals obtain some information directly from DOE's weapons laboratories; DOE does not require the laboratories to track these requests. DOE recognizes that continuing to disseminate some unclassified information raises questions about its compliance with U.S. nonproliferation policy and in January 1989 issued internal guidance to identify data that should not be distributed to proliferation-risk countries

  12. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations. While any final assessment of such measures and alternatives would have to examine the circumstances particular to each nation, it is hoped that the more generic assessments conducted here will be useful in suggesting guidelines for developing an improved nonproliferation regime which also helps to meet nuclear-energy needs. One chapter outlines the existing nonproliferation regime, including the Treaty for the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards, bilateral and multilateral requirements for agreements of cooperation and transfers of technology, and existing provisons for sanctions for violation of nonproliferation commitments. The chapter then proceeds to an assessment of various alternatives for providing assurance of fuel supply in light of this current regime. Another chapter examines a set of technical and institutional measures and alternatives for various components of once-through and closed fuel cycles. The components of the once-through fuel cycle assessed are enrichment services and spent-fuel management; the components of closed fuel cycles assessed are reprocessing and plutonium management and fast-breeder reactor (FBR) deployment

  13. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VII. International perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this volume is to assess the proliferation vulnerabilities of the present deployment of civilian nuclear-power systems within the current nonproliferation regime and, in light of their prospective deployment, to consider technical and institutional measures and alternatives which may contribute to an improved regime in which nuclear power could play a significant part. An assessment of these measures must include consideration of their nonproliferation effectiveness as well as their bearing upon energy security, and their operational, economic, and political implications. The nature of these considerations can provide some measure of their likely acceptability to various nations

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates.

  15. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nonproliferation Alterntive Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power - generating capability and one without

  17. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    This volume of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power - generating capability and one without.

  18. Nonproliferation characteristics of advanced fuel cycle concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to comment on the proliferation characteristic profiles of some of the proposed fuel cycle alternatives to help ensure that nonproliferation concerns are introduced into the early stages of a fuel cycle concept development program, and to perhaps aid in the more effective implementation of the international nonproliferation regime initiatives and safeguards methods and systems. Alternative cycle concepts proposed by several countries involve the recycle of spent fuel without the separation of plutonium from uranium and fission products

  19. World Nonproliferation Regime

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ouyang Liping; Wu Xingzuo

    2007-01-01

    2006 witnessed an intense struggle between nuclear proliferation and nonproliferation. Iran's nuclear issue and North Korea's nuclear test have cast a deep shadow over the current international nonproliferation regime. The international contest for civil nuclear development became especially fierce as global energy prices went up. Such a situation , to some extent, accelerated the pace of nuclear proliferation. Furthermore, the existing international nonproliferation regime, based upon the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), was affected by loopholes, and the U.S. failed in its ambition to unite other forces to mend fences. The international community needs to come up with a comprehensive and long-term strategy to meet the demand for an effective future nonproliferation regime in a healthy nuclear order.

  20. NABS Program: (Native Americans in Biological Science).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettys, Nancy, Comp.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the four-week summer program of the Native Americans in Biological Sciences Program that engages Native American eighth- and ninth-grade students in studying the problems related to the waste water treatment plant in Cushing, Oklahoma. (MDH)

  1. Nonproliferation and safeguards aspects of fuel cycle programs in reduction of excess separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore alternatives and strategies aimed at the gradual reduction of the excess inventories of separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium (HEU) in the civilian nuclear power industry. The study attempts to establish a technical and economic basis to assist in the formation of alternative approaches consistent with nonproliferation and safeguards concerns. Reference annual mass flows and inventories for a representative 1,400 Mwe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel cycle have been investigated for three cases: the 100 percent uranium oxide UO2 fuel loading once through cycle, and the 33 percent mixed oxide MOX loading configuration for a first and second plutonium recycle. The analysis addresses fuel cycle developments; plutonium and uranium inventory and flow balances; nuclear fuel processing operations; UO2 once-through and MOX first and second recycles; and the economic incentives to draw-down the excess separated plutonium stores. The preliminary analysis explores several options in reducing the excess separated plutonium arisings and HEU, and the consequences of the interacting synergistic effects between fuel cycle processes and isotopic signatures of nuclear materials on nonproliferation and safeguards policy assessments

  2. Integer Programming Models for Computational Biology Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Lancia

    2004-01-01

    The recent years have seen an impressive increase in the use of Integer Programming models for the solution of optimization problems originating in Molecular Biology. In this survey, some of the most successful Integer Programming approaches are described, while a broad overview of application areas being is given in modern Computational Molecular Biology.

  3. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (author)

  4. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume VI. Safety and environmental considerations for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume 6 of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program report addresses safety and environmental considerations in licensing the principal alternative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles in the United States for large-scale commercial nuclear power plants. In addition, this volume examines the safety and environmental considerations for licensing fuel service centers. These centers, which have been proposed for controlling sensitive fuel-cycle facilities and special nuclear materials, would contain a combination of such facilities as reprocessing plants, fabrication plants, and reactors. For this analysis, two fuel service center concepts were selected - one with power-generating capability and one without. This volume also provides estimates of the time required for development of large-scale commercial reactor systems to reach the construction permit application stage and for fuel-cycle facilities to reach the operating license application stage, which is a measure of the relative technical status of alternative nuclear systems

  5. Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge Biological Program Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Kanuti NWR biological program review was conducted by a 14member panel of national and international scientists and land managers from state, federal and tribal...

  6. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-12-01

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials.

  7. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IX. Reactor and fuel cycle descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP) has characterized and assessed various reactor/fuel-cycle systems. Volume IX provides, in summary form, the technical descriptions of the reactor/fuel-cycle systems studied. This includes the status of the system technology, as well as a discussion of the safety, environmental, and licensing needs from a technical perspective. This information was then used in developing the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program, including its cost and time frame, to advance the existing technology to the level needed for commercial use. Wherever possible, the cost data are given as ranges to reflect the uncertainties in the estimates. Volume IX is divided into three sections: Chapter 1, Reactor Systems; Chapter 2, Fuel-Cycle Systems; and the Appendixes. Chapter 1 contains the characterizations of the following 12 reactor types: light-water reactor; heavy-water reactor; water-cooled breeder reactor; high-temperature gas-cooled reactor; gas-cooled fast reactor; liquid-metal fast breeder reactor; spectral-shift-controlled reactor; accelerator-driven reactor; molten-salt reactor; gaseous-core reactor; tokamak fusion-fisson hybrid reactor; and fast mixed-spectrum reactor. Chapter 2 contains similar information developed for fuel-cycle facilities in the following categories: mining and milling; conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication; spent fuel reprocessing; waste handling and disposal; and transportation of nuclear materials

  8. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  9. Developing Effluent Analysis Technologies to Support Nonproliferation Initiatives, Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies, Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, S A; Staehle, G; Alonzo, G M [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This issue provides an overview of the Effluent Research Program of the DOE Office of Research and Development, highlighting a number of representative projects within this program in support of nonproliferation initiatives. Technologies reported include portable instruments for on-site inspections, standoff detectors, fieldable, real-time instruments, field collection techniques, and ultrasensitive laboratory techniques.

  10. Heavy water and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report begins with a historical sketch of heavy water. The report next assesses the nonproliferation implications of the use of heavy water-moderated power reactors; several different reactor types are discussed, but the focus is on the natural uranium, on-power fueled, pressure tube reactor CANDU. The need for and development of on-power fueling safeguards is discussed. Also considered is the use of heavy water in plutonium production reactors as well as the broader issue of the relative nuclear leverage that suppliers can bring to bear on countries with natural uranium-fueled reactors as compared to those using enriched designs. The final chapter reviews heavy water production methods and analyzes the difficulties involved in implementing these on both a large and a small scale. It concludes with an overview of proprietary and nonproliferation constraints on heavy water technology transfer

  11. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy of the Obama Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to analyze and foresee trends of international nuclear non-proliferation regimes focused on the nuclear non-proliferation policy of the Obama administration, and suggest national policy directions which promote utilization and development of nuclear energy in Korea. For the effective and efficient implementation of the national nuclear use and development program in current international nuclear environment, many efforts should be made: to actively and positively participate in the international nuclear non-proliferation regime; to strengthen nuclear diplomacy in a more systematic manner; and to strengthen the international nuclear cooperation

  12. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG ampersand G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  13. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  14. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities.

  15. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power. Report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume II. Proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this volume is limited to an assessment of the relative effects that particular choices of nuclear-power systems, for whatever reasons, may have on the possible spread of nuclear-weapons capabilities. This volume addresses the concern that non-nuclear-weapons states may be able to initiate efforts to acquire or to improve nuclear-weapons capabilities through civilian nuclear-power programs; it also addresses the concern that subnational groups may obtain and abuse the nuclear materials or facilities of such programs, whether in nuclear-weapons states (NWS's) or nonnuclear-weapons states (NNW's). Accordingly, this volume emphasizes one important factor in such decisions, the resistance of nuclear-power systems to the proliferation of nuclear-weapons capabilities

  16. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume V. Economics and systems analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This assessment considers the economics of alternative nuclear reactor and fuel-cycle systems in the light of possible patterns of uranium supply and energy demand, as well as the economic implications of improving the proliferation resistance of the various systems. The assessment focuses on the costs of alternative nuclear technologies and the possible timing of their implementation, based on their economic attractiveness. The objectives of this assessment are to identify when economic incentives to deploy advanced nuclear power systems might exist, to estimate the costs of using technologies that would reduce the risk of proliferation, to assess the impact of major economic uncertainties on the transition to new technologies, and to compare the investments required for alternative systems. This information can then be used to assess the potential economic benefits of alternative research, development, and demonstration programs and the timing of those programs

  17. Nuclear proliferation and civilian nuclear power: report of the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. Volume IV. Commercial potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume IV provides time and cost estimates for positioning new nuclear power systems for commercial deployment. The assessment also estimates the rates at which the new systems might penetrate the domestic market, assuming the continuing viability of the massive light-water reactor network that now exists worldwide. This assessment does not recommend specific, detailed program plans and budgets for individual systems; however, it is clear from this analysis that any of the systems investigated could be deployed if dictated by national interest

  18. Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards and Nonproliferation Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan, Kimberly V. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirk, Bernadette Lugue [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Modeling and Simulation for Safeguards and Nonproliferation Workshop was held December 15–18, 2014, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This workshop was made possible by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development (NGSI HCD) Program. The idea of the workshop was to move beyond the tried-and-true boot camp training of nonproliferation concepts to spend several days on the unique perspective of applying modeling and simulation (M&S) solutions to safeguards challenges.

  19. Nonproliferation Education at the University of Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonproliferation curriculum at the University of Washington (UW) is the product of collaboration between Pacific Northwest Center for Global Security (PNWCGS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Jackson School of International Studies (JSIS) and Department of Political Science at the University of Washington. This collaboration began in 2001 with the establishment the Institute for Global and Regional Security Studies (IGRSS). IGRSS is housed in the Jackson School, which will celebrate its centenary in 2008 as a center for the study of world regions. PNNL also engages in a number of collaborative relationships with UW units in the natural and applied sciences. The principal goal of IGRSS has been to develop courses that draw graduates and undergraduates into careers in the field of nonproliferation. Since offering its first courses in 2002, IGRSS has assisted a substantial number of UW graduate students in submitting successful applications for nonproliferation positions in U.S. government agencies, including the Nonproliferation Graduate Program at the National Nuclear Security Administration. Since 2001, several UW undergraduates have begun careers in the field of nonproliferation, either by working at national laboratories or enrolling in non-UW graduate programs. The UW brought to its nonproliferation partnership with PNNL long-established programs in a wide range of professional programs and academic disciplines, including the 14 interdisciplinary regional and topical programs of the Jackson School of International Studies. The JSIS is an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental enterprise that brings together faculty and students from across the UW. Since the late 1940s the UW has trained experts for the nation's foreign policy community in programs focused in the languages, cultures, and histories of regions deemed critical to U.S. national security. However, since the termination of its program in nuclear engineering several

  20. Synergies between nonproliferation regimes: A pragmatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: With the recent progress in establishing international nonproliferation regimes, the question of synergies between different verification and monitoring regimes is becoming more acute. Three multilateral and universal nonproliferation organisations covering safeguards on civil nuclear materials, nuclear testing, and chemical weapons are up and running. A regime on biological weapons is under negotiation. Several regional organisations concerned with monitoring nonproliferation commitments in the nuclear field are in place; others are being established. Past discussions on synergies between these regimes have suffered from being too far-reaching. These discussions often have not reflected adequately the political difficulties of cooperation between regimes with different membership, scope and institutional set-up. This paper takes a pragmatic look at exploiting synergies and identifies some potential and real overlaps in the work between different verification regimes. It argues for a bottom-up approach and identifies building blocks for collaboration between verification regimes. By realising such, more limited potential for cooperation, the ground could be prepared for exploiting other synergies between these regimes. (author)

  1. Non-proliferation considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reiterates the Indian viewpoint that consideration of ''proliferation resistance'' is outside the terms of reference of Working Group 4 as agreed at the Washington Conference. The discussions in WG4 should therefore cover only safeguards aspects. The paper goes on to critisize the various assessment factors introduced in INFCE/DEP./WG-4/104 and the various alternative technologies proposed. The Indian view is reinstated that if a country requires reprocessing based on its nuclear energy programmes and priorities, there should be no hindrance. International safeguards should be applied to all nuclear materials in all countries without discrimination or differentiation between civil and military programmes. The paper concludes that non-proliferation is essentially a political matter and has no technical solution

  2. Fast reactors and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1.Three aspects of nonproliferation relevant to nuclear power are: Pu buildup in NPP spent fuel cooling ponds (∼ 104 t in case of consumption of ∼ 107 t cheap uranium). Danger of illegal radiochemical extraction of Pu for weapons production; Pu extraction from NPP fuel at the plants available in nuclear countries, its burning along with weapon-grade Pu in NPP reactors or in special-purpose burners; increased hazard of nuclear weapons sprawl with breeders and closed fuel cycle technology spreading all over the world. 2.The latter is one of major obstacles to creation of large-scale nuclear power. 3.Nuclear power of the first stage using 235 U will be able to meet the demands of certain fuel-deficient countries and regions, replacing ∼ 5-10% of conventional fuels in the global consumption for a number of decades. 4.Fast reactors of the first generation and the currently employed fuel technology are far from exhausting their potential for solving economic problems and meeting the challenges of safety, radioactive waste and nonproliferation. Development of large-scale nuclear power will become an option accepted by society for solving energy problems in the following century, provided a breeder technology is elaborated and demonstrated in the next 15-20 years, which would comply with the totality of the following requirement: full internal Pu breeding deterministic elimination of severe accidents involving fuel damage and high radioactivity releases: fast runaway, loss of coolant, fires, steam and hydrogen explosions, etc.; reaching a balance between radioactive wastes disposed of and uranium mined in terms of radiation hazard; technology of closed fuel cycle preventing its use for Pu extraction and permitting physical protection from fuel thefts;economic competitiveness of nuclear power for most of countries and regions, i.e. primarily the cost of NPPs with fat reactors is to be below the cost of modern LWR plants, etc

  3. Robust Indicators of Nonproliferation Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Mara R.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.

    2014-02-13

    Understanding how the nuclear industry may benefit from self-regulation is closely linked with understanding how to report compliance activities for nonproliferation and export control objectives, as well as how to distinguish high and low compliance performance. Drawing on the corporate sustainability reporting model, nuclear and dual-use commodities industries can frame socially responsible self-regulatory activities to distinguish themselves as good nonproliferators.

  4. Modeling biological systems with Answer Set Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Sven

    2012-01-01

    Biology has made great progress in identifying and measuring the building blocks of life. The availability of high-throughput methods in molecular biology has dramatically accelerated the growth of biological knowledge for various organisms. The advancements in genomic, proteomic and metabolomic technologies allow for constructing complex models of biological systems. An increasing number of biological repositories is available on the web, incorporating thousands of biochemical reactions and ...

  5. Evaluating Nonproliferation Bona Fides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seward, Amy M.; Mathews, Caroline E.; Kessler, Carol E.

    2008-07-14

    Anticipated growth of global nuclear energy in a difficult international security environment heightens concerns that states could decide to exploit their civilian nuclear fuel cycles as a means of acquiring nuclear weapons. Such concerns partly reflect a fundamental tension in the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). On the one hand, Articles II and III of the NPT clearly prohibit each non-nuclear-weapon state party from acquiring nuclear weapons. On the other hand, Article IV of the NPT confers the “inalienable right” of Parties to the treaty to “develop research, production and use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes…,” and directs all Parties to “facilitate… the fullest possible exchange of equipment, materials and scientific and technological information for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy…,” and “cooperate in contributing…to the further development of the applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes….” This juxtaposition raises the possibility that a state could exercise its Article IV right to develop a civilian nuclear fuels cycle and then use the equipment, materials and technology to acquire nuclear weapons in violation of its Article II and III obligations.

  6. Common sense and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the dawn of the nuclear age nearly four decades ago, the United States has been firmly commited to the objective of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. That principle is embodied in the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), support for which has been a basic tenet of US foreign policy and a basic security interest of the world at large ever since. The Reagan administration remains firmly committed to the goal of preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. Such proliferation could trigger new and grave dangers for America's security and well-being and indeed for that of all the world's peoples. Desperate leaders in future high-stakes conflicts might not shrink from nuclear blackmail or even from the use of nuclear weapons if they were available. A conventional clash between nuclear-armed states in a conflict-prone region might escalate by accident or miscalculation to a local nuclear exchange. It cannot be discounted that such a nuclear clash might threaten to involve the superpowers themselves. With proliferation, also, terrorist groups could more easily acquire nuclear weapons to extort concessions. Preventing the spread of nuclear weapons, then, is not solely of interest to the superpowers: it is vital to all countries and regions. The security of the countries in those regions to which nuclear weapons might spread would be most immediately and seriously affected. By their adherence to the NPT, more than 100 countries have recognized this fact

  7. NRC regulatory actions and U.S. nonproliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the foundation for a comprehensive nuclear regulatory program was established by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, the nuclear regulatory function has been broadened from its early emphasis on the health and safety of the public to include environmental concerns and nonproliferation aspects. There is a close relationship between NRC's regulatory activities and US nonproliferation objectives and policies in support of these objectives. The two should be as consistent and mutually supportive as possible. Several examples of the interaction between nuclear regulation and nonproliferation policy are cited: US Government nuclear export responsibilities; international safeguards and physical security considerations, including the US voluntary safeguards offer; spent fuel storage, including possible foreign fuel imports; Generic Environmental Statement on Mixed Oxide Fuel; and International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation and Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program. The recently enacted Nuclear Nonproliferation Act of 1978, which seeks to balance proliferation concerns with peaceful uses of nuclear power and to provide a more predictable, stable and effective export licensing system, has numerous provisions affecting NRC. These include establishment of specific export licensing criteria and an expanded role for NRC in the licensing of nuclear exports

  8. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry. PMID:23502560

  9. Virginia Tech launches corporate partners program in biological sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Department of Biological Sciences in the university's College of Science, has launched a corporate partners program to foster collaboration between faculty, students and bio-science oriented corporations in the mid-Atlantic region. The so-named Biological Sciences Partners in Research and Education (BioSPIRE) program is designed to engage companies with an interest and capacity to impact education in the biological sciences.

  10. Nuclear Nonproliferation Ontology Assessment Team Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strasburg, Jana D.; Hohimer, Ryan E.

    2012-01-01

    Final Report for the NA22 Simulations, Algorithm and Modeling (SAM) Ontology Assessment Team's efforts from FY09-FY11. The Ontology Assessment Team began in May 2009 and concluded in September 2011. During this two-year time frame, the Ontology Assessment team had two objectives: (1) Assessing the utility of knowledge representation and semantic technologies for addressing nuclear nonproliferation challenges; and (2) Developing ontological support tools that would provide a framework for integrating across the Simulation, Algorithm and Modeling (SAM) program. The SAM Program was going through a large assessment and strategic planning effort during this time and as a result, the relative importance of these two objectives changed, altering the focus of the Ontology Assessment Team. In the end, the team conducted an assessment of the state of art, created an annotated bibliography, and developed a series of ontological support tools, demonstrations and presentations. A total of more than 35 individuals from 12 different research institutions participated in the Ontology Assessment Team. These included subject matter experts in several nuclear nonproliferation-related domains as well as experts in semantic technologies. Despite the diverse backgrounds and perspectives, the Ontology Assessment team functioned very well together and aspects could serve as a model for future inter-laboratory collaborations and working groups. While the team encountered several challenges and learned many lessons along the way, the Ontology Assessment effort was ultimately a success that led to several multi-lab research projects and opened up a new area of scientific exploration within the Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Verification.

  11. Examination of Relationship between Nuclear Transparency and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we define the state-level nuclear transparency as a set of the condition that shows how clearly the state's information related to peaceful nuclear power program and nuclear proliferation is revealed to the international community. For conducting expert survey on state-level nuclear transparency, the concept of nuclear transparency should be clearly defined. Based on that concept, the survey was carried out and results show that it tend to score high when nonproliferation activities happen. It means that higher transparency is positively related to nuclear proliferation. Therefore, higher nuclear transparency is positively related to nuclear nonproliferation

  12. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satkowiak, Lawrence [Director, Nonproliferation, Safeguards and Security Programs, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  13. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satkowiak, Lawrence

    2014-05-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required.

  14. Technical solutions to nonproliferation challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat of nuclear terrorism is real and poses a significant challenge to both U.S. and global security. For terrorists, the challenge is not so much the actual design of an improvised nuclear device (IND) but more the acquisition of the special nuclear material (SNM), either highly enriched uranium (HEU) or plutonium, to make the fission weapon. This paper provides two examples of technical solutions that were developed in support of the nonproliferation objective of reducing the opportunity for acquisition of HEU. The first example reviews technologies used to monitor centrifuge enrichment plants to determine if there is any diversion of uranium materials or misuse of facilities to produce undeclared product. The discussion begins with a brief overview of the basics of uranium processing and enrichment. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its safeguard objectives and how the technology evolved to meet those objectives will be described. The second example focuses on technologies developed and deployed to monitor the blend down of 500 metric tons of HEU from Russia's dismantled nuclear weapons to reactor fuel or low enriched uranium (LEU) under the U.S.-Russia HEU Purchase Agreement. This reactor fuel was then purchased by U.S. fuel fabricators and provided about half the fuel for the domestic power reactors. The Department of Energy established the HEU Transparency Program to provide confidence that weapons usable HEU was being blended down and thus removed from any potential theft scenario. Two measurement technologies, an enrichment meter and a flow monitor, were combined into an automated blend down monitoring system (BDMS) and were deployed to four sites in Russia to provide 24/7 monitoring of the blend down. Data was downloaded and analyzed periodically by inspectors to provide the assurances required

  15. Broadening Industry Governance to Include Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hund, Gretchen; Seward, Amy M.

    2008-11-11

    As industry is the first line of defense in detecting and thwarting illicit trade networks, the engagement of the private sector is critical to any government effort to strengthen existing mechanisms to protect goods and services throughout the supply chain. This study builds on previous PNNL work to continue to evaluate means for greater industry engagement to complement and strengthen existing governmental efforts to detect and stem the trade of illicit goods and to protect and secure goods that could be used in making a weapon of mass destruction. Specifically, the study evaluates the concept of Industry Self Regulation, defined as a systematic voluntary program undertaken by an industry or by individual companies to anticipate, implement, supplement, or substitute for regulatory requirements in a given field, generally through the adoption of best practices. Through a series of interviews with companies with a past history of non-compliance, trade associations and NGOs, the authors identify gaps in the existing regulatory infrastructure, drivers for a self regulation approach and the form such an approach might take, as well as obstacles to be overcome. The authors conclude that it is at the intersection of industry, government, and security that—through collaborative means—the effectiveness of the international nonproliferation system—can be most effectively strengthened to the mutual benefit of both government and the private sector. Industry has a critical stake in the success of this regime, and has the potential to act as an integrating force that brings together the existing mechanisms of the global nonproliferation regime: export controls, physical protection, and safeguards. The authors conclude that industry compliance is not enough; rather, nonproliferation must become a central tenant of a company’s corporate culture and be viewed as an integral component of corporate social responsibility (CSR).

  16. THE ENHANCED BIOLOGY EDUCATION (EBE) PROGRAM AT DREXEL UNIVERSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This article introduced the Enhanced Biology Education (EBE) program which is a successful innovated program developed in the USA. The program incorporates hand s-on experience with theoretical knowledge, focuses on the ability to apply wha t is learned and trains the students to work independently from the instructor.

  17. Nuclear non-Proliferation treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of a speech is presented delivered by the State President of South Africa, Mr. F.W. de Klerk, to a joint session of Parliament on 24 March 1993, announcing developments relating to South Africa's nuclear capability and accession to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

  18. An Audiovisual Program in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoroff, Sergey; Opel, William

    1978-01-01

    A subtopic of cell biology, the structure and function of cell membranes, has been developed as a series of seven self-instructional slide-tape units and tested in five medical schools. Organization of advisers, analysis and definition of objectives and content, and development and evaluation of scripts and storyboards are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  19. Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge Biological Program Evaluation 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a written evaluation of the biological program at Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge conducted in July, 1992 by a regional management team. It outlines...

  20. Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The regime established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco supports peace and security in the Latin American region and global nonproliferation efforts. Circumstances leading to the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone include careful preparations and negotiations, individual leadership, existence of certain shared cultural and legal traditions of Latin American countries, and the temporary stimulus of the Cuban missile crisis. The lack of overt superpower pressure on Latin America, compared with more turbulent regions, has permitted continued progress toward full realization of the zone. Tlatelolco's negotiating process, as well as the substance of the Treaty, deserve careful consideration relative to other areas. The Treaty enjoys wide international approval, but full support by certain Latin American States (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba) has been negatively affected by the failure of the US Senate to ratify Tlatelolco's Protocol I. Nuclear programs of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico are expanding rapidly and these nations are forming linkages with West European countries, rather than the United States. The May 1980 Argentine-Brazilian nuclear agreement foresees significant cooperation between the two nation's nuclear energy commissions and more coordinated resistance to the nuclear supplier countries. Argentine-Brazilian nuclear convergence and the response accorded to it by the United States will have significant implications for the future of the Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America. 52 references

  1. A Digest of Nonproliferation Literature.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth A

    2006-04-01

    In preparation for the 2005 US/Russian Weapons Laboratories Directors Meeting, the six laboratories participating in the meeting endeavored to develop a strategy for nonproliferation technology research and development. A literature review was conducted to identify possible areas of technical collaboration and technology opportunities associated with improving nonproliferation associated with the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The issue of multinationalization of the nuclear fuel cycle was also researched. This digest is the compilation of one-page summaries used by management of the three US nuclear weapons laboratories in preparation for strategy development. Where possible, the Web site address of the complete paper is referenced.3 AcknowledgementsThe author wishes to thank Jessica Ruyle, Nancy Orlando-Gay, and Barbara Dry for their research assistance and contributions.4

  2. New dimensions in nonproliferation -- An International Atomic Energy Agency view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four years ago, Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait with the intention of annexing it as Iraq's 19th state. The disclosure of the Iraqi nuclear weapons program in the aftermath of the Gulf War--through the IAEA inspections--signaled the end of one proliferation era and the start of the next. In the author's remarks here, he has found it useful to identify four distinct proliferation eras, each with different features, each calling for different emphasis in international nonproliferation efforts. They provide a convenient way to look at the history of nonproliferation, and to look into the future and to the new dimensions in nonproliferation that are slowly emerging. Since the Gulf War, the nuclear world experienced a series of events of fundamental significance that changed the nature of nonproliferation, forcing changes in the mission of the IAEA and its methods. Certainly some of these events came in the form of unpleasant surprises, such as in Iraq, but very positive progress was also made on other fronts. He would like to share some perceptions of the events creating the present situation, and some views anticipating the requirements most likely to emerge in the coming years

  3. The handbook of nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This report took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and current status. It is here divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this report dealt four multilateral treaties concluded for international non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. And international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are also analyzed focused on UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, regional safeguards system and international conferences. In addition, this report reviewed the nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is a important tool for bilateral regime

  4. On the structure of nonproliferation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author proposed a new analysis method of nonproliferation measures depending on full perception of common threat of nuclear proliferation to entire human being. Nuclear nonproliferation policies of the US and Japan were analysed by this method and it revealed the following results: 1) There is a large discrepancy between the nuclear nonproliferation policies of the US and Japan mainly because of the different standpoints of both nations and partly because of the difference of understanding on the definition of nonproliferation, and the object of nonproliferation measures. 2) The total structure of nuclear nonproliferation measures becomes more visible through categorization of nonproliferation measures, depending on implementater, target for implementation, characteristics of the measures (soft-liner, legal, or hard-liner) and risk factor for reduction of the total risk of nuclear weapon use. 3) The total structure of nonproliferation measures is multi-barrier structure on the process to reach the actual nuclear weapon use, and each barrier is composed of multi-defense in depth structure including various soft-liner, legal, and hard-linear measures. 4) Various nonproliferation measures can be stored in a data base, based on the proposed structural analysis, which enables further comprehensive analysis for specific purposes efficiently. (author)

  5. Flaws in the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current review conference must come to grips with serious weaknesses in the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), especially regarding the spread of weapons-grade material and the continuing superpower arms race. One-third of the world's nations, including two of the original nuclear-weapons states (France and China), have not signed the NPT, and some countries are trying to buy nuclear weaponry without developing a domestic capability. The greatest danger is latent proliferation through the acquisition of materials and capabilities for peaceful power and research programs. The author recommends modifying the NPT to restrict nuclear trade, improve International Atomic Energy Agency inspections and audits, expand safeguards coverage to nonparties of the Treaty, and set minimum standards for guarding international shipments

  6. Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation Project ECOLOGICAL STUDY 1998 Biological monitoring program

    OpenAIRE

    Lien, L.; Haowen, Yin

    1998-01-01

    Suzhou Creek, flowing through the central parts of Shanghai, is heavy polluted by sewage, metals and organic micro pollutants. Due to the pollution, lower parts of the creek have virtually no life of fish or macro-invertebrates, and the other biological communities are totally disturbed. Even at upstream sections the flora and fauna suffer from pollution. During the last decade the contamination has been slightly reduced in the creek. A biological monitoring program was designed for the creek...

  7. Nuclear World Order and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joeck, N

    2007-02-05

    The decision by India and Pakistan in May 1998 to conduct nuclear weapon tests and declare themselves as nuclear weapon states challenged South Asian regional stability calculations, US nonproliferation policy, and prevailing assumptions about international security. A decade later, the effects of those tests are still being felt and policies are still adjusting to the changed global conditions. This paper will consider non- and counter-proliferation policy options for the United States and Pakistan as they work as partners to prevent the transfer of nuclear technology and further nuclear proliferation.

  8. Analysis of new challenges in non-proliferation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Texas A and M University, the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and the Obninsk State Technical University for Nuclear Power Engineering (IATE) are collaborating on a program to graduate the next generation of specialists in the United States and the Russian Federation in the field of non-proliferation. The curriculum, which has been jointly developed, involves both technology and policy. Students have an opportunity for interaction through the Foreign Field Experience. (authors)

  9. Nuclear non-proliferation and global security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book has 16 chapters grouped into three sections - Global Security and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons -the Agenda; Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policies and Perspectives and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons in Review. Apart from the Review of the Third NPT Conference all the articles were presented at the Conference on Global Security and the Future of the Non-Proliferation Treaty: a time for reassessment, held in May 1985. All are indexed separately. The Appendices include the Statement of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, a list of parties to the Treaty, those signing but not ratifying the Treaty and those neither signing nor ratifying and Appendix I and II of the Final Document of the Third Review Conference of the Parties to the NPT Treaty. (U.K.)

  10. Non-proliferation under revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the 3rd NPT Revision Conference held in Geneva between August 27 and September 21, 1985, the member states to the Treaty reconfirmed their conviction that the agreement had become an essential part in the efforts to secure peace in the world and that is fundamental objectives continued to serve this purpose. Since the ratification in 1968 and the entering into force in 1970 of the Non-proliferation Treaty, the number of member states had risen continually to, at present, 130. In 1975, 92 states in 1980, 114 states had signed the agreement. The three nuclear weapon states, USA, UK, and USSR, are depositary states. France acts as if she had acceded to the Treaty, and the People's Republic of China as the 5th nuclear weapon state seems to take steps in the same direction by voluntarily opening nuclear installations to checks by IAEA inspectors. Incidentally, an effective framework of non-proliferation in the South American region has been created in the Treaty of Tlatelolco. 98% of all nuclear installations in the non-nuclear weapon countries are covered by IAEA safeguards. (orig.)

  11. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  12. United Nations study on disarmament and non-proliferation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Science and technology transformed the world in the twentieth century. Living standards improved but warfare was rendered more deadly. Weapons of mass destruction - biological, chemical and nuclear - and their means of delivery were developed, as ever more sophisticated conventional armaments were produced and disseminated. The horrors and destruction of armed conflict persist. The need for disarmament and non-proliferation education and training has never been greater. Indeed, changing concepts and perceptions of security and threat magnify the urgency for new thinking to pursue disarmament and non-proliferation goals. More than a decade after the end of the cold war and at the start of the twenty- first century, there is a pressing need to combat ignorance, complacency and a culture of violence. These can be countered through long-term programmes of education and training, especially those related to disarmament and non- proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their means of delivery, with a view to their reduction and complete elimination. At the same time, concern has heightened over the global threat of the excessive and destabilizing proliferation of conventional weapons, especially small arms and light weapons, rendering more acute the need to combat such proliferation in a sustained way through disarmament and non-proliferation education and training. Additionally there is a need to raise awareness of new challenges to international security and the process of disarmament. Among them, terrorism, with the possibility of the use of weapons of mass destruction, is a source of particular concern. Other challenges, such as organized crime, poverty, human rights abuses and environmental concerns must also be taken into account. Education and training remain important but under utilized tools for promoting peace, disarmament and non-proliferation. The present report addresses that issue and proposes ideas for action

  13. Modeling Japan's efforts to ensure nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of policy study on Modeling Japan's efforts to ensure nuclear nonproliferation, Japan's efforts have been categorized into two parts; voluntary and proactive efforts and passive efforts in line with international discussions. Japan, a sole non-nuclear weapon state promoting nuclear fuel cycle, will be required more proactively in the fields that Japan has not made a proactive effort than ever before in order to continue to acquire international confidence. Nuclear nonproliferation efforts in peaceful nuclear energy have been generalized on the basis of Japan's case because it is essential to develop the vital infrastructure to ensure nuclear nonproliferation in the states planning to introduce nuclear energy. (author)

  14. Non-proliferation and multinational enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper supplements CC/WG.2/9 in presenting the Japanese delegation's contribution in the areas of non-proliferation and multi-national enterprises. The paper questions whether multinational enrichment enterprises would constitute a significant non-proliferation factor, noting that the nature of the venture might create a potential for the dissemination of sensitive information. The paper also argues that a multi-national venture which was not economically competitive (with national facilities) would have questionable viability. The conclusion is that non-proliferation advantages, if any, would be a result, not an objective of such a venture

  15. StrateGene: object-oriented programming in molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart, R E; Cash, H D; Moore, J F

    1988-03-01

    This paper describes some of the ways that object-oriented programming methodologies have been used to represent and manipulate biological information in a working application. When running on a Xerox 1100 series computer, StrateGene functions as a genetic engineering workstation for the management of information about cloning experiments. It represents biological molecules, enzymes, fragments, and methods as classes, subclasses, and members in a hierarchy of objects. These objects may have various attributes, which themselves can be defined and classified. The attributes and their values can be passed from the classes of objects down to the subclasses and members. The user can modify the objects and their attributes while using them. New knowledge and changes to the system can be incorporated relatively easily. The operations on the biological objects are associated with the objects themselves. This makes it easier to invoke them correctly and allows generic operations to be customized for the particular object. PMID:3164229

  16. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Annual report, FY91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a possible site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the Yucca Mountain area, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and to ensure that activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1991 (FY91) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Activities Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  17. Yucca Mountain biological resources monitoring program; Annual report FY92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize Yucca Mountain as a potential site for a geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities (SCA) do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, an environmental program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) during fiscal year 1992 (FY92) for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the YMP environmental program. The six program areas are Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises, Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  18. BIOLOGICAL MONITORING PROGRAM FOR EAST FORK POPLAR CREEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; ASHWOOD, T.L.; BEATY, T.W.; BRANDT, C.C.

    1997-10-24

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y- 12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the complex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumulation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  19. Non-proliferation policy and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of '90s the international community and IAEA have been confronted with serious problems related to the maintaining of the world non-proliferation policy. At the end of the cold war, rumors regarding Iraq's nuclear armament secret program and a new democracies' perception regarding nuclear safety have given a strong impetus toward reinforcing and redefining the safeguards systems. Today this system has got the most advanced and modern means for the detection of nuclear materials stealing and surreptitious production. At the same time with the implementation of the new additional model of safeguards agreements, every country developed an important contribution to end this period in which proliferation and threatening of nuclear weapons were a ruling feature on the international scene. The paper presents the principles of IAEA and national nuclear safeguards system. Mentioned are the techniques and equipment for nuclear safeguards control applied particularly at Cernavoda NPP and TRIGA reactor at IRN - Pitesti as well as those related to the evaluation of the plutonium content in the irradiated fuel. In Romania largely utilized was the program ORIGEN

  20. Development of nonproliferation and assessment scenarios.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Melissa; Barnett, Natalie Beth

    2005-10-01

    The overall objective of the Nonproliferation and Assessments Scenario Development project is to create and analyze potential and plausible scenarios that would lead to an adversary's ability to acquire and use a biological weapon. The initial three months of funding was intended to be used to develop a scenario to demonstrate the efficacy of this analysis methodology; however, it was determined that a substantial amount of preliminary data collection would be needed before a proof of concept scenario could be developed. We have dedicated substantial effort to determine the acquisition pathways for Foot and Mouth Disease Virus, and similar processes will be applied to all pathogens of interest. We have developed a biosecurity assessments database to capture information on adversary skill locales, available skill sets in specific regions, pathogen sources and regulations involved in pathogen acquisition from legitimate facilities. FY06 funding, once released, will be dedicated to data collection on acquisition, production and dissemination requirements on a pathogen basis. Once pathogen data has been collected, scenarios will be developed and scored.

  1. 2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prange, C

    2003-03-01

    LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

  2. Nuclear nonproliferation: Concerns with US delays in accepting foregin research reactors' spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One key US nonproliferation goal is to discourage use of highly enriched uranium fuel (HEU), which can be used to make nuclear bombs, in civilian nuclear programs worldwide. DOE's Off-Site Fuels Policy for taking back spent HEU from foreign research reactors was allowed to expire due to environmental reasons. This report provides information on the effects of delays in renewing the Off-Site Fuels Policy on US nonproliferation goals and programs (specifically the reduced enrichment program), DOE's efforts to renew the fuels policy, and the price to be charged to the operators of foreign reactors for DOE's activities in taking back spent fuel

  3. Nuclear nonproliferation: Concerns with US delays in accepting foregin research reactors` spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-03-25

    One key US nonproliferation goal is to discourage use of highly enriched uranium fuel (HEU), which can be used to make nuclear bombs, in civilian nuclear programs worldwide. DOE`s Off-Site Fuels Policy for taking back spent HEU from foreign research reactors was allowed to expire due to environmental reasons. This report provides information on the effects of delays in renewing the Off-Site Fuels Policy on US nonproliferation goals and programs (specifically the reduced enrichment program), DOE`s efforts to renew the fuels policy, and the price to be charged to the operators of foreign reactors for DOE`s activities in taking back spent fuel.

  4. Handbook for nuclear non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Jin; Ko, Han Seok

    1997-05-01

    This book analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This book took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and status. The regime, here, is divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this book reports four multilateral treaties concluded for non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. Secondly, international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are analyzed with emphasis of UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, Regional Safeguards System and international conference. Finally, this book report the current circumstances of nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is an important means for bilateral regime. (author). 13 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Handbook for nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This book took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and status. The regime, here, is divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this book reports four multilateral treaties concluded for non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. Secondly, international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are analyzed with emphasis of UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, Regional Safeguards System and international conference. Finally, this book report the current circumstances of nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is an important means for bilateral regime. (author). 13 tabs., 2 figs

  6. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's non-proliferation safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to ensure that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, treating nuclear weapon and non-weapon states alike, and working for new approaches covering reprocessing, Canada promotes attainment of the first objective. The second is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its partners. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums is to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers may subsume their national requirements

  7. The nuclear marketplace and the nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and acceptance of the international nonproliferation regime has been one of the most remarkable achievements of the postwar era. The nonproliferation regime has developed incrementally over time, often in spite of the inability of the two superpowers to come to grips with their own arms race. States otherwise zealous to protect their sovereignty have accepted international constraints on that same sovereignty where nuclear power is concerned. The challenge to the nonproliferation regime, then, is both serious and multifaceted. There is no single or overriding source of that regime's problems, nor is there a single solution. Rolling back the NNPA and ''letting the US nuclear industry compete'' make for a good slogan but will not change the seriousness of the nonproliferation challenge

  8. Nuclear non-proliferation and global security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear non-proliferation treaty is currently undergoing its third formal review by its signatories. They are reviewing the treaty, assessing its effectiveness and considering how it might better be implemented. This book anticipates the work of the treaty reviewers and considers the issues facing them. It examines the whole range of issues connected with nuclear non-proliferation and the treaty. It looks at non-proliferation from the point of view of nuclear nations, non-nuclear nations and the nuclear industry. It assesses the work of the international monitoring bodies and reconsiders the place of non-proliferation in the changing balance of global nuclear power. It concludes by discussing the way forward

  9. Nuclear non-proliferation: a reference handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook aims to give data on the current state of non-proliferation in the world. In Part One articles give an overview on non-proliferation; its history, the review conferences, nuclear power nuclear weapons, nuclear safeguards, nuclear trade control, security and physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear weapon free zones, arms control and disarmament, nuclear testing and the current state of civil nuclear power. Even articles are indexed separately. Part Two includes the texts of the non-proliferation treaties, nuclear weapons treaties, United Nations resolutions and all the agreements and declarations relevant to the operation of non-proliferation in the early 1990s. Part Two which also includes a bibliography takes up more than three quarters of the book. (UK)

  10. How Might Industry Governance Be Broadened To Include Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadening industry governance to support nonproliferation could provide significant new leverage in preventing the spread/diversion of nuclear, radiological, or dual-use material or technology that could be used in making a nuclear or radiological weapon. Industry is defined broadly to include (1) the nuclear industry, (2) dual-use industries, and (3) radioactive source manufacturers and selected radioactive source-user industries worldwide. This paper describes how industry can be an important first line of defense in detecting and thwarting proliferation, such as an illicit trade network or an insider theft case, by complementing and strengthening existing governmental efforts. For example, the dual-use industry can play a critical role by providing export, import, or security control information that would allow a government or the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to integrate this information with safeguards, export, import, and physical protection information it has to create a more complete picture of the potential for proliferation. Because industry is closest to users of the goods and technology that could be illicitly diverted throughout the supply chain, industry information can potentially be more timely and accurate than other sources of information. Industry is in an ideal position to help ensure that such illicit activities are detected. This role could be performed more effectively if companies worked together within a particular industry to promote nonproliferation by implementing an industry-wide self-regulation program. Performance measures could be used to ensure their materials and technologies are secure throughout the supply chain and that customers are legitimately using and/or maintaining oversight of these items. Nonproliferation is the overarching driver that industry needs to consider in adopting and implementing a self-regulation approach. A few foreign companies have begun such an approach to date; it is believed that

  11. Romania non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Non-proliferation concept in Romania is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which was ratified in 1970. According to the Article III of the Treaty, Romania ratified in 1972, the Agreement between Romania and IAEA for the application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In 2000 Romania ratified the Additional Protocol to contribute through increased transparency, to confidence that no undeclared nuclear activities are concealed within the declared programme or make use of elements of that programme. Under the Additional Protocol Romania understands to increase the transparency of its nuclear activities lengthways fuel cycle. Romania has a strong legal framework to control nuclear material and nuclear activities. The Law 111/1996, republished is the Law on the safe deployment of nuclear activities. CNCAN issued National Regulations for Safeguards and Physical Protection. Prospecting for uranium in Romania was initiated in 1950. Between 1962 and 1978 all the uranium ore production was stockpiled at the mine sites. In 1978 the Feldioara Powder Plant was commissioned, since then both ore stockpiles and ore exploited have been processed to uranium chemical concentrates. The Powder Plant Feldioara was conceived and built following the necessity of milling and processing the uranium ore to UO2, in concordance with the national nuclear programme in order to produce electric energy from nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Fuel Plant has capability to manufacture CANDU-6 nuclear fuel. Nuclear Fuel Plant consists of two Production areas, the Quality Assurance and Engineering Departments. There are two Production Departments: Pelleting area including granulation, pressing, sintering, pellet grinding, uranium recycling and Assembling area including components fabrication, beryllium coating, brazing, graphite coating, fuel element and bundle assembly welding. Romania's Strategy for Energy Sector is

  12. Lessons learned from the former Soviet biological warfare program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra A.

    The purpose of this doctoral project was to develop the most credible educational tool openly available to enhance the understanding and the application of biological weapons threat analysis. The theory governing the effectiveness of biological weapons was integrated from publications, lectures, and seminars primarily provided by Kenneth Alibek and William C. Patrick III, the world's foremost authorities on the topic. Both experts validated the accuracy of the theory compiled from their work and provided forewords. An exercise requiring analysis of four national intelligence estimates of the former Soviet biological warfare program was included in the form of educational case studies to enhance retention, experience, and confidence by providing a platform against which the reader can apply the newly learned theory. After studying the chapters on BW theory, the reader can compare his/her analysis of the national intelligence estimates against the analysis provided in the case studies by this researcher. This training aid will be a valuable tool for all who are concerned with the threat posed by biological weapons and are therefore seeking the most reliable source of information in order to better understand the true nature of the threat.

  13. Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the core of the nuclear non-proliferation regime lie international agreements. These agreements include, inter alia, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, nuclear co-operation agreements and nuclear export control agreements.1 States, however, do not always comply with their obligations under these agreements. In response, commentators have proposed various enforcement mechanisms to promote compliance. The inconvenient truth, however, is that states are generally unwilling to consent to enforcement mechanisms concerning issues as critical to national security as nuclear non-proliferation.3 This article suggests an alternative solution to the non-compliance problem: interpretation mechanisms. Although an interpretation mechanism does not have the teeth of an enforcement mechanism, it can induce compliance by providing an authoritative interpretation of a legal obligation. Interpretation mechanisms would help solve the non-compliance problem because, as this article shows, in many cases of alleged non-compliance with a non-proliferation agreement, the fundamental problem has been the lack of an authoritative interpretation of the agreement, not the lack of an enforcement mechanism. Specifically, this article proposes arbitration as the proper interpretation mechanism for non-proliferation agreements. It advocates the establishment of a 'Nuclear Arbitration Centre' as an independent branch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and recommends the gradual introduction of arbitration clauses into the texts of non-proliferation agreements. Section I begins with a discussion of international agreements in general and the importance of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section II then discusses nuclear non-proliferation agreements and their lack of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section III examines seven case studies of alleged non-compliance with non-proliferation agreements in order to show that the main problem in many cases

  14. 78 FR 9768 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... pursuant to Section 3 of the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act. The Act provides for...; the transfer to or acquisition from Syria since January 1, 2005; or the transfer to or acquisition... Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act (Pub. L. 109-353) shall apply to the following foreign...

  15. 76 FR 30986 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation; Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ..., North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act. The Act provides for penalties on entities and individuals... from Syria since January 1, 2005, or the transfer to or acquisition from North Korea since January 1.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to Sections 2 and 3 of the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation...

  16. Critical time for nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Every five years since the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons came into force in 1970 the parties have convened to discuss how well the agreement is achieving its purpose. This month signatories will gather in Geneva for the third time, at what will probably prove to be the most crucial meeting in the series. It is already clear that an overwhelming majority of the nonnuclear nations believe the nuclear powers, and in particular the US and the USSR, have not made serious efforts to achieve arms-control agreements or reduce the size of their strategic forces and have thus failed to hold up their end of the bargain. Indeed, this conference is almost certain to be the first one confronted with a total absence of progress on nuclear arms control since the preceding review. The continued credibility - even the viability - of the treaty is therefore put in question. The historical background of the NPT is reviewed and the probable positions of the western and eastern allies are discussed

  17. Continuing training program in radiation protection in biological research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation in biological research has many specific characteristics. A great variety of radioisotopic techniques involve unsealed radioactive sources, and their use not only carries a risk of irradiation, but also a significant risk of contamination. Moreover, a high proportion of researchers are in training and the labor mobility rate is therefore high. Furthermore, most newly incorporated personnel have little or no previous training in radiological protection, since most academic qualifications do not include training in this discipline. In a biological research center, in addition to personnel whose work is directly associated with the radioactive facility (scientific-technical personnel, operators, supervisors), there are also groups of support personnel - maintenance and instrumentation workers, cleaners, administrative personnel, etc. - who are associated with the radioactive facility indirectly. These workers are affected by the work in the radioactive facility to varying degrees, and they therefore also require information and training in radiological protection tailored to their level of interaction with the installation. The aim of this study was to design a specific training program in radiation protection to meet the different needs of all workers in a biological research center. This program aims to ensure compliance with the relevant national legislation and to minimize the possibility of radiological incidents and accidents in this kind of center. This study has involved contributions from six nationally and internationally recognized Spanish biological research centers that have active training programs in radiation protection, and the design of the program presented here has been informed by the teaching experience of the training staff involved. The training method is based on introductory and refresher courses for personnel in direct contact with the radioactive facility and also for indirectly associated personnel. The

  18. Research program on the biological effects of oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A national research program on the biological effects of oil pollution (FOBO) was initiated by the Norwegian Ministry of Environment in October 1983 in the light of the increasing oil exploration and production activity in the North Sea and northern Norwegian waters. Ambitions were high and five main fields of research were suggested: Seabirds, fish (incl. salmon), marine mammals, the littoral zone and plankton. However, due to the lack of interest on the part of other potential financers, e.g. the Ministry of Fisheries and the oil companies, to participate, the four-year programme had to be limited to the following three topics: Seabirds around bruding colonies and at sea; Higher plants along the shoreline; The littoral zone. The program ran from the autumn of 1985 to the end of 1989 and this report summarizes the main results and conclusions of each project. 95 refs., 52 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Biological studies of the US Subseabed Disposal Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) of the US is assessing the feasibility of emplacing high level radioactive wastes (HLW) within deep-sea sediments and is developing the means for assessing the feasibility of the disposal practices of other nations. This paper discusses the role and status of biological research in the SDP. Studies of the disposal methods and of the conceived barriers (canister, waste form and sediment) suggest that biological knowledge will be principally needed to address the impact of accidental releases of radionuclides. Current experimental work is focusing on the deep-sea ecosystem to determine: (1) the structure of benthic communities, including their microbial component; (2) the faunal composition of deep midwater nekton; (3) the biology of deep-sea amphipods; (4) benthic community metabolism; (5) the rates of bacterial processes; (6) the metabolism of deep-sea animals, and (7) the radiation sensitivity of deep-sea organisms. A multicompartment model is being developed to assess quantitatively the impact (on the environment and on man) of releases of radionuclides into the sea

  20. Continuing training program in radiation protection in biological research centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    specific training program in radiation protection to meet the different needs of all workers in a biological research center. This program aims to ensure compliance with the relevant national legislation and to minimize the possibility of radiological incidents and accidents in this kind of center. This study has involved contributions from six nationally and internationally recognized Spanish biological research centers that have active training programs in radiation protection, and the design of the program presented here has been informed by the teaching experience of the training staff involved. The training method is based on introductory and refresher courses for personnel in direct contact with the radioactive facility and also for indirectly associated personnel. The courses will include guideline manuals (print or electronic), training through seminars or online materials, and also personnel evaluation, visits to the radioactive facility or practical training as required. The introductory courses are intended for newly incorporated personnel. The refresher courses are fundamentally designed to accommodate possible changes to national legal regulations, working conditions or the in-house radiological protection controls. Maintenance and instrumentation workers, cleaners, administrative personnel, etc. who are associated with the radioactive facility indirectly. These workers are affected by the work in the radioactive facility to varying degrees, and they therefore also require information and training in radiological protection tailored to their level of interaction with the installation. The aim of this study was to design a specific training program in radiation protection to meet the different needs of all workers in a biological research center. This program aims to ensure compliance with the relevant national legislation and to minimize the possibility of radiological incidents and accidents in this kind of center. This study has involved contributions from

  1. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. First quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G; Alonzo, G M; Sanford, N M [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This first quarter issue for 1995 highlights the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The SBIR program is managed by the DOE`s Basic Energy Sciences program within the Office of Energy Research. Each year, the SBIR program solicits research ideas of interest to the DOE. Articles contained in this issue include: The Small Business Innovation Research Program supported by the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security; Automated cueing to man-made objects via multispectral image; Security systems get smart with advanced processing and thermal imaging; A breakthrough in cooling system technology; The APSTNG neutron probe; Lithium-doped fullerene neutron detector; Miniature GC-MS for on-site chemical analysis; and Winner of Sandia President`s Quality Award.

  2. A sustainable WMD nonprolferation strategy for East Africa: Connecting the WMD nonproliferation agenda with local border security needs to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay, Brian; Bergenas, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last 60 years, the international community built a weapons of mass destruction (WMD) nonproliferation regime aimed at preventing the spread of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and the Conventions on Chemical and Biological Weapons are key pillars of that regime. More recent additions include such measures as United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 and the Proliferation Security Initiative.

  3. Using hybrid concurrent constraint programming to model dynamic biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bockmayr, Alexander; Courtois, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    Systems biology is a new area in biology that aims at achieving a systems-level understanding of biological systems. While current genome projects provide a huge amount of data on genes or proteins, lots of research is still necessary to understand how the different parts of a biological system interact in order to perform complex biological functions. Computational models that help to analyze, explain or predict the behavior of biological systems play a crucial role in systems biology. The g...

  4. Support of the IMA summer program molecular biology. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, A.

    1995-08-01

    The revolutionary progress in molecular biology within the last 30 years opens the way to full understanding of the molecular structures and mechanisms of living organisms. The mathematical sciences accompany and support much of the progress achieved by experiment and computation, as well as provide insight into geometric and topological properties of biomolecular structure and processes. The 4 week program at the IMA brought together biologists and mathematicians leading researchers, postdocs, and graduate students. It focused on genetic mapping and DNA sequencing, followed by biomolecular structure and dynamics. High-resolution linkage maps of genetic marker were discussed extensively in relation to the human genome project. The next level of DNA mapping is physical mapping, consisting of overlapping clones spanning the genome. These maps are extremely useful for genetic analysis. They provide the material for less redundant sequencing and for detailed searches for a gene among other things. This topic was also extensively studied by the participants. From there, the program moved to consider protein structure and dynamics; this is a broad field with a large array of interesting topics. It is of key importance in answering basic scientific questions about the nature of all living organisms, and has practical biomedical applications. The major subareas of structure prediction and classification, techniques and heuristics for the simulation of protein folding, and molecular dynamics provide a rich problem domain where mathematics can be helpful in analysis, modeling, and simulation. One of the important problems in molecular biology is the three-dimensional structure of proteins, DNA and RNA in the cell, and the relationship between structure and function. The program helped increased the understanding of the topology of cellular DNA, RNA and proteins and the various life-sustaining mechanisms used by the cell which modify this molecular topology.

  5. Israel's position on non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Israel maintained that the complex international system and worldwide political tension created a situation in which comprehensive plans of disarmament could not produce any positive result. The deadlock in the field of general and complete disarmament has brought Israel to the realization that one possible way to alleviate the stalemate could be progress by stages through partial measures of disarmament. Israel's position on non-proliferation indicates that the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free-zone (NWFZ), as it relates to the Middle-East, could serve as a credible alternative to the unilateral adherence to the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT) and an effective measure of non-proliferation in the region. (Author)

  6. The factors that influence nuclear nonproliferation credibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most legitimate nuclear activities worldwide that are intended for peaceful purposes are currently conducted within the international nonproliferation regime, established in 1970 on the basis of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). This regime was augmented by several consecutive treaties that arose as a result of various world events, rendering it significantly more stringent. The methodology consists of three steps: (1) structuring a criteria-tree that incorporates all the criteria and sub-criteria that influence credibility formation and demonstrates the relationships between the criteria and sub-criteria, (2) defining the weight coefficients of each criteria through pairwise comparisons of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), and (3) assigning numerical scores to a state under each criterion and combining them with weight coefficients in order to provide an overall assessment of the state. Employing the proposed methodology, the paper proceeds to assess the current level of unclear nonproliferation credibility that South Korea has reached

  7. The Asian countries and the non-proliferation treaty prorogation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the non-proliferation treaty prorogation of Asia. The position of the asian countries under the old non-proliferation treaty is given. It includes the 1968 non-proliferation treaty signatories, the calling in question again and the criticisms revealed by the asian countries. The positions and the open forecasts expressed on the non-proliferation treaty prorogation and the article on the elimination of the nuclear weapons are also given. (O.L.)

  8. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  9. Bilateral cooperation in the field of nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is noted, than key role in organization of international assesment in the field of nuclear non-proliferation in Kazakhstan played bilateral agreements between Kazakhstan and USA in the framework of 'Cooperative Threat Reduction' (CTR) program initiated by US Senators - S.Nann and R.Lugar. Conversion projects in the framework of CTR program were fulfilled (total project sum - $154,328,000). Nann-Lugar program in Kazakhstan achieved it's own purpose of total nuclear weapons liquidation. But now there are number a humanitarian problems (population health rehabilitation and contaminated areas re cultivation) which should be solved. Now Kazakhstan can not solving of these problems because lack of means. Authors note, that it is necessary international support similar to Nann-Lugar program initiative for solving of these urgent tasks

  10. U.S.-China commercial nuclear commerce: Nonproliferation and trade issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report concludes that the United States should not be denied access to the Chinese nuclear energy program. To the contrary, the report finds that--provided China meets the requisite nonproliferation criteria--it is strongly in the US national interest to engage in peaceful nuclear, cooperation with China, from security, environmental, safety, and economic perspectives

  11. Arms control and nonproliferation technologies: The non-proliferation experiment. First quarter 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G.; Stull, S.; Talaber, C. [eds.

    1994-05-01

    In this issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies we present the initial findings of the recent Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE), conducted by the Department of Energy at the Nevada Test Site. Through an introduction and pictorial walk-through, Marv Denny and Jay Zucca of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory describe the overall experiment. This is followed by scientific and technical abstracts of the complex suite of experiments and analyses, which were presented at the Symposium on Non-Proliferation Experiment Results and Implications for Test Ban Treaties, April 19--21, 1994. Questions regarding the ongoing analysis and conclusions from the NPE should be directed to Leslie Casey in the Office of Research and Development within the Office of Nonproliferation and National Security of DOE. Her phone number is 202-586-2151.

  12. Non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fissionable materials are common to all nuclear weapons and controls on the production, storage, processing and use of fissionable materials provides one means to address non-proliferation and disarmament. In this article, the relevance of such controls is examined and the current situation and future prospects are assessed. (authors)

  13. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements

  14. Strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the nuclear non-proliferation regime has enjoyed considerable success, today the regime has never been under greater threat. Three states have challenged the objectives of the NPT, and there is a technology challenge - the spread of centrifuge enrichment technology and know-how. A major issue confronting the international community is, how to deal with a determined proliferator? Despite this gloomy scenario, however, the non-proliferation regime has considerable strengths - many of which can be developed further. The regime comprises complex interacting and mutually reinforcing elements. At its centre is the NPT - with IAEA safeguards as the Treaty's verification mechanism. Important complementary elements include: restraint in the supply and the acquisition of sensitive technologies; multilateral regimes such as the CTBT and proposed FMCT; various regional and bilateral regimes; the range of security and arms control arrangements outside the nuclear area (including other WMD regimes); and the development of proliferation-resistant technologies. Especially important are political incentives and sanctions in support of non-proliferation objectives. This paper outlines some of the key issues facing the non-proliferation regime

  15. Developing a non-proliferation culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mr. J Joly, the President of the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), said that ESARDA has been actively involved in developing and promoting safeguards for more than 35 years and he is pleased to cooperate with the IAEA and the Institute of Nuclear Materials Management in the organization of this symposium. He proposes the development of a 'non-proliferation culture' as a key principle and defines a non-proliferation culture as the characteristics and attitudes of organizations and individuals that: (i) relate to the protection against the diversion and theft of nuclear material and the provision of information about research and development related to the nuclear fuel cycle; and (ii) receive the attention warranted by their significance. According to him the non-proliferation culture has three universal features: (i) policy commitments at the State level; (ii) the organizational framework and commitments; and (iii) the attitudes and behaviour of the staff members of these organizations. These aspects should be considered as a whole, and they should demonstrate transparency with respect to States' exclusively peaceful nuclear activities and contribute to establishing confidence among States and regions of the world. He concludes that a synergy should be developed between the cultures of nuclear non-proliferation, security and safety. Each of these cultures represents a key principle and, as such, can help to establish confidence among States and regions of the world. To the public, these cultures should represent professionalism, competence and responsibility by all parties involved

  16. 15 CFR 742.3 - Nuclear nonproliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nuclear nonproliferation. 742.3 Section 742.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS CONTROL POLICY-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.3...

  17. Non-proliferation and the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has presumably never been any doubt about the nuclear industry's fundamental support for international efforts to halt the horizontal spread of nuclear weapons. The statement of concern issued by the Uranium Institute before the Third Review Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in 1985 was striking testimony to that effect. The imminence of the Fourth Review Conference is nevertheless an occasion to reflect again on some of the reasons why the industry has no prudent choice but to involve itself in non-proliferation questions. The reasons stretch along a spectrum. At one end are general and powerful arguments for the nuclear industry to share with other industries in the broad expression of social responsibility. At the other end are narrowly specific connections between non-proliferation regulations on the processing, movement, storage and use of fissionable and other nuclear materials and the practical conduct of operations in and around the civil nuclear fuel cycle. In between the two come considerations not of how non-proliferation issues directly cause specific commercial effects but of how they help, indirectly and in the longer term, to shape the social environment and political climate in which nuclear power will flourish or wither. (author)

  18. Nuclear Society and non-proliferation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the USSR Nuclear Society in 1991 the special working group on the problems of nuclear weapons non-proliferation and nuclear materials control, uniting the experts of different types (nuclear physicists, lawyers, teachers), was created. This group became the mechanism of the practical Nuclear Society activity realization in this sphere. Three milestones of the innovative activity can be specified. First Milestone. In January 1992 the Central Nuclear Society Board (of the International Public Nuclear Society Association) published a special appeal to the First Leaders of all countries - former USSR republics. This address paid a special attention to the unity of the USSR power-industrial complex, and numerous problems arisen while separating this complex, including nuclear weapons non-proliferation problems, were indicated as well. Second Milestone. In 1992 and 1993 the Nuclear Society experts issued two selection 'Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control Problems' including reviewing basic papers. In addition, materials on non-proliferation and control are published regularly in the organs. Third Milestone.In 1993 - 1997 some special scientific and technical events (conferences, workshops, meetings) allowing to analyze the joint international projects and contracts outcomes, and establish new contacts between the specialists of NIS, Baltic states and others, have been hold

  19. Computer Language Choices in Arms Control and Nonproliferation Regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G K

    2005-06-10

    The U.S. and Russian Federation continue to make substantive progress in the arms control and nonproliferation transparency regimes. We are moving toward an implementation choice for creating radiation measurement systems that are transparent in both their design and in their implementation. In particular, the choice of a programming language to write software for such regimes can decrease or significantly increase the costs of authentication. In this paper, we compare procedural languages with object-oriented languages. In particular, we examine the C and C++ languages; we compare language features, code generation, implementation details, and executable size and demonstrate how these attributes aid or hinder authentication and backdoor threats. We show that programs in lower level, procedural languages are more easily authenticated than are object-oriented ones. Potential tools and methods for authentication are covered. Possible mitigations are suggested for using object-oriented programming languages.

  20. Quantum Biology at the Cellular Level - elements of the research program

    OpenAIRE

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (Quantum Biology at Cellular Level), a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. Key words. decoherence, macroscopic superpositions, basis-dependence, formal superposition, non-classical correlations,...

  1. Biological Monitoring Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.jr; Hill, W.R.; Kszos, L.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1998-10-15

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. As a condition of the permit, a Biologicai Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek; EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Lear et al. 1989). A second objective of the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from the implementation of a water pollution control program designed to eliminate direct discharges of wastewaters to EFPC and to minimize the inadvertent release of pollutants to the environment. Because of the compiex nature of the discharges to EFPC and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the discharges, a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed. A new permit was issued to the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective on July 1, 1995. Biological monitoring continues to be required under the new permit. The BMAP consists of four major tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Plant discharges on the aquatic integrity of EFPC, These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) biological indicator studies, (3) bioaccumuiation studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the periphyton, benthic macro invertebrate, and fish communities. Monitoring is currently being conducted at five sites, although sites maybe excluded and/or others added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) concentration of mercury in the adjacent floodplain, (5) appropriate habitat distribution, and (6

  2. The future of nuclear non-proliferation in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear proliferation in South Asia is currently one of the hot topics in world politics. The concern of the international community, and especially the USA, over this issue is coupled with the fear of nuclear conflict between India and Pakistan. As a result, Washington has been using its 'stick and carrot' policy to persuade the two countries involved not to develop their nuclear programs for military purposes. However both countries have not only continued to develop their nuclear ambitions, but seem to have achieved vertical nuclear proliferation. This paper examines the future non-proliferation in the South Asian region in the 1990s. This will be achieved by looking at the following: the development of the nuclear capabilities of both India and Pakistan; how these programs have been developed; the reasons for acquiring the capability for non-conventional defence; the real fear in terms of nuclear proliferation in the region; the possible options for dealing with nuclear proliferation in South Asia

  3. Systems resilience: a new analytical framework for nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the concept of systems resilience as a new framework for thinking about the future of nonproliferation. Resilience refers to the ability of a system to maintain its vital functions in the face of continuous and unpredictable change. The nonproliferation regime can be viewed as a complex system, and key themes from the literature on systems resilience can be applied to the nonproliferation system. Most existing nonproliferation strategies are aimed at stability rather than resilience, and the current nonproliferation system may be over-constrained by the cumulative evolution of strategies, increasing its vulnerability to collapse. The resilience of the nonproliferation system can be enhanced by diversifying nonproliferation strategies to include general international capabilities to respond to proliferation and focusing more attention on reducing the motivation to acquire nuclear weapons in the first place. Ideas for future research, include understanding unintended consequences and feedbacks among nonproliferation strategies, developing methodologies for measuring the resilience of the nonproliferation system, and accounting for interactions of the nonproliferation system with other systems on larger and smaller scales.

  4. Systems resilience : a new analytical framework for nuclear nonproliferation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, Arian Leigh

    2011-12-01

    This paper introduces the concept of systems resilience as a new framework for thinking about the future of nonproliferation. Resilience refers to the ability of a system to maintain its vital functions in the face of continuous and unpredictable change. The nonproliferation regime can be viewed as a complex system, and key themes from the literature on systems resilience can be applied to the nonproliferation system. Most existing nonproliferation strategies are aimed at stability rather than resilience, and the current nonproliferation system may be over-constrained by the cumulative evolution of strategies, increasing its vulnerability to collapse. The resilience of the nonproliferation system can be enhanced by diversifying nonproliferation strategies to include general international capabilities to respond to proliferation and focusing more attention on reducing the motivation to acquire nuclear weapons in the first place. Ideas for future research, include understanding unintended consequences and feedbacks among nonproliferation strategies, developing methodologies for measuring the resilience of the nonproliferation system, and accounting for interactions of the nonproliferation system with other systems on larger and smaller scales.

  5. Implementation and Assessment of a Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics Undergraduate Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Daphne Q. -D.; Higgs, David C.; Statham, Anne; Schleiter, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Parkside has developed and implemented an innovative, multidisciplinary undergraduate curriculum in Molecular Biology and Bioinformatics (MBB). The objective of the MBB program is to give students a hands-on facility with molecular biology theories and laboratory techniques, an…

  6. Balancing non-proliferation and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: energy security problems (forecasting energy needs and supplies); nuclear energy and non-proliferation (plutonium production and fuel reprocessing); U.S. nuclear energy strategy (deferring commercialization of plutonium, International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE)); the uranium issue (world resources and supplies of uranium); new technology; uranium and the role of plutonium; prospects for stability after INFCE. (U.K.)

  7. Solutions for nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present the solution of problems associated with improvement of accounting systems, physical protection of nuclear materials on Siberian Group of Chemical Enterprises that is a good example of specific steps undertaking to ensure global nuclear non-proliferation. Upgrades to security systems, implemented with the assistance of USA specialists, was aimed at ensuring practical protection of actual nuclear materials at a large industrial complex

  8. International Biological Engagement Programs Facilitate Newcastle Disease Epidemiological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patti J; Dimitrov, Kiril M; Williams-Coplin, Dawn; Peterson, Melanie P; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Swayne, David E; Suarez, David L; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-01-01

    Infections of poultry species with virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND), one of the most economically significant and devastating diseases for poultry producers worldwide. Biological engagement programs between the Southeast Poultry Research Laboratory (SEPRL) of the United States Department of Agriculture and laboratories from Russia, Pakistan, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and Indonesia collectively have produced a better understanding of the genetic diversity and evolution of the viruses responsible for ND, which is crucial for the control of the disease. The data from Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine identified possible migratory routes for birds that may carry both virulent NDV (vNDV) and NDV of low virulence into Europe. In addition, related NDV strains were isolated from wild birds in Ukraine and Nigeria, and from birds in continental USA, Alaska, Russia, and Japan, identifying wild birds as a possible mechanism of intercontinental spread of NDV of low virulence. More recently, the detection of new sub-genotypes of vNDV suggests that a new, fifth, panzootic of ND has already originated in Southeast Asia, extended to the Middle East, and is now entering into Eastern Europe. Despite expected challenges when multiple independent laboratories interact, many scientists from the collaborating countries have successfully been trained by SEPRL on molecular diagnostics, best laboratory practices, and critical biosecurity protocols, providing our partners the capacity to further train other employes and to identify locally the viruses that cause this OIE listed disease. These and other collaborations with partners in Mexico, Bulgaria, Israel, and Tanzania have allowed SEPRL scientists to engage in field studies, to elucidate more aspects of ND epidemiology in endemic countries, and to understand the challenges that the scientists and field veterinarians in these countries face on a daily basis. Finally, new viral characterization tools

  9. Nuclear non-proliferation: failures and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to examine the evolution of combined political and technical attempts to achieve worldwide acceptance of a commitment to non-proliferation, to note failures to date, and to identify essential factors to be satisfied if greater and necessary success is to be achieved in the immediate future. For this it is necessary to separate the realism and unrealism so often involved in discussing the concept of non-proliferation, as defined above, particularly if treated as a moral principle rather than as part of a general security issue reflecting shifts in regional and global stability. The political nature of the non-proliferation problem is underlined by the fact that whereas five nuclear weapon states are currently accepted, any threatened increase in that number is discouraged by every possible peaceful means. This fact combines political acceptance of an existing international situation with a belief that any addition to the present number must lead to international instability. Success in preventing additions may be more readily achieved through political understanding and perhaps some compromises, in particular cases, rather than through seeking a universal solution to a generalized problem

  10. The non-proliferation role of the IAEA under the nuclear non-proliferation treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twenty-fifth anniversary of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons ('NPT' or 'Treaty') is rapidly approaching, prompting a review of its operation, and of the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency ('IAEA' or 'Agency') in applying safeguards with a view to verifying compliance by States Parties with the non-proliferation undertakings of the Treaty. Some of the most significant challenges to the NPT, and to IAEA safeguards, have presented themselves in the four years since the last NPT Review Conference in 1990. The author will describe in general the IAEA's NPT-related safeguards activities as carried out over the past twenty-five years, including the on-going efforts to strengthen the safeguards system, and cast a forward look toward possible future tasks of the IAEA in connection with the international non-proliferation regime

  11. The new role of non-proliferation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-proliferation and nuclear safeguards are intimately connected with the peaceful development and use of nuclear power. The contractual obligation to forgo any misuse aimed at the construction of atom boms has been, and is, an important basis of all activities in the nuclear field. For the Federal Republic of Germany and the other participating states, subdivided into nuclear weapon states and non-nuclear-weapon states, the 1954 Brussels Treaty, which contains a fundamental clause waiving the production of nuclear weapons, the establishment of the European Atomic Energy Community, EURATOM, within the framework of the 1957 Treaties of Rome, and the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (Non-proliferation Treaty) within the framework of IAEA are the underlying basic legal instruments. These treaties, and the extended agreements based on them, operated on the basis of the 'old' system of surveillance of fissile material (nuclear safeguards). Both the inspection effort to be coped with by IAEA, which has kept rising steadily since the eighties and for which no additional budget funds were made available, and the violation by Iraq of the treaty as corroborated by a UN inspection team discovering a program for the production of weapons of mass destruction, boosted efforts in the early nineties to revise the existing system of treaties and controls. The International Atomic Energy Agency, among other measures, decided to improve nuclear safeguards by introducing immediate measures and optimization programs and upgrading inspection possibilities by a new model agreement. The model protocol, INFCIRC/153, adopted by the Board of Governors in September 1997 among other things serves to supplement the existing system of verification of the correctness of information received by another system verifying the completeness of such information. It incorporates an extended duty to supply information and extended rights of access. This includes activities not

  12. How we think about peace and security. The ABCs of initiatives for disarmament and non-proliferation education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Education and training are among the most important but underutilized tools for promoting disarmament and non-proliferation. Although few national governments or international organizations have invested significantly in such training programs, there is a growing recognition among States of the need to rectify this situation. This positive development is reflected in the broad support for recommendations of a UN study on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation Education and in related initiatives within the review process of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). In view of the forthcoming 2005 NPT Review Conference, it is useful to take stock of the implementation of the UN study's recommendations. In particular, it is important to observe the progress that has been made within the context of the NPT review process, as well as the obstacles that must be overcome if the full potential for disarmament and non-proliferation education is to be realized. Resources on disarmament and non-proliferation education are increasingly available on the Internet. The UN Department for Disarmament Affairs has launched new features on its web site that include links to academic institutes, governmental centers, NGOs and other bodies engaged in educational efforts. As part of its mission to combat the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) by training the next generation of nonproliferation specialists and raising global public awareness on WMD issues, the Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) has developed a series of tutorials for non-proliferation and disarmament education. Among these tutorials, the NPT Tutorial has been designed to educate and provide useful material about the treaty through interactive text and enriched multimedia segments, including timelines, maps, and numerous links to relevant resources. Among other resources are teaching guides developed by the Monterey Institute's Center for Nonproliferation Studies through its Critical Issues Forum (CIF). More

  13. Sharing knowledge, shaping Europe US technological collaboration and nonproliferation

    CERN Document Server

    Krige, John

    2016-01-01

    In the 1950s and the 1960s, U.S. administrations were determined to prevent Western European countries from developing independent national nuclear weapons programs. To do so, the United States attempted to use its technological pre-eminence as a tool of “soft power” to steer Western European technological choices toward the peaceful uses of the atom and of space, encouraging options that fostered collaboration, promoted nonproliferation, and defused challenges to U.S. technological superiority. In Sharing Knowledge, Shaping Europe, John Krige describes these efforts and the varying degrees of success they achieved. Krige explains that the pursuit of scientific and technological leadership, galvanized by America’s Cold War competition with the Soviet Union, was also used for techno-political collaboration with major allies. He examines a series of multinational arrangements involving shared technological platforms and aimed at curbing nuclear proliferation, and he describes the roles of the Department ...

  14. Atoms for peace and the nonproliferation treaty: unintended consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streeper, Charles Blamires [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In April 2009, President Obama revived nonproliferation and arms control efforts with a speech calling for the worldwide abolition of nuclear weapons. His speech correctly acknowledged the threat of nuclear terrorism and the vulnerabilities of the related unsecure nuclear materials. Unfortunately, the president did not mention and has not mentioned in any speech the threat posed by at-risk radiological materials. Nonproliferation efforts have a well documented history of focus on special nuclear materials (fissionable weapons usable materials or SNM), and other key materials (chemical and biological) and technologies for a Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD). Such intense focus on WMD related materials/technologies is essential for international safety and security and merit continued attention and funding. However, the perception that radioactive sealed sources (sources) are of less concern than WMD is unfortunate. These perceptions are based solely on the potentially enormous and tragic consequences associated with their deliberate or accidental misuse and proliferation concerns. However, there is a documented history of overemphasis on the nuclear threat at the expense of ignoring the far more likely and also devastating chemical and biological threats. The radiological threat should not be minimized or excluded from policy discussions and decisions on these far ranging scopes of threat to the international community. Sources have a long history of use; and a wider distribution worldwide than fissile materials. Pair this with their broad ranges in isotopes/activities along with scant national and international attention and mechanisms for their safe and secure management and it is not difficult to envision a deadly threat. Arguments that minimize or divert attention away from sources may have the effect of distracting necessary policy attention on preventing/mitigating a radiological dispersal event. The terrorist attacks on 9/11 should be a clear reminder of the

  15. Programming biological models in Python using PySB

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Carlos Francisco; Muhlich, Jeremy; Bachman, John Ata; Sorger, Peter Karl

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical equations are fundamental to modeling biological networks, but as networks get large and revisions frequent, it becomes difficult to manage equations directly or to combine previously developed models. Multiple simultaneous efforts to create graphical standards, rule-based languages, and integrated software workbenches aim to simplify biological modeling but none fully meets the need for transparent, extensible, and reusable models. In this paper we describe PySB, an approach in ...

  16. PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR BIOLOGI SEL PADA PROGRAM STUDI PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI UIN ALAUDDIN MAKASSAR

    OpenAIRE

    Muriati, St

    2015-01-01

    Learning in UIN Alauddin is still limited knowledge to students, while, one mission to improve the quality of educators Biology in terms of belief, moral and scientific attitudes have not been implemented. This is caused by a lack of learning resources that connects Biology Science and its relation to scientific Qur'an. Cell Biology as subjects that reveal about the phenomenon of the smallest unit of life, it can be studied with scientific Qur'an. Therefore, it is necessary to develop teachin...

  17. Current research and service activities of AFRRI's biological dosimetry program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The long-range goal of the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute's (AFRRI) Biological Dosimetry Team is to develop validated radiation bio dosimeters. Our objectives are (1) to establish definitive clinical bioassays for rapid, high-throughput radiation exposure analyses and (2) to develop complimentary triage-type radiation exposure assessment bioassays to support medical treatment decisions. The experimental approach involves two steps. The first is to establish a reference laboratory that uses conventional bioassays for definitive analyses of biological samples. The second step is to develop a validated and forward deployable biological dosimetry capability for rapid radiation dose assessment with an emphasis on the use of molecular biology-based diagnostic platforms. The conventional lymphocyte metaphase-spread dicentric assay was established at AFRRI in accordance with international harmonized protocols and applied to estimate radiation exposure doses in several overexposure accidents. Currently, novel interphase cell-based cytological bioassay that detects cells with chromosomal type aberrations and radiation responsive molecular bio markers (i.e., gene expression, protein) are being validated and optimized for rapid radiation exposure assessment applications. In addition the Biological Assessment Tool (BAT), a radiation casualty management software application, was developed. Available at AFRRI's website (www.afrri.usuhs.mil), BAT permits the recording and communication of relevant radiological and medical information for radiation accidents. These research and service efforts contribute to an improved diagnostic response for accidental overexposures and also have applications in other research fields including radiation therapy and toxicology

  18. Experience of Republic of Macedonia in Providing WMD Non-Proliferation Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Republic of Macedonia as a country in transition and as a country which does not posses WMD, has accepted to developed and implemented non-proliferation policy of WMD. First of all, we accepted the definition of WMD as used in international agreements, conventions and protocol and WMD includes nuclear, biological and toxin weapons, agent and precursors. WMD in wide sense includes all toxic chemical substances if they are used as means of attack or if they are the target of attack, all microorganisms and their product, all industrial facilities that use toxic chemicals in their process of production, transport and stockpile if they are a target of military or terrorist attack. For WMD non-proliferation projects to be valid, they must be on the level and carry the weight of international policy and doctrine and involve a most comprehensive sphere of the scientific and professional communities. This is only way to implement the projects in country such is Republic of Macedonia where the public opinion is that WMD are not real security problem because we neither possess nor seek to posses these kinds of weapons. Our WMD non-proliferation policy is tied to control of weapons, agents, precursors, technology and their transfer, market and possibility of use. Because of that we try to control know terrorist organization, groups and individuals. Terrorism caused special concern and attention, particularly when we talk about terrorism with NBC weapons and radiological, chemical and biological warfare agents. Scientific and technological progress led to fact that the instruments for performing terrorism (including WMD) can be produced or procured much easier than before. Rising industry which uses toxic chemicals and microorganisms in the production process created a lot of potential targets for terrorism actions in which they can use be as a target and an executive instrument. The new goal of contemporary treats is safety of life environment, which today includes

  19. Strengthening nonproliferation transparency and building regional cooperation in the Asia Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viet Nam is launching a comprehensive nuclear program, including nuclear infrastructure development, enhancement of capabilities on research, development and application of nuclear energy, especially, introduction of nuclear power into the country with the target that the first nuclear power plan will be put into commercial operation in 2020 with capacity of from 1,000 MW -2,000 MW and the total nuclear power capacity will be increased to 10,000 MW by the year 2030. Viet Nam attaches great importance to the nuclear nonproliferation in promoting the research, development and peaceful, safe, and secure uses of nuclear energy. From becoming a Member State of the IAEA in 1978, Viet Nam always fulfills its commitments and obligations in nonproliferation transparency and considers it as a factor ensuring the successful implementation of nuclear development program in Viet Nam. (author)

  20. Evolution and resilience of the nuclear nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the concept of systems resilience as a new framework for thinking about the future of the nonproliferation regime. Resilience refers to the ability of a system to maintain its vital functions in the face of continuous and unpredictable change. First, I make the case that the nonproliferation regime can be viewed as a complex system. Next, I discuss key themes from the literature on systems resilience and apply them to the nonproliferation system: the difference between resilience and stability; the need for evolution to maintain function; the importance of functional diversity; and the concept of the adaptive cycle. I show that most existing nonproliferation strategies are aimed at stability rather than resilience and that the current nonproliferation system may be over-constrained by the cumulative evolution of strategies. According to the literature on systems resilience, this increases its vulnerability to collapse. I argue that the resilience of the nonproliferation system can be enhanced by increasing international participation in setting the nonproliferation agenda, developing general international response capabilities, focusing on non-coercive approaches to decreasing demand, and applying systems thinking more rigorously to nonproliferation

  1. Evolution and resilience of the nuclear nonproliferation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, Arian L. [Senior Scientist, Retired, Sandia National Laboratories, 13013 Arroyo de Vista NE, Albuquerque, NM 87111 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This paper introduces the concept of systems resilience as a new framework for thinking about the future of the nonproliferation regime. Resilience refers to the ability of a system to maintain its vital functions in the face of continuous and unpredictable change. First, I make the case that the nonproliferation regime can be viewed as a complex system. Next, I discuss key themes from the literature on systems resilience and apply them to the nonproliferation system: the difference between resilience and stability; the need for evolution to maintain function; the importance of functional diversity; and the concept of the adaptive cycle. I show that most existing nonproliferation strategies are aimed at stability rather than resilience and that the current nonproliferation system may be over-constrained by the cumulative evolution of strategies. According to the literature on systems resilience, this increases its vulnerability to collapse. I argue that the resilience of the nonproliferation system can be enhanced by increasing international participation in setting the nonproliferation agenda, developing general international response capabilities, focusing on non-coercive approaches to decreasing demand, and applying systems thinking more rigorously to nonproliferation.

  2. Non-proliferation aspects of long term assurance of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meetings in this section deal with the non-proliferation aspects of long-term assurance of supply of the nuclear fuel cycle. A list of 12 fundamental questions concerning the observation and application of the non-proliferation regulations is followed by the comments made by representatives of 10 countries

  3. Twenty years of the Non-proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report assesses the achievements of the Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT) and discusses ways in which the non-proliferation regime could be strenghtened. It recommends a series of measures to be taken by the parties of the Treaty, both nuclear and non-nuclear weapons states, with a view to reinforcing the Treaty and achieving its universality. 198 refs

  4. Publications of the planetary biology program for 1975: A special bibliography. [on NASA programs and research projects on extraterrestrial life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, K. A. (Compiler); Young, R. S. (Compiler)

    1976-01-01

    The Planetary Biology Program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the first and only integrated program to methodically investigate the planetary events which may have been responsible for, or related to, the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the universe. Research supported by this program is divided into the seven areas listed below: (1) chemical evolution, (2) organic geochemistry, (3) life detection, (4) biological adaptation, (5) bioinstrumentation, (6) planetary environments, and (7) origin of life. The arrangement of references in this bibliography follows the division of research described above. Articles are listed alphabetically by author under the research area with which they are most closely related. Only those publications which resulted from research supported by the Planetary Biology Program and which bear a 1975 publication date have been included. Abstracts and theses are not included because of the preliminary and abbreviated nature of the former and the frequent difficulty of obtaining the latter.

  5. Environmental Biology Programs at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Lowell L.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the programs of the Department of Ecology, Ethology, and Evolution at the University of Illinois (Urbana-Champaign). Focuses on the graduate degrees offered in environmental biology. Lists research interests and courses in plant biology, entomology, forestry, civil engineering, and landscape architecture. (TW)

  6. Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Northeast Cooperative Research Study Fleet (SF) Program partners with a subset of commercial fishermen to collect high quality, high resolution, haul by haul...

  7. Future technology challenges in non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation detection technologies are an important tool in the prevention of proliferation. A variety of new developments have enabled enhanced performance in terms of energy resolution, spatial resolution, predictive modeling and simulation, active interrogation, and ease of operation and deployment in the field. For example, various gamma ray imaging approaches are being explored to combine spatial resolution with background suppression in order to enhance sensitivity at reasonable standoff distances and acquisition times. New materials and approaches are being developed in order to provide adequate energy resolution in field use without the necessity for liquid nitrogen. Finally, different detectors combined into distributed networks offer promise for detection and tracking of radioactive materials. As the world moves into the 21st century, the possibility of greater reliance on nuclear energy will impose additional technical requirements to prevent proliferation. In addition to proliferation resistant reactors, a careful examination of the various possible fuel cycles from cradle to grave will provide additional technical and nonproliferation challenges in the areas of conversion, enrichment, transportation, recycling and waste disposal. Radiation detection technology and information management have a prominent role in any future global regime for nonproliferation beyond the current Advanced Protocol. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. (author)

  8. Complexity, Post-genomic Biology and Gene Expression Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rohan B. H.; Luo, Oscar Junhong

    Gene expression represents the fundamental phenomenon by which information encoded in a genome is utilised for the overall biological objectives of the organism. Understanding this level of information transfer is therefore essential for dissecting the mechanistic basis of form and function of organisms. We survey recent developments in the methodology of the life sciences that is relevant for understanding the organisation and function of the genome and review our current understanding of the regulation of gene expression, and finally, outline some new approaches that may be useful in understanding the organisation of gene regulatory systems.

  9. An Evaluation of a Biological Slide-Tutorial Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Gordon L.

    Described is an auto-tutorial slide program for zoology students. A self-paced system was devised for observing the subject matter covered in the twelve study units of a zoology course. The post-testing evaluation revealed that students with lower grade point averages achieved scores comparable with students of higher grade point averages.…

  10. Biological assessment for the effluent reduction program, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, S.P.

    1996-08-01

    This report describes the biological assessment for the effluent recution program proposed to occur within the boundaries of Los Alamos National Laboratory. Potential effects on wetland plants and on threatened and endangered species are discussed, along with a detailed description of the individual outfalls resulting from the effluent reduction program.

  11. Report on the 8. ESARDA course on nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 8. ESARDA course on nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation took place in Uppsala, Sweden, on September 12-16, 2011. 44 participants from 15 countries followed the one week long course, comprising four days of lectures, one group exercise and one full day visit to the Swedish final repository (SFR) for short-lived radioactive waste. The lectures covered political and technical aspects related to the general background of safeguards legislation and treaties, the nuclear fuel cycle, destructive and non-destructive safeguards techniques, physical protection, verification technologies such as nuclear material accountancy and control, safeguards inspections, remote monitoring, containment and surveillance, export control, illicit trafficking and nuclear forensics. The course also contained a group exercise, whereby the participants learnt about different nonproliferation treaties on/or related to Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC), the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) as well as the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). The task of the group exercise was to discuss and compare the treaties with respect to obligations and rights of state parties, verification of compliance, membership, terrorism, similarities/differences, successes and failures. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation

  12. Kangaroo – A pattern-matching program for biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betel Doron

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologists are often interested in performing a simple database search to identify proteins or genes that contain a well-defined sequence pattern. Many databases do not provide straightforward or readily available query tools to perform simple searches, such as identifying transcription binding sites, protein motifs, or repetitive DNA sequences. However, in many cases simple pattern-matching searches can reveal a wealth of information. We present in this paper a regular expression pattern-matching tool that was used to identify short repetitive DNA sequences in human coding regions for the purpose of identifying potential mutation sites in mismatch repair deficient cells. Results Kangaroo is a web-based regular expression pattern-matching program that can search for patterns in DNA, protein, or coding region sequences in ten different organisms. The program is implemented to facilitate a wide range of queries with no restriction on the length or complexity of the query expression. The program is accessible on the web at http://bioinfo.mshri.on.ca/kangaroo/ and the source code is freely distributed at http://sourceforge.net/projects/slritools/. Conclusion A low-level simple pattern-matching application can prove to be a useful tool in many research settings. For example, Kangaroo was used to identify potential genetic targets in a human colorectal cancer variant that is characterized by a high frequency of mutations in coding regions containing mononucleotide repeats.

  13. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty after the review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In comparison to the last Review Conference five years ago that resulted in an irresolvable dispute, the NPT Review Conference in May 2010 was quite successful. But as measured by the requirements for an effective nuclear disarmament the success was not more than decent. Harald Mueller participated at the conference as an observer and witnessed the tedious struggle for a conjoint final declaration from a close range. In HSFK Report No. 3/2010 ''Der nukleare Nichtverbreitungsvertrag nach der Ueberpruefung'' (''The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty after the Review''), Harald Mueller presents the results of the negotiations and encourages the German government to form networks with moderate non-aligned states and states that are interested in disarmament within the Western group in order to develop common positions for the strengthening of nuclear disarmament outside EU and NATO.

  14. Nuclear Deterrence in the Age of Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, J

    2009-01-21

    The fallacy of zero nuclear weapons, even as a virtual goal, is discussed. Because the complete abolition of nuclear weapons is not verifiable, nuclear weapons will always play a role in the calculus of assure, dissuade, deter and defeat (ADDD). However, the relative contribution of nuclear weapons to international security has diminished. To reconstitute the Cold War nuclear capability, with respect to both the nuclear weapons capability and their associated delivery systems, is fiscally daunting and not warranted due to competing budgetary pressures and their relative contribution to international security and nonproliferation. A proposed pathway to a sustainable nuclear weapons capability end-state is suggested which provides enough ADDD; a Dyad composed of fewer delivery and weapon systems, with trickle production at the National Laboratories and private sector to maintain capability and guard against technological surprise.

  15. Implementation and evaluation of a training program as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April eJohnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A training program for animal and human health professionals has been implemented in Azerbaijan through a joint agreement between the United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency and the Government of Azerbaijan. The training program is administered as part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program, and targets key employees in Azerbaijan’s disease surveillance system including physicians, veterinarians, epidemiologists, and laboratory personnel. Training is aimed at improving detection, diagnosis, and response to especially dangerous pathogens, although the techniques and methodologies can be applied to other pathogens and diseases of concern. Biosafety and biosecurity training is provided to all trainees within the program. Prior to 2014, a variety of international agencies and organizations provided training, which resulted in gaps related to lack of coordination of training materials and content. In 2014 a new training program was implemented in order to address those gaps. This paper provides an overview of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program training program in Azerbaijan, a description of how the program fits into existing national training infrastructure, and an evaluation of the new program’s effectiveness to date. Long-term sustainability of the program is also discussed.

  16. The Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000: Issues and Options since March 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion is based on a review of the Congressional Research Service (CRS) Report for the U.S. Congress, completed by Sharon Squassoni and Marcia Smith dated March 2, 2005. Though the CRS Report will not be updated for the U.S. Congress as stated in its own summary, the author thinks it is useful to review and update the information for the Global 2009 American and international nuclear society nonproliferation community from a policy review stand point. The original Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 was designed to prevent or punish the transfer of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology to Iran by other countries, but particularly by Russia to Iran by withholding or stopping payments to Russia from the U.S. for funding of the International Space Station (ISS) if such transfers were suspected or discovered. The Squassoni and Smith CRS report did an excellent job of providing the details and the impacts to NASA and the U.S. space program involvement in the ISS as a result of this Nonproliferation Act. The current relevance of connecting ISS funding to nonproliferation agreements since 2005 will be briefly discussed for this session. The discussion will next present the highlights, impacts, issues, and options as stated in the Squassoni and Smith report. Then the most significant events that occurred within Iran during 2005 (the presidential election of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad in June, his inauguration in August, and his speech at the United Nations in September) related to a proliferant state on the rise will be subsequently addressed. Relevant events in the following three years will be included. A brief analysis of the perceived successes or failures of the Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 will be attempted and contrasted to the impacts and effectiveness of the overall Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty and International Atomic Energy Agency Inspections in Iran. This will be done in light of openly published

  17. Development and current trends in the international nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA and its safeguards system is placed into a historical perspective. A personal perspective on the nonproliferation regime and on the Agency's role in it is then presented. This is done initially by discussing some of the landmark events in the history of the nonproliferation regime. Subsequently some of the history of arms control agreements and of the role of the IAEA are noted. Then political motivations of state and ways the Agency has an impact in the political nonproliferation sphere are addressed

  18. IAEA safeguards and non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry, R.J.S.

    1995-02-01

    An overview is given of efforts to contain the nuclear weapons proliferation during half a century of man-controlled nuclear fission. An initial policy of denial did not work, a following period of cooperation needed a gradual strengthening of international assurances on the peaceful character of the flourishing use of nuclear techniques for power generation and of other applications. The focus of the nuclear weapon proliferation concern changed from the highly developed states to developing states. The Non-Proliferation Treaty laid the basis for a unique system of voluntarily accepted international inspections to verify the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA got the task to implement this `Full Scope Safeguards` on all nuclear material and all nuclear activities in the non-nuclear weapon states. Thanks to the structure of the IAEA, in which both proponent and states with a critical attitude take part in the decision making process on the IAEA execution of its tasks, a balanced, and widely acceptable system emerged. International developments necessitated additional improvements of the non-proliferation system. The increase of strength of sub-national groups triggered international cooperation on physical protection, about a quarter of a century ago. More recently, it appeared that NPT states with assumed nuclear weapon ambitions operated in the margins between the interpretation of IAEA safeguards and the spirit and purpose of NPT. Improvements of the IAEA safeguards and a stronger cooperation between states, including the constraints which exporting states have imposed on nuclear supplies, strengthen the safeguards system. The important reductions in the two largest nuclear weapon arsenals lead, together with the delay in the fast breeder implementation, to large stockpiles of nuclear weapon usable materials. Also in this areas new internationally credible assurances have to be obtained, that these materials will never return to nuclear weapon applications.

  19. IAEA safeguards and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the efforts to contain the nuclear weapons proliferation during half a century of man-controlled nuclear fission. An initial policy of denial did not work, a following period of cooperation needed a gradual strengthening of international assurances on the exclusively peaceful character of the flourishing use of nuclear techniques for power generation and of other applications. The focus of the nuclear weapon proliferation concern changed from the highly developed states to developing states. The Non-Proliferation Treaty laid the basis for a unique system of voluntarily accepted international inspections to verify the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The IAEA got the task to implement this 'Full Scope Safeguards' on all nuclear material and all nuclear activities in the non-nuclear weapon states. Thanks to the structure of the IAEA, in which both proponent and states with a critical attitude take part in the decision making process on the IAEA execution of its tasks, a balanced, and widely acceptable system emerged. International developments necessitated additional improvements of the non-proliferation system. The increase of strength of sub-national groups triggered international cooperation on physical protection, about a quarter of a century ago. More recently, it appeared that NPT states with assumed nuclear weapon ambitions operated in the margins between the interpretation of IAEA safeguards and the spirit and purpose of NPT. Improvements of the IAEA safeguards and a stronger cooperation between states, including the constraints which exporting states have imposed on nuclear supplies, strengthen the safeguards system. The important reductions in the two largest nuclear weapon arsenals lead, together with the delay in the fast breeder implementation, to large stockpiles of nuclear weapon usable materials. Also in this areas new internationally credible assurances have to be obtained, that these materials will never return to nuclear

  20. Nonproliferation criteria for assessing civilian nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two trends are affecting the spread of nuclear weapons. One is the growing access to readily fissionable materials as a by-product of the spread of civilian nuclear technology. The second is the fact that many countries acquiring easier access also have an increased incentive to acquire nuclear explosives, or at least to shorten the lead time to them. Nonproliferation strategies might seek to influence the demand for nuclear explosives through improved alliance ties, regional security associations, and nuclear free zones, as well as the ease of access to explosives through agreement on increasing the difficulty of each access through changes in international agreements on technologies, or through a mix of such measures. The discussion focuses on a supply-oriented strategy, not because such a strategy by itself is likely to be optimal, but because it would be a significant component of a broad strategy, and it is the one that has been central to the nonproliferation efforts of the United States in the past several years. A supply-oriented strategy could have two components: 1. A set of incentives for choosing less dangerous nuclear systems instead of more dangerous ones (and in some cases the choosing of non-nuclear rather than nuclear technologies); 2. A set of political agreements restricting especially dangerous systems or components of systems. For such a strategy to have a prospect of being effective, it should encompass all the paths to a bomb from a legitimate safeguarded state. Specifically, it should include: 1. Paths starting from large plutonium reactors, including those labeled research reactors; 2. Isotope separation technologies; 3. Power-reactors-related paths, based on using either a. Material available at the front end, or b. Material available at the back end; and 4 Various possible future technologies, such as accelerator breeders or fusion-fission technology. Some illustrative cases are discussed

  1. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  2. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY AND MOLECULAR MEDICINE RESEARCH PROGRAM (LSBMM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, David S.

    2008-07-15

    The UCLA-DOE Institute of Genomics and Proteomics is an organized research unit of the University of California, sponsored by the Department of Energy through the mechanism of a Cooperative Agreement. Today the Institute consists of 10 Principal Investigators and 7 Associate Members, developing and applying technologies to promote the biological and environmental missions of the Department of Energy, and 5 Core Technology Centers to sustain this work. The focus is on understanding genomes, pathways and molecular machines in organisms of interest to DOE, with special emphasis on developing enabling technologies. Since it was founded in 1947, the UCLA-DOE Institute has adapted its mission to the research needs of DOE and its progenitor agencies as these research needs have changed. The Institute started as the AEC Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, directed by Stafford Warren, who later became the founding Dean of the UCLA School of Medicine. In this sense, the entire UCLA medical center grew out of the precursor of our Institute. In 1963, the mission of the Institute was expanded into environmental studies by Director Ray Lunt. I became the third director in 1993, and in close consultation with David Galas and John Wooley of DOE, shifted the mission of the Institute towards genomics and proteomics. Since 1993, the Principal Investigators and Core Technology Centers are entirely new, and the Institute has separated from its former division concerned with PET imaging. The UCLA-DOE Institute shares the space of Boyer Hall with the Molecular Biology Institute, and assumes responsibility for the operation of the main core facilities. Fig. 1 gives the organizational chart of the Institute. Some of the benefits to the public of research carried out at the UCLA-DOE Institute include the following: The development of publicly accessible, web-based databases, including the Database of Protein Interactions, and the ProLinks database of genomicly inferred protein function linkages

  3. ECOLOGICAL MONITORING AND COMPLIANCE PROGRAM CALENDAR YEAR 2005 REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA ECOLOGICAL SERVICES

    2006-03-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by Bechtel Nevada (BN) during the Calendar Year 2005. Program activities included: (1) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (2) desert tortoise compliance, (3) ecosystem mapping and data management, (4) sensitive and protected/regulated species and unique habitat monitoring, (5) habitat restoration monitoring, and (6) biological monitoring at the Non-Proliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  4. Inferring the Spatiotemporal DNA Replication Program from Noisy Biological Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechhoefer, John; Baker, Antoine

    2014-03-01

    We generalize a stochastic model of DNA replication to the case where replication-origin-initiation rates vary locally along the genome and with time. Using this generalized model, we address the inverse problem of inferring initiation rates from experimental data concerning replication in cell populations. Previous work based on curve fitting depended on arbitrarily chosen functional forms for the initiation rate, with free parameters that were constrained by the data. We introduce a model-free, non-parametric method of inference that is based on Gaussian process regression. The method replaces specific assumptions about the functional form of initiation rate with more general prior expectations about the smoothness of variation of this rate, along the genome and in time. Using this inference method, we show that we can recover with high precision simulated replication schemes with data that are typical of current experiments. The method of Gaussian process regression can be profitably applied to a wide range of physical and biological problems. Supported by NSERC (Canada).

  5. Eicosanoids: Exploiting Insect Immunity to Improve Biological Control Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Stanley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Insects, like all invertebrates, express robust innate, but not adaptive, immune reactions to infection and invasion. Insect immunity is usually resolved into three major components. The integument serves as a physical barrier to infections. Within the hemocoel, the circulating hemocytes are the temporal first line of defense, responsible for clearing the majority of infecting bacterial cells from circulation. Specific cellular defenses include phagocytosis, microaggregation of hemocytes with adhering bacteria, nodulation and encapsulation. Infections also stimulate the humoral component of immunity, which involves the induced expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides and activation of prophenoloxidase. These peptides appear in the hemolymph of challenged insects 6–12 hours after the challenge. Prostaglandins and other eicosanoids are crucial mediators of innate immune responses. Eicosanoid biosynthesis is stimulated by infection in insects. Inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthesis lethally renders experimental insects unable to clear bacterial infection from hemolymph. Eicosanoids mediate specific cell actions, including phagocytosis, microaggregation, nodulation, hemocyte migration, hemocyte spreading and the release of prophenoloxidase from oenocytoids. Some invaders have evolved mechanisms to suppress insect immunity; a few of them suppress immunity by targeting the first step in the eicosanoid biosynthesis pathways, the enzyme phospholipase A2. We proposed research designed to cripple insect immunity as a technology to improve biological control of insects. We used dsRNA to silence insect genes encoding phospholipase A2, and thereby inhibited the nodulation reaction to infection. The purpose of this article is to place our view of applying dsRNA technologies into the context of eicosanoid actions in insect immunity. The long-term significance of research in this area lies in developing new pest management

  6. Canada and international safeguards. Verifying nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) came into force in 1970 and now has about 140 signatory nations. By creating legal barriers against proliferation and by promoting an international non-proliferation ethic, the NPT has promoted international peace and security. A key ingredient has been the confidence generated through verification by IAEA safeguards. By the end of 1988 IAEA safeguards agreements had been concluded with about 100 countries, including Canada. Over 500 nuclear facilities worldwide are under safeguards or contain safeguarded nuclear material. The existence of this credible and effective safeguards system makes international trade in nuclear equipment and materials possible, monitoring the transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries as well as between industrial countries. Canada is committed to non-proliferation and IAEA safeguards. Canadian non-proliferation policy is among the strictest in the world, even though opportunities have been lost to sell Canadian technology abroad as a result

  7. Crisis and chance of non-proliferation policy - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1995 the parties of the Non-Proliferation Treaty will have to decide on the extension period of the treaty. Preliminary decisions on the fate of the treaty will be made in 1990. Today the non-proliferation regime is facing the dilemma of a number of inherently ambivalent options: The physical knowledge of all relevant nuclear processes has been proliferated, and knowledge cannot be called back. Non-proliferation is based on control and denial, but both are reflected as discriminatory. From an ecological point of view there can be argued for, as well as against the spread of further nuclear energy facilities. Promotion of export and control of export cannot be reconciled. The non-proliferation regime will not be given a new chance without additional confidence-building measures between South and North and without a comprehensive programme to alleviate the global economic, social and ecological crises. (orig.)

  8. Nuclear non-proliferation: Survey of some recent publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the last NPT Review Conference in 1980 and especially in the past two to three years, an increasing number of studies, publications, and books have appeared on nuclear non-proliferation. In this paper 14 books are reviewed

  9. Introduction of Physical Protection Training and Test Facility of International Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security Academy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security Academy (INSA) aims to provide practical education and training programs, raise internationally-recognized experts, and improve awareness about nuclear nonproliferation and security. INSA will not only carry out wide variety of training courses but conduct various tests and develop technology in the field of nuclear nonproliferation and security by utilizing its SETT (Nuclear Security Training and Test facility). SETT will enable relevant industries and academia to come to the facility and conduct their own tests such as performance tests of newly developed products and equipment. Throughout this paper, the details of SETT such as configuration, each sector's purpose and deployed equipment will be described and explained particularly on the external physical protection training and test facility, which is called SETT/TB-I. The final approval by the national assembly is the only procedure left for the ROK government to pass the bill on the revised nuclear security and safety law. The revised law reflects most of the strengthened contents of INFCIRC/225/Revision5. When the new law comes into force, many extra efforts should be put into nuclear security area, specifically in the field of physical protection both on education/test and systematic performance-based evaluation. As stated above, SETT/TB-I has four sectors and each sector has specified purpose which differs from each others. For now, SETT/TB-I is considered having enough features to characterize the INSA and make it unique from other CoEs

  10. Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology at Yale University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Diego; Noble, Dorottya; Pollard, Thomas; Mochrie, Simon; O'Hern, Corey; Regan, Lynne

    2014-03-01

    Quantitative, integrated approaches are necessary to solve biology's grand challenges. Yale's Integrated Graduate Program in Physical and Engineering Biology (IGPPEB) prepares students to excel at applying physics and engineering approaches, whilst also ensuring that they are sufficiently biologically sophisticated that they can readily identify and tackle cutting-edge problems. Students enter the program through a ``home'' department but also take a set of IGPPEB core courses with students from other departments. The IGPPEB curriculum is co-taught by faculty from a wide array of departments and motivates students to work together and learn from each other. The curriculum complements those of the home departments and includes primer courses to rapidly bring all students to a level where they ``speak each others language.'' The program is a member of the NSF's Physics of Living Systems: Student Research Network, which connects graduate students from different institutions that are engaged in research at the interface of physics and biology. Convergent research thrusts at Yale include Cellular Shape and Motion; Mechanical Force Generation and Sensing; Biomaterials and Bioinspired Design; Systems and Synthetic Biology; Modeling Biological Processes and Methods Development.

  11. North Korea threatens withdrawal from Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On March 12, 1993 North Korea announced its intention to be with draw from the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). The decision, which was made public in a letter from Foreign Minister Kim Yong Nam to the president of the UN Security Council, is widely viewed as having potentially serious implications for East Asia security and for the global non-proliferation regime. The IAEA response and the reaction from the USA are briefly discussed

  12. Report of a Workshop in Nuclear Forces and Nonproliferation held at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The workshop addressed evolving nuclear forces and their impacts on nonproliferation in the context of the new strategic environment, the Obama Administration's Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) Review and the 2010 Conference (RevCon) of the Parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). The issues discussed are at the heart of the debate on nuclear policy issues such asfuture nuclear weapons requirements and nonproliferation, but also the stockpile stewardship program and infrastructure modernization. The workshop discussions reflected the importance of the NPRfor defining the role of US nuclear forces in dealing with 21s1 century threats and providing guidance that will shape NNSA and DoD programs. They also highlighted its importancefor NPT diplomacy. The discussion noted the report of the bipartisan Congressional Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States, and the expectation that the NPR would likely reflect its consensus to a large degree (although the Administration was not bound by the report). There was widespread support for developing thefoundationsfor a sustainable nuclear-weapon program that addresses nuclear weapons, infrastructure and expertise in the broader nonproliferation, disarmament and international security contexts. The discussion also revealed a convergence of views, but no consensus, on a number of important issues, including the diminished role but continued importance of nuclear weapons; the need to take action to ensure the sustainability of the stockpile, and the recapitalization of the infrastructure and expertise; and the need to take action to promote nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament objectives.

  13. Non-proliferation and international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In my view, drastic nuclear disarmament by nuclear weapon States could be coupled with universal commitment to non-proliferation by non-nuclear weapon States by 1995 when the extension of the NPT Will be discussed. The incentives and disincentives for making and stockpiling nuclear weapons are first of all in the political and security fields, (Global and regional detente reduce the incentive, With the cold war gone, the US and Russia are now agreeing on far-reaching cuts in their nuclear arsenals and at some point the other declared nuclear weapon States Will follow.In the regional fields, we have seen how Argentina and Brazil are about to commit themselves to exclusively peaceful uses of the atom through the Latin American Tlatelolco Treaty. And we have seen how South Africa has joined the NPT. A new wave of States adhering to the NPT may be expected from countries in the former Soviet Union. Some have already come, others are on the way. Detente in the Middle East and on the Indian subcontinent would improve the outlook for non-proliferation in these areas. A second barrier to nuclear proliferation lies in export restrictions on sensitive nuclear material and equipment, Following the discoveries in Iraq, these restrictions are being strengthened in a large number of States. A third barrier to nuclear proliferation lies in the economic and political consequences that would follow for a State if IAEA safeguards inspection revealed activities aimed at the production of nuclear weapons. These must have a high degree of reliability. The case of Iraq showed that it was possible for a closed, highly militarized State to hide nuclear activities from the IAEA and the world We are now drawing the lessons from this case. It is not physically possible for inspectors to look into every building and basement in vast countries, They must have information about where to look, and the IAEA is significantly strengthening its information basis. The IAEA has also re

  14. Nuclear non-proliferation: Revisiting the basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1970 Treaty on the Non- Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), with 188 States party, represents the cornerstone of the global nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament effort -- and despite recent challenges, it has never been more relevant than it is today. But if we are to move forward, it is essential to revisit a number of the basic assumptions and features of the existing regime, and consider a number of new approaches. A key assumption at the core of the NPT was that the asymmetry between nuclear-weapon States and non-nuclear-weapon States would gradually disappear. Progress has been made on the nuclear disarmament front, but much more remains to be done. Nuclear disarmament strategies have for the most part focused on the negotiation of bilateral nuclear arms control agreements between the holders of the two largest nuclear arsenals, and a few multilateral agreements designed to curb the quantitative and qualitative development of nuclear weapons. With the end of the Cold War as an impetus, some progress was made in the early and mid-1990s, but the process unfortunately slowed in the latter part of the decade. The discoveries of a clandestine nuclear weapon programme in Iraq after the 1991 Gulf War made it painfully clear that the IAEA verification system, with its focus on declared nuclear activities and its limited rights of access to information and sites, was not adequate for the IAEA to provide the comprehensive peaceful use assurances required under the NPT. This stark realization prompted the international community to significantly expand the IAEA's verification rights. These new rights were incorporated into a 1997 protocol additional to safeguards agreements, with a request for all States to subscribe to it. For the IAEA to provide the required assurances, it must have the required authority. It is clear that the success of the IAEA verification regime will depend heavily on achieving universal adherence to the required safeguards agreements

  15. Non-proliferation policy of the Republic of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present abstract reveals the aspects of Kazakstan's non-proliferation policy. After acquiring independence in Kazakstan there remained a huge nuclear inheritance of the USSR. Kazakstan had to determine its policy regarding nuclear stuff. One of the most important test sites of the former USSR - Semipalatinsk test site - was closed. The Republic signed the Lisbon Protocols to the Treaty between the USSR and USA on the reduction and limitation of strategic and offensive arms. On December 13, 1993, Kazakstan and the IAEA concluded the IAEA Safeguards Agreement. All nuclear weapons were removed from Kazakstan territory, work resulting in military nuclear power use was terminated. A wide program on conversion of the former military research infrastructure is being performed with the support of some foreign countries. For instance Kazakstan / USA jointly work on withdrawing highly enriched nuclear materials from Ulba Metallurgical Plant to the USA enterprises for processing ('Sapphere'). Another conversion activity is liquidation of the former testing holes at Semipalatinsk test site. In relation to this there appeared an agreement between U.S. Department of defence and Ministry of Sciences and New Technologies of the Republic of Kazakstan (October, 3, 1995). A sensitive information is present at the area of the former test site. The traditional IAEA safeguards are used to nuclear facilities and nuclear materials

  16. Atoms for peace and the nonproliferation treaty: unintended consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2009, President Obama revived nonproliferation and arms control efforts with a speech calling for the worldwide abolition of nuclear weapons. His speech correctly acknowledged the threat of nuclear terrorism and the vulnerabilities of the related unsecure nuclear materials. Unfortunately, the president did not mention and has not mentioned in any speech the threat posed by at-risk radiological materials. Nonproliferation efforts have a well documented history of focus on special nuclear materials (fissionable weapons usable materials or SNM), and other key materials (chemical and biological) and technologies for a Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD). Such intense focus on WMD related materials/technologies is essential for international safety and security and merit continued attention and funding. However, the perception that radioactive sealed sources (sources) are of less concern than WMD is unfortunate. These perceptions are based solely on the potentially enormous and tragic consequences associated with their deliberate or accidental misuse and proliferation concerns. However, there is a documented history of overemphasis on the nuclear threat at the expense of ignoring the far more likely and also devastating chemical and biological threats. The radiological threat should not be minimized or excluded from policy discussions and decisions on these far ranging scopes of threat to the international community. Sources have a long history of use; and a wider distribution worldwide than fissile materials. Pair this with their broad ranges in isotopes/activities along with scant national and international attention and mechanisms for their safe and secure management and it is not difficult to envision a deadly threat. Arguments that minimize or divert attention away from sources may have the effect of distracting necessary policy attention on preventing/mitigating a radiological dispersal event. The terrorist attacks on 9/11 should be a clear reminder of the

  17. Flaws in the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nucler Weapons has the twin objectives of stopping the further spread of nuclear weapons and ending the nuclear arms race on the one hand, and promoting peaceful uses of atomic energy on the other. In quantitative and symbolic terms the NPT is a huge success. More than two-thirds of the world's nations have signed on, making this the most popular arms control agreement on earth. Not a single nation has declared itself to be a nuclear-weapons state beyond the original five members of the ''nuclear club'' who qualified for weapons status under the terms of the Treaty itself: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, and China. No party to the Treaty has exercised the permitted option to drop out, and none has been found by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to have diverted nuclear material from civil to weapons purposes. Nor has any party been known to have violated NPT prohibitions on developing or assisting other nations to develop nuclear weapons

  18. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the turbulant transitional events in world politics in the nineties, the control of nuclear weapons plays a major role. While the superpowers are reducing their nuclear arsenal, the danger of nuclear anarchy in the world remains virulent. The NPT of 1968 is up for review soon. The falling apart of the former communist sphere of power, and the regions of conflict in the Third World present new risks for the proliferation of nuclear arms. For unified Germany, which explicitly renounced nuclear weapons, this situation presents difficult questions concerning national safety policies and international responsibility. This volume presents contributions which take a new look at topical and long-term problems of nuclear NP politics. The authors evaluate the conditions under which the NP regime came into being, and assess short- and long-term possibilities and risks. The following papers are included: 1.) Basic controversies during the negotiations concerning the Treaty on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (Ungerer); 2.) Prologation of the NPT 1995 and appropriate problems concerning safety and control (Haefele/Lauppe); 3.) Consequences of the Iraq case for NP policy (Ficher); 4.) Problems of nuclear technology control (Mueller); 5.) Framework conditions of a nuclear world system (Haeckel). (orig./HP)

  19. Missile non-proliferation: an alternative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the author first proposes an overview of the notion of missile prohibition. He notices that the association between weapons of mass destruction and missiles is a prelude to the legitimacy of missile control, notably within the framework of the Missile Technology Control Regime or MTCR. He also comments the notion of total ban. In a second part, the author analyses and discusses the limitations of the control of technology diffusion. He discusses the role of the MTCR, comments the evolution of this regime with the taking of China and Russia into consideration, the impacts of national implementations of export regimes on the MTCR, and economic aspects of control implementation. In the next part, the author addresses other kinds of limitations, i.e. those related with capacity evolutions of proliferating States. The last part addresses the evolution towards a new definition of approach to missile non-proliferation, notably in terms of perception of missile roles and of technology transfer controls

  20. AICD -- Advanced Industrial Concepts Division Biological and Chemical Technologies Research Program. 1993 Annual summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, G.; Bair, K.; Ross, J. [eds.

    1994-03-01

    The annual summary report presents the fiscal year (FY) 1993 research activities and accomplishments for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Biological and Chemical Technologies Research (BCTR) Program of the Advanced Industrial Concepts Division (AICD). This AICD program resides within the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE). The annual summary report for 1993 (ASR 93) contains the following: A program description (including BCTR program mission statement, historical background, relevance, goals and objectives), program structure and organization, selected technical and programmatic highlights for 1993, detailed descriptions of individual projects, a listing of program output, including a bibliography of published work, patents, and awards arising from work supported by BCTR.

  1. Biological assessment: water hyacinth control program for the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A detailed Biological Assessment was developed for the proposed Areawide Water Hyacinth Control Program to outline the procedures that will be used to control this invasive aquatic plant in the Sacramento/ San Joaquin River Delta, and to help determine if this action is expected to threaten endanger...

  2. Students' Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Tutorial Program for College Biology Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. S.; Prevost, L.; Lemons, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of core concepts and processes of science in solving problems is important to successful learning in biology. We have designed and developed a Web-based, self-directed tutorial program, "SOLVEIT," that provides various scaffolds (e.g., prompts, expert models, visual guidance) to help college students enhance their…

  3. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Cicerone, D.S. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  4. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program (BMAP) plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y-12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided, but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas or a reduction in sampling intensity in others. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide them in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions

  5. The world's non-proliferation regime in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    members to countries that need assistance in order to provide better security for nuclear material in their possession, to an April 2004 Security Council resolution that requires countries having nuclear materials to protect them in various ways from being acquired by 'non-State actors' such as terrorists. The regime includes prohibitions on testing such as the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty and the 1996 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The first prohibits nuclear weapons tests everywhere but underground, and the second will prohibit them even underground if it goes into force. For the large majority of NPT members not having nuclear weapons, these treaties contribute to non-proliferation not just by inhibiting testing but by reducing the discrimination inherent in the NPT between those permitted to have nuclear weapons and those not so permitted. These members see an agreement to stop testing by the P-5 as a step of compliance by the P-5 with their NPT promise to cease the nuclear arms race, reduce their nuclear weapons and move toward nuclear disarmament. The regime includes 'no-first-use promises' by the P-5 to other NPT members, usually called 'negative security assurances.' All of the P-5 but China have stated some exceptions to these promises. (The US exception permits use of nuclear weapons against a non-nuclear-weapon NPT member if it attacks another non-weapon NPT member while the attacker is in alliance with a State having nuclear weapons. Recently, the United States asserted another exception by saying it might use nuclear weapons to counter a biological or chemical attack.) The regime includes promises by the P-5 that some protection will be provided to other NPT members in the event of a threat of attack, promises called 'positive security assurances.' The P-5 have promised to seek immediate UN Security Council orders providing security assistance to any NPT member not having nuclear weapons if it is threatened with attack by another nation's nuclear weapons. For

  6. The Integrated Equipment Test Facility At Oak Ridge As A Nonproliferation Test Loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparent renaissance in nuclear power has resulted in a new focus on nonproliferation measures. There is a lot of activity in development of new measurement technologies and methodologies for nonproliferation assessment. A need that is evolving in the United States is for facilities and test loops for demonstration of new technologies. In the late 1970s, the Fuel Recycle Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged in advanced reprocessing technology development. As part of the program, the Integrated Equipment Test (IET) facility was constructed as a test bed for advanced technology. The IET was a full-scale demonstration facility, operable on depleted uranium, with a throughput capacity for 0.5 Mt/d. At the front end, the facility had a feed surge vessel, input accountability tank, and feed vessel for the single cycle of solvent extraction. The basic solvent extraction system was configured to use centrifugal contactors for extraction and scrub and a full-size pulsed column for strip. A surge tank received the solvent extraction product solution and fed a continuous operating thermo-syphon-type product evaporator. Product receiving and accountability vessels were available. Feed material could be prepared using a continuous rotary dissolve or by recycling the product with adjustment as new feed. Continuous operations 24/7 could be realized with full chemical recovery and solvent recycle systems in operation. The facility was fully instrumented for process control and operation, and a full solution monitoring application had been implemented for safeguards demonstrations, including actual diversion tests for sensitivity evaluation. A significant effort for online instrument development was a part of the program at the time. The fuel recycle program at Oak Ridge ended in the early 1990s, and the IET facility was mothballed. However, the equipment and systems remain and could be returned to service to support nonproliferation demonstrations. This

  7. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Shoemaker, B.A. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States))

    1993-04-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  8. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP is based on results of biological monitoring conducted from 1986 to 1992 and discussions held on November 12, 1992, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the K-25 Site), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Department of Energy Oversight Division. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  9. Special Issue on University Nonproliferation Education and Training Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonproliferation, like many aspects of security, has not played out as many expected following the end of the cold war. The peace dividend has been elusive in many countries. The notion that the world would become a safer and more secure place as nuclear weapons stockpiles were reduced has been trumped by the rise in international terrorism. Hopes that nuclear weapons would lose their salience as markers of elite status among nations along with pressures to acquire them have been dashed. The drive by some countries and terrorist groups to acquire nuclear weapons has not diminished, and the threat of proliferation has increased. At the level of the nation state, the Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) itself is under pressure as more nations acquire nuclear weapons, de facto weapons states fail to join, and nations that want to acquire them leave or threaten to leave. At the sub-state level, the convergence of terrorism and weapons of mass destruction (WMD) has introduced an element of uncertainty into nonproliferation that is unprecedented. Another feature of the post-cold war era that has taken many by surprise is the continued, and growing need for trained specialists in nonproliferation and nuclear materials management. Contained within the notion of disarmament and reduced strategic importance of nuclear weapons was the expectation of a diminishing workforce of trained nonproliferation and nuclear materials specialists. Events have overtaken this assumption.

  10. IAEA safeguards under the non-proliferation treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional safeguards system of the IAEA depends strongly on nuclear material accountancy. It is based on the concept that as long as all nuclear weapon-usable material is accounted for and verified to be in peaceful activities, the world can be confident that it is not used to produce nuclear explosive devices. Since weapon-usable nuclear material is essential for any such device, a tight material control was considered to be sufficient to verify non-proliferation. As a result of Iraq, the safeguards community began to seriously re-think some fundamental tenets of safeguards. Since the Summer of 1993, the IAEA has vigorously pursued a program of development aimed at strengthening its safeguards, the so-called 'Program 93+2'. In its meeting of March 1995, just prior to the NPT Conference in New York, the Board of Governors of the IAEA has reiterated that the purpose of comprehensive safeguards agreements is to verify that nuclear materials are not diverted. The verification should provide a credible assurance of the non-diversion of nuclear material from declared activities and the absence of undeclared nuclear activities. The Board recognized that a strengthened safeguards system will benefit from technological development and will call for greater access to relevant information and greater physical access to relevant sites. As far as clandestine activities are concerned, one technical area that appears particularly interesting is the application of environmental sampling for safeguards purposes. These methods allow for chemical and isotopic analysis of minute samples (as small as 10-15 g) which may be collected within declared facilities or away from nuclear facilities, e.g., water, soil and biota samples, that might provide indications of clandestine activity. This method has been and will continue to be used in Iraq. Several Member States have offered their assistance in the conduct of environmental monitoring field trials and related technical areas

  11. Explorations: A Research-Based Program Introducing Undergraduates to Diverse Biology Research Topics Taught by Grad Students and Postdocs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Khalfan, Waheeda; Bergmann, Dominique; Simoni, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate biology majors are often overwhelmed by and underinformed about the diversity and complexity of biological research that is conducted on research-intensive campuses. We present a program that introduces undergraduates to the diversity and scope of biological research and also provides unique teaching opportunities for graduate…

  12. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Al-Ayat, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walter, W. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-23

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  13. Selected Examples of LDRD Projects Supporting Test Ban Treaty Verification and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at the DOE National Laboratories was established to ensure the scientific and technical vitality of these institutions and to enhance the their ability to respond to evolving missions and anticipate national needs. LDRD allows the Laboratory directors to invest a percentage of their total annual budget in cutting-edge research and development projects within their mission areas. We highlight a selected set of LDRD-funded projects, in chronological order, that have helped provide capabilities, people and infrastructure that contributed greatly to our ability to respond to technical challenges in support of test ban treaty verification and nonproliferation.

  14. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Bowen, M. [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake.

  15. L-Lake fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The L Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the re-start of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor effluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ``Balanced Biological Community`` (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake.

  16. L-Lake zooplankton: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, November 1985--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The L- Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor affluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ''Balanced Biological Community'' (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake. This report details results of monitoring zooplankton populations in L-Lake

  17. L-Lake fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The L Lake Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the re-start of L-Reactor and address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act, which requires an applicant for a discharge permit to provide scientific evidence that the discharge causes no significant impact on the indigenous ecosystem. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the discharge of L-Reactor effluent into L Lake will not inhibit the eventual establishment of a ''Balanced Biological Community'' (BBC) in at least 50% of the lake

  18. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L; Pribbenow, Christine M

    2016-05-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists' leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants ("scholars") from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP's long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program's 2010-2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and helps

  19. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  20. Strengthening the nuclear nonproliferation regime: focus on the civilian nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaders around the world and across the ideological spectrum agree that the global nonproliferation regime is facing a serious test. The emergence of sophisticated terrorist networks, black markets in nuclear technology, and technological leaps associated with globalization have conspired to threaten one of the most successful examples of international cooperation in history. The rampant proliferation of nuclear weapons that was predicted at the start of the nuclear age has been largely held in check and the use of those weapons avoided. Nonetheless, with the thirty-fifth anniversary of the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the threat of nuclear proliferation seems more serious than ever. Although experts readily concede that there exist many pathways to proliferation, the threat posed by the misuse of the civilian nuclear fuel cycle has received considerable recent attention. While the connection between nuclear energy and nonproliferation has been a topic of discussion since the dawn of the nuclear age, world events have brought the issue to the forefront once again. United States President George W. Bush and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Director General Mohammad ElBaradei are among those who have highlighted proliferation risks associated with civilian nuclear power programs and called for revitalizing the nuclear nonproliferation regime to address new threats. From the possibility of diversion or theft of nuclear material or technology, to the use of national civilian programs as a cover for weapons programs - what some have called latent proliferation - the fuel cycle appears to many to represent a glaring proliferation vulnerability. Just as recognition of these risks is not new, neither is recognition of the many positive benefits of nuclear energy. In fact, a renewed interest in exploiting these benefits has increased the urgency of addressing the risks. Global energy demand is expected to at least double by the middle of

  1. Benefits of a Biological Monitoring Program for Assessing Remediation Performance and Long-Term Stewardship - 12272

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) is a long-running program that was designed to evaluate biological conditions and trends in waters downstream of Department of Energy (DOE) facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. BMAP monitoring has focused on aquatic pathways from sources to biota, which is consistent with the sites' clean water regulatory focus and the overall cleanup strategy which divided remediation areas into watershed administrative units. Specific programmatic goals include evaluating operational and legacy impacts to nearby streams and the effectiveness of implemented remediation strategies at the sites. The program is characterized by consistent, long-term sampling and analysis methods in a multidisciplinary and quantitative framework. Quantitative sampling has shown conclusively that at most Oak Ridge stream sites, fish and aquatic macro-invertebrate communities have improved considerably since the 1980s. Monitoring of mercury and PCBs in fish has shown that remedial and abatement actions have also improved stream conditions, although in some cases biological monitoring suggests further actions are needed. Follow-up investigations have been implemented by BMAP to identify sources or causes, consistent with an adaptive management approach. Biological monitoring results to date have not only been used to assess regulatory compliance, but have provided additional benefits in helping address other components of the DOE's mission, including facility operations, natural resource, and scientific goals. As a result the program has become a key measure of long-term trends in environmental conditions and of high value to the Oak Ridge environmental management community, regulators, and the public. Some of the BMAP lessons learned may be of value in the design, implementation, and application of other long-term monitoring and stewardship programs, and assist environmental managers in the assessment and prediction of the effectiveness of remedial

  2. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 2: Prototype utilization in the development of space biology hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Schulze, Arthur E.; Wood, H. J., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to define the factors which space flight hardware developers and planners should consider when determining: (1) the number of hardware units required to support program; (2) design level of the units; and (3) most efficient means of utilization of the units. The analysis considered technology risk, maintainability, reliability, and safety design requirements for achieving the delivery of highest quality flight hardware. Relative cost impacts of the utilization of prototyping were identified. The development of Space Biology Initiative research hardware will involve intertwined hardware/software activities. Experience has shown that software development can be an expensive portion of a system design program. While software prototyping could imply the development of a significantly different end item, an operational system prototype must be considered to be a combination of software and hardware. Hundreds of factors were identified that could be considered in determining the quantity and types of prototypes that should be constructed. In developing the decision models, these factors were combined and reduced by approximately ten-to-one in order to develop a manageable structure based on the major determining factors. The Baseline SBI hardware list of Appendix D was examined and reviewed in detail; however, from the facts available it was impossible to identify the exact types and quantities of prototypes required for each of these items. Although the factors that must be considered could be enumerated for each of these pieces of equipment, the exact status and state of development of the equipment is variable and uncertain at this time.

  3. Non-proliferation and security: synergy and differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operators of nuclear facilities put in place both physical and organisational means to meet in a comprehensive way the requirements associated with Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Safety and Security. The common aim is to protect man and the environment from ionising radiation. The approaches for meeting these requirements have real similarities, but also differences which need to be respected in order to develop an appropriate synergy for obtaining the best possible level of safety, security and non-proliferation. This article aims to show the provisions that have been taken with regard to non-proliferation, security and safety which complement and reinforce each other.The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (author)

  4. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Brandt, C.C.; Christensen, S.W.; Greeley, M.S.JR.; Hill, W.R.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    2000-09-01

    The revised Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted as required by the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995 and became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Science Division (ESD) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) at the request of the Y-12 Plant. The revision to the BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted during the period of 1985 to present. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided; experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional bioaccumulation monitoring if results indicate unexpectedly high PCBs or Hg) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is still observed). The program scope will be re-evaluated annually. By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of Y-12 Plant operations (past and present) on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  5. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Amy L.; Pribbenow, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation) Biology Scholars Program (BSP) to promote undergraduate education reform by 1) supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2) engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3) participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) to more than 270 participants (“scholars”) from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER). To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010–2014 scholars (n = 127) and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life sciences and

  6. The ASM-NSF Biology Scholars Program: An Evidence-Based Model for Faculty Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L. Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The American Society for Microbiology (ASM established its ASM-NSF (National Science Foundation Biology Scholars Program (BSP to promote undergraduate education reform by 1 supporting biologists to implement evidence-based teaching practices, 2 engaging life science professional societies to facilitate biologists’ leadership in scholarly teaching within the discipline, and 3 participating in a teaching community that fosters disciplinary-level science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM reform. Since 2005, the program has utilized year-long residency training to provide a continuum of learning and practice centered on principles from the scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL to more than 270 participants (“scholars” from biology and multiple other disciplines. Additionally, the program has recruited 11 life science professional societies to support faculty development in SoTL and discipline-based education research (DBER. To identify the BSP’s long-term outcomes and impacts, ASM engaged an external evaluator to conduct a study of the program’s 2010­–2014 scholars (n = 127 and society partners. The study methods included online surveys, focus groups, participant observation, and analysis of various documents. Study participants indicate that the program achieved its proposed goals relative to scholarship, professional society impact, leadership, community, and faculty professional development. Although participants also identified barriers that hindered elements of their BSP participation, findings suggest that the program was essential to their development as faculty and provides evidence of the BSP as a model for other societies seeking to advance undergraduate science education reform. The BSP is the longest-standing faculty development program sponsored by a collective group of life science societies. This collaboration promotes success across a fragmented system of more than 80 societies representing the life

  7. The IAEA and non-proliferation: is quiescence progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the current status of more important non-proliferation aspects affecting or involving the IAEA. The questions dealt with cover in particular the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Tlatelolco Treaty, the Committee on Assurances of Supply established by the IAEA in 1980 and the International Plutonium Storage Study prepared by an IAEA expert group. The author concludes that in a number of areas involving this Agency, recent considerable activity at both political and technical levels has produced few tangible results althrough the situation is not static. (NEA)

  8. Previewing the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite groundbreaking disarmament pledges and substantial effort, the Obama administration's hopes for a successful Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference may not be fully realised. Many developing countries are in no mood to grant new non-proliferation concessions, such as tightened rules on access to sensitive nuclear technologies, tougher inspection rules, or limits on withdrawing from the treaty. The non-nuclear weapon states (NNWS) remain angered by the failure to move forward on many disarmament commitments pledged at the 1995 and 2000 Conferences. Moreover, progress on disarmament measures under Obama has been slower than hoped, as he faces considerable scepticism in Washington about his strategy. (author)

  9. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L.; Blaylock, B.G.; Greeley, M.S.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Shoemaker, B.A. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Hinzman, R.L. [Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)

    1993-02-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions.

  10. Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site was prepared in December 1992 as required by the renewed National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit that was issued on October 1, 1992. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks that reflect different but complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of K-25 Site effluents on the ecological integrity of Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and the Poplar Creek embayment of the Clinch River. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring, (3) assessment of fish health, and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities. This overall BMAP plan combines established protocols with current biological monitoring techniques to assess environmental compliance and quantify ecological recovery. The BMAP will also determine whether the effluent limits established for the K-25 Site protect the designated use of the receiving streams (Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, and Clinch River) for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life. Results obtained from this biological monitoring program will also be used to document the ecological effects (and effectiveness) of remedial actions

  11. Community college biology majors: The dynamics of the successful community college transfer program. A comparative analysis of the program determinants which lead to high transfer success in community college biology transfer programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Ronald Keith

    1997-09-01

    Community Colleges in California have long been asked to fulfill a number of the state's different needs in higher education including the first two years of preparation for students who plan to transfer to universities and receive their baccalaureate. Transfer rates published since the 60's suggest that community colleges in the state have largely been failures at transferring students. Current data, however, show that biology majors programs at area colleges surrounding UCLA, the primary goal of biology majors, varied widely in their transfer success. This study compared two biology majors programs with high transfer success (HTS) with two programs with low transfer success (LTS). Qualitative methods were used in the analysis to establish common themes which existed at both the HTS and LTS programs. Methodology involved: site descriptions, participant-observation, document analysis, questionnaires, and interviews of faculty, staff, and students involved with the majors program. It was concluded that the HTS institutions shared many characteristics in common. Since California abolished district boundaries, eliminated guaranteed enrollment for colleges and created a free-flow situation, colleges have competed for students. In this study, students free-flowed from colleges in higher SES communities from inner city colleges in lower SES communities. Both HTS programs were at colleges in higher SES communities. They were responsive to the articulation demands of UCLA, had firm chemistry prerequisites, and were taught as two sequential courses. Programs had one faculty member who was clearly the head of the program and had been instrumental in the evolution of the program. HTS programs had high academic rigor and included a lab portion which was instrumental in bringing the students together with each other and with the faculty. Student collaboration involved academics, transfer information, and career information and lead to transfer momentum for the class. Faculty

  12. Integrative Biological Chemistry Program Includes The Use Of Informatics Tools, GIS And SAS Software Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm J. D’Souza; Kashmar, Richard J.; Hurst, Kent; Fiedler, Frank; Gross, Catherine E.; Deol, Jasbir K.; Wilson, Alora

    2015-01-01

    Wesley College is a private, primarily undergraduate minority-serving institution located in the historic district of Dover, Delaware (DE). The College recently revised its baccalaureate biological chemistry program requirements to include a one-semester Physical Chemistry for the Life Sciences course and project-based experiential learning courses using instrumentation, data-collection, data-storage, statistical-modeling analysis, visualization, and computational techniques...

  13. OAK RIDGE Y-12 PLANT BIOLOGICAL MONITORING AND ABATEMENT PROGRAM (BMAP) PLAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, S.M.; BRANDT, C.C.; CHRISTENSEN, S.W.; CICERONE, D.S.; GREELEY, M.S.JR; HILL, W.R.; HUSTON, M.S.; KSZOS, L.A.; MCCARTHY, J.F.; PETERSON, M.J.; RYON, M.G.; SMITH, J.G.; SOUTHWORTH, G.R.; STEWART, A.J.

    1998-10-01

    The proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, as described, will be conducted for the duration of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit issued for the Y-12 Plant on April 28, 1995, and which became effective July 1, 1995. The basic approach to biological monitoring used in this program was developed by the staff in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the request of Y- 12 Plant personnel. The proposed BMAP plan is based on results of biological monitoring conducted since 1985. Details of the specific procedures used in the current routine monitoring program are provided but experimental designs for future studies are described in less detail. The overall strategy used in developing this plan was, and continues to be, to use the results obtained from each task to define the scope of future monitoring efforts. Such efforts may require more intensive sampling than initially proposed in some areas (e.g., additional toxicity testing if initial results indicate low survival or reproduction) or a reduction in sampling intensity in others (e.g., reduction in the number of sampling sites when no impact is observed). By using the results of previous monitoring efforts to define the current program and to guide us in the development of future studies, an effective integrated monitoring program has been developed to assess the impacts of the Y-12 Plant operation on the biota of EFPC and to document the ecological effects of remedial actions.

  14. Abstracts of reports of the International conference on non-proliferation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On August 21, 1947, the USSR Council of Ministers made a decision on creating Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (STS). The first Nuclear Test on the Test Site was conducted on August 29, 1949, the last one was made on October 19, 1989. In all during 40 years on Semipalatinsk Test Site 116 ground and air and 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted. They brought much damage to health and lives of thousands of people who involuntarily participated in those events. On August 29, 1991, by Kazakstan President's decree STS was closed but the problems of people's rehabilitation, natural landscapes recovering, test-site infrastructure conversion remained. These problems are being solved under direct state programs, intergovernmental agreements of Kazakstan with Russia and the USA, cooperation with different international and foreign organizations, enterprises, scientific-research centers. Kazakstan subsequently constantly pursues the policy of nonproliferation, takes measures on ellimination of nuclear tests consequences and relative infrastructure. The Republic is not involved into military nuclear programs. From its territory all the nuclear weapon was taken away. Kazakstan joined the Agreement on Non-proliferation, signed the Agreement on Safeguards to all Nuclear activity on Kazakh territory with the IAEA

  15. JAEA's efforts for regional transparency in the area of nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has undertaken a joint R and D project with the US Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) for the purposes of developing an Information Sharing Framework (ISF) for regional nonproliferation cooperation since July 2011. This project builds on nearly twenty years of technical cooperation between JAEA, its predecessor organizations and the DOE including the activities to define, develop and test transparency technologies and other multilateral efforts. The objective of current project is to design a viable information sharing process to support the goals of building confidence in the peaceful nature of regional nuclear programs. At the end of a two-year-effort, project partners, JAEA and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), have defined the comprehensive requirements for an ISF that will ensure nonproliferation transparency success and sustainability. In October 2011, a parallel project with the similar title and objective was launched under the arrangement between the US DOE/NNSA and the Republic of Korea Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST). Since then, JAEA, SNL, the Korea Institute for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC) and Korea Atomic Energy Institute (KAERI) have jointly carried out the project in a form of informal, multilateral cooperation. The project partners have identified needs and audience for ISF, and initiated the discussion to develop requirements for ISF through workshops, meetings, regular telephone conferences, etc. The activities include conducting a survey to identify stakeholders' needs and requirements for an ISF, launching a website to practice information sharing concepts, and presenting papers. This paper provides the historical context of the current project to establish ISF, and reports the progress to date and speculates on future directions. (author)

  16. Non-proliferation issues for the disposition of fissile materials using reactor alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is analyzing long-term storage on options for excess weapons-usable fissile materials. A number of the disposition alternatives are being considered which involve the use of reactors. The various reactor alternatives are all very similar and include front-end processes that could convert plutonium to a usable form for fuel fabrication, a MOX fuel fab facility, reactors to bum the MOX fuel and ultimate disposal of spent fuel in some geologic repository. They include existing, partially completed, advanced or evolutionary light water reactors and Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactors. In addition to the differences in the type of reactors, other variants on these alternatives are being evaluated to include the location and number of the reactors, the location of the mixed oxide (MOX) fabrication facility, the ownership of the facilities (private or government) and the colocation and/or separation of these facilities. All of these alternatives and their variants must be evaluated with respect to non-proliferation resistance. Both domestic and international safeguards support are being provided to DOE's Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) and includes such areas as physical protection, nuclear materials accountability and material containment and surveillance. This paper will focus on how the non-proliferation objective of reducing security risks and strengthening arms reduction will be accomplished and what some of the nonproliferation issues are for the reactor alternatives. Proliferation risk has been defined in terms of material form, physical environment, and the level of security and safeguards that is applied to the material. Metrics have been developed for each of these factors. The reactor alternatives will be evaluated with respect to these proliferation risk factors at each of the unit process locations in the alternative

  17. Exploiting synergies between nonproliferation verification regimes: A pragmatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the potential for expanding interaction and exploiting synergies between different multilateral disarmament and nonproliferation regimes. It concludes that although there are political barriers to high-level and pervasive synergization, there are opportunities for pragmatic, functional steps to be taken as a way of building confidence and experience. (author)

  18. Former Nonproliferation Graduate Fellow Served at U.S. Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brim, Cornelia P.

    2014-10-01

    Because of her training and professional experiences, Rosalyn Leitch, a Security Specialist at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and former Nonproliferation Graduate Fellow with NIS (2012-2013) was able to transition into temporary assignment as UNVIE Acting Nuclear Security Attaché from November 2013 through February 2014.

  19. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program; Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG&G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG&G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  20. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, October 1992--December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG ampersand G/EM) from October 1992 through December 1993 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  1. Results of the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility biological monitoring program, July 1987--July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As required by the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) under NPDES Permit SCO000175, biological monitoring was conducted in Upper Three Runs Creek to determine if discharges from the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility have adversely impacted the biotic community of the receiving stream. Data included in this summary report encompass July 1987 through July 1991. As originally designed, the F/H ETF was not expected to remove all of the mercury from the wastewater; therefore, SCDHEC specified that studies be conducted to determine if mercury was bioaccumulating in aquatic biota. Subsequent to approval of the biological monitoring program, an ion exchange column was added to the F/H ETF specifically to remove mercury, which eliminated mercury from the F/H ETF effluent. The results of the biological monitoring program indicate that at the present rate of discharge, the F/H ETF effluent has not adversely affected the receiving stream with respect to any of the parameters that were measured. The effluent is not toxic at the in-stream waste concentration and there is no evidence of mercury bioaccumulation

  2. BIO-PROGRAMMING PROSPECTS OF JAVA: A COMPUTATIONAL MOVE TOWARDS THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF GENES AND PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KALPANA RAJA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Java is a powerful object oriented programming language that dominates many other programming languages for more than a decade. It is well designed and available as many executable technologies for software development such as Java Swing, Java Beans, Java Applets, Java Web Start, Java Database Connectivity (JDBC, Java Server Pages (JSP and Java 2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE. Beyond its usage in the IT sector, the language is prominent even in the new emerging fields including bioinformatics and computational biology.The biological data (genes and proteins from the biological and medical research is immense and require software professionals to mine them for new knowledge discovery. The knowledge to merge the programming concepts of Java to understand a wide range of biological concepts opens a new career challenge for many IT professionals. This paper introduces the implementation of the coding knowledge of Java in the field ofmolecular biology.

  3. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  4. Tennessee's East Fork Poplar Creek: A biological monitoring and abatement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 1985, a Biological Monitoring Program was developed for East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in eastern Tennessee, United States. This stream originates within the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant that produces nuclear weapons components for the Department of Energy. Water and sediment in the stream contain metals, organic chemicals, and radionuclides from releases that have occurred over the past 45 years. The creek also receives urban and some agricultural runoff and effluent from the City of Oak Ridge's Wastewater Treatment Facility (WTF). The biological monitoring program includes four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing: (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological monitoring of stream communities, including periphyton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. Biological conditions are monitored at six sites on EFPC ranging from kilometer 24.4 near the headwaters to kilometer 6.3 near the month. A site on Brushy Fork, A stream just north of Oak Ridge, is used as reference. Ambient (instream) toxicity was monitored through the use of 7-day static-renewal tests that measured the survival and growth of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) larvae and the survival and reproduction of a microstrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia). Full-strength water from EFPC within the Y-12 Plant boundary was frequently toxic to Ceriodaphnia, but less frequently toxic to the minnow larvae. Chlorine has been identified as an important toxicant in upper EFPC. Water samples from six sites in EFPC downstream from the Y-12 Plant boundary were tested eight times with both species during a 2-year period (October, 1986 through October, 1988). These sites were ranked by the number of times they were ''best'' or ''worst'' for each species. Water samples collected for use in the ambient toxicity tests were routinely analyzed for conductivity, pH, alkalinity, hardness, total residual and free chlorine, and temperature

  5. Experience of Cooperation between the U.S. National Academies of Sciences and Russian Academy of Sciences in Studying Urgent Problems of Nuclear Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Russian Federation and the United States of America have achieved substantial progress in the implementation of joint nuclear non-proliferation projects, carried out under Cooperative Threat Reduction Program. However, both countries face a variety of problems and impediments, which significantly reduce the effectiveness of joint efforts. This paper provides a review and examination of the experience of U.S.-Russian efforts to analyze nuclear nonproliferation issues, impediments to cooperation in this field, solutions to these problems, and the development of particular recommendations. This paper shows that a joint workshops format is the most effective one for such work, as independent experts representing different countries and organizations provide knowledge and experience in a variety of areas, such as science and technology, management and administration, political science, finance and economics, and others. Particular attention in these studies is paid to review and analysis of possible proliferation-resistant technological schemes for the nuclear fuel cycle. The high level of the experts' qualifications and the complexity of the review process enable them to reveal the most important key problems, which must be solved to progress in achieving the strategic goals of strengthening international non-proliferation security. The format discussed was successfully applied to the studies 'Overcoming Impediments to U.S.-Russian Cooperation on Nuclear Nonproliferation' (2004), 'Strengthening U.S.-Russian Cooperation on Nuclear Nonproliferation' (2005) and 'Future of the Nuclear Security Environment in 2015' (2008). These studies were carried out in the framework of cooperation between the U.S. National Academies of Sciences and Russian Academy of Sciences. It enabled prominent scientists and specialists to be involved in preparing analytical materials and recommendations, which formed a basis for the workshop proceedings. The present paper emphasizes the

  6. Argentine nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes Argentina's nuclear program, detailing its objectives, the schedule of construction of nuclear plants and local production of required equipment. The technologies adopted so far, the local industrial and engineering participation, the preliminary study for the construction of the next power station and Argentina's nonproliferation nuclear policy are analyzed. Argentina's point of view on Canadian nonproliferation policy and CANDU reactor export is discussed

  7. Transparency and nonproliferation in the Asia-Pacific region. Enhancing transparency, strengthening the nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driven by the prospect of rapid economic growth and the perceived need for energy security, the Asia-Pacific region is destined to increase its nuclear energy use in the coming decades. This projected increase, however, will bring with it nuclear proliferation concerns, fueling fears about the security of nuclear material and creating suspicions about its use. The increasing use of nuclear energy inevitably necessitates supplementary efforts, designed to ensure nuclear security and a legitimate use of nuclear energy, other than the obligation to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Nuclear transparency measures could be useful tools for building confidence that the increasing nuclear energy use does not contribute to nuclear proliferation. These measures could also foster a cooperative tradition that can address rising concerns over nuclear trafficking and terrorism, which require regional coordination to combat. However, moderate progress in implementing transparency measures suggests a lack of political appreciation of this concept. Thus, this paper describes various forms of potential transparency measures to expand the possibilities of the transparency concept and explore areas in which this concept might be applicable. This paper also clarifies some challenges involving transparency projects, and suggests possible ways to address these challenges. (author)

  8. Biological and Environmental Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, FY 1992--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the 1992--1994 Program Director's Overview Report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program, and as such it addresses KP-funded work at ORNL conducted during FY 1991 and in progress during FY 1992; it also serves as a planning document for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994. Non-BER funded work at ORNL relevant to the mission of OHER is also discussed. The second section of the report describes ORNL facilities and resources used by the BER program. The third section addresses research management practices at ORNL. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sections address BER-funded research in progress, program accomplishments and research highlights, and program orientation for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994, respectively. Work for non-BER sponsors is described in the seventh section, followed by a discussion of significant near and long-term issues facing BER work at ORNL in the eighth section. The last section provides a statistical summary of BER research at ORNL. Appendices supplement the above topics with additional detail

  9. Biological and Environmental Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, FY 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the 1992--1994 Program Director's Overview Report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program, and as such it addresses KP-funded work at ORNL conducted during FY 1991 and in progress during FY 1992; it also serves as a planning document for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994. Non-BER funded work at ORNL relevant to the mission of OHER is also discussed. The second section of the report describes ORNL facilities and resources used by the BER program. The third section addresses research management practices at ORNL. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sections address BER-funded research in progress, program accomplishments and research highlights, and program orientation for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994, respectively. Work for non-BER sponsors is described in the seventh section, followed by a discussion of significant near and long-term issues facing BER work at ORNL in the eighth section. The last section provides a statistical summary of BER research at ORNL. Appendices supplement the above topics with additional detail.

  10. Biological and Environmental Research Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, FY 1992--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report is the 1992--1994 Program Director`s Overview Report for Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) Biological and Environmental Research (BER) Program, and as such it addresses KP-funded work at ORNL conducted during FY 1991 and in progress during FY 1992; it also serves as a planning document for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994. Non-BER funded work at ORNL relevant to the mission of OHER is also discussed. The second section of the report describes ORNL facilities and resources used by the BER program. The third section addresses research management practices at ORNL. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sections address BER-funded research in progress, program accomplishments and research highlights, and program orientation for the remainder of FY 1992 through FY 1994, respectively. Work for non-BER sponsors is described in the seventh section, followed by a discussion of significant near and long-term issues facing BER work at ORNL in the eighth section. The last section provides a statistical summary of BER research at ORNL. Appendices supplement the above topics with additional detail.

  11. Biotechnology by Design: An Introductory Level, Project-Based, Synthetic Biology Laboratory Program for Undergraduate Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dale L; Alvarez, Consuelo J

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic biology offers an ideal opportunity to promote undergraduate laboratory courses with research-style projects, immersing students in an inquiry-based program that enhances the experience of the scientific process. We designed a semester-long, project-based laboratory curriculum using synthetic biology principles to develop a novel sensory device. Students develop subject matter knowledge of molecular genetics and practical skills relevant to molecular biology, recombinant DNA techniques, and information literacy. During the spring semesters of 2014 and 2015, the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project was delivered to sophomore genetics courses. Using a cloning strategy based on standardized BioBrick genetic "parts," students construct a "reporter plasmid" expressing a reporter gene (GFP) controlled by a hybrid promoter regulated by the lac-repressor protein (lacI). In combination with a "sensor plasmid," the production of the reporter phenotype is inhibited in the presence of a target environmental agent, arabinose. When arabinose is absent, constitutive GFP expression makes cells glow green. But the presence of arabinose activates a second promoter (pBAD) to produce a lac-repressor protein that will inhibit GFP production. Student learning was assessed relative to five learning objectives, using a student survey administered at the beginning (pre-survey) and end (post-survey) of the course, and an additional 15 open-ended questions from five graded Progress Report assignments collected throughout the course. Students demonstrated significant learning gains (p < 0.05) for all learning outcomes. Ninety percent of students indicated that the Synthetic Biology Laboratory Project enhanced their understanding of molecular genetics. The laboratory project is highly adaptable for both introductory and advanced courses. PMID:26753032

  12. China and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime, 1964-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention of nuclear weapons opened a new era for the history of human weaponry and warfare, and also reshaped international relations. As a consequence, a worldwide consensus has been gradually reached due to the destructive nature of nuclear weapons: since a world with nuclear weapons is extremely dangerous, all human beings must make coordinated effort to eliminate nuclear weapons completely. To achieve this goal, which is unrealistic for the time being, a step must be taken now to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons and its technology. China became a nuclear power in 1964, and ever since, China’s attitude with the nuclear non-proliferation regime has been closely linking China’s core strategic interests with the stability of the world. The relationship between China and the nuclear non-proliferation regime is expounded in two stages during the Cold War era. From the early 1960s to late 1970s, China criticized the nuclear non-proliferation idea by arguing for a complete elimination of nuclear weapons by all nuclear powers. China criticized the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT) and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), when it believed that both treaties aimed only for the existing nuclear powers to monopolize nuclear technology and power. Since the reforms began in the opening-up era in the 1980s, China became actively involved in participation in the nuclear non-proliferation regime, which not only changed China’s national identity but also readjusted China’s vision about its own national interest and the global security. China affirmed its rejection to nuclear proliferation and began to involve partly in nuclear non-proliferation regime. China joined the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1984. In 1988, China signed an agreement with the IAEA for the application of safeguards, and voluntarily placed its civilian nuclear facilities under the IAEA safeguards. However China maintained its resistance to the NPT. This paper

  13. Commercial Nuclear Fuel Leasing - The Relationships to Nonproliferation and Repository Site Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the authors' concept of nuclear fuel leasing - - commercially-based and market-driven - - for nuclear power plant (NPP) facilities. Key issues currently affecting further development of this fuel leasing concept are examined, including issues of nonproliferation contribution and spent fuel management. If the nuclear power renaissance is to be realized in conjunction with a serious effort to reduce the impacts of greenhouse gas emissions from increasing electricity demand, nuclear fuel leasing is an important option for the current fuel cycle by its ability to extend the positive benefits of the current nonproliferation regime to countries where the scale of small programs and the complexities of the geology make final disposition so challenging. The authors believe that a principal focus on commercial options for nuclear fuel leasing is essential in order to make these options sustainable and acceptable, especially in countries wanting to build nuclear power plants to meet energy demands in an internationally acceptable way and to meet international concerns for preventing further proliferation of nuclear weapons technology and for reducing climate change effects. The authors are unaware of any public documents that describe market-priced and commercially-driven examples for fuel leasing. This paper discusses the main elements and issues for commercial fuel leasing based on detailed examinations of several conceptual models during the past eight years. (authors)

  14. Securing special nuclear material: Recent advances in neutron detection and their role in nonproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, R. C.; Bernstein, A.; Vanier, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    Neutron detection is an integral part of the global effort to prevent the proliferation of special nuclear material (SNM). Applications relying on neutron-detection technology range from traditional nuclear nonproliferation objectives, such as safeguarding material and verifying stockpile reductions, to the interdiction of SNM—a goal that has recently risen in priority to a level on par with traditional missions. Large multinational programs targeting interdiction and safeguards have deployed radiation-detection assets across the globe. In parallel with these deployments of commercially available technology, significant research and development has been directed toward the creation of next-generation assets. Neutron-detection technology plays a prominent role because of the capability of neutrons to penetrate materials that readily absorb gamma rays and the unique fission signatures neutrons possess. One particularly acute technology-development challenge results from dwindling supplies of H3e, partially triggered by widespread deployment of high-efficiency systems for portal monitoring. Other emerging missions, such as the desire to detect SNM at greater standoff distances, have also stimulated neutron-detection technology development. In light of these needs, this manuscript reviews the signatures of neutrons emitted by SNM, the principles of neutron detection, and various strategies under investigation for detection in the context of nuclear nonproliferation.

  15. Report on the Biological Monitoring Program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1992--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Hinzman, R.L.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1995-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The goals of BMP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, characterize potential health and environmental impacts, document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, bioaccumulation studies, and ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1992 to December 1993, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  16. Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2010, at the Nuclear Security Summit, Japan demonstrated its commitment to the strengthening of nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security and announced the establishment of the Integrated Comprehensive Support Center for Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security in the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), under the guidance and authority of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports and Science and Technology (MEXT), and in cooperation with other ministries. The goal of the Center is to strengthen nuclear non-proliferation and security in emerging nuclear power countries by sharing Japan's accumulated experiences in its peaceful use of nuclear energy. To achieve its goal, the Center serves three functions: (1) human resource and capacity building, (2) infrastructure development and technical assistance and (3) international coordination and cooperation. The Center will offer three types of training courses to strengthen human resources and capacity building in emerging nuclear power countries. In the Training Course on Nuclear Security, the participants will learn the design and evaluation process for physical protection and detection of and response to illegal or unauthorized acts related to nuclear materials. They will learn these issues not only through lectures and training but also using mockup facilities and virtual reality systems. Second, in the Training Course on Safeguards and State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material (SSAC), the Center will teach the experience of advanced safeguards activities in Japan for its full-scale nuclear fuel cycle facilities as a non-nuclear weapon state. The participants will learn the IAEA and national safeguards systems, the material accounting system and inspector activities. Third, in the Training on the International Nuclear Nonproliferation Framework, the participants will learn the international framework of nuclear non-proliferation including the IAEA safeguards system and

  17. Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A proposed Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; currently the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) was prepared in December 1986, as required by the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit that was issued on September 11, 1986. The effluent discharges to Mitchell Branch are complex, consisting of trace elements, organic chemicals, and radionuclides in addition to various conventional pollutants. Moreover, the composition of these effluent streams will be changing over time as various pollution abatement measures are implemented over the next several years. Although contaminant inputs to the stream originate primarily as point sources from existing plant operations, area sources, such as the classified burial grounds and the K-1407-C holding pond, can not be eliminated as potential sources of contaminants. The proposed BMAP consists of four tasks. These tasks include (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities. BMAP will determine whether the effluent limits established for ORGDP protect the designated use of the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch) for growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life. Another objective of the program is to document the ecological effects resulting from various pollution abatement projects, such as the Central Neutralization Facility.

  18. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant biological monitoring and abatement program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Giddings, J.M.; McCarthy, J.F.; Southworth, G.R.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA); Springborn Bionomics, Inc., Wareham, MA (USA); Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1989-10-01

    In May 1985, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, a nuclear weapons components production facility located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for the US Department of Energy. As a condition of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek), in particular, the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life, as designated by the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment. A second purpose for the BMAP is to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that will include construction of nine new wastewater treatment facilities over the next 4 years. Because of the complex nature of the effluent discharged to East Fork Poplar Creek and the temporal and spatial variability in the composition of the effluent (i.e., temporal variability related to various pollution abatement measures that will be implemented over the next several years and spatial variability caused by pollutant inputs downstream of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), a comprehensive, integrated approach to biological monitoring was developed for the BMAP. 39 refs., 5 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. The programmed death phenomena, aging, and the Samurai law of biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulachev, V P

    2001-07-01

    Analysis of the programmed death phenomena from mitochondria (mitoptosis) to whole organisms (phenoptosis) clearly shows that suicide programs are inherent at various levels of organization of living systems. Such programs perform very important functions, purifying (i) cells from damaged (or unwanted for other reasons) organelles, (ii) tissues from unwanted cells, (iii) organisms from organs transiently appearing during ontogenesis, and (iv) communities of organisms from unwanted individuals. Defence against reactive oxygen species (ROS) is probably one of primary evolutionary functions of programmed death mechanisms. So far, it seems that ROS play a key role in the mito-, apo-, organo- and phenoptoses. Here a concept is described which tries to unite Weismann's concept of aging as an adaptive programmed death mechanism and the alternative point of view considering aging as an inevitable result of accumulation in an organism of occasional injuries. It is suggested that injury accumulation is monitored by special system sending a death signal to actuate a phenoptotic program when the number of injuries reaches some critical level. The system in question is organized in such a way that the lethal case appears to be a result of phenoptosis long before occasional injuries make the functioning of the organism impossible. This strategy is supposed to prevent the appearance of asocial monsters capable to ruining kin, community and entire population. These relationships are regarded as an example of the Samurai law of biology: 'It is better to die than to be wrong'. It is stressed that for humans these cruel regulations look like an atavism that should be overcome to prolong the human life span. PMID:11404047

  20. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    near-term (1-4) years and longer-term (5-10) years planning horizons. Some final observations include acknowledging the enduring nature of several key objectives on the Obama Administration's arms control and nonproliferation agenda. The CTBT, FMCT, bilateral nuclear arms reductions and strengthening the NPT have been sought by successive U.S. Administrations for nearly thirty years. Efforts towards negotiated arms control, although de-emphasized by the G.W. Bush Administration, have remained a pillar of U.S. national security strategy for decades and are likely to be of enduring if not increasing importance for decades to come. Therefore revitalization and expansion of USG capabilities in this area can be a positive legacy no matter what near-term arms control goals are achieved over the next four years. This is why it is important to reconstruct integrated bureaucratic, legislative, budgetary and diplomatic strategies to sustain the arms control and nonproliferation agenda. In this endeavor some past lessons must be taken to heart to avoid bureaucratic overkill and keep interagency policy-making and implementation structures lean and effective. On the Technical side a serious, sustained multilateral program to develop, down select and performance test nuclear weapons dismantlement verification technologies and procedures should be immediately initiated. In order to make this happen the United States and Russia should join with the UK and other interested states in creating a sustained, full-scale research and development program for verification at their respective nuc1ear weapons and defense establishments. The goals include development of effective technologies and procedures for: (1) Attribute measurement systems to certify nuclear warheads and military fissile materials; (2) Chain-of-custody methods to track items after they are authenticated and enter accountability; (3) Transportation monitoring; (4) Storage monitoring; (5) Fissile materials conversion

  1. Activities of the ANS special committee on nuclear nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckner, M.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Sanders, T.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) Special Committee on Nuclear Nonproliferation (SCNN) believes that to reverse current trends, U.S. policy must revisit the fundamental premise of Atoms for Peace: A collaborative nuclear enterprise enhances rather than diminishes national security. To accomplish this, the U.S. Government must develop an integrated policy on energy, nuclear technology, and national security. The policy must recognize that these are interrelated and that an integrated policy will require substantial investments in nuclear research and development and in nuclear education. This paper describes the current activities of the SCNN to heighten awareness of nonproliferation issues for decision makers and ANS members, and alert them to the need for action to resolve these concerns. (author)

  2. An Introduction to Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project was to compile a course material that covers how the nuclear safeguards system has emerged and how it works today. The produced compendium is directed to both university students and people concerned by safeguards from the industry. The primary aim of the first part of this paper is to describe the historical development of this global non-proliferation system and its central tasks. A second purpose is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of its current design in order to answer the following question: Can we today say that we have a functioning global non-proliferation system? Does it require further strengthening, and, if so, how can this be achieved? In the second section we review the verification regime within nuclear safeguards, i. e. describe the methods and techniques that are available to reassure the world community that concluded treaties are adhered to

  3. An Introduction to Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Safeguards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haakansson, Ane; Jonter, Thomas

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this project was to compile a course material that covers how the nuclear safeguards system has emerged and how it works today. The produced compendium is directed to both university students and people concerned by safeguards from the industry. The primary aim of the first part of this paper is to describe the historical development of this global non-proliferation system and its central tasks. A second purpose is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of its current design in order to answer the following question: Can we today say that we have a functioning global non-proliferation system? Does it require further strengthening, and, if so, how can this be achieved? In the second section we review the verification regime within nuclear safeguards, i. e. describe the methods and techniques that are available to reassure the world community that concluded treaties are adhered to

  4. Activities of the ANS special committee on nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Nuclear Society (ANS) Special Committee on Nuclear Nonproliferation (SCNN) believes that to reverse current trends, U.S. policy must revisit the fundamental premise of Atoms for Peace: A collaborative nuclear enterprise enhances rather than diminishes national security. To accomplish this, the U.S. Government must develop an integrated policy on energy, nuclear technology, and national security. The policy must recognize that these are interrelated and that an integrated policy will require substantial investments in nuclear research and development and in nuclear education. This paper describes the current activities of the SCNN to heighten awareness of nonproliferation issues for decision makers and ANS members, and alert them to the need for action to resolve these concerns. (author)

  5. The gas centrifuge and the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gas centrifuge is a particularly challenging technology for the institutions of the existing nonproliferation regime. Centrifuge facilities can be reconfigured for the production of weapon-grade uranium in a comparatively short time-frame, while clandestine facilities are virtually impossible to detect with technical intelligence tools. A potential expansion in nuclear power and the natural maturing of states technical abilities suggest a world where centrifuge proliferation could become an even more serious threat to global security. This overview reviews the proliferation-relevant technical characteristics of the gas centrifuge and examines how effective control strategies must differ from traditional approaches. A well-informed policymaking process is needed to address these issues. We outline current gaps in understanding that ought to be closed in order to formulate robust nonproliferation policies. (authors)

  6. The international nuclear non-proliferation system: Challenges and choices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    When a topic has been under discussion for almost 40 years there is a danger that the literature will become excessively esoteric and that, as Philip Grummett suggests, '...a new scholasticism will arise' (p.79). Originating in a November l982 seminar co-sponsored by the British International Studies Association and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this volume is a refreshing, well conceived, and well written antidote to that trend. It is also well timed for the 1985 NPT Review Conference. The eight chapters of the volume are divided into three sections. Following an introduction by Anthony McGrew that touches on all the major themes of the volume, the first section deals with the existing non-proliferation system. In three chapters the historical, institutional and policy-making elements of the present system are outlined. There is a vignette on the Nuclear Suppliers Group in Wilmshurst's chapter one (pp. 28-33). Fischer's informative chapter on the IAEA is followed by Gummett's examination of policy options, including, for example, the linking of conventional weapons transfer to non-proliferation policies. The second section, also of three chapters, examines current issues: the state of the international nuclear industry, and the non-proliferation policies of the United States and Britain. Walker's chapter focuses chiefly on change in the industry-from monopoly to pluralism in suppliers, the effect of the economic recession, and the combined effect of these two factors on international politics. Devine's American non-proliferation chapter is a statement of the State Department view, whilst Keohane's chapter on Britain attempts to put the Trident procurement into a proliferation context. The British chapter is present because of ethnocentric considerations.

  7. The international nuclear non-proliferation system: Challenges and choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When a topic has been under discussion for almost 40 years there is a danger that the literature will become excessively esoteric and that, as Philip Grummett suggests, '...a new scholasticism will arise' (p.79). Originating in a November l982 seminar co-sponsored by the British International Studies Association and the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this volume is a refreshing, well conceived, and well written antidote to that trend. It is also well timed for the 1985 NPT Review Conference. The eight chapters of the volume are divided into three sections. Following an introduction by Anthony McGrew that touches on all the major themes of the volume, the first section deals with the existing non-proliferation system. In three chapters the historical, institutional and policy-making elements of the present system are outlined. There is a vignette on the Nuclear Suppliers Group in Wilmshurst's chapter one (pp. 28-33). Fischer's informative chapter on the IAEA is followed by Gummett's examination of policy options, including, for example, the linking of conventional weapons transfer to non-proliferation policies. The second section, also of three chapters, examines current issues: the state of the international nuclear industry, and the non-proliferation policies of the United States and Britain. Walker's chapter focuses chiefly on change in the industry-from monopoly to pluralism in suppliers, the effect of the economic recession, and the combined effect of these two factors on international politics. Devine's American non-proliferation chapter is a statement of the State Department view, whilst Keohane's chapter on Britain attempts to put the Trident procurement into a proliferation context. The British chapter is present because of ethnocentric considerations

  8. Impasses and mistakes of the nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is analyzed the limitations for implementing the American Nuclear non-proliferation policy. It is shown the crisis of the North American international relations, with the economic and scientific development of the advanced capitalist nations and some countries of the third world, the penetration of these countries in the world trade commerce of the nuclear industry as sellers and cunsumers, and the Latin American's and Brazil's position in the international panorama of nuclear power. (M.C.K.)

  9. Issues before the Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference was held in May 1975 at Geneva. In this connection, the various basic issues raised by the discriminatory features of the NPT are discussed in detail. The discriminatory features are : (1) the NPT allows the nuclear-weapon nations to proliferate, but applies safeguards provisions to non-nuclear weapon nations if they are signatory to the treaty, (2) security assurance given to non-nuclear weapon nations is not satisfactory. (M.G.B.)

  10. Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the statement of the Director General of the IAEA to the Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, New York, 24 April 2000. The speech focus on the IAEA activities relevant to the implementation of the Treaty, namely: verification through the IAEA safeguards, peaceful nuclear co-operation in the field of human health, food and agriculture, water resources management, environmental pollution monitoring, training

  11. The nuclear non-proliferation problem: Diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear non-proliferation policies have now been discussed, and in some cases implemented, for almost forty years. They have been of both a unilateral national and multilateral international character, the latter based either solely on the actions of the nuclear-weapon states and their industrial allies, or on an attempt to obtain a much wider consensus between suppliers and recipients of nuclear-energy material and technology. However, the nature of the acts of nuclear proliferation that they have attempted to prevent, or at least delay, have not remained static over this period: both the definition of nuclear proliferation and its technical and political context and motivations have been subject to slow yet subtle changes. Thus any comprehensive evaluation of the existing non-proliferation system must focus both on policies for non-proliferation and on the changing nature of the activity they seek to control. For one of its most important characteristics is that its international safeguarding arrangements seek to monitor only the use made of certain materials with a military potential (i.e. plutonium and enriched uranium), rather than directly prevent the construction of nuclear weapons

  12. INTEGRATION OF FACILITY MODELING CAPABILITIES FOR NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorensek, M.; Hamm, L.; Garcia, H.; Burr, T.; Coles, G.; Edmunds, T.; Garrett, A.; Krebs, J.; Kress, R.; Lamberti, V.; Schoenwald, D.; Tzanos, C.; Ward, R.

    2011-07-18

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  13. Integration of facility modeling capabilities for nuclear nonproliferation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  14. Integration Of Facility Modeling Capabilities For Nuclear Nonproliferation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  15. Integration of Facility Modeling Capabilities for Nuclear Nonproliferation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclear nonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facility modeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facility modeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facility modeling capabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferation analysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facility modeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facility modeling capabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  16. Nuclear trade and non-proliferation: report by working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is organized in three parts. The first one analyses the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) mentioning the arrangements and registered agreements between the IAEA and Member States. Also, the most important international legal instruments concerned the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are considered. In the second part, other international, regional or national legal instruments are discussed, particularly the London Club Guidelines, Treaty of Tlatelolco, the EURATOM and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Treaties, besides the American law of 18 Mars, 1978 - Nuclear Non-proliferation Act (NNPA) about the exportation of materials and services or nuclear technology; An appreciation about the laws and treaties are presented in the third part. Special attention is given to reinforce the non-proliferation dispositives face the actions after Iraq's event (1990): new installations and nuclear activities moratorium extension export controls extension established by the London Club Guidelines and full scope safeguards adoption to accomplish controls and protect of dual-use nuclear-related technologies. 3 refs

  17. The effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program on socioscientific reasoning, content learning, and understanding of inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jennifer L.

    Preparing students to take informed positions on complex problems through critical evaluation is a primary goal of university education. Socioscientific issues (SSI) have been established as effective contexts for students to develop this competency, as well as reasoning skills and content knowledge. This mixed-methods study investigates the effects of an interdisciplinary undergraduate human biology program focused on the development of evidence-based reasoning to form personal commitments on SSI. Specifically, the study investigates how human biology majors differ from traditional biology majors in their reasoning with SSI, their perceptions of experiences with SSI, their understanding of scientific inquiry, their levels and perceptions of science content knowledge, and their general program perceptions. These outcomes were assessed through open-ended questionnaires on SSI and scientific inquiry and a basic biology concept test administered to 95 participants representing both programs and 16 semi-structured student interviews. Although the two groups did not differ significantly in their decisions or factors influencing their decisions in SSI, human biology majors showed higher levels of socioscientific reasoning, suggesting that learning contextualized in SSI helped them understand and reason with similar issues. While biology majors reported few experiences with socioscientific reasoning, human biology majors felt well equipped to reason with SSI and more likely to consider alternative perspectives in their decision making. Human biology majors also were more likely to view social science research as a form of inquiry and less likely to view scientific inquiry as purely experimental. No difference was found between groups in basic biology content knowledge, although human biology majors felt they were exposed to less detailed biology content. This exploratory study illustrates a novel approach to interdisciplinary, SSI-based science education at the college

  18. On the U.S. Post-Cold War Non-proliferation Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu; Zikui

    2014-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the importance of non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction(WMD) has been enhanced constantly in the U.S. national security strategy and on the agenda of the U.S. foreign policy, and non-proliferation gradually has becomes one of its most important policy objectives. As the sole superpower, the U.S. non-proliferation policy has not only influenced and changed the international non-proliferation regime dramatically, but also greatly affected the non-proliferation effect of the international community. To prevent WMD proliferation, the United States has to abandon the practice of selective non-proliferation, group politics, prejudice on different ideologies and social systems, and maintenance of the U.S. hegemony. While pursuing its and allies interests, it must also attach great importance to other countries interests.

  19. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support.

  20. Yucca Mountain Biological Resources Monitoring Program. Progress report, January 1994--December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (as amended in 1987) to study and characterize the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. During site characterization, the DOE will conduct a variety of geotechnical, geochemical, geological, and hydrological studies to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential repository. To ensure that site characterization activities do not adversely affect the environment at Yucca Mountain, a program has been implemented to monitor and mitigate potential impacts and ensure activities comply with applicable environmental regulations. This report describes the activities and accomplishments of EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) from January 1994 through December 1994 for six program areas within the Terrestrial Ecosystem component of the environmental program for the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP): Site Characterization Effects, Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), Habitat Reclamation, Monitoring and Mitigation, Radiological Monitoring, and Biological Support

  1. SASSIE: A program to study intrinsically disordered biological molecules and macromolecular ensembles using experimental scattering restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Joseph E.; Raghunandan, Sindhu; Nanda, Hirsh; Krueger, Susan

    2012-02-01

    A program to construct ensembles of biomolecular structures that are consistent with experimental scattering data are described. Specifically, we generate an ensemble of biomolecular structures by varying sets of backbone dihedral angles that are then filtered using experimentally determined restraints to rapidly determine structures that have scattering profiles that are consistent with scattering data. We discuss an application of these tools to predict a set of structures for the HIV-1 Gag protein, an intrinsically disordered protein, that are consistent with small-angle neutron scattering experimental data. We have assembled these algorithms into a program called SASSIE for structure generation, visualization, and analysis of intrinsically disordered proteins and other macromolecular ensembles using neutron and X-ray scattering restraints. Program summaryProgram title: SASSIE Catalogue identifier: AEKL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKL_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3 991 624 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 826 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Python, C/C++, Fortran Computer: PC/Mac Operating system: 32- and 64-bit Linux (Ubuntu 10.04, Centos 5.6) and Mac OS X (10.6.6) RAM: 1 GB Classification: 3 External routines: Python 2.6.5, numpy 1.4.0, swig 1.3.40, scipy 0.8.0, Gnuplot-py-1.8, Tcl 8.5, Tk 8.5, Mac installation requires aquaterm 1.0 (or X window system) and Xcode 3 development tools. Nature of problem: Open source software to generate structures of disordered biological molecules that subsequently allow for the comparison of computational and experimental results is limiting the use of scattering resources. Solution method: Starting with an all atom model of a protein, for example, users can input

  2. Publications of the space biology program for 1975-1977: A special bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, J. C. (Compiler); Halstead, T. W. (Compiler)

    1978-01-01

    Documents cited represent research encompassing several disciplines of space biology: botany and plant pathology, physiology and biophysics, agricultural and environmental sciences, anatomy and embryology, cellular and comparative biology, horticulture and aerospace biology.

  3. Nuclear non-proliferation: the U.S. obligation to accept spent fuel from foreign research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) had a 35-year program for the sale and receipt (for reprocessing) of high-enriched research reactor fuel for foreign research reactors, executed pursuant to bilateral agreements with nuclear trading partners. In 1988, DOE abruptly let this program lapse, citing environmental obstacles. DOE promised to renew the program upon completion of an environmental review which was to take approximately six months. After three and a half years, an environmental assessment was finally produced.Over a year and half elapsed since publication of the assessment before DOE finally took action to renew the program. The paper sets forth the nuclear non-proliferation and related foreign policy considerations which support renewal of the program. It also summarized the contractual and other commitments made to foreign research reactors and foreign governments and aspects of U.S. environmental law as they apply to continuation of the program. (author)

  4. Nuclear non-proliferation: the U.S. obligation to accept spent fuel from foreign research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapar, Howard K.; Egan, Joseph R. [Shaw, Pittman, Potts and Trowbridge (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) had a 35-year program for the sale and receipt (for reprocessing) of high-enriched research reactor fuel for foreign research reactors, executed pursuant to bilateral agreements with nuclear trading partners. In 1988, DOE abruptly let this program lapse, citing environmental obstacles. DOE promised to renew the program upon completion of an environmental review which was to take approximately six months. After three and a half years, an environmental assessment was finally produced.Over a year and half elapsed since publication of the assessment before DOE finally took action to renew the program. The paper sets forth the nuclear non-proliferation and related foreign policy considerations which support renewal of the program. It also summarized the contractual and other commitments made to foreign research reactors and foreign governments and aspects of U.S. environmental law as they apply to continuation of the program. (author).

  5. Institutional overviews. Overview of the JAEA and the Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center (NPSTC) was formed within the new Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) to carry out safeguards and material control duties for the JAEA. Development of technologies and procedures for safeguards is an important duty. In addition, the new NPSTC will assume a 'think tank' role in support of the nonproliferation regime, help train nonproliferation experts, and cooperate with academic, government and non-governmental organizations on nonproliferation issues. This report briefly summarizes the formation of the JAEA and describes the duties and structure of the NPSTC in detail. (author)

  6. Effects of x-irradiation and Adriamycin on proliferating and nonproliferating hair coat of the mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-response curves for proliferating, nonproliferating, and nonproliferating hair coat stimulated 24 hours after treatment show similar D/sub O/ of 135 rad and a D/sub q/ of 500, 900, and 1400 rad respectively. Using a priming dose of 650 rad x-rays, a drug-dose-response curve was established in the proliferating hair coat. Drug-dose-response curve was established for the nonproliferating, stimulated coat with priming doses of 1200 and 1400 rad. No drug effect could be seen in the nonproliferating hair coat left unstimulated. Cyclic interaction between drug and irradiation was found in the proliferating hair coat

  7. Geochemical, hydrological and biological cycling of energy residuals. Research plan: subsurface transport program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because natural processes associated with the release and the transport of organic compounds, trace metals, and radionuclides are incompletely understood, research in this area is critical if the long term scientific uncertainties about contaminant transport are to be resolved. The processes that control mobilization and attenuation of energy residuals in soils and geological strata, their hydrological transport to and within ground water regimes, and their accumulation in biological systems require research attention. A summary of DOE's core research program is described. It is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical hydrological, and biophysical mechanics that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in natural systems can be understood

  8. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1994-03-01

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992.

  9. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1990 to November 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 23, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, guiding plans for remediation, and protecting human health. In September 1992, a renewed permit was issued which requires toxicity monitoring of continuous and intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities. This report includes ESD/ORNL activities occurring from December 1990 to November 1992

  10. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January-December 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997

  11. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). A plan for the biological monitoring of the receiving streams was implemented in 1987 and consisted of ecological surveys, toxicity monitoring of effluents and receiving streams, evaluation of bioaccumulation of trace contaminants in biota, and supplemental chemical characterization of effluents. Beginning in fall 1991, the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The BMP has been continued because it has proven to be extremely valuable in (1) identifying those effluents with the potential for adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assessing the ecological health of receiving streams, and (3) guiding plans for remediation and protecting human health. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of benthic macroinvertebrate communities and fish. With the exception of the benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys, this report focuses on activities from January to December 1997.

  12. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986

  13. First annual report on the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J. M. [ed.; Adams, S. M.; Blaylock, B. G.; Boston, H. L.; Frank, M. L.; Garten, C. T.; Houston, M. A.; Kimmel, B. L.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.; Stewart, A. J.; Walton, B. T.; Berry, J. B.; Talmage, S. S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Amano, H. [JAERI, Tokai Res., Establishment, Ibari-Ken (Japan); Jimenez, B. D. [School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Puerto Rico (San Juan); Kitchings, J. T. [ERCE, Denver, CO (United States); Meyers-Schoene, L. [Advanced Sciences, Inc., Fernald, OH (United States); Mohrbacher, D. A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Olsen, C. R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Health and Environmental Research

    1992-08-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the first of a series of annual reports presenting the results of BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from March through December 1986.

  14. TRANSPARENCY, VERIFICATION AND THE FUTURE OF NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION AND ARMS CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. PILAT

    2000-11-01

    In the future, if the nuclear nonproliferation and arms control agendas are to advance, they will likely become increasingly seen as parallel undertakings with the objective of cradle-to-grave controls over nuclear warheads and/or materials. The pursuit of such an agenda was difficult enough at the outset of the nuclear age; it will be more difficult in the future with relatively wide-spread military and civil nuclear programs. This agenda will require both verification and transparency. To address emerging nuclear dangers, we may expect hybrid verification-transparency regimes to be seen as acceptable. Such regimes would have intrusive but much more limited verification provisions than Cold War accords, and have extensive transparency provisions designed in part to augment the verification measures, to fill in the ''gaps'' of the verification regime, and the like.

  15. Environmental measurements and technology for non-proliferation objectives. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to identify multi-disciplinary and single focus laboratories from the environmental and public health communities that can serve as technical center of opportunity for nuclear, inorganic and organic analyses. The objectives of the Office of Research and Development effort are twofold: (1) to identify the technology shortcomings and technologies gaps (thus requirements) within these communities that could benefit from state-of-the-art infield analysis technologies currently under development and (2) to promote scientist-to-scientist dialog and technical exchange under such existing US government internship programs (eg SABIT/USDOC) to improve skills and work relationships. Although the data analysis will focus on environmentally sensitive signatures and materials, the office of Research and Development wishes to further its nuclear non-proliferation objectives by assessing the current technical skill and ingenious analytical tools in less-developed countries so as to broaden the base of capability for multi-species measurement technology development

  16. The Extensive View of Hydrologic Science Taken in the NSF Program: Interfaces with Geochemistry and Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    The 1991 NRC publication Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences (the “Eagleson Report”) identified one part of the domain of the science as “the physical and chemical processes characterizing or driven by the cycling of continental water at all scales as well as those biological processes that interact significantly with the water cycle.” The statement is in keeping with the grand view of hydrologic science cogently presented in the report and clearly hints at an ambitious agenda. The NSF Geosciences Directorate initiated the Hydrologic Sciences Program in 1992 with an initial funding level of $2M. The formation of the Program represents a notable achievement and the Program has grown by leaps and bounds as judged using any sensible metric. It is fair to ask, nevertheless, whether the Program was able to embrace the extensive vision presented in the Eagleson report. As a particular example, one can ask whether processes involving chemistry and biology became key components. A search of the NSF data base restricted to expired awards, Hydrologic Sciences as the program, James as the project officer, and individually with key words “biogeochemistry”, “geochemistry”, “ecology”, and “water quality” indicates that 95 awards were begun and completed since the program inception. The topics of the proposals range widely and include, for example, work on links between tectonism and water quality, on sediment dynamics in large drainage basins, on arsenic speciation along groundwater flow paths, on canopy stomatal conductance and forest transpiration, and on the effects of climate variability on wetlands. Results from the various researches have enriched the discipline and transformed our thinking in profound ways. Discoveries of direct pathways between the mantle and the near-surface hydrologic system via the active magmatic and fault systems of the southwestern USA and of a significant contribution to the solute load of large streams from Hot

  17. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program 2007 Calendar Yeare Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.J.; Greeley, M. S. Jr.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryan, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2008-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located

  18. Y-12 National Security Complex Biological Monitoring And Abatement Program 2008 Calendar Year Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M. J.; Greeley Jr., M. S.; Mathews, T. J.; Morris, G. W.; Roy, W. K.; Ryon, M. G.; Smith, J. G.; Southworth, G. R.

    2009-07-01

    The National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex) which became effective May 1, 2006, continued a requirement for a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The BMAP was originally developed in 1985 to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Complex protected the classified uses of the receiving stream (East Fork Poplar Creek: EFPC), in particular, the growth and propagation of aquatic life (Loar et al. 1989). The objectives of the current BMAP are similar, specifically to assess stream ecological conditions relative to regulatory limits and criteria, to assess ecological impacts as well as recovery in response to Y-12 operations, and to investigate the causes of continuing impacts. The BMAP consists of three tasks that reflect complementary approaches to evaluating the effects of the Y-12 Complex discharges on the biotic integrity of EFPC. These tasks include: (1) bioaccumulation monitoring, (2) benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring, and (3) fish community monitoring. As required by the NPDES permit, the BMAP benthic macroinvertebrate community monitoring task includes studies to annually evaluate the receiving stream's biological integrity in comparison to TN Water Quality Criteria. BMAP monitoring is currently being conducted at five primary EFPC sites, although sites may be excluded or added depending upon the specific objectives of the various tasks. Criteria used in selecting the sites include: (1) location of sampling sites used in other studies, (2) known or suspected sources of downstream impacts, (3) proximity to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) boundaries, (4) appropriate habitat distribution, and (5) access. The primary sampling sites include upper EFPC at kilometers (EFKs) 24.4 and 23.4 [upstream and downstream of Lake Reality (LR) respectively]; EFK 18.7 (also EFK 18.2 and 19), located off

  19. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate

  20. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant December 1993 to December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.

    1996-05-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was implemented in 1987 by the University of Kentucky. Research staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) served as reviewers and advisers to the University of Kentucky. Beginning in fall 1991, ESD added data collection and report preparation to its responsibilities for the PGDP BMP. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota, and (4) recommend any program improvements that would increase effluent treatability. In September 1992, a renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit was issued to PGDP. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent and ambient toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report includes ESD activities occurring from December 1993 to December 1994, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  1. Review and comment on the advanced spent fuel management process (1): Technical aspects and non-proliferation concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts are made to analyze the project, the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology (ASFMT), which is currently carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, on the technical feasibility and validity as well as on the nuclear non-proliferation concerns. The project is a part of a program under the 'Long and Midterm Nuclear Development Program'. On the technical analysis, reviewed the papers presented at the national and international meetings on the subject by KAERI staffs, and also participated to various technical discussions on the 'Mock-up Test', currently in progress. On the non-proliferation concerns, the ASFMT project was reviewed and analyzed in reference to various programs currently in progress or in a formulation stages in US, such as the DOE TOPS and ATW. Further reviewed the past JASNEC process and programs for possible application of the ASFMT project for JASNEC project. Provided a few thoughts for effectively carrying out the ASFMT project, and a plan for the next phase is presented

  2. Review and comment on the advanced spent fuel management process (1): Technical aspects and non-proliferation concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yo Taik

    2001-01-01

    Efforts are made to analyze the project, the Advanced Spent Fuel Management Technology (ASFMT), which is currently carried out at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, on the technical feasibility and validity as well as on the nuclear non-proliferation concerns. The project is a part of a program under the 'Long and Midterm Nuclear Development Program'. On the technical analysis, reviewed the papers presented at the national and international meetings on the subject by KAERI staffs, and also participated to various technical discussions on the 'Mock-up Test', currently in progress. On the non-proliferation concerns, the ASFMT project was reviewed and analyzed in reference to various programs currently in progress or in a formulation stages in US, such as the DOE TOPS and ATW. Further reviewed the past JASNEC process and programs for possible application of the ASFMT project for JASNEC project. Provided a few thoughts for effectively carrying out the ASFMT project, and a plan for the next phase is presented.

  3. Transition-ready technologies and expertise from the Chemical and Biological National Security Program at LLNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folta, P A; McBride, M T

    2006-02-22

    HSARPA has initiated a new Bioinformatics and Assay Development solicitation, BIAD2 (BAA 06-01), to address a number of technology gaps and requirements for biodetection (www.hsarpabaa.com). This solicitation will leverage the vast research and development capabilities of the private sector and academia in order to meet the needs of HSARPA and Homeland Security. In order to meet these requirements, this solicitation will: (1) Develop and validate actionable assays for the public and private sector; (2) Develop and validate new assays and novel assay methodologies to enhance existing detection systems and enable future detection platforms; (3) Develop next generation assays which are robust against novel, emerging and engineered threats; (4) Develop novel assays that detect low levels of ribonucleic acid (RNA)-based viral threats in complex backgrounds; (5) Develop novel assays to characterize the viability, degree of virulence or toxicity, and countermeasure resistance of a biological agent; and (6) Develop new bioinformatics tools to support assay development and assay validation The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Bioassays and Signature Program (BSP) develops nationally-validated detection and identification assays to cover the full range of biological threat agents, starting from human, animal, and plant pathogens on the Select Agent list. The assays that have been co-developed by the CDC and the BSP are used internationally and represent the gold standard for molecular detection of select agent pathogens for the public health community. They are also used in the DHS environmental monitoring operations such as BioWatch and DHS National Security Special Events support. These reagents have been used to process and analyze more than 5 million samples and have delivered exceptional performance for the end users, with zero false positives since their deployment. Currently, highly-multiplexed nucleic acid assays that represent the &apos

  4. Nuclear cooperation and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the years since World War II, few if any areas of vital foreign and national security policy have been the object of such consistency of approach and continuity of effort as has been that of deterring the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The proliferation which has occurred is a matter of grave import. Yet, measured against the diffusion of other new technologies--both civil and military--the acquisition of nuclear explosive capabilities during the 30 years that have passed since the development of the atomic bomb has been encouragingly limited. This is not accidental. It has been, in large measure, the result of U.S. policies and programs and of active U.S. leadership directed toward the containment of national capabilities for the acquisition of nuclear weapons. However, the results do not allow complacency. Concern still exists regarding the growing stockpiles of plutonium and the spread of sensitive technologies such as reprocessing. The results do, nevertheless, give cause for encouragement that proliferation is not inevitable, and that, with the best of effort, it can be contained

  5. Effects from climatic changes and increased UV radiation. How is this dealt with in the research program on biologic variety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the project is to widen the knowledge on a sustainable use of biological resources and conservation of the particularity and versatility of the nature. The ecosystems natural composition, function and dynamics will be investigated as well as human impacts on these ecosystems. Analysis of the reasons for the threats and the efficiency of various dispositions will be carried out. The main areas of the program are: 1) Biological diversity, composition, function and dynamics. 2) Effects of damage in habitats. 3) Introductions of strange species and genotypes, including genetically modified organisms. 4) Management of the versatility. Currently the program has 9 projects

  6. PlasmaDNA: a free, cross-platform plasmid manipulation program for molecular biology laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainy Jeffrey

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most molecular biology experiments, and the techniques associated with this field of study, involve a great deal of engineering in the form of molecular cloning. Like all forms of engineering, perfect information about the starting material is crucial for successful completion of design and strategies. Results We have generated a program that allows complete in silico simulation of the cloning experiment. Starting with a primary DNA sequence, PlasmaDNA looks for restriction sites, open reading frames, primer annealing sequences, and various common domains. The databases are easily expandable by the user to fit his most common cloning needs. PlasmaDNA can manage and graphically represent multiple sequences at the same time, and keeps in memory the overhangs at the end of the sequences if any. This means that it is possible to virtually digest fragments, to add the digestion products to the project, and to ligate together fragments with compatible ends to generate the new sequences. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR fragments can also be virtually generated using the primer database, automatically adding to the fragments any 5' extra sequences present in the primers. Conclusion PlasmaDNA is a program available both on Windows and Apple operating systems, designed to facilitate molecular cloning experiments by building a visual map of the DNA. It then allows the complete planning and simulation of the cloning experiment. It also automatically updates the new sequences generated in the process, which is an important help in practice. The capacity to maintain multiple sequences in the same file can also be used to archive the various steps and strategies involved in the cloning of each construct. The program is freely available for download without charge or restriction.

  7. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2011 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D. J.; Anderson, D. C.; Hall, D. B.; Greger, P. D.; Ostler, W. K.

    2012-06-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program's activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2011. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2011, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  8. Considerations on nonproliferation regime meeting in a changing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Hiroyoshi; Kikuchi, Masahiro [Nuclear Material Control Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    This paper summarizes the past history of worldwide nonproliferation regime, then proposes the future improvements on the regime. Present worldwide nonproliferation regime have been formulated during the cold war era. Therefore, the structure and measures of the regime were heavily influenced by the features of cold war era. Though the cold war was over, still new international order does not seem to be on the horizon, we need to review the present regime and to improve the regime compatible to new world situation. Generally speaking, the nonproliferation regime have gained moderate success so far. We could point out the following features as a kind of success: (1) No increase of overt Nuclear Weapon State (NWS), (2) All five NWSs have finally participated to the NPT, (3) South Africa has destroyed its nuclear weapons and became Non-Nuclear Weapon State (NNWS), (4) Successful conclusions of some regional arrangements, such as Tlatelolco, Ralotonga, and (5) Strengthening of export control on sensitive items. On the other hand, we recognize the following points as the failures of the regime. (6) India, Pakistan and Israel reject to join the NPT, (7) Existence of some violation against NPT regime, i.e. Iraqi case and DPRK case, (8) Insufficient effective measures against brain drain problem, (9) Risk exists for the long term extension of NPT, and (10) Insufficient flexibility to meet changing boundary conditions. We would propose the various measures for strengthening to meet changing boundary conditions, as follows: (11) Measures to be taken along with future civil use of Plutonium, (12) Strengthening and rationalizing international safeguards, (13) Countermeasures for emerging new types of nuclear proliferation, (14) Strengthening nuclear material control in NWS, (15) Measures to be taken for nuclear material from dismantled nuclear weapons, and (16) Nuclear disarmament. (author).

  9. Considerations on nonproliferation regime meeting in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the past history of worldwide nonproliferation regime, then proposes the future improvements on the regime. Present worldwide nonproliferation regime have been formulated during the cold war era. Therefore, the structure and measures of the regime were heavily influenced by the features of cold war era. Though the cold war was over, still new international order does not seem to be on the horizon, we need to review the present regime and to improve the regime compatible to new world situation. Generally speaking, the nonproliferation regime have gained moderate success so far. We could point out the following features as a kind of success: 1) No increase of overt Nuclear Weapon State (NWS), 2) All five NWSs have finally participated to the NPT, 3) South Africa has destroyed its nuclear weapons and became Non-Nuclear Weapon State (NNWS), 4) Successful conclusions of some regional arrangements, such as Tlatelolco, Ralotonga, and 5) Strengthening of export control on sensitive items. On the other hand, we recognize the following points as the failures of the regime. 6) India, Pakistan and Israel reject to join the NPT, 7) Existence of some violation against NPT regime, i.e. Iraqi case and DPRK case, 8) Insufficient effective measures against brain drain problem, 9) Risk exists for the long term extension of NPT, and 10) Insufficient flexibility to meet changing boundary conditions. We would propose the various measures for strengthening to meet changing boundary conditions, as follows: 11) Measures to be taken along with future civil use of Plutonium, 12) Strengthening and rationalizing international safeguards, 13) Countermeasures for emerging new types of nuclear proliferation, 14) Strengthening nuclear material control in NWS, 15) Measures to be taken for nuclear material from dismantled nuclear weapons, and 16) Nuclear disarmament. (author)

  10. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  11. The non-proliferation paradigm and the restive outlier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear non-proliferation paradigm has rarely remained static. Its logic or the underlying principle has however been singular-non-proliferation should lead to nuclear disarmament, and eventually total elimination. It is the approach to the paradigm that has evolved over the years, often accentuated by, and many a time succumbing to, the transformations in the global security environment. Milestones in this evolution have often been construed as shifts in the paradigm, as newer security imperatives necessitated augmentations in existing approaches to proliferation challenges

  12. Induced shock propagation on the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Explosive Effects Physics Project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory planned and conducted experiments on the NPE (Non-Proliferation Experiment) as part of its effort to define source functions for seismic waves. Beyond the explosive chamber, the detonation induced shock propagated through the saturated tuff of the N-tunnel complex. The CORRTEX (COntinuous Reflectometry for Radius vsw Time EXperiment) system was used to investigate the shock propagation in two drill holes and the access drift. The CORRTEX experiments fielded will be described. The data obtained are reviewed and an apparent asymmetry in the radiating shock is discussed

  13. Saving the NPT: past and future non-proliferation bargains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thorough study of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), the author looks at the origins of the NPT, its original bargains, and the current 'global crisis of compliance'. Then he looks to the 2005 NPT Review Conference for approaches 'to preserve the integrity and the credibility of the Treaty'. He suggests a new set of bargains centered around two issues: increase rewards for members in good standing of their obligations, but promote sanctions for those cheating; and recognize that nuclear disarmament is a distant goal, but satisfy the legitimate worries of NNWS (Non-Nuclear Weapon States)

  14. Saving the NPT: past and future non-proliferation bargains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B

    2005-07-01

    In this thorough study of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT), the author looks at the origins of the NPT, its original bargains, and the current 'global crisis of compliance'. Then he looks to the 2005 NPT Review Conference for approaches 'to preserve the integrity and the credibility of the Treaty'. He suggests a new set of bargains centered around two issues: increase rewards for members in good standing of their obligations, but promote sanctions for those cheating; and recognize that nuclear disarmament is a distant goal, but satisfy the legitimate worries of NNWS (Non-Nuclear Weapon States)

  15. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Kusumi, R.; Daures, Pascal A.; Janssens, Willem; Dickman, Deborah A.

    2010-06-16

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures

  16. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association Addresses Safeguards and Nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renaissance of efforts to expand the use of nuclear energy requires the parallel development of a renewed and more sophisticated work force. Growth in the nuclear sector with high standard of safety, safeguards and security requires skilled staff for design, operations, inspections etc. High-quality nuclear technology educational programs are diminished from past years, and the ability of universities to attract students and to meet future staffing requirements of the nuclear industry is becoming seriously compromised. Thus, education and training in nuclear engineering and sciences is one of the cornerstones for the nuclear sector. Teaching in the nuclear field still seems strongly influenced by national history but it is time to strengthen resources and collaborate. Moreover with the current nuclear security threats it becomes critical that nuclear technology experts master the basic principles not only of safety, but also of nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation and nuclear security. In Europe the European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN) Association has established the certificate 'European Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering (EMSNE)' as the classic nuclear engineering program covering reactor operation and nuclear safety. However, it does not include courses on nonproliferation, safeguards, or dual-use technologies. The lack of education in nuclear safeguards was tackled by the European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA), through development and implementation of safeguards course modules. Since 2005 the ESARDA Working Group, called the Training and Knowledge Management Working Group, (TKMWG) has worked with the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra, Italy to organize a Nuclear Safeguards and Nonproliferation course. This five-day course is held each spring at the JRC, and continues to show increasing interest as evidenced by the positive responses of international lecturers and students. The standard set of lectures covers a broad

  17. WMD Nonproliferation: Biosecurity in the Age of Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international community has cooperated in arenas where diplomacy, treaties and conventions, and international bodies such as the IAEA and UN Security Council can have successful roles controlling WMD proliferation. This especially is the case for nuclear and chemical weapons. In our view, the potential use of biological agents and toxins presents a distinctive challenge not necessarily amenable to standard solutions and legal controls. Commercial biotechnology, basic biological research, and public and animal health are intertwined and of global significance. Advancements in these civilian activities have legitimate value, but also can serve the needs of state-sponsored defensive and offensive biological weapons programs. More important, technical and scientific advances and development of public bioinformatics databases also simplifies an otherwise complex world for trans-national terrorists. In our paper we will draw upon our personal international experiences, including in the former Soviet Union and Iraq, to explain our concept of 'shared risk' within the scientific community. Personal engagement, meaningful collaboration, adherence to uniform ethics and standards, and common scientific goals on an international scale are the best hedge against bio-terrorism. The global scientific community already is based upon shared principles that cross both cultural and political boundaries and thus are pre-adapted to play a major role in preventing the use of biology as a terrorist weapon.(author)

  18. Detection Technologies, Arms control and nonproliferation technologies. Third/fourth quarters 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staehle, G; Stull, S; Talaber, C; Moulthrop, P [eds.

    1993-12-31

    This issue of Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies is another in a series of issues about specific means for detecting and identifying proliferation and other suspect activities outside the realm of arms control treaties. All the projects discussed are funded by the Office of Research and Development of the Department of Energy`s Office of Nonproliferation and National Security.

  19. IAEA Director General calls for rededication to nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speaking at the opening session of the Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) in New York on April 24, 2000, the Director General of the IAEA urged all nations to commit themselves unequivocally to the basic tenets of the non-proliferation regime

  20. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Regulating Nuclear Weapons around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Tiffany Willey

    2010-01-01

    In May 2010, scientists, national security experts, and state delegates from nations around the world will convene in New York for the 2010 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference. They will review current guidelines for nuclear testing and possession of nuclear weapons in accordance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968,…

  1. Biological computational approaches: new hopes to improve (re)programming robustness, regenerative medicine and cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of transcription factors (TFs) are expressed and work in each cell type, but the identity of the cells is defined and maintained through the activity of a small number of core TFs. Existing reprogramming strategies predominantly focus on the ectopic expression of core TFs of an intended fate in a given cell type regardless of the state of native/somatic gene regulatory networks (GRNs) of the starting cells. Interestingly, an important point is that how much products of the reprogramming, transdifferentiation and differentiation (programming) are identical to their in vivo counterparts. There is evidence that shows that direct fate conversions of somatic cells are not complete, with target cell identity not fully achieved. Manipulation of core TFs provides a powerful tool for engineering cell fate in terms of extinguishment of native GRNs, the establishment of a new GRN, and preventing installation of aberrant GRNs. Conventionally, core TFs are selected to convert one cell type into another mostly based on literature and the experimental identification of genes that are differentially expressed in one cell type compared to the specific cell types. Currently, there is not a universal standard strategy for identifying candidate core TFs. Remarkably, several biological computational platforms are developed, which are capable of evaluating the fidelity of reprogramming methods and refining existing protocols. The current review discusses some deficiencies of reprogramming technologies in the production of a pure population of authentic target cells. Furthermore, it reviews the role of computational approaches (e.g. CellNet, KeyGenes, Mogrify, etc.) in improving (re)programming methods and consequently in regenerative medicine and cancer therapeutics. PMID:27056282

  2. New evolution of safeguards and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the end of the Cold War, circumstances concerning international safeguards and nuclear non-proliferation have changed drastically. At this stage, early introduction of a strengthened and streamlined new safeguards system and broad implementation of the verification activities regarding nuclear material from dismantled nuclear weapons are expected, and in the near future, the international community is expected to establish a verification regime under the Cut Off Treaty. From now on, the roles of the IAEA will become more important in these new areas. At the same time the efficiency of the activities is essential from a financial and human resources aspect in order to introduce those measures smoothly. On the other hand, the Member States should cooperate with the IAEA to improve the transparency of its nuclear policy and activities. Taking account of such circumstances, first, the authors will explain the non-proliferation policy of Japan. Second, the authors will introduce the present status of Japan's safeguards system and activities. Finally, the authors will present several tasks which are important for the IAEA and Japanese safeguards for coming several years. (author)

  3. Biological control program is being developed for brown marmorated stink bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB is an invasive, polyphagous pest that has been detected in 42 U.S. states. In 2010, it caused millions of dollars in crop damages to apple growers on the East Coast, where it arrived from Asia during the 1990s. In 2002, BMSB was reported in California; since then, it has been detected in 28 counties and is established in at least nine counties. Although this pest has not yet been found on commercial crops in the state, detections of BMSB in commercial orchards have been documented in Oregon and Washington. Proactive research in California has joined national efforts led by U.S. Department of Agriculture researchers to develop a classical biological control program for BMSB. A study is under way to determine potential non-target effects of a specialist egg parasitoid, Trissolcus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae, imported from Beijing, China, part of the home range of BMSB. In addition, the role of BMSB natural enemies residing in California is being assessed. A review of the recent research outlines the possible opportunities for reducing the threat BMSB poses to California.

  4. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A. [ed.; Konetsky, B.K.; Peterson, M.J.; Petrie, R.B.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1997-06-01

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  5. Report on the biological monitoring program at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, January - December 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 24, 1987, the Commonwealth of Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet issued an Agreed Order that required the development of a Biological Monitoring Program (BMP) for the Paducah Gaseous diffusion Plant (PGDP). The PGDP BMP was conducted by the University of Kentucky Between 1987 and 1992 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of BMP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for PGDP protect and maintain the use of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream. The BMP for PGDP consists of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of stream communities (i.e., benthic macroinvertebrates and fish). This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from January 1996 to December 1996, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate

  6. Assessing the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs on students’ achievements, misconceptions and attitudes towards biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz KARA

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tutorial and edutainment software programs related to ‘‘genetic concepts’’ topic on student achievements, misconceptions and attitudes. An experimental research design including the genetic concepts achievement test (GAT, the genetic concept test (GCT and biology attitude scale (BAS was applied at the beginning and at the end of the research. After the treatment, general achievement in GAT increased in favor of experimental groups. It was also noticed that using edutainment software programs significantly changed students’ attitudes towards biology. However, only tutorial design software program had the positive effect to the awareness of students’ understandings to the concepts gene, DNA, nucleus, chromosome, allele, genetic information, and genetic code. The current study also revealed that there were still some misconceptions in the experimental groups even after the treatment.

  7. A theoretical lens on a biology intensive orientation program: A study of self-efficacy and self-regulation of freshman biology majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Erin R.

    There is a national effort to increase the number of undergraduate students graduating in science, math, engineering, and technology (STEM) (National Science Foundation, 2007). The majority of students initially populating these STEM majors ultimately switch to and graduate from non-STEM majors (Seymour & Hewitt, 2000; Seymour, 2002). The source of attrition from STEM fields lies within the difficulty of concepts presented in freshman STEM introductory courses (Jensen & Moore, 2007, 2008, 2009; Seymour & Hewitt, 2000). These gateway courses are considered high-risk because nearly half of students enrolled in these courses receive either a "D" or "F" or completely withdraw from the course (Labov, 2004). Research shows that students who have uncalibrated self-efficacy and an attenuated self-regulated learning are unsuccessful in high-risk courses (Kitsantas et al., 2008; Ross, Green, Salisbury-Glennon, & Tollefson, 2006; Zimmerman, 2002). Traditional academic assistance, such as tutoring, learning to learn courses, and supplemental instruction, does not explicitly develop an undergraduate's self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as it specifically relates to the STEM domains (Cao & Nietfeld, 2007; Dembo & Seli, 2006; Ross et al., 2006; Simpson, Hind, Nist, Burrell, 1997). Some STEM departments have created academic interventions, such as one-credit seminars, orientation programs, and bridge programs, to directly address the needs of STEM majors (Belzer, 2003; Bonner, 2009; Chevalier, Chrisman, & Kelsey, 2001; Hutchison-Green, Follman, & Bodner, 2008; D. J. Minchella, Yazvac, C. W., Fodrea, R. A., Ball G., 2007; Reyes, Anderson-Rowland, & McCartney, 1998). This study focused on the effect of a biology-intensive orientation program on biology majors' self-efficacy and self-regulated learning. The study utilized approximately 300 undergraduate biology majors participating in a biology-intensive orientation that occurred on August 7-12, 2011, at a public state

  8. Report of a workshop on nuclear forces and nonproliferation Woodrow Wilson international center for scholars, Washington, DC October 28, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-08

    A workshop sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was held at the Wilson Center in Washington, DC, on October 28, 2010. The workshop addressed evolving nuclear forces and their impacts on nonproliferation in the context of the new strategic environment, the Obama Administration's Nuclear Posture Review and the 2010 NPT Review Conference. The discussions reflected the importance of the NPR for defining the role of US nuclear forces in dealing with 21st century threats and providing guidance for National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Department of Defense (DoD) programs and, for many but not all participants, highlighted its role in the successful outcome of the NPT RevCon. There was widespread support for the NPR and its role in developing the foundations for a sustainable nuclear-weapon program that addresses nuclear weapons, infrastructure and expertise in the broader nonproliferation, disarmament and international security contexts. However, some participants raised concerns about its implementation and its long-term effectiveness and sustainability.

  9. Report of a workshop on nuclear forces and nonproliferation Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, DC October 28, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars was held at the Wilson Center in Washington, DC, on October 28, 2010. The workshop addressed evolving nuclear forces and their impacts on nonproliferation in the context of the new strategic environment, the Obama Administration's Nuclear Posture Review and the 2010 NPT Review Conference. The discussions reflected the importance of the NPR for defining the role of US nuclear forces in dealing with 21st century threats and providing guidance for National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Department of Defense (DoD) programs and, for many but not all participants, highlighted its role in the successful outcome of the NPT RevCon. There was widespread support for the NPR and its role in developing the foundations for a sustainable nuclear-weapon program that addresses nuclear weapons, infrastructure and expertise in the broader nonproliferation, disarmament and international security contexts. However, some participants raised concerns about its implementation and its long-term effectiveness and sustainability.

  10. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  13. Economic and Non-proliferation Policy Considerations of Uranium Enrichment in Brazil and Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2008-09-01

    The nuclear development programs of both Argentina and Brazil have, since the 1970s, been premised on the desire for self-sufficiency and assurance of nuclear fuel supply. While military rivalry and mutual distrust led to nuclear weapons related development programs in the 1970s and 1980s, both countries have since terminated these programs. Furthermore, the governments of both countries have pledged their commitment to exclusively non-explosive use of nuclear energy and have signed the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Utilizing rights provided for under the NPT, both Argentina and Brazil have nuclear fuel production facilities, with the notable exception of enrichment plants, that provide much of the current indigenous fuel requirements for their nuclear power plants. However, both countries are actively developing enrichment capability to fill this gap. The purpose of this report is to assess the economic basis and non-proliferation policy considerations for indigenous enrichment capability within the context of their desired self-sufficiency and to evaluate possible United States Government policy options.

  14. Kazakhstan nuclear safety and non-proliferation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    August 20, 1945. Moscow Kremlin. A meeting of the State Committee on Defense. Here, the decision was taken that the USSR would be a nuclear power. Washington had challenged the USSR by bombarding Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and Moscow accepted. Scientific research in the area of nuclear weapon development by the USA in the early 1940s, and the treat of the USA's monopoly on the possession of these weapons resulted in the creation of a similar weapon in the USSR. In order to test these weapons, the Semipalatinsk test site was created. A number of research experiment were conducted: ground-level, underground, atmospheric atomic explosions. In addition to nuclear weapon testing, other research was carried out, including: environmental impact analysis of radiation; the simulation of large-scale accidents affecting civilian industries; the geological monitoring of nuclear weapon tests in other countries. The activities at the Semipalatinsk test site not only shattered the USA's monopoly on the possession of atomic weapon. The global nuclear weapon balance of power preserved up until the dissolutions of the USSR, despite the entrance of England, France and China into the 'nuclear club'. And at the end of the 20th century, nuclear tests were conducted in India and Pakistan. Currently, Iran, Israel, Iraq and North Korea are close to being technically capable of producing nuclear weapons. The problem of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons has many aspects: from the physical protection of nuclear-critical facilities and fissile materials from terrorist attacks, to the prohibition of the collection and resale of radioactive scrap metals. In connection with disintegration of the USSR, the problem of controlling transfers if fissile and radioactive materials in sovereign Kazakhstan has become particularly acute. Moreover, in the present day, one must give consideration to existence of international terrorism, which could take advantage to atomic weapons or so called 'dirty bombs

  15. The Nuclear Progress And The Non-Proliferation Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 2008 fall crisis showed the limits of globalization under the actual rules and de-regulations promoted by few developed countries. It also showed the weakness of the planetary economy induced by strong economic connections that makes the propagation of crises faster than the spread of welfare. The increase in severe weather and natural disasters showed how fast the civilization can be spoiled while the competition for oil resources made the interstate tensions grow. For almost all states, the development of the nuclear power becomes a prime option, even oil producers started to show interest in nuclear technology and also, policies that in particular are clearly oriented towards national development policies. The fact that anybody mastering nuclear technologies and uses for power production is capable in a reasonable time to produce weapons is a well-known fact. Therefore, in order to reduce the proliferation risk it is necessary to contain the nuclear science development. An alternative is to shift the weight in promoting renewable energies, as potential future energy alternative. Considering rigorously the future climate change effects, it becomes obvious that any delay in nuclear development will turn very costly for any nation ignoring all these facts and, the complexity of the real nonproliferation is growing. This new trend raises serious challenges in front of all states regarding the non-proliferation and, in order to keep control and stimulate a sound nuclear development, some of the actual non-proliferation concepts and policies have to be reformulated and enhanced. This has to be done in parallel with a more intensive implication of the international organisms in the real development of the nuclear power at national level. The large diversity of nuclear applications with huge collateral implication in every national economy makes the role of the international organisms orders of magnitude more important. The new challenges posed in front of the

  16. Strengthening of nuclear non-proliferation scheme: Initiatives and tendencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last years, the credibility of the commitments to non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, taken on by states which do not possess them, as well as the verification of nuclear disarmament, have become significant, as nations which developed nuclear weapons show a tendency towards decreasing their arsenals of massive destruction. Since 1992, the international community has promoted a critical revision of the safeguards system used by the IAEA, which consist in mechanisms of international verification that allow the state to adhere to the non-proliferation commitments. This revision was directly linked to the confirmation of nuclear activities in Iraq, incompatible with the commitments regarding the Non-Proliferation Treaty (TNP). The purpose was then to identify new measures that would allow to increase the security of the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding the fulfilment of such commitments, and to improve the efficiency of the system through the use of new techniques and a higher cooperation with the states. This process and the proposal which emerge from the strengthening of the system open questionings and a more general debate in relation with the legal rights that the states are willing to give to the international supervisory organisms. A highly complex matter is being dealt with, and it is far from finishing with the definition and precision of the new methods or procedures of verification in a strategic question such as the pacific development of nuclear weapons. It affects the evolution of international relations and rights, the credibility of international treaties and the definition of the adequate balance between these new powers and the basic principles that rule them. Regarding this last point, the states have the responsibility to preserve the credibility of the international system of verification and to assure that the fundamental principles are kept, so as to achieve the successful application of the system. Whichever the result

  17. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2009 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, J. Dennis; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2010-07-13

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC, during calendar year 2009. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex. During 2009, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  18. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2008 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis J.; Anderson, David C.; Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent

    2009-04-30

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NTS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2008. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC).

  19. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2010 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.J.; Anderson, D.C.; Hall, D.B.; Greger, P.D.; Ostler, W.K.

    2011-07-01

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program, funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2010. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2010, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  20. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Derek B.; Anderson, David C.; Greger, Paul D.; Ostler, W. Kent; Hansen, Dennis J.

    2013-07-03

    The Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program (EMAC), funded through the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO, formerly Nevada Site Office), monitors the ecosystem of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and ensures compliance with laws and regulations pertaining to NNSS biota. This report summarizes the program’s activities conducted by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), during calendar year 2012. Program activities included (a) biological surveys at proposed construction sites, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem monitoring, (d) sensitive plant species monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat restoration monitoring, and (g) monitoring of the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). During 2012, all applicable laws, regulations, and permit requirements were met, enabling EMAC to achieve its intended goals and objectives.

  1. Cooperative transparency for nonproliferation. Technology demonstrations at the Joyo test bed for advanced remote monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'Transparency' has been used widely by many authors and practitioners for various purposes, and there is an assortment of definitions for the term. These definitions vary depending on the field in which the term is used and within the context of its usage. For the purposes of our current project on regional, cooperative nonproliferation transparency and remote monitoring, the relevant field is nuclear nonproliferation, and in this context, we define the term Cooperative Nonproliferation Transparency as: 'Providing sufficient and appropriate information to a cooperating party so that they can independently develop their own evaluation and assessment of the reviewed party regarding their consistency with nonproliferation goals.' Key aspects of cooperative nonproliferation transparency activities include mutually agreeing upon the type of information or data that will be shared, how it will be collected, and who has access to that information. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center (NPSTC) has been exploring the possible use, development, and application of methods and technologies for Cooperative Transparency for Nonproliferation to support regional confidence building and cooperation n the peaceful use of nuclear energy throughout the East Asia region. (author)

  2. Development of an academic course in safeguards and nuclear non-proliferation at Swedish universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: During the past few years, the student interest for nuclear technology has rapidly increased at the civil engineering programs at Uppsala university, Sweden. Last year over 100 students participated in courses with relevance for nuclear technology. In a time where the Swedish nuclear industry anticipate large amount of retirements within the next 5-10 years, this development is followed with great interest. Safeguards and non-proliferation issues seem to be of particular interest and this encouraged issuing a compendium that covered this field. This material is presently being used as a part of a course dealing with reactor physics and the Swedish back-end concept. Due to the amount of students attending this course it was decided to develop the concept and arranging for a course solely dedicated to safeguards and non-proliferation. In a first instance this course is planned to be given for civil engineering students at Uppsala university during fall 2006 in order to gain experiences and feedback. It is our hope to be in a position for presenting some of these experiences during the symposium. In a second stage we plan to give the course for International Relations students at Stockholm university. The compendium mentioned above is presently being extended considerably. The evolved version of the compendium entitled 'Nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation' contains two main sections. The first treats the historical and legal background and the second deals with technical aspects of nuclear safeguards. Historical and Legal Background The first part of this section deals with the efforts to create a global nuclear non-proliferation system in the period 1942-2005. In different phases during this period, these efforts are analyzed in the light of international Relations theories. The starting point is the Second World War and the race between the United States and Nazi Germany to manufacture nuclear weapons and the consequences of this race for the nuclear

  3. Review and analysis of Japan's efforts to ensure nuclear non-proliferation. Significant elements in terms of winning trust for the peaceful nature of the nuclear energy use and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan initiated a program of peaceful use of nuclear energy in 1950s. Since that time, Japan has made it clear that the program is carried out strictly for peaceful purposes in a transparent manner, implementing measures to win trust from international community. In this report, we review, analyze and evaluate Japan's efforts to ensure nuclear non-proliferation, dividing them into seven categories, namely, (a) legislative measures to ensure peaceful use of nuclear energy, (b) commitments and cooperation for international nuclear non-proliferation regime, (c) safeguards, (d) efforts to secure transparency of peaceful use of nuclear energy, (e) measures to ensure nuclear nonproliferation in sensitive nuclear facilities, (f) export control and control of sensitive nuclear technology and (g) physical protection and nuclear security. Through such review, analysis and evaluation, the significant elements in terms of wining the trust for the peaceful nature of the nuclear energy use and future challenges have been identified for each category stated above. We expect this report to contribute to the discussion on the policy of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation within the Atomic Energy Commission of Japan and to be any use for the states which plan to initiate nuclear energy use program on a significant scale including the deployment of nuclear power plants. (author)

  4. Future of US utilities under non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-proliferation policy, a negative policy that closes the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle, is only a small part of a chaotic energy environment characterized by inaction. The impact of this environment on California utilities has resulted in a virtual moratorium on new facilities at a time when the nuclear option can be shown to be vital. Utilities are experiencing uncertainties in future power generation because alternatives to nuclear energy may not be the best choices. Utilities feel frustrated by the inaction; not by the objectives of the accountability and security proposals. The utilities will continue to support nuclear power and the completion of the fuel cycle in spite of these uncertainties

  5. Joint U.S./Russian plutonium disposition study: Nonproliferation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an effort to establish joint activities in the disposition of fissile materials from nuclear materials, the US and Russia agreed to conduct joint work to develop consistent comparisons of various alternatives for the disposition of weapons-grade plutonium. Joint working groups were established for the analysis of alternatives for plutonium management for water reactors, fast reactors, storage, geological formations, immobilization and stabilization of solutions and other forms. In addition cross-cutting working groups were established for economic analysis and nonproliferation (NP). This paper reviews the activities of the NP working group in support of these studies. The NP working group provided integrated support in the area of nuclear NP to the other US/Russian Study teams. It involved both domestic safeguards and security and international safeguards. The analysis of NP involved consideration of the resistance to theft or diversion and resistance to retrieval, extraction or reuse

  6. Future directions for arms control and nonproliferation. Conference summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-06

    This report provides a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Spring 1994 CNSN-Wilton Park Conference. The Conference was one of a series on US-European security cooperation organized by The Center for National Security Negotiations (CNSN) of Science Applications International Corporation. These conferences bring together government and non-government experts, primarily from the United States and Europe, to discuss a range of regional and global security issues. The conferences provide an opportunity to explore, in a frank and off-the-record environment, common interests and concerns, as well as differences in approach that affect trans-Atlantic cooperation. This report is divided into the following three areas: (1) implementation of existing and pending agreements; (2) non-proliferation: prospects for trans-Atlantic cooperation; and (3) future directions in arms control.

  7. Naval nuclear propulsion and the international nonproliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear powered attack submarine (SSN) acquisition by Non-Proliferation Treaty No- Nuclear Weapon State (NPT-NNWS) Navies does not imply nuclear weapon proliferation risks higher than those related to stationary research and power reactors. It must then be recognized that stringent restraints on supplies and political pressures on governments, both exercised very effectively by No-Proliferation Treaty - Nuclear Weapon State (NPT-NWS) against NPT-NNWS indigenous development of SSN and associated fuel cycle facilities, are fundamentally based on geopolitical and military strategic objectives. This practice is far from being related exclusively to the NPT spirit: in fact, it is a matter of freedom at seas and not of nuclear proliferation. (author)

  8. Nuclear power and the non-proliferation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This leaflet, issued by the British Nuclear Forum on behalf of the industry, seeks first to place the problem of reconciling the need for nuclear power with its possible weapon uses in a historical perspective. Secondly, it describes the technical and political measures which are now taken, and others which could be introduced in order to ensure that nuclear power, which offers the cheapest and safest large-scale energy source for the future, can be made available without contributing to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Headings are: introduction; the early years; the IAEA; uranium enrichment; plutonium; secrecy has failed; the Non-Proliferation Treaty; the London Suppliers Group; the situation today; the British position; conclusions. (U.K.)

  9. Implementing the strengthened non-proliferation regime in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few years ago Georgia faced complicated problems in nuclear and radiation safety field, namely: weakness of infrastructure for state management, incomplete inventory of radiation sources, orphan sources all over the post soviet military bases and as a result several radiological emergencies, overexposed victims and high risk of attracting international terrorists to use the country as a rout for illegal movement of radiation sources or nuclear materials. IAEA policy and strategy for nonproliferation showed that it is not the one country problem. The coalition of democratic countries immediately responded to aroused problems. Step by step Georgia established a regulatory body, worked out national legislation, developed licensing and inspection activities, nearly finished installation of radiation portals at the whole perimeter of the country. Several successful cases of prevention of the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials through borders of Georgia identified country's ability to contribute its shear to the Global Nuclear security.(author)

  10. Naval nuclear propulsion and the international nonproliferation regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Leonam dos Santos [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: leonam.sg@uol.com.br; 13@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear powered attack submarine (SSN) acquisition by Non-Proliferation Treaty No- Nuclear Weapon State (NPT-NNWS) Navies does not imply nuclear weapon proliferation risks higher than those related to stationary research and power reactors. It must then be recognized that stringent restraints on supplies and political pressures on governments, both exercised very effectively by No-Proliferation Treaty - Nuclear Weapon State (NPT-NWS) against NPT-NNWS indigenous development of SSN and associated fuel cycle facilities, are fundamentally based on geopolitical and military strategic objectives. This practice is far from being related exclusively to the NPT spirit: in fact, it is a matter of freedom at seas and not of nuclear proliferation. (author)

  11. Second look at non-proliferation discovers divergent views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second NPT is a Review Conference as an episode in the long history of the Conference on Disarmament and a curtain raiser for the IAEA's newly established Committee on Assurances of Supply (CAS). This requires fuller explanation. The task of the Conference was 'to review the operation of the Treaty [on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons] with a view to assuring that the purposes of the Preamble and the Provisions of the Treaty are being realized'. To discharge this task, 75 nations party to the NPT met in Geneva from 11 August to 7 September 1980. The Second Review Conference was to have ended on Friday 5 September, but it was prolonged until the Sunday to enable Governments to continue negotiations on including substantive matters in the final document. In the end however, the Conference's final report was purely procedural

  12. Export Controls and International Safeguards: Strengthening Nonproliferation through Interdisciplinary Integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International safeguards and export controls are central to ensuring international confidence in the peaceful uses of nuclear materials and technologies and to achieving adequate oversight on the transfer and use of nuclear materials, technology, and equipment required for the development of proliferation-sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the independent strengths of international safeguards and export controls rely largely on universal adherence, there may be opportunities to exploit the shared strengths of these systems. This article provides background information on the separate evolution of export controls and international safeguards, considers how these two elements of the nonproliferation regime interact, and identifies some possible avenues that could, over time, lead to wholly integrated activities.

  13. Export Controls and International Safeguards: Strengthening Nonproliferation through Interdisciplinary Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Danielle J.; Goorevich, Richard; Hooper, Rich; Scheinman, Lawrence; Tape, James W.

    2008-11-03

    International safeguards and export controls are central to ensuring international confidence in the peaceful uses of nuclear materials and technologies and to achieving adequate oversight on the transfer and use of nuclear materials, technology, and equipment required for the development of proliferation-sensitive parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the independent strengths of international safeguards and export controls rely largely on universal adherence, there may be opportunities to exploit the shared strengths of these systems. This article provides background information on the separate evolution of export controls and international safeguards, considers how these two elements of the nonproliferation regime interact, and identifies some possible avenues that could, over time, lead to wholly integrated activities.

  14. Non-proliferation and safeguards in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa occupies a unique position in the history of the Non-Proliferation Treaty in being the only country with a nuclear weapons capability that was voluntary terminated before acceding to the Treaty. The first nuclear device built was completed in December 1982, five more devices followed at an orderly pace of less than one per year and on 26 February 1990 cabinet officially implemented the termination of its nuclear deterrent capability. The events that flowed from the termination was that South Africa: Acceded to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (10 July 1991); Signed Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement, INFCIRC/394, (16 September 1991); Submitted its initial inventory of nuclear material (30 September 1991); and Received first verification team from the Agency (November 1991). South Africa, being dedicated to the prevention of the proliferation of Nuclear Weapons became a party to various non-proliferation treaties, regimes and groups. The National Non- Proliferation Policy, as published in a Cabinet memorandum, also clearly states this commitment. To comply with the requirements of the Treaty and Agreement the following two acts were published: The Nuclear Energy Act; The Non-Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction Act. The Minister of Minerals and Energy is the State Authority for the implementation of the Safeguards Agreement in South Africa, however, the Minister delegated this Authority to NECSA's Safeguards Division. To implement the requirements of the various acts, control regimes and treaties a State System for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Material, based on the ISO 9001:2000 standard, was designed. This standard focuses on customer satisfaction, continuous improvement, the demonstration of commitment and the prevention of non-conformity. To comply with the requirements of the standard the following procedures were established and maintained: A Quality Manual; Customer focus; Control of documents; Control of quality records; Internal Audits

  15. A Curriculum Skills Matrix for Development and Assessment of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Laboratory Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Benjamin; Rohlman, Christopher; Benore-Parsons, Marilee

    2004-01-01

    We have designed a skills matrix to be used for developing and assessing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory curricula. We prepared the skills matrix for the Project Kaleidoscope Summer Institute workshop in Snowbird, Utah (July 2001) to help current and developing undergraduate biochemistry and molecular biology program…

  16. A study on the development of nuclear policy to respond to international non-proliferation regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Jung, W. H.; Lim, C. Y

    2006-01-15

    This study analyzed the trends of the nonproliferation regimes in the following three aspects. First, this study analyzed the trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international nuclear export control regime and multilateral nuclear approach. Second, this study forecast the future trends of the nonproliferation systems with the reflection of current international situations. Third, this study also analyzed outstanding issues in nuclear control regimes and derived some factors to reflect national nuclear foreign policy.

  17. A study on the development of nuclear policy to respond to international non-proliferation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study analyzed the trends of the nonproliferation regimes in the following three aspects. First, this study analyzed the trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international nuclear export control regime and multilateral nuclear approach. Second, this study forecast the future trends of the nonproliferation systems with the reflection of current international situations. Third, this study also analyzed outstanding issues in nuclear control regimes and derived some factors to reflect national nuclear foreign policy

  18. First annual report on nuclear non-proliferation: supplement to annual report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Section 602 of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA) requires that DOE's Annual Report include views and recommendations regarding non-proliferation policies and actions for which the Department is responsible. The Act also requires a detailed analysis of the proliferation implications of advanced enrichment and reprocessing techniques, advanced reactors, and alternative fuel cycles, including an unclassified summary and a comprehensive version containing relevant classified information. The goals of United States non-proliferation policy are to minimize the spread of nuclear weapons and to create a stable international environment for the peaceful use of nuclear energy

  19. Nuclear power generation and nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main points existing between nuclear energy development and nuclear non-proliferation policy are reviewed. The solar energy and other energy will replace for nuclear fission energy in the twenty first century, but it may not occur in the first half, and the structure has to be established to continue the development of nuclear fission technology, including breeder reactor technology. In the near future, it should be encouraged to use advanced thermal reactors if they are economic and operated with safety. Miserable results may be created in the worldwide scale, if a serious accident occurs anywhere or nuclear power reactors are utilized for military object. It is estimated to be possible to develop the ability of manufacturing nuclear weapons within two or three years in the countries where the industry is highly developed so as to generate nuclear power. It is also difficult to take measures so that nuclear power generation does not increase nuclear proliferation problems, and it is necessary to mitigate the motive and to establish the international organization. Concensus exists that as the minimum security action, the storage and transportation of materials, which can be directly utilized for nuclear weapons, should be decided by the international system. The most portions of sensitive nuclear fuel cycle should be put under the international management, as far as possible. This problem is discussed in INFCE. Related to the nuclear nonproliferation, the difference of policy in fuel cycle problems between USA and the other countries, the enrichment of nuclear fuel material, especially the reasons to inhibit the construction of additional enrichment facilities, nuclear fuel reprocessing problems, radioactive waste disposal, plutonium stock and plutonium recycle problems are reviewed. (Nakai, Y.)

  20. India's Global Nuclear Energy Quest: Impact on the Non-Proliferation Regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contrary to the opinion expressed in a section of the nonproliferation community, India has strengthened the global nonproliferation system/order in its pursuit for global nuclear commerce. True, the Indian government has consistently held that NPT is discriminatory in nature. The position did not change even after the 1998 tests and even the installation of new government in May 2004 did not change the stance. After the nuclear tests in 1998, on a number of occasions, the Indian government made it clear that it is committed to the principle of nuclear non-proliferation. On May 9, 2000, the then Indian Minister of External Affairs stated before the Indian Parliament, 'India holds that genuine and lasting non-proliferation can only be achieved through agreements that are based upon equality and nondiscrimination, for only these can contribute to global peace and stability'. On October 7, 2004, the present Indian Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, in a press conference stated that circumstances were not ripe for India right now to sign the NPT. However, India has embedded itself with the evolving nonproliferation system in a unique way. India's Quest for nuclear energy has also witnessed changes in the domain of nonproliferation Principles, Rules and Procedures. India voted in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Board of Governors meeting to ensure Iranian compliance for the treaty it had signed. A new safeguards system, voluntary nuclear test moratorium, Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty, export controls by adhering to the guidelines and technology annex of the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), enrichment and reprocessing restraint, interdiction, terrorism-related control have become the pillars of the Indian nonproliferation policy and system now. India accepted to include reprocessing and enrichment technology to a non-possessor country in its non-proliferation regulations much before the NSG members struggled over control of such technologies in the May 2008

  1. Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2007 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Dennis; Anderson, David; Derek, Hall; Greger, Paul; Ostler, W. Kent

    2008-03-01

    In accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, 'Environmental Protection Program', the Office of the Assistant Manager for Environmental Management of the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) requires ecological monitoring and biological compliance support for activities and programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), Ecological Services has implemented the Ecological Monitoring and Compliance (EMAC) Program to provide this support. EMAC is designed to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations, delineate and define NTS ecosystems, and provide ecological information that can be used to predict and evaluate the potential impacts of proposed projects and programs on those ecosystems. This report summarizes the EMAC activities conducted by NSTec during calendar year 2007. Monitoring tasks during 2007 included eight program areas: (a) biological surveys, (b) desert tortoise compliance, (c) ecosystem mapping and data management, (d) sensitive plant monitoring, (e) sensitive and protected/regulated animal monitoring, (f) habitat monitoring, (g) habitat restoration monitoring, and (h) biological monitoring at the Nonproliferation Test and Evaluation Complex (NPTEC). The following sections of this report describe work performed under these eight areas.

  2. The iSBTc/SITC primer on tumor immunology and biological therapy of cancer: a summary of the 2010 program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urba Walter J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer, SITC (formerly the International Society for Biological Therapy of Cancer, iSBTc, aims to improve cancer patient outcomes by advancing the science, development and application of biological therapy and immunotherapy. The society and its educational programs have become premier destinations for interaction and innovation in the cancer biologics community. For over a decade, the society has offered the Primer on Tumor Immunology and Biological Therapy of Cancer™ in conjunction with its Annual Scientific Meeting. This report summarizes the 2010 Primer that took place October 1, 2010 in Washington, D.C. as part of the educational offerings associated with the society's 25th anniversary. The target audience was basic and clinical investigators from academia, industry and regulatory agencies, and included clinicians, post-doctoral fellows, students, and allied health professionals. Attendees were provided a review of basic immunology and educated on the current status and most recent advances in tumor immunology and clinical/translational caner immunology. Ten prominent investigators presented on the following topics: innate immunity and inflammation; an overview of adaptive immunity; dendritic cells; tumor microenvironment; regulatory immune cells; immune monitoring; cytokines in cancer immunotherapy; immune modulating antibodies; cancer vaccines; and adoptive T cell therapy. Presentation slides, a Primer webinar and additional program information are available online on the society's website.

  3. Analysis of nuclear export control system and implementing international nonproliferation regime in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China's exporting behaviour of nuclear items had been disconnected from the international non-proliferation regime such as IAEA safeguards and export control related with peaceful use of nuclear energy since 1970s. Especially, China had been one of principle suppliers of nuclear facility and technologies to Pakistan and Iran which had developed nuclear weapon programs. On the other hand, according to the rapid growth of economic scale after China began to open to the world, an active program for nuclear power plant as an electricity source had established. This means that China have surfaced as a big market to Korean nuclear industries. Regarding this, the paper dealt with the nuclear export control matters, i.e. the history of nuclear export control system and analyzed on background of enforcement of U.S.-China Nuclear Cooperation Agreement that had been apolitical issue between U.S. and China. Prospects toward conforming its nuclear export policies, laws and regulations to international standards also analyzed in results

  4. For the coexistence of nuclear non-proliferation with its peaceful use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toward the next century, the nuclear development should be addressed as an integrated science and technology that would be the basis of the civilization in the 21st century. The Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System, i.e., SCNES has been proposed as the ultimate goal of the nuclear energy system, where the concept of Resource recycle and Zero-release of radioactive waste is emphasized. Several crucial issues will be presented, which must be developed for the SCNES and some issues can suit the line of nuclear non-proliferation. The international collaboration should be emphasized to explore those technical issues. Indeed Japan and Kazakstan have been already collaborated in some fields, e.g., the support of nuclear material management in the BN-350 reactor, out-of-pile test program for severe accident research in LWR in the Institute of Atomic Energy of Kazakhstan Nuclear Centre. And now the in- and out-of-pile test programs are going to be launched, which should resolve crucial issues for the safety assurance of the SCNES. The possibility of further collaboration works can be discussed in the conference

  5. North Mississippi Refuges Complex Biological Program 'Pulse-Check' Review - DRAFT REPORT

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Biological review for the three refuges of the North Mississippi Refuges Complex is presented. Review is based on an assessment of addressing goals and objectives...

  6. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 3: Hardware miniaturization versus cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Herbert, Frank J.; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The optimum hardware miniaturization level with the lowest cost impact for space biology hardware was determined. Space biology hardware and/or components/subassemblies/assemblies which are the most likely candidates for application of miniaturization are to be defined and relative cost impacts of such miniaturization are to be analyzed. A mathematical or statistical analysis method with the capability to support development of parametric cost analysis impacts for levels of production design miniaturization are provided.

  7. 2. International conference on non-proliferation problems. Abstracts of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 14-17 September 1998, in Kurchatov (Kazakstan), II. International Conference on Non-proliferation Problems was held. Representatives from different international organizations (IAEA, UNO, CTBT Organization Preparatory Committee, Austria), from organizations of Kazakstan, Russia, USA, Japan took part in the Conference. At the conference there were 220 participants. Different issues relating to non-proliferation were discussed at the conference sections. The Conference included Plenary Session 'History and Current State of Non-proliferation Problem' and three sections: 1) Practical measures to support non-proliferation regime and Control for Nuclear Tests'; 2) Problems on Eliminating Nuclear tests Consequences and Conversion of Nuclear and Industrial Complex'; 3) Medical and ecological problems of Nuclear Tests Consequences'

  8. Political aspects of nuclear non-proliferation: a north-south divide?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report focuses on important political and regional aspects of nuclear proliferation and the effectiveness of non-proliferation measures, notably the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). Regional issues are covered within the report by different authors looking at Iran and Iraq, plutonium and nuclear weapons in north-east Asia, nuclear programmes in Japan and North Korea, Pakistan's attitude to the NPT, India and the post-Cold War nuclear order, Israel and the nuclear non-proliferation regime, whether Israel's fissile material production can be capped, and US policy-making on non-proliferation. Other contributions address the negotiating process, the extension of the NPT and government statements. Appendices deal with the NPT and fissile materials in nuclear weapons. (UK)

  9. The year 2000 examination conference of the non-proliferation treaty and the future of the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear weapons non-proliferation treaty (NPT), signed on July 1, 1968 and enforced on March 5, 1970, has been progressively considered as the headstone of the international non-proliferation and disarmament regime. The sixth NPT examination conference took place at New York (USA) in the year 2000, 5 years after the previous conference but also after the first nuclear weapon tests of India and Pakistan. This article recalls up the main non-proliferation events that took place between the 1995 and 2000 conferences and presents the progresses and results of the New York conference. Finally, it wonders about the ambiguities in the conclusions of this last conference. (J.S.)

  10. Second annual report on nuclear non-proliferation: supplement to Secretary's Annual Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document covers: goals of US nonproliferation policy, agreements for cooperation, technical exchange, US as a reliable supplier of nuclear fuels, IAEA Expert Group on International Plutonium Storage, implementation of US nonproliferation policy, classification, cooperation in strengthening international safeguards and physical security, the US-IAEA voluntary offer safeguards agreement, US spent fuel storage policy, development of proliferation-resistant fuel cycle technologies, and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation

  11. Politics and the bomb: exploring the Role of epistemic communities in nuclear non-proliferation outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Kutchesfahani, S. Z.

    2010-01-01

    The role of epistemic communities in influencing policy formulation is underexplored in International Relations theory in general and in nuclear non-proliferation studies in particular. This thesis explores how epistemic communities – groups of experts knowledgeable in niche issue areas – have affected nuclear non-proliferation policy formulation in two important and under-studied cases: the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the Nunn-Lugar ...

  12. The relationship between uranium exports, the spread of nuclear weapons and the non-proliferation treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of the non-proliferation regime to the treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is outlined. The current market for nuclear material, IAEA safeguards and bilateral undertakings are discussed. The risk of horizontal proliferation lies with non-nuclear weapon states outside the NPT which are not eligible to receive Australian origin nuclear material and to which the export of Australian and other origin equipment and technology is prohibited or controlled

  13. Supporting the President's Arms Control and Nonproliferation Agenda: Transparency and Verification for Nuclear Arms Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Meek, Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    across the near-term (1-4) years and longer-term (5-10) years planning horizons. Some final observations include acknowledging the enduring nature of several key objectives on the Obama Administration's arms control and nonproliferation agenda. The CTBT, FMCT, bilateral nuclear arms reductions and strengthening the NPT have been sought by successive U.S. Administrations for nearly thirty years. Efforts towards negotiated arms control, although de-emphasized by the G.W. Bush Administration, have remained a pillar of U.S. national security strategy for decades and are likely to be of enduring if not increasing importance for decades to come. Therefore revitalization and expansion of USG capabilities in this area can be a positive legacy no matter what near-term arms control goals are achieved over the next four years. This is why it is important to reconstruct integrated bureaucratic, legislative, budgetary and diplomatic strategies to sustain the arms control and nonproliferation agenda. In this endeavor some past lessons must be taken to heart to avoid bureaucratic overkill and keep interagency policy-making and implementation structures lean and effective. On the Technical side a serious, sustained multilateral program to develop, down select and performance test nuclear weapons dismantlement verification technologies and procedures should be immediately initiated. In order to make this happen the United States and Russia should join with the UK and other interested states in creating a sustained, full-scale research and development program for verification at their respective nuc1ear weapons and defense establishments. The goals include development of effective technologies and procedures for: (1) Attribute measurement systems to certify nuclear warheads and military fissile materials; (2) Chain-of-custody methods to track items after they are authenticated and enter accountability; (3) Transportation monitoring; (4) Storage monitoring; (5) Fissile materials

  14. Nonproliferation of nuclear weapons and IAEA safeguards: A Chinese perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since embarking upon the path of reform and opening-up to the outside world in the late 1970s, China's nuclear nonproliferation policy has shaped considerably. As a result, China has become more integrated with and more accommodating of the international nonproliferation regime. China acceded to the NPT in 1992 and contributed positively to its indefinite extension in 1995. As a member state to the IAEA and a state party to the NPT, China has all along stood firm on nuclear nonproliferation. First, China does not advocate, encourage, or engage in nuclear weapons proliferation. Second, China does not help any other countries develop nuclear weapons. Third, China does not provide any assistance to any nuclear facilities outside IAEA safeguards. Against such a backdrop, China has enunciated and pursued the following principles with regard to nuclear export. 1) The export is used solely for peaceful purposes. 2) The export must be subject to IAEA safeguards. 3) The export should not transferred to a third country without China consent. As a stepping-stone, China has improved its export control systems on sensitive items and technologies, and has promulgated a series of laws and regulations in recent years. In this regard, the achievements are noteworthy. In May 1997, the Chinese Government unveiled a Circular on Strict Observations of National Nuclear Export Policy. The circular in explicit terms reiterated that, nuclear materials, equipment and related technologies, as well as non-nuclear materials to be used by reactors and nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials and related technologies, could not be provided to or used in nuclear facilities beyond IAEA safeguards in the event of export. In September 1997, the Chinese Government promulgated Regulations on Nuclear Control. Among the provisions contained in the Regulations, the following points are most outstanding. 1) Any assistance to nuclear facilities not subject to IAEA safeguards shall be prohibited

  15. Be Healthy as a Fish Educational Program at the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology in Warsaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goś, Daria; Szymańska, Ewelina; Białek-Wyrzykowska, Urszula; Wiweger, Małgorzata; Kuźnicki, Jacek

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the Be Healthy as a Fish educational program that is organized by the International Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology (IIMCB) in Warsaw, Poland, is to educate children about the ways in which zebrafish can be used as a model organism to help scientists understand the way the human body works. We introduce Be Healthy as a Fish workshops to children in fourth to sixth grades of primary school (9-11 years old), together with two kinds of materials under the same title: a book and a movie. We focus on the field of biology in a way that complements the children's classroom curriculum and encourages them to broaden their interests in biology in the future. The Be Healthy as a Fish educational program was inaugurated in 2014 at the Warsaw Science Festival. As of October 31, 2015, 526 primary school students participated in 27 workshops. Approximately 2000 people have received the book and nearly 1700 people have watched the movie. Be Healthy as a Fish: Origin of the Title There is a popular saying in Poland that someone is "healthy as a fish" meaning that one enjoys good health. Does this imply that fish are really that healthy? Obviously, some fish may not be healthy. Just like other animals and humans, they can and do get sick. However, this common and deceptive impression of "healthy fish" results from the fact that people hardly ever have an opportunity to observe a fish that is sick. Why does our educational program have such a possibly misleading title that may not always be true? We took advantage of this provocative title and commonly known expression and assigned to it a completely new meaning: fish can get sick, but they are important for human health. Notably, this catchy sentence intrinsically combines two keywords-health and fish-which, in our opinion, makes it a good title for a successful educational program. PMID:27028803

  16. Biological monitoring and abatement program plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall purpose of this plan is to evaluate the receiving streams' biological communities for the duration of the permit and meet the objectives for the ORNL BMAP as outlined in the NPDES permit (Appendix). The ORNL BMAP will focus on those streams in the WOC watershed that (1) receive NPDES discharges and (2) have been identified as ecologically impacted. In response to the newly issued NPDES permit, the tasks that are included in this BMAP plan include monitoring biological communities (fish and benthic invertebrates), monitoring mercury contamination in fish and water, monitoring polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination in fish, and evaluating temperature loading from ORNL outfalls. The ORNL BMAP will evaluate the effects of sediment and oil and grease, as well as the chlorine control strategy through the use of biological community data. Monitoring will be conducted at sites in WOC, First Creek, Fifth Creek, Melton Branch, and WOL

  17. Course modules on nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of major current concern in the nuclear field is the conservation of developed knowledge and expertise. The relevance of this subject is steadily increasing for several reasons: retirement of the generation of first industrial development of nuclear energy, only one new reactor under construction in Europe while several in Eastern and Asian countries, the public's concern on safety, radioactive waste and safeguards aspects, and some lack of interest common to many activities in engineering and physics. Moreover nuclear safeguards is nowadays characterised with an enlarged scope and no longer strictly limited to the accountancy of nuclear material; today it encompasses non proliferation of nuclear material, and deals with the control of dual use equipment and technologies, illicit trafficking and External Security. Some higher education networks, such as the European Nuclear Engineering Network (ENEN), have been established to make better use of dwindling teaching capacity, scientific equipment and research infrastructure, through co-operation amongst universities and research centres. The European Safeguards Research and Development Association (ESARDA) initiated the set-up of course modules under an e-learning medium, to preserve knowledge in nuclear safeguards. These course modules should be considered as basic pedagogical documentation, which will be accessible via the Internet. Monitoring or controlling of the accesses will be ensured. The modules are structured with an increasing level of detail, in function of the audience. On one hand the course modules should be attractive to University students in nuclear, chemical or mechanical engineering, in radiochemistry, statistics, law, political science etc. at universities or specialised institutes. On the other hand the course modules aim to give professionals, working on specific safeguards or non-proliferation issues an overview and detailed technical information on the wide variety of nuclear

  18. Shoreline ecology program for Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Part 3: Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the biological results of a comprehensive shoreline ecology program designed to assess ecological recovery in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill on march 24, 1989. The program is an application of the ''Sediment Quality Triad'' approach, combining chemical, toxicological, and biological measurements. The study was designed so that results could be extrapolated to the entire spill zone in Prince William Sound. The spill affected four major shoreline habitat types in Prince William Sound: pebble/gravel, boulder/cobble, sheltered bedrock, and exposed bedrock. The study design had two components: (1) one-time stratified random sampling at 64 sites representing four habitats and four oiling levels (including unoiled reference sites) and (2) periodic sampling at 12 nonrandomly chosen sites that included some of the most heavily oiled locations in the sound. Biological communities on rock surfaces and in intertidal and shallow subtidal sediments were analyzed for differences resulting from to oiling in each of 16 habitat/tide zone combinations. Statistical methods included univariate analyses of individual species abundances and community parameter variables (total abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity), and multivariate correspondence analysis of community structure. 58 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs

  19. A Comparative Study of Compression Methods and the Development of CODEC Program of Biological Signal for Emergency Telemedicine Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, T.S.; Kim, J.S. [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea); Lim, Y.H. [Visionite Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea); Yoo, S.K. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)

    2003-05-01

    In an emergency telemedicine system such as the High-quality Multimedia based Real-time Emergency Telemedicine(HMRET) service, it is very important to examine the status of the patient continuously using the multimedia data including the biological signals(ECG, BP, Respiration, S{sub p}O{sub 2}) of the patient. In order to transmit these data real time through the communication means which have the limited transmission capacity, it is also necessary to compress the biological data besides other multimedia data. For this purpose, we investigate and compare the ECG compression techniques in the time domain and in the wavelet transform domain, and present an effective lossless compression method of the biological signals using JPEG Huffman table for an emergency telemedicine system. And, for the HMRET service, we developed the lossless compression and reconstruction program of the biological signals in MSVC++ 6.0 using DPCM method and JPEG Huffman table, and tested in an internet environment. (author). 15 refs., 17 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. What Skills Should Students of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs Have upon Graduation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold B.; Benore, Marilee A.; Sumter, Takita F.; Caldwell, Benjamin D.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of…

  1. National inventory of selected biological monitoring programs. Summary report of current or recently completed projects, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, H. T.

    1976-10-01

    The Inventory has resulted in establishment of a series of data bases containing biological monitoring information of varying types, namely, directory of investigators, record of projects received from mail questionnaire, detailed description of selected biomonitoring projects, and bibliographic citations supporting the projects received. This report contains detailed descriptions of selected biomonitoring projects organized on a state-by-state basis and with appropriate indices.

  2. U.S.-Russian cooperation in nuclear disarmament and nonproliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podvig, Pavel

    2010-02-01

    The United States and Russia, the two largest nuclear powers, have a special obligation to provide leadership in nuclear disarmament and in strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime. In the past year the two countries made an effort to restart the arms control process by concluding a new treaty that would bring their legal disarmament obligations in line with the realities of their post-cold war relationships. The process of negotiating deeper nuclear reductions in the new environment turned out to be rather difficult, since the approaches that the countries used in the past are not well suited to dealing with issues like conversion of strategic nuclear delivery systems to conventional missions, tactical nuclear weapons, or dismantlement of nuclear warheads. This presentation considers the recent progress in U.S.-Russian arms control process and outlines the key issues at the negotiations. It also considers prospects for further progress in bilateral nuclear disarmament and issues that will be encountered at later stages of the process. The author argues that success of the arms reductions will depend on whether the United States and Russia will be able to build an institutional framework for cooperation on a range of issues - from traditional arms control to securing nuclear materials and from missile defense to strengthening the international nuclear safeguards. )

  3. Ionospheric measurements for the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    The detection of explosions using ionospheric techniques relies on measuring perturbations induced in radio propagation by acoustics waves which disturb the electron density of the ionosphere. Such techniques have been applied to the detection of atmospheric explosions, underground nuclear tests, earthquakes, and surface mining explosions. The nighttime ionosphere presents a difficulty for the detection of explosions because in the absence of solar ionization radiation the electron density in the altitude range of 90 to 200 km decays after sunset and perturbation effects are correspondingly reduced. On the other hand, acoustic waves produced by weak sources reach a maximum amplitude in the altitude range of 100 to 150 km and are highly attenuated at altitudes above 200 km. For safety reasons, most planned explosions are conducted during daylight which has limited the experimental measurements during nighttime. However a recent opportunity for a nighttime measurement occurred in connection with the Non-Proliferation Experiment which consisted of the detonation of a large chemical charge underground at the Nevada Test Site near midnight local time. the results, based on a new technique of using medium frequency radio transmissions provided by commercial broadcasts to detect explosion effects, were negative. The most likely explanation for the negative result is that the radio transmissions did not reflect at a low enough altitude to sense the perturbations produced by the acoustic waves.

  4. Ionospheric measurements for the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of explosions using ionospheric techniques relies on measuring perturbations induced in radio propagation by acoustics waves which disturb the electron density of the ionosphere. Such techniques have been applied to the detection of atmospheric explosions, underground nuclear tests, earthquakes, and surface mining explosions. The nighttime ionosphere presents a difficulty for the detection of explosions because in the absence of solar ionization radiation the electron density in the altitude range of 90 to 200 km decays after sunset and perturbation effects are correspondingly reduced. On the other hand, acoustic waves produced by weak sources reach a maximum amplitude in the altitude range of 100 to 150 km and are highly attenuated at altitudes above 200 km. For safety reasons, most planned explosions are conducted during daylight which has limited the experimental measurements during nighttime. However a recent opportunity for a nighttime measurement occurred in connection with the Non-Proliferation Experiment which consisted of the detonation of a large chemical charge underground at the Nevada Test Site near midnight local time. the results, based on a new technique of using medium frequency radio transmissions provided by commercial broadcasts to detect explosion effects, were negative. The most likely explanation for the negative result is that the radio transmissions did not reflect at a low enough altitude to sense the perturbations produced by the acoustic waves

  5. Verification lessons learned and CTBT's contribution to disarmament and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) prohibits all nuclear tests for any purposes. The CTBT is essential for peace and security; it is a core element of the nonproliferation regime. It limits the ability of countries to develop advanced nuclear weapons technology. It is enforced through the extensive International Monitoring System designed to detect and deter nuclear explosions in atmosphere, underwater and underground. In the process of monitoring and detecting a potential nuclear test - the system registers over 30,000 events a year - the vast majority of them are earthquakes. The civil and scientific applications of the CTBT data can be used to gain better understanding of the earth, of climate change, of volcanic ash clouds, of the tsunamis, of the movements of whales and much more. The CTBT sets a new legal and verification standard for nuclear weapons. It is a non-discriminatory Treaty with the same rights and obligations for all Member States. Its verification regime is equally nondiscriminatory and provides equal access for all Member States to CTBTO data. We are driving to achieve 160 ratifications by the end of the year, and this will provide additional momentum towards entry into force (EIF) and universality. (A.C.)

  6. Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Disarmament: Where Next?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let me come straight to the point: We are still at a real watershed with respect to the whole nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament project, about which hopes have been so high for most of the last two years, especially following the political breakthrough of the election of a US president totally committed to the ultimate achievement of a nuclear weapon-free world. Unless the key players in the international community, and there are many that matter in this context, not just the United States of America and the Russian Federation, get really serious about moving forward on the multiple critical agenda issues that face us - not just safeguards, the subject of this symposium, but right across the whole spectrum of non-proliferation, disarmament and peaceful-uses challenges - there is a very real danger that such remaining momentum for change as there is will stall, that the whole project will fall apart, and that we will be condemned to live for the indefinitely foreseeable future in a nuclear world that is very dangerous indeed. The prevailing sentiment after the May Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference was one of relief - that the conference had not broken down as it did in 2005 and that catastrophe had been avoided; in effect, that this particular watershed point had been passed. But the positive gains from that conference, when objectively assessed, were negligible on crucial NPT regime strengthening issues, and, with the possible exception of the agreement to hold a Middle East conference in 2012, very slight indeed elsewhere. And, weighing in the negative balance, there have been some serious disappointments on other key benchmark issues spelled out in US President Obama's April 2009 Prague Speech and on which real movement had been hoped for this year. Nothing has moved on Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) ratification by the USA or any other major nuclear power; negotiations on a fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT) remain

  7. The SSAC in international safeguards and non-proliferation aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of international efforts against horizontal proliferation, including the Baruch Plan, bilateral safeguards agreement, IAEA safeguards, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Zangger Committee, the Nuclear Supplier Group guidelines and the Physical Protection Convention, is reviewed. The role of IAEA NPT safeguards in verifying nondiversion and ensuring no misuse of supplied nuclear items is discussed. The vital importance of successful performance of this role to peaceful nuclear commerce is stressed. The application of NPT safeguards by the IAEA is described, particularly the IAEA's requirement that a State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material be established. Such a State System has two different but complementary areas of responsibility - ensuring that the use of nuclear material is controlled effectively and can be readily accounted for (this includes the area of physical protection), and providing accounts of nuclear material to responsible bodies such as the State's government and equally importantly to the IAEA for safeguards purpose, as the IAEA bases its conclusions about diversion on its verification of the data provided by the State System

  8. Integration of facility modeling capabilities for nuclear nonproliferation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing automated methods for data collection and analysis that can facilitate nuclearnonproliferation assessment is an important research area with significant consequences for the effective global deployment of nuclear energy. Facilitymodeling that can integrate and interpret observations collected from monitored facilities in order to ascertain their functional details will be a critical element of these methods. Although improvements are continually sought, existing facilitymodeling tools can characterize all aspects of reactor operations and the majority of nuclear fuel cycle processing steps, and include algorithms for data processing and interpretation. Assessing nonproliferation status is challenging because observations can come from many sources, including local and remote sensors that monitor facility operations, as well as open sources that provide specific business information about the monitored facilities, and can be of many different types. Although many current facility models are capable of analyzing large amounts of information, they have not been integrated in an analyst-friendly manner. This paper addresses some of these facilitymodelingcapabilities and illustrates how they could be integrated and utilized for nonproliferationanalysis. The inverse problem of inferring facility conditions based on collected observations is described, along with a proposed architecture and computer framework for utilizing facilitymodeling tools. After considering a representative sampling of key facilitymodelingcapabilities, the proposed integration framework is illustrated with several examples.

  9. Utilization of atomic energy in Asia and nuclear nonproliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economical growth in East Asia is conspicuous as it was called East Asian Miracle, and also the demand of energy increased rapidly. The end of Cold War created the condition for the further development in this district. Many countries advanced positively the plan of atomic energy utilization, and it can be said that the smooth progress of atomic energy utilization is the key for the continuous growth in this district in view of the restriction of petroleum resources and its price rise in future and the deterioration of global environment. The nuclear nonproliferation treaty (NPT) has accomplished large role, but also its limitation became clear. At present, there is not the local security system in Asia, but in order that the various countries in Asia make the utilization of atomic energy and the security compatible, it is useful to jointly develop safety technology, execute security measures and form the nuclear fuel cycle as Asia. Energy and environmental problems in Asia are reported. Threat is essentially intention and capability, and the regulation only by capability regardless of intention brings about unrealistic result. The limitation of the NPT is discussed. The international relation of interdependence deepends after Cold War, and the security in Asia after Cold War is considered. As the mechanism of forming the nuclear fuel cycle for whole Asia, it is desirable to realize ASIATOM by accumulating the results of possible cooperation. (K.I.)

  10. Proliferation and Nonproliferation in the Early Twenty-First Century. The Permanent Five Hold the Key to Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is a truth universally acknowledged that nuclear proliferation constitutes a threat to international peace and security. However little known its causes may be, this truth is so well fixed in international public consciousness that it is considered an utmost requirement to address the problem expeditiously. Is the international community indeed properly geared to respond quickly, strongly, and unanimously to proliferation? If so, how? Writing for Foreign Affairs in 1961, the late Fred Ikle asked, 'After Detection-What?'He expressed concerns that the international community focused too exclusively on how to detect violations to arms control agreements. He explained that determining the consequences of violations after detection was also essential and described 'a program to deter evasion', but remained pessimistic about its prospects for success. Four decades later, in a 2001 article for the Nonproliferation Review, Brad Roberts assessed how the problem had changed. He showed that many policy tools had been developed, but that they did not guarantee success. Anticipating many of the debates of the 2000's, he reflected on the dilemma of resorting to multilateral action (sanctioned by the UN Security Council) or US unilateral action, and concluded that there was a crisis of confidence about the nonproliferation regime and the role of the major powers. Over ten years have passed since Roberts's review article. It is now a good time to stand back and take stock of how the problem has evolved. To this end, this paper begins with an assessment of the nonproliferation landscape between 2001 and 2011 by looking at the changes that affected the proliferation problem itself, the tools to address that problem, and the actors involved in the process to solve it. Although progress was made to better tackle it, the paper suggests that pessimism is in order today. On that basis, it moves on to explore what the 'winning agenda' might be, what it entails, and what the prospects

  11. Europe: the third nuclear super-power, and its role in the creation of a universal non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper investigates the role of Europe in limiting the nuclear arms race in the near future. The collapse of the non-proliferation regime due to the breakdown of the distinction between civil and military power is examined. The breakdown of the arms control structure, the emergence of Europe as a nuclear Super-Power, and the proposal to set up a universal non-proliferation regime to save the Non-Proliferation Treaty, are all discussed. (UK)

  12. A road map for designing and implementing a biological monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Joel H; Knutson, Melinda G; Newman, Ken B; Silverman, Emily D; Thompson, William L

    2016-07-01

    Designing and implementing natural resource monitoring is a challenging endeavor undertaken by many agencies, NGOs, and citizen groups worldwide. Yet many monitoring programs fail to deliver useful information for a variety of administrative (staffing, documentation, and funding) or technical (sampling design and data analysis) reasons. Programs risk failure if they lack a clear motivating problem or question, explicit objectives linked to this problem or question, and a comprehensive conceptual model of the system under study. Designers must consider what "success" looks like from a resource management perspective, how desired outcomes translate to appropriate attributes to monitor, and how they will be measured. All such efforts should be filtered through the question "Why is this important?" Failing to address these considerations will produce a program that fails to deliver the desired information. We addressed these issues through creation of a "road map" for designing and implementing a monitoring program, synthesizing multiple aspects of a monitoring program into a single, overarching framework. The road map emphasizes linkages among core decisions to ensure alignment of all components, from problem framing through technical details of data collection and analysis, to program administration. Following this framework will help avoid common pitfalls, keep projects on track and budgets realistic, and aid in program evaluations. The road map has proved useful for monitoring by individuals and teams, those planning new monitoring, and those reviewing existing monitoring and for staff with a wide range of technical and scientific skills. PMID:27277094

  13. Nuclear non-proliferation: Global security in a rapidly changing world. Carnegie International Non-Proliferation Conference, 21 June 2004, Washington, DC, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This statement outlines what the IAEA and the international community has learned, what are the problems faced and the nature of the required reforms in the field of non-proliferation, security, safeguards inspection. The proposals are mostly fucued on international/collective cooperation in arms control, improvements of security and effectiveness of safeguards

  14. Current role of NAA in biological and health-related environmental studies as exemplified by programs of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has many projects and activities supporting the utilization of nuclear research reactors for neutron activation analysis (NAA). Globally the number of operating nuclear research reactors has been in decline since about 1975. This contrasts with the situation in developing countries where the numbers show a modest increase over the same period. This paper reviews the current status of NAA as seen from the particular perspective of IAEA programs involving studies of biological and environmental specimens. Some of the areas in which NAA is maintaining its role as a competitive technique are briefly reviewed. (author)

  15. Harnessing QbD, Programming Languages, and Automation for Reproducible Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michael I; Grant, Chris; Fell, Tim S

    2016-03-01

    Building robust manufacturing processes from biological components is a task that is highly complex and requires sophisticated tools to describe processes, inputs, and measurements and administrate management of knowledge, data, and materials. We argue that for bioengineering to fully access biological potential, it will require application of statistically designed experiments to derive detailed empirical models of underlying systems. This requires execution of large-scale structured experimentation for which laboratory automation is necessary. This requires development of expressive, high-level languages that allow reusability of protocols, characterization of their reliability, and a change in focus from implementation details to functional properties. We review recent developments in these areas and identify what we believe is an exciting trend that promises to revolutionize biotechnology. PMID:26708960

  16. Impact of Two Ant Species on Egg Parasitoids Released as Part of a Biological Control Program

    OpenAIRE

    Kergunteuil, Alan; Basso, César; Pintureau, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Biological control using Trichogramma pretiosum Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), an egg parasitoid wasp, was tested in Uruguay to reduce populations of lepidopteran pests on soybeans. It was observed that the commercial parasitoid dispensers, which were made of cardboard, were vulnerable to small predators that succeeded in entering and emptying the containers of all the eggs parasitized by T. pretiosum. Observations in a soybean crop showed that the only small, common predators presen...

  17. What Skills Should Students of Undergraduate Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Programs Have Upon Graduation?

    OpenAIRE

    White, Harold B; Benore, Marilee A.; Sumter, Takita F.; Caldwell, Benjamin D.; Bell, Ellis

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology (BMB) students should demonstrate proficiency in the foundational concepts of the discipline and possess the skills needed to practice as professionals. To ascertain the skills that should be required, groups of BMB educators met in several focused workshops to discuss the expectations with the ultimate goal of clearly articulating the skills required. The results of these discussions highlight the critical importance of experimental, mathematical, and inter...

  18. Geochemical, hydrological and biological cycling of energy residuals. Research plan: Subsurface Transport Program. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy development and production, particularly the generation of various waste products, have resulted in a need for long-term scientific information on the geochemical transformations, transport rates, and potential for bioaccumulation or biotransformation of contaminants in subsurface environments. This plan describes proposed research goals and specific research directions intended to address these scientific questions. Research needs are grouped into three areas: (1) biogeochemical mobilization; (2) hydrological transport in subsurface systems; and (3) biological uptake and food chain transfer

  19. Research plan: geochemical, hydrological and biological cycling of energy residuals. Subsurface Transport Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy development and production, particularly the generation of various waste products, have resulted in a need for long term scientific information on the geochemical transformations, transport rates, and potential for bioaccumulation or biotransformation of contaminants in subsurface environments. This plan describes proposed research goals and specific research directions intended to address these scientific questions. Research needs are grouped into three areas: (1) biogeo-chemical mobilization; (2) hydrological transport in subsurface systems; and (3) biological uptake and food chain transfer

  20. Biological Physics major as a means to stimulate an undergraduate physics program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Herbert; Eid, Khalid; Yarrison-Rice, Jan

    2013-03-01

    In an effort to stress the cross-disciplinary nature of modern physics we added a Biological Physics major. Drawing from coursework in physics, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and related disciplines, it combines a broad curriculum with physical and mathematical rigor in preparation for careers in biophysics, medical physics, and biomedical engineering. Biological Physics offers a new path of studies to a large pool of life science students. We hope to grow our physics majors from 70-80 to more than 100 students and boost our graduation rate from the mid-teens to the mid-twenties. The new major brought about a revision of our sophomore curriculum to make room for modern topics without sidelining fundamentals. As a result, we split our 1-semester long Contemporary Physics course (4 cr hrs) into a year-long sequence Contemporary Physics Foundations and Contemporary Physics Frontiers (both 3 cr hrs). Foundations starts with relativity, then focuses on 4 quantum mechanics topics: wells, spin 1/2, oscillators, and hydrogen. Throughout the course applications are woven in whenever the opportunity arises, e.g. magnetism and NMR with spin 1/2. The following semester Frontiers explores scientific principles and technological advances that make quantum science and resulting technologies different from the large scale. Frontiers covers enabling techniques from atomic, molecular, condensed matter, and particle physics, as well as advances in nanotechnology, quantum optics, and biophysics.

  1. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate

  2. Third report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Ashwood, T.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    As a condition of the modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream (Mitchell Branch or K-1700 stream). On October 1, 1992, a renewed NPDES permit was issued for the K-25 Site. A biological monitoring plan was submitted for Mitchell Branch, Poplar Creek, Poplar Creek Embayment of the Clinch River and any unnamed tributaries of these streams. The objectives of BMAP are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life and (2) document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities, including the Central Neutralization Facility (CNF) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) incinerator. The BMAP consists of four tasks: (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring; (3) assessment of fish health; and (4) instream monitoring of biological communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document, the third in a series, reports on the results of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site BMAP; it describes studies that were conducted over various periods of time between June 1990 and December 1993, although monitoring conducted outside this time period is included, as appropriate.

  3. Second report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Hinzman, R.L.; Kszos, L.A.; Loar, J.M.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Crumby, W.D. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    On September 11, 1986, a modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued for the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP; now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site), a former uranium-enrichment production facility. As required in Part III of the permit, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) and submitted for approval to the US EPA and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation. The plan described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. The objectives of the BMAP are to demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site protect and maintain the use of Mitchell Branch for growth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, and to document the effects on stream biota resulting from operation of major new pollution abatement facilities. The BMAP consists of four tasks: ambient toxicity testing; bioaccumulation studies; biological indicator studies; and ecological surveys of stream communities, including benthic macroinvertebrates and fish. This document is the second in a series of reports presenting the results of the studies that were conducted over various periods of time between August 1987 and June 1990.

  4. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Adams, S.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Black, M.C. [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)] [and others

    1993-06-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate.

  5. Second report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NDPES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Y-12 Plant protect the classified uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a Water Pollution Control Program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing; (2) bioaccumulation studies; (3) biological indicator studies; and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic (bottom-dwelling) macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the second in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted between July 1986 and July 1988, although additional data collected outside this time period are included, as appropriate

  6. First report on the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for East Fork Poplar Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; McCarthy, J.F.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Black, M.C. (Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)); Gatz, A.J. Jr. (Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, OH (United States)); Hinzman, R.L. (Oak Ridge Research Inst., TN (United States)); Jimenez, B.D. (Puerto Rico Univ.,

    1992-07-01

    As stipulated in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant on May 24, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for the receiving stream, East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). The objectives of the BMAP are (1) to demonstrate that the current effluent limitations established for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant protect the uses of EFPC (e.g., the growth and propagation of fish and aquatic life), as designated by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE)], and (2) to document the ecological effects resulting from implementation of a water pollution control program that includes construction of several large wastewater treatment facilities. The BMAP consists of four major tasks: (1) ambient toxicity testing, (2) bioaccumulation studies, (3) biological indicator studies, and (4) ecological surveys of stream communities, including periphyton (attached algae), benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish. This document, the first in a series of reports on the results of the Y-12 Plant BMAP, describes studies that were conducted from May 1985 through September 1986.

  7. The nuclear non-proliferation regime: What it is and how it has evolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear non-proliferation regime commonly denotes the legal norms, voluntary undertakings and policies which the international community has developed to deal with the threat of nuclear weapons proliferation. The word 'regime' suggests a legally binding order. Some components of the non-proliferation regime are indeed legally binding. Others represent essentially political rather than legal commitments. This lecture describes the various independent but mutually reinforcing components of the non-proliferation regime. It thus touches on and highlights the particular importance of political incentives - or disincentives - to the acquisition of nuclear weapons; legal undertakings in which non-proliferation commitments are anchored; verification (specifically the IAEA Safeguards System); compliance and enforcement; export controls; physical protection measures; regional nuclear non-proliferation initiatives; and measures taken to curb proliferation in general and to strive for arms control and nuclear disarmament. The purpose of the lecture is to provide an over-arching, tour d'horizon for the more specific and detailed lectures which follow. (author)

  8. Non-proliferation and safeguards in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa, being a country with a nuclear weapons capability was prepared to remove this capability before acceding to the NPT, is very much dedicated to the prevention of Nuclear Weapons through controlling Nuclear Material, Nuclear Equipment and Dual-Use Related Materials and Equipment. To comply with the requirements of the various non-proliferation treaties, regimes and suppliers groups, local legislation was published in the South African Government Gazette. According to this legislation the Minister of Minerals and Energy is the National Authority for the implementation of Safeguards within South Africa. The minister delegated certain activities of this function to NECSA. To ensure that all the IAEA safeguards requirements are met, the Division Safeguards as National Authority, within NECSA, designed a State's System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Material based on the ISO 9001:2000 International Standard. To comply with the ISO International Standard requirements various procedures, instructions, technical specifications and lists were prepared. A management Review was also performed to evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of the Quality Management System. The objective of the Quality Management System is to provide assurance to the National Authority that it can state, with a high level of confidence, that the information and products provided to the IAEA are formally and technically correct and that no diversion of significant quantities of material occurred. In future the South African National Authority would like to measure the performance of the SSAC and to enhance continual improvement by benchmarking. Therefore one of our objectives is to measure South Africa's SSAC's performance against that of other member states. (author)

  9. Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempted to find out ways to facilitate bilateral and regional arms control regarding nuclear issues in Northeast Asia. This is done in order to reduce uncertainties regarding nuclear policy and capabilities of those countries, and thus to enhance transparency and confidence in the region. In order to bring them into the nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation process in an effective way, we revisited the issues that contributed to the acceleration of the arms race. The review provided insights into the future course of China, the two Koreas and Japan regarding their nuclear policy and capabilities. The findings of this study indicate a general likelihood of resistance to outside request for arms control and disarmament in the countries in Northeast Asia. Besides their continuation with the conventional arms race, countries in Northeast Asia are reluctant to go ahead with the programmes to enhance transparency, build confidence in the region, and to forgo intentions to go nuclear. China is slowly but steadily increasing its nuclear arsenals. Its nuclear arms control policy is not well integrated with nuclear policy and strategy, and it is subject to the overarching goal of nuclear policy and strategy to advance China's status and national security interests in the international community. Thus, it will be very difficult for other countries to bring China to the arms control process for the time being. North Korea has intended to develop nuclear weapons in order to hedge against uncertainties. This poses a threat to the NPT regime and the peace and security of Northeast Asia. Clearly, North Korea has shown its reluctance to disclose the entirety of its nuclear programme under the IAEA inspections. Although South Korea has taken a bold initiative to forgo uranium enrichment and reprocessing capabilities, it has still not fully paid off. Japan adds the problem of plutonium surplus to the uncertain security environments surrounding Northeast Asia

  10. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Survey of Radiation Biology Educators in U.S. and Canadian Radiation Oncology Residency Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To obtain, in a survey-based study, detailed information on the faculty currently responsible for teaching radiation biology courses to radiation oncology residents in the United States and Canada. Methods and Materials: In March-December 2007 a survey questionnaire was sent to faculty having primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to residents in 93 radiation oncology residency programs in the United States and Canada. Results: The responses to this survey document the aging of the faculty who have primary responsibility for teaching radiation biology to radiation oncology residents. The survey found a dramatic decline with time in the percentage of educators whose graduate training was in radiation biology. A significant number of the educators responsible for teaching radiation biology were not fully acquainted with the radiation sciences, either through training or practical application. In addition, many were unfamiliar with some of the organizations setting policies and requirements for resident education. Freely available tools, such as the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) Radiation and Cancer Biology Practice Examination and Study Guides, were widely used by residents and educators. Consolidation of resident courses or use of a national radiation biology review course was viewed as unlikely by most programs. Conclusions: A high priority should be given to the development of comprehensive teaching tools to assist those individuals who have responsibility for teaching radiation biology courses but who do not have an extensive background in critical areas of radiobiology related to radiation oncology. These findings also suggest a need for new graduate programs in radiobiology.

  11. Offer of rapid testing and alternative biological samples as practical tools to implement HIV screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Maria Rita; Soldini, Laura; Di Perri, Giovanni; Tiberi, Simon; Lazzarin, Adriano; Lillo, Flavia B

    2009-10-01

    Implementation of HIV testing has the objective to increase screening, identify and counsel persons with infection, link them to clinical services and reduce transmission. Rapid tests and/or alternative biological samples (like oral fluid) give the option for a better general consent in approaching screening, immediate referral of HIV positives to medical treatment and partner notification. We tested the performance characteristics of an oral fluid-based rapid HIV test (Rapidtest HIV lateral flow-Healthchem diag. LLC) in comparison with routinely utilized methods in a selected population of known positive (N = 121) or negative (N = 754) subjects. The sensitivity of the rapid test was 99.1% (one false negative sample) and the specificity 98.8%. Five negatives showed a faint reactivity, 3 of these were reactive also in the reference test, one with a p24 only reaction in Western blot. If these 3 samples were excluded from the analysis the specificity increases to 99.2%. Results from our study confirm that, although a continuous improvement of the test performance is still needed to minimize false negative and positive results, rapid test and alternative biological samples may contribute to HIV prevention strategies by reaching a larger population particularly when and where regular screening procedures are difficult to obtain. PMID:20128446

  12. ICONE-4: Proceedings. Volume 4: Nuclear plant operations and maintenance, nuclear fuel cycle, institutional and energy policy, non-proliferation and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings of this conference are divided into five volumes. This volume covers the following topics: operational experience; maintenance methods and programs; organization, management, QA, and human factors; performance monitoring; instrument and control systems; analytical methods; risk methodology; plant and system improvements; fuel cycle technologies; fuel cycle related technologies--component applications; enrichment and processing; economics; technical issues in capacity and expansion in Russia; nuclear energy policy advances; energy mix--the role of nuclear energy; latest international developments in non-proliferation and safeguards; plutonium disposition and mixed oxide fuels; aspects of plutonium disposition; and plutonium burning and disposition reactors and accelerators. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  13. Implementation of an Education-Focused PhD Program in Anatomy and Cell Biology at Indiana University: Lessons Learned and Future Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, James J.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the Indiana University School of Medicine, in collaboration with the School of Education, admitted its first student to a newly approved PhD program in Anatomy and Cell Biology focusing on educational research rather than biomedical research. The goal of the program is twofold: (1) to provide students with extensive training in all of the…

  14. PCSB--a program collection for structural biology and biophysical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A; Wlodawer, A

    2002-01-01

    We present the first package of Java classes specifically aimed at the handling of structural and biophysical problems. To enable object-oriented programming a basis of fundamental Java classes is required which deals with basic operations of vectors, matrices, amino acid sequences, crystal symmetries and PDB files. Five classes, which carry out these basic operations, were constructed and bundled together with several utility functions in the PCSB package. Furthermore, to demonstrate their applicability and to obtain programs handling common tasks in structural laboratories, we present the first six applications of PCSB. All applications are portable to different platforms and require only the Java Runtime Environment to be installed on the system. available as PDF file. PMID:11836236

  15. Steel creek macroinvertebrates: L Lake/steel creek biological monitoring program January 1986--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hop, J.R.; Lauritsen, D.; Magoulik, D.

    1988-04-01

    The macroinvertebrate community in Steel Creek was monitored at 13 sampling stations from January 1986 to December 1987 to assess the effects of L-Lake impoundment on the biological community downstream from the dam. The benthic macroinvertebrate communities were sampled monthly at 13 stations in Steel Creek using artificial substrates. Macroinvertebrates suspended in the water column were collected monthly at seven stations using drift nets. Emerging aquatic insects were sampled monthly at seven stations with floating emergence traps. Invertebrates on natural substrates (bottom sediments, snags, and macrophytes) were collected at seven stations in May and September in both 1986 and 1987. Macroinvertebrates were collected in February and August of 1986 and 1987 at 13 stations in Steel Creek using dip nets. 61 refs., 79 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the issue of nonproliferation. Final study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NIF, the next step proposed by DOE in a progression of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facilities, is expected to reach the goal of ICF capsule ignition in the laboratory. This report is in response to a request of a Congressman that DOE resolve the question of whether NIF will aid or hinder U.S. nonproliferation efforts. Both technical and policy aspects are addressed, and public participation was part of the decision process. Since the technical proliferation concerns at NIF are manageable and can be made acceptable, and NIF can contribute positively to U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy goals, it is concluded that NIF supports the nuclear nonproliferation objectives of the United States

  17. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) and the issue of nonproliferation. Final study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-19

    NIF, the next step proposed by DOE in a progression of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) facilities, is expected to reach the goal of ICF capsule ignition in the laboratory. This report is in response to a request of a Congressman that DOE resolve the question of whether NIF will aid or hinder U.S. nonproliferation efforts. Both technical and policy aspects are addressed, and public participation was part of the decision process. Since the technical proliferation concerns at NIF are manageable and can be made acceptable, and NIF can contribute positively to U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy goals, it is concluded that NIF supports the nuclear nonproliferation objectives of the United States.

  18. Future nuclear non-proliferation regime. After 2005 NPT review conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the NPT Review Conference held in May 2005, at which the final document was not adopted, many issues for the development of the future non-proliferation regime were identified. NPT, which was established during the Cold War, was the center piece of the non-proliferation regime during the 1990s, especially after the collapse of the former USSR. Recent events related to Libya and Iran, reveal the new possible scenarios of the proliferation of nuclear weapons, explosive devices and other weapon usable technologies and materials, especially the uranium enrichment related technologies and materials, and the role of the non-State actors in the proliferation of them. We need to renew the existing non-proliferation regime for the new proliferation scenarios. (author)

  19. Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN). Biennium activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Biennium Activity Report summarizes the activities conducted by the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) and its worldwide international contribution in the field of nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear security. The ISCN was established in December of 2010. For the past two years, ISCN has convened more than 30 trainings, seminars, and workshops in the field of nuclear nonproliferation/safeguards and nuclear security with over 1,000 participants from more than 30 countries. Not only trainings for overseas participants centering on Asian nations, but ISCN also provided trainings and seminars for relevant domestic institutions including nuclear operators, government organizations such as Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA), police organizations, Self-Defense Forces. Especially, ISCN has strengthened cooperation with NRA in developing training curriculums for nuclear security, and also in training for newly-appointed physical protection inspectors of NRA. (author)

  20. 76 FR 81004 - Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures Against Foreign Persons, Including a Ban on U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Imposition of Nonproliferation Measures Against Foreign Persons, Including a Ban on U.S. Government... Nonproliferation, Department of State, Telephone (202) 647-4930. For U.S. Government procurement ban issues:...

  1. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years' data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143

  2. Steel Creek primary producers: Periphyton and seston, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, J.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Toole, M.A.; van Duyn, Y. [Normandeau Associates Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-02-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal Plain in west-central South Carolina. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor and to protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to assess various components of the system and identify and changes due to the operation of L-Reactor or discharge from L Lake. An intensive ecological assessment program prior to the construction of the lake provided baseline data with which to compare data accumulated after the lake was filled and began discharging into the creek. The Department of Energy must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems. This report summarizes the results of six years` data from Steel Creek under the L-Lake/Steel Creek Monitoring Program. L Lake is discussed separately from Steel Creek in Volumes NAI-SR-138 through NAI-SR-143.

  3. KEMAMPUAN SUBJECT SPECIFIC PEDAGOGY CALON GURU BIOLOGI PESERTA PROGRAM PENDIDIKAN PROFESIONAL GURU (PPG YANG BERLATAR BELAKANG BASIC SAINS PRA DAN POST WORKSHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Anwar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan/mendeskripsikan kemampuan Subjek Spesifik Pedagogi mahasiswa calon guru biologi yang mengikuti program Pendidikan Profesional Guru (PPG angkatan 2012-2013 melalui pendekatan konsekutif.  Hasil sementara menunjukkan  bahwa Kemampuan Subject Specific Pedagogy mahasiswa calon guru biologi yang berlatar belakang Biologi murni program Basic Science masih minim, dapat dilihat dari hasil CoRes dan PaP-eRs buatan mereka sebelum mengikuti workshop. Setelah workshop semester I diperoleh hasil yang menunjukkan peningkatan yang cukup baik.   This study aimed to describe / describes the ability of prospective students Subject Specific Pedagogy biology teachers who follow the Professional Teacher Education Program (PTEP 2012-2013 armed consecutive approach. Preliminary results indicate that the ability of prospective students Subject Specific Pedagogy biology teacher who belongs to the pure Biology Basic Science program is minimal, it can be seen from the cores and pap-ers made ​​them before the workshop. After the workshop the first half of the obtained results that showed a pretty good improvement.

  4. Activity of the Republic of Kazakstan in the sphere of non-proliferation and conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of the report include discussion of issues and the analysis of activity directly or indirectly related to observing the regime of non-proliferation of mass destruction weapons, materials and dual-use technologies: 1) nuclear material accounting and control. Safeguards application. 2) Radioactive material reprocessing, storage and burial. 3) Atomic power engineering. 4) Export of nuclear materials. 5) Disarmament and mass destruction weapons elimination. 6) Elimination of nuclear tests infrastructure at the former Semipalatinsk test site. 7) Control of nuclear weapon and nuclear materials application. 8) Conversion of defense industry and scientific-technological complexes of the former military enterprises. 9) 'Non-proliferation Institute' association

  5. Investigation to enhance nonproliferation characteristics of commercial FBRs by material barrier aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A possibility to enhance the nonproliferation characteristics of a commercial FBR is investigated in terms of reactor core design aspects, though the rigorous safeguards and the physical protection of nuclear materials essentially keep the nonproliferation at a high level. By means of loading the fertile blanket with plutonium (Pu) or minor actinide (MA), it is possible to reduce the proportion of fissile isotopes to total Pu and the attractiveness of the Pu produced in the blanket. Moreover, a radial blanket-free core is also possible. The merits and demerits of each method are described for the practical optimization of a core concept. (authors)

  6. Development of an academic course in safeguards and nuclear non-proliferation at Swedish universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper and presentation is twofold: 1. to present a new course on nuclear non-proliferation and safeguards aiming at various university programmes in Sweden. As a first step, the course will be given to civil engineering students at the Uppsala university. For these students the technical aspects of safeguards will be emphasised. Later on, students in international relations at Stockholm university will be addressed with a focus on the non-proliferation aspects. 2.to present a elaborated course material that will be used in both academic courses and for training of personnel at the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate and in the Swedish nuclear industry. (author)

  7. Nonproliferation analysis of the reduction of excess separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this preliminary investigation is to explore alternatives and strategies aimed at the gradual reduction of the excess inventories of separated plutonium and high-enriched uranium (HEU) in the civilian nuclear power industry. The study attempts to establish a technical and economic basis to assist in the formation of alternative approaches consistent with nonproliferation and safeguards concerns. The analysis addresses several options in reducing the excess separated plutonium and HEU, and the consequences on nonproliferation and safeguards policy assessments resulting from the interacting synergistic effects between fuel cycle processes and isotopic signatures of nuclear materials

  8. The non-proliferation treaty and the issue of the DPRK nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The test to which the Non-proliferation Treaty is being put in North Korea is only a small part of the larger issue of nuclear proliferation and its control. If the government of North Korea would agree to adhere to the Non-proliferation Treaty and allow the inspections that IAEA considers necessary at the same time entering into serious negotiations with the South Korea this would mean implementation of the Declaration of the Denuclearization of the Korean peninsula as well as progress in respect to other agreements signed by two sides

  9. Impact of a comprehensive test ban and negative security assurances on nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In today's exceedingly complex world, the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is more important than ever before. If the current fractious international situation is to be transformed into a safer and more stable environment, it is essential to develop an international system that will promote both the non-proliferation of weapons and disarmament. The early conclusion on a CTBT and the provision of effective security assurances for non-nuclear weapon States of particular importance. Active contributions and cooperation of all countries in negotiations would lead to conclusion

  10. The legal points at issue concerning the Non-proliferation Treaty and the verification agreement of EURATOM with the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An excellent and comprehensive but very juridicial contribution on: Development and content of the Non-proliferation Treaty, the problems which this Treaty poses for EURATOM (a common market, common supply, joint enterprises, Non-proliferation Treaty and France), the compatibility of the Non-proliferation Treaty with the EURATOM Treaty, verification agreement EURATOM - IAEA (the IAEA as the supervisory authority, the control system of the IAEA, guidelines elaborated by the IAEA to be used as the basis for negotiating safeguard agreements, national systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material IAEA supervision as a secondary control, principles of IAEA supervision, secrecy, conflict management), conclusion of the verification agreement, deviations from the guidelines elaborated by the IAEA to be used as the basis for negotiating safeguard agreements legal reflexions (verification agreement and Non-proliferation Treaty, reservations concerning the Non-proliferation Treaty, questions of competence between EURATOM and member states without nuclear weapons, problems of equal treatment). (HP/LN)

  11. The influence of interactive technology on student performance in an Oklahoma secondary Biology I program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltman, Vallery

    Over the last decade growth in technologies available to teach students and enhance curriculum has become an important consideration in the educational system. The profile of today's secondary students have also been found to be quite different than those of the past. Their learning styles and preferences are issues that should be addressed by educators. With the growth and availability of new technologies students are increasingly expecting to use these as learning tools in their classrooms. This study investigates how interactive technology may impact student performance. This study specifically focuses on the use of the Apple Ipad in 4 Biology I classrooms. This study used an experimental mixed method design to examine how using Ipads for learning impacted student achievement, motivation to learn, and learning strategies. Qualitatively the study examined observed student behaviors and student perceptions regarding the use of interactive technologies. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-tests, 2-way ANOVAs, and qualitative analysis. Quantitatively the results revealed no significant difference between students who used the interactive technology to learn and those who did not. Qualitative data revealed behaviors indicative of being highly engaged with the subject matter and the development of critical thinking skills which may improve student performance. Student perceptions also revealed overall positive experiences with using interactive technology in the classroom. It is recommended that further studies be done to look at using interactive technologies for a longer period of time using multiple subjects areas. This would provide a more in-depth exploration of interactive technologies on student achievement.

  12. Technical Program of The Fifth World Congress on Chemical, Biological and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries worldwide were interested in the part that CBMTS industry played in the overall protection schemes required of all nations. It was idea to develop a baseline of information on antidotes and planned medical treatment for military and civilian medical casualties, in both peace and war. It was an almost complete lack of international communications across the full spectrum of chemical and biological medical treatment. Based on actual incidents that affected their chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries during their recent war, countries highlighted a danger that every country could face in the event of military actions, sabotage and especially terrorist actions, as well as major incidents or accidents involving these industries. Today TICS and TIMS and chemical and pharmaceutical industries and accidents and incidents whether by man or nature are part of our daily lexicon. The very tragic events 9/11 graphically demonstrated the importance of our CBMTS approach at bringing together the world's very best professionals in science and medicine to explore at the outer edges of science and technology, the most important issue facing the international community. Although the success in this approach has been continually documented for many years, CBMTS will continually rededicate our total efforts towards defining the issues, surfacing the problems across the NBC science and medical spectrum and applying the best efforts at developing solutions that would most benefit our world community

  13. Advanced High School Biology in an Era of Rapid Change: A Summary of the Biology Panel Report from the NRC Committee on Programs for Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in American High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, William B.

    2002-01-01

    A recently released National Research Council (NRC) report, Learning and Understanding: Improving Advanced Study of Mathematics and Science in U.S. High Schools, evaluated and recommended changes in the Advanced Placement (AP), International Baccalaureate (IB), and other advanced secondary school science programs. As part of this study, discipline-specific panels were formed to evaluate advanced programs in biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Among the conclusions of the Content Pan...

  14. BREST-1200 reactor fuel cycle based on the principles of nuclear arm non-proliferation and radiation-equivalent disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BREST-reactor fuel cycle, based on the principles of the nuclear arm non-proliferation and radiation-equivalent radioactive waste disposal, is described. The peculiarities of the BREST reactor, meeting the requirements of the nonproliferation of the nuclear materials, suitable for the nuclear arm production, are considered. The technological aspects of the fissile materials non-proliferation are discussed

  15. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.G. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Kszos, L.A.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.

    1993-08-01

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively.

  16. First report on the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for Mitchell Branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A modified National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit was issued to the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (now referred to as the Oak Ridge K-25 Site) on September 11, 1986. The Oak Ridge K-25 Site is a former uranium-enrichment production facility, which is currently managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. for the US Department of Energy. As required in Part III (L) of that permit, a plan for the biological monitoring of Mitchell Branch (K-1700 stream) was prepared and submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation [formerly the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (Loar et al. 1992b)]. The K-25 Site Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) described biomonitoring activities that would be conducted over the duration of the permit. Because it was anticipated that the composition of existing effluent streams entering Mitchell Branch would be altered shortly after the modified permit was issued, sampling of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities (Task 4 of BMAP) was initiated in August and September 1986 respectively

  17. Nuclear trade and non-proliferation: report by working group; Commerce nucleaire et non-proliferation: rapport du groupe de travail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerever, M.

    1995-12-31

    The paper is organized in three parts. The first one analyses the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) mentioning the arrangements and registered agreements between the IAEA and Member States. Also, the most important international legal instruments concerned the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are considered. In the second part, other international, regional or national legal instruments are discussed, particularly the London Club Guidelines, Treaty of Tlatelolco, the EURATOM and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) Treaties, besides the American law of 18 Mars, 1978 - Nuclear Non-proliferation Act (NNPA) about the exportation of materials and services or nuclear technology; An appreciation about the laws and treaties are presented in the third part. Special attention is given to reinforce the non-proliferation dispositives face the actions after Iraq`s event (1990): new installations and nuclear activities moratorium extension export controls extension established by the London Club Guidelines and full scope safeguards adoption to accomplish controls and protect of dual-use nuclear-related technologies. 3 refs.

  18. Biological effects of radiation: The induction of malignant transformation and programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Chernobyl explosions and fire, powderized nuclear fuel was released from the reactor core, causing an unexpected fallout. X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy showed that the isolated single particles were essentially pure uranium. These uranium aerosols contained all of the nonvolatile fission products, including the b-emitters, 95Zr, 103Ru, 106Ru, 141Ce, and 144Ce. The hot particles are extremely effective in inducing malignant transformation in mouse fibroblast cells in vitro. The major factor responsible for this effect is focus promotion caused by a wound-mediated permanent increase in cell proliferation (mitogenesis associated with mutagenesis). Transformed foci were analysed for the activation of c-abl, c-erb-A, c-erb-B, c-fms, c-fos, c-myb, c-myc, c-Ha-ras, c-Ki-ras, c-sis, and c-raf oncogenes at the transcriptional level. The pattern of oncogene activation was found to vary from focus to focus. Long interspersed repeated DNA (L1 or LINE makes up a class of mobile genetic elements which can amplify in the cell genome by retroposition. This element is spontaneously transcriptionally activated at a critical population density and later amplified in rat chloroleukaemia cells. UV light and ionizing radiation induce this activation prematurely, and the activation is followed by programmed cell death (apoptosis) in a sequence of events identical to that seen in LIRn activation occurring spontaneously

  19. Institutional effectiveness in international regimes. An analysis of the effectiveness of the nuclear non-proliferation regime coping with the political malignity in the case of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the international security regimes, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime has a prominent ranking due to the destructive power of the nuclear weapons over regional and global peace and stability. The NPT Regime has come across with two major challenges in the recent decade: North Korea and Iran. Contrary to North Korea, Iran is determined to stay as a state party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. The Regime still did not confirm the character and extent of Iranian nuclear program. The question of this study is ''why the processes of the NPT Regime cannot specify the nature and scope of Irans nuclear program?'' The three main the processes of the regime, which are the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the UN Security Council (UNSC) and the multilateral negotiations, are examined to determine the weaknesses of the regime. This study argues that the regime is modulated to cope with operational challenges and it remains relatively incompetent when a political challenge arises.

  20. Applications of virtual reality to nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stansfield, S.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents several applications of virtual reality relevant to the areas of nuclear safeguards and non-proliferation. Each of these applications was developed to the prototype stage at Sandia National Laboratories` Virtual Reality and Intelligent Simulation laboratory. These applications include the use of virtual reality for facility visualization, training of inspection personnel, and security and monitoring of nuclear facilities.

  1. 78 FR 9768 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of Missile Sanctions on Two...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of Missile Sanctions on Two Chinese Foreign.... SUMMARY: A determination has been made that two foreign persons in China have engaged in activities that...) . Accordingly, the following sanctions are being imposed on these foreign persons for two years: (A) Denial...

  2. Back-end of the fuel cycle and non-proliferation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebeskov, A.N.; Oussanov, V.I.; Iougai, S.V.; Pshakin, G.M. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The paper focuses on the problem of fissile materials proliferation risk estimation. Some methodological approaches to the solution of this task and results of their application for comparison of different nuclear fuel cycle strategies are discussed. The results of comparative assessment of non-proliferation aspects of plutonium utilization alternatives in Russia using system analysis approach are presented. (author)

  3. Back-end of the fuel cycle and non-proliferation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper focuses on the problem of fissile materials proliferation risk estimation. Some methodological approaches to the solution of this task and results of their application for comparison of different nuclear fuel cycle strategies are discussed. The results of comparative assessment of non-proliferation aspects of plutonium utilization alternatives in Russia using system analysis approach are presented. (author)

  4. Capacity building support for nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear security. Challenges and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capacity building support is critical for the enhancement of international nuclear nonproliferation and security regimes. In this regard the Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is promoting capacity building support internationally in the areas of nuclear nonproliferation and security. Similarly, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and European Commission's Joint Research Centre (EC/JRC) are providing capacity building support for international partners in these fields. While this kind of capacity building support is accelerating, it is increasingly recognized that many challenges exist to achieve effective capacity building support, such as gaps between needs and support contents and possible redundancies in various support activities. As a result, the effectiveness of capacity building support is seriously questioned, and greater importance is now attached to the harmonization among support activities. With this situation in mind, this paper will introduce the concepts and approach of ISCN's capacity building support, discuss the challenges for this support to serve for enduring efforts toward the enhancement of nuclear nonproliferation and security and possible ways to overcome these challenges. (author)

  5. Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Export Control in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with its internationally accepted obligations, the Republic of Croatia is actively implementing principles of non-proliferation and export control of nuclear materials and/or equipment. The article deals with treaties, conventions, agreements and other international arrangements that are creating certain obligation for Republic of Croatia related to nuclear non-proliferation. The most important are the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, the Agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards with Protocol, the Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the Republic of Croatia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards, the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty, the NSG Guidelines for the Export of Nuclear Material, Equipment and Technology and NSG Guidelines for Transfers of Nuclear-Related Dual-Use Equipment, Materials, Software and Related Technology. In addition the article describes a national regulative framework, the basis for conducting activities in nuclear material control, export control of dual-use items as well as non-proliferation of the weapons of mass destruction. Details are given about the Nuclear Safety Act, the Act on Liability for Nuclear Damage, the Act on Export of Dual-Use Items, the Decree on the List of Dual-Use Items, the Law on Production, Repair and Trade in Arms and Military Equipment and the Decree specifying goods subject to export and import licenses. (author)

  6. The nonproliferation treaty and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, nuclear arms control and peaceful uses of nuclear explosives were seen by many proponents of each as competing - if not opposing - interests. At one extreme, some viewed peaceful uses as an annoying irritant on the way to general and complete disarmament. At the other extreme, some considered arms-control arrangements - particularly those limiting nuclear testing - as bothersome barriers to realizing the full benefits of peaceful nuclear explosions. Most people found themselves somewhere between those extremes. But most also felt a continuing tension between essentially opposing forces. This polarity has been significantly altered by the 1968 Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons. It is believed that the future use of nuclear explosives for peaceful purposes will depend in large measure on the international arrangements worked out under the treaty. I also believe that the success of the treaty in checking proliferation of nuclear weapons is contingent, in substantial part, on those peaceful-uses arrangements. In the areas covered by the treaty, therefore, one could view an active development of peaceful uses for nuclear explosives as complementing rather than conflicting with nuclear arms control. The treaty is primarily a security agreement. It is aimed at reducing the risk of nuclear war by establishing permanency in the current separation of nuclear-weapon and non-nuclear-weapon nations. By its terms, each nuclear-weapon state agrees not to transfer nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices to any recipient, and each non-nuclear-weapon state agrees not to receive such weapons or devices. The non-nuclear- weapon parties are also obligated to negotiate safeguards agreements with the International Atomic Energy Agency covering peaceful-uses activities. And all signatories agree not to transfer fissionable material to those parties unless they are subject to such agreements. These provisions are all part of a scheme to limit the

  7. Authorized Course of Instruction for the Quinmester Program. Science: Introduction to Marine Science; Recreation and the Sea; Oceanography; Marine Ecology of South Florida, and Invertebrate Marine Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    All five units, developed for the Dade County Florida Quinmester Program, included in this collection concern some aspect of marine studies. Except for "Recreation and the Sea," intended to give students basic seamanship skills and experience of other marine recreation, all units are designed for students with a background in biology or chemistry.…

  8. Gender Differences in Patients' Beliefs About Biological, Environmental, Behavioral, and Psychological Risk Factors in a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Saeidi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are significant gender differences in the epidemiology and presentation of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, physiological aspects of CVDs, response to diagnostic tests or interventions, and prevalence or incidence of the associated risk factors. Considering the independent influence of gender on early dire consequences of such diseases, this study was conducted to investigate gender differences in patients' beliefs about biological, environmental, behavioral, and psychological risk factors in a cardiac rehabilitation program. Materials and Methods: This study has cross sectional design. The sample was composed of 775 patients referred to cardiac rehabilitation unit in Imam Ali Hospital in Kermanshah, Iran. The data were collected using clinical interview and patients’ medical records. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and chi-square test​​. To do the statistical analysis, SPSS version 20 was utilized. Results: As the results indicated, there was a significant difference between the beliefs of men and women about risk factors of heart disease (X2= 48.36; P

  9. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 5: Modification of existing hardware (COTS) versus new hardware build cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The JSC Life Sciences Project Division has been directly supporting NASA Headquarters, Life Sciences Division, in the preparation of data from JSC and ARC to assist in defining the Space Biology Initiative (SBI). GE Government Services and Horizon Aerospace have provided contract support for the development and integration of review data, reports, presentations, and detailed supporting data. An SBI Definition (Non-Advocate) Review at NASA Headquarters, Code B, has been scheduled for the June-July 1989 time period. In a previous NASA Headquarters review, NASA determined that additional supporting data would be beneficial to determine the potential advantages in modifying commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware for some SBI hardware items. In order to meet the demands of program implementation planning with the definition review in late spring of 1989, the definition trade study analysis must be adjusted in scope and schedule to be complete for the SBI Definition (Non-Advocate) Review. The relative costs of modifying existing commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware is compared to fabricating new hardware. An historical basis for new build versus modifying COTS to meet current NMI specifications for manned space flight hardware is surveyed and identified. Selected SBI hardware are identified as potential candidates for off-the-shelf modification and statistical estimates on the relative cost of modifying COTS versus new build are provided.

  10. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among Turkey, Caucasus and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Following the First Geneva Conference in 1955 for expanding peaceful uses of nuclear energy, Turkey was one of the first countries to start activities in the nuclear field. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) was established in 1956 and Turkey became a member of the International Atomic Energy Agency established in 1957. TAEK was established to support, co-ordinate and perform the activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and act as a regulatory body and establish cooperation with countries and international organizations. In the late nineteen-ninetieth, TAEK, besides the cooperation with various countries, has involved in cooperating with nuclear institutes of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Scientific Organisations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

  11. Disarmament and security in a multipolar world: Non-proliferation, regional cooperation, keeping and building the peace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of disarmament process entering a new phase issues of consolidating the non-proliferation regime nuclear-weapon-free zones, export control regime of nuclear materials, and future of nuclear weapons are discussed. 8 notes

  12. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  13. Problems of the nuclear non-proliferation policy. Contributions to the international discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume assembles a number of essays wherein basic problems of nonproliferation are identified and discussed in view of recent developments and future policy requirements. What is the role of multilateral institutions in the containment of nuclear proliferation? How are Western Europe's security needs to be reconciled with the tenets of the global nonproliferation regime? How can international safeguards be upgraded so as to increase confidence among states? What kinds of disciplinary instruments are needed for the international community to prevent an unco-operative state from gaining access to nuclear weapons? What kinds of obstacles stand in the way of smooth co-operation between the European Union and the United States in the nuclear field? How does the demise of global bipolarity impinge on the need to pursue an international nuclear order? The essays in this volume seek to combine structural analysis of conceptual issues with substantive policy recommendations. (orig./HP)

  14. The Non-Proliferation Treaty: Fifteen years after entry into force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to halt a wider spread of nuclear weapons grew out of the realization that the increase in the number of countries possessing such weapons would increase the threat to world security. As the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons clearly states in its preamble, the proliferation of nuclear weapons would seriously enhance the danger of nuclear war. The Treaty - also known as the non-proliferation Treaty - was concluded in 1968, at a time when there were already five nuclear-weapon Powers: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France and China. This fact sheet is intended to provide background material on the Treaty, including the events that led to its conclusion, an overview of its provisions and the developments at the two previously held Review Conferences

  15. Review of international forum on peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International forum on peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation was held at Gakushi-kaikan, Tokyo on February 2-3, 2011 in cooperation with The Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and The University of Tokyo Global COE. In our International Forum, we would like to encourage active discussion of international challenges to and solutions for compatibility between peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation, and international cooperation for emerging nuclear energy states. It was successfully carried out with as many as 310 participants and a lot of discussions. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summary of panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. (author)

  16. Information sharing framework among nuclear nonproliferation experts for enhancing nuclear transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is carrying out R and D to design and establish an Information-Sharing Framework (ISF) for supporting and promoting nuclear transparency in cooperation with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), the Korean Institute for Nonproliferation and Control (KINAC), and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Partner organizations have agreed on starting by establishing ISF with a focus on nuclear nonproliferation experts in Track II as primary information providers/receivers. Thus far, requirements for ISF have been developed for providing clear steps to design and establish ISF and ensuring its sustainability. As the next step, ISF is to be established following the requirements and demonstration of information sharing will be carried out. In the long-term, ISF could be expanded to invite other interested organizations and include other information. This paper describes the effort to design and establish ISF by focusing on the requirements which has been developed under the joint R and D. (author)

  17. The fourth-review conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is reported that the parties to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons met in Geneva at the Fourth Review Conference 'to review the operation of this Treaty with a view to assuring that the purposes of the Preamble and the provisions of the Treaty are being realised'. Notwithstanding the absence of an agreed final declaration, the Conference demonstrated a broad commitment to the goal of nuclear non-proliferation. The importance of the Treaty in establishing a legal norm that has constricted the growth in the number of nuclear-weapon States was widely recognized, as was its value in providing access to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy while containing the spread of nuclear weapons

  18. The Physics and Nuclear Nonproliferation Goals of WATCHMAN: A WAter CHerenkov Monitor for ANtineutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Askins, M; Bernstein, A; Dazeley, S; Dye, S T; Handler, T; Hatzikoutelis, A; Hellfeld, D; Jaffke, P; Kamyshkov, Y; Land, B J; Learned, J G; Marleau, P; Mauger, C; Gann, G D Orebi; Roecker, C; Rountree, S D; Shokair, T M; Smy, M B; Svoboda, R; Sweany, M; Vagins, M R; van Bibber, K A; Vogelaar, R B; Wetstein, M J; Yeh, M

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the physics and nonproliferation goals of WATCHMAN, the WAter Cherenkov Monitor for ANtineutrinos. The baseline WATCHMAN design is a kiloton scale gadolinium-doped (Gd) light water Cherenkov detector, placed 13 kilometers from a civil nuclear reactor in the United States. In its first deployment phase, WATCHMAN will be used to remotely detect a change in the operational status of the reactor, providing a first- ever demonstration of the potential of large Gd-doped water detectors for remote reactor monitoring for future international nuclear nonproliferation applications. During its first phase, the detector will provide a critical large-scale test of the ability to tag neutrons and thus distinguish low energy electron neutrinos and antineutrinos. This would make WATCHMAN the only detector capable of providing both direction and flavor identification of supernova neutrinos. It would also be the third largest supernova detector, and the largest underground in the western hemisphere. In a...

  19. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  20. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities

  1. Recent Developments Promoting Open-Source Synergy: Emerging Trends and Their Impact for Nuclear Nonproliferation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    PABIAN FRANK; RENDA Guido; JUNGWIRTH RAINER; KIM LANCE KYUNGWOO; WOLFART Erik; COJAZZI Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    A number of recent developments in open-source information technology are creating new opportunities for data fusion for nuclear nonproliferation verification applications, particularly when some aspect of that information includes a geospatial component. Those developments include enhanced “new media” data mining tools and techniques to derive cueing information for indications of previously unknown and hence undeclared activity, coupled with rapidly expanding commercial satellite imaging ca...

  2. Prospects for regional cooperation. Regional cooperation in remote monitoring for nuclear nonproliferation and transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JAEA and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have cooperated for a decade in development and testing of remote monitoring technologies in support of international safeguards. With this technology approaching maturity, the JAEA/SNL partnership now envisions regional cooperation to use these technologies to advance nuclear transparency and strengthen nonproliferation, as well. This presentation summarizes the technical evolution and notes the opportunity for regional cooperation to include institutions in the ROK, as well as Japan and the US. (author)

  3. Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Notification of the Entry into Force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By letters addressed to the Director General on 5, 6 and 20 March 1970 respectively, the Governments of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, which are designated as the Depository Governments in Article IX. 2 of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, informed the Agency that the Treaty had entered into force on 5 March 1970

  4. Some major challenges: Nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear arms control and nuclear terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major challenge that is the focus of this symposium was ensuring an effective, universal and adequately financed system for the verification of nuclear non-proliferation. This involves effectiveness of the system, participation in the system, and financing of the system. The second major challenge is making progress in nuclear arms control, being the essential part of the mutual commitment made under the NPT. The third major challenge is the protection against nuclear terrorism

  5. The non-proliferation regime, vertical proliferation and the interests of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disarmament orientation of the NPT, which stands beside the central aim of avoiding horizontal proliferation, raises a question: Does a compatibility exist between the non-proliferation policy of the Federal Republic and its security policy, which has its basic pillar in the nuclear deterrence strategy? Critics of this deterrence policy therefore, hinting to the disarmament determination of the NPT, demand that the Federal Republic should exercise its influence for the conclusion of a 'Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty' (CTBT), the establishment of a 'Nuclear-Weapons-Free-Zones' (NWFZ) in Europe, a 'No First Use'-Treaty (NFU) and finally the abolishment of all atomic weapons ('Zero Solution'). According to them such disarmament 'remedies' can reestablish or assure the waning or damaged international consensus for horizontal non-proliferation. This is a contribution for the establishment of a stable world order and will smooth the way for a prolongation of the NPT in the year 1995. An analysis of the history and the structure of interests shows that the policy of the Federal Republic of Germany is deeply rooted in the NPT and that a prolongation of the treaty and its own membership is a substantial object of the foreign and security policy. Consequently the Federal Republic has to face the demands for an intensification of 'anti-nuclear measures' and has to examine their acceptability and their usefulness with respect to non-proliferation. The structure of the problem encloses the following aspects: The security conception of the Federal Republic with its military-strategic essence; the provisions in article VI NPT for negotiations with the object of a world free of atomic weapons; the derived disarmament 'remedies' for strengthening the consensus for horizontal non-proliferation and, finally, the real interface between horizontal and vertical proliferation. (orig./DG)

  6. Nuclear export policy and regulation for non-proliferation: Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear export policy of the Federal Republic of Germany complies with the principle of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Already in 1967 the Federal Government stated in a Peace Note that no export was authorised to countries (outside Euratom) which did not comply with the IAEA Safeguards. In the bilateral agreement the Federal Republic signed with Brasil in 1975, emphasis was put on international safeguards and the control exercised on exported materials to avoid any diversion for military purposes. (NEA)

  7. Joint DOE-PNC research on the use of transparency in support of nuclear nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PNC and LANL collaborated in research on the concept of transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The research was based on the Action Sheet No. 21, which was signed in February 1996, ''The Joint Research on Transparency in Nuclear Nonproliferation'' under the ''Agreement between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation''. The purpose of Action Sheet 21 is to provide a fundamental study on Transparency to clarify the means to improve worldwide acceptability for the nuclear energy from the nuclear nonproliferation point of view. This project consists of independent research and then joint discussion at workshops that address a series of topics and issues in transparency. The activities covered in Action Sheet 21 took place over a period of 18 months. Three workshops were held; the first and the third hosted by PNC in Tokyo, Japan and the second hosted by LANL in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US. The following is a summary of the three workshops. The first workshop addressed the policy environment of transparency. Each side presented its perspective on the following issues: (1) a definition of transparency, (2) reasons for transparency, (3) detailed goals of transparency and (4) obstacles to transparency. The topic of the second workshop was ''Development of Transparency Options.'' The activities accomplished were (1) identify type of facilities where transparency might be applied, (2) define criteria for applying transparency, and (3) delineate applicable transparency options. The goal of the third workshop, ''Technical Options for Transparency,'' was to (1) identify conceptual options for transparency system design; (2) identify instrumentation, measurement, data collection and data processing options; (3) identify data display options; and (4) identify technical

  8. Nuclear Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Education at Texas A&M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MS degree in Nuclear Engineering - Non-proliferation at Texas A&M University is administered by the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI). The oldest and largest of its kind in the US, 45 M.S. and 15 Ph.D. students conducted technical research in relevant areas: safeguards, nuclear security, non-proliferation, and arms control. In addition to focusing on graduate education with a wide combination of internationally-recognized talent, NSSPI faculty lead research and service activities in safeguarding of nuclear materials and reducing nuclear threats. Texas A&M Nuclear Engineering students take relevant nonproliferation and safeguards courses (within the College of Engineering and the Texas A&M Bush School of Government) as well as conduct their research under competent experts. The complete educational experience here is unique because of the strong research and educational support NSSPI provides. This paper will detail these endeavors and convey contributions from NSSPI for developing next-generation safeguards experts via practical experiences and strong affiliations with real-world practitioners. The safeguards and non-proliferation education programme blends historical, legal, technical and policy aspects that is unique for a technical university such as Texas A&M. Beyond classroom lectures, NSSPI provides opportunities for students ranging from asynchronous learning modules to practical experiences. Publicly-available self-paced, online course modules in basic and advanced safeguards education have been developed by NSSPI as supplemental nuclear education for students and professionals. By leveraging NSSPI's contacts, students participate in exchange programmes with international institutions as well as partake in experiences like engaging safeguards practitioners at nuclear fuel cycle facilities around the world, conducting experiments at internationally-renowned laboratories, and representing their communities at workshops worldwide

  9. Public announcement of the promulgation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to article 3, paragraph 2, of the act of June 4th, 1974, to the agreement of July 1st, 1968 on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, it is announced that the agreement according to article IX paragraph 4 has come into force on May 2nd, 1975 for the FRG; the ratification documents have been deposited in London and Washington the same day. (orig.)

  10. The Non-Proliferation Treaty on the threshold to the 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic outlines of non-proliferation policy, its instruments, the position of the protagonists' interests and the fundamental fields of conflict are to the fore. The history and structure of international non-poliferation policy and, in particular, of the NPT, are described, the instruments for verifying the purely peaceful use of nuclear power (safeguards) are analysed, and important future technological and political challenges of the Treaty are listed. (orig./HP)

  11. Perspectives on Security, Disarmament, and Nonproliferation: Views from the United States and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Piombo, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This project convened a dialogue between civil societies in the United States and the Republic of South Africa (RSA) to deepen understanding of the ways in which each nation views its most critical strategic security concerns and the domestic debates that shape those views. This project engaged in dialogue through the lens of nuclear disarmament, energy, and proliferation/nonproliferation issues. Despite cooperation on a number of matters in this area, U.S.-South Afr...

  12. Nonproliferation Uncertainties, a Major Barrier to Used Nuclear Fuel Recycle in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study and comparison of the goals and understandings of nonproliferation authorities with those of used nuclear fuel (UNF) recycle advocates have uncovered (1) some of the basic reasons for the creation of uncertainties by each of the parties, (2) why these uncertainties have become a major barrier to a decision to recycle UNF components in the United States, and (3) what steps can be taken to clarify these uncertainties. Recent papers and viewpoints expressed by nonproliferation authorities and technical consultants were reviewed, summarized, and compared with results of recent fuel cycle systems analyses made at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 1 Similarities and differences were identified, including both technical and policy factors. Nonproliferation authorities and a few UNF recycle advocates have recognized that the reprocessing technologies used for UNF component recycle do not offer significant nonproliferation differences; thus, the methods used can be chosen on some other basis, such as process efficiency, maturity, and/or economics. This paper reviews the safeguards implications beyond the simple assessment of UNF recycle technology selection. Differences in understanding that led to uncertainty barriers to UNF recycle include (1) the vulnerability of unseparated UNF, (2) the effects of time factors on production and accumulation of fissile plutonium isotopes and decay of the ?self-protecting radiation barrier,? (3) the chemistry of UNF components and relative ease of separation, and (4) the significant differences in commercialscale ?safeguards-by-design? UNF recycle facilities and smaller-scale covert operations. Application of safeguards-by-design and engineered safeguards can provide the defense-in-depth necessary for sufficient safeguards. Establishing these requirements for governing acceptable commercial UNF component recycle is essential.

  13. The non-proliferation treaty fifteen years after: nuclear partnership or nuclear apartheid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a retrospective view of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) in all its aspects, in the light of the prospective 3rd Review Conference of NPT about to take place in two months time (Aug. 1985). The Articles of the Treaty are described and discussed, as well as the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency, arms control, and prospects for the 3rd Review Conference. (UK)

  14. Non-proliferation and security of nuclear supply (the viewpoint of a developing country)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After discussing the economic, technical and political reasons underlying the slowdown in nuclear development, this paper describes the resulting problems encountered by the nuclear industry. To remedy the situation, the author suggests that in addition to measures to be adopted nationally to ensure more efficient and safer operation of nuclear installations, actions at international level should be implemented to remove obstacles to nuclear trade, bearing in mind the primary importance of non-proliferation. (NEA)

  15. Scientists for non-proliferation of nuclear weapons. Transactions of international seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication presents the results of the Second International Seminar 'Scientists for Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons'. The Seminar took place from 11 to 14 October 1994 in Nakhabino Country Club near Moscow. More than 60 specialists from Russia, USA, France, Belgium as well as IAEA and CEU took part in the seminar. Problems of cooperation in the field of nuclear materials accounting, control and safeguards, physical protection of nuclear materials, nuclear export regulations and disarmament control are discussed at the seminar

  16. Non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament: A status report. Vienna, 14 March 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than half a century, strategies of national and international security have been intertwined with the concept of nuclear weapons as a strategic deterrent. Further meaningful progress towards a nuclear weapon free world will demand that we re-examine our fundamental concept of what security means and how it can best be achieved. The following specific areas where our attention should be focused are discussed briefly: the historical perspective, current strategies for non-proliferation and disarmament, and the future prospects

  17. A Comparison of Two Low-Stakes Methods for Administering a Program-Level Biology Concept Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Couch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Concept assessments are used commonly in undergraduate science courses to assess student learning and diagnose areas of student difficulty. While most concept assessments align with the content of individual courses or course topics, some concept assessments have been developed for use at the programmatic level to gauge student progress and achievement over a series of courses or an entire major. The broad scope of a program-level assessment, which exceeds the content of any single course, creates several test administration issues, including finding a suitable time for students to take the assessment and adequately incentivizing student participation. These logistical considerations must also be weighed against test security and the ability of students to use unauthorized resources that could compromise test validity. To understand how potential administration methods affect student outcomes, we administered the Molecular Biology Capstone Assessment (MBCA to three pairs of matched upper-division courses in two ways: an online assessment taken by students outside of class and a paper-based assessment taken during class. We found that overall test scores were not significantly different and that individual item difficulties were highly correlated between these two administration methods. However, in-class administration resulted in reduced completion rates of items at the end of the assessment. Taken together, these results suggest that an online, outside-of-class administration produces scores that are comparable to a paper-based, in-class format and has the added advantages that instructors do not have to dedicate class time and students are more likely to complete the entire assessment.

  18. Preparation for the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Extension Conference in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 30 specialists in non-proliferation participated in a workshop to explore ideas for US Government preparatory steps leading to the 1995 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Extension Conference. To that end, workshop sessions were devoted to reviewing the lessons learned from previous Review Conferences, discussing the threats to the non-proliferation regime together with ways of preserving and strengthening it, and examining the management of international nuclear commerce. A fundamental premise shared by workshop participants was that extension of the NPT is immensely important to international security. The importance of stemming proliferation and, more specifically, extending the Treaty, is growing as a result of the significant changes in the world. If the conferees of the Extension Conference decide on no extension or extension for a short limited duration, some technically advanced states that have foregone development of nuclear weapons may begin to rethink their options. Also, other arms control measures, such as the Chemical Weapons Convention, could start to unravel. The US must provide strong international leadership to ensure that the Extension Conference is a success, resulting in Treaty extension, perhaps through successive terms, into the indefinite future. Workshop participants were struck by the urgent need for the US to take organizational steps so that it is highly effective in its advance preparations for the Extension Conference. Moreover, the Extension Conference provides both a challenge and an opportunity to mold a cohesive set of US policy actions to define the future role of nuclear weapons and combat their proliferation

  19. 25th anniversary of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. A treaty has had a good career

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear proliferation is the short term for what is meant by the concept of misuse of nuclear installations or materials owned by a state, for producing nuclear weapons. Non-proliferation is the opposite concept, which aims at restricting the power to use nuclear energy for non-peaceful purposes to only a few states. As nuclear energy has a benign potential as well as a malignant one, non-proliferation is an essential factor of peace in the world, and has been the goal of a multitude of national, bilateral, regional, and international conventions and treaties in the last two and a half decades since the peaceful uses of nuclear energy have become common technology in many states of the world. The conventions and treaties represent a network of control for preventing misuse, covering today the largest part of the world. The Non-Proliferation Treaty is the center part of this network, concluded in 1968 and internationally effective since 1970. The article summarizes the history of the Treaty, its provisions, problems left unresolved, and perspectives. (orig./HP)

  20. International safeguards to ensure the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ever-expanding use of atomic energy not only promotes the welfare of mankind but also leads to the accumulation of nuclear materials which can be employed for building weapons of mass destruction. Certain progress has recently been made towards preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is the main barrier against the diversion of nuclear materials for the production of nuclear explosive devices. The factors essential for strengthening non-proliferation are accession to the Treaty by all countries, above all those engaged in nuclear activities, effective national systems of control of and accounting for nuclear materials, and an effective system of IAEA safeguards, as envisaged by the Treaty. Substantial nuclear activities are being carried out in States not party to the Treaty, and it is in these cases that effective control by an international organization is particularly important. The paper considers ways and means of implementing measures which would further enhance the universal character of non-proliferation and improve its effectiveness. It also discusses the features of the IAEA safeguards system and the factors governing its effectiveness. It is concluded that the essential conditions for improving effectiveness are application of control to the entire fuel cycle in non-nuclear-weapon States, the perfecting of the IAEA safeguards system, including automatic processing of nuclear materials accounting data, and effective physical protection of nuclear materials. (author)

  1. Nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament: A long-term perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International nuclear policy has been determined for a long time by the exigencies of the status quo. The non-proliferation regime draws its legitimacy from the continuation of extant patterns of power in world politics. Such a static policy cannot succeed forever. Overcoming the threat of nuclear proliferation will require innovative strategy that reaches beyond the status quo. It calls for structural change in the international system to be accomodated instead of resisted. If the Non-Proliferation Treaty is to hold, nuclear weapon states will finally have to forgo their privileged status. This cannot, however, be accomplished simply through the abolition or renunciation of nuclear weapons since nuclear weapons themselves continue to be instrumental for war prevention and international stability. Rather, what is needed is a new approach to the management of the nuclear world system under international responsibility. Nonproliferation and disarmament objectives together call for a concept of global security in which multilateral institutions assume an increasingly important role of nuclear diplomacy. (orig.)

  2. Working Group 3: Broader Perspectives on Non-proliferation and Nuclear Verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working group (WG) focused on the technical topics related to international security and stability in global nonproliferation and arms control regimes and asked how nonproliferation tools and culture might facilitate verification of future nuclear treaties. The review of existing and future nonproliferation and disarmament regimes (Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty - CTBT, UNSC Resolution 1540, UK/Norway/VERTIC exercise, Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty - FMCT) offered a view on challenges, possibilities, and limitations for future initiatives. The concepts that the WG considered, with potential use in implementing future nuclear verification treaties, are: Triple S Culture (Safety, Security, Safeguards), State-Level Approach, Safeguards-by-Design, risk-based approaches, managed access, inspections, and protection of sensitive information. Under these concepts, many existing tools, considered by the WG could be used for nuclear verification. Export control works to control sensitive technology and expertise. Global implementation is complicated and multi-faceted and would benefit from greater consistency and efficiency. In most cases, international cooperation and development international capability would supplement efforts. This document is composed of the slides and the paper of the presentation. (A.C.)

  3. Consideration on non-proliferation regime meeting in a changing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents some proposals for improvement of non-proliferation regime including safeguards structures with historical changes of international regime. Current non-proliferation regime was established under the circumstances of Cold War, and it's structure and measures were influenced by the situation of these time. Although, a couple of years have passed from end of Cold War, new world order has not established yet. Therefore, it is expected that the current regime could be improved in accordance with new world order. Generally speaking, it could be welcomed that the current regime has got some successes from two points of views, namely no new nuclear weapon states have emerged and after the establishment of NPT and all nuclear weapon state is joined NPT finally. However, it is the authors' concern that some gray countries, such as India, Pakistan and Israel, have not joined the NPT yet and cases of Iraqi and DPRK have occurred. After reviewing of such new situation, some proposals will be presented in order to strengthen the nonproliferation regime to meet current world conditions

  4. Workshop on regional cooperation in remote monitoring for transparency and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Workshop on Regional Cooperation in Remote Monitoring for Transparency and Nonproliferation on 8-9 February at O'arai, Japan, brought together remote monitoring experts to share technical experience and consider potential uses of remote monitoring for nuclear transparency and strengthened nonproliferation. Sponsored by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Science and Technology Center (NPSTC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), this event gathered thirty five attendees from the JAEA, the Republic of Korea's National Nuclear Management and Control Agency (NNCA), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA). U.S. technical experts represented Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Workshop discussions and interactions met or surpassed all goals: On the technical front, the JAEA, NNCA, and SNL exchanged presentations on their respective uses and technical approaches to remote monitoring. These included systems for both international safeguards and transparency. The IAEA shared valuable guidance on future remote monitoring system requirements. Following the presentations SNL conducted training in remote monitoring for technical personnel. In parallel project planning discussions, the JAEA, NNCA, SNL and the U.S. DOE reaffirmed mutual interest in regional cooperation in remote monitoring that could eventuate in exchange of safeguards-related data. A productive off-the-record session by all parties considered the path forward and established intermediate steps and time scales. The 15 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  5. Non-proliferation of nuclear weapons: The road ahead. London, 15 January 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Royal Institute of International Affairs in London, 15 January 2001. The Director General points out that for over five decades since the summer of 1945, strategies of national and international security have been intertwined with the concept of nuclear weapons as a strategic deterrent. In his view, the achievement of a nuclear weapon free world will crucially depend on a fundamental change in that concept of 'security'. Besides the historical perspectives the paper focuses on the non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament strategies. The Director General also states that to achieve the main goal of universal non-proliferation and disarmament it is indispensable to re-evaluate nuclear weapon states status; challenge the doctrine of nuclear deterrence; develop alternatives to nuclear deterrence; and engage in constructive dialogue. In conclusion it is re-emphasized that there remain both the difficulties and the opportunities of the road towards nuclear disarmament. It is pointed out that construction of a non-proliferation regime with near-universal participation has been successful and some progress towards nuclear disarmament has been achieved, but several goals must be pursued to maintain and build upon achievements

  6. Outlook to nonproliferation activities in the world and cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy among turkish speaking countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkmenistan for establishment of bilateral and multilateral scientific and technical cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy and signed protocols with Academy of Science of Azerbaijan, Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan, National Academy of Science of Kyrgyzstan and Institute of Nuclear Physics of Uzbekistan Academy of Science. These protocols enable parties to organize joint projects, conferences, seminars, training programs, establish laboratories for the joint studies and make joint efforts to seek support from their governments and international organizations for these activities. Also, an executive committee has been set up with delegates from each organization under TAEK that also provides the secretarial service for organizing the joint activities. The joint activities carried out are given as follows: '1st Eurasia Conference on Nuclear Science and Its Applications' organized in Turkey on 23-27.10. 2000 by TAEK with co organizers from the related organizations of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and sponsored by IAEA and OECD/NEA, '2nd Eurasia Conference' organized at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002 by Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan with the related organizations of Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan as co organizers, NATO Workshop on Environmental Protection Against Radioactive Pollution by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority and Nuclear Physics Institute of Kazakhstan at Almaty on 16-19.09.2002, joint 'Eurasia Nuclear Bulletin' covering activities in peaceful uses of nuclear energy in these countries published in August 2002. Turkey supports the non-proliferation activities that do not prevent the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and in this respect as signed Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (Cabot). Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan have also signed these Treaties following their independence and, except Kyrgyzstan, have become members to IAEA

  7. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilat, Joseph F [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    vision of a nuclear-free world is powerful, both existing nuclear powers and proliferators are unlikely to forego nuclear weapons entirely in a world that is dangerous and uncertain. And the emerging world would not necessarily be more secure and stable without nuclear weapons. Even if nuclear weapons were given up by the United States and other nuclear-weapon states, there would continue to be concerns about the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, which would not disappear and could worsen. WMD terrorism would remain a concern that was largely unaffected by US and other nuclear-weapon decisions. Conventional capabilities would not disappear and the prospects for warfare could rise. In addition, new problems could arise if rogue states or other non-status-quo powers attempted to take advantage of moves toward disarmament, while friends and allies who are not reassured as in the past could reconsider their options if deterrence declined. To address these challenges, non- and counter-proliferation and counterterrorismincluding defenses and consequence management-are priorities, especially in light of an anticipated 'renaissance' in civil nuclear power. The current agenda of the United States and others includes efforts to: (1) Strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its safeguards system; (2) Strengthen export controls, especially for sensitive technologies, by limiting the development of reprocessing and enrichment technologies and by requiring the Additional Protocol as a condition of supply; (3) Establish a reliable supply regime, including the possibility of multilateral or multinational ownership of fuel cycle facilities, as a means to promote nuclear energy without increasing the risks of proliferation or terrorism; (4) Implement effectively UN Security Council Resolution 1540; and (5) Strengthen and institutionalize the Proliferation Security Initiative and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. These and

  8. Nonproliferation, arms control and disarmament and extended deterrence in the new security environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    nuclear-free world is powerful, both existing nuclear powers and proliferators are unlikely to forego nuclear weapons entirely in a world that is dangerous and uncertain. And the emerging world would not necessarily be more secure and stable without nuclear weapons. Even if nuclear weapons were given up by the United States and other nuclear-weapon states, there would continue to be concerns about the proliferation of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons, which would not disappear and could worsen. WMD terrorism would remain a concern that was largely unaffected by US and other nuclear-weapon decisions. Conventional capabilities would not disappear and the prospects for warfare could rise. In addition, new problems could arise if rogue states or other non-status-quo powers attempted to take advantage of moves toward disarmament, while friends and allies who are not reassured as in the past could reconsider their options if deterrence declined. To address these challenges, non- and counter-proliferation and counterterrorismincluding defenses and consequence management-are priorities, especially in light of an anticipated 'renaissance' in civil nuclear power. The current agenda of the United States and others includes efforts to: (1) Strengthen International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and its safeguards system; (2) Strengthen export controls, especially for sensitive technologies, by limiting the development of reprocessing and enrichment technologies and by requiring the Additional Protocol as a condition of supply; (3) Establish a reliable supply regime, including the possibility of multilateral or multinational ownership of fuel cycle facilities, as a means to promote nuclear energy without increasing the risks of proliferation or terrorism; (4) Implement effectively UN Security Council Resolution 1540; and (5) Strengthen and institutionalize the Proliferation Security Initiative and the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism. These and other activities are

  9. Beta decay of fission products for the non-proliferation and decay heat of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, nuclear energy represents a non-negligible part of the global energy market, most likely a rolling wheel to grow in the coming decades. Reactors of the future must face the criteria including additional economic but also safety, non-proliferation, optimized fuel management and responsible management of nuclear waste. In the framework of this thesis, studies on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons are discussed in the context of research and development of a new potential tool for monitoring nuclear reactors, the detection of reactor antineutrinos, because the properties of these particles may be of interest for the International Agency of Atomic Energy (IAEA), in charge of the verification of the compliance by States with their safeguards obligations as well as on matters relating to international peace and security. The IAEA encouraged its member states to carry on a feasibility study. A first study of non-proliferation is performed with a simulation, using a proliferating scenario with a CANDU reactor and the associated antineutrinos emission. We derive a prediction of the sensitivity of an antineutrino detector of modest size for the purpose of the diversion of a significant amount of plutonium. A second study was realized as part of the Nucifer project, an antineutrino detector placed nearby the OSIRIS research reactor. The Nucifer antineutrino detector is dedicated to non-proliferation with an optimized efficiency, designed to be a demonstrator for the IAEA. The simulation of the OSIRIS reactor is developed here for calculating the emission of antineutrinos which will be compared with the data measured by the detector and also for characterizing the level of background noises emitted by the reactor detected in Nucifer. In general, the reactor antineutrinos are emitted during radioactive decay of fission products. These radioactive decays are also the cause of the decay heat emitted after the shutdown of a nuclear reactor of which the estimation is an

  10. Finland and nuclear non-proliferation: The evolution and cultivation of a norm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finland''s entrance on the non-proliferation scene was in 1963 when President Kekkonen suggested a Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone (NWFZ). This started a debate in and among the Nordic countries and it created a Finnish profile towards the Soviet Union. In most cases, the Soviets tried to bring Finland into a much closer relationship with the USSR. The mere prospect and debate on a Nordic NWFZ reduced the incentive for the Soviets to undermine Finnish neutrality or their desire to suggest consultations according to the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance on military assistance in the case of a threat to Soviet and/or Finnish security. During the negotiations on the Non-Proliferation Treaty, 1965-1968, Finland played a very active role as a bridge-builder, first between the superpowers and later between the developed and the developing world. This activity gave Finland a name in the UN, strengthened its neutrality and established good relations with the West as well. In 1978, Kekkonen brought up the Nordic NWFZ once more, this time under influence of certain strategic challenges to Finland and general East-West developments. In this Kekkonen had much backing by the public in Finland whereas other states reacted very reluctantly. Politics in Finland has to a large extent been marked by the relations with Russia and later the Soviet Union. However, nuclear non-proliferation was used to ease the weight of this imposing neighbour; a strategy that certainly must be regarded as successful. While achieving this, it was also possible to increase contacts with western states and remain accepted as a neutral state. For Finland, non-proliferation policy was initially a suitable issue to solve other problems than those related exclusively to proliferation. But it was also a policy with a high degree of persistence, pragmatism and willingness to work with concrete issues that maybe do not reach the international limelight in the short run but that work in

  11. Finland and nuclear non-proliferation: The evolution and cultivation of a norm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dassen, L. van [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Peace and Conflict Research

    1998-03-01

    Finland``s entrance on the non-proliferation scene was in 1963 when President Kekkonen suggested a Nordic nuclear-weapons-free zone (NWFZ). This started a debate in and among the Nordic countries and it created a Finnish profile towards the Soviet Union. In most cases, the Soviets tried to bring Finland into a much closer relationship with the USSR. The mere prospect and debate on a Nordic NWFZ reduced the incentive for the Soviets to undermine Finnish neutrality or their desire to suggest consultations according to the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance on military assistance in the case of a threat to Soviet and/or Finnish security. During the negotiations on the Non-Proliferation Treaty, 1965-1968, Finland played a very active role as a bridge-builder, first between the superpowers and later between the developed and the developing world. This activity gave Finland a name in the UN, strengthened its neutrality and established good relations with the West as well. In 1978, Kekkonen brought up the Nordic NWFZ once more, this time under influence of certain strategic challenges to Finland and general East-West developments. In this Kekkonen had much backing by the public in Finland whereas other states reacted very reluctantly. Politics in Finland has to a large extent been marked by the relations with Russia and later the Soviet Union. However, nuclear non-proliferation was used to ease the weight of this imposing neighbour; a strategy that certainly must be regarded as successful. While achieving this, it was also possible to increase contacts with western states and remain accepted as a neutral state. For Finland, non-proliferation policy was initially a suitable issue to solve other problems than those related exclusively to proliferation. But it was also a policy with a high degree of persistence, pragmatism and willingness to work with concrete issues that maybe do not reach the international limelight in the short run but that work in

  12. Swedish support programme on nuclear non-proliferation in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Swedish Government, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has established a support and co-operation programme in the area of nuclear non-proliferation with Russia and several of the republics of the former Soviet Union. The Programme was initiated in 1991 and an overall goal is to accomplish national means and measures for control and protection of nuclear material and facilities, in order to minimise the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons and illicit trafficking of nuclear material and equipment. The objective of the Swedish Support Programme is to help each, so called, recipient State to be able to, independently and without help from outside, take the full responsibility for operating a national non-proliferation system and thereby fulfil the requirements imposed through the international legal instruments. This would include both the development and implementation of a modern nuclear legislation system, and the establishment of the components making up a national system for combating illicit trafficking. The support and co-operation projects are organised in five Project Groups (i.e. nuclear legislation, nuclear material control, physical protection, export/import control, and combating of illicit trafficking), which together cover the entire non-proliferation area. Up till June 2000, support and co-operation projects, completed and on-going, have been carried out in ten States, namely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Furthermore, programmes have been initiated during the first part of 2000 with Estonia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. In addition, assistance has been given to Poland on a specific nuclear material accountancy topic. All projects are done on request by and in co-operation with these States. The total number of projects initiated during the period 1991 to June 2000 is 109, thereof 77 have been completed and 32 are currently on-going. It is the

  13. New concept of small power reactor without on-site refueling for non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, N.W., LLNL

    1998-07-13

    Energy demand in developing countries is increasing to support growing populations and economies. This demand is expected to continue growing at a rapid pace well into the next century. Because current power sources, including fossil, renewable, and nuclear, cannot meet energy demands, many developing countries are interested in building a new generation of small reactor systems to help meet their needs. The U.S. recognizes the need for energy in the developing countries. In its 1998 Comprehensive Energy Strategy, the Department of Energy calls for research into low-cost, proliferation- resistant, nuclear reactor technologies to ensure that this demand can be met in a manner consistent with U.S. non-proliferation goals and policies. This research has two primary thrusts: first, the development of a small proliferation-resistant nuclear system (i.e., a technology focus); second, the continuation of open communication with the international community through early engagement and cooperation on small reactor development. A system that meets developing country requirements must: (1) achieve reliably safe operation with a minimum of maintenance and supporting infrastructure; (2) offer economic competitiveness with alternative energy sources available to the candidate sites; and (3) demonstrate significant improvements in proliferation resistance relative to existing reactor systems. These challenges are the most significant driving forces behind the LLNL proposed program for development of a new, small nuclear reactor system. This report describes a technical approach for developing small nuclear power systems for use in developing countries. The approach being proposed will establish a preliminary set of requirements that, if met, will cause new innovative approaches to system design to be used. The proposed approach will borrow from experience gained over the past forty years with four types of nuclear reactor technologies (LWR, LMR, HTGR, and MSR) to develop four or

  14. SimSearch : a new variant of dynamic programming based on distance series for optimal and near-optimal similarity discovery in biological sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio DEUSDADO; Carvalho, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose SimSearch, an algorithm implementing a new variant of dynamic programming based on distance series for optimal and near-optimal similarity discovery in biological sequences. The initial phase of SimSearch is devoted to fulfil the binary similarity matrices by signalling the distances between occurrences of the same symbol. The scoring scheme is further applied, when analysed the maximal extension of the pattern. Employing bit parallelism to analyse the global similar...

  15. The Canadian safeguards program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Canada provides technical support to the International Atomic Energy Agency for the development of safeguards relevant to Canadian designed and built nuclear facilities. Some details of this program are discussed, including the philosophy and development of CANDU safeguards systems; the unique equipment developed for these systems; the provision of technical experts; training programs; liaison with other technical organizations; research and development; implementation of safeguards systems at various nuclear facilities; and the anticipated future direction of the safeguards program

  16. An analysis for formats to the cooperative nuclear nonproliferation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A country's nuclear program can be designed to support nuclear research, the production of energy, and the production of nuclear materials for medical and industrial applications or for use in nuclear weapons, or any combination of these objectives. One significant concern is the diversion of nuclear materials from peaceful nuclear activities to convert weapons programs. Other concerns include the accidental release and transport of radionuclides. The framework for cooperative monitoring consists of context, agreement, parameters and monitoring options. Nuclear material and energy production activities provide nuclear materials for medical and industrial applications, produce electrical power or heat for general use, and possibly support the production of nuclear materials for weapons. All types of nuclear agreements could increase transparency and/or reduce tensions in a regional setting. This article explains about nuclear agreements of South Pacific Nuclear-Free Zone, Korean Peace Zone, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials. (Yi, J. H.)

  17. Report of the international forum on nuclear energy, nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security. Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) held 'International Forum on Nuclear Energy, Nuclear Non-proliferation and Nuclear Security - Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for the back end of nuclear fuel cycle and regional cooperation in Asia-' on 12 and 13 December 2012, co-hosted by the Japan Institute of International Affairs (JIIA) and School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo. In the forum, keynote speakers from Japan, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the U.S., France and Republic of Korea (ROK), respectively explained their efforts regarding peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation. In two panel discussions, entitled 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security of nuclear fuel cycle back end' and 'Measures to ensure nuclear non-proliferation and nuclear security for nuclear energy use in the Asian region and a multilateral cooperative framework', active discussions were made among panelists from Japan, IAEA, the U.S., France, ROK, Russia and Kazakhstan. This report includes abstracts of keynote speeches, summaries of two panel discussions and materials of the presentations in the forum. The editors take full responsibility for the wording and content of this report except presentation materials. (author)

  18. The BN-350 decommissioning project - an example of international cooperation and successful nonproliferation work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BN-350 reactor was one of the most powerful fast neutron facilities in the world. The nominal designed reactor power was 1000 MW and electric power output was 350 MW. The desalination facility could produce up to 120,000 tons of fresh water a day. The reactor core was cooled by liquid sodium. The reactor core consisted of heat release assemblies with highly enriched fuel. Blanket assemblies containing natural uranium were located around the core were used for plutonium production resulting from nuclear reactions with fast neutrons. The plutonium produced could be used for nuclear weapon creation and as fuel for other rectors. The reactor finally was shutdown by decree of the Kazakhstan Government on April 22, 1999. The decision was taken to place it into SAFSTOR for 50 years with subsequent final dismantling. At the same time, the Kazakhstan Government appealed to the US Government to provided technical and financial assistance for BN-350 decommissioning activities. Many of programs are being conducted by joint efforts of Kazakhstan and the United States of America with the support of International Atomic Energy Agency. A particular note is the assistance provided under the US Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, which is commonly known as the Nunn-Lugar Act after its two primary sponsors in the US Senate. This project was the beginning one of the world's largest and he most successful nonproliferation project. The main areas of activity is: packaging, transportation and safe storage of BN-350 spent fuel. The contribution of an enhanced physical protection system, material monitoring systems and the packaging of the materials has virtually eliminated the proliferation risk. Right on schedule in June 2001, a joint Kazakhstan-US team closed 478-th canister and successfully completed the 2 and 1/2 year effort to package the BN-350 spent fuel, probably the largest such effort ever undertaken anywhere. At the present rime, the US Government is planning to support

  19. United Kingdom cooperative non-proliferation programmes in the framework of G8 initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The United Kingdom Government Global Threat Reduction Programme is the United Kingdom Government's principal cooperative non-proliferation programme. It has a budget of around Pounds 35 million per annum and is managed across three United Kingdom Government departments. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office has overall policy responsibility for the programme, the Ministry of Defence operates the programmes focusing on chemical and biological threat reduction projects, and the Department for Business, Enterprise and Regulatory Reform operates the programmes focusing on radiological and nuclear threat reduction. Funding for the programmes is drawn from the overall United Kingdom Kananaskis Summit commitment of expenditure of up to US $750 million over ten years from 2002. The principal areas of activity of the programme are as follows: - The north-west of the Russian Federation, focusing on the management of spent fuel from decommissioned submarines in the Kola Peninsula; - Chemical weapons destruction focusing on assistance to destroy chemical weapons stockpiles held at the Schycshe facility in the Urals region of the Russian Federation; - Programmes to assist in the provision of sustainable employment for former weapons scientists; - Programmes in collaboration with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assist in the shutdown of plutonium production reactors dating from the era of the former Soviet Union; A portfolio of projects to enhance security of holdings of nuclear and radiological materials. The portfolio of nuclear security projects seeks to address smuggling through tackling the first line of defence. The programme focuses on physical protection upgrades, mainly, but not exclusively, focusing on the creation of inner security boundaries around key material holdings. The provision of training and improvements in security culture are also a key aspect of the programme. Sustainability of equipment and support following project completion is also a

  20. Nuclear non-proliferation: Revisiting the basics. Carnegie international non-proliferation conference 2002. Washington, D.C., 14 November 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1970 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), with 188 States party, represents the cornerstone of the global nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament effort - and despite recent challenges, it has never been more relevant than it is today. But the international community has to move forward, it is essential that a number of the basic assumptions should be revisited, and a number of new approaches reconsidered. A key assumption at the core of the NPT was that the asymmetry between nuclear-weapon States and non-nuclear-weapon States would gradually disappear. The nuclear non-proliferation regime has overall been successful - but with some shortcomings. Efforts to end nuclear weapons development achieved an important milestone with the conclusion of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in September 1996, but the pace of progress has been sluggish among the 44 countries whose ratification is required for the treaty to enter into force - and the rejection of the CTBT by the US Senate in 1999 was a distinct setback. Negotiation of a Fissile Material Cut-Off Treaty (FMCT) continues to languish in Geneva, more than seven years after agreement was reached on a mandate. The 2000 NPT Review Conference, building on the package of decisions and resolutions that led to the indefinite extension of the NPT in 1995, resulted in a number of encouraging commitments, not least the 'unequivocal undertaking' by the nuclear-weapon States to accomplish the total elimination of their nuclear arsenals. But a scant two years later, we have moved sharply away from those commitments, with a number of the '13 steps' toward nuclear disarmament - such as 'irreversibility,' 'START II, START III and the ABM Treaty,' further 'unilateral' reductions in nuclear arsenals, 'increased transparency,' 'further reduction of non-strategic nuclear weapons,' and 'regular reports' on the implementation of Article VI of the NPT - left without concrete follow-up actions and in