WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological medical treatment

  1. Medical-biological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains data on operational and emergency staff of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant who were exposed to radiation as a consequence of the reactor accident, the size of the doses received and consequences for health. 203 persons were found to have acute radiation sickness. Of the 22 patients suffering from an extremely severe degree of acute radiation sickness, 19 died. Of the 23 patients with severe bone marrow syndrome, 7 died. For the majority of patients, clinical recovery occurred toward the end of the second month following the accident. The main harmful factor for all victims was the relatively uniform gamma- and beta-radiation effect in a dosage exceeding 1 Gy and, in the case of 35 people exceeding 4 Gy. Radiation damage to wide areas of the skin was one of the main factors contributing to the overall severe condition of the patients, and was a determining factor in the main fatal complications. A preliminary evaluation of the use of some biochemical and immunological tests in the event of accidental exposure to radiation and the methods of treatment and preliminary assessment of their effectiveness are presented. Another part of the report contains data on the doses from radiation exposure to the population of the town of Pripyat' until the time of evacuation and to the population in the 30 km zone around Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and radiation consequences of the accident for the population of different regions in the European part of the USSR, especially the problems related to the contamination of food products. The last part of the report gives some data on the organization of medical examinations of the population from the region around the Chernobyl' plant and on the long-term programmes for the medical and biological monitoring of the population and personnel

  2. Biological response of Sr-containing coating with various surface treatments on titanium substrate for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shih-Ping; Lee, Tzer-Min; Lui, Truan-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sr-containing coating prepared by plasma spraying and micro-arc oxidation process, respectively. • MAO coating stimulated high ECM-like structures of cells on early stage. • Sr-containing specimens had high cell responses on late stage. • Sr-MAO coating is a desirable implant surface treatment for clinical applications. - Abstract: An implant requires a suitable surface to trigger osteointegration. The surface characteristics and chemical composition are important factors in this process. Plasma spraying and micro-arc oxidation can be used to fabricate rough and porous structures for medical applications. Strontium (Sr) has been shown to prevent osteoporosis in vitro and in vivo. However, few scientists have evaluated the biological response of Sr-containing coatings on different surface treatments. In this study, a sand-blasted (SB) surface (as the control), plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) and Sr-substituted HA coatings (HAPS and SrHAPS, respectively), calcium phosphate and Sr-containing calcium phosphate micro-arc oxidation surface (CPM and SrCPM, respectively) were analyzed in terms of human osteoblastic cell (MG63) response. Sr was confirmed to be incorporated into the surface. SrHAPS and SrCPM specimens had higher cell responses than those of the HAPS and CPM groups, respectively. The cells cultured on SrCPM and SrHAPS specimens exhibited high proliferation and differentiation. However, CPM and SrCPM specimens stimulated more ECM-like structures than other specimens. The results show that Sr-containing coatings have good characteristics that enhance cell response. The SrCPM coating is a suitable implant surface treatment for clinical applications

  3. Biological response of Sr-containing coating with various surface treatments on titanium substrate for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shih-Ping [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Tzer-Min, E-mail: tmlee@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Oral Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); School of Dentistry, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Lui, Truan-Sheng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sr-containing coating prepared by plasma spraying and micro-arc oxidation process, respectively. • MAO coating stimulated high ECM-like structures of cells on early stage. • Sr-containing specimens had high cell responses on late stage. • Sr-MAO coating is a desirable implant surface treatment for clinical applications. - Abstract: An implant requires a suitable surface to trigger osteointegration. The surface characteristics and chemical composition are important factors in this process. Plasma spraying and micro-arc oxidation can be used to fabricate rough and porous structures for medical applications. Strontium (Sr) has been shown to prevent osteoporosis in vitro and in vivo. However, few scientists have evaluated the biological response of Sr-containing coatings on different surface treatments. In this study, a sand-blasted (SB) surface (as the control), plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) and Sr-substituted HA coatings (HAPS and SrHAPS, respectively), calcium phosphate and Sr-containing calcium phosphate micro-arc oxidation surface (CPM and SrCPM, respectively) were analyzed in terms of human osteoblastic cell (MG63) response. Sr was confirmed to be incorporated into the surface. SrHAPS and SrCPM specimens had higher cell responses than those of the HAPS and CPM groups, respectively. The cells cultured on SrCPM and SrHAPS specimens exhibited high proliferation and differentiation. However, CPM and SrCPM specimens stimulated more ECM-like structures than other specimens. The results show that Sr-containing coatings have good characteristics that enhance cell response. The SrCPM coating is a suitable implant surface treatment for clinical applications.

  4. Biological and medical sensor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies fo

  5. Biological Characteristics and Medical Treatment of Breast Cancer in Young Women—A Featured Population: Results from the NORA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pronzato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present paper described the biological characteristics and clinical behavior of young women in the cohort NORA study Patients and Methods. From 2000–2002, patients (>3500 were enrolled at 77 Italian hospitals. Women aged ≤50 years (=1013 were stratified into age groups (≤35, 36–40, 41–45, and 46–50 years. The relationship between age and patient characteristics, cancer presentation, and treatment was analyzed. Results. Younger women more frequently had tumors with ER/PgR-negative(2=7.07; =.008, HER2 amplification (2=5.76; =.01, and high (≥10% Ki67 labelling index (2=9.53; =.002. Positive nodal status, large tumors, and elevated Ki67 all associated with the choice for chemotherapy followed by endocrine therapy in hormone receptor-positive patients (40 versus ≤40, <.0001, resp.. At multivariate analysis, after adjustment for significant clinical and pathological factors, age remains a significant prognostic variable (HR=0.93, =.0021. Conclusion. This cohort study suggests that age per sè is an important prognostic factor. The restricted role of early diagnosis and the aggressive behavior of cancer in this population make necessary the application of targeted medical strategies crucial.

  6. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  7. Biological, chemical and medical physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This is an overview of the actual situation in Brazil, concerning three important areas of physics: biological, chemical and medical. It gives a brief historical of research in these areas. It talks as well, about perspectives and financing. It contains many tables with the main research groups in activity in Brazilian institutions. (A.C.A.S.)

  8. Biological treatment of Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of biological agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) has led to a transformation of the treatment paradigm. Several biological compounds have been approved for patients with CD refractory to conventional treatment: infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab pegol (and...

  9. Osteoporosis Treatment: Medications Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis treatment: Medications can help Osteoporosis treatment may involve medication along with lifestyle change. Get answers to some of the most common questions about osteoporosis treatment. By ...

  10. Biological treatment of polluted lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, S.

    2005-01-01

    Several techniques of lands cleansing exist; they include the thermal techniques, the biological treatment or the disposal. The Biogenie firm is specialized in the biological cleansing of soils on and outside site. (O.M.)

  11. Alopecia areata: medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecia areata (AA is a non-scarring, autoimmune, inflammatory, relapsing hair loss affecting the scalp and/or body. In acute-phase AA, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells infiltrated in the juxta-follicular area. In chronic-phase AACD8+ T cells dominated the infiltrate around hair bulbs which contributes to the prolonged state of hair loss. Treatments include mainly corticosteroids, topical irritants, minoxidil, cytotoxic drugs and biologicals. This review highlights mainly the pathomechanism and pathology, classifications and associated diseases with regard to their importance for current and future treatment.

  12. Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological and Radiological Defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense is a free, on-line journal dedicated to providing an international, peer-reviewed journal of original scientific research and clinical and doctrinal knowledge in the area of medical treatment and countermeasures for chemical, biological and radiological defense; and to developing and maintaining an archive of current research and development information on training, doctrine, and professional discussions of problems related to chemical, biological and radiological casualties. The Journal, www.JMedCBR.org, now in its fifth year, is sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency. Areas of interest include, but are not limited to: Neuroprotectants; Bioscavengers for Nerve Agents; Medical Diagnostic Systems and Technologies; Medical Effects of Low Level Exposures; Toxicology and Biological Effects of TICs and TIMs; Broad Spectrum Medical Countermeasures; Treatments and Therapeutics for Bacterial, Viral and Toxin Agents; Radiological Medical Countermeasures; Clinical Treatment of Chemical, Biological or Radiological Casualties; Toxins Structures and Treatments. The Journal is supported by an editorial advisory board of distinguished scientists and researchers in the fields of CBR defense and medical treatment and countermeasures in eleven countries.(author)

  13. Biologically Optimized Treatments for Hadron Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazaryan, Vahagn; Keppel, Cynthia; Britten, Richard; George, Jerry; Nie, Xiliang

    2008-10-01

    Near future advances in proton radiotherapy technology will increasingly require complex, conformal treatment planning. However, the current state of knowledge of the biological efficiency of proton beams may be inadequate to facilitate precision, and reduced margins. A new project at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute and the Eastern Virginia Medical School aims to facilitate the expected benefits of increasingly conformal treatment capabilities. Specifically, we seek to establish with measurements the biological depth dose profile of protons with incident energies in the range 62-210 MeV, and to utilize these also to provide vastly improved model algorithms for patient treatment planning based on biological, rather than simply physical, depth dose profiles. A progress report on a model for proton biological efficiency calculations as an input algorithm for treatment planning with protons will be presented. The planned measurements will be discussed.

  14. Evolutionary Biology in the Medical School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neese, Randolph M.; Schiffman, Joshua D.

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study in which a questionnaire was given to deans at North American medical schools to determine which aspects of evolutionary biology are included in the curricula and the factors that influence this. Suggests that most future physicians should learn evolutionary biology as undergraduates if they are to learn it at all. (Author/NB)

  15. XIV Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Christofides, Stelios; Pattichis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of Medicon 2016, held in Paphos, Cyprus. Medicon 2016 is the XIV in the series of regional meetings of the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE) in the Mediterranean. The goal of Medicon 2016 is to provide updated information on the state of the art on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing under the main theme “Systems Medicine for the Delivery of Better Healthcare Services”. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing cover complementary disciplines that hold great promise for the advancement of research and development in complex medical and biological systems. Research and development in these areas are impacting the science and technology by advancing fundamental concepts in translational medicine, by helping us understand human physiology and function at multiple levels, by improving tools and techniques for the detection, prevention and treatment of disease. Medicon 2016 provides a common platform for the cross fer...

  16. Radiation biology of medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kelsey, Charles A; Sandoval, Daniel J; Chambers, Gregory D; Adolphi, Natalie L; Paffett, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a thorough yet concise introduction to quantitative radiobiology and radiation physics, particularly the practical and medical application. Beginning with a discussion of the basic science of radiobiology, the book explains the fast processes that initiate damage in irradiated tissue and the kinetic patterns in which such damage is expressed at the cellular level. The final section is presented in a highly practical handbook style and offers application-based discussions in radiation oncology, fractionated radiotherapy, and protracted radiation among others. The text is also supplemented by a Web site.

  17. Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latarjet, R.

    1988-01-01

    The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (author)

  18. [Biologic treatments for hereditary diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Xie, Yangli; Chen, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Hereditary disease, especially monogenic disease is one of the major causes for malformation and disability of children. Most hereditary diseases have no effective therapy besides clinical symptomatic treatment. Biological techniques targeting casual genes or related signaling genes, such as transgenic, RNA interfere, genome editing, have been successfully applied in treating some hereditary diseases. However, most biological, treatments were carried out in animals, further confirmation of the effectiveness and safety of these therapies, and development of more therapeutic approaches based on mechanisms are needed before clinical trials.

  19. [Medical and biological consequences of nuclear disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalpers, Lukas J A; van Dullemen, Simon; Franken, N A P Klaas

    2012-01-01

    Medical risks of radiation exaggerated; psychological risks underestimated. The discussion about atomic energy has become topical again following the nuclear accident in Fukushima. There is some argument about the gravity of medical and biological consequences of prolonged exposure to radiation. The risk of cancer following a low dose of radiation is usually estimated by linear extrapolation of the incidence of cancer among survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. The radiobiological linear-quadratic model (LQ-model) gives a more accurate description of observed data, is radiobiologically more plausible and is better supported by experimental and clinical data. On the basis of this model there is less risk of cancer being induced following radiation exposure. The gravest consequence of Chernobyl and Fukushima is not the medical and biological damage, but the psychological and economical impact on rescue workers and former inhabitants.

  20. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M.; Krams, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON–OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. PMID:25808341

  1. THz waves: biological effects, industrial and medical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutaz, J.L.; Garet, F.; Le Drean, Y.; Zhadobov, M.; Veyret, B.; Mounaix, P.; Caumes, J.P.; Gallot, G.; Gian Piero, Gallerano; Mouret, G.; Guilpin, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Following the debates about body scanners installed in airports for passengers security control, the non-ionizing radiations (NIR) section of the French radiation protection society (SFR) has organized a conference day to take stock of the present day knowledge about the physical aspects and the biological effects of this frequency range as well as about their medical, and industrial applications (both civil and military). This document gathers the slides of the available presentations: 1 - introduction and general considerations about THz waves, the THz physical phenomenon among NIR (J.L. Coutaz); 2 - interaction of millimeter waves with living material: from dosimetry to biological impacts (Y. Le Drean and M. Zhadobov); 3 - Tera-Hertz: standards and recommendations (B. Veyret); 4 - THz spectro-imaging technique: status and perspectives (P. Mounaix); 5 - THz technology: seeing the invisible? (J.P. Caumes); 6 - Tera-Hertz: biological and medical applications (G. Gallot); 7 - Biological applications of THz radiation: a review of events and a glance to the future (G.P. Gallerano); 8 - Industrial and military applications - liquids and solids detection in the THz domain (F. Garet); 9 - THz radiation and its civil and military applications - gas detection and quantifying (G. Mouret); 10 - Body scanners and civil aviation security (J.C. Guilpin, presentation not available). (J.S.)

  2. Treatment of foregut fistula with biologic plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgate, Rhys; Thomas, Alan; Ballal, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Enteric fistulas are a recognised complication of various diseases and surgical interventions. Non-operative medical management will result in closure of 60-70% of all fistulas over a six- to eight-week period, those that fail non-operative management will require operative intervention if they are to close. We present a series of upper gastrointestinal fistula managed with endoscopic intervention and insertion of biological fistula plug over a 3-year period across three Hospitals, both public and private, in Western Australia. Over a three-year period, 14 patients were referred for treatment of acute or persistent foregut fistulas. All fistulas were managed with endoscopic intervention and insertion of a porcine small intestine sub-mucosa plug (Biodesign (®) Cook medical Inc., Bloomington, IN, USA). No patients with fistula were excluded. Data were collected on patient demographics and underlying diagnosis. The biological plugs were deployed using three different endoscopic techniques (direct deployment via the endoscope, catheter-assisted endoscopic deployment, or a pull through via a guide wire using a rendezvous technique). Fourteen patients with foregut fistula were treated using biological plugs. The age of the fistulas treated ranged from 14 days to 3 years. The fistulas were predominantly gastric in origin (eight cases). Three oesophageal, one gastro-pleural-bronchial, and two jejunal fistulas were also managed using this technique. Of the 14 fistulas treated using this method, 13 resolved following the treatment. Median time to closure of the fistula was 2 days (range 1-120 days). Three patients required more than one intervention to complete closure. Biological plugs offer a further option for management of the traditionally difficult foregut fistula, without major morbidity associated with other treatment modalities. It is limited to the ability to deploy the plug endoscopically.

  3. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  4. Functionalized Nanodiamonds for Biological and Medical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lin; Barnard, Amanda S

    2015-02-01

    Nanodiamond is a promising material for biological and medical applications, owning to its relatively inexpensive and large-scale synthesis, unique structure, and superior optical properties. However, most biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and bio-imaging, are dependent upon the precise control of the surfaces, and can be significantly affected by the type, distribution and stability of chemical funtionalisations of the nanodiamond surface. In this paper, recent studies on nanodiamonds and their biomedical applications by conjugating with different chemicals are reviewed, while highlighting the critical importance of surface chemical states for various applications.

  5. Green nanotechnology - a new hope for medical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Debjani; Banerjee, Pratyusha

    2013-11-01

    The development of eco-friendly technologies in material synthesis is of considerable importance to expand their biological applications. Nowadays, a variety of green nanoparticles with well-defined chemical composition, size, and morphology have been synthesized by different methods and their applications in many cutting-edge technological areas have been explored. This review highlights the classification of nanoparticles giving special emphasis on biosynthesis of metal nanoparticle by viable organisms. It also focuses on the applications of these biosynthesized nanoparticles in a wide spectrum of potential areas of medical biology including catalysis, targeted drug delivery, cancer treatment, antibacterial agents and as biosensors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Information in medical treatment courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marianne; Hollnagel, Erik; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    Background Unintended events and suboptimal treatment with medicines are major burdens for patients and health systems all over the world. Information processes have important roles for establishing safe and effective treatment courses. The platform for this Ph.d. study is learning from situations...... that goes well (Safety-II) while having a broad understanding of quality. Objectives The overall purpose is to investigate how information is used as a steering tool for quality in medical treatment courses. In this first part of the study, the role of information on medicine is analyzed in relation...... to the quality of medical treatment courses. Methods Systems theory, cybernetics (steering, timing and feedback) and a classic communication model are applied as theoretical frames. Two groups of patients and their information providers are studied using qualitative methods. The data analysis focuses...

  7. Information in medical treatment courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marianne; Hollnagel, Erik; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    that goes well (Safety-II) while having a broad understanding of quality. Objectives The overall purpose is to investigate how information is used as a steering tool for quality in medical treatment courses. In this first part of the study, the role of information on medicine is analyzed in relation...... to the quality of medical treatment courses. Methods Systems theory, cybernetics (steering, timing and feedback) and a classic communication model are applied as theoretical frames. Two groups of patients and their information providers are studied using qualitative methods. The data analysis focuses...... on the aspects most relevant for the patients concerning their use of, and feed-back on, medicines information. Results Seven patients using either chronic pain medication or anticoagulants participated in the first phase. They were recruited from GPs, hospital outpatients clinics, pharmacies and patient...

  8. Biologic perspectives in restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadi, Anupama; Rangarajan, V; Savadi, Ravindra C; Satheesh, Preeti

    2011-09-01

    One of the primary goals of a long term successful restorative therapy is to establish a physiologic periodontal climate that facilitates the maintenance of periodontal health. The contemporary clinician has a host of alternatives for the restoration of teeth. It is now possible to mimic nature and provide restorations that defy detection but the most challenging procedure in clinical dentistry is fabricating a restoration in gingival harmony. Periodontal health is the basis of all restorative dentistry. Because periodontal disease is a major cause of tooth loss in adults, the clinician must be aware of the biological variables relevant to restorative therapy, basic concepts and clinical modes of therapy available, to be able to develop an appropriate diagnosis and treatment plan. A natural looking prosthesis within a healthy periodontium should represent the ultimate goal. This article addresses the interactions between periodontal tissues and restorative procedures. It reviews the essentials of soft tissue management inherent in restorative dentistry that will increase the probability of a successful restoration.

  9. The terrorist threat nuclear, radiological, biological, chemical - a medical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, M.C. de; Gourmelon, M.C.S.; Vidal, P.C.; Renaudeau, P.C.S.

    2005-01-01

    Since September 11, 2001, the fear of a large scale nuclear, biological and/or chemical terrorism is taken again into consideration at the highest level of national policies of risk prevention. The advent of international terrorism implies a cooperation between the military defense and the civil defense. The nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical (NRBC) experts of the health service of army and of civil defense will have to work together in case of major terror attack. This book presents this cooperation between civil and military experts in the NRBC domain: risk analysis, national defense plans, crisis management, syndromes and treatments. The different aspects linked with the use of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons are analyzed by the best experts from French medical and research institutes. All topics of each NRBC domain are approached: historical, basic, diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive. (J.S.)

  10. Information in medical treatment courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marianne; Hollnagel, Erik; Andersen, Stig Ejdrup

    during medical treatment. The patient’s feedback to health personnel were also discussed. Results Seven patients using either chronic pain medication or anticoagulants participated. They were recruited from GPs, hospital outpatients clinics, pharmacies and patient organizations, and differed in age, sex......, education, duration of disease, geography, co-morbidities, marital status and socio-economic relations. The data-analysis is ongoing. Preliminary results show that patients seem to take an active role in their use of, and feed-back on, medicines information. However, the extent varied among individuals....... The patients’ relations to health providers seemed important for their use of medicines information and this aspect needs further analyzing. Conclusions/clinical implications The results of this pilot study will form a base for further studies of patterns identified to have a role for medication safety...

  11. Medical Treatment of Diverticular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Welling, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The medical treatment of diverticulitis is discussed, including its incidence, stages, and presentation, as are the antibiotic and dietary therapies currently recommended for this disease. Because diverticulitis can be a challenge to treat, several pitfalls are listed in this discussion, including diverticulitis in the immunocompromised, in the young, and in patients who do not have true diverticulitis but who present with some signs and symptoms of the disease.

  12. [Medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathlouthi, Nabil; Slimani, Olfa; Ferchichi, Amira; Ben Temime, Riadh; Makhlouf, Tahar; Attia, Leila; Chachia, Abdellatif

    2013-07-01

    The ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a public health problem and its frequency has doubled in most industrialized countries in 20 years. aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate (MTX) intramuscularly (IM). prospective study supported between October 2006 and December 2010. The selected patients received methotrexate IM (1 mg per kg). The monitoring was based on: the kinetics of plasma HCG, clinical examination and ultrasound. A second injection was performed if hCG on day 4 was increased by more than 25% or J7> the initial rate. Healing corresponded to obtain a zero rate of HCG in a stable manner. We used the first-line medical treatment in 122 patients. The average age of patients was 31.94 years. A haematosalpinx was found in 87.70% of cases. The initial rate of HCG plasma varied between 40 IU/ml and 4088 IU / ml, with an average of 805.88 m IU / ml. The primary success rate obtained after a single injection of intramuscular MTX was 67%. The high success rate obtained after two injections of MTX was 27%. The overall success rate after 1 or 2 injections of MTX was 82%. 17 patients underwent surgical treatment after a first injection of methotrexate. 5 patients underwent surgery after receiving two doses of methotrexate. The period of normalization of plasma levels of h CG was 24 days on average, with extremes ranging from 4 to 43 days for 67 patients cured after a single injection of MTX. This period was 33 days on average, with extremes ranging from 8 to 62 days for patients healed after two injections of MTX. Medical treatment applied to 38% of ectopic pregnancies diagnosed in our department is effective in 82% of cases if the inclusion criteria are strictly adhered to. Successful treatment is limited by patient compliance and demanding nature of monitoring.

  13. Medical treatment in carotid artery intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkert, J. L.; Meerwaldt, R.; Lefrandt, Johan; Geelkerken, R. H.; Zeebregts, C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Medical treatment has a pivotal role in the treatment of patients with occlusive carotid artery disease. Large trials have provided the justification for operative treatment besides medical treatment in patients with recent significant carotid artery stenosis two decades ago. Since then, medical

  14. Euthanasia is not medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, J Donald; Somerville, Margaret A

    2013-01-01

    The public assumes that if euthanasia and assisted suicide were to be legalized they would be carried out by physicians. In furthering critical analysis, we supplement the discourse in the ethics and palliative care literature with that from medical education and evolving jurisprudence. Both proponents and opponents agree that the values of respect for human life and for individuals' autonomy are relevant to the debate. Advocates of euthanasia and assisted suicide give priority to the right to personal autonomy and avoid discussions of harmful impacts of these practices on medicine, law and society. Opponents give priority to respect for life and identify such harmful effects. These both require euthanasia to remain legally prohibited. Proposals are emerging that if society legalizes euthanasia it should not be mandated to physicians. The impact of characterizing euthanasia as 'medical treatment' on physicians' professional identity and on the institutions of medicine and law should be examined in jurisdictions where assisted suicide and euthanasia have been de-criminalized.

  15. Medical Treatment of Uterine Leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Mohamed; Al-Hendy, Ayman

    2012-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (also called myomata or fibroids) are the most common gynecologic tumors in the United States. The prevalence of leiomyomas is at least 3 to 4 times higher among African American women than in white women. Pathologically, uterine leiomyomas are benign tumors that arise in any part of the uterus under the influence of local growth factors and sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone. These common tumors cause significant morbidity for women and they are considered to be the most common indication for hysterectomy in the world; they are also associated with a substantial economic impact on health care systems that amounts to approximately $2.2 billion/year in the United States alone. Uterine myomas cause several reproductive problems such as heavy or abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pressure, infertility, and several obstetrical complications including miscarriage and preterm labor. Surgery has traditionally been the gold standard for the treatment of uterine leiomyomas and has typically consisted of either hysterectomy or myomectomy. In recent years, a few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of orally administered medications for the management of leiomyoma-related symptoms. In the present review, we will discuss these promising medical treatments in further detail. PMID:22378865

  16. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    COVERED (From - To) Mar 2005- Mar 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER WP 200520 5b...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Torres, Tom; Hoffard, Theresa 5d. PROJECT NUMBER WP 200520 Lagerquist, Jenny 5e. TASK...nonhazardous and can be landfarmed, composted , or captured in a filter press and landfilled. Most industrial biological treatment systems will also require

  17. [Biological treatment of rare inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baslund, B.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of the use of biological medicine in the treatment of adult onset morbus still, Wegeners granulomatosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reviewed. The need for controlled trials is emphasized. Anti-CD20 treatment for SLE patients with kidney involvement and patients wi...

  18. Metrology in an ISO 15189 accredited medical biology laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guichet C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available All French medical biology laboratories must be accredited according to ISO 15189 for all tests conducted. Metrology is therefore critical and covers a wide variety of areas. This presentation will focus on the metrology manager’s role which is tailored to the medical biology laboratory: human resources in place, methods used, parameters followed, equipment used and strategies implemented when using equipment which is not connected to the International System of Units. It will be illustrated by examples of in vitro and in vivo clinical biochemistry, biological haematology, human toxicology and radiotoxicology. The presentation will cover the exploitation of results of internal controls and interlaboratory comparisons in order to calculate uncertainties and provide doctors with a result along with an interpretation or opinion to ensure optimum patient care. The conclusion will present the steps carried out at the Laboratoire National d’Essai (French National Testing Laboratory to provide medical biology laboratories with certified clinical biology standards.

  19. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R

    2012-11-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3-100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3- 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects.

  20. The role of analytical sciences in medical systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, J. van der; Stroobant, P.; Heijden, R. van der

    2004-01-01

    Medical systems biology has generated widespread interest because of its bold conception and exciting potential, but the field is still in its infancy. Although there has been tremendous progress achieved recently in generating, integrating and analysing data in the medical and pharmaceutical field,

  1. [Biological treatment of rare inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baslund, B.

    2008-01-01

    The current status of the use of biological medicine in the treatment of adult onset morbus still, Wegeners granulomatosis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is reviewed. The need for controlled trials is emphasized. Anti-CD20 treatment for SLE patients with kidney involvement and patients...... with Wegeners granulomatosis seems promising. Anti-TNF and IL1 receptor antagonist can control disease activity in most patients with adult morbus still Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...

  2. [Medical treatment of children with hypophosphataemic rickets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbek, Elise Torp; Nielsen, Line Hougaard; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2014-02-24

    Hypophosphataemic rickets is a rare, genetic disorder resulting in defect bone mineralisation and rickets. The current medical treatment consists of phosphate supplementation and alfacalcidol, but side effects such as secondary hyperparat-hyroidism and nephrocalcinosis are common. This treatment regimen often fails to prevent bone deformity and reduced final height. The rarity and complexity of these diseases call for centralised specialist care and international collaboration. Future medical treatment may be improved by addition of new promising experimental treatments.

  3. Technical note Biological treatment of industrial wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biological treatment of wastewater from an aminoplastic resin-producing industry was studied in a pre-denitrification system. This study reports results on the removal of organic matter and nitrogen compounds from wastewater which contained high levels of formaldehyde and formic acid. The formaldehyde ...

  4. Biological treatment of winery wastewater: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreottola, G; Foladori, P; Ziglio, G

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of winery wastewater can realised using several biological processes based both on aerobic or anaerobic systems using suspended biomass or biofilms. Several systems are currently offered by technology providers and current research envisages the availability of new promising technologies for winery wastewater treatment. The present paper intends to present a brief state of the art of the existing status and advances in biological treatment of winery wastewater in the last decade, considering both lab, pilot and full-scale studies. Advantages, drawbacks, applied organic loads, removal efficiency and emerging aspects of the main biological treatments were considered and compared. Nevertheless in most treatments the COD removal efficiency was around 90-95% (remaining COD is due to the un-biodegradable soluble fraction), the applied organic loads are very different depending on the applied technology, varying for an order of magnitude. Applied organic loads are higher in biofilm systems than in suspended biomass while anaerobic biofilm processes have the smaller footprint but in general a higher level of complexity.

  5. Biological treatment of sludge digester liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loosdrecht, M C M; Salem, S

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen removal in side stream processes offers a good potential for upgrading wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) that need to meet stricter effluent standards. Removing nutrients from these internal process flows significantly reduces the N-load to the main treatment plant. These internal flows mainly result from the sludge processing and have a high temperature and a high concentration of ammonia. Therefore, the required reactor volumes as well as the required aerobic SRT are small. Generally, biological treatment processes are more economical and preferred over physical-chemical processes. Recently, several biological treatment processes have been introduced for sludge water treatment. These processes are available now on the activated sludge market (e.g. SHARON, ANAMMOX and BABE processes). The technologies differ in concept and in the limitations guiding the application of these processes for upgrading WWTPs. This paper reviews and compares different biological alternatives for nitrogen removal in side streams. The limitations for selecting a technology from the available ones in the activated sludge market are noted and analysed. It is stressed that the choice for a certain process is based on more aspects than pure process engineering arguments.

  6. Exploiting for medical and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giano, Michael C.

    relevant recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) was co-crosslinked with BSA and biologic function was assessed upon its release from the hydrogel network to gain insight into the hydrogels ability to delivery biotherapeutics. Lastly, the utility of the dextran-aldehyde crosslinked with polyethylenimine (PEI) bioadhesive hydrogel to prevent surgical site infections was explored. Surgical site infections that occur during the implantation of wound fillers can delay wound healing, resulting in increased antibiotic administration, longer hospital stays and, in the most severe cases, sepsis. To prevent bacterial infection during wound filling a new injectable bioadhesive antibacterial hydrogel was designed exploiting dextran-aldehyde crosslinked networks. Mechanical analysis, mammalian cytocompatibility and antibacterial properties of the material will be discussed.

  7. Nonpsychiatric Medical Treatment of Body Dysmorphic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    CRERAND, CANICE E.; MENARD, WILLIAM; FAY, CHRISTINA

    2005-01-01

    Many individuals with body dysmorphic disorder seek nonpsychiatric medical and surgical treatment to improve perceived defects in their physical appearance. However, the types of treatments sought and received, as well as the treatment outcome, have received little investigation. This study describes the frequency, types, and outcomes of treatments sought and received by 200 individuals with body dysmorphic disorder. Treatment was sought by 71.0% and received by 64.0%. Dermatological treatment was most frequently sought and received (most often, topical acne agents), followed by surgery (most often, rhinoplasty). Twelve percent of the subjects received isotretinoin. Such treatment rarely improved body dysmorphic disorder. Thus, nonpsychiatric medical treatments do not appear effective in its treatment. PMID:16288134

  8. Medical Treatment of Tattoo Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Tattooing is a skin trauma and involves a special vulnus punctatum (with inserted tattoo ink, a vulnus venenatum), which should heal with no infection and no local complication. Local treatment in the healing phase ideally builds on the 'moist wound' principle using plastic film, hydrocolloids......, silver dressing, and compression. Bacterial infections during healing are treated with oral antibiotics, and a list of first-line antibiotics is proposed. Notice is given to severe infections with affected general condition, and it is emphasized that intravenous antibiotic treatment must be instituted...

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome treatment: cognitive behavioral therapy versus medical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mahvi-Shirazi, Majid; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Rasoolzade-Tabatabaei, Sayed-Kazem; Amini, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The study aims to investigate two kinds of treatment in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and consequently compares its efficacy on improving the symptoms and mental health of patients; one with just medical treatment and another through a combination of psychotherapy and medical treatment. Material and methods Applying general sampling, 50 IBS patients were selected from among those who used to refer to a Gastroenterology Clinic. After physical and mental ev...

  10. Biosimilar biologic drugs: a new frontier in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geynisman, Daniel M; De Velasco, Guillermo; Sewell, K Lea; Jacobs, Ira

    2017-05-01

    Physicians in training are expected to be aware of the newest developments in patient care. Biologic therapies have changed treatment of many diseases by specifically targeting key disease mediators, but patient access to these therapies can be limited. As patents for the first biologic therapies are expiring, the development and approval of products known as biosimilars is rapidly gaining momentum. A biosimilar is a biologic product that is highly similar to a reference product (a licensed biologic product), notwithstanding minor differences in clinically inactive components. Biosimilars undergo a thorough evaluation compared with the licensed biologic and need to demonstrate comparable clinical pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety including immunogenicity. Understanding the processes for new drug approvals, the rigorous evaluation of biosimilars, and considerations about their selection and use can help recently trained physicians to make informed treatment decisions and improve patient outcomes.

  11. Quarterly report of Biological and Medical Research Division, April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brues, A.M.

    1955-04-01

    This report is a compilation of 48 investigator prepared summaries of recent progress in individual research programs of the Biology and Medical Division of the Argonne National Laboratory for the quarterly period ending April,1955. Individual reports are about 3-6 pages in length and often contain research data.

  12. Medical treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Alessandro; Bolondi, Luigi

    2009-12-16

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Cirrhosis, most often due to viral hepatitis, is the predominant risk factors for HCC and geographical differences in both risk factors and incidence are largely due to epidemiological variations in hepatitis B and C infection. Hepatic function is a relevant parameter in selecting therapy in HCC. The current clinical classification of HCC split patients into 5 stages, with a specific treatment schedule for any stage. As patients with early stages can receive curative treatments, such as surgical resection, liver transplantation or local ablation, surveillance program in high-risk populations has become mandatory. Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has recently shown survival benefits in patients at advanced stage of disease. Hopefully, new molecular targeted therapies and their combination with sorafenib or interventional and surgical procedures, should expand the therapeutic armamentarium against HCC.

  13. Medical Treatment of Ankylosing Spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Tae

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of ankylosing spondylitis is often delayed due to ambiguous clinical manifestations and strict diagnostic criteria. However, imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging have been found effective for the early diagnosis of non-radiographic sacroiliitis. New tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors have good efficacy for patients with persistently high disease activity despite conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment. Thus, early diagnosis and aggressive treatments are essential for ankylosing spondylitis patients. Because many patients complain of musculoskeletal pains, especially around the sacroiliac joint area, hip specialists should be informed of up-to-date knowledge. In this review, we discuss new diagnostic criteria for ankylosing spondylitis, administration methods of TNF-α inhibitors, and the long-term follow-up results for patients treated with TNF-α inhibitors. PMID:27536570

  14. Shoreline clean-up methods : biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoura, S.T. [Oil Spill Response Limited, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    The cleanup of oil spills in shoreline environments is a challenging issue worldwide. Oil spills receive public and media attention, particularly in the event of a coastal impact. It is important to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of cleanup methods when defining the level of effort and consequences that are appropriate to remove or treat different types of oil on different shoreline substrates. Of the many studies that have compared different mechanical, chemical and biological treatments for their effectiveness on various types of oil, biological techniques have received the most attention. For that reason, this paper evaluated the effectiveness and effects of shoreline cleanup methods using biological techniques. It summarized data from field experiments and oil spill incidents, including the Exxon Valdez, Sea Empress, Prestige, Grand Eagle, Nakhodka, Guanabara Bay and various Gulf war oil spills. Five major shoreline types were examined, notably rocky intertidal, cobble/pebble/gravel, sand/mud, saltmarsh, and mangrove/sea-grass. The biological techniques that were addressed were nutrient enrichment, hydrocarbon-utilizing bacteria, vegetable oil biosolvents, plants, surf washing, oil-particle interactions and natural attenuation. The study considered the oil type, volume and fate of stranded oil, location of coastal materials, extent of pollution and the impact of biological techniques. The main factors that affect biodegradation of hydrocarbons are the volume, chemical composition and weathering state of the petroleum product as well as the temperature, oxygen availability of nutrients, water salinity, pH level, water content, and microorganisms in the shoreline environment. The interaction of these factors also affect the biodegradation of oil. It was concluded that understanding the fate of stranded oil can help in the development of techniques that improve the weathering and degradation of oil on complex shoreline substrates. 39 refs.

  15. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Ronald

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS were compared for medical (authorized marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns. Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect

  16. Addenda to Allied Medical Publication 8, NATO Planning Guide for the Estimation of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) Casualties (AMedP-8(C)) to Consider the Impact of Medical Treatment on Casualty Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Botulism Survivor Injury Profile Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Signs and Symptoms (S/S) Fatigue; dry mouth; ptosis; diplopia (blurred or double vision ...signs and symptoms provided in Table C-50 should be changed to read: Fatigue; dry mouth; ptosis; diplopia (blurred or double vision ); photophobia...Interactions 175, no. 1–3 (2008): 261–66. Marrs , Timothy C., Paul Rice, and J. Allister Vale. “The Role of Oximes in the Treatment of Nerve Agent

  17. Enhanced anaerobic biological treatment of phenolic wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.

    1989-01-01

    The combined treatment requirements for a high strength phenolic wastewater were examined in batch and semicontinuous anaerobic methanogenic bioassays. Solvent extraction pretreatment and in-situ addition of activated carbon during anaerobic treatment were effective in removing phenol from a coal liquefaction wastewater from the H-coal process. The selective pH adjustment of high strength phenolic wastewater followed by diisopropyl ether extraction reduced the phenolic concentration to non-inhibitory levels, and removed non-phenolic inhibitory compounds. The weakly acid nature of phenol and substituted phenols allows for their selective removal by solvent extraction. Anaerobic bacteria were able to degrade phenol in the solvent extracted wastwater, however, the bacteria exhibited instability under semicontinuous feeding conditions. The addition of activated carbon to the stressed phenol-degrading cultures improved their ability to remove phenol from solution. Further investigation into the role activated carbon performed during anaerobic phenol treatment demonstrated its importance as a biological support, in addition to providing adsorptive capacity for organic (including inhibitory) compounds. The similar study of other support materials (ion exchange resins) which did not possess an adsorptive capacity for organic compounds supported these findings. Excellent agreement was demonstrated among physical evaluation methods, performance bioassays, radiolabelled cell adsorption studies, and scanning electron microscopy observations in judging the value of the materials as biological supports.

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome treatment: cognitive behavioral therapy versus medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahvi-Shirazi, Majid; Fathi-Ashtiani, Ali; Rasoolzade-Tabatabaei, Sayed-Kazem; Amini, Mohsen

    2012-02-29

    The study aims to investigate two kinds of treatment in patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and consequently compares its efficacy on improving the symptoms and mental health of patients; one with just medical treatment and another through a combination of psychotherapy and medical treatment. Applying general sampling, 50 IBS patients were selected from among those who used to refer to a Gastroenterology Clinic. After physical and mental evaluations based on ROME-II scale and SCL-90-R questionnaires, the subjects were randomly superseded into: the control group with medical treatment and, the case group with a combination of medical and psychological treatments. The acquired data were then analyzed through t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The findings show that the mental health of patients receiving cognitive behavioral therapy along with the medical treatment was higher than those of the control group at post-test level. It was observed that the therapy reduces the disability caused by IBS. Comparatively, while the cognitive therapy and medical treatments cured 80% of the patients, those receiving cognitive therapy alone showed an extensive reduction of symptoms. Considering the role of cognitive behavioral therapy, it is therefore recommend that such patients be managed by a combined team of gastroenterologists and psychologists.

  19. Medical Treatment of Tattoo Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Tattooing is a skin trauma and involves a special vulnus punctatum (with inserted tattoo ink, a vulnus venenatum), which should heal with no infection and no local complication. Local treatment in the healing phase ideally builds on the 'moist wound' principle using plastic film, hydrocolloids, silver dressing, and compression. Bacterial infections during healing are treated with oral antibiotics, and a list of first-line antibiotics is proposed. Notice is given to severe infections with affected general condition, and it is emphasized that intravenous antibiotic treatment must be instituted as early as possible to prevent septic shock and death. Hydrophilic antibiotics shall be given in high load and maintenance dose due to increased renal clearance of such antibiotics. Chronic allergic reactions of red tattoos respond little to local corticoids and are best treated with dermatome shaving. Laser removal is contraindicated due to the risk of photochemical activation of the allergy with anaphylaxis or worsening. Chronic reactions in black tattoos can be treated with local corticoids, dermatome shaving, and lasers as well. Systemic corticoid is used in allergic reactions in red tattoos and in cross-allergic reactions of other red tattoos as well as in black tattoo reactions associated with sarcoidosis and with cutaneous 'rush phenomenon' affecting any black tattoo. Systemic corticoid is also indicated in generalized eczema due to nickel allergy or another allergy challenged through tattooing or introduced by tattooing as a primary sensitization. The use of intralesional corticoid, antihistamines, and immunosuppressive medicines is discussed. A warning against the use of lactic acid and other caustic chemicals for tattoo removal is given, since such chemicals and commercial products cannot be dosed properly and very often result in disfiguring scarring. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Pathological and Biological Aspects of Colorectal Cancer Treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, M.J.E.M.

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  1. Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosens, Marleen Johanna Elisabeth Maria

    2008-01-01

    Pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. This thesis describes several pathological and biological aspects of colorectal cancer treatment. Different patient populations were investigated including patients with mobile rectal cancer enrolled in the Dutch TME trial, patients

  2. Biological treatment and chronic myeloid leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothova, E.

    2011-01-01

    Notwithstanding the considerable skepticism that prevailed at the beginning of nineties of the last century to the possible clinical significance of inhibitors of tyrosine kinase (TK), Druker et al. (1998) had developed a compound that inhibited the enzymatic activity of Abl protein and, consequently, increased activity of Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, whose presence is characteristic of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The TK inhibitor, imatinib mesylate (Glivec) has become the standard first-line therapy for all patients with newly diagnosed CML. Despite its high efficiency, part of patients is not responding to treatment with this preparation or is losing an already achieved response. In this case second-generation or third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) could be applied.. The paper presents an overview of treatment options for CML, focusing on biological therapy with TKIs. (author)

  3. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gress

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-a, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  4. Medical Treatment of Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinke, Anja, E-mail: sprengea@staff.uni-marburg.de; Michl, Patrick; Gress, Thomas [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, Marburg D-35043 (Germany)

    2012-02-08

    Treatment of the clinically and prognostically heterogeneous neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN) should be based on a multidisciplinary approach, including surgical, interventional, medical and nuclear medicine-based therapeutic options. Medical therapies include somatostatin analogues, interferon-α, mTOR inhibitors, multikinase inhibitors and systemic chemotherapy. For the selection of the appropriate medical treatment the hormonal activity, primary tumor localization, tumor grading and growth behaviour as well as the extent of the disease must be considered. Somatostatin analogues are mainly indicated in hormonally active tumors for symptomatic relief, but antiproliferative effects have also been demonstrated, especially in well-differentiated intestinal NET. The efficacy of everolimus and sunitinib in patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) has been demonstrated in large placebo-controlled clinical trials. pNETs are also chemosensitive. Streptozocin-based chemotherapeutic regimens are regarded as current standard of care. Temozolomide in combination with capecitabine is an alternative that has shown promising results that need to be confirmed in larger trials. Currently, no comparative studies and no molecular markers are established that predict the response to medical treatment. Therefore the choice of treatment for each pNET patient is based on individual parameters taking into account the patient’s preference, expected side effects and established response criteria such as proliferation rate and tumor load. Platin-based chemotherapy is still the standard treatment for poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. Clearly, there is an unmet need for new systemic treatment options in patients with extrapancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  5. Challenges of medical and biological engineering and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magjarevic, R.

    2004-01-01

    All aspects of biomedical engineering and science, from research and development, education and training, implementation in health care systems, internationalisation and globalisation, and other, new issues are present in the strategy and in action plans of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE) which, with help of a large number of highly motivated volunteers, will stay in leading position in biomedical engineering and science

  6. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-07-31

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  7. ANAEROBIC BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATER; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John R. Gallagher

    2001-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas, large amounts of water are brought to the surface and must be disposed of in an environmentally sensitive manner. This is an especially difficult problem in offshore production facilities where space is a major constraint. The chief regulatory criterion for produced water is oil and grease. Most facilities have little trouble meeting this criterion using conventional oil-water separation technologies. However, some operations have significant amounts of naphthenic acids in the water that behave as oil and grease but are not well removed by conventional technologies. Aerobic biological treatment of naphthenic acids in simulated-produced water has been demonstrated by others; however, the system was easily overloaded by the large amounts of low-molecular-weight organic acids often found in produced waters. The objective of this research was to determine the ability of an anaerobic biological system to treat these organic acids in a simulated produced water and to examine the potential for biodegradation of the naphthenic acids in the anaerobic environment. A small fixed-film anaerobic biological reactor was constructed and adapted to treat a simulated produced water. The bioreactor was tubular, with a low-density porous glass packing material. The inocula to the reactor was sediment from a produced-water holding pond from a municipal anaerobic digester and two salt-loving methanogenic bacteria. During start-up, the feed to the reactor contained glucose as well as typical produced-water components. When glucose was used, rapid gas production was observed. However, when glucose was eliminated and the major organic component was acetate, little gas was generated. Methane production from acetate may have been inhibited by the high salt concentrations, by sulfide, or because of the lack, despite seeding, of microbes capable of converting acetate to methane. Toluene, a minor component of the produced water (0.1 g/L) was removed in the

  8. Body image and cosmetic medical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E

    2004-01-01

    Cosmetic medical treatments have become increasingly popular over the past decade. The explosion in popularity can be attributed to several factors-the evolution of safer, minimally invasive procedures, increased mass media attention, and the greater willingness of individuals to undergo cosmetic procedures as a means to enhance physical appearance. Medical and mental health professionals have long been interested in understanding both the motivations for seeking a change in physical appearance as well as the psychological outcomes of these treatments. Body image has been thought to play a key role in the decision to seek cosmetic procedures, however, only recently have studies investigated the pre- and postoperative body image concerns of patients. While body image dissatisfaction may motivate the pursuit of cosmetic medical treatments, psychiatric disorders characterized by body image disturbances, such as body dysmorphic disorder and eating disorders, may be relatively common among these patients. Subsequent research on persons who alter their physical appearance through cosmetic medical treatments are likely provide important information on the nature of body image.

  9. Easing Chronic Pain: Better Treatments and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Easing Chronic Pain: Better Treatments and Medications Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. What Is Pain? You know it at once. It may be ...

  10. Medical and Maintenance Treatments for Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, Thierry

    2017-04-01

    Medical treatments alone, or in combination with phototherapy, are key approaches for treating nonsegmental vitiligo and, to a lesser extent, segmental vitiligo. The treatments are useful for halting disease progression and have been proven effective for inducing repigmentation and decreasing risk of relapses. Although the treatments have side effects and limitations, vitiligo often induces a marked decrease in quality of life and in most cases the risk:benefit ratio is in favor of an active approach. Systemic and topical agents targeting the pathways involved in loss of melanocytes and in differentiation of melanocyte stem cells should provide more effective approaches in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Oriental Medical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Lee

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spinal stenosis results from the progressive combined narrowing of the central spinal canal, the neurorecesses, and the neuroforaminal canals. In the absence of prior surgery, tumor, or infection, the spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposis posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins, or a combination of two or more of the above factors. Patients with spinal stenosis become symptomatic when pain, motor weakness, paresthesia, or other neurologic compromise causes distress. In one case, we administrated oriental medical treatment with acupuncture treatment and herb-medicine. Oriental medical treatment showed desirable effect on lumbar spinal stenosis.

  12. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in 2006. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizoph...

  13. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia, part 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    These updated guidelines are based on a first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia published in 2005. For this 2012 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological treatment of schizophrenia we...

  14. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Medical or Surgical Treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Liakakos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is a common condition with increasing prevalence worldwide. The disease encompasses a broad spectrum of clinical symptoms and disorders from simple heartburn without esophagitis to erosive esophagitis with severe complications, such as esophageal strictures and intestinal metaplasia. Diagnosis is based mainly on ambulatory esophageal pH testing and endoscopy. There has been a long-standing debate about the best treatment approach for this troublesome disease. Methods and Results. Medical treatment with PPIs has an excellent efficacy in reversing the symptoms of GERD, but they should be taken for life, and long-term side effects do exist. However, patients who desire a permanent cure and have severe complications or cannot tolerate long-term treatment with PPIs are candidates for surgical treatment. Laparoscopic antireflux surgery achieves a significant symptom control, increased patient satisfaction, and complete withdrawal of antireflux medications, in the majority of patients. Conclusion. Surgical treatment should be reserved mainly for young patients seeking permanent results. However, the choice of the treatment schedule should be individualized for every patient. It is up to the patient, the physician and the surgeon to decide the best treatment option for individual cases.

  15. Collaborative Systems Biology Projects for the Military Medical Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalatoris, Jeffrey J; Scheerer, Julia B; Lebeda, Frank J

    2017-09-01

    This pilot study was conducted to examine, for the first time, the ongoing systems biology research and development projects within the laboratories and centers of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC). The analysis has provided an understanding of the breadth of systems biology activities, resources, and collaborations across all USAMRMC subordinate laboratories. The Systems Biology Collaboration Center at USAMRMC issued a survey regarding systems biology research projects to the eight U.S.-based USAMRMC laboratories and centers in August 2016. This survey included a data call worksheet to gather self-identified project and programmatic information. The general topics focused on the investigators and their projects, on the project's research areas, on omics and other large data types being collected and stored, on the analytical or computational tools being used, and on identifying intramural (i.e., USAMRMC) and extramural collaborations. Among seven of the eight laboratories, 62 unique systems biology studies were funded and active during the final quarter of fiscal year 2016. Of 29 preselected medical Research Task Areas, 20 were associated with these studies, some of which were applicable to two or more Research Task Areas. Overall, studies were categorized among six general types of objectives: biological mechanisms of disease, risk of/susceptibility to injury or disease, innate mechanisms of healing, diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and host/patient responses to vaccines, and therapeutic strategies including host responses to therapies. We identified eight types of omics studies and four types of study subjects. Studies were categorized on a scale of increasing complexity from single study subject/single omics technology studies (23/62) to studies integrating results across two study subject types and two or more omics technologies (13/62). Investigators at seven USAMRMC laboratories had collaborations with systems biology experts

  16. [Hygiene and security management in medical biology laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinner, E; Odou, M F; Fovet, B; Ghnassia, J C

    2013-06-01

    Risk management in Medical Biology Laboratory (MBL) which includes hygiene and waste management, is an integrated process to the whole MBL organisation. It is composed of three stages: risks factors identification, grading and prioritization, and their evaluation in the system. From the legislation and NF EN ISO 15189 standard's requirements viewpoint, prevention and protection actions to implement are described, at premises level, but also at work station environment's one (human resources and equipments) towards biological, chemical, linked to gas, to ionizing or non ionizing radiations and fire riks, in order not to compromise patients safety, employees safety, and quality results. Then, although NF EN 15189 standard only enacts requirements in terms of prevention, curative actions after established blood or chemical exposure accident are defined.

  17. International Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering 2017

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering held from 16 to 18 March 2017 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Focusing on the theme of ‘Pursuing innovation. Shaping the future’, it highlights the latest advancements in Biomedical Engineering and also presents the latest findings, innovative solutions and emerging challenges in this field. Topics include: - Biomedical Signal Processing - Biomedical Imaging and Image Processing - Biosensors and Bioinstrumentation - Bio-Micro/Nano Technologies - Biomaterials - Biomechanics, Robotics and Minimally Invasive Surgery - Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Endocrine Systems Engineering - Neural and Rehabilitation Engineering - Molecular, Cellular and Tissue Engineering - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Clinical Engineering and Health Technology Assessment - Health Informatics, E-Health and Telemedicine - Biomedical Engineering Education - Pharmaceutical Engineering.

  18. Treatment patterns of rheumatoid arthritis in Japanese hospitals and predictors of the initiation of biologic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlich, Joerg; Sruamsiri, Rosarin

    2017-01-01

    To describe the usage of different biologic agents for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan over time and to identify factors that affects the decision to initiate treatment with biologic agents. Determinants of a switch to another biologic agent for patients who are already on biologic treatment were also analyzed. We utilized a hospital claims database containing 36,504 Japanese patients with a confirmed RA diagnosis. To analyze the determinants of treatment choices, we applied logistic regression analysis taking into account socio-demographic and medical factors. Analyses determined that 11.8% of diagnoses and 25.4% of treated patients in Japan receive a biologic agent. Significant factors associated with biologic treatment initiation include younger age, female sex, and a higher comorbidity index. The route of administration plays a major role when it comes to a switch between different biologic agents. The lower likelihood of elderly patients to be initiated on biologic treatment might be explained by the risk aversion of Japanese physicians' and patients who are afraid of the potential side effects of biologics. This finding is also consistent with the notion of an age bias that impedes elderly patients from optimal access to biologic treatment. Because claims data does not contain clinical parameters such as disease activity the results should be validated in a clinical context.

  19. Biological wastewater treatment; Tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaiz, C.; Isac, L.; Lebrato, J. [Universidad de Sevilla (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Over the last years, many physical, chemical and biological processes for wastewater treatment have been developed. Biological wastewater treatment is the most widely used because of the less economic cost of investment and management. According to the type of wastewater contaminant, biological treatment can be classified in carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, biodiversity and microbial interactions of carbonaceous compounds biodegradation are described. (Author) 13 refs.

  20. Sustainable medication: Microtechnology for personalizing drug treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faralli, Adele; Melander, Fredrik; Andresen, Thomas Lars

    2014-01-01

    Medication is an essential and costly part of global public health care, and the price of pharmaceuticals has increased steadily over the past decades. Recent statistics indicate that expenses may be stabilizing due to an increased public focus on the non-­‐sustainable growth in total health care...... used, for example in cancer chemotherapy. In the Danish Strategic Research Project “IndiTreat -­‐ Individualized Treatment of colorectal cancer” we pursue a radically different approach by testing all approved drug combinations on each patient’s cells to predict the most optimal treatment. Massive drug...

  1. Plasma treatment: A Novel Medical Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonyawan, Dheerawan

    2015-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) for the medical treatment is a new field in plasma application, called plasma medicine. CAP contrains mix of excited atoms and molecules, UV photons, charged particles as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Typical species in air CAPs are O 3 , OH, N x , and HNO x . Two cold atomospheric plasma devices were utiized (either in an indirect or a direct way) for the treatment of physiologically healthy volunterrs, The results show that CAP is effective againts chronic wound infections and/ or for skin treatment in clinical trials. The current developments in this field have fuelled the hope that CAP could be, and interesting new therapeutic apptoach in the treatment of cancer.

  2. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    The research during 1978 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level /sup 60/Co gamma radiation, and development of leukemic indicators; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and /sup 60/Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and metabolic and therapeutic studies of heavy metals. Studies of nonnuclear energy sources deal with characterization and toxicological evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification; electrical storage systems; electric fields associated with energy transmission; and development of population projection models and assessment of human risk. Basic research studies include fundamental structural and biophysical investigations; circadian rhythms; mutagenesis in bacteria and mammalian cells; cell killing, damage, and repair in mammalian cells; carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis; the use of liposomes as biological carriers; and studies of environmental influences on life-span, physiological performance, and circadian cycles. In the area of medical development, proteins in urine and tissues of normal and diseased humans are analyzed, and advanced analytical procedures for use of stable isotopes in clinical research and diagnosis are developed and applied. The final sections of the report cover support facilities, educational activities, the seminar program, staff talks, and staff publications.

  3. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    The research during 1978 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Studies related to nuclear energy include responses of beagles to continuous low-level 60 Co gamma radiation, and development of leukemic indicators; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low-level neutron and 60 Co gamma radiation; genetic effects of high LET radiations; and metabolic and therapeutic studies of heavy metals. Studies of nonnuclear energy sources deal with characterization and toxicological evaluation of effluents of fluidized bed combustion and coal gasification; electrical storage systems; electric fields associated with energy transmission; and development of population projection models and assessment of human risk. Basic research studies include fundamental structural and biophysical investigations; circadian rhythms; mutagenesis in bacteria and mammalian cells; cell killing, damage, and repair in mammalian cells; carcinogenesis and cocarcinogenesis; the use of liposomes as biological carriers; and studies of environmental influences on life-span, physiological performance, and circadian cycles. In the area of medical development, proteins in urine and tissues of normal and diseased humans are analyzed, and advanced analytical procedures for use of stable isotopes in clinical research and diagnosis are developed and applied. The final sections of the report cover support facilities, educational activities, the seminar program, staff talks, and staff publications

  4. The journal of medical chemical, biological and radiological defense, an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, B. B. S.; Peitersen, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Journal of Medical Chemical, Biological, and Radiological Defense (www.JMedCBR.org) is a peer-reviewed scientific online journal focusing on the biology, chemistry, physiology, toxicology and treatment of exposure to threat agents. JMedCBR provides a central international forum for the publication of current research and development information on medical chemical, biological and radiological defense, as well as training, doctrine, and problems related to chemical, biological and radiological casualties. JMedCBR is sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Chem-Bio Technologies Directorate as part of its scientific outreach program in chemical and biological defense solutions for the Department of Defense. In addition to scientific and medical research, JMedCBR hosts an archive of related papers from authors in the field. Although organized into annual issues, articles are published on the web continuously. The complete JMedCBR is published electronically and is made available to the scientific community free of charge. JMedCBR is committed to providing its readers with quality scientific information and critical analyses. All submissions are peer-reviewed by an editorial board of recognized and respected international scientists who represent expertise in different aspects of medical chemical, biological and radiological defense. Contributions to JMedCBR must be original works of the author(s) and must not have been previously published or simultaneously submitted to other publications. The author(s) transfer the copyright of articles published in JMedCBR to the journal. A copyright transfer form must accompany each manuscript submission. For more information on submitting to JMedCBR, see the Authors' Guide, available at http://www.jmedcbr.org/authorGuide.html.(author)

  5. Selenium: environmental significance, pollution, and biological treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lea Chua; Nancharaiah, Yarlagadda V; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Lens, Piet N L

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element needed for all living organisms. Despite its essentiality, selenium is a potential toxic element to natural ecosystems due to its bioaccumulation potential. Though selenium is found naturally in the earth's crust, especially in carbonate rocks and volcanic and sedimentary soils, about 40% of the selenium emissions to atmospheric and aquatic environments are caused by various industrial activities such as mining-related operations. In recent years, advances in water quality and pollution monitoring have shown that selenium is a contaminant of potential environmental concern. This has practical implications on industry to achieve the stringent selenium regulatory discharge limit of 5μgSeL(-1) for selenium containing wastewaters set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Over the last few decades, various technologies have been developed for the treatment of selenium-containing wastewaters. Biological selenium reduction has emerged as the leading technology for removing selenium from wastewaters since it offers a cheaper alternative compared to physico-chemical treatments and is suitable for treating dilute and variable selenium-laden wastewaters. Moreover, biological treatment has the advantage of forming elemental selenium nanospheres which exhibit unique optical and spectral properties for various industrial applications, i.e. medical, electrical, and manufacturing processes. However, despite the advances in biotechnology employing selenium reduction, there are still several challenges, particularly in achieving stringent discharge limits, the long-term stability of biogenic selenium and predicting the fate of bioreduced selenium in the environment. This review highlights the significance of selenium in the environment, health, and industry and biotechnological advances made in the treatment of selenium contaminated wastewaters. The challenges and future perspectives are overviewed considering recent

  6. Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

  7. Medical devices for the treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Phong Ching; Dixon, John

    2017-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern that leads to numerous metabolic, mechanical and psychological complications. Although lifestyle interventions are the cornerstone of obesity management, subsequent physiological neurohormonal adaptations limit weight loss, strongly favour weight regain and counteract sustained weight loss. A range of effective therapies are therefore needed to manage this chronic relapsing disease. Bariatric surgery delivers substantial, durable weight loss but limited access to care, perceived high risks and costs restrict uptake. Medical devices are uniquely positioned to bridge the gap between more conservative lifestyle intervention and weight-loss pharmacotherapy and more disruptive bariatric surgery. In this Review, we examine the range of gastrointestinal medical devices that are available in clinical practice to treat obesity, as well as those that are in advanced stages of development. We focus on the mechanisms of action as well as the efficacy and safety profiles of these devices. Many of these devices are placed endoscopically, which provides gastroenterologists with exciting opportunities for treatment.

  8. Biological black water treatment combined with membrane separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Voorthuizen, E.M.; Zwijnenburg, A.; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph; Temmink, Hardy

    2008-01-01

    Separate treatment of black (toilet) water offers the possibility to recover energy and nutrients. In this study three combinations of biological treatment and membrane filtration were compared for their biological and membrane performance and nutrient conservation: a UASB followed by effluent

  9. Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Vazquez, CM; Kubare, M; Saroj, DP; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D

    2013-01-01

    Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biologic...

  10. Medical versus surgical treatment of nasal polyps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Z.U.; Majeed, A.

    2017-01-01

    To compare medical versus surgical treatment of nasal polyps in terms of frequency of success and recurrence. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the department of ear nose throat (ENT), Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Peshawar over 2 years' period, from Jan 2000 to Dec 2002. Material and Methods: During this period, 80 patients were diagnosed of nasal polyps. These patients were randomly divided into two treatment groups. Patients in group-A received medical treatment in the form of intra-nasal steroids while patients in group-B received surgical treatment depending upon the extent of disease. Outcome variables were frequency of successful resolution of nasal polyps after 1 month of treatment and frequency of recurrence upon 1 year follow-up. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 15 years to 40 years with a mean of 26.13 +- 2.5 years. There were 49 (61.25%) male and 31 (38.75%) female patients in the study group giving a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. There was no significant difference between the two study groups in terms of gender (p=0.818) distribution. Bilateralintranasal polypectomy was the most frequently performed procedure (70.0%) followed by intranasal ethmoidectomy (12.5%), external ethmoidectomy (10.0%) and functional endoscopic sinus surgery (7.5%). The frequency of successful treatment was significantly higher with surgery (100% vs. 52.50%; p<0.001) as compared to intra-nasal steroids at 1 month follow-up. However, over the long-term follow-up, the frequency of recurrence was significantly lower with intra-nasal steroids (4.8% vs. 30.0%; p=0.022) as compared to surgery. There was no complication in the patients treated with intra-nasal steroids. While crusting (15.0%) followed by infection (10.0%) were among the few complications observed in the surgical group-B. Conclusion: Though associated with significantly lower frequency of successful treatment, intranasal steroids

  11. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  12. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes research during 1982 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Carcinogenesis address mechanisms of chemical and radiation carcinogenesis including the processes of tumor initiation and promotion. The studies employ rat liver and mouse skin models as well as human rodent cell culture systems. The use of liposomes for metal mobilization is also explored. Low Level Radiation studies include delineation of the hematopoietic and other responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiation. Molecular Biology research develops two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other diseases. Fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and other key proteins are included, as are studies of cell growth, and of molecular and cellular effects of solar uv light. Research in Toxicology uses cellular, physiological, whole animal, and chronobiological end points and chemical separations to elucidate mechanisms and evaluate hazards of coal conversion by-products, actinides, and toxic metals. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies

  13. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies

  14. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual technical report, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, M.W. (ed.)

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes research during 1981 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory. Studies in Low Level Radiation include comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and gamma irradiation, delineation of the responses of dogs to continuous low level gamma irradiation, elucidation of mechanisms of radiation damage and repair in mammalian cells, and study of the genetic effects of high LET radiations. Carcinogenesis research addresses mechanisms of tumor initiation and promotion in rat liver, chemical carcinogenesis in cultured mammalian cells, and molecular and genetic mechanisms of chemical and ultraviolet mutagenesis in bacteria. Research in Toxicology uses a variety of cellular, whole animal, and chronobiological end points, chemical separations, and statistical models to evaluate the hazards and mechanisms of actions of metals, coal gasification by products, and other energy-related pollutants. Human Protein Index studies develop two-dimensional electrophoresis systems for diagnosis and detection of cancer and other disease. Biophysics research includes fundamental structural and biophysical investigations of immunoglobulins and key biological molecules using NMR, crystallographic, and x-ray and neutron small-angle scattering techniques. The final sections cover support facilities, educational activities, seminars, staff talks, staff, and funding agencies.

  15. Psoriatic arthritis: treatment strategies using biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Palazzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional management of psoriatic arthritis (PsA includes NSAIDs, corticosteroids and DMARDs. Advancement in the knowledge of the immunopathogenesis of PsA has been associated with the development of biologic agents which have revolutionized the management of the disease. Among biologics drugs, there are the 4 currently availablee anti-TNFα blocking agents (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab which are more effective than traditional DMARDs on symptoms/signs of inflammation, quality of life, function, and in inhibiting the progression of the structural joint damage. Despite of the high cost, TNF inhibitors are costeffective on both the musculoskeletal and skin manifestations of psoriatic disease.

  16. Biological drugs for the treatment of psoriasis in a public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Cruz Lopes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the access and utilization profile of biological medications for psoriasis provided by the judicial system in Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study. We interviewed a total of 203 patients with psoriasis who were on biological medications obtained by the judicial system of the State of Sao Paulo, from 2004 to 2010. Sociodemographics, medical, and political-administrative characteristics were complemented with data obtained from dispensation orders that included biological medications to treat psoriasis and the legal actions involved. The data was analyzed using an electronic data base and shown as simple variable frequencies. The prescriptions contained in the lawsuits were analyzed according to legal provisions. RESULTS A total of 190 lawsuits requesting several biological drugs (adalimumab, efalizumab, etanercept, and infliximab were analyzed. Patients obtained these medications as a result of injunctions (59.5% or without having ever demanded biological medication from any health institution (86.2%, i.e., public or private health services. They used the prerogative of free legal aid (72.6%, even though they were represented by private lawyers (91.1% and treated in private facilities (69.5%. Most of the patients used a biological medication for more than 13 months (66.0%, and some patients were undergoing treatment with this medication when interviewed (44.9%. Approximately one third of the patients discontinued treatment due to worsening of their illness (26.6%, adverse drug reactions (20.5%, lack of efficacy, or because the doctor discontinued this medication (13.8%. None of the analyzed medical prescriptions matched the legal prescribing requirements. Clinical monitoring results showed that 70.3% of the patients had not undergone laboratory examinations (blood work, liver and kidney function tests for treatment control purposes. CONCLUSIONS The plaintiffs resorted to legal action to get access to biological

  17. Biological drugs for the treatment of psoriasis in a public health system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Luciane Cruz; Silveira, Miriam Sanches do Nascimento; de Camargo, Iara Alves; Barberato, Silvio; Del Fiol, Fernando de Sá; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the access and utilization profile of biological medications for psoriasis provided by the judicial system in Brazil. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study. We interviewed a total of 203 patients with psoriasis who were on biological medications obtained by the judicial system of the State of Sao Paulo, from 2004 to 2010. Sociodemographics, medical, and political-administrative characteristics were complemented with data obtained from dispensation orders that included biological medications to treat psoriasis and the legal actions involved. The data was analyzed using an electronic data base and shown as simple variable frequencies. The prescriptions contained in the lawsuits were analyzed according to legal provisions. RESULTS A total of 190 lawsuits requesting several biological drugs (adalimumab, efalizumab, etanercept, and infliximab) were analyzed. Patients obtained these medications as a result of injunctions (59.5%) or without having ever demanded biological medication from any health institution (86.2%), i.e., public or private health services. They used the prerogative of free legal aid (72.6%), even though they were represented by private lawyers (91.1%) and treated in private facilities (69.5%). Most of the patients used a biological medication for more than 13 months (66.0%), and some patients were undergoing treatment with this medication when interviewed (44.9%). Approximately one third of the patients discontinued treatment due to worsening of their illness (26.6%), adverse drug reactions (20.5%), lack of efficacy, or because the doctor discontinued this medication (13.8%). None of the analyzed medical prescriptions matched the legal prescribing requirements. Clinical monitoring results showed that 70.3% of the patients had not undergone laboratory examinations (blood work, liver and kidney function tests) for treatment control purposes. CONCLUSIONS The plaintiffs resorted to legal action to get access to biological medications

  18. Biological effects and medical applications of infrared radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Ru; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-05-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 760nm and 100,000nm. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) or photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy generally employs light at red and near-infrared wavelengths (600-100nm) to modulate biological activity. Many factors, conditions, and parameters influence the therapeutic effects of IR, including fluence, irradiance, treatment timing and repetition, pulsing, and wavelength. Increasing evidence suggests that IR can carry out photostimulation and photobiomodulation effects particularly benefiting neural stimulation, wound healing, and cancer treatment. Nerve cells respond particularly well to IR, which has been proposed for a range of neurostimulation and neuromodulation applications, and recent progress in neural stimulation and regeneration are discussed in this review. The applications of IR therapy have moved on rapidly in recent years. For example, IR therapy has been developed that does not actually require an external power source, such as IR-emitting materials, and garments that can be powered by body heat alone. Another area of interest is the possible involvement of solar IR radiation in photoaging or photorejuvenation as opposites sides of the coin, and whether sunscreens should protect against solar IR? A better understanding of new developments and biological implications of IR could help us to improve therapeutic effectiveness or develop new methods of PBM using IR wavelengths. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. 76 FR 71045 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ...] Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... ``Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... period for the notice on its report of scientific and medical literature and information concerning the...

  20. Emergency medical treatment and 'do not resuscitate' orders: When ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FORUM. 223 April 2013, Vol. 103, No. 4 SAMJ. The meaning of emergency medical treatment. The Constitution[1] and the National Health Act[2] provide that nobody shall be refused emergency medical treatment. The National. Health Act does not define emergency medical treatment, but the. Constitutional Court defines it ...

  1. Emergency medical treatment and 'do not resuscitate' orders: When ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whether there is a conflict between these two requirements is answered by considering: (i) the meaning of emergency medical treatment; (ii) the relationship between emergency medical treatment and DNR orders; (iii) the meaning of futile medical treatment; (iv) the relationship between DNR orders and euthanasia; and (v) ...

  2. Percutaneous treatment of a duodenocutaneous high-flow fistula using a new biological plug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo Vallejo, Eduardo; Martinez-Galdamez, Mario; Del Olmo Martínez, Lourdes; Crespo Brunet, Eduardo; Santos Martin, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Enterocutaneous fistula is a challenging entity and a gold-standard treatment is not settled so far. Here, we describe the successful closure of a duodenocutaneous fistula with the use of the Biodesign enterocutaneous fistula plug (Cook Medical), which is derived from a biological plug that has been used in recent years in order to close anorectal fistula tracts.

  3. Biological treatment of oil-contaminated soils in bioreactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegmann, R.; Lotter, S.; Heerenklage, J.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, biological soil treatment is practiced in most cases by using the window technique, where more and more the process takes place inhouse. This paper reports that biological soil treatment in closed reactors is more frequently considered. The reactors are more costly to run and should be used in those cases where the window technique is not satisfactory. Closed reactor treatment is appropriate when; higher standards are needed for the emission control of the volatile components; some organics are difficult to degrade; soil with a higher clay content must be treated; and naturally occurring biological processes must be enhanced. To operate biological soil treatment under optimum conditions and to discover the treatment limits, the specific factors of influence have to be determined in advance by using a series of laboratory-scale experiments

  4. Biological treatment options for cyanobacteria metabolite removal--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lionel; Sawade, Emma; Newcombe, Gayle

    2012-04-01

    The treatment of cyanobacterial metabolites can consume many resources for water authorities which can be problematic especially with the recent shift away from chemical- and energy-intensive processes towards carbon and climate neutrality. In recent times, there has been a renaissance in biological treatment, in particular, biological filtration processes, for cyanobacteria metabolite removal. This in part, is due to the advances in molecular microbiology which has assisted in further understanding the biodegradation processes of specific cyanobacteria metabolites. However, there is currently no concise portfolio which captures all the pertinent information for the biological treatment of a range of cyanobacterial metabolites. This review encapsulates all the relevant information to date in one document and provides insights into how biological treatment options can be implemented in treatment plants for optimum cyanobacterial metabolite removal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Patient-reported treatment satisfaction and choice of dosing frequency with biologic treatment for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Brenneman, Susan K; Carter, Chureen T; Essoi, Breanna L; Farahi, Kamyar; Johnson, Michael P; Lee, Seina; Olson, William H

    2015-01-01

    Moderate to severe plaque psoriasis has a serious effect on health-related quality of life. Patients treated with biologic medications place importance on satisfaction and treatment frequency options. We assessed patient-reported treatment satisfaction and dosing frequency choice with biologics. We used a health care claims database to identify patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Participants completed the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication. Results were compared between patients experienced with biologics (adalimumab, etanercept, or ustekinumab) or not (cyclosporine or methotrexate). Participants were asked for their choices of dosing options of once every 1-2 weeks, 3-4 weeks, 1-2 months, or 2-3 months. Participants were also asked for their choices of dosing options of every 1, 2, 3, and so on up to every 12+ weeks. A total of 426 patients completed the survey (263 biologic-experienced and 163 biologic-naïve patients). Patient satisfaction with psoriasis treatment was significantly higher in the biologic-experienced cohort. The most frequently chosen option (38.8% of all participating patients) was every 2-3 months; 37.3% chose once every 1-2 weeks. Significant differences were found in the percentage of biologic-naïve patients choosing 2-3-month (49.7%) over 1-2-week (20.9%) dosing (Pbiologic-experienced patients, the difference between the percentage of patients choosing the 2-3-month (35.7%) and 1-2-week (41.8%) options was not significant (P=0.264). The two most often week-specific intervals chosen by biologic-naïve patients were 12+ weeks (42.3%) and 4 weeks (15.6%). The biologic-experienced patients most often chose 12+ weeks (31.2%) and 1 week (25.9%). Patients using biologics reported satisfaction with their treatment, which may positively affect outcomes. Longer dosing intervals were chosen most frequently among all patients combined. Reports of patient satisfaction with prior treatments and choices regarding dosing

  6. Medical treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jen Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Heavy menstrual bleeding, or menorrhagia, is subjectively defined as a “complaint of a large amount of bleeding during menstrual cycles that occurs over several consecutive cycles” and is objectively defined as menstrual blood loss of more than 80 mL per cycle that is associated with an anemia status (defined as a hemoglobin level of <10 g/dL. During their reproductive age, more than 30% of women will complain of or experience a heavy amount of bleeding, which leads to a debilitating health outcome, including significantly reduced health-related quality of life, and a considerable economic burden on the health care system. Although surgical treatment might be the most important definite treatment, especially hysterectomy for those women who have finished bearing children, the uterus is still regarded as the regulator and controller of important physiological functions, a sexual organ, a source of energy and vitality, and a maintainer of youth and attractiveness. This has resulted in a modern trend in which women may reconsider the possibility of organ preservation. For women who wish to retain the uterus, medical treatment may be one of the best alternatives. In this review, recent trends in the management of women with heavy menstrual bleeding are discussed.

  7. Combined chemical and biological treatment of recalcitrant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , indicating that ozone treatment improved the biodegradability of the kraft pulp wastewater. The dynamic behaviours of microbial growth and substrate consumption were investigated in the biodegradation of organic acids using activated ...

  8. 105: BIODOC - a combined biological treatment planning and treatment organization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baier, K.

    1987-01-01

    With biological planning in radiotherapy not only planning with regard to the total dose but also the complete consideration of dose-time relationships is understood. A combined biological planning and treatment system based on a DEC PDP 11/23 minicomputer is reported. The main functions are: biological treatment planning, organization of general activities, documentation, archiving and research

  9. Air contamination analysis during emergency medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Y.; Fukutsu, K.; Yuuki, M.; Akashi, M.

    2009-01-01

    After radiological emergencies, patients contaminated with radioactivity are taken to radiation emergency hospitals for treatment. Numerical simulations using the computer software 'Flow Designer R were made in order to evaluate indoor air contamination caused by the breathing out of contaminated air. The National Inst. of Radiological Sciences facility was used for the numerical evaluation. Results indicate that the dispersion of contaminated air depends on the characteristics of the contaminants, and that the dispersion range was limited and localised. Only medical staff standing in a special position near the patient was exposed to almost un-diluted contaminated air. Highly contaminated air was evacuated with a local exhaust pump system. Room air quality was monitored using a continuous air sampling system, but it was found that the sampling point was not representative for the purpose of radiation protection. From the air-flow analysis, some problems that affect radiological safety were revealed and valuable information and measures for preventing secondary contamination were determined. (authors)

  10. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual report, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.W.

    1981-08-01

    The research during 1980 in the Division of Biological and Medical Research, Argonne National Laboratory, is summarized. Research related to nuclear energy includes the delineation, in the beagle, of the responses to continuous low level 60 Co gamma radiation and the development of cellular indicators of preclinical phases of leukemia; comparison of lifetime effects in mice of low level neutron and 60 Co gamma radiation; studies of the genetic effects of high LET radiations; and studies of the gastrointestinal absorption of the actinide elements. Research related to nonuclear energy sources deals with characterization and toxicological evaluation of process streams and effluents of coal gasification; with electrical storage systems; and electric fields associated with energy transmission. Proteins in human urine and selected tissues are examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis to detect disease and pollutant related changes. Assessment of human risk associated with nuclearing collective dose commitment will result in more attention being paid to potential releases of radionuclides at relatively short times after disposal

  11. Biological treatment of wine of distilleries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Z, Mario; Velez, Luis Fernando; Ospina, Omar

    2001-01-01

    The potential of the yeast Candida tropicalis and Candida guillermondii was evaluated and an isolated partnership of microorganisms of waters of the Medellin River, conformed by two bacteria and one leavening, to degrade the content of organic matter present in wine produced by the factory of Licores and Alcoholes de Antioquia (FLA) in aerobic process with biomass production. For each one of the microorganisms in study this capacity of removal in units of chemical demand of oxygen was quantified (CDO); in addition, parameters were analyzed such as yield of the biomass in relation to the removed CDO and to total reducing sugars (TRS) consumed, time of fermentation and speed of growth different dilutions from wine. Also the possible inhibition was analyzed that the present phenolic compounds in this wine can cause in the biological process of degradation

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY OF MODERNIZATION OF BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Gogina Elena Sergeevna; Kulakov Artem Alekseevich

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the biological treatment of wastewater associated with removal of nitrogen. Results of laboratory experiments that involve nitrification and denitrification are also presented and analyzed in the paper. Discharges of inadequately treated and untreated wastewater have a negative impact on the aquatic ecosystem. The biological treatment of the wastewater that includes denitrification is strongly influenced by external factors. They need thorough research at t...

  13. Biomedicines—Moving Biologic Agents into Approved Treatment Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Cornetta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of biologic agents for therapeutic purposes, or biomedicines, has seen an active area of research both at the bench and in clinical trials. There is mounting evidence that biologic products can provide effective therapy for diseases that have been unresponsive to traditional pharmacologic approaches. Monoclonal antibody therapy for cancer and rheumatologic diseases has become a well accepted part of disease treatment plans. Gene therapy products have been approved in China and Europe. Bioengineering of new agents capitalizing on microRNA biology, nanoparticle technology, stem cell biology, and an increasing understanding of immunology predict a rich future for product development. [...

  14. Hydrobalneological methods in modern medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzisław Kuliński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Therapeutic methods combining balneology and hydrotherapy have been used in treatment and prevention for a long time. Their influence on the skin, based on mechanical, thermal, and hydrostatic stimuli, results in a reaction of the internal organs as well as the whole body. The most important effects of such procedures are changes within the cardiovascular system. Aim of the research: The use of hydrobalneological methods in modern medical treatment. Material and methods : The analysis focused on the influence of water jets at alternating temperatures in the treatment of functional cardiovascular disturbances with the use of non-invasive methods of autonomic nervous system function work-up based on the analysis of heart rate variability. The effect of the jets on heart rate and blood pressure was observed in 50 patients with first-degree hypertension, which was accompanied by radioelectrocardiographic (RECG assessment of the influence of underwater massage and carbonic acid baths on the cardiovascular system in patients undergoing these procedures due to Da Costa’s syndrome. Results : Water jets at alternating temperatures successfully modulate the tension within the autonomic nervous system and stimulate its parasympathetic part. Underwater massage is a gentle procedure and does not cause significant changes in heart rate and RECG tracing. Carbonic acid baths decrease autonomic nervous system excitability. Conclusions: The study results show a possibility of regulating autonomic nervous system function with the use of selected balneological and hydrotherapeutic methods, and thus influencing the functional level of the human body which is most appropriate for the requirements created by the internal and external environment of the body.

  15. Biologically resistant contaminants, primary treatment with ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echegaray, Diego F. [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil); Olivieri, Nadja F. [White Martins Gases Industriais S.A., Cordovil, RJ (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    Organic effluent oxidation tests were conducted in petrochemical companies, in Camacari Petrochemical Complex (Northeast Brazil), to reduce treatment costs and improve the primary treatment efficiency in each industrial process. Ozone achieved 99.96 percent benzene reduction and 100 percent ethyl benzene and toluene reduction. Process efficiency is strongly dependent on the wastewater chemical composition and concentration. For this reason it is necessary to run pilot trials for each specific case. Ozone was obtained feeding commercial oxygen through a corona discharge generator and dissolved in the effluent with a bubble column. Commercial oxygen was used instead of air to increase 250 percent the ozone production, using the same ozone generator. (author). 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. The biology and treatment of oligometastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Diane K; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2015-04-20

    Clinical reports of limited and treatable cancer metastases, a disease state that exists in a transitional zone between localized and widespread systemic disease, were noted on occasion historically and are now termed oligometastasis. The ramification of a diagnosis of oligometastasis is a change in treatment paradigm, i.e. if the primary cancer site (if still present) is controlled, or resected, and the metastatic sites are ablated (surgically or with radiation), a prolonged disease-free interval, and perhaps even cure, may be achieved. Contemporary molecular diagnostics are edging closer to being able to determine where an individual metastatic deposit is within the continuum of malignancy. Preclinical models are on the outset of laying the groundwork for understanding the oligometastatic state. Meanwhile, in the clinic, patients are increasingly being designated as having oligometastatic disease and being treated owing to improved diagnostic imaging, novel treatment options with the potential to provide either direct or bridging therapy, and progressively broad definitions of oligometastasis.

  17. Reductive biological treatment of textile effluents

    OpenAIRE

    Ramalho, Patrícia A.; Ramalho, Maria Teresa; Cardoso, M. Helena; Paulo, Artur Cavaco

    2004-01-01

    3rd International Conference on Textile Biotechnology, Graz, Áustria, 13-16 Junho 2004. Azo dyes are synthetic organic colorants which are extensively used in textile, food and cosmetic industries. A large fraction of these dyes is released into the environment even after conventional wastewater treatments. This is a worldwide problem and particularly a problem in regions where textile industries release large quantities of coloured wastewater to water courses. In an attempt to develop...

  18. Biological Treatment of Water Disinfection Byproducts using ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major disinfection by-products (DBPs) from the chlorination process of drinking water include trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acides (HAA5). THMs mainly consist of chloroform, and other harsh chemicals. Prolonged consumptions of drinking water containing high levels of THMs has been linked with diseases of the liver, kidneys, bladder, or central nervous system and may increase likelihood of cancer. A risk also exists for THMs exposure via inhalation while showering, bathing or washing clothes and dishes. Due to these risks, the U.S. EPA regulate THMs content in drinking water. This research investigates biological degradation of THM using chloroform as a model compound. The study aims to decrease possible risks of THMs through filtration. Throughout this year’s presentations, there is a common theme of health and safety concerns. UC researchers are working hard to clean water ways of naturally occurring contaminates as well as man-made toxins found in our waterways. The significance of these presentations translates into the promise of safer environments, and more importantly saved lives, as UC’s faculty continues to produce real-world solutions to problems threatening the world around us. A biotech process has been developed and demonstrated that effectively remove and treat volatile disinfection by-products from drinking water. The process strips low concentration disinfection by-products, such as trihalomethanes, that are formed during the chlori

  19. Public attitudes toward legally coerced biological treatments of criminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryessa, Colleen M; Chandler, Jennifer A; Reiner, Peter

    2016-12-01

    How does the public view the offer of a biological treatment in lieu of prison for criminal offenders? Using the contrastive vignette technique, we explored this issue, using mixed-methods analysis to measure concerns regarding changing the criminal's personality, the coercive nature of the offer, and the safety of the proposed treatment. Overall, we found that of the three variables, the safety of the pill had the strongest effect on public acceptance of a biological intervention. Indeed, it was notable that the public was relatively sanguine about coercive offers of biological agents, as well as changing the personality of criminals. While respondents did not fully endorse such coercive offers, neither were they outraged by the use of biological treatments of criminals in lieu of incarceration. These results are discussed in the context of the retributive and rehabilitative sentiments of the public, and legal jurisprudence in the arena of human rights law.

  20. 20 CFR 61.204 - Furnishing of medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... STATES CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE WAR HAZARDS COMPENSATION ACT, AS AMENDED Compensation for Injury, Disability or Death § 61.204 Furnishing of medical treatment. All medical services, appliances, drugs and...

  1. FDA regulatory affairs: a guide for prescription drugs, medical devices, and biologics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mantus, David; Pisano, Douglas J

    2008-01-01

    ...: A Guide for Prescription Drugs, Medical Devices, and Biologics, Second Edition are covered in a straightforward format. It is a compilation and commentary of selected laws and regulations pertaining to the development and approval of drugs, biologics, and medical devices in the United States. It is not intended to take the place of an actual r...

  2. Medical treatment of behavioral manifestations of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijn, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Almost all patients with Huntington disease (HD) show some form of behavioral changes during the disease progression. These behavioral manifestations may already be present before cognitive or motor symptoms become apparent, and vary from subtle anxiety to severe psychosis and suicide attempts. These behavioral manifestations are related to both psychologic factors, like the burden of having a severe disease, and biologic factors that are related to the disease itself. In this chapter, both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions are discussed. Common treatment guidelines give guidance to the treatment of symptoms like depression, anxiety, and psychosis, but for more disease-specific symptoms like apathy, irritability, and obsessive-compulsive behaviors, off-label use of psychotropic medication seems to be inevitable since evidence for all interventions in HD is limited. Type and dosage of medication often depend on comorbidity, side-effects, and the use of other drugs, and because of the neurodegenerative nature of the disease, it is necessary to monitor patients clinically at a regular interval and adjust drugs accordingly as the disease progresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biological treatments affect the chemical composition of coffee pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Rojas, J.B.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Amato, S.; Huisman, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Biological treatments were applied to fresh coffee pulp (CoP) to improve its nutritive value for monogastric animals by reducing its content of cellulose and antinutritional factors (ANFs) such as total phenols, tannins and caffeine. Treatments were: (1) ensiling with 0, 50 and 100 g kg¿1 molasses

  4. Use of magnets in medical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, A.

    1983-01-01

    In the Soviet Union magnetic fields were first applied successfully for medical purposes in the treatment of various diseases in the forties. Clinical-experimental research has established that a constant magnetic field and a low-frequency alternating magnetic field posses analgesic, antiedematous and antifebril action, decrease dystrophic processes, and increase blood circulation. An alternating magnetic field at a frequency of 50 cycles per second has a rhythm close to that of muscle nerve currents in the normal bodily state. Thus, in applying a 50-cycle magnetic field to organs and tissues as a specific stimulus we normalize the frequency of the current. By normalizing the electrical state of the tissues it is possible to normalize the general state of the organism as well. It is assumed that the magnetic field, like a tape-recorder heat, erases the pathological recording which has distorted or replaced the normal information characteristic of the cells. The range of magnetotherapy's therapeutic action is very broad: it includes cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, skin diseases, obliterating endarteritis, disturbances of peripheral blood circulation, diseases of the digestive organs, diseases of the musculoskeletal apparatus, osteochondrosis, radiculitis, and many others.

  5. [Patients' rights act. Consequences for medical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulsenheimer, K

    2014-02-01

    With the justification that the treatment and medical liability act suffers from a lack of transparency and reliability due to being characterized by many isolated decisions, in 2013 this was made into statute law in the form of the patients rights act in the German Civil Code (BGB). It was considered that "currently existing comprehensive rights of patients" would be strengthened through clarity and "legal transparency" and that the practical "implementation" would be improved. That this target will be achieved with these new statutory provisions is doubtful. Instead of more clarity, transparency and legal security, there now exists substantial need for interpretation of many aspects which will keep courts and lawyers occupied for many years. Furthermore, this has given rise to more bureaucratization of medicine with the compulsion to fulfil new formalities in clinics and doctors' offices. In this article the most important regulations for physicians will be presented and explained. Due to limited space and with due respect to the readership a subtle legal analysis of the regulations will be dispensed with.

  6. Refusal of Emergency Medical Treatment: Case Studies and Ethical Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Catherine A; Brenner, Jay M; Kraus, Chadd K; McGrath, Norine A; Derse, Arthur R

    2017-11-01

    Informed consent is an important component of emergency medical treatment. Most emergency department patients can provide informed consent for treatment upon arrival. Informed consent should also be obtained for emergency medical interventions that may entail significant risk. A related concept to informed consent is informed refusal of treatment. Patients may refuse emergency medical treatment during their evaluation and treatment. This article addresses important considerations for patients who refuse treatment, including case studies and discussion of definitions, epidemiology, assessment of decisional capacity, information delivery, medicolegal considerations, and alternative care plans. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomedicines?Moving Biologic Agents into Approved Treatment Options

    OpenAIRE

    Cornetta, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The development of biologic agents for therapeutic purposes, or biomedicines, has seen an active area of research both at the bench and in clinical trials. There is mounting evidence that biologic products can provide effective therapy for diseases that have been unresponsive to traditional pharmacologic approaches. Monoclonal antibody therapy for cancer and rheumatologic diseases has become a well accepted part of disease treatment plans. Gene therapy products have been approved in China and...

  8. Biological and advanced treatment of sulfate pulp bleaching effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çeçen, F.; Urban, W.; Haberl, R.

    1992-01-01

    Spent bleaching effluents (from chlorination (C) and extraction (E) stages) of a sulfate pulp mill were subjected to bench-scale biological and advanced treatment. Although > 90 % of the influent BOD 5 could be removed in an activated sludge process, the effluent still contained high amounts of resistant substances. The maximum COD removal was about 50 %; the removal rates achieved in the parameters TOC, DOC, AOX, SAK (254 nm) were even lower. The biological treatment led to an increase in color (436 nm) up to 40 %. The biologically pretreated effluent was further treated by ozone or ozone/irradiation. The DOC, COD, color (436 nm), SAK (254 nm) and AOX removal rates amounted to 61 %, 81 %, 98 %, 92 % and 92 %, respectively. These methods led simultaneously to an increase in biological biodegradability as reflected by an increase in BOD 5 . A comparison of the results obtained for raw and biologically pretreated wastewaters showed that biodegradable substances should first be removed from the wastewater since otherwise the effectiveness of these methods decreased. The coagulation/flocculation of biologically pretreated effluent showed that FeCl3 was the most effective coagulant and that removal rates > 90 % could be achieved. The treatment with various powder activated carbons showed that a dosage of 10 g/l was required to achieve elimination rates > 90 % in the parameters DOC, COD, color (436 nm) and SAK (254 nm). Adsorption isotherms were developed for every activated carbon and adsorption constants were calculated. (author)

  9. Female Sexual Dysfunction-Medical and Psychological Treatments, Committee 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsberg, Sheryl A; Althof, Stanley; Simon, James A; Bradford, Andrea; Bitzer, Johannes; Carvalho, Joana; Flynn, Kathryn E; Nappi, Rossella E; Reese, Jennifer B; Rezaee, Roya L; Schover, Leslie; Shifrin, Jan L

    2017-12-01

    Since the millennium we have witnessed significant strides in the science and treatment of female sexual dysfunction (FSD). This forward progress has included (i) the development of new theoretical models to describe healthy and dysfunctional sexual responses in women; (ii) alternative classification strategies of female sexual disorders; (iii) major advances in brain, hormonal, psychological, and interpersonal research focusing on etiologic factors and treatment approaches; (iv) strong and effective public advocacy for FSD; and (v) greater educational awareness of the impact of FSD on the woman and her partner. To review the literature and describe the best practices for assessing and treating women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, and female orgasmic disorders. The committee undertook a comprehensive review of the literature and discussion among themselves to determine the best assessment and treatment methods. Using a biopsychosocial lens, the committee presents recommendations (with levels of evidence) for assessment and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, female sexual arousal disorder, and female orgasmic disorders. The numerous significant strides in FSD that have occurred since the previous International Consultation of Sexual Medicine publications are reviewed in this article. Although evidence supports an integrated biopsychosocial approach to assessment and treatment of these disorders, the biological and psychological factors are artificially separated for review purposes. We recognize that best outcomes are achieved when all relevant factors are identified and addressed by the clinician and patient working together in concert (the sum is greater than the whole of its parts). Kingsberg SA, Althof S, Simon JA, et al. Female Sexual Dysfunction-Medical and Psychological Treatments, Committee 14. J Sex Med 2017;14:1463-1491. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by

  10. Medical Treatment and Educational Problems in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nettie R.; Thurman, S. Kenneth

    1992-01-01

    The miracles of modern medical technology are sometimes accompanied by unanticipated costs affecting survivors' quality of life. This article considers the educational implications for three groups of children who could not survive without medical intervention: children treated for cancer, low birth-weight and premature infants, and the medically…

  11. New Insights into Medical Treatment of Acromegaly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractGiants and Acromegalics fascinated people, since ancient times. Historical artifacts, paintings, illustrations, photographs or articles have documented many. The earliest medical reports date back to 1516. In 1864 Verga was the first to describe an acromegalic in medical literature

  12. Biodegradation of phytosanitary products in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massot, A; Estève, K; Noilet, P; Méoule, C; Poupot, C; Mietton-Peuchot, M

    2012-04-15

    Agricultural activity generates two types of waste: firstly, biodegradable organic effluents generally treated by biological processes and, secondly, phytosanitary effluents which contain residues of plant protection products. The latter are collected and treated. Current technological solutions are essentially based on concentration or physical-chemical processes. However, recent improvements in the biodegradability of pesticides open the way to the consideration of alternative, biological, treatment using mixed liquor from wastewater plant activated sludge. The feasibility of the biological treatment of viticultural effluents has been evaluated by the application of pesticides to activated sludge. The necessity for selection of a pesticide-resistant biomass has been highlighted. The elimination of the phytosanitary products shows the potential of a resistant biomass in the treatment of pesticides. The aerated biological storage ponds at three wineries, followed by a sand or reed-bed filter, were used for the treatment of the total annual volume of the viticulture effluents and validate the laboratory experiments. The results show that the biological purification of pesticides by activated sludge is possible by allowing approximately 8 days for biomass adaptation. Stability of purification occurs between 20 and 30 days. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  14. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia. Part 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    These updated guidelines are based on the first edition of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia published in the years 2005 and 2006. For this 2015 revision, all available publications pertaining to the biological...... treatment of schizophrenia were reviewed systematically to allow for an evidence-based update. These guidelines provide evidence-based practice recommendations which are clinically and scientifically relevant. They are intended to be used by all physicians diagnosing and treating patients with schizophrenia...... of evidence (A-F) and five levels of recommendation (1-5). This third part of the updated guidelines covers the management of the following specific treatment circumstances: comorbid depression, suicidality, various comorbid substance use disorders (legal and illegal drugs), and pregnancy and lactation...

  15. Medications in the treatment of addiction: workplace issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Jonathan; Ziedonis, Douglas

    2002-01-01

    Despite resistance from some treatment providers, medications play an increasingly important role in the treatment of substance dependence disorders. Goals of pharmacotherapy are discussed in terms of a four-stage model of treatment: acute withdrawal, protracted withdrawal, abstinence, and maintenance. The greatest controversy centers on the use of medications during the abstinence and maintenance phases of recovery. Particularly controversial, despite considerable supporting scientific data, is the lon -term use of agonists such as methadone. Occupational physicians and other non-prescribing staff can play a crucial role by supporting the responsible use of medications, maintaining contact with other medical and psychosocial treatment providers, enlisting support for medication compliance in patients' personal and professional support systems, advocating for comprehensive and humane patient care, and being alert to signs of medication misuse.

  16. Stable isotopes: essential tools in biological and medical research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, P. D.; Hachey, D. L.; Kreek, M. J.; Schoeller, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent developments in the use of the stable isotopes, /sup 13/C, /sup 15/N, /sup 17/O, and /sup 18/O, as tracers in research studies in the fields of biology, medicine, pharmacology, and agriculture are briefly reviewed. (CH)

  17. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of dementias in primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihl, Ralf; Bunevicius, Robertas; Frölich, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define a practice guideline for biological treatment of dementias for general practitioners in primary care. METHODS: This paper is a short and practical summary of the World Federation of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the Biological treatment of Alzheimer's disease...... and other dementias for treatment in primary care ( Ihl et al. 2011 ). The recommendations were developed by a task force of international experts in the field and are based on randomized controlled studies. RESULTS: Anti-dementia medications neither cure, nor arrest, or alter the course of the disease...

  18. U1/U2 crib groundwater biological treatment demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, S.S.; Brouns, T.M.; Heath, W.O.

    1989-11-01

    The primary objective of the biological treatment project is to develop and demonstrate a process for Hanford groundwater remediation. Biodenitrification using facultative anaerobic microorganisms is a promising technology for the simultaneous removal of nitrates and organics from contaminated aqueous streams. During FY 1988, a consortium of Hanford groundwater microorganisms was shown to degrade both nitrates and carbon tetrachloride (CC1 4 ). A pilot-scale treatment system was designed and constructed based on the results of laboratory-and-bench-scale testing. This report summarizes the results of biological groundwater treatment studies performed during FY 1989 at the pilot-scale. These tests were conducted using a simulated Hanford groundwater with a continuous stirred-tank bioreactor, and a fluidized-bed bioreactor that was added to the pilot-scale treatment system in FY 1989. The pilot-scale system demonstrated continuous degradation of nitrates and CC1 4 in a simulated groundwater. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  19. Thermophilic biological nitrogen removal in industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Vazquez, C M; Kubare, M; Saroj, D P; Chikamba, C; Schwarz, J; Daims, H; Brdjanovic, D

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification is an integral part of biological nitrogen removal processes and usually the limiting step in wastewater treatment systems. Since nitrification is often considered not feasible at temperatures higher than 40 °C, warm industrial effluents (with operating temperatures higher than 40 °C) need to be cooled down prior to biological treatment, which increases the energy and operating costs of the plants for cooling purposes. This study describes the occurrence of thermophilic biological nitrogen removal activity (nitritation, nitratation, and denitrification) at a temperature as high as 50 °C in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treating wastewater from an oil refinery. Using a modified two-step nitrification-two-step denitrification mathematical model extended with the incorporation of double Arrhenius equations, the nitrification (nitrititation and nitratation) and denitrification activities were described including the cease in biomass activity at 55 °C. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses revealed that Nitrosomonas halotolerant and obligatehalophilic and Nitrosomonas oligotropha (known ammonia-oxidizing organisms) and Nitrospira sublineage II (nitrite-oxidizing organism (NOB)) were observed using the FISH probes applied in this study. In particular, this is the first time that Nitrospira sublineage II, a moderatedly thermophilic NOB, is observed in an engineered full-scale (industrial) wastewater treatment system at temperatures as high as 50 °C. These observations suggest that thermophilic biological nitrogen removal can be attained in wastewater treatment systems, which may further contribute to the optimization of the biological nitrogen removal processes in wastewater treatment systems that treat warm wastewater streams.

  20. Treatment of slaughter wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-anaerobic biological filter and biological contact oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, M.; Yu, P. F.; Fu, J. X.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, T.

    2017-08-01

    The optimal process parameters and conditions for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater by coagulation sedimentation-AF - biological contact oxidation process were studied to solve the problem of high concentration organic wastewater treatment in the production of small and medium sized slaughter plants. The suitable water temperature and the optimum reaction time are determined by the experiment of precipitation to study the effect of filtration rate and reflux ratio on COD and SS in anaerobic biological filter and the effect of biofilm thickness and gas water ratio on NH3-N and COD in biological contact oxidation tank, and results show that the optimum temperature is 16-24°C, reaction time is 20 min in coagulating sedimentation, the optimum filtration rate is 0.6 m/h, and the optimum reflux ratio is 300% in anaerobic biological filter reactor. The most suitable biological film thickness range of 1.8-2.2 mm and the most suitable gas water ratio is 12:1-14:1 in biological contact oxidation pool. In the coupling process of continuous operation for 80 days, the average effluent’s mass concentrations of COD, TP and TN were 15.57 mg/L, 40 mg/L and 0.63 mg/L, the average removal rates were 98.93%, 86.10%, 88.95%, respectively. The coupling process has stable operation effect and good effluent quality, and is suitable for the industrial application.

  1. Biological treatment of crop residues for ruminant feeding: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop residues are often referred to as 'lignocellulosics' as they are rich in cellulose which is bound with a biopolymer lignin. Rumen microbiota (bacteria, protozoa and fungi), even with their hydrolytic enzymes, are not very competent enough to break these bonds efficiently. Biological treatment of such crop residues using ...

  2. Toluene : biological waste-gas treatment, toxicity and microbial adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the increasing stringent legislation concerning the emission of volatile organic compounds, there is nowadays a growing interest to apply biological waste-gas treatment techniques for the removal of higher concentrations of specific contaminants from waste gases. Fluctuations in the

  3. Efficiency of some actinomycete isolates in biological treatment and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 10 selected actinomycete isolates were characterized by their morphological characteristics and were found to belong to the genera Nocardia, Streptomyces, Rhodococcus, Gordonia and Nocardiopsis. The ability of the selected actinomycetes for biological treatment of the wastewater was evaluated by measuring the ...

  4. DEMONSTRATION OF AN INTEGRATED, PASSIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESS FOR AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    An innovative, cost-effective, biological treatment process has been designed by MSE Technology Applications, Inc. to treat acid mine drainage (AMD). A pilot-scale demonstration is being conducted under the Mine Waste Technology Program using water flowing from an abandoned mine ...

  5. Sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikoilidou, E.; Samiotis, G.; Bellos, D.; Amanatidou, E.

    2016-11-01

    The sustainable operation of a biological wastewater treatment plant is significantly linked to its removal efficiency, cost of sludge management, energy consumption and monitoring cost. The biological treatment offers high organic removal efficiency, it also entails significant sludge production, which contains active (live) and inactive (dead) microorganisms and must be treated prior to final disposal, in order to prevent adverse impact on public health and environment. The efficiency of the activated sludge treatment process is correlated to an efficient solid-liquid separation, which is strongly depended on the biomass settling properties. The most commonly encountered settling problems in a wastewater treatment plant, which are usually associated with operating conditions and specific microorganisms growth, are sludge bulking, floating sludge, pin point flocs and straggler flocs. Sustainable management of sludge and less energy consumption are the two principal aspects that determine the operational cost of wastewater treatment plants. Sludge treatment and management accumulate more than 50% of the operating cost. Aerobic wastewater treatment plants have high energy requirements for covering the needs of aeration and recirculations. In order to ensure wastewater treatment plants’ effective operation, a large number of physicochemical parameters have to be monitored, thus further increasing the operational cost. As the operational parameters are linked to microbial population, a practical way of wastewater treatment plants’ controlling is the microscopic examination of sludge, which is proved to be an important tool for evaluating plants’ performance and assessing possible problems and symptoms. This study presents a biological wastewater treatment plant with almost zero biomass production, less energy consumption and a practical way for operation control through microbial manipulation and microscopic examination.

  6. Life sciences: Nuclear medicine, radiation biology, medical physics, 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency Publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The catalogue lists all sales publications of the IAEA dealing with Life Sciences issued during the period 1980-1994. The publications are grouped in the following chapters: Nuclear Medicine (including Radiopharmaceuticals), Radiation Biology and Medical Physics (including Dosimetry)

  7. Depression, competence, and the right to refuse lifesaving medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, M D; Youngner, S J

    1994-07-01

    The authors explore the possibility that psychiatrists inappropriately extend their views on suicide by the medically well to refusal of lifesaving treatment by the seriously medically ill. The legal and bioethics literature on competence to refuse lifesaving treatment and the possible impact of depression on this refusal is reviewed. Over the past 20 years, the burden of proof concerning the mental competence of seriously medically ill patients who refuse lifesaving treatment has shifted to the persons who seek to override these refusals. However, in psychiatry a patient's desire to die is generally considered to be evidence of an impaired capacity to make decisions about lifesaving treatment. This contrast between ethical traditions is brought into clinical focus during the evaluation and treatment of medically ill patients with depression who refuse lifesaving treatment. The clinical evaluation of the effect of depression on a patient's capacity to make medical decisions is difficult for several reasons: 1) depression is easily seen as a "reasonable" response to serious medical illness, 2) depression produces more subtle distortions of decision making than delirium or psychosis (i.e., preserving the understanding of medical facts while impairing the appreciation of their personal importance), and 3) a diagnosis of major depression is neither necessary nor sufficient for determining that the patient's medical decision making is impaired. Depression can be diagnosed and treated in patients with serious medical illness. But after optimizing medical and psychiatric treatment and determining that the patient is competent to make medical decisions, it may be appropriate to honor the patient's desire to die.

  8. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  9. RARE EARTH ELEMENT IMPACTS ON BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Y.; Barnes, J.; Fox, S.

    2016-09-01

    Increasing demand for rare earth elements (REE) is expected to lead to new development and expansion in industries processing and or recycling REE. For some industrial operators, sending aqueous waste streams to a municipal wastewater treatment plant, or publicly owned treatment works (POTW), may be a cost effective disposal option. However, wastewaters that adversely affect the performance of biological wastewater treatment at the POTW will not be accepted. The objective of our research is to assess the effects of wastewaters that might be generated by new rare earth element (REE) beneficiation or recycling processes on biological wastewater treatment systems. We have been investigating the impact of yttrium and europium on the biological activity of activated sludge collected from an operating municipal wastewater treatment plant. We have also examined the effect of an organic complexant that is commonly used in REE extraction and separations; similar compounds may be a component of newly developed REE recycling processes. Our preliminary results indicate that in the presence of Eu, respiration rates for the activated sludge decrease relative to the no-Eu controls, at Eu concentrations ranging from <10 to 660 µM. Yttrium appears to inhibit respiration as well, although negative impacts have been observed only at the highest Y amendment level tested (660 µM). The organic complexant appears to have a negative impact on activated sludge activity as well, although results are variable. Ultimately the intent of this research is to help REE industries to develop environmentally friendly and economically sustainable beneficiation and recycling processes.

  10. Biological Treatment of Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetko Prokopov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the operation of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP in the town of Hisarya which includes a biological stage with aeration basins of cyclic type (SBR-method was studied. The values of the standard indicators of input and output water from the wastewater treatment plant were evaluated. Moreover, the reached effects due to the biological treatment of the wastewater in terms of the COD (95.7%, BOD5 (96.6%, total nitrogen (81.3%, total phosphorus (53.7% and suspended solids (95.7% were established. It was concluded that the indexes of the treated water were significantly below the emission limits specified in the discharge permit

  11. Biologically rational ways of bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avrunin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Based on own and literature date to define biologically rational elements of complex approach to bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. Nowadays there are two points of view regarding bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. The first favor pharmaceuticals as a basic and physical exercises as additional. According to the second, therapeutic and prophylactic significance of physical exercises in maintenance and development of structural and functional capacities of musculoskeletal system is fundamental. The latter approach correspond to evolutionary formed biological model in that muscles act upon levers - bones that connected by means of joints and provide the movement of the body against gravity. The present work from pathogenethically point of view establish the systemic approach to the bone mass loss prophylaxis and treatment. It is based on physical exercises while additional pharmacotherapy that should aim for optimization of regulatory function of bone cells, first of all osteocytes providing for adaptational reorganisation of bone structures.

  12. Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear preparedness training for emergency medical services provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel; Wanger, Karen; Welsford, Michelle

    2009-07-01

    We assessed the self-reported theoretical and practical preparedness training of Canadian emergency medical services (EMS) providers in chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) events. We designed an online survey to address the theoretical and practical CBRN training level of prehospital providers. Emergency medical services staff in British Columbia and Ontario were invited to participate. Of the 1028 respondents, 75% were male, and the largest demographic groups were front-line personnel with more than 15 years of experience. Only 63% of respondents indicated they had received either theoretical or practical training to work in a contaminated environment, leaving 37% who indicated they had received neither type of training. Of those that had received any training, 61% indicated they had received "hands-on" or practical training and 82% indicated they had received some training in identification of a possibly contaminated scene. Only 42% had received training for symptoms of nerve agents, 37% had received training for symptoms of blister agents and 46% had received training for symptoms of asphyxiants. Thirty-two percent had received training for the treatment of patients exposed to nerve agents, and 30% had received training for the treatment of patients exposed to blister agents. Only 31% of all respondents had received training for detecting radiation. CBRN events involve unique hazards and require specific education and training for EMS providers. A large proportion of Canadian EMS providers report not having received the training to identify and work in contaminated environments.

  13. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  14. Evaluation of a commercial biologically based IMRT treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenenko, Vladimir A.; Reitz, Bodo; Day, Ellen; Qi, X. Sharon; Miften, Moyed; Li, X. Allen

    2008-01-01

    A new inverse treatment planning system (TPS) for external beam radiation therapy with high energy photons is commercially available that utilizes both dose-volume-based cost functions and a selection of cost functions which are based on biological models. The purpose of this work is to evaluate quality of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans resulting from the use of biological cost functions in comparison to plans designed using a traditional TPS employing dose-volume-based optimization. Treatment planning was performed independently at two institutions. For six cancer patients, including head and neck (one case from each institution), prostate, brain, liver, and rectal cases, segmental multileaf collimator IMRT plans were designed using biological cost functions and compared with clinically used dose-based plans for the same patients. Dose-volume histograms and dosimetric indices, such as minimum, maximum, and mean dose, were extracted and compared between the two types of treatment plans. Comparisons of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (EUD), a previously proposed plan quality index (fEUD), target conformity and heterogeneity indices, and the number of segments and monitor units were also performed. The most prominent feature of the biologically based plans was better sparing of organs at risk (OARs). When all plans from both institutions were combined, the biologically based plans resulted in smaller EUD values for 26 out of 33 OARs by an average of 5.6 Gy (range 0.24 to 15 Gy). Owing to more efficient beam segmentation and leaf sequencing tools implemented in the biologically based TPS compared to the dose-based TPS, an estimated treatment delivery time was shorter in most (five out of six) cases with some plans showing up to 50% reduction. The biologically based plans were generally characterized by a smaller conformity index, but greater heterogeneity index compared to the dose-based plans. Overall, compared to plans based on dose

  15. Training in Reproductive Biology and Human Sexuality in American Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, James A.; Steinberger, Emil

    1977-01-01

    The current status of teaching reproductive biology and human sexuality was surveyed in 118 medical schools, with an 82 percent response rate. Only 34 percent of those responding had organized courses in reproductive biology, and overall training was found to be inadequate. (LBH)

  16. 75 FR 6401 - Medical Devices Regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... Biologics Evaluation and Research (HFM-17), Food and Drug Administration, suite 200N, 1401 Rockville Pike... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2009-M-0513] Medical Devices Regulated by the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research; Availability of Summaries...

  17. Radioactive indicators in biology and their medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.

    1950-12-01

    This talk was given at the society of promotion of the national industry on December 1, 1949. The report is a pre-print of an article published in L'Industrie Nationale no.2 (1950). It presents the state-of-the-art of the use of artificial radioisotopes in biology and medicine: 1 - definitions (isotopes, decay, radiation emission); 2 - modalities of the use of radioisotopes in biology: basic instrumentation (Geiger-Mueller counter, counting techniques, photography, auto-histo-radiography); 3 - applications in physiology (digestive absorption, excretion, vascular exchanges, tracer techniques) and biochemistry (metabolism, thyroxine synthesis and fixation indicators, tracer techniques for drugs); 4 - radiotherapy, internal and external irradiation. (J.S.)

  18. Medication Treatment Efficacy and Chronic Orofacial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Glenn T; Padilla, Mariela; Dionne, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    Chronic pain in the orofacial region has always been a vexing problem for dentists to diagnose and treat effectively. For trigeminal neuropathic pain, there are 3 medications (gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants, and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) to use plus topical anesthetics that have therapeutic efficacy. For chronic daily headaches (often migraine in origin), 3 prophylactic medications have reasonable therapeutic efficacy (β-blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and antiepileptic drugs). The 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs for fibromyalgia (pregabalin, duloxetine, and milnacipran) are not robust, with poor efficacy. For osteroarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have therapeutic efficacy and when gastritis contraindicates them, corticosteriod injections are helpful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Steinberg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient’s consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians.

  20. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2015-07-30

    The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient's consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians.

  1. Practice Parameter: Medical Treatment of Infantile Spasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, M.T.; Weiss, S.K.; Adams-Webber, T.; Ashwal, S.; Stephens, D.; Ballaban-Gill, K.; Baram, T.Z.; Duchowny, M.; Hirtz, D.; Pellock, J.M.; Shields, W.D.; Shinnar, S.; Wyllie, E.; Snead, O.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the current best practice for treatment of infantile spasms in children. Methods Database searches of MEDLINE from 1966 and EMBASE from 1980 and searches of reference lists of retrieved articles were performed. Inclusion criteria were the documented presence of infantile spasms and hypsarrhythmia. Outcome measures included complete cessation of spasms, resolution of hypsarrhythmia, relapse rate, developmental outcome, and presence or absence of epilepsy or an epileptiform EEG. One hundred fifty-nine articles were selected for detailed review. Recommendations were based on a four-tiered classification scheme. Results Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is probably effective for the short-term treatment of infantile spasms, but there is insufficient evidence to recommend the optimum dosage and duration of treatment. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether oral corticosteroids are effective. Vigabatrin is possibly effective for the short-term treatment of infantile spasm and is possibly also effective for children with tuberous sclerosis. Concerns about retinal toxicity suggest that serial ophthalmologic screening is required in patients on vigabatrin; however, the data are insufficient to make recommendations regarding the frequency or type of screening. There is insufficient evidence to recommend any other treatment of infantile spasms. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that successful treatment of infantile spasms improves the long-term prognosis. Conclusions ACTH is probably an effective agent in the short-term treatment of infantile spasms. Vigabatrin is possibly effective. PMID:15159460

  2. Hypo-fractionated treatment in radiotherapy: radio-biological models Tcp and NTCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astudillo V, A. J.; Mitsoura, E.; Paredes G, L.; Resendiz G, G.

    2014-08-01

    At the present time the breast cancer in Mexico has the first place of incidence of the malignant neoplasia s in the women, and represents 11.34% of all the cancer cases. On the other hand, the treatments for cancer by means of ionizing radiations have been dominated under the approaches of the medical radio-oncologists which have been based on test and error by many years. The radio-biological models, as the Tcp, NTCP and dosimetric variables, for their clinical application in the conventional radiotherapy with hypo-fractionation have as purpose predicting personalized treatment plans that they present most probability of tumor control and minor probability of late reactions, becoming this way support tools in the decisions taking for the patient treatments planning of Medical Physicists and Radio-oncologists. (Author)

  3. 76 FR 59407 - Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... searching for articles using a PubMed and/or Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) search engine...] Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research Report of Scientific and Medical Literature and Information... Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of its report of scientific and medical literature and...

  4. Assessment of medication adherence and treatment satisfaction in Japanese patients with psoriasis of various severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Susumu; Ito, Michiko; Funasaka, Yoko; Abe, Masatoshi; Nishida, Emi; Muramatsu, Shinnosuke; Nishihara, Haruna; Kato, Hiroshi; Morita, Akimichi; Imafuku, Shinichi; Saeki, Hidehisa

    2018-01-21

    Psoriasis is a chronic, relapsing, inflammatory keratotic skin disease. To elucidate the medication adherence and treatment satisfaction, we performed a questionnaire survey using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8) and nine-item Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9) of 163 psoriatic patients who regularly visited hospitals or clinics. To assess the relationship between the MMAS-8/TSQM-9 outcomes and severity of psoriasis, two different clinical severity indices were used: the Psoriasis Area and the Severity Index (PASI) for disease severity and the Psoriasis Disability Index (PDI) for quality of life (QOL) impairment. The MMAS-8 score for oral medication was significantly higher than that for topical medication. The oral and topical MMAS-8 scores were significantly correlated with the PDI score, but not with the PASI score, indicating that QOL impairment lowered treatment motivation. All of the TSQM-9 domain scores (effectiveness, convenience and global satisfaction) were significantly correlated with both the PASI and PDI scores, suggesting that patients whose skin and QOL conditions were under good control had high satisfaction with treatment. Patients treated with biologics had higher satisfaction than those treated with non-biologics. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. ASSISTED MODELLING OF MOBILE MEDICAL TREATMENT EQUIPMENT, UPPER RESPIRATORY AFFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOANTA Adrian Mihai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to present some aspects of parametric modelling application in medical engineering, specifically in the design of medical instruments for ENT diseases. The work also contains both stages, how to obtain all parts parametrically and related accessories that are part of a mobile aerosol -generating medical equipment intended for the treatment of the upper respiratory diseases. Also photorealistic visualization capabilities are highlighted with NX Software from Siemens as well as how to obtain the corresponding 2D documentation.

  6. Treatments of medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Mehler, Philip S; Krantz, Mori J; Sachs, Katherine V

    2015-01-01

    Inherent to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are a plethora of medical complications which correlate with the severity of weight loss or the frequency and mode of purging. Yet, the encouraging fact is that most of these medical complications are treatable and reversible with definitive care and cessation of the eating-disordered behaviours. Herein, these treatments are described for both the medical complications of anorexia nervosa and those which are a result of bulimia nervosa.

  7. Treatments of medical complications of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehler, Philip S; Krantz, Mori J; Sachs, Katherine V

    2015-01-01

    Inherent to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are a plethora of medical complications which correlate with the severity of weight loss or the frequency and mode of purging. Yet, the encouraging fact is that most of these medical complications are treatable and reversible with definitive care and cessation of the eating-disordered behaviours. Herein, these treatments are described for both the medical complications of anorexia nervosa and those which are a result of bulimia nervosa.

  8. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.H.

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology

  9. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

  10. The sustainable utilization of malting industry wastewater biological treatment sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilenko, T. A.; Svintsov, A. V.; Chernysh, I. V.

    2018-01-01

    The article deals with the research of using the sludge from malting industry wastewater’s biological treatment and the calcium carbonate slurry as organo-mineral fertilizing additives. The sludge, generated as a result of industrial wastewater biological treatment, is subject to dumping at solid domestic waste landfills, which has a negative impact on the environment, though its properties and composition allow using it as an organic fertilizer. The physical and chemical properties of both wastes have been studied; the recommendations concerning the optimum composition of soil mix, containing the above-mentioned components, have been provided. The phytotoxic effect on the germination capacity and sprouts of cress (Lepidium sativum), barley (Hordéum vulgáre) and oats (Avena sativa) in soil mixes has been determined. The heavy metals and arsenic contents in the sludge does not exceed the allowable level; it is also free of pathogenic flora and helminthes.

  11. Multi-sample nonparametric treatments comparison in medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-sample nonparametric treatments comparison in medical follow-up study with unequal observation processes through simulation and bladder tumour case study. P. L. Tan, N.A. Ibrahim, M.B. Adam, J. Arasan ...

  12. Medical Student Views of Substance Abuse Treatment, Policy and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Shantanu; Everett, Worth W.; Sharma, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of medical education on students' views of substance abuse treatment, public policy options and training. Method: A longitudinal survey was conducted on a single-class cohort of 101 students in a major American, urban medical school. The survey was administered in the Spring semesters of the first to third…

  13. 28 CFR 549.43 - Involuntary psychiatric treatment and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... called if they have information relevant to the inmate's mental condition and/or need for medication, and... treatment for the mental illness and less restrictive alternatives (e.g., seclusion or physical restraint... medication. 549.43 Section 549.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  14. Satisfaction with medication in coronary disease treatment: psychometrics of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Ana Carolina Sauer; Rodrigues, Roberta Cunha Matheus; São-João, Thaís Moreira; Alexandre, Neusa Maria Costa; Gallani, Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme

    2016-06-07

    to psychometrically test the Brazilian version of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication - TSQM (version 1.4), regarding ceiling and floor effect, practicability, acceptability, reliability and validity. participants with coronary heart disease (n=190) were recruited from an outpatient cardiology clinic at a university hospital in Southeastern Brazil and interviewed to evaluate their satisfaction with medication using the TSQM (version 1.4) and adherence using the Morisky Self-Reported Measure of Medication Adherence Scale and proportion of adherence. The Ceiling and Floor effect were analyzed considering the 15% worst and best possible TSQM scores; Practicability was assessed by time spent during TSQM interviews; Acceptability by proportion of unanswered items and participants who answered all items; Reliability through the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and Validity through the convergent construct validity between the TSQM and the adherence measures. TSQM was easily applied. Ceiling effect was found in the side effects domain and floor effect in the side effects and global satisfaction domains. Evidence of reliability was close to satisfied in all domains. The convergent construct validity was partially supported. the Brazilian TSQM presents evidence of acceptability and practicability, although its validity was weakly supported and adequate internal consistency was observed for one domain. realizar o teste psicométrico da versão brasileira do Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication - TSQM (versão 1.4) [Questionário Satisfação com Tratamento Medicamentoso] com relação aos efeitos de teto e chão, praticidade, aceitabilidade, confiabilidade e validade. os participantes com doença cardíaca coronária (n=190) foram recrutados num ambulatório de cardiologia de um hospital universitário no sudeste do Brasil e entrevistados para avaliar satisfação em relação ao tratamento medicamentoso através da TSQM (versão 1.4) e ades

  15. Postextraction Alveolar Ridge Preservation: Biological Basis and Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Pagni, Giorgio; Pellegrini, Gaia; Giannobile, William V.; Rasperini, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Following tooth extraction, the alveolar ridge undergoes an inevitable remodeling process that influences implant therapy of the edentulous area. Socket grafting is a commonly adopted therapy for the preservation of alveolar bone structures in combination or not with immediate implant placement although the biological bases lying behind this treatment modality are not fully understood and often misinterpreted. This review is intended to clarify the literature support to socket grafting in ord...

  16. Micro-radiography of biological samples with medical contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammer, J.; Weyda, F.; Benes, J.; Sopko, V.; Gelbic, I.

    2013-12-01

    Micro-radiography is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to study the internal structures of objects. This fast and easy imaging tool is based on differential X-ray attenuation by various tissues and structures within biological samples. The experimental setup described is based on the semiconductor pixel X-ray detector Medipix2 and X-ray micro-focus tube. Our micro-radiographic system has been recently used not only for the examination of internal structures of various arthropods and other biological objects but also for tracing some processes in selected model species (we used living larvae of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus). Low concentrations of iodine, lanthanum or gold particles were used as a tracer (contrast agent). Such contrast agents increase the absorption of X-rays and allow a better visibility of internal structures of model organisms (especially the various cavities, pores, etc.). In addition, the movement of tracers in selected timing experiments demonstrates some physiological functions of digestive and excretory system.

  17. Medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy and clinical score

    OpenAIRE

    Glišić Andreja

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, with earlier diagnosis, medical therapy with methotrexate can be offered and surgery avoided in some women, though the best regimen remains unclear. Although there have been advances in the management of ectopic pregnancy, there are still questions to be answered. Objective. The use of clinical score was evaluated after the clinical treatment for selection of patients for medical treatment...

  18. Medical treatment of Cushing disease: new targets, new hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleseriu, Maria

    2015-03-01

    This article provides an update on current medical therapies for the treatment of Cushing disease. This information will be of value in determining patients' suitability for certain medical treatments. An approach of combining drugs from the same or different classes could potentially increase the number of patients in whom Cushing can be controlled while minimizing adverse effects, although larger studies are needed. Successful clinical management of patients with Cushing disease remains a challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment-resistant medication overuse headache can be cured

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munksgaard, Signe B; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the long-term efficacy of a structured, multidisciplinary treatment program in patients who had been treated unsuccessfully for medication overuse headache by specialists in an open-label design.......To evaluate the long-term efficacy of a structured, multidisciplinary treatment program in patients who had been treated unsuccessfully for medication overuse headache by specialists in an open-label design....

  20. Patient-reported treatment satisfaction and choice of dosing frequency with biologic treatment for moderate to severe plaque psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mingliang Zhang,1 Susan K Brenneman,2 Chureen T Carter,1 Breanna L Essoi,2 Kamyar Farahi,1 Michael P Johnson,2 Seina Lee,1 William H Olson3 1Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Horsham, PA, 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Optum Life Sciences, Eden Prairie, MN, 3Research and Analysis Strategy, Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Titusville, NJ, USA Background: Moderate to severe plaque psoriasis has a serious effect on health-related quality of life. Patients treated with biologic medications place importance on satisfaction and treatment frequency options. We assessed patient-reported treatment satisfaction and dosing frequency choice with biologics.Methods: We used a health care claims database to identify patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Participants completed the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication. Results were compared between patients experienced with biologics (adalimumab, etanercept, or ustekinumab or not (cyclosporine or methotrexate. Participants were asked for their choices of dosing options of once every 1–2 weeks, 3–4 weeks, 1–2 months, or 2–3 months. Participants were also asked for their choices of dosing options of every 1, 2, 3, and so on up to every 12+ weeks.Results: A total of 426 patients completed the survey (263 biologic-experienced and 163 biologic-naïve patients. Patient satisfaction with psoriasis treatment was significantly higher in the biologic-experienced cohort. The most frequently chosen option (38.8% of all participating patients was every 2–3 months; 37.3% chose once every 1–2 weeks. Significant differences were found in the percentage of biologic-naïve patients choosing 2–3-month (49.7% over 1–2-week (20.9% dosing (P<0.001. Among biologic-experienced patients, the difference between the percentage of patients choosing the 2–3-month (35.7% and 1–2-week (41.8% options was not significant (P=0.264. The two most

  1. [The algorithm for the biological treatment of depression in the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline on depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spijker, J; Nolen, W A

    2011-01-01

    Although antidepressants are effective in the treatment of depression, nonresponse is unfortunately a recurring problem. Treatment algorithms can help the health care professional to make consecutive step-by-step choices between the different available treatment options. To update the biological algorithm in the Dutch multidisciplinary guideline on the treatment of depression. The literature was reviewed systematically. There are five steps in the algorithm: 1. Treatment starts with an SSRI, a TCA, an SNRI, mirtazapine or buproprion. 2. If there is no response after 4-10 weeks, administer another antidepressant. 3. Augment medication with lithium. 4. Administer a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. 5. Apply electroconvulsive therapy. The algorithm is certainly worth using, but its efficacy needs to be fully investigated.s.

  2. Direct landfill disposal versus Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhawik Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After the implementation of a new waste management system, in which recycling is the most dominating process, landfill disposal still appears to be the most popular method of waste management in Poland, in which waste undergoes gradual decomposition and the influence of climate conditions, for example, air and atmospheric fallout, leads to the production of leachate and biogas emissions, which contribute to continual threats to the natural environment and humans. The above-mentioned threats can be limited by applying suitable techniques of waste treatment before its disposal. A technology that is oriented to these aims is a mechanical biological treatment (MBT before disposal.

  3. Carbamazepine degradation by gamma irradiation coupled to biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shizong; Wang, Jianlong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Carbamazepine was removed by the combined gamma radiation and biodegradation. • The removal efficiency of carbamazepine increased with dose. • Irradiation could enhance the mineralization of carbamazepine significantly. • The combined irradiation and biodegradation was effective for carbamazepine removal. - Abstract: Carbamazepine is an emerging contaminant and resistant to biodegradation, which cannot be effectively removed by the conventional biological wastewater treatment processes. In this study, the combined gamma irradiation and biodegradation was employed to remove carbamazepine from wastewater. The effect of dose on the removal of carbamazepine was studied at different doses (300, 600 and 800 Gy). The results showed that the removal efficiency of carbamazepine increased with dose increasing during the irradiation process. The maximum removal efficiency was 99.8% at 800 Gy, while the removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) was only 26.5%. The removal efficiency of TOC increased to 79.3% after the sequent biological treatment. In addition, several intermediates and organic acids were detected. The possible degradation pathway of carbamazepine during the integrated irradiation and biodegradation was proposed. Based on the overall analysis, the combined gamma irradiation and biological treatment process can be an alternative for removing the recalcitrant organic pollutants such as carbamazepine from wastewater.

  4. Carbamazepine degradation by gamma irradiation coupled to biological treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shizong [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Jianlong, E-mail: wangjl@tsinghua.edu.cn [Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Technology, INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Radioactive Wastes Treatment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2017-01-05

    Highlights: • Carbamazepine was removed by the combined gamma radiation and biodegradation. • The removal efficiency of carbamazepine increased with dose. • Irradiation could enhance the mineralization of carbamazepine significantly. • The combined irradiation and biodegradation was effective for carbamazepine removal. - Abstract: Carbamazepine is an emerging contaminant and resistant to biodegradation, which cannot be effectively removed by the conventional biological wastewater treatment processes. In this study, the combined gamma irradiation and biodegradation was employed to remove carbamazepine from wastewater. The effect of dose on the removal of carbamazepine was studied at different doses (300, 600 and 800 Gy). The results showed that the removal efficiency of carbamazepine increased with dose increasing during the irradiation process. The maximum removal efficiency was 99.8% at 800 Gy, while the removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) was only 26.5%. The removal efficiency of TOC increased to 79.3% after the sequent biological treatment. In addition, several intermediates and organic acids were detected. The possible degradation pathway of carbamazepine during the integrated irradiation and biodegradation was proposed. Based on the overall analysis, the combined gamma irradiation and biological treatment process can be an alternative for removing the recalcitrant organic pollutants such as carbamazepine from wastewater.

  5. Hyperlipidaemia following treatment with antipsychotic medications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Females represented 57.50% and 63.75% of newly diagnosed and those on treatment respectively. Majority of the patients were single (72.5%) and unemployed (57.5%). Though hypertriglyceridaemia and low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are generally risk factors for mental illness among the newly diagnosed ...

  6. Carbon footprint of aerobic biological treatment of winery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, D; Bolzonella, D

    2009-01-01

    The carbon associated with wastewater and its treatment accounts for approximately 6% of the global carbon balance. Within the wastewater treatment industry, winery wastewater has a minor contribution, although it can have a major impact on wine-producing regions. Typically, winery wastewater is treated by biological processes, such as the activated sludge process. Biomass produced during treatment is usually disposed of directly, i.e. without digestion or other anaerobic processes. We applied our previously published model for carbon-footprint calculation to the areas worldwide producing yearly more than 10(6) m(3) of wine (i.e., France, Italy, Spain, California, Argentina, Australia, China, and South Africa). Datasets on wine production from the Food and Agriculture Organisation were processed and wastewater flow rates calculated with assumptions based on our previous experience. Results show that the wine production, hence the calculated wastewater flow, is reported as fairly constant in the period 2005-2007. Nevertheless, treatment process efficiency and energy-conservation may play a significant role on the overall carbon-footprint. We performed a sensitivity analysis on the efficiency of the aeration process (alphaSOTE per unit depth, or alphaSOTE/Z) in the biological treatment operations and showed significant margin for improvement. Our results show that the carbon-footprint reduction via aeration efficiency improvement is in the range of 8.1 to 12.3%.

  7. Animal biology and the medical sciences discussed in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    The purpose of the conference, held in the Centro Medico Nacional, Mexico City, 21 November- 1 December, was to make medical scientists more fully aware of the potentialities of radioisotope techniques in general physiology and biochemistry, and at the same time to acquaint biologists with problems relating to the physiology of disease and with clinical uses of radioisotopes. The scope of these techniques the usefulness of radioisotopes in discovering new information about the life processes of farm animals, use of radioisotopes in physiology, availability and applications of new radioisotopes, methods of calibration and standardization of the absorption of radioactive iodine by the thyroid gland; techniques for applying radioisotopes in blood studies; progress of methodology; comparative metabolism in farm animals; and radioisotope training programmes. In panel session on general physiology papers are given on blood studies, glandular function, mineral metabolism, lactation and ruminant metabolism, clinical studies

  8. Biological treatment of inorganic ion contamination including radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherry, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    Microorganisms and plants are capable of a broad range of activities useful in treating inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface runoff water Among the advantages of biological processes for this purpose are relatively low costs (related to their mild conditions) and the practicality of letting them run unattended. This talk will review both kinds of treatment chemistry that can be done biologically as well as present data from INEEL projects on bioremediation of specific elements. Biological processes can either solubilize or immobilize metals and other ions depending on the need. Uranium ions are solubilized from soil by the local bioproduction of organic acids as chelating agents, allowing removal of this ion as part of an ex-situ treatment process. Further, the microbial production of sulfuric acid can be used to solubilize Cs contamination in concrete surfaces. More usual though is the need to control metal movement in soil or water. Various metals such as Se and Cd are taken up from soil by hyper-accumulating plants, where they can be harvested in concentrated form in the leaves and stems. Excess acidity and a broad variety of toxic metals in acid rock drainage, such as Hg, Cd, Zn and others, can be removed by the production of sulfide ion in an easily fielded biological reactor which may be useful on phosphate processing runoff water contaminated with naturally occuring radioactive materials. Soluble Co, Cu, and Cd can be treated by sorption onto immobilized algae. Inorganic ions can also be directly reduced by bacteria as part of treatment, for example the conversion of soluble selenate ion to insoluble elemental selenium and the conversion of highly toxic CR(VI) to the far less soluble and less toxic Cr(III)

  9. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  10. Microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Chandran, Kartik; Stensel, David

    2014-11-01

    Globally, denitrification is commonly employed in biological nitrogen removal processes to enhance water quality. However, substantial knowledge gaps remain concerning the overall community structure, population dynamics and metabolism of different organic carbon sources. This systematic review provides a summary of current findings pertaining to the microbial ecology of denitrification in biological wastewater treatment processes. DNA fingerprinting-based analysis has revealed a high level of microbial diversity in denitrification reactors and highlighted the impacts of carbon sources in determining overall denitrifying community composition. Stable isotope probing, fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarrays and meta-omics further link community structure with function by identifying the functional populations and their gene regulatory patterns at the transcriptional and translational levels. This review stresses the need to integrate microbial ecology information into conventional denitrification design and operation at full-scale. Some emerging questions, from physiological mechanisms to practical solutions, for example, eliminating nitrous oxide emissions and supplementing more sustainable carbon sources than methanol, are also discussed. A combination of high-throughput approaches is next in line for thorough assessment of wastewater denitrifying community structure and function. Though denitrification is used as an example here, this synergy between microbial ecology and process engineering is applicable to other biological wastewater treatment processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; La Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment commonly involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps as state-of-the-art technologies for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forwar...

  12. [Is orlistat medically essential for the treatment of obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritze, J

    1999-03-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in western societies. The mainstay of therapy is behavioral modification. By inhibiting intestinal lipases orlistat modifies food composition. Thus, orlistat is a dietetic compound. Therefore, orlistat does not represent a medically necessary treatment option in terms of the conditions of private health insurances. However, adjunctive treatment with orlistat may make sense in single high risk patients.

  13. Should doctors provide futile medical treatment if patients or their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is it ethical and legal for doctors to provide futile medical treatment if patients ... exercise patient autonomy when they demand to be treated if their prognosis is ... a placebo effect.[3]. When deciding to terminate or refuse treatment against a patient's or their proxy's wishes because of futility, doctors must discuss this with them ...

  14. Medical liability insurance claims after treatment of varicose veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickhoff, C.; Cremers, J. E. L.; Legemate, D. A.; Koelemay, M. J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Since insight into the reason for filing claims after treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremity might help prevent future claims, we determined the incidence of and reasons for medical liability insurance claims after such treatments in the Netherlands. We performed a retrospective review

  15. [Cost of medical treatment with methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy. Study comparing medical treatment versus laparoscopy. Experience of Aziza Othmana Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadhlaoui, Anis; Oueslati, Hanene; Khedhiri, Zied; Khrouf, Mohamed; Chaker, Anis; Zhioua, Fethi

    2013-02-01

    The ectopic pregnancy can be treated surgically (conservative or radical) or medically. Currently, the choice between medical and surgical treatment is a critical issue. One of the parameters of this choice is the total cost of management. To compare the cost of the management of ectopic pregnancy by medical treatment (methotrexate, MTX) and coeliochirurgicaux. This is a prospective, comparative, nonrandomized,unicentric study, on 39 patients who have ectopic pregnancies treated with MTX versus 16 patients treated by laparoscopic surgery with conservative treatment. This study was collected at the service of Obstetrics and Gynecology Reproductive Medicine Aziza Othmana Hospital (Tunis) for a period of two years. The average cost of hospital stay per patient was 549.38 dt for the MTX group against 268.39 dt for laparoscopic surgery group (p treatment with MTX costs more cost than the conservative laparoscopic treatment and this is mainly due to the long period of hospitalization.

  16. Impact of prior biologic use on persistence of treatment in patients with psoriatic arthritis enrolled in the US Corrona registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Leslie R; Stolshek, Bradley S; Rebello, Sabrina; Collier, David H; Mutebi, Alex; Wade, Sally W; Malley, Wendi; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Etzel, Carol J

    2017-04-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic condition characterized by a diverse set of symptoms, from swollen joints to nail disease to skin disease. A variety of treatment options are available, including tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis). Little is known about treatment persistence in patients with PsA who initiate TNFi therapy, with and without prior biologic use. This study assessed persistence in these subgroups of patients with PsA and identified factors associated with persistence. This retrospective study utilized data from the Corrona registry of patients with PsA-with or without prior biologic experience-who initiated TNFi therapy between October 1, 2002, and March 21, 2013. Kaplan-Meier curves estimated median time to nonpersistence (discontinuation or switch to another biologic). Cox proportional hazards models identified factors associated with TNFi nonpersistence. A total of 1241 TNFi initiations were identified: 549 by biologic-naïve and 692 by biologic-experienced patients. Through 4 years of follow-up, more biologic-naïve than biologic-experienced patients remained persistent. Biologic-naïve patients had a greater mean time to nonpersistence compared with biologic-experienced patients: 32 vs 23 months (p = 0.0002). Moderate and high disease activities based on clinical disease activity index and disease duration were associated with persistence in both biologic-naïve and biologic-experienced patients. Additionally, in the biologic-experienced patients, the number of prior medications and skin disease were associated with persistence. The majority of patients with PsA in this study were persistent with their TNFi therapy; biologic-naïve patients had greater persistence compared with biologic-experienced patients. Predictors of persistence differed slightly between biologic-naïve and biologic-experienced patients.

  17. Laser-induced boiling of biological liquids in medical technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovskii, V. M.; Yusupov, V. I.; Dydykin, A. V.; Nevozhai, V. I.; Kisilev, A. Yu.; Zhukov, S. A.; Bagratashvili, V. N.

    2017-05-01

    Using optical and acoustic methods we study thermal and transport processes related to the boiling of biological liquids under the action of continuous-wave laser radiation having moderate power (1 - 10 W) in the near-IR range (0.97 - 1.94 μm). These processes are investigated in the course of a few particular clinical procedures aimed at the modification and removal of pathological tissues (veins, mammary gland cyst, Baker’s cyst) and tissue regeneration (intervertebral discs). In the proposed approach, the modification and destruction of biotissues are due to the fast delivery of heat by two-phase jet flows, formed in the course of liquid boiling, rather than the direct laser heating. This provides the high rate of heat delivery to the pathological biotissue, avoiding its overheating (the temperature higher than 100 °C) and undesired heating of adjacent tissues. Two main regimes of laser-induced boiling near the optical fibre tip were revealed, namely, the heterogeneous jet boiling (arising when the fibre with a blackened tip is used) and the homogeneous boiling (with the radiation absorbed in the liquid volume). Both studied regimes allow one to obtain high specific heat flows, and the domination of one of the boiling regimes is determined by the presence of absorbing coating on the fibre tip, the tissue type, as well as by its shape (e.g., the presence of channels or cavities in the tissue). It is established that the heterogeneous jet boiling at the fibre tip corresponds to the regime of superintensive bubble boiling.

  18. Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases [Retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosani M

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosani M, Ardizzone S, Porro GB. Biologics: Targets and Therapy. 2009;3:77–97.This paper has been retracted after we were made aware that it contains a large amount of reused, and uncited material that was not placed within quotation marks.The following statement has been supplied by Dr Sandro Ardizzone:The review entitled "Biologic targeting in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease" has been commissioned by this journal and published in 2009 (Matteo Bosani, Sandro Ardizzone, Gabriele Bianchi Porro. Biologics: Targets & Therapy 2009;3:77–97. The paper was written by our young coworker (Dr M Bosani. He has consulted many papers, including our previous reviews published years before. The not perfect knowledge of English language has greatly influenced the writing of the paper itself. So he saved in word file several parts of our previous papers (Ardizzone S, Bianchi Porro G. Inflammatory bowel disease: new insights into pathogenesis and treatment. J Intern Med 2002;252:475–496 – Ardizzone S, Bianchi Porro G. Biologic therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Drugs 2005:2253–2286, and then transferred to the final paper. He was unaware as we are, of the fact that he could not reuse previously published material in other journals. The reuse of this material was made in good faith.Taking our responsibility for what happened, we intend to apologize for this inconvenience to the Editor (Dr Doris Benbrook and Publisher (Dr Tim Hill. Moreover, for the reasons mentioned above, I consider appropriate to retract the paper itself.This retraction relates to this paper.

  19. Medical tourism: assessing the evidence on treatment abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Neil; Carrera, Percivil

    2010-05-01

    The review focuses on one growing dimension of health care globalisation - medical tourism, whereby consumers elect to travel across borders or to overseas destinations to receive their treatment. Such treatments include cosmetic and dental surgery; cardio, orthopaedic and bariatric surgery; IVF treatment; and organ and tissue transplantation. The review sought to identify the medical tourist literature for out-of-pocket payments, focusing wherever possible on evidence and experience pertaining to patients in mid-life and beyond. Despite increasing media interest and coverage hard empirical findings pertaining to out-of-pocket medical tourism are rare. Despite a number of countries offering relatively low cost treatments we know very little about many of the numbers and key indicators on medical tourism. The narrative review traverses discussion on medical tourist markets, consumer choice, clinical outcomes, quality and safety, and ethical and legal dimensions. The narrative review draws attention to gaps in research evidence and strengthens the call for more empirical research on the role, process and outcomes of medical tourism. In concluding it makes suggestion for the content of such a strategy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 75 FR 35493 - Guidance for Industry on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Developing Medical Products for Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... ``Lupus Nephritis Caused by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical Products for Treatment... entitled ``Systemic Lupus Erythematosus--Developing Medical Products for Treatment.'' This guidance... medical devices for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This guidance finalizes the draft...

  1. Implantable photonic devices for improved medical treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheinman, Victor; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Toichuev, Rakhmanbek; Eshiev, Abdyrakhman; Abdullaeva, Svetlana; Egemkulov, Talantbek; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2014-10-01

    An evolving area of biomedical research is related to the creation of implantable units that provide various possibilities for imaging, measurement, and the monitoring of a wide range of diseases and intrabody phototherapy. The units can be autonomic or built-in in some kind of clinically applicable implants. Because of specific working conditions in the live body, such implants must have a number of features requiring further development. This topic can cause wide interest among developers of optical, mechanical, and electronic solutions in biomedicine. We introduce preliminary clinical trials obtained with an implantable pill and devices that we have developed. The pill and devices are capable of applying in-body phototherapy, low-level laser therapy, blue light (450 nm) for sterilization, and controlled injection of chemicals. The pill is also capable of communicating with an external control box, including the transmission of images from inside the patient's body. In this work, our pill was utilized for illumination of the sinus-carotid zone in dog and red light influence on arterial pressure and heart rate was demonstrated. Intrabody liver tissue laser ablation and nanoparticle-assisted laser ablation was investigated. Sterilization effect of intrabody blue light illumination was applied during a maxillofacial phlegmon treatment.

  2. Update on the use of systemic biologic agents in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasadhika S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirichai Pasadhika,1 James T Rosenbaum2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Southern Arizona Veterans Administration Health Care System, Tucson, AZ, USA; 2Legacy Devers Eye Institute, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Uveitis is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Noninfectious uveitis may be associated with other systemic conditions, such as human leukocyte antigen B27-related spondyloarthropathies, inflammatory bowel disease, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Behçet's disease, and sarcoidosis. Conventional therapy with corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents (such as methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, and cyclosporine may not be sufficient to control ocular inflammation or prevent non-ophthalmic complications in refractory patients. Off-label use of biologic response modifiers has been studied as primary and secondary therapeutic agents. They are very useful when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed or has been poorly tolerated, or to treat concomitant ophthalmic and systemic inflammation that might benefit from these medications. Biologic therapy, primarily infliximab, and adalimumab, have been shown to be rapidly effective for the treatment of various subtypes of refractory uveitis and retinal vasculitis, especially Behçet's disease-related eye conditions and the uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Other agents such as golimumab, abatacept, canakinumab, gevokizumab, tocilizumab, and alemtuzumab may have great future promise for the treatment of uveitis. It has been shown that with proper monitoring, biologic therapy can significantly improve quality of life in patients with uveitis, particularly those with concurrent systemic symptoms. However, given high cost as well as the limited long-term safety data, we do not routinely recommend biologics as first-line therapy for noninfectious uveitis in most patients. These agents should be used with caution by experienced clinicians. The present

  3. Topic modeling for cluster analysis of large biological and medical datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weizhong; Zou, Wen; Chen, James J

    2014-01-01

    The big data moniker is nowhere better deserved than to describe the ever-increasing prodigiousness and complexity of biological and medical datasets. New methods are needed to generate and test hypotheses, foster biological interpretation, and build validated predictors. Although multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis may allow researchers to identify groups, or clusters, of related variables, the accuracies and effectiveness of traditional clustering methods diminish for large and hyper dimensional datasets. Topic modeling is an active research field in machine learning and has been mainly used as an analytical tool to structure large textual corpora for data mining. Its ability to reduce high dimensionality to a small number of latent variables makes it suitable as a means for clustering or overcoming clustering difficulties in large biological and medical datasets. In this study, three topic model-derived clustering methods, highest probable topic assignment, feature selection and feature extraction, are proposed and tested on the cluster analysis of three large datasets: Salmonella pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) dataset, lung cancer dataset, and breast cancer dataset, which represent various types of large biological or medical datasets. All three various methods are shown to improve the efficacy/effectiveness of clustering results on the three datasets in comparison to traditional methods. A preferable cluster analysis method emerged for each of the three datasets on the basis of replicating known biological truths. Topic modeling could be advantageously applied to the large datasets of biological or medical research. The three proposed topic model-derived clustering methods, highest probable topic assignment, feature selection and feature extraction, yield clustering improvements for the three different data types. Clusters more efficaciously represent truthful groupings and subgroupings in the data than traditional methods, suggesting

  4. Laser treatment of medical skin disease in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. LaRosa, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Laser treatment is a relatively new and increasingly popular modality for the treatment of many dermatologic conditions. A number of conditions that predominantly occur in women and that have a paucity of effective treatments include rosacea, connective tissue disease, melasma, nevus of Ota, lichen sclerosus (LS, notalgia paresthetica and macular amyloidosis, and syringomas. Laser therapy is an important option for the treatment of patients with these conditions. This article will review the body of literature that exists for the laser treatment of women with these medical conditions.

  5. How feedback biases give ineffective medical treatments a good reputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barra, Mícheál; Eriksson, Kimmo; Strimling, Pontus

    2014-08-21

    Medical treatments with no direct effect (like homeopathy) or that cause harm (like bloodletting) are common across cultures and throughout history. How do such treatments spread and persist? Most medical treatments result in a range of outcomes: some people improve while others deteriorate. If the people who improve are more inclined to tell others about their experiences than the people who deteriorate, ineffective or even harmful treatments can maintain a good reputation. The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that positive outcomes are overrepresented in online medical product reviews, to examine if this reputational distortion is large enough to bias people's decisions, and to explore the implications of this bias for the cultural evolution of medical treatments. We compared outcomes of weight loss treatments and fertility treatments in clinical trials to outcomes reported in 1901 reviews on Amazon. Then, in a series of experiments, we evaluated people's choice of weight loss diet after reading different reviews. Finally, a mathematical model was used to examine if this bias could result in less effective treatments having a better reputation than more effective treatments. Data are consistent with the hypothesis that people with better outcomes are more inclined to write reviews. After 6 months on the diet, 93% (64/69) of online reviewers reported a weight loss of 10 kg or more while just 27% (19/71) of clinical trial participants experienced this level of weight change. A similar positive distortion was found in fertility treatment reviews. In a series of experiments, we show that people are more inclined to begin a diet with many positive reviews, than a diet with reviews that are representative of the diet's true effect. A mathematical model of medical cultural evolution shows that the size of the positive distortion critically depends on the shape of the outcome distribution. Online reviews overestimate the benefits of medical treatments

  6. Postextraction alveolar ridge preservation: biological basis and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagni, Giorgio; Pellegrini, Gaia; Giannobile, William V; Rasperini, Giulio

    2012-01-01

    Following tooth extraction, the alveolar ridge undergoes an inevitable remodeling process that influences implant therapy of the edentulous area. Socket grafting is a commonly adopted therapy for the preservation of alveolar bone structures in combination or not with immediate implant placement although the biological bases lying behind this treatment modality are not fully understood and often misinterpreted. This review is intended to clarify the literature support to socket grafting in order to provide practitioners with valid tools to make a conscious decision of when and why to recommend this therapy.

  7. Treatment of Tehran refinery wastewater using rotating biological contactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, Masoud; Mirsajadi, Hassan; Ganjidoust, Hossien [Tarbeyat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Environmental Engineering Dept.

    1993-12-31

    Tehran Refinery is a large plant which produces several petroleum products. The wastewaters are generated from several different refinery processes and units. Because of the wastewaters uniqueness they need to be treated in each specific plant. Currently, an activated sludge system is the main biological wastewater treatment process in Tehran refinery plant. A study was initiated in order to find a more suitable and reliable process which can produce a better treated effluent which might, in case the process be successful, be reused for irrigation lands. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Pharmaceutical wastewater treatment by internal micro-electrolysis--coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kangle; Liu, Suiqing; Zhang, Qiang; He, Yiliang

    2009-12-01

    Treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater by the combined process of internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation, biological treatment and activated carbon adsorption was studied. Internal micro-electrolysis and coagulation served as the pretreatment for the wastewater before biological treatment to reduce the contaminants' toxicity to microbes and improve the biodegradability of wastewater to guarantee the smooth operation of the biological process. Biological treatment was the main body of the whole process which took an unparalleled role in removing COD (chemical oxygen demand). Activated carbon adsorption was adopted as the post-treatment process to further remove the remaining non-biodegradable particles. Results showed that the removal rates of COD and S2- (sulphide ion) by pretreatment were 66.9% and 98.9%, respectively, and the biodegradability, as measured by the ratio of biodegradable COD to initial COD, of the wastewater was greatly improved from 0.16 +/- 0.02 to 0.41 +/- 0.02. The overall removal rate of COD in the wastewater achieved by this combined treatment process was up to 96%, and the effluent COD met the Chinese tertiary discharge standard (GB 8978-1996).

  9. Noncompliance with Medical Regimen in Haemodialysis Treatment: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Theofilou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients undergoing haemodialysis treatment have a high burden of disease (particularly cardiovascular comorbidities affecting their quality of life and dramatically shortening life expectancy. Effective chronic kidney disease (CKD control requires regular preventive medication and a response to that medication. Poor receptiveness to CKD medication can be related to individual variability in the dose needed to achieve a response, as well as to low-adherent behaviour in relation to the CKD medication regimen. Some patients, though not many, according to studies' findings, abuse the medical regimen as a result of suicidal tendencies. The present case gave us the opportunity to consider the causes and clinical findings and review the specific psychological interventions for patients with CKD.

  10. Biological rhythms and melatonin in mood disorders and their treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfumey, Laurence; Mongeau, Raymond; Hamon, Michel

    2013-05-01

    Affective disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorders and seasonal affective disorders have been described as alterations of various neuronal systems. In addition to the classical monoaminergic hypotheses that have been long proposed to explain the pathophysiology of these disorders, a strong association between circadian rhythms and mood regulation has been suggested in the light of several clinical and preclinical findings. In this review, we summarize the different hypotheses on pathophysiology mechanisms underlying depressive disorders and put a special emphasis on the alterations of melatonin secretion and associated changes in biological rhythms that characterize mood disorders. Causal relationships between alterations in circadian rhythms and mood disorders are strongly supported by the antidepressant efficacy of innovative pharmacological treatments aimed at resynchronizing endogenous rhythms in depressed patients. Genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors generating desynchronization between endogenous biological rhythms and exogenous rhythms driven by environmental and societal constraints are very probably involved in the vulnerability to mood disorders. Further investigations of the molecular/cellular bases of the relationships between stress axis dysfunctions, endogenous biological rhythm dysregulations and associated functional and anatomical brain alterations should allow important progress in the knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms of affective disorders and the downstream development of innovative, more effective and better tolerated, therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomarkers in anal cancer: from biological understanding to stratified treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Goh, Vicky; Sebag-Montefiore, David; Gilbert, Duncan C

    2017-01-17

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the anus and anal canal represent a model of a cancer and perhaps the first where level 1 evidence supported primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in treating locoregional disease with curative intent. The majority of tumours are associated with infection with oncogenic subtypes of human papilloma virus and this plays a significant role in their sensitivity to treatment. However, not all tumours are cured with CRT and there remain opportunities to improve outcomes in terms of oncological control and also reducing late toxicities. Understanding the biology of ASCC promises to allow a more personalised approach to treatment, with the development and validation of a range of biomarkers and associated techniques that are the focus of this review.

  12. Strategy on biological evaluation for biodegradable/absorbable materials and medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chenghu; Luo, Hongyu; Wan, Min; Hou, Li; Wang, Xin; Shi, Yanping

    2018-01-01

    During the last two decades, biodegradable/absorbable materials which have many benefits over conventional implants are being sought in clinical practices. However, to date, it still remains obscure for us to perform full physic-chemical characterization and biological risk assessment for these materials and related devices due to their complex design and coherent processing. In this review, based on the art of knowledge for biodegradable/absorbable materials and biological risk assessment, we demonstrated some promising strategies to establish and improve the current biological evaluation systems for these biodegradable/absorbable materials and related medical devices.

  13. Biological treatment options for consolidated tailings release waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, C.P.; Nix, P.G.; Sander, B. [EVS Environment Consultants, North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Knezevic, Z.

    1995-12-31

    Suncor Inc., Oil Sands Group, operates a large oil sands mining and extraction operation in northeastern Alberta. The extraction plant produces large volumes of a tailings slurry which resists dewatering and treatment, and is toxic to aquatic organisms. Consolidated tailings (CT) technology is used to treat tailings by either acid/lime or gypsum and enhances the possibility of treating residual fine tails in a ``dry`` land reclamation scenario and treating the release water in a wastewater treatment reclamation scenario. The objective was to assess the treatability of CT release water (i.e., the reduction of acute and chronic toxicities to trout, Ceriodaphnia, and bacteria) in bench-scale biological treatment systems. Microtox{reg_sign} IC20 test showed complete detoxification for the gypsum CT release water within 3 to 5 weeks compared with little reduction in toxicity for dyke drainage. Acute toxicity (fish) and chronic toxicity (Ceriodaphnia, bacterial) was removed from both CT release waters. Phosphate and aeration enhanced detoxification rates. Concentrations of naphthenic acids (an organic toxicant) were not reduced, but levels of dissolved organic compounds decreased faster than was the case for dyke drainage water, indicating that some of the organic compounds in both acid/lime and gypsum CT waters were more biodegradable. There was a pattern of increasing toxicity for dyke drainage water which confirmed observations during field-scale testing in the constructed wetlands and which was not observed for CT release waters. Acid/lime and gypsum CT water can be treated biologically in either an aeration pond, constructed wetlands, or a combination of both thereby avoiding the expense of long-term storage and/or conventional waste treatment systems.

  14. Kinetic coefficients for the biological treatment of tannery wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.

    2008-01-01

    Determination of kinetic coefficients for a particular wastewater is imperative for the rational design of biological treatment-facilities. The present study was undertaken with the objective of finding out kinetic coefficients for tannery wastewater. A bench-scale model of aerated lagoon, consisting of an aeration tank and final clarifier, was use to conduct the studies. The model was operated continuously for 96 days, by varying the detention times from 3 to 9 days. Influent for the aerated lagoon was settled tannery wastewater. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of the influent and effluent and the mixed-liquor suspended solids (MLSS) of aeration tank were determined at various detention-times so as to generate data for kinetic coefficients. The kinetic coefficients k, Ks, Y and Ed were found to be 3.125 day/sup -1/, 488 mg/L, 0.64 and 0.035 day/sup -1/ respectively. Overall rate-constant of BOD, removal 'K' was also determined and was found to be 1.43 day/sup -1/. Kinetic coefficients were determined, at mean reactor-temperature of 30.2 degree C. These coefficients may be utilized for the design of biological-treatment facilities for tannery wastewater. (author)

  15. Conditions and technologies of biological wastewater treatment in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardy, G M; Bakos, V; Jobbágy, A

    2012-01-01

    A survey has been carried out involving 55 Hungarian wastewater treatment plants in order to evaluate the wastewater quality, the applied technologies and the resultant problems. Characteristically the treatment temperature is very wide-ranging from less than 10 °C to higher than 26 °C. Influent quality proved to be very variable regarding both the organic matter (typical COD concentration range 600-1,200 mg l(-1)) and the nitrogen content (typical NH(4)-N concentration range 40-80 mg l(-1)). As a consequence, significant differences have been found in the carbon availability for denitrification from site to site. Forty two percent of the influents proved to lack an appropriate carbon source. As a consequence of carbon deficiency as well as technologies designed and/or operated with non-efficient denitrification, rising sludge in the secondary clarifiers typically occurs especially in summer. In case studies, application of intermittent aeration, low DO reactors, biofilters and anammox processes have been evaluated, as different biological nitrogen removal technologies. With low carbon source availability, favoring denitrification over enhanced biological phosphorus removal has led to an improved nitrogen removal.

  16. Medical tourism: A snapshot of evidence on treatment abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Neil; Horsfall, Daniel; Hanefeld, Johanna

    2016-06-01

    The scoping review focuses on medical tourism, whereby consumers elect to travel across borders or to overseas destinations to receive their treatment. Such treatments include: cosmetic and dental surgery; cardio, orthopaedic and bariatric surgery; IVF; and organ and tissue transplantation. The review assesses the emerging focus of research evidence post-2010. The narrative review traverses discussion on medical tourism definitions and flows, consumer choice, clinical quality and outcomes, and health systems implications. Attention is drawn to gaps in the research evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mental illness and the right to refuse lifesaving medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    The legal and ethical debate surrounding the right of mentally ill patients to refuse life saving medical treatment is one area in the spectrum of patient rights that the medical community has failed to fully explore. To better investigate this concept, it is important to first focus on the history of the right to refuse treatment for all patients. Case studies then explore arguments on both sides of the issue, and focus discussion on the inadequacies of the current standards, a need for further study and universal testing principles in order to provide all patients with the rights they deserve.

  18. Medical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karem Parejo-Gallardo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAHS seeks to solve the signs and symptoms related to the disease, as well as to reduce the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI and the desaturations, to achieve a decrease of associated risks and comorbidities. However, this disease requires long-term treatment, with combined therapies developed by a multidisciplinary team. Medical treatment should be performed on all patients, even if additional therapies are necessary. In addition, this syndrome may be associated with other diseases that need specific treatment.

  19. [Safe use of biological therapies for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Cruz, Bóris Afonso; Brenol, Claiton Viegas; Pollak, Daniel Feldman; Pinheiro, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Pereira, Ivânio Alves; Carvalho, Jozélio Freire de; Bertolo, Manoel Barros; Pinheiro, Marcelo de Medeiros; Freitas, Max Victor Carioca; Silva, Nilzio Antônio da; Louzada-Júnior, Paulo; Sampaio-Barros, Percival Degrava; Giorgi, Rina Dalva Neubarth; Lima, Rodrigo Aires Corrêa; Andrade, Luis Eduardo Coelho

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of autoimmune rheumatic diseases has gradually improved over the last half century, which has been expanded with the contribution of biological therapies or immunobiopharmaceuticals. However, we must be alert to the possibilities of undesirable effects from the use of this class of medications. The Brazilian Society of Rheumatology (Sociedade Brasileira de Reumatologia/SBR) produced a document based on a comprehensive literature review on the safety aspects of this class of drugs, specifically with regard to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthritides. The themes selected by the participating experts, on which considerations have been established as the safe use of biological drugs, were: occurrence of infections (bacterial, viral, tuberculosis), infusion reactions, hematological, neurological, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular reactions, neoplastic events (solid tumors and hematologic neoplasms), immunogenicity, other occurrences and vaccine response. For didactic reasons, we opted by elaborating a summary of safety assessment in accordance with the previous themes, by drug class/mechanism of action (tumor necrosis factor antagonists, T-cell co-stimulation blockers, B-cell depletors and interleukin-6 receptor blockers). Separately, general considerations on safety in the use of biologicals in pregnancy and lactation were proposed. This review seeks to provide a broad and balanced update of that clinical and experimental experience pooled over the last two decades of use of immunobiological drugs for RA and spondyloarthritides treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Elemental microanalysis of biological and medical specimens with a scanning proton microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legge, G.J.F.; Mazzolini, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    The scanning proton microprobe is shown to be a sensitive instrument for elemental microanalysis of cells and tissues in biological and medical specimens. The preparation of specimens and their behaviour under irradiation are crucial and the application of quantitative scanning analysis to the monitoring of such problems is illustrated

  1. [Conservative treatment of cervical radiculopathy with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattozzi, I

    2015-02-01

    Cervical radiculopathy is a mixed pain syndrome characterized by neuropathic, skeletal and myofascial pain. This condition is frequently found in developed countries and is a significant source of disability and a reason for frequent medical consultation. In our Pain Therapy Centre, cervical radiculopathy is initially treated with bi-weekly cycles of mesotherapy coupled, at least 15 days later, with physiotherapy to reach the complete mobilization of cervical spine. Cervical radiculopathy is a localized neuro-pathic pain and in agreement with international guidelines, we checked if patients treated topically with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster may benefit in improving pain management and in reducing the time necessary to start physiotherapy. A retrospective study was carried out on 60 patients, of which 30 were treated with mesotherapy and 30 were treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster. Data for a total of 30 days observation were collected from the patient medical records. In particular, besides medical history, intensity of pain, intensity of allodynia and pain were considered. For all analyzed parameters, both treatments were effective, but patients treated with 5% lidocaine medicated plaster showed faster control of the painful symptoms, an essential condition for an earlier rehabilitative treatment.

  2. The importance of physics to progress in medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Andreas; Cochran, Sandy; Prentice, Paul; MacDonald, Michael P; Wang, Zhigang; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2012-04-21

    Physics in therapy is as diverse as it is substantial. In this review, we highlight the role of physics--occasionally transitioning into engineering--through discussion of several established and emerging treatments. We specifically address minimal access surgery, ultrasound, photonics, and interventional MRI, identifying areas in which complementarity is being exploited. We also discuss some of the fundamental physical principles involved in the application of each treatment to medical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Clinical presentation and treatment of medication-overuse headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Louise Ninett; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Munksgaard, Signe Bruun; Bendtsen, Lars; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2016-09-26

    Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a disabling, costly and often overlooked disorder. The prevalence in Denmark is 1.8% equivalent to 80.000-100.000 adults. The aim is to increase awareness of clinical presentation and treatment options for patients with MOH when encountered in primary care setting, exemplified by three representative cases. Clinical presentation of MOH and three treatment approaches are discussed. MOH is a chronic disorder which is preventable and treatable.

  4. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, S.H. (ed.)

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group.

  5. Division of Biological and Medical Research research summary 1984-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.H.

    1985-08-01

    The Division of Biological and Medical Research at Argonne National Laboratory conducts multidisciplinary research aimed at defining the biological and medical hazards to man from energy technologies and new energy options. These technically oriented studies have a strong base in fundamental research in a variety of scientific disciplines, including molecular and cellular biology, biophysics, genetics, radiobiology, pharmacology, biochemistry, chemistry, environmental toxicology, and epidemiology. This research summary is organized into six parts. The first five parts reflect the Divisional structure and contain the scientific program chapters, which summarize the activities of the individual groups during the calendar year 1984 and the first half of 1985. To provide better continuity and perspective, previous work is sometimes briefly described. Although the summaries are short, efforts have been made to indicate the range of research activities for each group

  6. Liability for damage caused by medical X-ray treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A case of liability for damage caused by X-ray medical treatment was recently brought before the courts in Norway. Following a mistake by the physician handling the X-ray apparatus the plaintiff had received an overdose of radiation on her nose and a lengthy and expensive plastic surgery treatment had been required to repair the damage. The local court of Aalesund ruled in April 1975 that the physician concerned had committed a fault but could not be accused of gross negligence or gross fault in view of Norwegian case law on medical liability. Therefore the plaintiff obtained compensation for her medical expenses but was refused compensation for non-material damage (disfigurement and pretium doloris). (NEA) [fr

  7. 'No one may be refused emergency medical treatment' – ethical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enshrined in section 27(3) of the Constitution of South Africa is the right that 'no one may be refused emergency medical treatment'. While this universal human right is altruistic in its simplistic meaning and appears to be in tune with the requirement of freedom, equality and dignity for all in South Africa, in-depth analysis ...

  8. Psychotropic medication during endocrine treatment for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bock, G.H.; Musters, R.F.; Bos, H.J.; Schroder, C.P.; Mourits, M.J.; de Jong-van den Berg, [No Value

    Psychological problems are frequently mentioned in women treated for breast cancer in whom depression is mentioned as the most common disorder. The aim was to study the prescription of psychotropic medication in women with endocrine treatment for breast cancer in women in our prospective and

  9. Teaching adjuvant endocrine breast cancer treatment to medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M. de; Fluit, C.R.M.G.; Timmer-Bonte, J.N.H.; Ottevanger, P.B.; Verhagen, C.A.H.H.V.M.; Klaassen, T.; Laarhoven, H.W.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: In undergraduate medical education, students are supposed to acquire knowledge and understanding about the basic principles of adjuvant breast cancer treatment. The best education method in this context is unknown. In this randomised study we assessed the effect of designing a patient

  10. Teaching adjuvant endocrine breast cancer treatment to medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Visser, M.; Fluit, C.; Timmer-Bonte, J.; Ottevanger, P.; Verhagen, C.; Klaassen, T.; van Laarhoven, H. W. M.

    2013-01-01

    In undergraduate medical education, students are supposed to acquire knowledge and understanding about the basic principles of adjuvant breast cancer treatment. The best education method in this context is unknown. In this randomised study we assessed the effect of designing a patient education

  11. Emergency medical treatment and 'do not resuscitate' orders: When ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the agreement of the parents, in respect of a 23-year-old patient who was not in a PVS but was born with severe malformation of the brain, ... The Constitution and the National Health Act provide that nobody shall be refused emergency medical treatment. 'Do not resuscitate'. (DNR) orders require that certain patients should ...

  12. Medical cost of Lassa fever treatment in Irrua Specialist Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study sought to estimate the direct medical cost of Lassa fever treatment on patients in South-South Nigeria. All the 73 confirmed Lassa fever cases admitted in the isolation ward of the Institute Of Lassa Fever Research and Control, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) Irrua, in Edo State, Nigeria, ...

  13. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  14. Biologic treatment response among adults with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register

    Science.gov (United States)

    McErlane, Flora; Foster, Helen E.; Davies, Rebecca; Lunt, Mark; Watson, Kath D.; Symmons, Deborah P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the use of and response to biologic therapies commenced in adults with JIA. Methods. Patients with arthritis onset Biologics Register for rheumatoid arthritis (BSRBR-RA) and stratified into ILAR JIA subtypes. Patterns of biologic use and treatment persistence were explored, with disability levels (HAQ) and remission rates [28-Joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28)] evaluated at 6 and 12 months. Results. Arthritis with an onset of biologic commencement was 31 years [interquartile range (IQR) 23–39] and 76% were female. The biologic therapies were etanercept (49%), infliximab (28%), adalimumab (22%) and anakinra (1%). Fifty per cent of patients received more than one biologic during follow-up (2 agents, n = 64; ≥3 agents, n = 49). Treatment persistence at 1 year was 78% (95% CI 71%, 82%), falling to 42% (95% CI 34%, 49%) at 5 years. Both the HAQ and DAS28 improved significantly at 6 months, with 21% and 28% of patients in remission (DAS28 biologic use in a national cohort of adults with JIA. With no national guidance currently available in this area, the choice of first biologic was inconsistent, although treatment outcomes were good. These data confirm that biologic therapies are an important treatment option in adults with active JIA in adulthood. PMID:23873820

  15. Nuclear, biological and chemical warfare. Part I: Medical aspects of nuclear warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasthuri, A S; Pradhan, A B; Dham, S K; Bhalla, I P; Paul, J S

    1990-04-01

    Casualties in earlier wars were due much more to diseases than to weapons. Mention has been made in history of the use of biological agents in warfare, to deny the enemy food and water and to cause disease. In the first world war chemical agents were used to cause mass casualties. Nuclear weapons were introduced in the second world war. Several countries are now involved in developing nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems, for the mass annihilation of human beings, animals and plants, and to destroy the economy of their enemies. Recently, natural calamities and accidents in nuclear, chemical and biological laboratories and industries have caused mass instantaneous deaths in civilian population. The effects of future wars will not be restricted to uniformed persons. It is time that physicians become aware of the destructive potential of these weapons. Awareness, immediate protective measures and first aid will save a large number of persons. This series of articles will outline the medical aspects of nuclear, biological and chemical weapon systems in three parts. Part I will deal with the biological effects of a nuclear explosion. The short and long term effects due to blast, heat and associated radiation are highlighted. In Part II, the role of biological agents which cause commoner or new disease patterns is mentioned. Some of the accidents from biological warfare laboratories are a testimony to its potential deleterious effects. Part III deals with medical aspects of chemical warfare agents, which in view of their mass effects can overwhelm the existing medical resources, both civilian and military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. The economic burden of overseas medical treatment: a cross sectional study of Maldivian medical travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzana, Mariyam; Mills, Anne; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2015-09-26

    Access to tertiary care is a problem common to many small states, especially island ones. Although medical treatment overseas (MTO) may result in cost savings to high income countries, it can be a relatively high cost for low and middle income source countries. The purpose of this study was to estimate the costs of overseas medical treatment incurred by the households of medical travelers from Maldives and assess the burden of medical treatment overseas on the government and on households. A survey was conducted of inbound Maldivian medical travelers who traveled during the period June - December 2013. Participants were stratified by the source of funds used for treatment abroad. Three hundred and forty four government-subsidized and 471 privately funded Maldivians were interviewed. Self-reported data on the utilization and expenses incurred during the last visit abroad, including both expenses covered by the government and borne by the household, were collected using a researcher administered structured questionnaire. The median per capita total cost of a medical travel episode amounted to $1,470. Forty eight percent of the cost was spent on travel. Twenty six percent was spent on direct medical costs, which were markedly higher among patients subsidized by the government than self-funded patients (p = consumer spending in the local economy and catastrophic health spending by households. Geographical inequality in access to public funds for MTO and the disproportionate travel cost borne by travelers from rural areas need to be addressed in the existing Universal Health Care programme to minimize the burden of MTO. Increased investment to create more capacity in the domestic health infrastructure either through government, private or by foreign direct investment can help divert the outflow on MTO.

  17. Biological Treatment of Dairy Wastewater by Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohseni-Bandpi, H Bazari

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A bench scale aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR was investigated to treat the wastewater from an industrial milk factory. The reactor was constructed from plexi glass material and its volume was 22.5 L. The reactor was supplied with oxygen by fine bubble air diffuser. The reactor was fed with milk factory and synthetic wastewater under different operational conditions. The COD removal efficiency was achieved more than 90%, whereas COD concentration varied from 400 to 2500 mg/l. The optimum dissolved oxygen in the reactor was 2 to 3 mg/l and MLVSS was around 3000 mg/l. Easy operation, low cost and minimal sludge bulking condition make the SBR system an interesting option for the biological medium strength industrial wastewater treatment. The study demonstrated the capability of aerobic SBR for COD removal from dairy industrial wastewater.

  18. Benchmarking Biological Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Gernaey, Krist; Jeppsson, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of different model assumptions when describing biological nutrient removal (BNR) by the activated sludge models (ASM) 1, 2d & 3. The performance of a nitrogen removal (WWTP1) and a combined nitrogen and phosphorus removal (WWTP2) benchmark wastewater treatment plant...... was compared for a series of model assumptions. Three different model approaches describing BNR are considered. In the reference case, the original model implementations are used to simulate WWTP1 (ASM1 & 3) and WWTP2 (ASM2d). The second set of models includes a reactive settler, which extends the description...... of the nonreactive TSS sedimentation and transport in the reference case with the full set of ASM processes. Finally, the third set of models is based on including electron acceptor dependency of biomass decay rates for ASM1 (WWTP1) and ASM2d (WWTP2). The results show that incorporation of a reactive settler: 1...

  19. Biological control and management of the detoxication wastewater treatment technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topalova Yana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Detoxication technologies require the combination of theoretical and practical knowledge of xenobiotic biodegradation, wastewater treatment technologies, and management rules. The purpose of this complicated combination is to propose specialized strategies for detoxication, based on lab- and pilot-scale modeling. These strategies include preliminary created algorithms for preventing the risk of water pollution and sediments. The technologies and algorithms are essentially important outcome, applied in the textile, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, woodtreating, and oiltreating industries. In this paper four rehabilitation technologies for pretreatment of water contaminated by pentachlorophenol (PCP have been developed in the frame of the European and Bulgarian National projects. Emphasize is put on the biological systems and their potential of detoxication management. The light and transmission electron microscopy of the reconstructed activated sludges the microbial, kinetic and enzymological indicators are presented and approved as critical points in the biocontrol.

  20. Surface treatments for biological, chemical and physical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Karaman, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    A step-by-step guide to the topic with a mix of theory and practice in the fields of biology, chemistry and physics. Straightforward and well-structured, the first chapter introduces fundamental aspects of surface treatments, after which examples from nature are given. Subsequent chapters discuss various methods to surface modification, including chemical and physical approaches, followed by the characterization of the functionalized surfaces. Applications discussed include the lotus effect, diffusion barriers, enzyme immobilization and catalysis. Finally, the book concludes with a look at future technology advances. Throughout the text, tutorials and case studies are used for training purposes to grant a deeper understanding of the topic, resulting in an essential reference for students as well as for experienced engineers in R&D.

  1. Performance of IFAS wastewater treatment processes for biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwiriyarat, T; Randall, C W

    2005-10-01

    Integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS) is a promising process for the enhancement of nitrification and denitrification in conventional activated sludge systems that need to be upgraded for biological nutrient removal (BNR), particularly when they have space limitations or need modifications that will require large monetary expenses. Several studies have reported successful implementations of IFAS at temperate zone wastewater treatment facilities, typically by placement of fixed film media into aerobic zones. However, nearly all of the implementations have not included enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) in the upgraded systems. This is possibly because the treatment plants have been operated at low mixed liquor mean cell residence times (MCRTs), and EBPR would wash out of the systems at the low temperatures encountered, making it difficult to maintain EBPR. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the incorporation of EBPR into IFAS systems, and study the interactions between the fixed biomass and the mixed liquor suspended solids with respect to substrate competition and nutrient removal efficiencies. Three pilot-scale UCT/VIP configuration systems were used, one as a control and the other two with Bioweb media integrated into some of the anoxic and aerobic reactors. The systems were operated at different MCRTs, and influent COD/TP ratios, and with split influent flows. The experimental results confirmed that EBPR could be incorporated successfully into IFAS systems, but the redistribution of biomass resulting from the integration of fixed film media, and the competition of organic substrate between EBPR and denitrification would affect performances. Also, the integration of fixed film media into the anoxic reactors affected performances differently from media in aerobic reactors.

  2. Consent and medical treatment: The legal paradigm in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash V Nandimath

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The element of consent is one of the critical issues in medical treatment. The patient has a legal right to autonomy and self determination enshrined within Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. He can refuse treatment except in an emergency situation where the doctor need not get consent for treatment. The consent obtained should be legally valid. A doctor who treats without valid consent will be liable under the tort and criminal laws. The law presumes the doctor to be in a dominating position, hence the consent should be obtained after providing all the necessary information.

  3. Consent and medical treatment: The legal paradigm in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandimath, Omprakash V

    2009-07-01

    The element of consent is one of the critical issues in medical treatment. The patient has a legal right to autonomy and self determination enshrined within Article 21 of the Indian Constitution. He can refuse treatment except in an emergency situation where the doctor need not get consent for treatment. The consent obtained should be legally valid. A doctor who treats without valid consent will be liable under the tort and criminal laws. The law presumes the doctor to be in a dominating position, hence the consent should be obtained after providing all the necessary information.

  4. Choosing the right medication for the treatment of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinati, Helen M; Rabinowitz, Amanda R

    2006-10-01

    In the past decade, scientists have made important progress toward understanding the neurobiology underlying an alcohol disorder. This knowledge has led to the development of promising pharmacotherapies that target the neural pathways involved in the brain's reward center in such a way that the usual treatment response (via counseling) is substantially improved upon. There are now four US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmacotherapies for the treatment of alcohol dependence: disulfiram (Antabuse; Odyssey Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ), oral naltrexone (ReVia; Barr Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Pomona, NY), acamprosate (Campral; Forest Laboratories, Inc., New York, NY), and, as of April 2006, an extended-release (30-day) injectable suspension formulation of naltrexone (Vivitrol; Alkermes, Inc., Cambridge, MA). Other types of medications (eg, topiramate and quetiapine) are currently under investigation for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Research also has provided insights into best practices for prescribing the available medications. This report reviews the latest innovations in pharmacotherapy for the treatment of alcohol dependence, focusing on FDA-approved medications presently available to the treatment community.

  5. Selection of medical treatment in stable angina pectoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardissino, D; Savonitto, S; Egstrup, K

    1995-01-01

    pectoris. BACKGROUND: The characteristics of anginal symptoms and the results of exercise testing are considered of great importance for selecting medical treatment in patients with chronic stable angina pectoris. However, little information is available on how this first evaluation may be used to select......, the patients were randomly allocated to double-blind treatment for 6 weeks with either metoprolol (Controlled Release, 200 mg once daily) or nifedipine (Retard, 20 mg twice daily) according to a parallel group design. At the end of this period, exercise tests were repeated 1 to 4 h after drug intake. RESULTS....... CONCLUSIONS: The results of a baseline exercise test, but not the characteristics of anginal symptoms, may offer useful information for selecting medical treatment in stable angina pectoris....

  6. Textiles wastewater treatment using anoxic filter bed and biological wriggle bed-ozone biological aerated filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhimin; Zhang, Yugao; Wang, Xiaojun

    2011-02-01

    In this study, the performance of the anoxic filter bed and biological wriggle bed-ozone biological aerated filter (AFB-BWB-O(3)-BAF) process treating real textile dyeing wastewater was investigated. After more than 2 month process operation, the average effluent COD concentration of the AFB, BWB, O(3)-BAF were 704.8 mg/L, 294.6 mg/L and 128.8 mg/L, with HRT being 8.1-7.7h, 9.2h and 5.45 h, respectively. Results showed that the effluent COD concentration of the AFB decreased with new carriers added and the average removal COD efficiency was 20.2%. During operation conditions, HRT of the BWB and O(3)-BAF was increased, resulting in a decrease in the effluent COD concentration. However, on increasing the HRT, the COD reduction capability expressed by the unit carrier COD removal loading of the BWB reactor increased, while that of the O(3)-BAF reactor decreased. This study is a beneficial attempt to utilize the AFB-BWB-O(3)-BAF combine process for textile wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Evolutionary medicine: an introduction. Evolutionary biology, a missing element in medical teaching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swynghedauw, Bernard

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this brief review article is to help to reconcile medicine with evolutionary biology, a subject that should be taught in medical school. Evolutionary medicine takes the view that contemporary ills are related to an incompatibility between the environment in which humans currently live and their genomes, which have been shaped by diferent environmental conditions during biological evolution. Human activity has recently induced acute environmental modifications that have profoundly changed the medical landscape. Evolutionary biology is an irreversible, ongoing and discontinuous process characterized by periods of stasis followed by accelerations. Evolutionary biology is determined by genetic mutations, which are selected either by Darwinian selective pressure or randomly by genetic drift. Most medical events result from a genome/environment conflict. Some may be purely genetic, as in monogenic diseases, and others purely environmental, such as traffic accidents. Nevertheless, in most common diseases the clinical landscape is determined by the conflict between these two factors, the genetic elements of which are gradually being unraveled Three examples are examined in depth:--The medical consequences of the greenhouse effect. The absence of excess mortality during recent heat waves suggests that the main determinant of mortality in the 2003 heatwave was heatstroke and old age. The projected long-term effects of global warming call for research on thermolysis, a forgotten branch of physiology.--The hygiene hypothesis postulates that the exponential rise in autoimmune and allergic diseases is linked to lesser exposure to infectious agents, possibly involving counter-regulatory factors such as IL-10.--The recent rise in the incidence of obesity and type 2 diabetes in rich countries can be considered to result from a conflict between a calorie-rich environment and gene variants that control appetite. These variants are currently being identified by genome

  8. Morphine as first medication for treatment of cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz C. Nunes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: the medications used according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization do not promote pain relief in a number of patients with cancer pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of morphine as first medication for the treatment of moderate cancer pain in patients with advanced and/or metastatic disease, as an option to the recommendations of the World Health Organization analgesic ladder. METHOD: sixty patients without opioid therapy, with >18 years of age, were randomized into two groups. G1 patients received medication according to the analgesic ladder and started treatment with non-opioids in the first, weak opioids in the second, and strong opioids in the third step; G2 patients received morphine as first analgesic medication. The efficacy and tolerability of initial use of morphine were evaluated every two weeks for three months. RESULTS: the groups were similar with respect to demographic data. There was no significant difference between the groups regarding pain intensity, quality of life, physical capacity, satisfaction with treatment, need for complementation and dose of morphine. In G1 there was a higher incidence of nausea (p = 0.0088, drowsiness (p = 0.0005, constipation (p = 0.0071 and dizziness (p = 0.0376 in the second visit and drowsiness (p = 0.05 in the third. CONCLUSIONS: the use of morphine as first medication for pain treatment did not promote better analgesic effect than the ladder recommended by World Health Organization, with higher incidence of adverse effects.

  9. 78 FR 23940 - Use of International Standard ISO-10993, “Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ...] Use of International Standard ISO-10993, ``Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation... use of the Office of Device Evaluation (ODE) General Program Memorandum G95-1 entitled ``Use of... guidance document entitled ``Use of International Standard ISO-10993, `Biological Evaluation of Medical...

  10. Biological treatment of colored wastewater by Streptomyces fulvissimus CKS 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntić, A V; Pavlović, M D; Šiler-Marinković, S S; Dimitrijević-Branković, S I

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the biological processes related to the biodegradable potential of growing microbial cells for contaminated water treatment. Thus, the use of the Streptomyces fulvissimus CKS 7 (CKS7) has been evaluated for decolorizing efficiency of a solution containing a cationic triphenylmethane dye, crystal violet. The color reduction was monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopic analysis, through changes in their absorption spectrum and comparing the results with those of the respective controls. It was found that the CKS7 performed well and reached up to 100% effectiveness. The required process parameters have been apparently mild and include the reaction temperature of 27-30 °C, 10% inoculum size, under shaking conditions, whereas the time course of decolorization had been concentration dependent. A possible mechanism for removing dye from the working medium was accomplished in two steps: the binding of the dye on the bacterial cell surface, in addition to the dye biodegradation by the bacterial intracellular enzymes. After one cycle of the complete dye removal, the adapted culture was successfully reused for the same purpose. The phytotoxicity analysis revealed that non-toxic compounds were present in decolorized medium, indicating that the CKS7 bacteria seem to be a promising application for contaminated water treatment.

  11. Preliminary Study of Greywater Treatment through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ahmed Pathan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the greywater vary from country to country and it depends upon the cultural and social behavior of the respective country. There was a considerable need to characterize and recycle the greywater. In this regard greywater was separated from the black water and analyzed for various physiochemical parameters. Among various greywater recycling treatment technologies, RBC (Rotating Biological Contactor is more effective treatment technique in reducing COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand and organic matters from the greywater. But this technology was not applied and tested in Pakistan. There was extensive need to investigate the RBC technology for greywater recycling at small scale before applying at mass scale. To treat the greywater, a single-stage RBC simulator was designed and developed at laboratory scale. An electric motor equipped with gear box to control the rotations of the disks was mounted on the tank. The simulator was run at the rate of 1.7 rpm. The disc area of the RBC was immersed about 40% in the greywater. Water samples were collected at each HRT (Hydraulic Retention Time and analyzed for the parameters such as pH, conductivity, TDS (Total Dissolved Solids, salinity, BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand, COD and suspended solids by using standard methods. The results are encouraging with percentage removal of BOD5 and COD being 53 and 60% respectively.

  12. Optimization of Fenton-biological treatment scheme for the treatment of aqueous dye solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Bharat; Chaudhari, Sanjeev

    2007-09-05

    Degradation of dyes especially, azo dyes are difficult due to their complex structure and synthetic nature. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the Fenton-biological (aerobic) treatment train for decolorization and mineralization of azo dyes viz. Reactive Black 5 (RB5), Reactive Blue 13 (RB13) and Acid Orange 7 (AO7). The objective of Fenton treatment was only to decolorize the dyes (breakage of -NN-), as it was considered that after breakage of -NN-, the dyes will become amenable to biodegradation and can be further treated in aerobic biological system. Hence studies were carried out to optimize the lower Fenton's doses for decolorization of dyes. The optimum doses for decolorization (>95%) of all the three dyes were found out to be 15 mgL(-1) of Fe(2+) (0.27 mM) and 50 mgL(-1) (1.47 mM) of H(2)O(2) dose at optimum pH 3. Further it was also investigated that at lower doses, the main problem of Fenton process (sludge generation) can also be minimized. Later the mineralization of the dye (removal of aromatic amines) was achieved in the aerobic biological treatment system. Overall reduction of 64, 89 and 75% in the aromatic amines (at 254 nm), 88, 95 and 78% in naphthalene ring associated compounds (near 310 nm) and 49, 89 and 91% reduction in benzene ring associated compounds (near 226 nm) were observed for RB5, RB13 and AO7, respectively. Thus this treatment system seems to be quite effective and economical option for the treatment of recalcitrant compounds like dyes, as the cost in the chemical treatment is considered mainly due to chemicals thus at lower doses the operational cost is saved. Further, as the sludge generation was almost negligible at lower doses, thus the savings in cost of handling and disposal of hazardous sludge also adds to economy of treatment.

  13. [Classical medications in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvnjak, Marko; Bilić, Ante; Barsić, Neven; Tomasić, Vedran; Stojsavljević, Sanja

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases is complex and requires individual approach to every single patient. Traditionally, the approach is based on introduction of so called "classical" medication into the treatment regimen, from ones less potent and with fewer side effects to the ones more toxic but also therapeutically more effective. Aminosalicylates were the first choice of treatment for a long time. However, the role of aminosalicylates is becoming more and more diminished, although they are still the drug of choice in the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Corticosteroids are the therapy of choice in treatment of active IBD for achieving remission in moderate to severe disease. Azathioprine and 6- mercaptopurine belong to a group of thiopurines with an immunomodulatory effect which, in Crohn's disease as well as in ulcerative colitis, primarily have a role in a steroid dependant or steroid refractory type of disease and in maintenance of remission. Lately, early introduction of these medications is proposed to enhance the number of patients that remain in remission. Methotrexate is used for the therapy of active and relapsing Crohn's disease and represents an alternative in patients who do not tolerate or do not respond to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine therapy. Cyclosporine is used in treating steroid refractory ulcerative colitis and in some patients can postpone the need for colectomy. Antibiotics do not have a proven effect on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases and their primary role is to treat septic complications. Classic medications today represent a standard in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases, and the combination of the previously mentioned drugs often has a more potent effect on the course of the disease than any medication on its own and their combination is still an object of investigations and clinical studies.

  14. Treatment patterns, complications, and direct medical costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis in Chinese urban patients: a retrospective claims dataset analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinghu; Liu, Qingjing; Chen, Yi; Gao, Shuangqing; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Yicheng; Chen, Wendong

    2017-01-01

    To describe treatment pattern, complications, and direct medical costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Chinese urban patients. The 2013 China Health Insurance Research Association (CHIRA) urban insurance claims database was used to identify patients with AS. The identified patients were stratified by AS treatments for the comparisons of well established AS-related complications and direct medical costs. Conventional regression analyses adjusted the collected patient baseline characteristics to confirm the impact of treatments on complications and direct medical costs. Of the identified 1299 patients with AS, 18.0% received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), 11.2% received immunosuppressant, 48.2% received NSAID plus immunosuppressant, 4.6% received biologic agents, and 17.9% received medications without indication for AS. Biologic group was associated with the lowest proportion of AS-related complications (8.3%) that was confirmed by multiple logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 0.200, p = .017). The biologic group was also associated with highest direct medical costs (median: RMB = 14,539) that were confirmed by the multiple generalized linear model (coefficient = 1.644, p treatment for AS.

  15. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-01-01

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area

  16. Biological Information Document, Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, J.

    1995-12-31

    This document is intended to act as a baseline source material for risk assessments which can be used in Environmental Assessments and Environmental Impact Statements. The current Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF) does not meet current General Design Criteria for Non-reactor Nuclear Facilities and could be shut down affecting several DOE programs. This Biological Information Document summarizes various biological studies that have been conducted in the vicinity of new Proposed RLWTF site and an Alternative site. The Proposed site is located on Mesita del Buey, a mess top, and the Alternative site is located in Mortandad Canyon. The Proposed Site is devoid of overstory species due to previous disturbance and is dominated by a mixture of grasses, forbs, and scattered low-growing shrubs. Vegetation immediately adjacent to the site is a pinyon-juniper woodland. The Mortandad canyon bottom overstory is dominated by ponderosa pine, willow, and rush. The south-facing slope was dominated by ponderosa pine, mountain mahogany, oak, and muhly. The north-facing slope is dominated by Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and oak. Studies on wildlife species are limited in the vicinity of the proposed project and further studies will be necessary to accurately identify wildlife populations and to what extent they utilize the project area. Some information is provided on invertebrates, amphibians and reptiles, and small mammals. Additional species information from other nearby locations is discussed in detail. Habitat requirements exist in the project area for one federally threatened wildlife species, the peregrine falcon, and one federal candidate species, the spotted bat. However, based on surveys outside of the project area but in similar habitats, these species are not expected to occur in either the Proposed or Alternative RLWTF sites. Habitat Evaluation Procedures were used to evaluate ecological functioning in the project area.

  17. Overriding advance refusals of life-sustaining medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, L; White, Ben; Howar, Michelle

    2006-12-01

    The law recognises the right of a competent adult to make an advance refusal of life-sustaining medical treatment. This right is based on the principle of self-determination which dictates that a competent adult is entitled to make decisions about the kind of treatment he or she wants to receive or not to receive. However, the right to refuse life-sustaining treatment in advance is not unqualified. There are circumstances in which a health professional or a court will be entitled to disregard an advance directive and provide the life-sustaining medical treatment. This intervention is justified on the grounds of the State's interest in preserving life. Although self-determination prevails over the State's interest in life, the courts have held that an adult's wishes need only be respected if the adult has expressed them clearly and there is otherwise no uncertainty. This paper explores in some detail the common law and statutory excuses available to health professionals in Australia who do not wish to comply with directions in an advance directive to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment. At common law, the inquiry revolves around whether the adult intended his or her refusal to apply to the circumstances that have subsequently arisen. The paper considers the different situations in which it might be argued that an adult completed an advance directive but did not intend it to apply, thus permitting a health professional to disregard it. In contrast, the relevant Australian statutes specify a number of excuses that expressly allow a health professional not to follow an advance directive, or prohibit him or her from following it. The paper then compares the common law with those jurisdictions that have enacted legislation and critiques the different excuses available. The paper concludes by asserting that the law generally strikes the correct balance between requiring an advance directive to be followed but not enforcing a direction to refuse life

  18. [Medical evaluation prior to fertility treatment--time for reconsideration?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakir, Segev; Riskin-Mashiah, Shlomit; Lavie, Ofer; Auslender, Ron

    2011-11-01

    The aim of modern obstetrics is to bring a healthy child to a healthy mother. Preconception counseling is a form of preventive medicine that consists of three main components: risk assessment, health promotion and intervention, in order to improve pregnancy outcome. A large proportion of women, who need assisted reproductive technologies (ART) due to infertility, are older than the average pregnant women. The risk for chronic maternal disease such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, chronic hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and malignant disease greatly increases with maternal age. Chronic maternal illness might increase the risk of in vitro fertilization procedure and is also associated with increased obstetrics risk and even death. A previous study has shown that most maternal deaths in the USA, due to chronic maternal disease, are potentially preventable through better medical care from preconception, yet most studies that deal with preconception care in infertility patients only address the problems of infertility. Therefore, similar to the recommendations of the American Heart Association before non-competitive physical activity, and the American Society of Anesthesiologists before an elective surgery, we suggest a pre-ART medical assessment. Our objective is to outline the potential risks for older women who undergo ART procedure and potentially, pregnancy, and to characterize guidelines for evaluation prior to enrolling them in ART programs. Pre-ART assessment should include a thorough medical questionnaire and medical examination. Appropriate treatment for women with medical conditions prior to ART procedure and optimizing disease control in preparation for pregnancy including changing a potentially teratogenic treatment, can improve women's health status prior to pregnancy and reduce pregnancy related complications. At the end of the evaluation, and before ART treatment, the women should be consulted, based on the results of tests, on the possible risks

  19. Proceedings of the 8. Mediterranean Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing (Medicon '98)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofides, Stelios; Pattichis, Constantinos; Schizas, Christos; Keravnou-Papailiou, Elpida; Kaplanis, Prodromos; Spyros, Spyrou; Christodoulides, George; Theodoulou, Yiannis

    1998-01-01

    Medicon '98 is the eighth in the series of regional meetings of the International Federation of Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE) in the Mediterranean. The goal of Medicon '98 is to provide updated information on the state of the art on medical and biological engineering and computing. Medicon '98 was held in Lemesos, Cyprus, between 14-17 June, 1998. The full papers of the proceedings were published on CD and consisted of 190 invited and submitted papers. A book of abstracts was also published in paper form and was available to all the participants. Twenty seven papers fall within the scope of INIS and are dealing with Nuclear Medicine,Computerized Tomography, Radiology, Radiotherapy, Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Personnel Dosimetry (eds)

  20. BRUCELLA ENDOCARDITIS IN IRANIAN PATIENTS: COMBINED MEDICAL AND SURGICAL TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Nematipour

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available Brucella endocarditis is a Tare but serious complication ofbrucellosis and is the main cause of death reuuedto thisdisease: Itis not rare in the endemic areas and aaualiy accounts for up to 8~lO% ofendocarditis infections: We report seven adult cases of brucella endocarditis in lmam-Khorneini Hospual: Contrary to previous independent reports, female patients were not rare in this study and accountedfor three out ofseven. Four patients were cared for by combined medical and surgical treatment and were recovered Three of the patients that did not receive the combined theraPl could not he saved This report confirms the necessity of prompt combined medical and surgical treatment ofbrucella endocarditis.

  1. [Cirurgia Taurina--emergency medical treatment of bullfighters in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, V; Lehmann, J

    2003-08-01

    A considerable risk of life-threatening injury is inherent to bullfighting. Thus, a unique form of emergency treatment has evolved over recent decades of organized bull-fighting. Today bullfight arenas in larger cities are equipped with emergency facilities including fully furnished operating rooms. During a fiesta these facilities are run by a medical team consisting of three surgeons, one intensive care specialist, and one anesthesiologist with their supporting medical personnel. In smaller arenas or villages immediate care units consist of emergency vehicles, and a mobile container equipped with a fully functional operating room. Of all toreros the matadores including the novilleros are most often injured in 56 % of cases. This rate decreases for banderillos (30 %), and for picadores (14 %). Parts of the body that are most frequently affected are thighs, and the inguinal region (54 %). Head and neck injuries are seen in 19 %, and 12 % of cases present with open abdominal wounds including liver or gastrointestinal tract traumas. 10 % of injuries affect the thorax, and 4 % the pelvic floor. The particular form of organised medical treatment for bullfighters in Spain has only developed since the nineteen-thirties. In 1972 a scientific society for bullfight surgery was founded in Spain by specialized surgeons, and immediate care specialists holding a first convention that year. The society is continuously striving to improve technical and logistical aspects of immediate medical care for injured bullfighters.

  2. Treatment of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Associated With Antipsychotic Medication: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuk, Antonia; Baretic, Maja; Osvatic, Martina Matovinovic; Filipcic, Igor; Jovanovic, Nikolina; Kuzman, Martina Rojnic

    2017-10-01

    The second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are associated with metabolic disturbances. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare, but potentially fatal sign of acute glucose metabolism dysregulation, which may be associated with the use of SGAs. This study aims to review published reports of patients with schizophrenia and antipsychotic drug-associated DKA, focusing on the effective management of both conditions. Using a predefined search strategy, we searched PubMed and EMBASE from their inception to July 2016. The search terms were related to "diabetic ketoacidosis" and "antipsychotic medication." Case reports, case series, and reviews of case series written in English language were included in the review. Sixty-five reports were analyzed. In most patients who developed antipsychotic-associated DKA, 1 or more suspected antipsychotic medications were discontinued. In 5 cases, a rechallenge test was trialed, and in only 1 case, it resulted in the elevation of blood glucose. The majority was subsequently treated with a different SGA in combination with insulin/oral hypoglycemic agents; although approximately a third of patients had a complete resolution of symptoms or could control diabetes with diet only at the point of discharge. Patients taking antipsychotic medications should be regularly screened for insulin resistance and educated about potential complications of antipsychotic medications. This will allow clinicians to individualize treatment decisions and reduce iatrogenic contribution to morbidity and mortality. To achieve best treatment outcomes, antipsychotic-induced DKA should be treated jointly by psychiatry and endocrinology teams.

  3. 5th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    European IFMBE MBEC : Cooperation for Effective Healthcare

    2012-01-01

    This volume presents the 5th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (EMBEC),  held in Budapest, 14-18 September, 2011. The scientific discussion on the conference and in this conference proceedings include the following issues: - Signal & Image Processing - ICT - Clinical Engineering and Applications - Biomechanics and Fluid Biomechanics - Biomaterials and Tissue Repair - Innovations and Nanotechnology - Modeling and Simulation - Education and Professional

  4. Medical Devices for Obesity Treatment: Endoscopic Bariatric Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Eric J; Rizk, Monika; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K

    2018-01-01

    Endoscopic bariatric therapies (EBTs) are effective tools for the management of obesity. By mimicking restrictive and bypass surgery physiology, they provide a safe and effective treatment option with the added capabilities of reaching a broader population. Multiple efficacious medical devices, such as intragastric balloons, endoscopic suturing/plication devices, and bypass liners, at various stages of development are available in the United States. EBTs represent the newest addition to a multidisciplinary approach in obesity management. This article reviews several devices' safety and efficacy for primary care providers in the era of evolving obesity treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosis and successful medical treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aversa, G; Stern, G A; Driebe, W T

    1995-09-01

    To identify the methods that result in timely diagnosis and effective treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 12 consecutive patients whom we treated for culture-proved Acanthamoeba keratitis in 14 eyes. Contact lenses were worn in 13 of 14 affected eyes and substandard methods were often used to care for them. The diagnosis was established in all patients by laboratory analysis of corneal scrapings; corneal biopsies were not required. Acanthamoeba organisms were identified on smears from 12 of 14 eyes with use of standard, nonfluorescent stains and recovered in culture from all patients by inoculating scrapings on nonnutrient agar overlaid with Escherichia coli. Eleven of 14 eyes were medically cured with a combination of antiamebic drugs, most commonly propamidine isethionate, neomycin sulfate, and clotrimazole. Topical corticosteroids were used in only one patient. Two of the three eyes that required therapeutic keratoplasty were not treated before surgery according to our usual protocol; the third required keratoplasty for treatment of a severe bacterial superinfection. Twelve of 14 eyes recovered 20/50 or better visual acuity. Bacterial superinfections were a serious problem, with a total of six superinfections occurring in three treated eyes. With timely diagnosis and medical treatment with a combination of antiamebic drugs and avoidance of topical corticosteroids, most cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis can be cured, with an excellent prognosis for visual recovery.

  6. Evaluating Major Electrode Types for Idle Biological Signal Measurements for Modern Medical Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Albulbul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG and electromyography (EMG that can be measured at home can reveal vital information about the patient’s health. In today modern technology, the measured ECG or EMG signals at home can be monitored by medical staff from long distance through the use of internet. Biopotential electrodes are crucial in monitoring ECG, EMG, etc., signals. Applying the right type of electrode that lasts for a long time and assists in recording high signal quality is desirable in medical devices industry. Three types of electrodes (Silver/Silver Chloride (Ag/AgCl electrodes, Orbital electrodes and Stainless steel electrodes were tested to identify the most appropriate one for recording biological signals. The evaluation was based on determining the electrode circuit model components and having high capacitance value or high capacitor value of electrode circuit model (Cd and low electrode-skin impedance value or low resistor value of electrode circuit model (Rd. The results revealed that Ag/AgCl is the best type of electrodes, followed by Orbital electrodes. Stainless steel electrodes had performed poorly. However, Orbital electrodes material can last longer than Ag/AgCl and hence perform similar to Ag/AgCl electrodes, which can be idle for monitoring biological signals at home without the need for medical staff to replace the electrodes in a short period of time.

  7. Enhancing Reuse of Data and Biological Material in Medical Research: From FAIR to FAIR-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Petr; Kohlmayer, Florian; Prasser, Fabian; Mayrhofer, Michaela Th; Schlünder, Irene; Martin, Gillian M; Casati, Sara; Koumakis, Lefteris; Wutte, Andrea; Kozera, Łukasz; Strapagiel, Dominik; Anton, Gabriele; Zanetti, Gianluigi; Sezerman, Osman Ugur; Mendy, Maimuna; Valík, Dalibor; Lavitrano, Marialuisa; Dagher, Georges; Zatloukal, Kurt; van Ommen, GertJan B; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2018-01-23

    The known challenge of underutilization of data and biological material from biorepositories as potential resources for medical research has been the focus of discussion for over a decade. Recently developed guidelines for improved data availability and reusability-entitled FAIR Principles (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability)-are likely to address only parts of the problem. In this article, we argue that biological material and data should be viewed as a unified resource. This approach would facilitate access to complete provenance information, which is a prerequisite for reproducibility and meaningful integration of the data. A unified view also allows for optimization of long-term storage strategies, as demonstrated in the case of biobanks. We propose an extension of the FAIR Principles to include the following additional components: (1) quality aspects related to research reproducibility and meaningful reuse of the data, (2) incentives to stimulate effective enrichment of data sets and biological material collections and its reuse on all levels, and (3) privacy-respecting approaches for working with the human material and data. These FAIR-Health principles should then be applied to both the biological material and data. We also propose the development of common guidelines for cloud architectures, due to the unprecedented growth of volume and breadth of medical data generation, as well as the associated need to process the data efficiently.

  8. Decentralized wastewater treatment using passively aerated biological filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elela, Sohair I; Hellal, Mohamed S; Aly, Olfat H; Abo-Elenin, Salah A

    2017-10-13

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a novel pilot-scale passively aerated biological filter (PABF) as a low energy consumption system for the treatment of municipal wastewater. It consists of four similar compartments, each containing 40% of a non-woven polyester fabric as a bio-bed. The PABF was fed with primary treated wastewater under a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3.5 hr and a hydraulic loading rate of 5.5 m 2 /m 3 /d. The effect of media depth, HRT, dissolved oxygen (DO) and surface area of the media on the removal efficiency of pollutants was investigated. Results indicated that increasing media depth along the axis of the reactor and consequently increasing the HRT and DO resulted in great removal of different pollutants. A significant increase in the DO levels in the final effluent up to 6.7 mg/l resulted in good nitrification processes. Statistical analysis using SPSS showed that the reactor performance has significant removal efficiency (p filter systems.

  9. Recycling of dyehouse effluents by biological and chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, R.; Doepkens, E. [Inst. of Biochemical Engineering, Technical Univ. of Braunschweig, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The introduction of the production integrated environmental protection by closing raw material cycles is shown exemplary for the textile finishing industry. Colored process water with a high content of dissolved organic dyes has always been a non-trivial problem for the sewage engineering sector. The recycling of process water of textile mills is often hindered by remaining color of water-soluable azo dyes after conventional wastewater treatment. Rising costs of emitted wastewater, lawful limits and restricted availability of water makes it of great interest to introduce sophisticated techniques helping to purify dye effluents and to recycle process water. A combined biological and chemical process of purification and recycling of residual dyehouse split flows into the production was developed, investigated and installed by a textile finishing company which produces 330,000 m{sup 3} colored wastewater effluents per year. The process contains anaerobic dye-cleavage, aerobic mineralization of cleavage-products and the decolorization and partial oxidation of traces of dyeresiduals by advanced oxidation. (orig.)

  10. Treatment of uranium mining and milling wastewater using biological adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsezos, M.

    1983-01-01

    Selected samples of waste microbial biomass originating from various industrial fermentation processes and biological treatment plants have been screened for biosorbent properties in conjunction with uranium, thorium and radium in aqueous solutions. Biosorption isotherms were used for the evaluation of biosorptive uptake capacity of the biomass. The biomass was also compared to synthetic adsorbents such as activated carbon. Determined uranium, thorium and radium biosorption isotherms were independent of the initial solution concentrations. Solution pH affected uptake. Rhizopus arrhizus at pH 4 exhibited the highest uranium and thorium biosorptive uptake capacity in excess of 180 Mg/g. It removed about 2.5 and 3.3 times more uranium than the ion exchange resin and activated carbon tested. Penicillium chrysogenum adsorbed 50000 pCi/g radium at pH 7 and at an equilibrium radium concentration of 1000 pCi/L. The most effective biomass types studied exhibited removals in excess of 99% of the radium in solution

  11. Chemical treatment of radioactive liquid wastes from medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo A, J.

    1995-01-01

    This work is a study about the treatment of the most important radioactive liquid wastes from medical usages, generated in medical institutions with nuclear medicine services. The radionuclides take in account are 32 P, 35 S, 125 I. The treatments developed and improved were specific chemical precipitations for each one of the radionuclides. This work involve to precipitate the radionuclide from the liquid waste, making a chemical compound insoluble in the aqueous phase, for this process the radionuclide stay in the precipitate, lifting the aqueous phase with a very low activity than the begin. The 32 P precipitated in form of Ca 3 32 P O 4 and Ca 2 H 32 P O 4 with a value for Decontamination Factor (DF) at the end of the treatment of 32. The 35 S was precipitated in form of Ba 35 SO 4 with a DF of 26. The 125 I was precipitated in Cu 125 I to obtain a DF of 24. The results of the treatments are between the limits given for the International Atomic Energy Agency and the 10 Code of Federal Regulation 20, for the safety release at the environment. (Author)

  12. Assault in medical law: revisiting the boundaries of informed consent to medical treatment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria C I

    2009-05-01

    This article focuses on assault as a cause of action in medical law, with particular emphasis on the requirements for informed consent, both under common law and under the National Health Act 2003 (Sth Africa). In particular, the test for consent, adopted in Castell v De Greef 1994 (4) SA 408 (C), is analysed in detail. It is noted that the wording of this test for informed consent mirrors the wording of the test for negligence laid down in the Australian case of Rogers v Whitaker (1992) 175 CLR 479. Further, the relationship between the delictual elements of wrongfulness and fault in assault is discussed. It is argued that in South African law a valid consent to medical treatment requires knowledge not only of the general nature of medical treatment but also of the consequences of the treatment and, in determining which consequences should be disclosed to a patient, the constitutional rights to equality and self-determination support the application of a subjective patient-centred test for informed consent. However, it is also proposed that the broad right of a patient to information is reined in at the fault element of assault, so that a limited requirement of consciousness of wrongfulness on the part of the defendant negates liability for delictual assault.

  13. Investigational medications for treatment of patients with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Pamela E

    2010-09-01

    Development of effective treatments for patients with Alzheimer disease has been challenging. Currently approved treatments include acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine hydrochloride. To investigate treatments in development for patients with Alzheimer disease, the author conducted a review of the literature. New approaches for treatment or prevention focus on several general areas, including cholinergic receptor agonists, drugs to decrease β-amyloid and tau levels, antiinflammatory agents, drugs to increase nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels, and substances to reduce cell death or promote cellular regeneration. The author focuses on medications currently in clinical trials. Cholinergic agents include orthostatic and allosteric muscarinic M1 agonists and nicotinic receptor agonists. Investigational agents that target β-amyloid include vaccines, antibodies, and inhibitors of β-amyloid production. Anti-inflammatory agents, including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the natural product curcumin, and the tumor necrosis factor α inhibitor etanercept, have also been studied. Some drugs currently approved for other uses may also show promise for treatment of patients with Alzheimer disease. Results of clinical trials with many of these investigational drugs have been disappointing, perhaps because of their use with patients in advanced stages of Alzheimer disease. Effective treatment may need to begin earlier-before neurodegeneration becomes severe enough for symptoms to appear.

  14. The biological treatment of petroleum tank draw waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Jose L. [Envirosystems Supply, Inc., Hollywood, FL (United States); Stephens, Greg [Plantation Pipeline, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This work reviews and summarizes the performance of a biological process (followed by the state-of-the-art) for the removal of organic compounds in petroleum tank draw waters. Trickling filter and the extended aeration modification of activated sludge were selected as the biological processes tested in pilot units. 4 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. A Case of SAPHO Syndrome with Endodontic Implications and Treatment with Biologic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Elisabetta; Careddu, Roberto; Schirru, Elia; Marongiu, Silvia; Barca, Maria Pina; Manconi, Paolo Emilio; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    SAPHO syndrome (SS) is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis. Among the sites affected by the osteoarticular manifestations of SS are the anterior chest wall and the mandible. The etiology of SS is still unknown; theories advocate a genetic predisposition and an infectious cause in association with disorders of the immune system. We report a case of SS in which there was the involvement of the mandible with a lesion of endodontic origin. A 44-year-old white woman diagnosed with SS at the university hospital was referred to the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics for a consultation. She reported spontaneous pain localized to the periapical area of tooth #19 with a history of multiple restorative and endodontic treatments. It was diagnosed as a previously treated tooth with symptomatic apical periodontitis (AP) at the time of the endodontic evaluation. A second retreatment was then performed in 1 appointment under local anesthesia. During retreatment, a separated instrument and a ledge were found in the mesiobuccal canal, and attempts to bypass it were not successful; the canal was then obturated to the reachable length. Within the same month, the patient was also administered an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha biologic medication in association with a disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs for the treatment of SS. Within 3 months, the overall therapy had led to a marked improvement of the systemic and mandibular symptoms, and a periapical radiograph showed almost complete healing of the lesion. Medical examinations have shown a total remission of signs and symptoms starting 6 months after the initiation of treatment. After 5 years, the disease is under control, and tooth #19 is symptom free and shows absence of AP. The endodontists need to be aware of the existence of SS and the possible effects of the use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic medications on the

  16. Medical treatment of acute poisoning with organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Milan

    2009-10-28

    Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) are used as pesticides and developed as warfare nerve agents such as tabun, soman, sarin, VX and others. Exposure to even small amounts of an OP can be fatal and death is usually caused by respiratory failure. The mechanism of OP poisoning involves inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) leading to inactivation of the enzyme which has an important role in neurotransmission. AChE inhibition results in the accumulation of acetylcholine at cholinergic receptor sites, producing continuous stimulation of cholinergic fibers throughout the nervous systems. During more than five decades, pyridinium oximes have been developed as therapeutic agents used in the medical treatment of poisoning with OP. They act by reactivation of AChE inhibited by OP. However, they differ in their activity in poisoning with pesticides and warfare nerve agents and there is still no universal broad-spectrum oxime capable of protecting against all known OP. In spite of enormous efforts devoted to development of new pyridinium oximes as potential antidotes against poisoning with OP only four compounds so far have found its application in human medicine. Presently, a combination of an antimuscarinic agent, e.g. atropine, AChE reactivator such as one of the recommended pyridinium oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime and HI-6) and diazepam are used for the treatment of OP poisoning in humans. In this article the available data related to medical treatment of poisoning with OP pesticides are reviewed and the current recommendations are presented.

  17. Predictors of switching antipsychotic medications in the treatment of schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stauffer Virginia L

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify patient characteristics and early changes in patients' clinical status that best predict subsequent switching of antipsychotic agents in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a one-year randomized, open-label, multisite study of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. The study protocol permitted switching of antipsychotics when clinically warranted after the first eight weeks. Baseline patient characteristics were assessed using standard psychiatric measures and reviews of medical records. The prediction model included baseline sociodemographics, comorbid psychiatric and non-psychiatric conditions, body weight, clinical and functional variables, as well as change scores on standard efficacy and tolerability measures during the first two weeks of treatment. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify the best predictors of switching from the initially assigned antipsychotic medication. Results About one-third of patients (29.5%, 191/648 switched antipsychotics before the end of the one-year study. There were six variables identified as the best predictors of switching: lack of antipsychotic use in the prior year, pre-existing depression, female gender, lack of substance use disorder, worsening of akathisia (as measured by the Barnes Akathisia Scale, and worsening of symptoms of depression/anxiety (subscale score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale during the first two weeks of antipsychotic therapy. Conclusions Switching antipsychotics appears to be prevalent in the naturalistic treatment of schizophrenia and can be predicted by a small and distinct set of variables. Interestingly, worsening of anxiety and depressive symptoms and of akathisia following two weeks of treatment were among the more robust predictors of subsequent switching of antipsychotics.

  18. Predictors of switching antipsychotic medications in the treatment of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhuis, Allen W; Faries, Douglas E; Ascher-Svanum, Haya; Stauffer, Virginia L; Kinon, Bruce J

    2010-09-28

    To identify patient characteristics and early changes in patients' clinical status that best predict subsequent switching of antipsychotic agents in the long-term treatment of schizophrenia. This post-hoc analysis used data from a one-year randomized, open-label, multisite study of antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. The study protocol permitted switching of antipsychotics when clinically warranted after the first eight weeks. Baseline patient characteristics were assessed using standard psychiatric measures and reviews of medical records. The prediction model included baseline sociodemographics, comorbid psychiatric and non-psychiatric conditions, body weight, clinical and functional variables, as well as change scores on standard efficacy and tolerability measures during the first two weeks of treatment. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to identify the best predictors of switching from the initially assigned antipsychotic medication. About one-third of patients (29.5%, 191/648) switched antipsychotics before the end of the one-year study. There were six variables identified as the best predictors of switching: lack of antipsychotic use in the prior year, pre-existing depression, female gender, lack of substance use disorder, worsening of akathisia (as measured by the Barnes Akathisia Scale), and worsening of symptoms of depression/anxiety (subscale score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale) during the first two weeks of antipsychotic therapy. Switching antipsychotics appears to be prevalent in the naturalistic treatment of schizophrenia and can be predicted by a small and distinct set of variables. Interestingly, worsening of anxiety and depressive symptoms and of akathisia following two weeks of treatment were among the more robust predictors of subsequent switching of antipsychotics.

  19. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Medically Inappropriate or Futile Treatment: Deliberation and Justification 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misak, Cheryl J.; White, Douglas B.; Truog, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reframes the futility debate, moving away from the question “Who decides when to end what is considered to be a medically inappropriate or futile treatment?” and toward the question “How can society make policy that will best account for the multitude of values and conflicts involved in such decision-making?” It offers a pragmatist moral epistemology that provides us with (1) a clear justification of why it is important to take best standards, norms, and physician judgment seriously and (2) a clear justification of why ample opportunity must be made for patients, families, and society to challenge those standards and norms. PMID:26681796

  1. Presynaptic Dopamine Synthesis Capacity in Schizophrenia and Striatal Blood Flow Change During Antipsychotic Treatment and Medication-Free Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Daniel Paul; Yankowitz, Lisa; Ianni, Angela M; Rubinstein, Dani Y; Kohn, Philip D; Hegarty, Catherine E; Gregory, Michael D; Apud, José A; Berman, Karen F

    2017-10-01

    Standard-of-care biological treatment of schizophrenia remains dependent upon antipsychotic medications, which demonstrate D 2 receptor affinity and elicit variable, partial clinical responses via neural mechanisms that are not entirely understood. In the striatum, where D 2 receptors are abundant, antipsychotic medications may affect neural function in studies of animals, healthy volunteers, and patients, yet the relevance of this to pharmacotherapeutic actions remains unresolved. In this same brain region, some individuals with schizophrenia may demonstrate phenotypes consistent with exaggerated dopaminergic signaling, including alterations in dopamine synthesis capacity; however, the hypothesis that dopamine system characteristics underlie variance in medication-induced regional blood flow changes has not been directly tested. We therefore studied a cohort of 30 individuals with schizophrenia using longitudinal, multi-session [ 15 O]-water and [ 18 F]-FDOPA positron emission tomography to determine striatal blood flow during active atypical antipsychotic medication treatment and after at least 3 weeks of placebo treatment, along with presynaptic dopamine synthesis capacity (ie, DOPA decarboxylase activity). Regional striatal blood flow was significantly higher during active treatment than during the placebo condition. Furthermore, medication-related increases in ventral striatal blood flow were associated with more robust amelioration of excited factor symptoms during active medication and with higher dopamine synthesis capacity. These data indicate that atypical medications enact measureable physiological alterations in limbic striatal circuitry that vary as a function of dopaminergic tone and may have relevance to aspects of therapeutic responses.

  2. Gastric cancer: a primer on the epidemiology and biology of the disease and an overview of the medical management of advanced disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Kelsen, David P

    2010-04-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and cancer-related mortality worldwide. Despite recent advances in targeted therapy and understanding of the biology and development of the malignancy, progress in the treatment of gastric cancer has been limited. Most newly diagnosed patients will present with incurable disease, and have a median survival of less than 1 year. Although the disease has widespread ethnic and epidemiologic differences, medical management of gastric cancer does not distinguish among the various disease subtypes. The recent report of the ToGA phase III study has validated Her2 as a molecular target in this disease, supporting the concept that a greater understanding of the biology of gastric cancer subsets may improve treatment selection and overall outcome of individual patients. This article summarizes the epidemiology and ethnic variation of this disease to crystalize subtypes of gastric cancer in the context of current and future medical management of advanced disease.

  3. [Biological treatments for contaminated soils: hydrocarbon contamination. Fungal applications in bioremediation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Moreno, Carmen; González Becerra, Aldo; Blanco Santos, María José

    2004-09-01

    Bioremediation is a spontaneous or controlled process in which biological, mainly microbiological, methods are used to degrade or transform contaminants to non or less toxic products, reducing the environmental pollution. The most important parameters to define a contaminated site are: biodegradability, contaminant distribution, lixiviation grade, chemical reactivity of the contaminants, soil type and properties, oxygen availability and occurrence of inhibitory substances. Biological treatments of organic contaminations are based on the degradative abilities of the microorganisms. Therefore the knowledge on the physiology and ecology of the biological species or consortia involved as well as the characteristics of the polluted sites are decisive factors to select an adequate biorremediation protocol. Basidiomycetes which cause white rot decay of wood are able to degrade lignin and a variety of environmentally persistent pollutants. Thus, white rot fungi and their enzymes are thought to be useful not only in some industrial process like biopulping and biobleaching but also in bioremediation. This paper provides a review of different aspects of bioremediation technologies and recent advances on ligninolytic metabolism research.

  4. Biological mine water treatment operating a one stage reactor system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Baloyi, MJ

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Mine drainage arises from oxidation of pyrites, due to exposure to air and water. Acid mine drainage normally contains high concentrations of sulphate, metals and acidity. These pollutants can be reduced by applying the biological sulphate reduction...

  5. From bedside to blackboard: the benefits of teaching molecular biology within a medical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Courses in molecular biology are part of practically every degree program in medicine and the life sciences. Historically, many basic discoveries in this field have resulted from investigations by doctors into the nature of diseases. This essay suggests that medical educators deliberately incorporate such material, whether historical or contemporaneous, into their molecular and cell biology courses. An example of such usage, an early report of the detection of bacteriophage activity on pathogenic bacteria, is discussed in detail. Such an approach can potentially narrow the perceived gap between "basic" and "applied" science. As medicine is so intimately and obviously linked with human welfare, this also provides an avenue for educators to discuss issues of scientific integrity and ethics within a "pure science" course.

  6. 6th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Vasic, Darko

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the Proceedings of the 6th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (MBEC2014), held in Dubrovnik September 7 – 11, 2014. The general theme of MBEC 2014 is "Towards new horizons in biomedical engineering" The scientific discussions in these conference proceedings include the following themes: - Biomedical Signal Processing - Biomedical Imaging and Image Processing - Biosensors and Bioinstrumentation - Bio-Micro/Nano Technologies - Biomaterials - Biomechanics, Robotics and Minimally Invasive Surgery - Cardiovascular, Respiratory and Endocrine Systems Engineering - Neural and Rehabilitation Engineering - Molecular, Cellular and Tissue Engineering - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Clinical Engineering and Health Technology Assessment - Health Informatics, E-Health and Telemedicine - Biomedical Engineering Education

  7. Investigating the robustness of ion beam therapy treatment plans to uncertainties in biological treatment parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Boehlen, T T; Dosanjh, M; Ferrari, A; Fossati, P; Haberer, T; Mairani, A; Patera, V

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainties in determining clinically used relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for ion beam therapy carry the risk of absolute and relative misestimations of RBE-weighted doses for clinical scenarios. This study assesses the consequences of hypothetical misestimations of input parameters to the RBE modelling for carbon ion treatment plans by a variational approach. The impact of the variations on resulting cell survival and RBE values is evaluated as a function of the remaining ion range. In addition, the sensitivity to misestimations in RBE modelling is compared for single fields and two opposed fields using differing optimization criteria. It is demonstrated for single treatment fields that moderate variations (up to +/-50\\%) of representative nominal input parameters for four tumours result mainly in a misestimation of the RBE-weighted dose in the planning target volume (PTV) by a constant factor and only smaller RBE-weighted dose gradients. Ensuring a more uniform radiation quality in the PTV...

  8. [Medical prevention and treatment of radiation-induced pulmonary complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallard, A; Rancoule, C; Le Floch, H; Guy, J-B; Espenel, S; Le Péchoux, C; Deutsch, É; Magné, N; Chargari, C

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced lung injuries mainly include the (acute or sub-acute) radiation pneumonitis, the lung fibrosis and the bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). The present review aims at describing the diagnostic process, the current physiopathological knowledge, and the available (non dosimetric) preventive and curative treatments. Radiation-induced lung injury is a diagnosis of exclusion, since clinical, radiological, or biological pathognomonic evidences do not exist. Investigations should necessarily include a thoracic high resolution CT-scan and lung function tests with a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide. No treatment ever really showed efficacy to prevent acute radiation-induced lung injury, or to treat radiation-induced lung fibrosis. The most promising drugs in order to prevent radiation-induced lung injury are amifostine, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors and pentoxifylline. Inhibitors of collagen synthesis are currently tested at a pre-clinical stage to limit the radiation-induced lung fibrosis. Regarding available treatments of radiation-induced pneumonitis, corticoids can be considered the cornerstone. However, no standardized program or guidelines concerning the initial dose and the gradual tapering have been scientifically established. Alternative treatments can be prescribed, based on clinical cases reporting on the efficacy of immunosuppressive drugs. Such data highlight the major role of the lung dosimetric protection in order to efficiently prevent radiation-induced lung injury. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. 1st Global Conference on Biomedical Engineering & 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shyh-Hau; Yeh, Ming-Long

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering (APCMBE 2014). The proceedings address a broad spectrum of topics from Bioengineering and Biomedicine, like Biomaterials, Artificial Organs, Tissue Engineering, Nanobiotechnology and Nanomedicine, Biomedical Imaging, Bio MEMS, Biosignal Processing, Digital Medicine, BME Education. It helps medical and biological engineering professionals to interact and exchange their ideas and experiences.

  10. Development of biological treatment of high concentration sodium nitrate waste liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Naoki; Kuroda, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Katsushi; Kawato, Yoshimi; Meguro, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Kuniaki

    2009-01-01

    An electrolytic reduction, chemical reduction, and biological reduction have been picked up as a method of nitrate liquid waste treatment system exhausted from the reprocessing process. As a result of comparing them, it was shown that the biological treatment was the most excellent method in safety and the economy. (author)

  11. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia - a short version for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas; Lieberman, Jeffrey; Glenthøj, Birte; Gattaz, Wagner F; Thibaut, Florence; Möller, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-06-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder and many patients are treated in primary care settings. Apart from the pharmacological management of disease-associated symptoms, the detection and treatment of side effects is of the utmost importance in clinical practice. The purpose of this publication is to offer relevant evidence-based recommendations for the biological treatment of schizophrenia in primary care. This publication is a short and practice-oriented summary of Parts I-III of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for Biological Treatment of Schizophrenia. The recommendations were developed by the authors and consented by a task force of international experts. Guideline recommendations are based on randomized-controlled trials and supplemented with non-randomized trials and meta-analyses where necessary. Antipsychotics of different chemical classes are the first-line pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. Specific circumstances (e.g., suicidality, depression, substance dependence) may need additional treatment options. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of side effects is of crucial importance for the long-term treatment in all settings of the healthcare system. This summary of the three available evidence-based guidelines has the potential to support clinical decisions and can improve treatment of schizophrenia in primary care settings.

  12. Unemployment risk among individuals undergoing medical treatment for chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, N; Nakamura, T; Tsuchiya, N; Tsuji, I; Hozawa, A; Tomita, H

    2016-03-01

    Chronic diseases increase the risk of unemployment even in non-disaster settings; therefore, in post-disaster settings, special attention needs to be paid to the employment status of those suffering from chronic diseases. To examine the association between chronic disease and the risk of unemployment in a disaster area. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shichigahama Town, Miyagi, north-eastern Japan, where had been severely inundated by the 2011 tsunami. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between undergoing medical treatment for a combination of chronic diseases (stroke, cancer, myocardial infarction and angina) and unemployment risk. Confounders such as psychological distress and levels of daily life activity were considered. Among the 2588 individuals studied, there was a statistically significant association between undergoing medical treatment for chronic disease and the risk of unemployment [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.7, P unemployment risk was observed only in participants with a higher degree of psychological distress and/or poorer levels of daily life activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. [Medical or chirurgical treatment in transient cerebral ischemia? (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, W S

    1981-01-01

    When a physician is faced by a patient suffering from transient ischemic attacks, the diagnosis is almost invariably determined by the clinical history. It becomes necessary to eliminate certain other medical conditions including migraine, focal epilepsy and cardiac disorders. Once he is satisfied with the diagnosis of TIA, then he must consider whether to employ medical or surgical therapy or a combination of both. It must be recognized that TIAs are not benign events since more than 50 p. 100 of individuals who develop completed strokes will have antecedent TIAs. Identification of the pathogenetic mechanism becomes important in choosing the specific therapy. Where the origin of the attacks is clearly thromboembolic, secondary to atherosclerosis, surgical intervention may be appropriate if the lesion is readily accessible. However, consideration of surgery is also determined by the risk of post-operative stroke or death at the hands of less experienced surgeons. The risk of stroke in a patient who is having frequent TIAs may be reduced initially by utilizing anticoagulants for a limited period. Long-term medical therapy requires the use of anti-platelet agents which have been shown to have a more beneficial effect in preventing strokes in men. The evidence for protection in females is less satisfactory. Surgical treatment should be followed by long-term medical therapy since it is very unlikely that only one lesion is present in a high-risk patient. It is still clear that the best way to manage cerebro-vascular accidents is to prevent them. This requires education of the public, as will as physicians, with respect to risk factors and the value of various modes of therapy.

  14. Buprenorphine implants in medical treatment of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavoustie, Steven; Frost, Michael; Snyder, Ole; Owen, Joel; Darwish, Mona; Dammerman, Ryan; Sanjurjo, Victoria

    2017-08-01

    Opioid use disorder is a chronic, relapsing disease that encompasses use of both prescription opioids and heroin and is associated with a high annual rate of overdose deaths. Medical treatment has proven more successful than placebo treatment or psychosocial intervention, and the partial µ-opioid receptor agonist and κ-opioid receptor antagonist buprenorphine is similar in efficacy to methadone while offering lower risk of respiratory depression. However, frequent dosing requirements and potential for misuse and drug diversion contribute to significant complications with treatment adherence for available formulations. Areas covered: This review describes the development of and preliminary data from clinical trials of an implantable buprenorphine formulation. Efficacy and safety data from comparative studies with other administrations of buprenorphine, including tablets and sublingual film, will be described. Key premises of the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy program for safely administering buprenorphine implants, which all prescribing physicians must complete, are also discussed. Expert commentary: Long-acting implantable drug formulations that offer consistent drug delivery and lower risk of misuse, diversion, or accidental pediatric exposure over traditional formulations represent a promising development for the effective treatment of opioid use disorder.

  15. [Scientific-Pedagogic School of Biological and Medical Chemistry of the O. O. Bogomolets National Medical University (on the 160th year of its founding)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubs'kyĭ, Iu I; Khmelevs'kyĭ, Iu V; Velykyĭ, M M

    2002-01-01

    In this work the most important stages of the scientific-pedagogic school of biologic and medical chemistry formation in Bogomolets National Medical University starting from the period of foundation as early as in 1863 till nowadays the Chair of Medical Chemistry and Physics as a part of Medical Faculty of Saint Volodymyr Emperor University in the city of Kyiv have been estimated and generalized. The especial attention is attracted to the fact, that it was Kyiv University where firstly the Chair of Biochemistry was created in order of stuyding the regularities of biochemical processes running in the human organism and metabolism disturbances inducing the pathologic processes at some diseases. The scientific and scientific-pedagogical trends of the chair work in different periods of its development are presented, simltneously the leading role of famous Ukrainian scientists--biochemicians in foundation and development of biologic and medical chemistry scientific school in the University are emphasized. Nowadays the Chair is the educational and scientific center supporting and developing the best traditions on training the specialists of different qualification levels: physicians Masters of Science, Philosophy Doctors and Doctors of Science in Medicine and Biology. The Chair is considered to be a basic one among the Ukraine higher medic and pharmaceutic educational institutions having the III-IV accreditation rate on the problems of teaching-organizational, educational-methodical and scientific work. On the Chair base there is functioning the Scientific Problem-Solving Commission of Ministry of health Protections of Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine "Biological and medical Chemistry" (the chairman is the Corresponding-Member of Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Prof. Yu.I. Gubsky. The Chair personnel compiled and issued the contemporary manuals in Ukraine language on Biologic and Bioorganic Chemistry.

  16. Access database application in medical treatment management platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qingming

    2014-01-01

    For timely, accurate and flexible access to medical expenses data, we applied Microsoft Access 2003 database management software, and we finished the establishment of a management platform for medical expenses. By developing management platform for medical expenses, overall hospital costs for medical expenses can be controlled to achieve a real-time monitoring of medical expenses. Using the Access database management platform for medical expenses not only changes the management model, but also promotes a sound management system for medical expenses. (authors)

  17. [Pulmonary arterial hypertension. Part II: Medical and surgical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, Alessandra; Marinelli, Alessandro; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Negro, Luca; Leci, Enri; Gambetti, Simona; Bachetti, Cristina; Beciani, Elena; Conficoni, Elisa; Branzi, Angelo; Galiè, Nazzareno

    2009-06-01

    Treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (group 1 of clinical classification) has been recently characterized by important progresses, particularly in pharmacological therapy. Only until few years ago, patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension were treated with non-specific drugs, such as diuretics and digoxin for right heart failure and calcium-channel blockers in the minority of cases, responders to the acute vasoreactivity test. In addition, use of oral anticoagulant treatment was supported by uncontrolled studies. In the last 15 years (in particular in the last 8 years) different randomized controlled trials assessing the functional, clinical and hemodynamic efficacy of three classes of targeted drugs (prostanoids, endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors) with pulmonary vascular dilating and antiproliferative effects have been performed. This information has allowed the proposal of an evidence-based treatment algorithm. Treatment starts with general measures (physical activity, fertility control, respiratory tract infection, etc.) and supportive therapy (anticoagulant therapy, diuretics, oxygen, digoxin). Patients who respond to the acute vasoreactivity test (10% of idiopathic form) are treated with high doses of calcium-channel blockers, non-responders with targeted therapies either on monotherapy or combination. Usually an oral active drug is initiated and a second compound of a different class is combined in case of non-satisfactory response to the first treatment. Combination therapy should be performed only in specialized centers with large experience on use of targeted therapies and their relevant side effects. In case of failure of medical therapy, possible options are balloon atrial septostomy and/or listing for lung or heart-lung transplantation. As available treatments do not constitute a cure for pulmonary arterial hypertension, further progresses are expected in the near future.

  18. [Experience of the development special medical technical laboratory for studies of effects caused by potent electromagnetic radiation in biologic objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodetsky, B N; Kalyada, T V; Petrov, S V

    2015-01-01

    This article covers topics of creating special medical technical laboratory for medial and biologic studies concerning influence of potent high-frequency elecromagnetic radiation on various biologic objects. The authors gave example of such laboratory, described its construction features, purpose and main characteristics of the included devices.

  19. A Friendly-Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM for studying biological processes in wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Molina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological processes for wastewater treatments are inherently dynamic systems because of the large variations in the influent wastewater flow rate, concentration composition and the adaptive behavior of the involved microorganisms. Moreover, the sludge retention time (SRT is a critical factor to understand the bioreactor performances when changes in the influent or in the operation conditions take place. Since SRT are usually in the range of 10-30 days, the performance of biological reactors needs a long time to be monitored in a regular laboratory demonstration, limiting the knowledge that can be obtained in the experimental lab practice. In order to overcome this lack, mathematical models and computer simulations are useful tools to describe biochemical processes and predict the overall performance of bioreactors under different working operation conditions and variations of the inlet wastewater composition. The mathematical solution of the model could be difficult as numerous biochemical processes can be considered. Additionally, biological reactors description (mass balance, etc. needs models represented by partial or/and ordinary differential equations associated to algebraic expressions, that require complex computational codes to obtain the numerical solutions. Different kind of software for mathematical modeling can be used, from large degree of freedom simulators capable of free models definition (as AQUASIM, to closed predefined model structure programs (as BIOWIN. The first ones usually require long learning curves, whereas the second ones could be excessively rigid for specific wastewater treatment systems. As alternative, we present Biological Reactor SIMulator (BioReSIM, a MATLAB code for the simulation of sequencing batch reactors (SBR and rotating biological contactors (RBC as biological systems of suspended and attached biomass for wastewater treatment, respectively. This BioReSIM allows the evaluation of simple and complex

  20. Current neurotrauma treatment practice in secondary medical service centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Eiichi; Yoshino, Hiroko; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2011-01-01

    Despite neurotrauma treatment practices comprising a significant amount of neurosurgical work for secondary medical service centers, little attention has been placed on neurotrauma cases and evaluation of current neurotrauma treatment practices is limited. Therefore we investigated current neurotrauma practices in our hospital located in a Japanese suburban city. We analyzed 439 patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) admitted to our hospital between April 2004 and October 2010. Patients were divided into three groups based on the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission: mild TBI (GCS 14-15) in 252 patients (57.4%), moderate TBI (GCS 9-13) in 116 patients (26.4%), and severe TBI (GCS 3-8) in 71 patients (16.2%). Age, gender, alcohol consumption, cause of injury, cranial CT findings, neurosurgical procedure, length of hospital stay, and clinical outcome were analyzed. The average age of the patients was 59.2 years old. Male patients comprised 65%. Alcohol consumption was reported in 81 cases (18.5%), most of them with moderate TBI. Fall (208 cases, 47.4%) was the most frequent cause of injury, followed by traffic accident (115 cases, 26.2%) and high fall (73 cases, 16.6%). Acute subdural hematoma (174 cases, 39.6%) was most frequently seen in cranial CT findings on admission, which significantly increased with severity. A neurosurgical procedure was performed for 70 cases (15.9%), of which 15 (6.0%) were mild TBI and 18 (15.5%) were moderate TBI. The average hospital stay was 20.8 days, which significantly increased with severity. The overall rate of favorable outcome was 82.7%, and mortality was 8.2%; outcome deteriorated with severity. Some mild and moderate TBI cases had deteriorated and required surgery or resulted in death. These findings suggest that cautious treatment is necessary even in mild to moderate TBI cases which are often encountered in secondary medical service centers. (author)

  1. Treatment with at Homeopathic Complex Medication Modulates Mononuclear Bone Marrow Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A homeopathic complex medication (HCM, with immunomodulatory properties, is recommended for patients with depressed immune systems. Previous studies demonstrated that the medication induces an increase in leukocyte number. The bone marrow microenvironment is composed of growth factors, stromal cells, an extracellular matrix and progenitor cells that differentiate into mature blood cells. Mice were our biological model used in this research. We now report in vivo immunophenotyping of total bone marrow cells and ex vivo effects of the medication on mononuclear cell differentiation at different times. Cells were examined by light microscopy and cytokine levels were measured in vitro. After in vivo treatment with HCM, a pool of cells from the new marrow microenvironment was analyzed by flow cytometry to detect any trend in cell alteration. The results showed decreases, mainly, in CD11b and TER-119 markers compared with controls. Mononuclear cells were used to analyze the effects of ex vivo HCM treatment and the number of cells showing ring nuclei, niche cells and activated macrophages increased in culture, even in the absence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Cytokines favoring stromal cell survival and differentiation in culture were induced in vitro. Thus, we observe that HCM is immunomodulatory, either alone or in association with other products.

  2. The enforcement regulation for the law for radiation technicians engaging in medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The ordinance is set up under the provisions of the law concerning radiation and x-ray technicians engaging in medical treatment, to enforce it. An application for the license of such a technician shall be filed according to the form prescribed, attached with a copy or an abstract of the census register of the applicant and a medical certificate of a doctor concerning whether the applicant is an insane, deaf or blind person, or a case of epidemic. The membership registration of such a technician shall include the number and date of the registration, the prefecture of his legal domicile, name birth date and sex distinction, the year and month of his success in the examination for such technicains, the items concerning the cancellation of the license or the suspension of the business, etc. The subjects of the examination for such technicians are physics, radiological physics, electrical engineering, chemistry, general basic medical science, radiological biology, photographing technology, treatment technics and others. An application for the examination for such technicians shall be filed to the Minister of Health and Welfare, attached with a personal history, a study certificate or a diploma of graduation, a photograph of the applicant and other specified documents. (Kubozono, M.)

  3. Medical treatment in Cushing's syndrome: dopamine agonists and cabergoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrossians, Patrick; Thonnard, Anne-Sophie; Beckers, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is a catecholamine with a wide range of functions and whose five subtype receptors are found in different organs where they exert a mainly inhibitory action. Since this action may also appear in a number of secretory tumors in various locations, DA agonists have elicited some interest as a medical treatment for hypercorticism. Non-iatrogenic Cushing's syndromes are due in 70% of the cases to a pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-producing adenoma, and, less frequently, to an adrenal adenoma or an ectopic ACTH secretion by a neuroendocrine tumor. First-line treatment in Cushing's syndrome consists of the surgical removal of the secreting tumor. However, surgery may not achieve a complete cure in a number of cases, hence emphasizing the potential benefit of a medical complementary treatment, which could also benefit patients as an alternative approach, either when waiting for, or when the patient is not eligible for surgery. Studies of corticotropic adenomas have shown that 80% of these tumors express D2 receptors. Clinical trials of DA agonists in Cushing's disease have shown an inhibitory effect of these drugs with an inhibition of ACTH secretion and/or a decrease of tumor size. There are only a few cases of documented use of DA agonists in ectopic ACTH secretion, but when the tumor expresses DA receptors, DA agonists may represent a useful complementary treatment. DA receptors are also expressed in normal and tumoral adrenals, suggesting a potential use of DA agonists in Cushing's syndrome secondary to adrenal tumors. However, clinical data regarding this specific situation are very scarce, maybe due to the relatively high rate of surgical cure of adrenal adenomas. In conclusion, DA agonists represent a potential preparatory or complementary treatment for endogenous Cushing's syndrome, especially in Cushing's disease. These compounds may be underused as suggested by the scarce number of publication and case reports in the literature. In the

  4. Practical questions of organization of medical aid and treatment in specialized medical care facilities to the people exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, A.E.; Bad'in, V.I.; Gasteva, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Basing on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the paper studied practical questions of organization of medical aid and treatment in specialized medical establishments prepared well in advance, and in temporary arranged specialized medical institutions. The requirements to such medical treatment establishments are studied herein: the aims and structure of the admission department; the measures of decontamination and emergency medical aid in case of acute intake of certain radionuclides; control of radioactive contamination of human organism of the injured persons and dosimetry of medical personnel; minimum degree of clinical examinations; schemes of therapy of various forms of acute radiation disease with combined effects. The authors indicated a list of the necessary drug preparations for treatment of patients with acute radiation disease of 3-4 degree of severity and the regulations of autopsy and taking samples for biophysical investigations of persons who died from radiation disease. 5 tabs

  5. Acute toxicity and chemical evaluation of coking wastewater under biological and advanced physicochemical treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehua, Ma; Cong, Liu; Xiaobiao, Zhu; Rui, Liu; Lujun, Chen

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the changes of toxic compounds in coking wastewater with biological treatment (anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor and aerobic-membrane bioreactor, A1/A2/O-MBR) and advanced physicochemical treatment (Fenton oxidation and activated carbon adsorption) stages. As the biological treatment stages preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the luminescence of Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Nov. Q67 decreased. Toxic units (TU) of coking wastewater were removed by A1/A2/O-MBR treatment process, however approximately 30 % TU remained in the biologically treated effluent. There is a tendency that fewer and fewer residual organic compounds could exert equal acute toxicity during the biological treatment stages. Activated carbon adsorption further removed toxic pollutants of biologically treated effluent but the Fenton effluent increased acute toxicity. The composition of coking wastewater during the treatment was evaluated using the three-dimensional fluorescence spectra, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic compounds with high polarity were the main cause of acute toxicity in the coking wastewater. Aromatic protein-like matters in the coking wastewater with low biodegradability and high toxicity contributed mostly to the remaining acute toxicity of the biologically treated effluents. Chlorine generated from the oxidation process was responsible for the acute toxicity increase after Fenton oxidation. Therefore, the incorporation of appropriate advanced physicochemical treatment process, e.g., activated carbon adsorption, should be implemented following biological treatment processes to meet the stricter discharge standards and be safer to the environment.

  6. Tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients on biologic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Hilde Berner; Kvien, Tore K; Terslev, Lene

    2017-01-01

    , clinical and laboratory assessments were performed when starting biologic DMARD (bDMARD) and after 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 months including bilateral grey-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) semi-quantitatively (0-3) scoring of ECU and TP tendons and 18 joints. Changes from baseline to follow-up were explored...

  7. Kinetics of biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in a three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2006-06-01

    Jun 1, 2006 ... (isolated from mangrove soil) immobilized on activated carbon particle. The phenol removal rates with biofilm are determined both theoretically and experimentally. The biological characteristic constant, useful for establishing the reactor design, is also presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Apparatus.

  8. Activated Sludge. Student Manual. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boe, Owen K.; Klopping, Paul H.

    This student manual contains the textual material for a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. Topic areas addressed in the lessons include: (1) activated sludge concepts and components (including aeration tanks, aeration systems, clarifiers, and sludge pumping systems); (2) activated sludge variations and modes; (3) biological nature of activated…

  9. Biological treatment system applied to the degradation of chlorinated organic compounds: Review of advances and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcenas-Torres, J. D.; Garibay-Orijel, C.; Macarie, H.; Garcia-Mena, J.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Biological treatment of municipal and industrial wastewater if is a field well developed. very well known technologies, and of great application for control of water contamination. Biological treatment of wastewater has been carried out mainly by sole aerobic and anaerobic treatment. Nevertheless, the chlorinated organics compounds usually are recalcitrant to the degradation in bioreactors with a single acceptor of electrons: O 2 in aerobic, CO 2 in methanogenic, NO 3 in denitrifying systems, and SO 4 = in sulfate-reducing systems. (Author)

  10. Enhancement in biological response of Ag-nano composite polymer membranes using plasma treatment for fabrication of efficient bio materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Narendra Kumar; Sharma, Tamanna Kumari; Chauhan, Manish; Agarwal, Ravi; Vijay, Y. K.; Swami, K. C.

    2016-05-01

    Biomaterials are nonviable material used in medical devices, intended to interact with biological systems, which are becoming necessary for the development of artificial material for biological systems such as artificial skin diaphragm, valves for heart and kidney, lenses for eye etc. Polymers having novel properties like antibacterial, antimicrobial, high adhesion, blood compatibility and wettability are most suitable for synthesis of biomaterial, but all of these properties does not exist in any natural or artificial polymeric material. Nano particles and plasma treatment can offer these properties to the polymers. Hence a new nano-biomaterial has been developed by modifying the surface and chemical properties of Ag nanocomposite polymer membranes (NCPM) by Argon ion plasma treatment. These membranes were characterized using different techniques for surface and chemical modifications occurred. Bacterial adhesion and wettability were also tested for these membranes, to show direct use of this new class of nano-biomaterial for biomedical applications.

  11. Treatment of Medical Wastewater by Moving Bed Bioreactor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ibrahim Jasem

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The hospital wastewater is considered as a complex mixture, populated with microbial and a variety of toxic substances. The performance of EEC USA moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR with polyethylene media as biofilm support carrier, packaged wastewater treatment plant with a capacity of 250 m3/day was evaluated for treating the wastewater from Al- Batul hospital of Baquba city in Iraq in terms of the organic matter and suspended solid removal, along with nitrification and microbial growth for medical wastewater. The test results showed that the average removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and total suspended solid (TSS were 79.5%, 74.5%, and 78%, respectively. The system offers good nitrification with the efficiency of 79%. The system shows a weak formation of biomass on carriers, only 1.93 g TSS/m2 of media, corresponding to 32% of the suspended biomass in the reactor.

  12. Proper medical diagnosis and treatment with computer aided system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedowski, Tomasz; Wasiewicz, Piotr; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2009-06-01

    Nowadays computers successfully analyze medical data giving results used for futher treatment. Every year we develop new technology which gives us better and more precise diagnose. We chose esophageal manometry (EFT) which has been considered as a "gold standard" test for the evaluation of esophageal motility. EFT allows physicians to get informations about esophageal peristalsis, amplitude and duration of the esophageal contraction and liquid/viscous bolus transit time from mouth through stomach. We examined 80 patients during 2008 year. Everybody got EFT, endoscopy and X-Ray examination. It was important to ask about symptoms which we correlate and connect with data from EFT. We tried to find a good algorithm for this job in order to do a simple and helpful tool for physician to make right diagnose. Connection between data and symptoms seems to be right and clear, but finding a good algorithm for given data is the main problem.

  13. Implementation of Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Janette N; Ball, Lisa S; Wicher, Camille P

    2016-02-01

    When an outpatient in a northeastern cancer institute requested a Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment (MOLST) form, the state's approved resuscitation form in all settings, none were available. A project was undertaken to institute MOLST forms into policy and routine practice. Research supports early discussions of end-of-life care in patients with cancer and the use of MOLST as an effective tool. The purpose of this article is to discuss the initiation and facilitation of MOLST implementation into practice and policy at a cancer institute. Introducing, overcoming resistance to, piloting, and adopting MOLST in an oncology setting is reported and explained based on the three stages of Lewin's Theory of Planned Change. A small pilot of MOLST with palliative care providers demonstrated the feasibility and suitability of using MOLST in the oncology setting. MOLST was adopted into policy and routine practice at the cancer institute.

  14. Music as a complementary therapy in medical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Halim

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Music can act not only as a source of enjoyable sound that gives pleasant feeling, but also a source of healing. Music as a therapy has developed, supported by many researches conducted by experts in music, education and medicine. The impact of music therapy can be observed in many case studies, showing the positive effects of music to the betterment of human’s neuro-behavior, emotional and physical states. Some reasons to use music as a therapy are: toget audioanalgesic response, to focus attention, to reinforce learning, to enhance interpersonal relationships, and to promote mind-body health in the medical staff. The use of music to help patients with non-infectious diseases such as Alzheimer disease, autism, cancer, headache, heart disease and stroke are described along with experiments and case studies on these diseases. However controversies around music therapy occurred. Therefore, more experiments need to be taken in order to clear the controversies and to use music as a therapy in the present and future medical treatment. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 250-7.Keywords: therapeutic effect, music therapy, Alzheimer, autism, cancer, stroke

  15. Censored data treatment using additional information in intelligent medical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenkova, Z. N.

    2015-11-01

    Statistical procedures are a very important and significant part of modern intelligent medical systems. They are used for proceeding, mining and analysis of different types of the data about patients and their diseases; help to make various decisions, regarding the diagnosis, treatment, medication or surgery, etc. In many cases the data can be censored or incomplete. It is a well-known fact that censorship considerably reduces the efficiency of statistical procedures. In this paper the author makes a brief review of the approaches which allow improvement of the procedures using additional information, and describes a modified estimation of an unknown cumulative distribution function involving additional information about a quantile which is known exactly. The additional information is used by applying a projection of a classical estimator to a set of estimators with certain properties. The Kaplan-Meier estimator is considered as an estimator of the unknown cumulative distribution function, the properties of the modified estimator are investigated for a case of a single right censorship by means of simulations.

  16. The right of the patient to accept or refuse medical treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ponjavić, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary consent of the patient to the proposed medical treatment represents a necessary precondition and ethical justification for its application. However, there is no voluntary consent without the possibility to refuse medical treatment. The right to refuse medical treatment is receiving growing attention since it means that there is less chance for a cure, in spite of the increased medical efficiency. In this paper, the author pays particular attention to the issue of mental capacity as ...

  17. Treatment of relapsing polychondritis in the era of biological agents.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Eoghan M

    2012-02-01

    Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare disorder, often requiring high doses of immunosuppressive therapy to control its potentially life-threatening consequences. The advent of biological agents has added to the armamentarium available to treat RP, but the lack of controlled trials, along with the small numbers of patients and disease heterogeneity means that new therapies are prescribed without the benefits of rigorous clinical research. Thus, information on individual cases is of value in expanding our knowledge of the use of biologic agents in rare conditions. We report on the use of rituximab in a patient who subsequently developed catastrophic aortic incompetence, and we review the literature in relation to the use of this drug in RP.

  18. Theory of hybrid dynamical systems and its applications to biological and medical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2010-11-13

    In this introductory article, we survey the contents of this Theme Issue. This Theme Issue deals with a fertile region of hybrid dynamical systems that are characterized by the coexistence of continuous and discrete dynamics. It is now well known that there exist many hybrid dynamical systems with discontinuities such as impact, switching, friction and sliding. The first aim of this Issue is to discuss recent developments in understanding nonlinear dynamics of hybrid dynamical systems in the two main theoretical fields of dynamical systems theory and control systems theory. A combined study of the hybrid systems dynamics in the two theoretical fields might contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of hybrid dynamical systems. In addition, mathematical modelling by hybrid dynamical systems is particularly important for understanding the nonlinear dynamics of biological and medical systems as they have many discontinuities such as threshold-triggered firing in neurons, on-off switching of gene expression by a transcription factor, division in cells and certain types of chronotherapy for prostate cancer. Hence, the second aim is to discuss recent applications of hybrid dynamical systems in biology and medicine. Thus, this Issue is not only general to serve as a survey of recent progress in hybrid systems theory but also specific to introduce interesting and stimulating applications of hybrid systems in biology and medicine. As the introduction to the topics in this Theme Issue, we provide a brief history of nonlinear dynamics and mathematical modelling, different mathematical models of hybrid dynamical systems, the relationship between dynamical systems theory and control systems theory, examples of complex behaviour in a simple neuron model and its variants, applications of hybrid dynamical systems in biology and medicine as a road map of articles in this Theme Issue and future directions of hybrid systems modelling.

  19. A cost comparison of biologic treatment regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Iannazzo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionBevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody, which, in association with combination chemotherapy regimens, has been shown to be active in metastatic colorectal cancer. Other biologic agents active in the same setting are cetuximab and panitumumab, both of which are monoclonal antibodies directed against the antiepidermal growth factor receptor. The objective of this study was to compare treatment costs of first-line regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer in Italy.MethodsA set of first-line regimens was considered, according to the Italian Association of Medical Oncology and the European Society for Medical Oncology guidelines. A targeted review of the literature was undertaken to identify clinical study references for treatment regimens. The total cost of a regimen was calculated in the perspective of the Italian healthcare system summing up drugs, administration, and adverse event costs, based on year 2016 prices and tariffs.ResultsBevacizumab 7.5 mg + capecitabine was the least expensive regimen, with a total cost of €16,754 per patient. When we consider regimens based on FOLFOX, bevacizumab 5 mg + FOLFOX4 was the least expensive (€32,709 per patient, compared to panitumumab + FOLFOX4 (€42,815, cetuximab + FOLFOX4 (€42,725, and cetuximab + FOLFOX (€37,995. If we consider combination regimens based on FOLFIRI, the association of FOLFIRI and bevacizumab was less expensive than regimens that included cetuximab (€28,389 for bevacizumab 5 mg + FOLFIRI and €35,310 for cetuximab + FOLFIRI.ConclusionsFrom the perspective of the Italian health care system, bevacizumab appears to be a convenient option among the first-line regimens for metastatic colorectal cancer. Further study, based on real-world evidence, would be necessary to confirm this result.

  20. Current Medications for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Brigette S.; Roberts, Holly J.; Needelman, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is common among children. Fortunately, ADHD is highly treatable with medication. The purpose of this article is to serve as a primer on medication treatment for ADHD for school psychologists. The article discusses the available stimulant and nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD.…

  1. Biological treatment of contaminated soils under saline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muerhy, A.; Baugh, K.D.; Bumgardner, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory simulation was conducted to assess the effectiveness of land treatment as a remediation technology for hydrocarbon-contaminated soil treatment associated with the closure of an oil field waste disposal site. The constituents of concern in soils at the site were oil and grease (2-4%), polynuclear aromatics (PAHs) and volatile organics. In addition to the contaminants, the soils were saline. This paper reports that the treatability study results demonstrated that biodegradation of the hydrocarbon contaminants in the saline soil was enhanced by the addition of a commercially available, hydrocarbon-degrading, microbial culture tolerant of high salt concentrations. Contaminant removal by land treatment, including the biodegradation of the PAHs, was enhanced utilizing microbial augmentation in conjunction with nutrient and surfactant addition. The simulation study demonstrated that land treatment achieved the necessary removal of oil and grease. PAHs and VOCs for site closure

  2. The biology and treatment of cancer: understanding cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stein, Gary S; Pardee, Arthur B. (Arthur Beck)

    2009-01-01

    ... 8 CANCER DETECTION AND BIOMARKERS Arthur B. Pardee and Peng Liang 145 vvi CONTENTS 9 CLINICAL CHALLENGES FOR TREATMENT AND A CURE Eleni Efstathiou and Christopher J. Logothetis 155 10 CLINICAL T...

  3. Biology and treatment of renal tumours in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, Jesper; Treger, Taryn D; Gooskens, Saskia L

    2016-01-01

    potential targeted therapies for high-risk subgroups. Our understanding of Wilms' tumourigenesis is evolving and several signalling pathways, microRNA processing and epigenetics are now known to play pivotal roles. Most rhabdoid tumours display somatic and/or germline mutations in the SMARCB1 gene, whereas...... of the tumours with a low prevalence of individual somatic mutations. A further consideration in improving population survival rates is the geographical variation in outcomes across Europe. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the current biological knowledge of childhood renal tumours alongside...

  4. Medical expulsive treatment of distal ureteral stone using tamsulosin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H.; Azim, W.; Akmal, M.; Murtaza, B.

    2015-01-01

    Many minimally invasive interventional techniques as well as expectant treatments exist for the management of lower ureteric calculi. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of tamsulosin as an expulsive pharmacologic therapy for the treatment of distal ureteral stone. Methods: This randomized control trial included 100 patients over 18 years of age with stone Size = 8mm in distal 1/3 of ureter. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups (A and B). Group A Patients were given Capsule Tamsulosin 0.4 mg, 1 daily up to 4 weeks while group B patients were given placebo, 1 Capsule daily up to 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was expulsion rate. A written informed consent was taken from all the patients. Expulsion time, need for analgesics, need for hospitalization and drug side effects were secondary endpoints. Results: A total of 49 patients in group A and 48 patients in group B reported back, therefore 97 out of 100 patients were evaluated. Mean age of the patients was 36.34 years (range 18-57 years). Mean stone size was 5.78 mm (range 4-8 mm) in greatest dimension. A stone expulsion rate of 85.71% (42 patients) was noted in group A and 54.20% (26 patients) in group B. Group A revealed a statistically significant advantage in term of stone expulsion rate (p=0.032). Considering expulsion time in days group A showed statistically significant advantage (p=0.015). Regarding age, sex, stone size and stone lateralization (right/left), there was no significant difference between the group A and B. No drug side effects were noted in both the groups. Conclusion: By using tamsulosin a higher stone expulsion rates can be achieved in a shorter time. More randomized control trials are required to establish tamsulosin as a standard medical expulsive treatment for small distal ureteric calculus. (author)

  5. Survey of French research in biological and medical engineering - aims, means, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, J.

    1975-01-01

    A review of the aims and means available is followed by an outline of the results of French research in biological and medical engineering. Most of the work undertaken has given very positive results from the scientific view-point, followed up by industrial applications. Scintigraphic image processing research has led to CINE 200. A study of heart output quantification in real time has produced a haemodynamic investigation system, the Sysconoram, now commercialized. The study of heart signal recording methods has led to a marketable and reliable system for the detection of pathological heart conditions. Research in neurosurgery on the use of pressure transducers in integrated technology, using a piezoelectric detector associated with a field effect amplifier, has enabled two types of extradural pressure transducer and one cervical intraventricular pressure transducer to be industrialized. Finally the study of a gamma detector combined with a light-amplifier tube has led to the development of camera giving quite exceptional results [fr

  6. Diamond-like carbon as biological compatible material for cell culture and medical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L; Jones, M W; Wu, R L

    1993-01-01

    Ion beam assisted diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been used for growing the human hematopoietic myeloblastic ML-1 cells and human embryo kidney 293 cells in the control environment. DLC films were directly deposited onto the P-35 plastic dishes by impacting the high kinetic energy (1000 eV) of methane ions at room temperature. The present results showed that both ML-1 and HEK 293 cells continuously grow with and without DLC films. It has demonstrated that human cells proliferated on DLC film with very high viability and DLC material had no toxicity to cultured human ML-1 and HEK 293 cells. We conclude that DLC film is a biological compatible material for potential cell culture matrix and bio-medical applications.

  7. Marine Corps NBC Warfare: Determining Clinical Supply Requirements for Treatment of Battlefield Casualties from Chemical and Biological Warfare

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hill, Martin; Galameau, Mike; Pang, Gerry; Konoske, Paula

    2003-01-01

    ... to treat victims of biochemical agents on the battlefield. This study reviewed Marine Corps medical supply blocks for biological and chemical warfare casualties - Authorized Medical Allowance Lists (AMALs) 687 and 688...

  8. Meditation or Medication? Mindfulness training versus medication in the treatment of childhood ADHD : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meppelink, R.; de Bruin, E.I.; Bögels, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity-Disorder (ADHD) is, with a prevalence of 5 %, a highly common childhood disorder, and has severe impact on the lives of youngsters and their families. Medication is often the treatment of choice, as it currently is most effective. However, medication has

  9. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Water-immiscible solvents for the biological treatment of waste gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesario, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    In conventional biological systems for the treatment of waste gases, contaminants are transferred directly to the aqueous phase and then converted by the micro-organisms. When poorly water-soluble pollutants are to be removed, biological degradation is often limited by the slow transport

  11. Medical management of biological warfare and bioterrorism: place of the immunoprevention and the immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Patrice; Attre, Olivier; Boutin, Jean Paul; Cavallo, Jean Didier; Debord, Thierry; Jouan, Alain; Vidal, Dominique

    2003-10-01

    Biological weapons are considered as mass destruction and terror weapons. Terrorism including bioterrorism is the major threat in the future conflicts for our nations. The aim of bioterrorism is more related to the potential disorganisation of the society than to the lethal effects of the agents used. The dramatic consequences cannot be discarded, especially if contagious agents such viral are used. The preparation of specific defence measures is a major challenge for our countries. The knowledge acquired from the struggle against natural infectious diseases and recent events are essential to improve behaviours to face the biological weapon threats. The defence attitude is based on the anticipation of the threat, the management of the victims, and the restoration of the operational capabilities. This global defence attitude implies six important functions: (i) alert, (ii) detection and diagnosis, (iii) availability of pharmaceutical countermeasures such as vaccine, sera and anti-infectious medicine and products, (iv) medical management of victims, (v) training and information, (vi) research and development. Passive and active immunoprevention and immuntherapy belong to the approaches discussed in the context of bioterrorism countermeasures. Further researches might be focused on these topics.

  12. Risk of serious infection in biological treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Cameron, Chris; Noorbaloochi, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serious infections are a major concern for patients considering treatments for rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence is inconsistent as to whether biological drugs are associated with an increased risk of serious infection compared with traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMAR...

  13. Occurrence of xenobiotics in gray water and removal in three biological treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Vieno, N.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen selected xenobiotics related to personal care and household chemicals (UV-filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in gray water from 32 houses and in effluents of three different biological treatment systems (aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic +

  14. A Review on Alternative Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Nitrate Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamole, Pradip B.; D'Souza, S. F.; Lele, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    Huge amount of wastewater containing nitrogen is produced by various chemical and biological industries. Nitrogen is present in the form of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. This review deals with treatment of nitrate based effluent using biological denitrification. Because of its adverse effect on aquatic life and human health, treatment of nitrate bearing effluents has become mandatory before discharge. Treatment of such wastes is a liability for the industries and incurs cost. However, the economics of the process can be controlled by selection of proper method and reduction in the operating cost. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of nitrate removal with emphasis on biological denitrification. The cost of biological denitrification is controlled by the carbon source. Hence, use of alternative carbon sources such as agricultural wastes, industrial effluent or by products is reviewed in this paper. Policies for reducing the cost of nitrate treatment and enhancing the efficiency have been recommended.

  15. Biological treatment of habitation waste streams using full scale MABRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William; Barta, Daniel J.; Morse, Audra; Christenson, Dylan; Sevanthi, Ritesh

    Recycling waste water is a critical step to support sustainable long term habitation in space. Water is one of the largest contributors to life support requirements. In closed loop life support systems, membrane aerated biological reactors (MABRs) can reduce the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia (NH3) concentration as well as decrease the pH, leading to a more stable solution with less potential to support biological growth or promote carryover of unionized ammonia as well as producing a higher quality brine. Over the last three years we have operated 3 full size MABRs ( 120L) treating a habitation type waste stream composed of urine, hygiene, and laundry water. The reactors varied in the specific surface area (260, 200, and 150 m2/m3) available for biofilm growth and gas transfer. The liquid side system was continually monitored for pH, TDS, and DO, and the influent and effluent monitored daily for DOC, TN, NOx, and NH4. The gas side system was continuously monitored for O2, CO2, and N2O in the effluent gas as well as pressure and flow rates. These systems have all demonstrated greater than 90% DOC reductions and ammonium conversion rates of 50-70% over a range of loading rates with effluent pH from 5-7.5. We have evaluated. In addition, to evaluating the impact of loading rates (10-70 l/d) we have also evaluated the impact of forced hibernation, the use of pure O2 on performance, the impact of pressurize operation to prevent de-gassing of N2 and to promote higher O2 transfer and a discontinuous feeding cycle to allow integration with desalination. Our analysis includes quantification of consumables (power and O2), waste products such as CO2 and N2O as well as solids production. Our results support the use of biological reactors to treat habitation waste streams as an alternative to the use of pretreatment and desalination alone.

  16. Biological Water Processor and Forward Osmosis Secondary Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Sarah; Meyer, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Biological Water Processor (BWP) is to remove 90% organic carbon and 75% ammonium from an exploration-based wastewater stream for four crew members. The innovative design saves on space, power and consumables as compared to the ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) by utilizing microbes in a biofilm. The attached-growth system utilizes simultaneous nitrification and denitrification to mineralize organic carbon and ammonium to carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas, which can be scrubbed in a cabin air revitalization system. The BWP uses a four-crew wastewater comprised of urine and humidity condensate, as on the ISS, but also includes hygiene (shower, shave, hand washing and oral hygiene) and laundry. The BWP team donates 58L per day of this wastewater processed in Building 7.

  17. Biology, treatment, and control of flea and tick infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagburn, Byron L; Dryden, Michael W

    2009-11-01

    Flea and tick infestations are common and elimination can be expensive and time consuming. Many advances in control of fleas can be directly linked to improved knowledge of the intricacies of flea host associations, reproduction, and survival in the premises. Understanding tick biology and ecology is far more difficult than with fleas, because North America can have up to 9 different tick species infesting cats and dogs compared to 1 primary flea species. Effective tick control is more difficult to achieve than effective flea control, because of the abundance of potential alternative hosts in the tick life cycle. Many effective host-targeted tick control agents exist, several of which also possess activity against adult or immature fleas and other parasites.

  18. Role of Molecular Biology in Cancer Treatment: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Aman; Qamar, Hafiza Yasara; Ali, Qurban; Naeem, Hafsa; Riaz, Mariam; Amin, Saima; Kanwal, Naila; Ali, Fawad; Sabar, Muhammad Farooq; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Cancer is a genetic disease and mainly arises due to a number of reasons include activation of onco-genes, malfunction of tumor suppressor genes or mutagenesis due to external factors. This article was written from the data collected from PubMed, Nature, Science Direct, Springer and Elsevier groups of journals. Oncogenes are deregulated form of normal proto-oncogenes required for cell division, differentiation and regulation. The conversion of proto-oncogene to oncogene is caused due to translocation, rearrangement of chromosomes or mutation in gene due to addition, deletion, duplication or viral infection. These oncogenes are targeted by drugs or RNAi system to prevent proliferation of cancerous cells. There have been developed different techniques of molecular biology used to diagnose and treat cancer, including retroviral therapy, silencing of oncogenes and mutations in tumor suppressor genes. Among all the techniques used, RNAi, zinc finger nucleases and CRISPR hold a brighter future towards creating a Cancer Free World.

  19. The Hidden Complexity of Biological "Dirty Bombs": Implications for Special Operations Medical Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Michael A; Blythe, Jauchia

    The recent capture of a terrorist in Belgium carrying explosives, fecal matter, and animal tissue may indicate a shift from conventional weapons to crude bacteriological preparations as instruments of terror. It is important to note that although such weapons lack technological sophistication, bacteria are inherently complex, unpredictable, and undetectable in the field. Therefore, it is important that Special Operations medical personnel understand the complications that such seemingly simple devices can add to the treatment of casualties in the field and subsequent evaluation in the clinic. 2016.

  20. Modelling of environmental impacts from biological treatment of organic municipal waste in EASEWASTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Neidel, Trine Lund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    The waste-LCA model EASEWASTE quantifies potential environmental effects from biological treatment of organic waste, based on mass and energy flows, emissions to air, water, soil and groundwater as well as effects from upstream and downstream processes. Default technologies for composting, anaero...... the environmental performance of alternative biological treatment technologies in relation to their mass flows, energy consumption, gaseous emissions, biogas recovery and compost/digestate utilization....

  1. Towards biology-oriented treatment planning in hadrontherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kundrát, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 122, 1-4 (2006), s. 480-482 ISSN 0144-8420 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : treatment planning * hadron radiotherapy Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 0.446, year: 2006

  2. [On "2015 Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis". Medical treatment for osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2015-09-01

    The main revisions to the item of medical treatment in the 2015 edition of the Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Osteoporosis are the additions of the drugs such as ibandronate, teriparatide acetate (once-weekly preparation), and denosumab, which were approved after the release of the 2011 edition, and of information on new dosage forms for existing drugs. Furthermore, the heading "Evaluation and Recommendations" for each drug was changed to "Evaluation of Efficacy" . The choice of drug is determined based on evidence for the effectiveness of each drug and in accordance with the age, fracture risk, and pathophysiology of each patient. As for the selection and combined use of the various drugs, accumulation of evidence is anticipated, but sequential therapy using antiresorptive agents following treatment with teriparatide preparations is recommended.

  3. Diagnosis and medical treatment of neuropathic pain in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogerio Del Arco

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the difficulties in diagnosing and treating neuropathic pain caused by leprosy and to understand the main characteristics of this situation. Methods: 85 patients were treated in outpatient units with reference to leprosy and the accompanying pain. We used a questionnaire known as the Douleur Neuropathic 4 test and we conducted detailed neurological exams. As a result, 42 patients were excluded from the study for not having proved their pain. Results: Out of the 37 patients that experienced pain, 22 (59.5% had neuropathic pain (or a mixture of this pain and their existing pain and of these 90.8% considered this pain to be moderate or severe. 81.8% of the sample suffered with this pain for more than 6 months. Only 12 (54.5% of the patients had been diagnosed with neuropathic pain and in almost half of these cases, this pain had not been diagnosed. With reference to medical treatment (n=12 for neuropathic pain, 5 (41.6% responded that they became better. For the other 7 (58.4% there were no changes in relation to the pain or in some cases the pain worsened in comparison to their previous state. Statistical analysis comparing improvements in relation to the pain amongst the patients that were treated (n=12 and those that were not, showed significant differences (value p=0.020. Conclusion: we noted difficulties in diagnosing neuropathic pain for leprosy in that almost half of the patients that were studied had not had their pain diagnosed. We attributed this to some factors such as the non-adoption of the appropriate protocols which led to inadequate diagnosis and treatment that overlooked the true picture.

  4. 78 FR 69694 - Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Devices in the Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Diseases: How To Estimate and Reward True Patient... ``Changing Regulatory and Reimbursement Paradigms for Medical Devices in the Treatment of Obesity and... medical devices for the treatment of morbid obesity and other metabolic diseases and evolving approaches...

  5. Denosumab - a new medication in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słopień, Radosław; Rynio, Piotr; Kubala, Elżbieta; Milewska, Ewa; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2017-09-01

    Osteoporosis is a chronic, systemic skeletal disorder characterised by decreased bone density. It leads to an increased risk of bone fractures - one of the major causes of disability in modern societies. Bisphosphonates are the most commonly used medications in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Denosumab, a new approach to fracture prevention, is a fully human monoclonal antibody that targets nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an important cytokine regulating formation and function of osteoclasts. Generally, denosumab is not used as initial therapy; however, in some cases it should be considered. It concerns patients at high risk of fracture, such as older patients who have difficulty with the dosing requirements of oral bisphosphonates or who have markedly impaired renal function. Denosumab can be also considered in patients who present intolerance or unresponsiveness to other therapies. Clinical studies have shown that denosumab is highly effective in increasing bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women regardless of the site analysed, as well as reducing the risk of bone fractures. The risk of developing antiresorptive, agent-induced osteonecrosis of the jaw related to denosumab therapy is low.

  6. Medical Isotope Production at TRIUMF - from Imaging to Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehr, C.; Bénard, F.; Buckley, K.; Crawford, J.; Gottberg, A.; Hanemaayer, V.; Kunz, P.; Ladouceur, K.; Radchenko, V.; Ramogida, C.; Robertson, A.; Ruth, T.; Zacchia, N.; Zeisler, S.; Schaffer, P.

    TRIUMF has a long history of medical isotope production. For more than 40 years, the Life Sciences Division at TRIUMF has produced isotopes for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for the local hospitals. Recently, the division has taken on the challenge to expand the facility's isotope repertoire to isotopes for imaging to treatment. At the smallest cyclotron at TRIUMF with energy of 13 MeV, radiometals are being produced in a liquid target which is typically used for PET isotope production. This effort makes radiometals available for early stage research and preclinical trials. At beam energy of 24 MeV, we produce 99mTc from 100Mo with a cyclotron, the most common isotope for Single-Photon-Emission-Computed-Tomography (SPECT) and the most common isotope for nuclear imaging. The use of a cyclotron bypasses the common production route via a nuclear reactor as well as enriched uranium. And finally, at our 500 MeV cyclotron we have demonstrated the production of α emitters useful for targeted alpha therapy. Herein, these efforts are summarized.

  7. Medical treatment of Cushing's disease: Overview and recent findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Smooke Praw

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Smooke Praw1, Anthony P Heaney1,21Department of Medicine, 2Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAAbstract: Cushing's disease, due to pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH hypersecretion, is the most common etiology of spontaneous excess cortisol production. The majority of pituitary tumors causing Cushing's disease measure <1 cm and the excess morbidity associated with these tumors is mostly due to the effects of elevated, nonsuppressible, ACTH levels leading to adrenal steroid hypersecretion. Elevated circulating cortisol levels lead to abnormal fat deposition, hypertension, diabetes, coronary artery disease, osteoporosis, muscle weakness and psychological disturbances. At experienced centers, initial surgical remission rate via transnasal, transphenoidal resection approaches 80% for tumors less than 1 cm, but may be as low as 30% for larger lesions and long-term recurrence in all groups approaches 25%. Residual disease may be managed with more radical surgery, pituitary-directed radiation, bilateral adrenalectomy, or medical therapy. This paper addresses current and novel therapies in various stages of development for Cushing’s disease.Keywords: Cushing's disease, treatment, pasireotide, PPAR-γ, 11 β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitors, dopamine agonists

  8. Alzheimer's disease and language impairments: social intervention and medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimova, Blanka; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Hort, Jakub; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Communication is very important for people to be successfully integrated into social environment and make and maintain relationship. Particularly, language difficulties lead to social exclusion of the people affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contribute to a significant decrease in the quality of their life and also have a big impact on their family members who in most cases become their caregivers who need to communicate with their loved ones in order to meet their needs. Therefore, the goal of this study is to describe language impairments in the individual phases of AD and discuss their improvement with respect to AD on the basis of literature review. The authors of this article use traditional research methods in order to achieve the goal set mentioned earlier. First, a method of literature review of available sources describing language impairments in the individual phases of AD is exploited. Second, to show how informal caregivers and relevant drugs can successfully intervene in the improvement of these language impairments, a method of comparison of different research studies exploring such social intervention and medical treatment is used.

  9. [Enhancement effect of low intensity ultrasound on biological wastewater treatment system in low temperature and design of application on biological wastewater treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Yan, Yi-Xin

    2008-03-01

    This work aims to study the enhancement effects of low intensity ultrasound on biological wastewater treatment in low temperature. The activated sludge was irradiated by ultrasound with intensity of 0.3 W cm(-2) for 10 minutes, and then simulated SBR process in 4 degrees C. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR), dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and COD were determined to indicate the changes of sludge activity and the removal rate of organic matter after the ultrasonic irradiation in low temperature. Results showed that after ultrasonic enhancement, the sludge activity could be increased by 30%, and COD removal rate could keep the usual level as in the room temperature. Furthermore, the enhancement effect of ultrasonic irradiation was more significant in the low temperature than that in the room temperature. This paper also took the typical municipal wastewater secondary treatment technology and SBR technology as examples to illustrate the design and operation of the enhancement of biological wastewater treatment using low intensity ultrasound.

  10. Biologically Degradable Adsorbents in Treatment of Coloured Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Klančnik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the adsorption capacity of biodegradable wastes such as peels of lemon, orange, mandarin, avocado, apples, banana and over-matured banana in the treatment of coloured wastewaters polluted with direct dye and with pigment screen printing ink was studied. Their adsorption capacity was compared with already established adsorbents such as activated carbon, zeolite, alumina and chitosan. The efficiency of the adsorption treatment was evaluated by a spectrophotometric measurement of colour removal of the wastewater. In both coloured wastewaters, dried banana and dried ground lemon peel proved to be excellent biodegradable adsorbents, which were even more effective than commercially used activated carbon. The dried ground orange, mandarin and apple peels also showed adsorption abilities in the coloured wastewaters. In the water contaminated with dye, the equally high level of discoloration obtained with lemon peel and dried banana was also reached with chitosan and alumina.

  11. Molecular and cellular biology of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a review of current concepts and future trends in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Castilla, Leonardo; Russin, Jonathan J; Martinez-Del-Campo, Eduardo; Soriano-Baron, Hector; Spetzler, Robert F; Nakaji, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are classically described as congenital static lesions. However, in addition to rupturing, AVMs can undergo growth, remodeling, and regression. These phenomena are directly related to cellular, molecular, and physiological processes. Understanding these relationships is essential to direct future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The authors performed a search of the contemporary literature to review current information regarding the molecular and cellular biology of AVMs and how this biology will impact their potential future management. A PubMed search was performed using the key words "genetic," "molecular," "brain," "cerebral," "arteriovenous," "malformation," "rupture," "management," "embolization," and "radiosurgery." Only English-language papers were considered. The reference lists of all papers selected for full-text assessment were reviewed. Current concepts in genetic polymorphisms, growth factors, angiopoietins, apoptosis, endothelial cells, pathophysiology, clinical syndromes, medical treatment (including tetracycline and microRNA-18a), radiation therapy, endovascular embolization, and surgical treatment as they apply to AVMs are discussed. Understanding the complex cellular biology, physiology, hemodynamics, and flow-related phenomena of AVMs is critical for defining and predicting their behavior, developing novel drug treatments, and improving endovascular and surgical therapies.

  12. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Technologies with Biological Treatment: A General Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Momani; Shawaqfeh, A.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been recently proposed as an important wastwater treatment option. This paper provides a broad overview of the use of AOPs alone or combind with a biological process for wastwater treatment and the current state of knowledge about water treatment options. The first part of the paper focuses on combination of AOP's with biological treatment of different kinds of contaminations. Then the review presents methods used to imorove wastwater biodegradability and toxicity measurements as related to coupling processes. The presented STUDIES conclude that the the use AOP'S as a pre-treatment for wastewater is recommended under specific conditions; 1) AOP's can be used efficiently to pre-treat recalcitrant componds, 2) AOP's can be used to enhance the biodegradability of aqueous solutions, 3) Toxic compounds can be converted to non-toxic compounds by means of AOP's 4) Coupling processes(AOP's + biological) give reasonable results in treating wastewater wiyh significant hydraulic retention time (HRT) (Author's) 58 refs

  13. Clinical, biological, histological features and treatment of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy: a literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonan, Paulo Rogerio Ferreti; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Almeida, Oslei Paes de; Alves, Fabio de Abreu

    2005-01-01

    The oral mucositis is a main side effect of radiotherapy on head and neck, initiating two weeks after the beginning of the treatment. It is characterized by sensation of local burning to intense pain, leading in several cases, to the interruption of the treatment. The purpose of this work is to review the main published studies that discuss the clinical, biological and histopathological features of oral mucositis induced by radiation therapy and to describe the main approaches recommended to prevent or to treat it. Although the clinical features of mucositis are intensively described in the literature, few studies address the histopathological alterations in oral mucositis and only recently, its biological processes have been investigated. The biological mechanisms involved in the radiation tissue damage have been only recently discussed and there is no consensus among treatment modalities. Yet, the progressive knowledge in the histopathology and biological characteristics of oral mucositis probably will lead to more effective in prevention and control strategies. (author)

  14. The effect of medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on foster care caseloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Wildeman, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    = 157,938) in the period from 1998 to 2010 to show that increasing medical treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) accounts for a substantial share of the decrease in foster care caseloads. According to our estimates, the decline in foster care caseloads during this period would...... have been 45% smaller absent increases in medical treatment of ADHD. These findings are especially provocative in light of recent research showing ambiguous effects of medical treatment of ADHD. Future research should be attentive to how medical treatment aimed at addressing children’s acute behavioral...

  15. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part I: an overview and medical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wai Tong; Yip, Annie Lk

    2013-01-01

    During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients' needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive-behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have recommended that a combination of treatment modalities be adopted to meet the complex health needs of people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In view of the heterogeneity of the risk

  16. Biological treatment of model dyes and textile wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Alicia; Carballo, Julia; Pérez, María José; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2017-08-01

    Previous works conducted in our laboratory, reveled that Bacillus aryabhattai DC100 produce ligninolytic enzymes such as laccases and/or peroxidases, opening new applications in different bioprocesses, including the treatment of disposal residues such as dyestuffs from textile processing industries. This work described the degradation of three commercial model dyes Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 (CBB), Indigo Carmine (IC) and Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) under different culture media and operational conditions. The process was optimized using a Central Composite Rotatable Design, and the desirability predicted complete decolorization of 150 mg/L CBB at 37 °C, 304.09 rpm and salt concentration of 19.204 g/L. The model was validated with concentrations up to 180 mg/L CBB and IC, not being able to remove high amount of RBBR. The procedure here developed also allowed Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD) reductions in CBB of about 42%, meanwhile tests on real effluents from a local textile industry involved COD reductions of 50% in a liquid wastewater and 14% in semi-liquid sludge. Thus, allow the authorized discharge of wastewater into the corresponding treatment plant. Decolorization efficiencies and COD reductions open on the potential application of B. aryabhattai DC100 on the bioremediation of real effluents from textile industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of biological sulfate conversions in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian-wei; Xiang, Peng-yu; Mackey, Hamish R; Chi, Kun; Lu, Hui; Chui, Ho-kwong; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2014-11-15

    Treatment of waters contaminated with sulfur containing compounds (S) resulting from seawater intrusion, the use of seawater (e.g. seawater flushing, cooling) and industrial processes has become a challenging issue since around two thirds of the world's population live within 150 km of the coast. In the past, research has produced a number of bioengineered systems for remediation of industrial sulfate containing sewage and sulfur contaminated groundwater utilizing sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). The majority of these studies are specific with SRB only or focusing on the microbiology rather than the engineered application. In this review, existing sulfate based biotechnologies and new approaches for sulfate contaminated waters treatment are discussed. The sulfur cycle connects with carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, thus a new platform of sulfur based biotechnologies incorporating sulfur cycle with other cycles can be developed, for the removal of sulfate and other pollutants (e.g. carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and metal) from wastewaters. All possible electron donors for sulfate reduction are summarized for further understanding of the S related biotechnologies including rates and benefits/drawbacks of each electron donor. A review of known SRB and their environmental preferences with regard to bioreactor operational parameters (e.g. pH, temperature, salinity etc.) shed light on the optimization of sulfur conversion-based biotechnologies. This review not only summarizes information from the current sulfur conversion-based biotechnologies for further optimization and understanding, but also offers new directions for sulfur related biotechnology development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological Treatment of tannery wastewater using activated sludge process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haydar, S.; Aziz, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of Activated Sludge Process (ASP) for the treatment of tannery wastewater and to develop a simple design criteria under local conditions. A bench scale model comprising of an aeration tank and final clarifier was used for this purpose. The model was operated continuously for 267 days. Settled tannery wastewater was used as influent to the aeration tank. Five days Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of the influent and effluent were measured to find process efficiency at various mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and hydraulic detention time. The results of the study demonstrated that an efficiency of above 90% and 80% for BOD5 and COD, respectively could be obtained if the ASP is operated at an MLVSS concentration of 3500 mg/L keeping an aeration time of 12 hours. (author)

  19. Is Biology Destiny? Birth Weight and Differential Parental Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Time diaries of sibling pairs from the PSID-CDS are used to determine whether maternal time investments compensate for or reinforce birth-weight differences among children. The findings demonstrate that the direction and degree of differential treatment vary by mother's education. Less-educated mothers devote more total time and more educationally oriented time to heavier-birth-weight children, whereas better-educated mothers devote more total and more educationally oriented time to lower-birth-weight children. The compensating effects observed among highly educated mothers are substantially larger than the reinforcing effects among the least-educated mothers. The findings show that families redistribute resources in ways that both compensate for and exacerbate early-life disadvantages. PMID:22865101

  20. Treatment of Radiation Induced Biological Changes by Bone Marrow Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Missiry, M.A.; Shehata, G.; Roushdy, H.M; Fayed, Th.A.

    1999-01-01

    Preventing the propagation of radiation induced oxidative damage has been a subject of considerable investigations. The ultimate goal of the present study is to use bone marrow cells to ameliorate or to treat the radiation sickness. Transplantation of bone marrow cell has shown promising results in the present experimental radiation treatment. In this report, suspension of bone marrow cells was injected into rats 12 h. after exposure to 4.5 Gy whole body gamma irradiation. Significant results were recorded on the successful control of the radiation induced disorders in a number of biochemical parameters including certain enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase and glutathione) and certain parameters related to kidney function including creatinine, urea as well as Atpase Activity in blood serum, urine and kidney tissue

  1. Generalized anxiety disorder: comorbidity, comparative biology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, David J; Ballenger, James C; Sheehan, David; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2002-12-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a severe and chronic anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable worrying and somatic anxiety (tension, insomnia and hypervigilance). It is a common condition, with lifetime prevalence rates for DSM-IV GAD in the general population of approx. 5-6% being reported. In addition, like other anxiety disorders, GAD also shows comorbidity with depression and most of the other anxiety disorders. This article reviews data on the prevalence of GAD, its comorbidity with depression, and its social and economic impact. Proposed neurobiological mechanisms for GAD are discussed, since an understanding of these may help in the development of future therapies. Finally, current pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options for GAD are reviewed, with particular attention being paid to published clinical-trial data.

  2. Degradation of Some Textile Dyes using Biological and Physical Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmd, R.F.K.

    2011-01-01

    A total of twenty samples composed of ten samples of decaying eucalyptus leaves and ten soil samples were collected from El-Kanater El-Khairia district. All isolates were purified and identified to the species level. They found to be belonging to two main genera: Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. The obtained fungal isolates were screened for testing their ability to decolorize Isolan dyes. The strain Aspergillus niger ES-5 was chosen for its highest ability to decolorize the four Isolan dyes. The biological decolorization of the textile metal azo dye was investigated under co-metabolic conditions. The decolorization capacity of the strain was influenced by the presence and/or absence of media components. The majority of decolorization was growth related, where resulted in 90.4%, 99.6%, 95.0% and 94.6% for I.Y, I.R, I.N and I.G, respectively after 72 h, only 2.5, 1.3, 1.4 and 3.0% for I.Y, I.R, I.N and I.G, respectively were desorbed, while negligible decolorization was detected using extracellular fluid (ECF) as well as using dead pellets. The addition of the dye to fungal cultures didn’t affect the extracellular GOD production while intracellular GOD production exhibited a different profile. Pictures of the mycelia represent dye uptake over the 72 h period of decolorization. The metal detection using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) of the outer fungal mycelium wall and ECF were both below detection level after the decolorization process took place. Thus, decolorization process and the removal of the elements by A. niger ES-5 involve initial adsorption followed by entrapment of the adsorbed dye inside the fungal biomass. Gamma rays increase color intensity in I.Y, while the other three Isolan dyes showed negative decolorization efficiency till 2.5 kGy after which, slow increase in the decolorization was observed.

  3. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The biological treatment of the wastes facing the greenhouse effect and the climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, E.

    2007-01-01

    The weight of the wastes treatment in the accounting of the greenhouse gases production is really poor: 1 to 2% of the CO 2 and NO 2 emissions. The aim of this paper is to qualify and quantify the interest of biological solutions for the treatment of domestic wastes and sludges. (A.L.B.)

  5. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Successful treatment of first-episode psychosis is one of the major factors that impacts long-term prognosis. Currently, there are no satisfactory biological markers (biomarkers) to predict which patients with a first-episode psychosis will respond to which treatment. In addition, a non-negligibl...

  6. Klinefelter Syndrome and medical treatment: hypogonadism and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Simon; Skakkebæk, Anne; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS), though described more than 70 years ago, still imposes significant diagnostic challenges. Based on data from epidemiological studies, KS is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although the pathophysiology and etiology behind these observations are as yet not well understood, a significant contribution of hypogonadism, central to the syndrome, is traditionally suspected. However, other unknown effects inherent to the syndrome also seem to modify the disease pattern. Herein we show that KS is under-diagnosed since only roughly 25% of patients are diagnosed and the mean age of diagnosis is during adult life. KS is associated with increased morbidity resulting in loss of 2-5 years in lifespan with increased mortality from different diseases and a poor socioeconomic profile. Small testes, hypergonadothrophic hypogonadism and cognitive impairment are usually found. The accompanying hypogonadism can lead to altered body composition and a risk of developing metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Cancer risk is generally not different from that observed in the background population, although specific cancers like breast cancer and extragonadal germ cell tumors are seen more frequently in KS. The mainstay of medical treatment is testosterone replacement therapy to both attenuate acute and long-term consequences of hypogonadism and possibly prevent the frequent comorbidity. We believe that the diagnostic challenges should be tackled more efficiently, while there is also a pressing need to generate better evidence for timing and the proper dose of testosterone replacement. We advocate for a multidisciplinary setup with the inclusion of pediatricians, speech therapists, general practitioners, psychologists, infertility specialists, urologists and endocrinologists.

  7. Performance evaluation of non-incineration treatment facilities for disinfection of medical infectious and sharps wastes in educational hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anooshiravan Mohseni Band-pay

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, a rule prohibiting the use of incinerators was ratified by the Iranian Islamic Parliament. Based on this rule, the Ministry of Health emphasized the sterilization of infectious waste at its production source by means of non-incineration equipment and methods. This research examined the performance of non-incineration technologies in treating medical infectious and sharps wastes at educational hospitals affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 12 educational hospitals of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. First, a questionnaire was designed and its validity approved. Then the required data was gathered during visits to participating hospitals. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 16. Results: Findings showed that the daily production of infectious and sharps wastes in the studied hospitals generally equaled 3387 kg. All hospitals were equipped with non-incineration systems; however, only 83.3% of them were active. Some infectious waste was disposed of along with urban wastes without being sterilized. Monthly biological assessments of treatment equipment were implemented for only 41.7% of the equipment. Conclusion: The failures of the non-incineration systems demand that appropriate investigations be conducted prior to the purchase of these devices. Monthly biological assessments are essential to ensure the accuracy of the systems’ performance in hospitals.

  8. Thyroid Autoimmunity and Function after Treatment with Biological Antirheumatic Agents in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliddal, Sofie; Dinsen, Stina; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    With the increased pro-inflammatory response in both rheumatoid arthritis and thyroid autoimmune diseases, treatment with biological antirheumatic agents (BAAs) of the former may affect the course of the latter. In hepatitis C and cancer patients, treatment with biological agents substantially...... increases the risk of developing thyroid autoimmunity. As the use of BAAs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is increasing, this review aimed to investigate if such use affected thyroid status in rheumatoid arthritis patients. We conducted a systematic literature search and included six studies...

  9. Long-term safety of biologics in the treatment of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchal MR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Manisha R Panchal,1 Helen Coope,2 D John McKenna,3 Anton B Alexandroff31Department of Dermatology, Sherwood Forest Hospitals, Kingsmill Hospital, Nottinghamshire, 2Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK Ltd, West Sussex, 3Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UKAbstract: Biologics are novel and important agents in the treatment of severe psoriasis. These agents block specific molecular steps in the inflammatory cascade, thereby reducing activation and proliferation of keratinocytes. Prescreening for biologic agents and careful monitoring of patients is important. There are four biologics currently licensed and used in the treatment of psoriasis in the European Union. This is an evidence-based review examining clinical trials and focusing on the long-term safety data for four biologic agents. Current British Association of Dermatology guidance for the use of biologics in psoriasis and guidelines on the management of psoriasis from the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have been used. Advances on safety information since 2009 in clinical trials are reviewed. The results show that overall there is no statistical significance in the incidence of adverse effects of biologics versus placebo. However, there are serious adverse effects that are reported for biologics that need to be assessed for and addressed promptly. Results of studies discussing major adverse cardiovascular events are also reviewed.Keywords: psoriasis, biologic agents, safety profile, major cardiovascular events

  10. Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: calculation and optimization of biologically effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.; Scholz, M.

    2000-09-01

    We describe a novel approach to treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy based on the local effect model (LEM) which allows to calculate the biologically effective dose not only for the target region but for the entire irradiation volume. LEM is ideally suited to be used as an integral part of treatment planning code systems for active dose shaping devices like the GSI raster scan system. Thus, it has been incorporated into our standard treatment planning system for ion therapy (TRiP). Single intensity modulated fields can be optimized with respect to homogeneous biologically effective dose. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is calculated separately for each voxel of the patient CT. Our radiobiologically oriented code system is in use since 1995 for the planning of irradiation experiments with cell cultures and animals such as rats and minipigs. Since 1997 it is in regular and successful use for patient treatment planning. (orig.)

  11. USBF-system of biological wastewater treatment; Elsistema USBF en la depuracion biologica de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampudia Gutierrez, J.

    2003-07-01

    An advanced system of biological wastewater treatment, has been developed by the company Depuralia. This system brings up a technological innovation, which has been awarded with several international awards. The wastewater treatment, occurs in an activated sludge reactor of extended aeration with a very low mass loading, with a nitrification-denitrification process, and water separation-clarification by upflow sludge blanket-filtration. The arrangement of a compact biological reactor enables complex wastewater treatment. High efficiency of the separation through sludge filtration provides functionality of the equipment with high concentration of activated sludge, with less implementation surface and volume. The elements of the biological reactor are described, the advantages are enumerated, and the results obtained in several accomplishments are shown; in the industrial as well as in the urban water treatment plants. (Author) 9 refs.

  12. Degrading organic micropollutants: The next challenge in the evolution of biological wastewater treatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh eSinghal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global water scarcity is driving the need for identifying new water source. Wastewater could be a potential water resource if appropriate treatment technologies could be developed. One of the barriers to obtaining high quality water from wastewater arises from the presence of organic micropollutants, which are biologically active at trace levels. Removal of these compounds from wastewater by current physico-chemical technologies is prohibitively expensive. While biological treatment processes are comparatively cheap, current systems are not capable of degrading the wide range of organic micropollutants present in wastewater. As current wastewater treatment processes were developed for treating conventional pollutants present at mg/L levels, degrading the ng/L levels of micropollutants will require a different approach to system design and operation. In this paper we discuss strategies that could be employed to develop biological wastewater treatment systems capable of degrading organic micropollutants.

  13. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  14. Selecting Medications for the Treatment of Urinary Incontinence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medications, used as an adjunct to behaviour therapy, can provide additional benefit. Many therapies are available for patients with stress incontinence, including pelvic floor muscle exercise, surgery, intravaginal support devices, pessaries, peri-urethral injections, magnetic chairs, and intra-urethral inserts. No medication ...

  15. Experimental Treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gets Boost from Existing Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Research Spotlight on Research Experimental Treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Gets Boost from Existing Medication By Colleen Labbe, ... the effects of a promising experimental treatment for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), according to research partially funded by the ...

  16. Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Imitation Biological Treatment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chang; Chen, Jun; Wu, Ke; Zhou, Zhongkai; Cheng, Tingting

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the treatment methods of heavy metal pollution in soils were analyzed, the existence and transformation of heavy metals in soil were explored, and the mechanism of heavy metal absorption by plants was studied. It was concluded that the main form of plants absorb heavy metals in the soil is exchangeable. The main mechanism was that the plant cell wall can form complex with heavy metals, so that heavy metals fixed on the cell wall, and through the selective absorption of plasma membrane into the plant body. In addition, the adsorption mechanism of the adsorbed material was analyzed. According to the results of some researchers, it was found that the mechanism of adsorption of heavy metals was similar to that of plants. According to this, using adsorbent material as the main material, Imitate the principle of plant absorption of heavy metals in the soil to removing heavy metals in the soil at one-time and can be separated from the soil after adsorption to achieve permanent removal of heavy metals in the soil was feasibility.

  17. Salicylic-acid-mediated enhanced biological treatment of wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Kapley, Atya; Purohit, Hemant J

    2010-03-01

    Activated sludge represents a microbial community which is responsible for reduction in pollution load from wastewaters and whose performance depends upon the composition and the expression of degradative capacity. In the present study, the role of salicylic acid (SA) has been evaluated for acclimatization of activated sludge collected from a combined effluent treatment plant followed by analysis of the physiological performance and microbial community of the sludge. The biodegradative capacity of the acclimatized activated sludge was further evaluated for improvement in efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from wastewater samples collected from industries manufacturing bulk drugs and dyes and dye intermediates (wastewater 1) and from dye industry (wastewater 2). An increase in COD removal efficiency from 50% to 58% and from 78% to 82% was observed for wastewater 1 and wastewater 2, respectively. Microbial community analysis data showed selective enrichment and change in composition due to acclimatization by SA, with 50% of the clones showing sequence homology to unidentified and uncultured bacteria. This was demonstrated by analysis of partial 16S rDNA sequence data generated from dominating clones representing the metagenome which also showed the appearance of a unique population of clones after acclimatization, which was distinct from those obtained before acclimatization and clustered away from the dominating population.

  18. Biological Treatment of Petroleum in Radiologically Contaminated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRY, CHRISTOPHER

    2005-11-14

    This chapter describes ex situ bioremediation of the petroleum portion of radiologically co-contaminated soils using microorganisms isolated from a waste site and innovative bioreactor technology. Microorganisms first isolated and screened in the laboratory for bioremediation of petroleum were eventually used to treat soils in a bioreactor. The bioreactor treated soils contaminated with over 20,000 mg/kg total petroleum hydrocarbon and reduced the levels to less than 100 mg/kg in 22 months. After treatment, the soils were permanently disposed as low-level radiological waste. The petroleum and radiologically contaminated soil (PRCS) bioreactor operated using bioventing to control the supply of oxygen (air) to the soil being treated. The system treated 3.67 tons of PCRS amended with weathered compost, ammonium nitrate, fertilizer, and water. In addition, a consortium of microbes (patent pending) isolated at the Savannah River National Laboratory from a petroleum-contaminated site was added to the PRCS system. During operation, degradation of petroleum waste was accounted for through monitoring of carbon dioxide levels in the system effluent. The project demonstrated that co-contaminated soils could be successfully treated through bioventing and bioaugmentation to remove petroleum contamination to levels below 100 mg/kg while protecting workers and the environment from radiological contamination.

  19. Modelling of biological nitrogen removal during treatment of piggery wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béline, F; Boursier, H; Guiziou, F; Paul, E

    2007-01-01

    During this study, a mathematical model simulating piggery wastewater treatment was developed, with the objective of process optimisation. To achieve this, the effect of temperature and free ammonia concentration on the nitrification rate were experimentally studied using respirometry. The maximum growth rates obtained were higher for ammonium-oxidising biomass than for nitrite-oxidising biomass for the temperatures above 20 degrees C; values at 35 degrees C were equal to 1.9 and 1.35 day(-1), respectively. No inhibition of nitrification was observed for free ammonia concentrations up to 50 mgN/L. Using these data with others experimental data obtained from a pilot-scale reactor to treat piggery wastewater, a model based on a modified version of the ASM1 was developed and calibrated. In order to model the nitrite accumulation observed, the ASM1 model was extended with a two-step nitrification and denitrification including nitrite as intermediate. Finally, the produced model called PiWaT1 demonstrated a good fit with the experimental data. In addition to the temperature, oxygen concentration was identified as an important factor influencing the nitrite accumulation during nitrification. Even if some improvements of the model are still necessary, this model can already be used for process improvement.

  20. Bone biology in the elderly: clinical importance for fracture treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolvien Tim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Age-related bone impairment often leads to fragility fractures in the elderly. Although excellent surgical care is widely provided, diagnosis and treatment of the underlying bone disorder are often not kept in mind. The interplay of the three major bone cells – osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes – is normally well regulated via the secretion of messengers to control bone remodeling. Possible imbalances that might occur in the elderly are partly due to age, genetic risk factors, and adverse lifestyle factors but importantly also due to imbalances in calcium homeostasis (mostly due to vitamin D deficiency or hypochlorhydria, which have to be eliminated. Therefore, the cooperation between the trauma surgeon and the osteologist is of major importance to diagnose and treat the respective patients at risk. We propose that any patient suffering from fragility fractures is rigorously screened for osteoporosis and metabolic bone diseases. This includes bone density measurement by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, laboratory tests for calcium, phosphate, vitamin D, and bone turnover markers, as well as additional diagnostic modalities if needed. Thereby, most risk factors, including vitamin D deficiency, can be identified and treated while patients who meet the criteria for a specific therapy (i.e. antiresorptive and osteoanabolic receive such. If local health systems succeed to manage this process of secondary fracture prevention, morbidity and mortality of fragility fractures will decline to a minimum level.

  1. Quantifying capital goods for biological treatment of organic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Petersen, Per H; Nielsen, Peter D; Christensen, Thomas H

    2015-02-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of anaerobic digestion (AD) and windrow composting plants were quantified in detail. The two technologies were quantified in collaboration with consultants and producers of the parts used to construct the plants. The composting plants were quantified based on the different sizes for the three different types of waste (garden and park waste, food waste and sludge from wastewater treatment) in amounts of 10,000 or 50,000 tonnes per year. The AD plant was quantified for a capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year. Concrete and steel for the tanks were the main materials for the AD plant. For the composting plants, gravel and concrete slabs for the pavement were used in large amounts. To frame the quantification, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) showed that the steel used for tanks at the AD plant and the concrete slabs at the composting plants made the highest contribution to Global Warming. The total impact on Global Warming from the capital goods compared to the operation reported in the literature on the AD plant showed an insignificant contribution of 1-2%. For the composting plants, the capital goods accounted for 10-22% of the total impact on Global Warming from composting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of etanercept compared with other biologic therapies in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Escudero, Guillermo; Vargas-Valencia, Juan; García-García, Erika Gabriela; Munciño-Ortega, Emilio; Galindo-Suárez, Rosa María

    2013-01-01

    to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of etanercept compared with other biologic therapies in the treatment of moderate or severe rheumatoid arthritis in patients with previous unresponse to immune selective anti-inflammatory derivatives failure. a pharmacoeconomic model based on decision analysis to assess the clinical outcome after giving etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab or tocilizumab to treat moderate or severe rheumatoid arthritis was employed. Effectiveness of medications was assessed with improvement rates of 20 % or 70 % of the parameters established by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR 20 and ACR 70). the model showed that etanercept had the most effective therapeutic response rate: 79.7 % for ACR 20 and 31.4 % for ACR 70, compared with the response to other treatments. Also, etanercept had the lowest cost ($149,629.10 per patient) and had the most cost-effective average ($187,740.40 for clinical success for ACR 20 and $476,525.80 for clinical success for ACR 70) than the other biologic therapies. we demonstrated that treatment with etanercept is more effective and less expensive compared to the other drugs, thus making it more efficient therapeutic option both in terms of means and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

  3. The viability of biological treatment at Ibi wastewater treatment station; Viabilidad del tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor Garcia, M.V.; Morenilla Martinez, J.J.; Ruiz Zapata, R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, we have proved the viability of biological treatment of leaving waters from Ibi Wastewater Treatment Station, where water is subject to the action of coagulant agents, following a physical and chemical process. the experience was based on wastewater treatment by using activated sludge, at experimental scale in a pilot plant. During the experiments, we controlled the main parameters which indicate treatment success; namely, Suspended Solids (SS), pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), in addition to other substances such as nutrients and toxicants, and inhibitors of bio metabolism. (Author) 6 refs.

  4. [Economic consequences of biological monitoring and medical complications of injectable anticoagulants in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paubel, P; Cousin, M; Amar, C; Gourmelen, J; Fabron, C; Detournay, B

    2016-12-01

    To assess the frequency of platelet monitoring and bleeding risks associated with the use of injectable anticoagulants in a real life setting and to estimate the associated costs. An analysis of the 2013 data from a random sample of ≈600,000 patients registered in the French National Health Insurances reimbursement database was conducted to identify platelet counts performed during injectable anticoagulants exposure period and treatment interruptions due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia or transfusion. Events were then valued to establish associated costs. Overall 15,985 adult patients representing a cumulated injectable anticoagulants exposure time of 12,264 months were selected. Treatment sequences involved unfractionated heparin (2.8%), low molecular weight heparin (86.9%), and fondaparinux (13.1%). Patients treated with unfractionated heparin were older (77 vs. 57 and 59 years) with longer treatment duration (32.6 vs. 25.1 and 21 days). After statistical adjustment, the average monthly number of platelet counts was 1.36-fold lower in patients treated with fondaparinux compared to low molecular weight heparin (P<0.0001). No difference was found between low molecular weight heparin and fondaparinux regarding the incidence of bleeding with transfusion (P=0.76) or hospitalized thrombocytopenia (P=0.82). Extrapolated for the whole country, the estimated costs for biological monitoring were € 21.6 million for low molecular weight heparin and € 0.9 million for fondaparinux. Significantly fewer platelet counts were performed among patients treated with fondaparinux than among patients receiving low molecular weight heparin without additional bleeding risk. This finding should be taken into account when assessing the costs of such treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The European Research Infrastructures of the ESFRI Roadmap in Biological and Medical Sciences: status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Calzolari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. Since 2002, the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures identified the needs for Research Infrastructures (RIs in Europe in priority fields of scientific research and drafted a strategic document, the ESFRI Roadmap, defining the specific RIs essential to foster European research and economy. The Biological and Medical Sciences RIs (BMS RIs were developed thanks to the active participation of many institutions in different European member states associated to address the emerging needs in biomedicine and, among these, the Italian National Institute of Health (ISS, in virtue of its role in public health and research, has been specifically involved in the national development and implementation of three RIs: the Biobanking and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure (BBMRI, the European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine (EATRIS and the European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN. AIM. This article outlines the design and development of these RIs up to the recent achievement of the ERIC status, their importance in the Horizon 2020 programme and their societal and economic potential impact, with special attention to their development and significance in Italy. CONCLUSIONS. The ISS plays a unique role in fostering a coordinated participation of excellence Italian institutes/facilities to different European biomedical RIs, thus contributing to health innovation, healthcare optimization, and healthcare cost containment.

  6. An unified framework for Bayesian denoising for several medical and biological imaging modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, João M; Nascimento, Jacinto C; Marques, Jorge S

    2007-01-01

    Multiplicative noise is often present in several medical and biological imaging modalities, such as MRI, Ultrasound, PET/SPECT and Fluorescence Microscopy. Noise removal and preserving the details is not a trivial task. Bayesian algorithms have been used to tackle this problem. They succeed to accomplish this task, however they lead to a computational burden as we increase the image dimensionality. Therefore, a significant effort has been made to accomplish this tradeoff, i.e., to develop fast and reliable algorithms to remove noise without distorting relevant clinical information. This paper provides a new unified framework for Bayesian denoising of images corrupted with additive and multiplicative multiplicative noise. This allows to deal with additive white Gaussian and multiplicative noise described by Poisson and Rayleigh distributions respectively. The proposed algorithm is based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) criterion, and an edge preserving priors are used to avoid the distortion of the relevant image details. The denoising task is performed by an iterative scheme based on Sylvester/Lyapunov equation. This approach allows to use fast and efficient algorithms described in the literature to solve the Sylvester/Lyapunov equation developed in the context of the Control theory. Experimental results with synthetic and real data testify the performance of the proposed technique, and competitive results are achieved when comparing to the of the state-of-the-art methods.

  7. A medicoeconomic review of early intervention with biologic agents in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odes, Shmuel; Greenberg, Dan

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease with standard therapy fails to control the disease in many patients. Biologic therapy has an increasing role in altering the natural history of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, and is improving patient prognosis. However, indications for treatment and issues with drug costs and value for money remain unclear. Also, when to perform early intervention with biologic agents is at present unclear. We performed an extensive literature search and review to address these issues. The biologics provide better care for many patients. The choice of biologic agent, the indications for its use, the switch between agents, and the considerations of cost are outlined, with a view to guiding the treating physician in managing these cases. Outstanding issues and anticipated future developments are defined. PMID:25336980

  8. Waste water treatment by ionizing radiations. Removal of biological and chemical risks by water and sludge treatment with electron beams. Orientation 10 July 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report aims at analysing the reliability of the application of electron ionizing radiation in the treatment of waste waters and effluents, and at identifying possible fields of application and associated technological and economic implications. After some recalls on physics, electrochemistry, radiolysis, and water pollution, the report proposes an overview of the technique of irradiation of waters, with its scientific background (water radiolysis, chemical and biological effects), its process (recovery cycle and possible interventions, processed pollutants), the case of irradiation by electrons (power, rate, flexibility), an overview of benefits and drawbacks, and a brief history of this practice and an overview of current researches. After a recall of regulatory and political requirements, the report discusses possible fields of application: waste water treatment plants, domestic, agricultural and urban sewage wasters, hospital and medical wastes, liquid food industry products, industrial waters. The choice of accelerator parameters and components is then discussed

  9. Right of a patient to refuse medical treatment: justification for judicial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is rather a paradox that while medical treatment is designed for the good health and well-being of the patient, the patient, especially an adult and competent one, reserves the right to refuse medical treatment even though that refusal may seem unwise, foolish or ridiculous or may lead to the death of the patient. This right is ...

  10. [False Medical Treatment Investigation in Otorhinolaryngology by the MDK in Lower Saxony and Bremen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellies, M; Grotz, M; Seger, W

    2016-11-01

    Objective: In a retrospective study the cases of possibly false medical treatment investigated by the Health Advisory Boards (MDK) in Lower Saxony and Bremen, Germany, in the years from 2012 to 2015 were analyzed. Material and Methods: All relevant data - especially diagnoses and procedures - were recorded in accordance to a standardized data entry form and were evaluated. In addition, relevant case studies are presented. Results: Altogether 206 cases of possibly false medical treatment were recorded for the investigated period. Among them there were 24 cases (12%), in which a false medical treatment was detected. The relevant case studies showed on the one hand, that relevant false medical treatment does occur in the field of ENT-surgery and on the other hand that it is sometimes very difficult do get the right decision even on a high-skilled background. Conclusions: In the field of Otorhinolaryngology there is a constant number of cases for examination in possibly false medical treatment, although the number of detection of false medical treatment is rather lower than in other disciplines. Analysis of possible false medical treatment cases produces the chance of preventing false medical treatment in future. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. 75 FR 80762 - Medicare Program; Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act: Applicability to Hospital and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... [CMS-1350-ANPRM] RIN 0938-AQ51 Medicare Program; Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act... Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA). Specifically, this document serves as a request for... available to persons without Federal government identification, commenters are encouraged to leave their...

  12. 77 FR 5213 - Medicare Program; Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA): Applicability to Hospital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... [CMS-1350-NC] RIN 0938-AQ51 Medicare Program; Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA... the applicability of the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act (EMTALA) to hospital inpatients... available to persons without Federal government identification, commenters are encouraged to leave their...

  13. Current approaches to treatments for schizophrenia spectrum disorders, part I: an overview and medical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien WT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wai Tong Chien, Annie LK Yip School of Nursing, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong Abstract: During the last three decades, an increasing understanding of the etiology, psychopathology, and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, in addition to the introduction of second-generation antipsychotics, has optimized the potential for recovery from the illness. Continued development of various models of psychosocial intervention promotes the goal of schizophrenia treatment from one of symptom control and social adaptation to an optimal restoration of functioning and/or recovery. However, it is still questionable whether these new treatment approaches can address the patients' needs for treatment and services and contribute to better patient outcomes. This article provides an overview of different treatment approaches currently used in schizophrenia spectrum disorders to address complex health problems and a wide range of abnormalities and impairments resulting from the illness. There are different treatment strategies and targets for patients at different stages of the illness, ranging from prophylactic antipsychotics and cognitive–behavioral therapy in the premorbid stage to various psychosocial interventions in addition to antipsychotics for relapse prevention and rehabilitation in the later stages of the illness. The use of antipsychotics alone as the main treatment modality may be limited not only in being unable to tackle the frequently occurring negative symptoms and cognitive impairments but also in producing a wide variety of adverse effects to the body or organ functioning. Because of varied pharmacokinetics and treatment responsiveness across agents, the medication regimen should be determined on an individual basis to ensure an optimal effect in its long-term use. This review also highlights that the recent practice guidelines and standards have

  14. Medication Adherence and Direct Treatment Cost among Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa, with associated health and socioeconomic consequences. Adherence to antidiabetic medications has been shown to improve glycaemic control, which subsequently improves both the short- and longterm prognosis of the ...

  15. Buprenorphine shared medical appointments for the treatment of opioid dependence in a homeless clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorley, Sara L; Ho, Cheryl J; Echeverria, Elizabeth; Preston, Charles; Ngo, Huy; Kamal, Ahmad; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2017-01-01

    Opioid misuse and dependence are prevalent and rising problems in the United States. Treatment with buprenorphine is a successful treatment option for individuals with opioid dependence. This study describes and preliminarily evaluates a unique delivery system that provides buprenorphine treatment via a shared medical appointment. A retrospective medical record review on all 77 opioid-dependent patients referred for a buprenorphine shared medical appointment in a homeless clinic from 2010 to 2012. Most patients were currently homeless (61%), unemployed (92%), had an Axis I psychiatric diagnosis (81%), and had recent polysubstance use (53%). Of the 77 patients, 95% attended at least 1 shared medical appointment. Treatment retention at 12 and 24 weeks was 86% and 70%, respectively. In a patient population with complex social and mental health histories, buprenorphine treatment via a shared medical appointment had high retention rates. Findings can help guide the development of unique delivery systems to serve real-world complex patients with opioid dependence.

  16. Use of biological molecules in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Seidelin, J B; Munck, Lars Kristian

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of biological agents (i.e. antitumour necrosis factor-a and anti-integrin treatments) for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis] has led to a substantial change in the treatment algorithms and guidelines, especially...... of biologicals; therefore, in this review, we focus on considerations that might lead to a more rational strategy for antitumour necrosis factor-a agents in IBD, emphasizing the situations in which the risks may outweigh the benefits. Finally, the need for an appropriate strategy for stopping biological...... might maximize the clinical benefit for those in most need of an effective therapy to avoid disabling disease whilst also minimizing the complications associated with therapy. Further, the 'trough-level strategy' may help clinicians to optimize therapy and to avoid loss of response and/or immunogenicity...

  17. Use of biological molecules in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Seidelin, J B; Munck, L K

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of biological agents (i.e. antitumour necrosis factor-α and anti-integrin treatments) for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) [i.e. Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis] has led to a substantial change in the treatment algorithms and guidelines, especially...... of biologicals; therefore, in this review, we focus on considerations that might lead to a more rational strategy for antitumour necrosis factor-α agents in IBD, emphasizing the situations in which the risks may outweigh the benefits. Finally, the need for an appropriate strategy for stopping biological...... might maximize the clinical benefit for those in most need of an effective therapy to avoid disabling disease whilst also minimizing the complications associated with therapy. Further, the 'trough-level strategy' may help clinicians to optimize therapy and to avoid loss of response and/or immunogenicity...

  18. Combined post-ozonation and biological treatment of recalcitrant wastewater from a resin-producing factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, M A; Eiroa, M; Kennes, C; Veiga, M C

    2007-05-08

    In this study, effluent from the biological treatment of wastewater from a resin-producing factory containing recalcitrant compounds was ozonated under different conditions. Afterwards, the biodegradability of the ozonated effluent was studied under anoxic conditions. The post-ozonation of the industrial effluent was performed using a wide range of ozone doses, from 1.8 to 29.5 mg L(-1)min(-1). After the biological treatment of the ozonated effluent, organic carbon and nitrogen removals from 27 to 97% and from 27 to 80%, respectively, were achieved. The effect of the contact time was studied at a constant ozone dose of 13.0+/-1.2 mg L(-1)min(-1) and contact times ranging from 30 to 180 min. In this case, organic carbon removals from 55 to 100% and organic nitrogen removals from 41 to 77% were obtained after biological treatment.

  19. Predictors of New Onset Sleep Medication and Treatment Utilization Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda; Pepin, Renee; Sonnega, Amanda; Assari, Shervin

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older adults resulting in frequent sleep medication utilization, though these drugs are associated with a number of risks. We examine rates and predictors of new prescription sleep medications and sleep treatments, as well as sleep treatments without a doctor's recommendation. Participants were 8,417 adults aged 50 and older from two waves of the nationally representative Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who were not using a sleep medication or treatment at baseline (2006). Logistic regression analyses are run with sociodemographic, health, and mental health factors as predictors of three outcomes: new prescription medication use, sleep treatment use, and sleep treatment out of a doctor's recommendation in 2010. New sleep medication prescriptions were started by 7.68%, 12.62% started using a new sleep treatment, and 31.93% were using the treatment outside of their doctor's recommendation. Common predictors included greater severity of insomnia, worsening insomnia, older age, and use of psychiatric medications. New prescription medication use was also associated with poorer mental and physical health, whereas new sleep treatment was associated with being White, higher educated, and drinking less alcohol. Starting a new prescription sleep medication may reflect poorer health and higher health care utilization, whereas beginning a sleep treatment may reflect an individual's awareness of treatments and determination to treat their problem. Clinicians should be aware of predictors of new sleep medication and treatment users and discuss various forms of treatment or behavioral changes to help patients best manage sleep disturbance. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  1. Advances in the use of biologic agents for the treatment of systemic vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sharon A.; Seo, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Due to the well-known toxicities of cyclophosphamide, substantial interest exists in finding other therapies to treat primary systemic vasculitis. Biologic agents have been proposed as an alternative to cyclophosphamide for these disorders because of their recent success in treating other rheumatic diseases. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art with regards to the use of biologic agents as a treatment for systemic vasculitis. Recent findings The greatest amount of experience with these agents for the treatment of systemic vasculitis is with anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, pooled intravenous immunoglobulin, and anti-B cell therapies such as rituximab. Intravenous immunoglobulin is already a standard therapy for Kawasaki's disease, but should also be considered for the treatment of ANCA-associated vasculitis when standard therapies are either ineffective or contraindicated. Early experience with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors indicates that they may be effective for the treatment of Takayasu's arteritis, but their role in the treatment of other forms of vasculitis remains controversial. Early experience with rituximab for the treatment of several forms of vasculitis has been quite promising, but must be confirmed by ongoing randomized clinical trials. Summary Biologic agents represent the next evolution in treatment for the primary systemic vasculitides. Greater understanding of these diseases has allowed use to move further away from non-specific, highly toxic therapies towards a more directed approach. As our experience with these agents increases, they will likely form the keystone of treatment in the near future. PMID:19077713

  2. Degradation of chlorinated paraben by integrated irradiation and biological treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizong; Wang, Jianlong; Sun, Yuliang

    2017-03-15

    Chlorinated paraben, namely, methyl 3, 5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate (MDHB) is the by-product of chlorination disinfection of paraben and frequently detected in the aquatic environments, which exhibited higher persistence and toxicity than paraben itself. In this paper, the combined irradiation and biological treatment process was employed to investigate the removal of MDHB from aqueous solution. The results showed that the removal efficiency of MDHB and total organic carbon (TOC) by irradiation process increased with radiation dose no matter what the initial concentration of MDHB was. The maximum removal efficiency of MDHB was 100%, 91.1%, 93%, respectively, for the initial concentration of MDHB of 1 mg/L, 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L with the radiation dose of 800 Gy. However, the maximum removal efficiency of TOC among all the experimental groups was only 15.3% obtained with the initial concentration of 1 mg/L at dose of 800 Gy. The subsequent biological treatment enhanced the mineralization of MDHB. The suitable radiation dose for the subsequent biological treatment was determined to be 600 Gy. In this case the removal efficiency of TOC increased to about 70%. Compared to the single biological treatment, the integrated irradiation and biological treatment significantly increase the degradation and mineralization of MDHB. Moreover, the dechlorination efficiency reached 77.4% during the integrated irradiation and biological treatment process. In addition, eight intermediates were identified during the combined process and the possible degradation pathway was proposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Should doctors provide futile medical treatment if patients or their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethically and legally doctors are not obliged to provide futile treatment to patients, even if the patient or their proxies are prepared to pay for it. However, it may be justified where such treatment is harmless and has a placebo effect. In deciding about a request for futile treatment, doctors should be guided by the ethical ...

  4. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was

  5. Biologic Treatments for Sports Injuries II Think Tank-Current Concepts, Future Research, and Barriers to Advancement, Part 1: Biologics Overview, Ligament Injury, Tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPrade, Robert F; Geeslin, Andrew G; Murray, Iain R; Musahl, Volker; Zlotnicki, Jason P; Petrigliano, Frank; Mann, Barton J

    2016-12-01

    Biologic therapies, including stem cells, platelet-rich plasma, growth factors, and other biologically active adjuncts, have recently received increased attention in the basic science and clinical literature. At the 2015 AOSSM Biologics II Think Tank held in Colorado Springs, Colorado, a group of orthopaedic surgeons, basic scientists, veterinarians, and other investigators gathered to review the state of the science for biologics and barriers to implementation of biologics for the treatment of sports medicine injuries. This series of current concepts reviews reports the summary of the scientific presentations, roundtable discussions, and recommendations from this think tank. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Revascularisation versus medical treatment in patients with stable coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windecker, Stephan; Stortecky, Stefan; Stefanini, Giulio G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether revascularisation improves prognosis compared with medical treatment among patients with stable coronary artery disease. DESIGN: Bayesian network meta-analyses to combine direct within trial comparisons between treatments with indirect evidence from other trials...... while maintaining randomisation. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: A strategy of initial medical treatment compared with revascularisation by coronary artery bypass grafting or Food and Drug Administration approved techniques for percutaneous revascularization: balloon angioplasty, bare metal...

  7. Asserting the right to life--a challenge to medical guidance on withdrawing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sharon

    2005-03-01

    This paper analyses the English High Court decision of R (on the application of Burke) v General Medical Council and considers its implications for the future. Mr. Burke, relying on common law and the European Convention on Human Rights, succeeded in a challenge to the General Medical Council's Guidance on Withholding and Withdrawing Life-prolonging Treatment. He asserted his right to choose to be given treatment so as to live and condemned the Guidance as centred on the right to refuse treatment.

  8. Alternative (nonstimulant) medications in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, L B

    1999-10-01

    Medication to treat ADHD must be seen as part of a multimodal approach that includes education, counseling, behavioral management, and family work along with the medication. If in addition to ADHD the patient has other psychiatric disorders, they also must be treated. The stimulant medications are still the first choice in treating ADHD. Should there be reasons why they cannot be used, the TCAs become the second line of treatment. Other alternative medications such as buproprion, clonidine, and guanfacine also can be considered. This article provides information and guidelines for the use of the alternative, nonstimulant medications to treat ADHD. These medications can be used separately or in combination to reduce the primary behaviors of ADHD and comorbid conditions. The reader is encouraged to refer to reviews of the pharmaceutical company literature and the Physician's Desk Reference before initiating treatment with any of these medications.

  9. Biological treatment of sewage treatment plant sludge by pure bacterial culture with optimum process conditions in a stirred tank bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M Z; Muyibi, Suleyman A; Jamal, P

    2007-09-01

    Biological treatment of sewage treatment plant (STP) sludge by potential pure bacterial culture (Bacillus sp.) with optimum process conditions for effective biodegradation and bioseparation was carried out in the laboratory. The effective and efficient bioconversion was evaluated with the treatment of pure bacterial culture and existing microbes (uninnoculated) in sludge. The optimum process conditions i.e., temperature, 40 degrees C; pH, 6; inoculum, 5% (v/v); aeration, 1 vvm; agitation speed, 50 rpm obtained from the previous studies with chemical oxygen demand COD at 30 mgL(-1) were applied for the biological treatment of sludge. The results indicated that pure bacterial culture (Bacillus sp.) showed higher degradation and separation of treated sludge compared to treatment with the existing mixed microbes in a stirred tank bioreactor. The treated STP sludge by potential pure bacterial culture and existing microbes gave 30% and 11%; 91.2% and 59.1; 88.5% and 52.3%; 98.4% and 51.3%; 96.1% and 75.2%; 99.4% and 72.8% reduction of total suspended solids (TSS, biosolids), COD, soluble protein, turbidity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and specific resistance to filtration (SRF), respectively within 7 days of treatment. The pH was observed at 6.5 and 4 during the treatment of sludge by pure culture and existing microbes, respectively.

  10. Influence of physico-chemical treatment on the subsequent biological process treating paper industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Khames Saad, Mouhamed; Moussaoui, Younes; Zaghbani, Asma; Mosrati, Imen; Elaloui, Elimame; Ben Salem, Ridha

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents the main results of the biodegradation study of paper industry wastewater through physico-chemical treatment. Indeed, around 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal can be achieved by electroflocculation treatment. Furthermore, a removal efficiency of the COD of almost 91% has been obtained by biological treatment, with activated amount of sludge for 24 h of culture. Concerning the physico-chemical pre-treatment of the untreated, filtered and electroflocculated rejection effluents, it has been investigated through the degradation curve of COD studies.

  11. Biologic fatigue in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ethan C; Gupta, Rishu; Brown, Gabrielle; Malakouti, Mona; Koo, John

    2014-02-01

    Over the past 15 years, biologic medications have greatly advanced psoriasis therapy. However, these medications may lose their efficacy after long-term use, a concept known as biologic fatigue. We sought to review the available data on biologic fatigue in psoriasis and identify strategies to help clinicians optimally manage patients on biologic medications in order to minimize biologic fatigue. We reviewed phase III clinical trials for the biologic medications used to treat psoriasis and performed a PubMed search for the literature that assessed the loss of response to biologic therapy. In phase III clinical trials of biologic therapies for the treatment of psoriasis, 20-32% of patients lost their PASI-75 response during 0.8-3.9 years of follow-up. A study using infliximab reported the highest percentage of patients who lost their response (32%) over the shortest time-period (0.8 years). Although not consistently reported across all studies, the presence of antidrug antibodies was associated with the loss of response to treatment with infliximab and adalimumab. Biologic fatigue may be most frequent in those patients using infliximab. Further studies are needed to identify risk factors associated with biologic fatigue and to develop meaningful antidrug antibody assays.

  12. A Comparison of Expedition Medical Condition List Treatment Directives with Integrated Medical Model Simulation Data Presentation and Briefing Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This aerospace medicine clerkship project is under the direction of Dr. Sharmila Watkins and is in cooperation with Dr. Eric Kerstman and Dr. Ronak Shah. The questions of the research project are: 1. What are the main drivers of evacuation and loss of crew life (LOCL) on three Design Reference Missions (DRMs): Near Earth Asteroid (NEA), Lunar Sortie and Lunar Outpost using an inexhaustible International Space Station medical kit 2. What are the treatment designations for these driving medical conditions as listed in Expedition Medical Condition List (EMCL) 3. Do the drivers make sense in the context of the given Design Reference Mission (DRM) 4. Do any EMCL treatment designations need re-assessing.

  13. Trauma treatment in a role 1 medical facility in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Helsø, I; Jørgensen, H L

    2013-01-01

    Most of the emergency care delivered in Afghanistan is currently provided by the military sector and non-governmental organisations. Main Operating Base (MOB) Price in Helmand Province has a small medical centre and due to its location provides critical care to civilians and military casualties a...

  14. Is Hypoxia common despite oxygen treatment in the Acute Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The delivery of oxygen in an acute Admissions Unit is always (often) riddled with difficulties. While most patients do get oxygen at some point of time it is often uncontrolled and inappropriate. This reflects inadequate and untrained staffing in the very busy Medical Units. We did a small study on 30 random acute admissions ...

  15. EMDR and the Treatment of Medically Unexplained Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Proudlock

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This current research used a single case study design to examine how Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR was effective for one individual experiencing medically unexplained chronic pain in his abdomen. EMDR is briefly explained as is how it has been adapted to be used with pain. A brief literature review is also included.

  16. Recent advances and industrial viewpoint for biological treatment of wastewaters by oleaginous microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Luo, Mu-Tan; Chen, Xue-Fang; Xiong, Lian; Li, Xiao-Mei; Chen, Xin-De

    2017-05-01

    Recently, technology of using oleaginous microorganisms for biological treatment of wastewaters has become one hot topic in biochemical and environmental engineering for its advantages such as easy for operation in basic bioreactor, having potential to produce valuable bio-products, efficient wastewaters treatment in short period, etc. To promote its industrialization, this article provides some comprehensive analysis of this technology such as its advances, issues, and outlook especially from industrial viewpoint. In detail, the types of wastewaters can be treated and the kinds of oleaginous microorganisms used for biological treatment are introduced, the potential of industrial application and issues (relatively low COD removal, low lipid yield, cost of operation, and lack of scale up application) of this technology are presented, and some critical outlook mainly on co-culture method, combination with other treatments, process controlling and adjusting are discussed systematically. By this article, some important information to develop this technology can be obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The ability of biologically based wastewater treatment systems to remove emerging organic contaminants--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rodríguez, Aida; Matamoros, Víctor; Fontàs, Clàudia; Salvadó, Victòria

    2014-10-01

    Biologically based wastewater treatment systems are considered a sustainable, cost-effective alternative to conventional wastewater treatment systems. These systems have been used and studied for the treatment of urban sewage from small communities, and recently, it has been reported that they can also effectively remove emerging organic contaminants (EOCs). EOCs are a new group of unregulated contaminants which include pharmaceutical and personal care products, some pesticides, veterinary products, and industrial compounds among others that are thought to have long-term adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. This review is focused on reporting the ability of biologically based wastewater treatment systems to remove EOCs and the main elimination mechanisms and degradation processes (i.e., biodegradation, photodegradation, phytoremediation, and sorption) taking place in constructed wetlands, ponds, and Daphnia and fungal reactors.

  18. Meditate don't medicate: How medical imaging evidence supports the role of meditation in the treatment of depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annells, S.; Kho, K.; Bridge, P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects a large proportion of the population. The current treatment for depression involves anti-depressant medication which is associated with side effects and a heightened risk of relapse. Methods: A systematic literature review was performed to determine the value of medical imaging studies in measuring the impact of meditation on depression. Results: Medical imaging studies have successfully demonstrated that meditation may counteract or prevent the physiological cause of depression by decreasing amygdala activity and increasing grey matter volume and activity of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and other brain regions associated with attention and emotional self-regulation. Recent advances in functional imaging have enabled visualisation of neural plasticity within the brain. This has shown that for meditators, practice-induced alterations could be due to micro-anatomical processes that may represent an increased functional capacity within the brain regions activated. These changes within brain physiology in association with the skills gained during meditation such as self-regulation, mental processing of negative information and relaxation techniques could potentially lead to a permanent cure for depression and thus prevent relapse. Conclusions: The results of this review suggest that medical imaging has a valuable role to play in evidencing the physiological changes within the brain caused by meditation that counteract those that cause depression. These studies indicate that meditation is a viable alternative to medication for clinical treatment of patients with depression. More rigorous longitudinal imaging studies are proposed to enhance understanding of the neural pathways and mechanisms of meditation. - Highlights: • Medical imaging demonstrates physiological changes that counteract those that cause depression. • Meditation is an alternative to medication for clinical treatment of

  19. Combining biologic and phototherapy treatments for psoriasis: safety, efficacy, and patient acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnik B

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Farahnik,1 Viraat Patel,2 Kourosh Beroukhim,3 Tian Hao Zhu,4 Michael Abrouk,2 Mio Nakamura,5 Rasnik Singh,3 Kristina Lee,5 Tina Bhutani,5 John Koo5 1University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, VT; 2School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, 4University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, 5Department of Dermatology, Psoriasis and Skin Treatment Center, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA Background: The efficacy and safety of biologic and phototherapy in treating moderate-to-severe psoriasis is well known. However, some patients may not respond well to biologic agents or phototherapy on their own and may require combination therapy. Skillfully combining a biologic agent and phototherapy may provide an additive improvement without much increase in risks.Objective: To summarize the current state of evidence for the efficacy and safety of combining biologics with phototherapy in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.Methods: We conducted an extensive search on Pubmed database for English language literature that evaluated the use of a combination of biologic and phototherapy for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis through January 2016. The search included the following keywords: psoriasis, etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, ustekinumab, biologics, phototherapy, and combination therapy.Results: The primary literature included randomized controlled trials, a head-to-head study, open-label controlled and uncontrolled trials, case series, and case reports. Etanercept was used in over half of the reported cases, but other biologic agents used included ustekinumab, adalimumab, and infliximab. The vast majority of phototherapy was narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB radiation. Most cases reported enhanced improvement with combination therapy. Serious adverse events throughout the study duration

  20. Measuring treatment satisfaction in MS: Is the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication fit for purpose?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermersch, Patrick; Hobart, Jeremy; Dive-Pouletty, Catherine; Bozzi, Sylvie; Hass, Steven; Coyle, Patricia K

    2017-04-01

    The Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM) was designed to assess patient treatment satisfaction in chronic diseases. Its performance has not been examined in multiple sclerosis (MS). The 14 items of the TSQM cover four domains: Effectiveness, Side Effects, Convenience, and Global Satisfaction. To evaluate performance of the TSQM in patients with relapsing MS, using data collected from the TENERE study (NCT00883337), in which 324 patients received oral teriflunomide or subcutaneous interferon beta-1a for ⩾48 weeks. Five measurement properties were examined using traditional psychometric methods: data completeness, scale-to-sample targeting, scaling assumptions, reliability (including test-retest), and construct validity (internal: item-level scaling success, confirmatory factor analysis, and exploratory factor analysis; external: convergence, discrimination, and group differences). There were few (satisfaction; two domains had marked ceiling effects. Scaling assumptions were supported. Internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach's α > 0.90). Internal validity tests supported item groupings. Correlations supported convergent and discriminant construct validity; hypothesis testing supported group differences validity. This investigation found the TSQM to be a useful tool, exhibiting good psychometric measurement properties in patients with relapsing MS in the TENERE study.

  1. Diagnosis and medical treatment of neuropathic pain in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arco, Rogerio Del; Nardi, Susilene Maria Tonelli; Bassi, Thiago Gasperini; Paschoal, Vania Del Arco

    2016-08-08

    to identify the difficulties in diagnosing and treating neuropathic pain caused by leprosy and to understand the main characteristics of this situation. 85 patients were treated in outpatient units with reference to leprosy and the accompanying pain. We used a questionnaire known as the Douleur Neuropathic 4 test and we conducted detailed neurological exams. As a result, 42 patients were excluded from the study for not having proved their pain. Out of the 37 patients that experienced pain, 22 (59.5%) had neuropathic pain (or a mixture of this pain and their existing pain) and of these 90.8% considered this pain to be moderate or severe. 81.8% of the sample suffered with this pain for more than 6 months. Only 12 (54.5%) of the patients had been diagnosed with neuropathic pain and in almost half of these cases, this pain had not been diagnosed. With reference to medical treatment (n=12) for neuropathic pain, 5 (41.6%) responded that they became better. For the other 7 (58.4%) there were no changes in relation to the pain or in some cases the pain worsened in comparison to their previous state. Statistical analysis comparing improvements in relation to the pain amongst the patients that were treated (n=12) and those that were not, showed significant differences (value p=0.020). we noted difficulties in diagnosing neuropathic pain for leprosy in that almost half of the patients that were studied had not had their pain diagnosed. We attributed this to some factors such as the non-adoption of the appropriate protocols which led to inadequate diagnosis and treatment that overlooked the true picture. identificar as dificuldades em diagnosticar e tratar a dor neuropática causada pela hanseníase, bem como determinar as características principais dessa situação. examinaram-se 85 pacientes tratados no ambulatório de referência para hanseníase e referiam dor. Aplicou-se questionário, o teste Douleur Neuropathic 4, e criterioso exame neurológico pelo qual exclu

  2. Optimization of the treatment with immunosuppressants and biologics in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renna, Sara; Cottone, Mario; Orlando, Ambrogio

    2014-08-07

    Many placebo controlled trials and meta-analyses evaluated the efficacy of different drugs for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including immunosuppressants and biologics. Their use is indicated in moderate to severe disease in non responders to corticosteroids and in steroid-dependent patients, as induction and maintainance treatment. Infliximab, as well as cyclosporine, is considered a second line therapy in the case of severe ulcerative colitis, or non-responders to intravenous corticosteroids. An adequate dosage and duration of therapy with thiopurines should be reached before evaluating their efficacy. Methotrexate is a valid option in patients with Crohn's disease but its use is confined to patients who are intolerant or non-responders to thiopurines. Evidence for the use of methotrexate in ulcerative colitis is insufficient. The use of thalidomide and mycophenolate mofetil is not recommended in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, these treatments could be considered in case of failure of all other therapeutic options. In patients with moderately active ulcerative colitis, refractory to thiopurines, the use of tacrolimus is considered an alternative to biologics. An increase of the dose or a decrease in the interval of administration of biological treatment could be useful in the presence of an incomplete clinical response. In the case of primary failure of an anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha a switch to another one should be considered. Data on the efficacy of combination therapy are up to now insufficient to consider this strategy in all IBD patients. The final outcome of the treatment should be considered the clinical remission, with mucosa healing, and not the clinical response. The evaluation of serum concentration of thiopurine methyl transferase activity, thiopurine metabolites, biologic serum levels and antibiologic antibodies could be useful for the management of the treatment but it has not been routinely applied in clinical

  3. Oxidation by Fenton's reagent combined with biological treatment applied to a creosote-comtaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, C; Alessandri, R; Aunola, T; Cortina, J L; Gamisans, X; Tuhkanen, T

    2009-07-30

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using Fenton oxidation to remove sorbed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged soil samples with creosote oil from a wood preserving site. The optimal dosage of reagents was determined by a statistical method, the central composite rotatable experimental design. The maximum PAH removal was 80% with a molar ratio of oxidant/catalyst equal to 90:1. In general low molecular weight PAHs (3 rings) were degraded more efficiently than higher molecular weight PAHs (4 and 5 rings). The hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetic was studied in the presence of KH(2)PO(4) as stabilizer. The kinetic data were fitted to a simple model, the pseudo-first-order which describes the hydrogen peroxide decomposition. The PAH kinetic degradation was also studied, and demonstrated that non-stabilized hydrogen peroxide was consumed in less than 30 min, whilst PAH removal continued for up to 24h. In a second part of the work, a combined chemical and biological treatment of the soil was carried out and shown to be dependent on the pre-oxidation step. Different reagent doses (H(2)O(2):Fe) were used (10, 20, 40, 60:1) in the pre-treatment step. An excess of hydrogen peroxide resulted in a poor biological removal, thus the optimal molar ratio of H(2)O(2):Fe for the combined process was 20:1. The combined treatment resulted in a maximum total PAH removal of 75% with a 30% increase in removal due to the biodegradation step. The sample with highest PAH removal in the pre-oxidation step led to no further increase in removal by biological treatment. This suggests that the more aggressive chemical pre-oxidation does not favour biological treatment. The physico-chemical properties of the pollutants were an important factor in the PAH removal as they influenced chemical, biological and combined treatments.

  4. Influences of mechanical pre-treatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada

    2016-01-01

    municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pre-treatment configurations, e.g., direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pre......-treatment, e.g., microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using thin-film-composite, Aquaporin Inside(TM) and HTI membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested...... oxygen demand and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pre-treated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits for small- and medium...

  5. Blended care; development of a day treatment program for medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) in the Dutch Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeylemaker, M M P; Linn, F H H; Vermetten, E

    2015-01-01

    A subgroup of servicemen can be identified that seek a disproportionally amount of health care in comparison to diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives. This group can be identified on the basis of an absence of a structural medical explanation for their symptoms. The symptoms manifest predominantly as fatigue and pain, and are often chronic. Patients with medical unexplained medical symptoms (MUPS) often have multiple and complex problems that would be best treated by a multidisciplinary team of medical specialists and paramedics. The military is characterized by high loyalty towards peers and leadership, leading to neglect for personal care. While consensus on the biological basis for these complaints is lacking, awareness on the need for effective treatments for this patient group is high. Based on reviews, expert recommendations and clinical demand, a specialized treatment program for soldiers with MUPS has recently been developed and implemented in the system of health care in the Netherlands Armed Forces. We developed a functional rehabilitation program with blended care elements of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), physical therapy, case management, and psychoeducation, embedded in a day treatment setting. The program received high scores on participant as well as team satisfaction. The program is illustrated by two clinical vignettes. The blended care program for MUPS that focused on allostatic load awareness offered a more holistic and preventive approach that contributed to a reduction of unnecessary medical consumption, and increased job participation. We recommend that the development of guidelines for diagnoses and treatment of these complaints in military settings will improve the quality of patient care, reduce disability, facilitate reintegration, and encourage scientific research.

  6. Treatment of paper and board mill wastewater by biological- filtration-coagulation pilot scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.; Rehman, A.; Azam, S.; Khalid, Z.M.

    2005-01-01

    A combined biological-filtration-coagulation pilot scale reactor was designed and used for the treatment of effluent from a paper and board mill that had Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) in the range of 2,054-3,021 mg/L, and 668-1195 mg/L, respectively. Biological treatment by Fed Batch Reactor (FBR) and Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) processes resulted in reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) about 49-60% and 74-78% respectively. Biological treatment by FBR operation, sand filtration (SF) and Alum (AL) treatment resulted total of 93-95% and 96-97% COD and BOD reduction, respectively. In case of SBR processes, followed by SF and AL treatment, 91 and 92% COD and BOD reduction was observed, respectively. Both of the untreated effluents were found toxic while, treated were not toxic when exposed to the fish even for 72 hours. The resultant effluent from FBR-SF-AL treatment met National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) of Pakistan and could be discharged into the environment without any risk. (author)

  7. Influences of mechanical pretreatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-09-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pretreatment configurations, for example, direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pretreatment, for example, microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using Aquaporin Inside™ and Hydration Technologies Inc. (HTI) membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested in parallel for the different types of pretreated feed and evaluated in terms of water flux and solute rejection, that is, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 7 ) and total and soluble phosphorus contents. The Aquaporin and HTI membranes achieved a stable water flux with rejection rates of more than 96% for BOD 7 and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pretreated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits.

  8. Decontamination of industrial wastewater from sugarcane crops by combining solar photo-Fenton and biological treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Marín, Claudia; Osorio, Paula; Benítez, Norberto

    2010-05-15

    The department of Valle del Cauca is the region with the largest sugarcane production in Colombia. This agricultural activity uses high quantities of herbicides, mainly Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Wastewater generated in the washing process of spray equipment and empty pesticide containers must be treated to keep natural water sources from being polluted with these pesticides when these effluents are disposed off. Conventional biological treatments are not able to remove recalcitrant substances like Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; therefore, it is essential to have alternative treatment systems. In recent years, photocatalytic processes have been proven efficient methods in treating polluted water with recalcitrant organic substances. This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of a coupled treatment constituted for a solar photo-Fenton treatment and a biological system like an immobilized biological reactor to treat industrial wastewater containing pesticides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and Diuron). The mineralization and degradation of pesticides were followed by measuring the dissolved organic carbon and pesticide concentrations. The results revealed that industrial wastewaters with high Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations can be successfully treated by a combined solar photo-Fenton-biological system, achieving mineralization of 79.8% in prepared wastewater and 82.5% in real industrial wastewater by using low Fe(2+) and H(2)O(2) concentrations. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Decontamination of industrial wastewater from sugarcane crops by combining solar photo-Fenton and biological treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza-Marin, Claudia; Osorio, Paula; Benitez, Norberto

    2010-01-01

    The department of Valle del Cauca is the region with the largest sugarcane production in Colombia. This agricultural activity uses high quantities of herbicides, mainly Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Wastewater generated in the washing process of spray equipment and empty pesticide containers must be treated to keep natural water sources from being polluted with these pesticides when these effluents are disposed off. Conventional biological treatments are not able to remove recalcitrant substances like Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; therefore, it is essential to have alternative treatment systems. In recent years, photocatalytic processes have been proven efficient methods in treating polluted water with recalcitrant organic substances. This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of a coupled treatment constituted for a solar photo-Fenton treatment and a biological system like an immobilized biological reactor to treat industrial wastewater containing pesticides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and Diuron). The mineralization and degradation of pesticides were followed by measuring the dissolved organic carbon and pesticide concentrations. The results revealed that industrial wastewaters with high Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations can be successfully treated by a combined solar photo-Fenton-biological system, achieving mineralization of 79.8% in prepared wastewater and 82.5% in real industrial wastewater by using low Fe 2+ and H 2 O 2 concentrations.

  10. Decontamination of industrial wastewater from sugarcane crops by combining solar photo-Fenton and biological treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Marin, Claudia; Osorio, Paula [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia); Benitez, Norberto, E-mail: lubenite@univalle.edu.co [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360 Cali (Colombia)

    2010-05-15

    The department of Valle del Cauca is the region with the largest sugarcane production in Colombia. This agricultural activity uses high quantities of herbicides, mainly Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Wastewater generated in the washing process of spray equipment and empty pesticide containers must be treated to keep natural water sources from being polluted with these pesticides when these effluents are disposed off. Conventional biological treatments are not able to remove recalcitrant substances like Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; therefore, it is essential to have alternative treatment systems. In recent years, photocatalytic processes have been proven efficient methods in treating polluted water with recalcitrant organic substances. This study sought to evaluate the efficiency of a coupled treatment constituted for a solar photo-Fenton treatment and a biological system like an immobilized biological reactor to treat industrial wastewater containing pesticides (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and Diuron). The mineralization and degradation of pesticides were followed by measuring the dissolved organic carbon and pesticide concentrations. The results revealed that industrial wastewaters with high Diuron and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations can be successfully treated by a combined solar photo-Fenton-biological system, achieving mineralization of 79.8% in prepared wastewater and 82.5% in real industrial wastewater by using low Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations.

  11. História dos tratamentos biológicos Biologicals treatments's history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Paulo Rigonatti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: Trata-se de uma discussão de como surgiram os tratamentos biológicos no decorrer da história da psiquiatria.Context: It's about a discussion on how begun the biological treatment throughout Psychiatry History.

  12. Use of combination of leflunomide with biological agents in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalden, J.R.; Antoni, C.; Alvaro-Gracia, J.M.; Combe, B.; Emery, P.; Kremer, J.M.J.; Strand, C.V.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Smolen, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    An Expert Panel Meeting was held in May 2004 to assess experience with combination therapy with leflunomide and biological agents in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), to identify both optimal use of such combinations and precautions for use. Eleven published prospective or retrospective

  13. Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Abbas, B.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Muyzer, G.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na(+)= 0.8M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80-90% saturation) at

  14. Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater : pilot investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyuzhnyi, S.; Sklyar, V.; Epov, A.; Archipchenko, I.; Barboulina, I.; Orlova, O.; Klapwijk, A.

    2002-01-01

    Combined biological and physico-chemical treatment of filtered pig manure wastewater has been investigated on the pilot installation operated under ambient temperatures (15-20°C) and included: i) UASB-reactor for elimination of major part of COD from the filtrate; (ii) stripper of CO2 fluidised bed

  15. Evidence-based guideline update: Medical treatment of infantile spasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, C.Y.; Mackay, M.T.; Weiss, S.K.; Stephens, D.; Adams-Webber, T.; Ashwal, S.; Snead, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology/Child Neurology Society practice parameter on treatment of infantile spasms in children. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2002 to 2011 and searches of reference lists of retrieved articles were performed. Sixty-eight articles were selected for detailed review; 26 were included in the analysis. Recommendations were based on a 4-tiered classification scheme combining pre-2002 evidence and more recent evidence. Results: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether other forms of corticosteroids are as effective as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for short-term treatment of infantile spasms. However, low-dose ACTH is probably as effective as high-dose ACTH. ACTH is more effective than vigabatrin (VGB) for short-term treatment of children with infantile spasms (excluding those with tuberous sclerosis complex). There is insufficient evidence to show that other agents and combination therapy are effective for short-term treatment of infantile spasms. Short lag time to treatment leads to better long-term developmental outcome. Successful short-term treatment of cryptogenic infantile spasms with ACTH or prednisolone leads to better long-term developmental outcome than treatment with VGB. Recommendations: Low-dose ACTH should be considered for treatment of infantile spasms. ACTH or VGB may be useful for short-term treatment of infantile spasms, with ACTH considered preferentially over VGB. Hormonal therapy (ACTH or prednisolone) may be considered for use in preference to VGB in infants with cryptogenic infantile spasms, to possibly improve developmental outcome. A shorter lag time to treatment of infantile spasms with either hormonal therapy or VGB possibly improves long-term developmental outcomes. PMID:22689735

  16. Latent tuberculosis infection screening prior to biological treatment in Tunisian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slouma, Marwa; Mahmoud, Ines; Saidane, Olfa; Bouden, Selma; Abdelmoula, Leila

    2017-10-01

    The screening of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is necessary to prevent infection in patients with chronic inflammatory disease (CID) undergoing biological treatment. We aimed to assess the efficacy of LTBI screening prior to biological treatment in Tunisia, considered as a high-incidence area of active TB disease. We conducted a retrospective study over a period of 8 years [2007-2014] including patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatism receiving biologic agents since at least 6 months. The screening of LTBI was performed according to national Tunisian guidelines. There were 35 men and 78 women. The mean age was 47.67±13.50 years. Rheumatoid arthritis (70.8%) was the most common cause of CID. The diagnosis of LTBI was established in 23 cases. Among these 23 patients, 12 patients had negative tuberculin skin test (TST) associated with positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold (QFT-G), 10 had TST more than 10mm, one patient had a TST between 5 and 10mm associated with positive QFT-G and one patient had a history of tuberculosis inadequately treated. Preventive anti-tuberculous therapy was prescribed before biological therapy initiation in cases of LTBI. During the follow-up period (3.91 years), no case of tuberculosis reactivation has been reported among patients diagnosed with LTBI. However, 2 cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis were reported in patients with initially negative TST and QFT-G. Our study showed that the Tunisian recommendations allowed detecting a LTBI in 20% of biologic therapy candidates. Preventive measures including screening of LTBI and eventually a prophylactic treatment improve the safety of biological treatments. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Terrorist Event Training in US Medical Schools. A Survey of Chemical, Biologic, Radiologic, Nuclear, and High-Yield Explosives Training in US Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, James M; Ziegler, Kristina; Armstrong, Jessica M; Shapiro, David

    2015-01-01

    September 11, 2001 saw the dawn of the US-led global war on terror, a combined diplomatic, military, social, and cultural war on terrorist activities. Chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high-yield explosives (CBRNE), as a group of tactics, are often the preferred weapons of terrorists across the globe. We undertook a survey of US medical schools to determine what their self-reported level of training for terrorist events encompasses during the four years of undergraduate medical education. We surveyed 170 medical schools in the US and Puerto Rico using a five-question, internet-based survey, followed by telephone calls to curriculum offices for initial nonresponders. We used simple descriptive statistics to analyze the data. A majority of US medical schools that completed the survey (79 schools or 65.3%) have no required lecture or course on CBRNE or terrorist activities during the first or second year (preclinical years). Ninety-eight out of the 121 respondents (81.0%), however, believed that CBRNE training was either very important or somewhat important, as reflected in survey answers. Most physician educators believe that training in CBRNE is important; however this belief has not resulted in widespread acceptance of a CBRNE curriculum in US medical schools.

  18. Treatment of obesity: an update on anti-obesity medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, A; Mancini, M C

    2003-02-01

    The information presented in this article provides an overview of physiological agents, therapeutics in current use, and medications that have been extensively used in the past but are no longer available, or are not classically considered as anti-obesity drugs. The authors present an extensive review on the criteria for anti-obesity management efficacy, on physiological mechanisms that regulate central and/or peripheral action energetic homeostasis (nutrients, monoamines and peptides), and on beta-phenethylamine pharmacological-derivative agents (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine, phentermine, diethylpropion, fenproporex and sibutramine), tricyclic derivatives (mazindol), phenylpropanolamine derivatives (ephedrine, phenylpropanolamine), a phenylpropanolamine oxy-tri-fluor-phenyl derivative (fluoxetine), a naftilamine derivative (sertraline) and a lipstatine derivative (orlistat). An analysis of all clinical trials longer than 10 weeks in duration is also presented for medications used in the management of obesity.

  19. Treatment of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Nightmares at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Mark B.; Pagadala, Bhuvaneshwar; Candelario, Joseph; Boyle, Jennifer S.; Detweiler, Jonna G.; Lutgens, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of medications for PTSD in general has been well studied, but the effectiveness of medicatio.ns prescribed specifically for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nightmares is less well known. This retrospective chart review examined the efficacy of various medications used in actual treatment of PTSD nightmares at one Veteran Affairs Hospital. Records at the Salem, VA Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC) were examined from 2009 to 2013 to check for the efficacy of actual treatments used in comparis.on with treatments suggested in three main review articles. The final sample consisted of 327 patients and 478 separate medication trials involving 21 individual medications plus 13 different medication combinations. The three most frequently utilized medications were prazosin (107 trials), risperidone (81 trials), and quetiapine (72 trials). Five medications had 20 or more trials with successful results (partial to full nightmare cessation) in >50% of trials: risperidone (77%, 1.0–6.0 mg), clonidine (63%, 0.1–2.0 mg), quetiapine (50%, 12.5–800.0 mg), mirtazapine (50%; 7.5–30.0 mg), and terazosin (64%, 50.0–300.0 mg). Notably, olanzapine (2.5–10.0) was successful (full remission) in all five prescription trials in five separate patients. Based on the clinical results, the use of risperidone, clonidine, terazosin, and olanzapine warrants additional investigation in clinically controlled trials as medications prescribed specifically for PTSD nightmares. PMID:27999253

  20. Explanatory models of depression and treatment adherence to antidepressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Johannessen, Helle; Stage, Kurt Bjerregaard

    2012-01-01

    and medicine were not central. However, taking antidepressant medication was a meaningful part of being admitted to hospital, and the adoption of the rhetoric and practices of biomedicine strengthened patients' sense of control and hope for recovery. If medicine was ineffective, the explanatory models...... legitimised alternative strategies towards recovery, including non-adherence. CONCLUSIONS: The patients' reasons for adhering to antidepressants included a range of diverse psychosocial issues, and could be regarded as a central part of their common sense illness management....

  1. Medical or surgical approaches to obesity treatment, or both?

    OpenAIRE

    Cini, Erica

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a growing concern in the medical profession, particularly due to the co-morbidities that are related to obesity. Various methods have been trialled to manage obesity with varying effects, but can we ever say that one which is better than the other? This article looks at various lifestyle, pharmacological and surgical aspects of the management of obesity and discusses the diverse theories as to why the maintenance of weight loss can be difficult.

  2. An Analysis of Medical Imaging Costs in Military Treatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    LIST OF REFERENCES Aamc.org. 2014. “Medical Student Education: Debt, Costs, and Loan Repayment Fact Card.”. https://www.aamc.org/download/152968...American College of Radiology, practice costs excluding physician compensation, average 39% for a non-academic radiology practice (Sunshine...the hospital’s cost data as military radiologists are usually trained in the Health Professions Scholarship Program which pays 100% of tuition and

  3. 30 CFR 50.20-3 - Criteria-Differences between medical treatment and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and first aid. 50.20-3 Section 50.20-3 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... first aid. (a) Medical treatment includes, but is not limited to, the suturing of any wound, treatment... treatment. Tetanus and flu shots are considered preventative in nature. First aid includes any one-time...

  4. Critical revision of the medical treatment of gout in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Valderilio Feijó; Lopes, Maicon Piana; Catholino, Nathan Marostica; Paiva, Eduardo Dos Santos; Araújo, Vitor Andrei; Pinheiro, Geraldo da Rocha Castelar

    Gout is considered the most common form of inflammatory arthritis in men over 40 years. The authors present a brief review of the current treatment of gout and discuss the existing pharmacological limitations in Brazil for the treatment of this disease. Although allopurinol is still the main drug administered for decreasing serum levels of uric acid in gout patients in this country, the authors also present data that show a great opportunity for the Brazilian drug market for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout and especially for patients using private and public (SUS) health care systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Biological treatment with fungi of olive mill wastewater pre-treated by photocatalytic oxidation with nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, V; Lopes, I; Freitas, A C; Rocha-Santos, T A P; Gonçalves, F; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2015-05-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) still is a major environmental problem due to its high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic content (TPC), contributing for the high toxicity and recalcitrant nature. Several attempts have been made for developing more efficient treatment processes, but no chemical or biological approaches were found to be totally effective, especially in terms of toxicity reduction. In this context, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the treatability of OMW by the combination of photocatalytic oxidation, using two nanomaterials as catalysts (TiO2 and Fe2O3), with biological degradation by fungi (Pleurotus sajor caju and Phanerochaete chrysosporium). Photocatalytic oxidation was carried out using different systems, nano-TiO2/UV, nano-Fe2O3/UV, nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV and nano-Fe2O3/H2O2/UV. The effectiveness of the treatment was assessed through color (465nm), aromatics (270nm), COD and TPC reductions, as well as by the decrease in toxicity using the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The chemical treatment with the system nano-TiO2/H2O2/UV promoted 43%, 14%, 38% and 31% reductions in color, aromatics content, COD and TPC, respectively. However no toxicity reduction was observed. The combination with a biological treatment increased the reduction of COD and TPC as well as a reduction in toxicity. The treatment with P. chrysosporium promoted the highest reduction in toxicity, but P. sajor caju was responsible for the best reduction in COD and TPC. However, the biological treatment was more effective when no hydrogen peroxide was used in the pre-treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with biologic agents lowers the risk of incident chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumida, Keiichi; Molnar, Miklos Z; Potukuchi, Praveen K; Hassan, Fatima; Thomas, Fridtjof; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Kovesdy, Csaba P

    2018-02-03

    Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with reduced kidney function, possibly due to chronic inflammation or the use of nephrotoxic therapies. However, little is known about the effects of using the newer novel non-nephrotoxic biologic agents on the risk of incident chronic kidney disease (CKD). To study this we used a cohort of 20,757 United States veterans diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 60 mL/min/1.73m 2 or more, recruited between October 2004 and September 2006, and followed through 2013. The associations of biologic use with incident CKD (eGFR under 60 with a decrease of at least 25% from baseline, and eGFR under 45 mL/min/1.73m 2 ) and change in eGFR (biologic treatment, using Cox models and multinomial logistic regression models, respectively. Among 20,757 patients, 4,617 started biologic therapy. In the propensity-matched cohort, patients treated (versus not treated) with biologic agents had a lower risk of incident CKD (hazard ratios 0.95, 95% confidence interval [0.82-1.10] and 0.71 [0.53-0.94] for decrease in eGFR under 60 and under 45 mL/min/1.73m 2 , respectively) and progressive eGFR decline (multinomial odds ratios [95% CI] for eGFR slopes biologic administration in patients treated with biologics (-1.0 versus -0.4 [mL/min/1.73m 2 /year] before and after biologic use). Thus, biologic agent administration was independently associated with lower risk of incident CKD and progressive eGFR decline. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Medicated shampoos for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldroup, Whitney; Scheinfeld, Noah

    2008-07-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common papulosquamous disorder of the skin, affecting 3% to 5% of the population. Dandruff, a less severe form of seborrheic dermatitis, affects a greater proportion of the population. The exact pathogenesis of seborrheic dermatitis is unknown, however colonization of the lipophilic yeast, Malasezzia furfur, and an inflammatory reaction to this yeast each seem to play a role in disease etiology. Therefore, treatment for seborrheic dermatitis is aimed at yeast elimination and inflammation control. Several treatment modalities are available for seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff including shampoos, which contain both active ingredients related to antimycotic or anti-inflammatory effects and also surfactant ingredients that allow these shampoos to replace regular shampoos in affected patients. The literature regarding the treatment of therapeutic shampoos is reviewed, and treatment strategies for managing seborrheic dermatitis with therapeutic shampoos are provided.

  8. [Developments in the medical treatment of overactive bladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara Montero, A

    Overactive Bladder (OAB) is a common problem among men and women. Antimuscarinic drugs are a reference treatment for OAB and act by blocking the muscarinic receptors (M2 and M3 subtypes) in the bladder. Adherence to antimuscarinic treatment is usually low, due to the perceived lack of efficacy and adverse effects. Therefore, new treatments with different mechanisms of action and a more acceptable tolerability profile are needed, and that improve the symptoms of OAB. Mirabegron is a new treatment option for all patients with OAB and could solve an unmet need in patients still not satisfied, or where the antimuscarinic therapy is not indicated, is an alternative option for patients with OAB. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Making medical treatments resilient to technological disruptions in telemedicine systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larburu Rubio, Nekane; Widya, I.A.; Bults, Richard G.A.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Telemedicine depends on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to support remote treatment of patients. This dependency requires the telemedicine system design to be resilient for ICT performance degradation or subsystem failures. Nevertheless, using telemedicine systems create a dependency

  10. medical cost of lassa fever treatment in irrua specialist teaching

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-30

    Leighton and Foster, 1993). Lassa fever is a severe and often fatal ... pattern and cost of tuberculosis treatment from the provider and patient perspectives in the state of Penang, Malaysia in. 2010/2011 (Muhammad et al., 2014).

  11. Identification and characteristics of biological agents in work environment of medical emergency services in selected ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cieślik, Piotr; Wlizło-Skowronek, Bożena; Winnicka, Izabela; Kubiak, Leszek; Jaroszuk-Ściseł, Jolanta; Depczyńska, Daria; Bohacz, Justyna; Korniłłowicz-Kowalska, Teresa; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Kocik, Janusz

    2017-06-19

    Assessment of microbial air quality and surface contamination in ambulances and administration offices as a control place without occupational exposure to biological agents; based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi found in collected samples. The sampling was done by wet cyclone technology using the Coriolis recon apparatus, imprint and swab methods, respectively. In total, 280 samples from 28 ambulances and 10 offices in Warszawa were tested. Data was analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Kruskal-Wallis test with α = 0.05. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. The levels of air contamination were from 0 to 2.3×101 colony-forming unit (CFU)/m3 for bacteria and for yeast and filamentous fungi were from 0 to 1.8×101 CFU/m3. The assessment of office space air samples has shown the following numbers of microorganisms: bacteria from 3.0×101 to 4.2×101 CFU/m3 and yeast and filamentous fungi from 0 to 1.9×101 CFU/m3. For surface contamination the mean bacterial count in ambulances has been between 1.0×101 and 1.3×102 CFU/25 cm2 and in offices - between 1.1×101 and 8.5×101 CFU/25 cm2. Mean fungal count has reached the level from 2.8×100 to 4.2×101 CFU/25 cm2 in ambulances and 1.3×101 to 5.8×101 CFU/25 cm2 in offices. The qualitative analysis has revealed the presence of Acinetobacter spp. (surfaces), coagulase - negative Staphylococci (air and surfaces), Aspergillus and Penicillium genera (air and surfaces). The study has revealed a satisfactory microbiological quantity of analyzed air and surface samples in both study and control environments. However, the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in ambulances may endanger the medical emergency staff and patients with infection. Disinfection and cleaning techniques therefore should be constantly developed and implemented. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(4):617-627. This work is available in Open Access

  12. Identification and characteristics of biological agents in work environment of medical emergency services in selected ambulances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Bielawska-Drózd

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Assessment of microbial air quality and surface contamination in ambulances and administration offices as a control place without occupational exposure to biological agents; based on quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi found in collected samples. Material and Methods: The sampling was done by wet cyclone technology using the Coriolis recon apparatus, imprint and swab methods, respectively. In total, 280 samples from 28 ambulances and 10 offices in Warszawa were tested. Data was analyzed using Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Kruskal-Wallis test with α = 0.05. P value ≤ 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The levels of air contamination were from 0 to 2.3×101 colony-forming unit (CFU/m3 for bacteria and for yeast and filamentous fungi were from 0 to 1.8×101 CFU/m3. The assessment of office space air samples has shown the following numbers of microorganisms: bacteria from 3.0×101 to 4.2×101 CFU/m3 and yeast and filamentous fungi from 0 to 1.9×101 CFU/m3. For surface contamination the mean bacterial count in ambulances has been between 1.0×101 and 1.3×102 CFU/25 cm2 and in offices – between 1.1×101 and 8.5×101 CFU/25 cm2. Mean fungal count has reached the level from 2.8×100 to 4.2×101 CFU/25 cm2 in ambulances and 1.3×101 to 5.8×101 CFU/25 cm2 in offices. The qualitative analysis has revealed the presence of Acinetobacter spp. (surfaces, coagulase – negative Staphylococci (air and surfaces, Aspergillus and Penicillium genera (air and surfaces. Conclusions: The study has revealed a satisfactory microbiological quantity of analyzed air and surface samples in both study and control environments. However, the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms in the air and on surfaces in ambulances may endanger the medical emergency staff and patients with infection. Disinfection and cleaning techniques therefore should be constantly developed and implemented. Int J Occup

  13. Illness and treatment perceptions are associated with adherence to medications, diet, and exercise in diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Elizabeth; Donkin, Liesje; Stroh, Julia C

    2011-02-01

    To investigate diabetic patients' perceptions of illness and treatments, and explore relationships to adherence and blood glucose control. Forty-nine type 1 and one hundred and eight type 2 diabetic patients completed questionnaires assessing illness perceptions, treatment beliefs, and adherence to medications, diet, and exercise. Blood glucose control was assessed from blood tests. Patients rated medication more important than diet and exercise, and reported higher adherence to medications. Insulin was perceived as more helpful for diabetes, while antihypertensives and cholesterol medication were perceived more helpful for preventing heart problems. Perceptions were associated with adherence to insulin, cholesterol and antihypertensive medications, exercise, and diet. Blood glucose control in type 1 diabetic patients was associated with insulin adherence and perceived personal control, and in type 2 diabetic patients to being prescribed insulin or antihypertensives, and perceived personal control. Patients hold specific mental models about diabetes treatments, which are associated with adherence.

  14. Medical and biological utilization of radioelements in France; Utilisation des radioelements en france dans le domaine de la medecine et de la biologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coursaget, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    The development of the research about stable and radioactive isotopes uses in biology and medicine started in France in the early years after the second World War. Close collaboration with United States led to the training of an hundred of French medical researchers in US research laboratories, twenty of whom were specifically trained about tracers uses and techniques. Since 1950, the C.N.R.S. and C.E.A. have collaborated to train French researchers to the isotopes methods, interpretation difficulties and precaution measures about radioisotopes manipulations. In the early fifties, the CEA started the radioisotopes production for medical and biology research and applications uses. The clinical uses of isotopes are presented in two main applications: diagnosis uses such as {sup 131}I for diagnosis or functional studies of thyroid gland and therapeutic treatments such as {sup 32}P for leukaemia and other cancer treatments. In a second part, the main studies subjects of basic and applied research are described: physiological and biological studies of the absorption, diffusion and distribution of different molecules as well as membrane permeability in biological systems for medicine and agronomy applications, studies of the incorporation of labelled compounds in biological and organic systems by exchange or synthesis ({sup 32}P is used for renewal studies of the osseous tissue), studies of the mechanism of biochemical reactions ({sup 14}C, {sup 15}N and {sup 35}S are the most used radionuclides) and endocrinology research, in particular, biochemical studies of the thyroid hormones. All these researches and applications encountered financial and delay in radioisotope production for which the CEA provided most of the labelled compounds at reasonable prices. The large development of isotopes applications in diagnosis, therapeutic as well as basic and applied research, leads to increase radionuclides demand and production delays. It discussed the different solutions to

  15. Understanding the sorption and biotransformation of organic micropollutants in innovative biological wastewater treatment technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarino, T; Suarez, S; Lema, J; Omil, F

    2018-02-15

    New technologies for wastewater treatment have been developed in the last years based on the combination of biological reactors operating under different redox conditions. Their efficiency in the removal of organic micropollutants (OMPs) has not been clearly assessed yet. This review paper is focussed on understanding the sorption and biotransformation of a selected group of 17 OMPs, including pharmaceuticals, hormones and personal care products, during biological wastewater treatment processes. Apart from considering the role of "classical" operational parameters, new factors such as biomass conformation and particle size, upward velocity applied or the addition of adsorbents have been considered. It has been found that the OMP removal by sorption not only depends on their physico-chemical characteristics and other parameters, such as the biomass conformation and particle size, or some operational conditions also relevant. Membrane biological reactors (MBR), have shown to enhance sorption and biotransformation of some OMPs. The same applies to technologies bases on direct addition of activated carbon in bioreactors. The OMP biotransformation degree and pathway is mainly driven by the redox potential and the primary substrate activity. The combination of different redox potentials in hybrid reactor systems can significantly enhance the overall OMP removal efficiency. Sorption and biotransformation can be synergistically promoted in biological reactors by the addition of activated carbon. The deeper knowledge of the main parameters influencing OMP removal provided by this review will allow optimizing the biological processes in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of COD and color from hydrolyzed textile azo dye by combined ozonation and biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson; Bonilla, Karin Angela Santos; de Souza, Antônio Augusto Ulson

    2010-07-15

    The application of ozonation has been increasing in recent years, the main disadvantage of this type of treatment being related to the by-products, which can have toxic and carcinogenic properties, and therefore should be studied further. In this study, the combined treatment of ozonation and subsequent biological degradation with a biofilm, to reduce the color and chemical oxygen demand (COD), was investigated. The experimental part of the study consisted of two phases. The first phase was the ozonation process, the results obtained demonstrated that the ozonation of Remazol Black B dye at pH values of 3-11, was effective, partially oxidizing and completely decolorizing the effluent, even at relatively high concentrations of the dye (500 mg/L). Color removal efficiencies greater than 96% were obtained in all cases. The degradation kinetics of ozone is a pseudo-first-order reaction with respect to the dye concentration. It was possible to verify that the ozonation process as a pre-treatment increases the dye degradation efficiency. For the biological treatment, an increase in ozonization time increased the dye concentration reduction in hydrolyzed dye synthetic effluent. The toxicological results of the tests with Daphnia Magna showed that there is an increase in toxicity after ozonization and a decrease after submitting the ozonized synthetic wastewater to biological treatment with a biofilm. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smoldering multiple myeloma: biological insights and early treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgren, Ola

    2013-01-01

    After decades of virtually no progress, multiple myeloma survival has improved significantly in the past 10 years. Indeed, multiple myeloma has perhaps seen more remarkable progress in treatment and patient outcomes than any other cancer during the last decade. Recent data show that multiple myeloma is consistently preceded by a precursor state (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance [MGUS]/smoldering multiple myeloma [SMM]). This observation provides a framework for prospective studies focusing on transformation from precursor disease to multiple myeloma and for the development of treatment strategies targeting "early myeloma." This review discusses current biological insights in MGUS/SMM, provides an update on clinical management, and discusses how the integration of novel biological markers, molecular imaging, and clinical monitoring of MGUS/SMM could facilitate the development of early treatment strategies for high-risk SMM (early myeloma) patients in the future.

  18. Effect of radiation and fungal treatment on ligno celluloses and their biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp

    2000-10-01

    Effects of high-dose irradiation and fungal treatment on some kinds of lignocellulose material were investigated in order to assess the potential effects of bioactive substances on plants. Each treatment and combination of treatments significantly altered the components of lignocellulose materials. Irradiation strongly affected all plant materials, causing a series of changes in physico-chemical parameters such as solubilization during solvent extraction and losses of fibre components. By these degradations, certain biologically active substances formed and acted as antagonists of auxin-induced growth.

  19. Allopathic, complementary, and alternative medical treatment utilization for pain among methadone-maintained patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Declan T; Beitel, Mark; Cutter, Christopher J; Garnet, Brian; Joshi, Dipa; Schottenfeld, Richard S; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2009-01-01

    We surveyed 150 methadone maintenance treatment program (MMTP) patients about pain, pain treatment utilization, perceived efficacy of prior pain treatment, and interest in pursuing pain treatment at the MMTP. Respondents with chronic severe pain (CSP) (ie, pain lasting at least six months with moderate to severe pain intensity or significant pain interference) and "some pain" (ie, pain reported in the previous week but not CSP) endorsed similar rates of past-week and lifetime allopathic or standard medical (with the exception of lifetime medical use of non-opiate medication) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) utilization for pain reduction. Prior pain treatments were perceived to be less effective by CSP than SP patients but both groups had equivalent high rates of interest in pain treatment associated with the MMTP. These findings may have implications for resource and program planning in MMTPs.

  20. Combined heterogeneous Electro-Fenton and biological process for the treatment of stabilized landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiju, Archa; Gandhimathi, R; Ramesh, S T; Nidheesh, P V

    2018-03-15

    Treatment of stabilized landfill leachate is a great challenge due to its poor biodegradability. Present study made an attempt to treat this wastewater by combining electro-Fenton (E-Fenton) and biological process. E-Fenton treatment was applied prior to biological process to enhance the biodegradability of leachate, which will be beneficial for the subsequent biological process. This study also investigates the efficiency of iron molybdophosphate (FeMoPO) nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst in E-Fenton process. The effects of initial pH, catalyst dosage, applied voltage and electrode spacing on Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency were analyzed to determine the optimum conditions. Heterogeneous E-Fenton process gave 82% COD removal at pH 2, catalyst dosage of 50 mg/L, voltage 5 V, electrode spacing 3 cm and electrode area 25 cm 2 . Combined E-Fenton and biological treatment resulted an overall COD removal of 97%, bringing down the final COD to 192 mg/L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Analysis of novel style biological fluidized bed A/O combined process in dyeing wastewater treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chao-Hai; Huang, Hui-Jing; Ren, Yuan; Wu, Chao-Fei; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Lu, Bin

    2011-04-01

    A novel biological fluidized bed was designed and developed to deal with high-concentration refractory organic industrial wastewater. From 12 successful projects, three cases of dyeing wastewater treatment projects with the scale of 1200, 2000 and 13000 m3/d respectively were selected to analyze the principle of treating refractory organic wastewater with fluidized bed technology and discuss the superiority of self-developed biological fluidized bed from the aspects of technical and economic feasibility. In the three cases, when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of biological system were 23, 34 and 21. 8 h, and the volume loading of influents (COD) were 1.75, 4.75 and 2.97 kg/(m3 x d), the corresponding COD removal were 97.3%, 98.1% and 95.8%. Furthermore the operating costs of projects were 0.91, 1.17 and 0.88 yuan per ton of water respectively. The index of effluent all met the 1st grade of Guangdong Province wastewater discharge standard. Results showed that the biological fluidized bed had characteristics of shorter retention time, greater oxygen utilization rate, faster conversion rate of organic pollutants and less sludge production, which made it overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods in printing and dyeing wastewater treatment. Considering the development of technology and the combination of ecological security and recycling resources, a low-carbon wastewater treatment process was proposed.

  2. Chemical and biological treatment technologies for leather tannery chemicals and wastewaters: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofrano, Giusy; Meriç, Sureyya; Zengin, Gülsüm Emel; Orhon, Derin

    2013-09-01

    Although the leather tanning industry is known to be one of the leading economic sectors in many countries, there has been an increasing environmental concern regarding the release of various recalcitrant pollutants in tannery wastewater. It has been shown that biological processes are presently known as the most environmental friendly but inefficient for removal of recalcitrant organics and micro-pollutants in tannery wastewater. Hence emerging technologies such as advanced oxidation processes and membrane processes have been attempted as integrative to biological treatment for this sense. This paper, as the-state-of-the-art, attempts to revise the over world trends of treatment technologies and advances for pollution prevention from tannery chemicals and wastewater. It can be elucidated that according to less extent advances in wastewater minimization as well as in leather production technology and chemicals substitution, biological and chemical treatment processes have been progressively studied. However, there has not been a full scale application yet of those emerging technologies using advanced oxidation although some of them proved good achievements to remove xenobiotics present in tannery wastewater. It can be noted that advanced oxidation technologies integrated with biological processes will remain in the agenda of the decision makers and water sector to apply the best prevention solution for the future tanneries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Biologic Approaches for the Treatment of Partial Tears of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallo, Ignacio; Chahla, Jorge; Mitchell, Justin J.; Pascual-Garrido, Cecilia; Feagin, John A.; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has been established as the gold standard for treatment of complete ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in active, symptomatic individuals. In contrast, treatment of partial tears of the ACL remains controversial. Biologically augmented ACL-repair techniques are expanding in an attempt to regenerate and improve healing and outcomes of both the native ACL and the reconstructed graft tissue. Purpose: To review the biologic treatment options for partial tears of the ACL. Study Design: Review. Methods: A literature review was performed that included searches of PubMed, Medline, and Cochrane databases using the following keywords: partial tear of the ACL, ACL repair, bone marrow concentrate, growth factors/healing enhancement, platelet-rich plasma (PRP), stem cell therapy. Results: The use of novel biologic ACL repair techniques, including growth factors, PRP, stem cells, and bioscaffolds, have been reported to result in promising preclinical and short-term clinical outcomes. Conclusion: The potential benefits of these biological augmentation approaches for partial ACL tears are improved healing, better proprioception, and a faster return to sport and activities of daily living when compared with standard reconstruction procedures. However, long-term studies with larger cohorts of patients and with technique validation are necessary to assess the real effect of these approaches. PMID:28210653

  4. Pollution control in pulp and paper industrial effluents using integrated chemical-biological treatment sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bestawy, Ebtesam; El-Sokkary, Ibrahim; Hussein, Hany; Keela, Alaa Farouk Abu

    2008-11-01

    The main objective of the present study was to improve the quality of pulp and paper industrial wastewater of two local mills RAKTA and El-Ahlia, Alexandria, Egypt, and to bring their pollutant contents to safe discharge levels. Quality improvement was carried out using integrated chemical and biological treatment approaches after their optimization. Chemical treatment (alum, lime, and ferric chloride) was followed by oxidation using hydrogen peroxide and finally biological treatment using activated sludge (90 min for RAKTA and 60 min for El-Ahlia effluents). Chemical coagulation produced low-quality effluents, while pH adjustment during coagulation treatment did not enhance the quality of the effluents. Maximum removal of the tested pollutants was achieved using the integrated treatment and the pollutants recorded residual concentrations (RCs) of 34.67, 17.33, 0.13, and 0.43 mg/l and 15.0, 11.0, 0.0, and 0.13 mg/l for chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), tannin and lignin, and silica in RAKTA and El-Ahlia effluents, respectively, all of which were below their maximum permissible limits (MPLs) for the safe discharge into water courses. Specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) and sludge volume index (SVI) values reflect good conditions and healthy activated sludge. Based on the previous results, optimized conditions were applied as bench scale on the raw effluents of RAKTA and El-Ahlia via the batch chemical and the biological treatment sequences proposed. For RAKTA effluents, the sequence was as follows: (1) coagulation with 375 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 50 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 90 min hydraulic retention time (HRT), while for El-Ahlia raw effluents, the sequence was (1) coagulation with 250 mg/l FeCl3, (2) oxidation with 45 mg/l hydrogen peroxide, and (3) biological treatment using activated sludge with 2,000 mg/l initial concentration and 60

  5. [Informed consent and parental refusal to medical treatment in childhood. The threshold of medical and social tolerance. Part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Orozco, Jessica H; Garduño Espinosa, Juan; Vargas López, Guillermo; Viesca Treviño, Carlos

    Informed consent is a right of all individuals and no one can force anyone to receive treatment against their wishes. The right to accept or refuse treatment persists in individuals who are incompetent from a legal point of view; this is exercised on their behalf by a third party. Children are considered incompetent to make medical decisions about their own health and their parents or legal guardians are empowered to make those decisions. However, parental authority is not absolute and there are situations where their decisions are not the best, sometimes leading to jeopardizing the well-being and even the lives of their children, forcing the state to intervene on behalf of the best interests of the child. This is the reason why it is necessary to ask the following questions: is it really the child's best interest that moves us to legally intervene when a parent refuses to accept the proposed medical treatment or is the damage done to make this decision? What kind of parental decisions are those that should not be tolerated? After a review of the theme, we conclude that if the decision of the parents regarding a medical decision is considered to be made with maleficence that is harmful to the child, it is justified that the State intervenes. Finally, we exposed four criteria that can be used in making decisions in complex cases where parents refuse treatment for their children. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  6. Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center uses innovative lameness treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Tech's Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center is now offering an equine lameness therapy that prevents further degeneration of the affected joint and offers a longer-lasting benefit than traditional steroid treatment.

  7. Medical prescription of heroin to treatment resistant heroin addicts: two randomised controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Wim; Hendriks, Vincent M.; Blanken, Peter; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; van Zwieten, Barbara J.; van Ree, Jan M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supervised medical prescription of heroin can successfully treat addicts who do not sufficiently benefit from methadone maintenance treatment. DESIGN: Two open label randomised controlled trials. SETTING: Methadone maintenance programmes in six cities in the

  8. Recent Advances of Individual BODIPY and BODIPY-Based Functional Materials in Medical Diagnostics and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marfin, Yuriy S; Solomonov, Alexey V; Timin, Alexander S; Rumyantsev, Evgeniy V

    2017-01-01

    The group of fluorophores on boron dipyrrin platform (4,4- difluoro-4-bora3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene, also known as BODIPY) has attracted much attention in the field of molecular sensorics, including sensing of biomolecules and bioprocesses. Structural diversity of existing BODIPY with ample opportunities of directed modification of compounds makes this class of fluorophores attractive for medical and biological purposes. The recent progress in the design and functionalization of BODIPY allows using them for modification of drug micro- and nanocarriers in order to improve their therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. At the same time, integration of BODIPY into drug carriers provides the possibility of in vitro and in vivo real time imaging of used drug carriers. The high fluorescent intensity and low toxicity of BODIPY granted for conjugation with different biomolecules. The present review focuses on the recent advances for application of individual BODIPY in medical diagnostics, antimicrobial activity, as well as establishing the role of BODIPY in labeling of biomolecules (e.g. proteins, hormones and DNA). Also the review highlights the potential of BODIPY in functionalization of drug micro- and nanocarriers in order to achieve better therapeutic efficiency compared with non-modified materials. The advantages derived from the use of BODIPY for preparation and modification of drug carriers are critically evaluated and potential for future challenges, especially concerning the design of innovative multi-functional BODIPY-based nanocarriers, is discussed in detail using representative examples from literature. Our objective was to show that BODIPY are powerful tools for bioimaging, labeling of biomolecules and construction of new multifunctional drug carriers. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Arabic-speaking religious leaders' perceptions of the causes of mental illness and the use of medication for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Jacqueline; Deane, Frank P

    2013-11-01

    The Arabic-speaking clergy is highly revered and considered the first point of contact for people who suffer from mental illness within their community. The current study aimed to explore the beliefs of Arabic-speaking religious leaders regarding the causes of mental illness and the use of medication for their treatment. Participants consisted of 170 Arabic-speaking clerics of Muslim (n = 85) and Christian (n = 85) denominations residing in Sydney, Australia. A questionnaire was administered during face-to-face interviews and included items regarding the causes of mental illness and beliefs about whether psychiatric medications were viewed as helpful or harmful. Most of the Arabic-speaking clerics viewed drug and alcohol addiction and psychosocial factors as the most important causes of mental illness. Biological causes such as a chemical imbalance in the brain were less frequently endorsed. Although medications were viewed by most religious clerics as helpful in the treatment of mental illness, there were also concerns about the potential harms of medications, particularly among Muslim clerics. Muslim clerics also endorsed the religious causes for mental illness, such as spiritual poverty, as being more important more so than did Christian clerics. The beliefs of Arabic-speaking religious leaders influence how they respond to people with mental illness and may determine whether they refer people to professional mental health services or not. Understanding their perspectives allows opportunities to share information to facilitate collaborative work in the care of Arabic-speaking people with mental illness. Arabic-speaking religious leaders need to be better educated about the mechanisms of action and benefits of medication in the treatment of mental illness.

  10. Total knee replacement plus physical and medical therapy or treatment with physical and medical therapy alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Soren T; Roos, Ewa M.; Laursen, Mogens B

    2012-01-01

    in addition to optimised non-surgical treatment in patients with KOA defined as definite radiographic OA and up to moderate pain. METHODS: The study will be conducted in The North Denmark Region. 100 participants with radiographic KOA (K-L grade [greater than or equal to]2) and mean pain during the previous......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: There is a lack of high quality evidence concerning the efficacy of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). According to international evidence-based guidelines, treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA) should include patient education, exercise and weight loss. Insoles...... and pharmacological treatment can be included as supplementary treatments. If the combination of these non-surgical treatment modalities is ineffective, TKA may be indicated. The purpose of this randomised controlled trial is to examine whether TKA provides further improvement in pain, function and quality of life...

  11. Treatment of tophaceous gout: When medication is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Isaac R; Juriga, Matthew D; Giurini, John M; Shmerling, Robert H

    2016-06-01

    To review the literature concerning surgical intervention of tophaeceous gout and propose clinical circumstances for when it may be considered. Tophi develop in approximately 12-35% of patients with gout. Tophaceous disease is usually preventable given the availability of effective urate lowering therapies (ULT) including allopurinol, febuxostat, probenecid, lesinurad, and pegloticase. Despite medical therapy, there remains a subset of patients who develop significant complications of tophi including infection, ulceration, and entrapment neuropathy. Tophi in close proximity to joints can cause joint instability, severely limited range of motion, and significant functional impairment. For the rare circumstance when a tophus is causing an urgent complication or if a patient has a contraindication to all available ULTs, surgery may be an appropriate option. This review summarizes the published experience with surgical interventions for tophaceous gout and offers recommendations for its consideration. Using Medline and Google Scholar, all available series of surgery for tophaceous gout were reviewed. Overall, 7 published surgical series were identified. In all, 6 of these 7 series were published between 2002 and 2014. The reported outcomes of surgical interventions for tophaceous gout were generally positive without major post-surgical complications. Although medical therapy with ULTs should be the first-line approach to tophaceous gout, surgery should be considered for the rare patient with impending or severe, debilitating complications including infections, entrapment neuropathy or those at risk for permanent joint destruction. In these selected clinical circumstances, surgical intervention for tophaceous gout may be appropriate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Body dysmorphic disorder in patients who seek appearance-enhancing medical treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E; Magee, Leanne

    2010-11-01

    Most patients who seek appearance-enhancing medical treatments report some degree of body image dissatisfaction, which is believed to motivate the pursuit of these treatments. However, patients with extreme body image dissatisfaction may be suffering from a psychiatric disorder known as body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). This article reviews BDD, including its clinical features and prevalence in medical settings. Although patients with BDD frequently seek cosmetic treatments to address their appearance-related distress, such treatments are rarely beneficial. The article concludes with recommendations for patient and provider safety. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Content and Formation Cause of VOCs in Medical Waste Non-incineration Treatment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengchao, Jin; Hongjun, Teng; Zhenbo, Bao; Yang, Li

    2018-02-01

    When medical waste is treated by non-incineration technology, volatile organic compounds in the waste will be volatile out and form odor pollution. This paper studied VOCs productions in medical waste steam treatment project, microwave treatment project and chemical dinifection project. Sampling and analysis were carried out on the waste gas from treatment equipment and the gas in treatment workshop. The contents of nine VOCs were determined. It was found that the VOCs content in the exhaust gas at the outlet of steam treatment unit was much higher than that of microwave and chemical treatment unit, while the content of VOCs in the chemical treatment workshop was higher than that in the steam and microwave treatment workshop. The formation causes of VOCs were also analyzed and discussed in this paper.

  14. [Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis with favorable outcome with medical treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufettal, H; Mahdaoui, S; Noun, M; Hermas, S; Samouh, N; Benayad, S; Azzouzi, S; Zamiati, S

    2011-02-01

    Granulomatous mastitis is a rare inflammatory disorder. Its etiology remains unknown. We report a 42-year-old female who presented with an idiopathic granulomatous mastitis. Outcome was favourable with corticosteroids. The disease course of this entity is unpredictable and a consensual treatment is difficult. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  15. Should doctors provide futile medical treatment if patients or their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    or refused against the wishes of the patients or their legal proxies? Many ethical theories regarding futile treatment could be invoked, such as virtue ethics, Kantian deontology, utilitarianism, communitarianism, liberal individualism, social contract theory, ethics of care, and casuis- try.[6] However, most of these are not useful ...

  16. Emerging medication for the treatment of male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Aydogan; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2016-09-01

    Male hypogonadism is characterized by inadequate production of Testosterone (T) (hypoandrogenism) and deficiencies in spermatogenesis. The main treatment of male hypogonadism is T replacement therapy (TRT), but for some of the patients, alternative drugs may be more suitable. The available literature of T and alternative treatments for male hypogonadism are discussed. Transdermal application of T gels are the most commonly used route of T administration. Some oral T formulations are either associated with hepatic toxicity (i.e. methyltestosterone) or short half-lives that require multiple doses per day (i.e. oral testosterone undecanoate). Short acting, injectable T formulations are also available. If the patient prefers not to use daily drugs or short acting injectable formulations, depot formulations such as injectable testosterone undecanoate (TU) may be a good alternative. If the patient has hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and desires fertility or if he is adolescent, instead of TRT, gonadotropins can be started to stimulate testicular growth and spermatogenesis. In obese patients or for the patients having high risks for TRT, off label aromatase inhibitors (AI) and clomiphene citrate (CC), may be considered to stimulate LH, FSH and T levels. In patients with high prostate disease risk, selective androgen receptor modulators may be an alternative treatment but these latter treatments have not had high level evidence.

  17. Biologic treatment or immunomodulation is not associated with postoperative anastomotic complications in abdominal surgery for Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Hussuna, A.; Andersen, J.; Bisgaard, T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: There are concerns that biologic treatments or immunomodulation may negatively influence anastomotic healing. This study investigates the relationship between these treatments and anastomotic complications after surgery for Crohn's disease. Patients and methods. Retrospective study...

  18. The Association between Medication Adherence and Treatment Intensification with Blood Pressure Control in Resistant Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Stacie L.; Powers, J. David; Magid, David J.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Margolis, Karen L.; O'Connor, Patrick J; Schmittdiel, Julie; Ho, P. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Patients with resistant hypertension are at risk for poor outcomes. Medication adherence and intensification improve blood pressure control; however, little is known about these processes or their association with outcomes in resistant hypertension. This retrospective study included patients from 2002-2006 with incident hypertension from two health systems who developed resistant hypertension, or uncontrolled blood pressure despite adherence to ≥3 antihypertensive medications. Patterns of hypertension treatment, medication adherence (percentage of days covered) and treatment intensification (increase in medication class or dose) were described in the year after resistant hypertension identification. Then, the association between medication adherence and intensification with 1-year blood pressure control was assessed controlling for patient characteristics. Of the 3,550 patients with resistant hypertension, 49% were male and mean age 60. One year after resistance hypertension determination, fewer patients were taking diuretics (77.7% vs. 92.2%, pblood pressure control improved over 1-year (22% vs. 55%, p=blood pressure control (adjusted OR 1.18, 0.94-1.47). Treatment was intensified in 21.6% of visits with elevated blood pressure. Increasing treatment intensity was associated with 1-year blood pressure control (adjusted OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.58-1.71). In this cohort of patients with resistant hypertension, treatment intensification but not medication adherence was significantly associated with 1-year blood pressure control. These findings highlight the need to investigate why patients with uncontrolled blood pressure do not receive treatment intensification. PMID:22733464

  19. Assessment of Evidence Base from Medical Debriefs Data on Space Motion Sickness Incidence and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younker, D.R.; Daniels, V.R.; Boyd, J.L.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    An objective of this data compilation and analysis project is to examine incidence and treatment efficacy of common patho-physiological disturbances during spaceflight. Analysis of medical debriefs data indicated that astronauts used medications to alleviate symptoms of four major ailments for which astronauts received treatment for sleep disturbances, space motion sickness (SMS), pain (headache, back pain) and sinus congestion. In the present data compilation and analysis project on SMS treatment during space missions, subject demographics (gender, age, first-time or repeat flyer), incidence and severity of SMS symptoms and subjective treatment efficacy from 317 crewmember debrief records were examined from STS-1 through STS-89. Preliminary analysis of data revealed that 50% of crew members reported SMS symptoms on at least one flight and 22% never experienced it. In addition, there were 387 medication dosing episodes reported, and promethazine was the most commonly used medication. Results of analysis of symptom check lists, medication use/efficacy and gender and flight record differences in incidence and treatment efficacy will be presented. Evidence gaps for treatment efficacy along with medication use trend analysis will be identified.

  20. A multicenter report of biologic agents for the treatment of secondary amyloidosis in Turkish rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, Ömer Nuri; Kalyoncu, Umut; Aksu, Kenan; Omma, Ahmet; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Çağatay, Yonca; Küçükşahin, Orhan; Dönmez, Salim; Çetin, Gözde Yıldırım; Mercan, Rıdvan; Bayındır, Özün; Çefle, Ayşe; Yıldız, Fatih; Balkarlı, Ayşe; Kılıç, Levent; Çakır, Necati; Kısacık, Bünyamin; Öksüz, Mustafa Ferhat; Çobankara, Veli; Onat, Ahmet Mesut; Sayarlıoğlu, Mehmet; Öztürk, Mehmet Akif; Pamuk, Gülsüm Emel; Akkoç, Nurullah

    2016-07-01

    In this multicenter, retrospective study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of biologic therapies, including anti-TNFs, in secondary (AA) amyloidosis patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, the frequency of secondary amyloidosis in RA and AS patients in a single center was estimated. Fifty-one AS (39M, 12F, mean age: 46.7) and 30 RA patients (11M, 19F, mean age: 51.7) with AA amyloidosis from 16 different centers in Turkey were included. Clinical and demographical features of patients were obtained from medical charts. A composite response index (CRI) to biologic therapy-based on creatinine level, proteinuria and disease activity-was used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment. The mean annual incidence of AA amyloidosis in RA and AS patients was 0.23 and 0.42/1000 patients/year, respectively. The point prevalence in RA and AS groups was 4.59 and 7.58/1000, respectively. In RA group with AA amyloidosis, effective response was obtained in 52.2 % of patients according to CRI. RA patients with RF positivity and more initial disease activity tended to have higher response rates to therapy (p values, 0.069 and 0.056). After biologic therapy (median 17 months), two RA patients died and two developed tuberculosis. In AS group, 45.7 % of patients fulfilled the criteria of good response according to CRI. AS patients with higher CRP levels at the time of AA diagnosis and at the beginning of anti-TNF therapy had higher response rates (p values, 0.011 and 0.017). During follow-up after anti-TNF therapy (median 38 months), one patient died and tuberculosis developed in two patients. Biologic therapy seems to be effective in at least half of RA and AS patients with AA amyloidosis. Tuberculosis was the most important safety concern.

  1. From Earth to Space: Application of Biological Treatment for the Removal of Ammonia from Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Karen; Adam, Niklas; White, Dawn; Ghosh, Amlan; Seidel, Chad

    2014-01-01

    Managing ammonia is often a challenge in both drinking water and wastewater treatment facilities. Ammonia is unregulated in drinking water, but its presence may result in numerous water quality issues in the distribution system such as loss of residual disinfectant, nitrification, and corrosion. Ammonia concentrations need to be managed in wastewater effluent to sustain the health of receiving water bodies. Biological treatment involves the microbiological oxidation of ammonia to nitrate through a two-step process. While nitrification is common in the environment, and nitrifying bacteria can grow rapidly on filtration media, appropriate conditions, such as the presence of dissolved oxygen and required nutrients, need to be established. This presentation will highlight results from two ongoing research programs - one at NASA's Johnson Space Center, and the other at a drinking water facility in California. Both programs are designed to demonstrate nitrification through biological treatment. The objective of NASA's research is to be able to recycle wastewater to potable water for spaceflight missions. To this end, a biological water processor (BWP) has been integrated with a forward osmosis secondary treatment system (FOST). Bacteria mineralize organic carbon to carbon dioxide as well as ammonia-nitrogen present in the wastewater to nitrogen gas, through a combination of nitrification and denitrification. The effluent from the BWP system is low in organic contaminants, but high in total dissolved solids. The FOST system, integrated downstream of the BWP, removes dissolved solids through a combination of concentration-driven forward osmosis and pressure driven reverse osmosis. The integrated system testing planned for this year is expected to produce water that requires only a polishing step to meet potable water requirements for spaceflight. The pilot study in California is being conducted on Golden State Water Company's Yukon wells that have hydrogen sulfide odor

  2. Epidemiological profile of work-related accidents with biological exposure among medical students in a surgical emergency room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Phillipe Geraldo Teixeira de Abreu; Driessen, Anna Luiza; da Costa, Ana Claudia Brenner Affonso; Nasr, Adonis; Collaço, Iwan Augusto; Tomasich, Flávio Daniel Saavedra

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the accidents with biological material among medical students interning in a trauma emergency room and identify key related situations, attributed causes and prevention. we conducted a study with a quantitative approach. Data were collected through a questionnaire applied via internet, with closed, multiple-choice questions regarding accidents with biological material. The sample comprised 100 students. thirty-two had accidents with biological material. Higher-risk activities were local anesthesia (39.47%), suture (18.42%) and needle recapping (15.79%). The main routes of exposure to biological material were the eyes or mucosa, with 34%, and syringe needle puncture, with 45%. After contamination, only 52% reported the accident to the responsible department. The main causes of accidents and routes of exposure found may be attributed to several factors, such as lack of training and failure to use personal protective equipment. Educational and preventive actions are extremely important to reduce the incidence of accidents with biological materials and improve the conduct of post-exposure. It is important to understand the main causes attributed and situations related, so as general and effective measures can be applied.

  3. Combined oxidative and biological treatment of separated streams of tannery wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, G.; Nieto, J. [Environmental Science Center EULA - Chile, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Mansilla, H.D. [Lab. of Renewable Resources, Univ. of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Bornhardt, C. [Chemical Engineering Dept., Univ. of La Frontera, Temuco (Chile)

    2003-07-01

    Leather tanning effluents are a source of severe environmental impacts. In particular, the unhairing stage, belonging to the beamhouse processes, generates an alkaline wastewater with high concentrations of organic matter, sulphides, suspended solids, and salts, which shows significant toxicity. The objective of this work was to evaluate the biodegradation of this industrial wastewater by combined oxidative and biological treatments. An advanced oxidation process (AOP) with Fenton's reagent was used as batch pre-treatment. The relationships of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/COD were 9 and 4, respectively, reaching an organic matter removal of about 90%. Subsequently, the oxidised beamhouse effluent was fed to an activated sludge system, at increasing organic load rates (OLR), in the range of 0.4 to 1.6 g COD/L.d. The biological organic matter removal of the pre-treated wastewater ranged between 35% and 60% for COD, and from 60% to 70% for BOD. Therefore, sequential AOP pretreatment and biological aerobic treatment increased the overall COD removal up to 96%, compared to 60% without pretreatment. Bioassays with D. magna and D. pulex showed that this kind of treatment achieves only a partial toxicity removal of the tannery effluent. (orig.)

  4. Treatment Patterns Among Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis Treated with a Biologic in the United States: Descriptive Analyses from an Administrative Claims Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jessica A; Adejoro, Oluwakayode; Chastek, Benjamin; Palmer, Jacqueline B; Hur, Peter

    2018-03-20

    In patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), limited data exist regarding patterns of biologic therapy use. To examine treatment patterns and therapy modifications in U.S. patients with PsA receiving a tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) or an anti-interleukin (IL)-12/23 inhibitor. Adults with PsA who newly initiated a biologic therapy (index biologic) between January 1, 2013, and January 31, 2015, were included from the Optum Research Database. Biologic therapies comprised those that were approved by the FDA for the treatment of PsA at the time of the study initiation (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab, infliximab, or ustekinumab). Outcomes included adherence, persistence, and discontinuation of the index biologic; initiation of adjunctive medications (nonbiologics, including those commonly used for pain and/or inflammation); and dose escalation of the index biologic during the 12-month follow-up period. Of the 1,235 patients included, 52.5% were female, and mean (SD) age was 50.3 (12.1) years. The mean (SD) duration of persistence with a newly initiated index biologic (etanercept [48.1%], adalimumab [24.0%], infliximab [10.4%], golimumab [8.3%], ustekinumab [7.2%], or certolizumab pegol [2.0%]) was 246 (128) days; 44.5% of patients persisted with the index biologic for ≥ 12 months. During the 12-month follow-up period, 22.9% of patients switched to a different biologic, 26.8% discontinued without switching or restarting, and 5.8% discontinued and restarted the index biologic. Of the 1,010 patients who persisted with the index biologic for > 90 days, 45.6% received ≥ 1 adjunctive medication during the period from 90 days after the index date to the end of persistence or 12 months. The most commonly initiated adjunctive medications were corticosteroids (22.0%), opioids (17.1%), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (12.9%). Overall, 9.6% of patients had a dose escalation of the index biologic in the immediate 12-month post-index period

  5. Preference and usage of intracanal medications during endodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A. Madarati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the preferences of general dental practitioners (GDPs and endodontists in using endodontic intra-canal medications (ICMs. Methods: This observational and descriptive study was conducted in 2014 in the western province of Saudi Arabia. Following ethical clearance and 2 pilot studies, a web-based questionnaire was electronically sent to 375 randomly and systematically selected GDPs and all endodontists in the western province (n=49. An accompanying e-mail explained the study’s aims and confirmed that the data yielded would remain confidential. The responses were collected, and the data was analyzed using the Chi-square test at p=0.05. Results: Significantly, the highest proportion of respondents (53.7% reported disinfection of the root canals as the main function of ICMs. Calcium hydroxide (CH was the preferred material of the majority of those who used the same ICM in all cases (85.7%. While the vast majority of all endodontists (87.5% used CH after pulp extirpation, 48.5% of GDPs used formocresol (p less than 0.001. Almost 30% of those who used ICMs after pulp extirpation did not do so after cleaning and shaping of vital cases. Most endodontists used CH (62.5% and antibiotics (37.5% in necrotic pulp cases without apical lesions, which were significantly greater than those of GDPs who did the same (43.8% and 17.2%. Conclusions: Participants were aware that the main function of ICMs is disinfection of the root canal system. However, it is clear that GDPs should reduce their reliance on phenol- and formaldehyde-based medications. There was a distinct trend toward the use of ICMs, especially CH, in necrotic pulp cases.

  6. Preference and usage of intracanal medications during endodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madarati, Ahmad A.; Zafar, Muhammad S.; Sammani, Aya M.N.; Mandorah, Ayman O.; Bani-Younes, Hamzah A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the preferences of general dental practitioners (GDPs) and endodontists in using endodontic intra-canal medications (ICMs). Methods: This observational and descriptive study was conducted in 2014 in the western province of Saudi Arabia. Following ethical clearance and 2 pilot studies, a web-based questionnaire was electronically sent to 375 randomly and systematically selected GDPs and all endodontists in the western province (n=49). An accompanying e-mail explained the study’s aims and confirmed that the data yielded would remain confidential. The responses were collected, and the data was analyzed using the Chi-square test at p=0.05. Results: Significantly, the highest proportion of respondents (53.7%) reported disinfection of the root canals as the main function of ICMs. Calcium hydroxide (CH) was the preferred material of the majority of those who used the same ICM in all cases (85.7%). While the vast majority of all endodontists (87.5%) used CH after pulp extirpation, 48.5% of GDPs used formocresol (p<0.001). Almost 30% of those who used ICMs after pulp extirpation did not do so after cleaning and shaping of vital cases. Most endodontists used CH (62.5%) and antibiotics (37.5%) in necrotic pulp cases without apical lesions, which were significantly greater than those of GDPs who did the same (43.8% and 17.2%). Conclusions: Participants were aware that the main function of ICMs is disinfection of the root canal system. However, it is clear that GDPs should reduce their reliance on phenol- and formaldehyde-based medications. There was a distinct trend toward the use of ICMs, especially CH, in necrotic pulp cases. PMID:28674723

  7. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, and radionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel

  8. Biological treatment of concentrated hazardous, toxic, andradionuclide mixed wastes without dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stringfellow, William T.; Komada, Tatsuyuki; Chang, Li-Yang

    2004-06-15

    Approximately 10 percent of all radioactive wastes produced in the U. S. are mixed with hazardous or toxic chemicals and therefore can not be placed in secure land disposal facilities. Mixed wastes containing hazardous organic chemicals are often incinerated, but volatile radioactive elements are released directly into the biosphere. Some mixed wastes do not currently have any identified disposal option and are stored locally awaiting new developments. Biological treatment has been proposed as a potentially safer alternative to incineration for the treatment of hazardous organic mixed wastes, since biological treatment would not release volatile radioisotopes and the residual low-level radioactive waste would no longer be restricted from land disposal. Prior studies have shown that toxicity associated with acetonitrile is a significant limiting factor for the application of biotreatment to mixed wastes and excessive dilution was required to avoid inhibition of biological treatment. In this study, we demonstrate that a novel reactor configuration, where the concentrated toxic waste is drip-fed into a complete-mix bioreactor containing a pre-concentrated active microbial population, can be used to treat a surrogate acetonitrile mixed waste stream without excessive dilution. Using a drip-feed bioreactor, we were able to treat a 90,000 mg/L acetonitrile solution to less than 0.1 mg/L final concentration using a dilution factor of only 3.4. It was determined that the acetonitrile degradation reaction was inhibited at a pH above 7.2 and that the reactor could be modeled using conventional kinetic and mass balance approaches. Using a drip-feed reactor configuration addresses a major limiting factor (toxic inhibition) for the biological treatment of toxic, hazardous, or radioactive mixed wastes and suggests that drip-feed bioreactors could be used to treat other concentrated toxic waste streams, such as chemical warfare materiel.

  9. Hypo-fractionated treatment in radiotherapy: radio-biological models Tcp and NTCP; Tratamiento hipofraccionado en radioterapia: modelos radiobiologicos TCP y NTCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astudillo V, A. J.; Mitsoura, E. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Resendiz G, G., E-mail: lydia.paredes@inin.gob.mx [Hospital Medica Sur, Departamento de Radioterapia, Puente de Piedra 150, Col. Toriello Guerra, 14050 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    At the present time the breast cancer in Mexico has the first place of incidence of the malignant neoplasia s in the women, and represents 11.34% of all the cancer cases. On the other hand, the treatments for cancer by means of ionizing radiations have been dominated under the approaches of the medical radio-oncologists which have been based on test and error by many years. The radio-biological models, as the Tcp, NTCP and dosimetric variables, for their clinical application in the conventional radiotherapy with hypo-fractionation have as purpose predicting personalized treatment plans that they present most probability of tumor control and minor probability of late reactions, becoming this way support tools in the decisions taking for the patient treatments planning of Medical Physicists and Radio-oncologists. (Author)

  10. Factors Associated With Medication-Overuse Headache in Patients Seeking Treatment for Primary Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Kelly R; Roland, Malcolm M; Smitherman, Todd A

    2018-03-09

    Although risk factors for medication-overuse headache have been identified within the general population, most studies have neglected clinical samples. The present study examined the relative and combined associations of these factors with medication-overuse headache in a sample of US adults seeking treatment for primary headache disorders. Treatment-seeking headache patients provided data on demographics, headache variables, psychiatric variables, use of headache medications, and use of other prescription medications and substances. A classification tree selection strategy was utilized within this cross-sectional study to differentiate between those with and without medication-overuse headache, and a final multivariable model assessed their combined utility. Forty-three of 164 participants (26.2%) met diagnostic criteria for medication-overuse headache. Relative to non-medication-overuse headache participants, participants with medication-overuse headache reported greater headache-related disability (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.18), escape and avoidance responses indicative of fear of pain (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.15), and use of combination medications for headache (odds ratio = 3.10, 95% confidence interval = 1.51-6.36). The final multivariable model differentiated well between the 2 groups (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = .78; 95% confidence interval = .71-.86). Items that assess headache-related disability, use of combination medications, and fear of pain help identify patients who are currently overusing acute headache medications and may serve as indicators of treatment progress. Future studies should apply similar analytic approaches longitudinally to identify headache sufferers at risk for medication-overuse headache prior to headache progression. © 2018 American Headache Society.

  11. Impact of medical treatment on lung diffusion capacity in elderly patients with heart failure. Baseline characteristics and 1-year follow up after medical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Claus Leth; Kjaer, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    treatment (baseline) and after 1 year of treatment with diuretics and ACE-inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor antagonists. Age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers were included as control group. RESULTS: (mean+/-S.E.M.): K(CO) at baseline was 0.95+/-0.06 and 1.25+/-0.04 mmol/min x kPa/l in HF patients......AIM: The aim of this investigation was (1) to study the effect of untreated chronic heart failure (CHF) on alveolar membrane diffusion capacity (transfer coefficient, K(CO)) in elderly patients and (2) to study the impact of the standard regime of medical treatment with diuretics and ACE......-inhibitor/angiotensin-II receptor antagonists on K(CO) in these patients. METHODS: Non-medicated patients (except for diuretics) with symptoms of heart failure (NYHA II-III) and echocardiographically estimated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)

  12. Medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy: a committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Methotrexate, a folic acid antagonist, is an effective treatment for early unruptured ectopic pregnancy. Several treatment regimens are available. Methotrexate is more effective when used to treat ectopic pregnancies with lower human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels. However, there is no consensus on a threshold value that best predicts success or failure. Methotrexate can be used to treat ectopic pregnancies that occur in cornual, cervical, and cesarean scar locations, and it does not adversely affect ovarian reserve or subsequent fertility. This document replaces the previous document of the same name, last published in 2008 (Fertil Steril 2008;90:S206-12). Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The immediate future for the medical treatment of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Dyg; Brendorp, Bente; Køber, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the most commonly sustained cardiac arrhythmia and a common reason for mortality and morbidity. Atrial fibrillation causes disease for three reasons: i) the ventricular rate is often high, which leads to symptoms ranging from discomfort to life threatening heart failure; ii......) the rhythm causes loss of atrioventricular synchrony, which reduces diastolic filling and may lead to heart failure; and iii) atrial contraction is lost leading to stagnant blood that again may lead to atrial thrombi and peripheral embolism. Thus, the treatment of atrial fibrillation is focused...... of sinus rhythm but all carry a significant risk of pro-arrhythmia, in particular Torsade de Pointe ventricular tachycardia. Rate control has been a focus of treatment for many years and several very old drugs, including digoxin, are used for this. There is, to the author's knowledge, no current effort...

  14. Evaluation of medication treatment for Alzheimer's disease on clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-qiu LI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To formulate the best treatment plan for Alzheimer's disease patients by evaluating the therapeutic efficacy and side effect of various evidence-based programs. Methods Alzheimer's disease, donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine, memantine, rosiglitazone, etc. were defined as retrieval words. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Wanfang Data and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI databases were used with applying of manual searching. Systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCT, controlled clinical trials and case-observation studies were collected and evaluated by Jadad Scale. Results After screening, 33 selected resources included 14 systematic reviews, 14 randomized controlled trials, 4 controlled clinical trials and 1 case-observation study. According to Jadad Scale, total 28 articles were evaluated to be high quality (12 with score 4, 10 score 5, 6 score 7, and 5 were low quality with score 3. It was summarized as follows: 1 Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease for which no cure exists. To date, only symptomatic treatments with cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine and an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor noncompetitive antagonist (memantine, are effective and well tolerated to counterbalance the neurotransmitter disturbance, but cannot limit or impact on disease progression. 2 Disease modifying drug is an potential agent, with persistent effect on slowing the progression of structural damage, and can be detected even after withdrawing the treatment. Many types of disease modifying drugs are undergoing clinical trials. Conclusions Using evidence-based medicine methods can provide best clinical evidence on Alzheimer's disease treatment. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.03.009

  15. Combination of Advanced Oxidation Processes and biological treatments for wastewater decontamination-A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, I.; Malato, S.; Sanchez-Perez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a continuously increasing worldwide concern for development of alternative water reuse technologies, mainly focused on agriculture and industry. In this context, Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) are considered a highly competitive water treatment technology for the removal of those organic pollutants not treatable by conventional techniques due to their high chemical stability and/or low biodegradability. Although chemical oxidation for complete mineralization is usually expensive, its combination with a biological treatment is widely reported to reduce operating costs. This paper reviews recent research combining AOPs (as a pre-treatment or post-treatment stage) and bioremediation technologies for the decontamination of a wide range of synthetic and real industrial wastewater. Special emphasis is also placed on recent studies and large-scale combination schemes developed in Mediterranean countries for non-biodegradable wastewater treatment and reuse. The main conclusions arrived at from the overall assessment of the literature are that more work needs to be done on degradation kinetics and reactor modeling of the combined process, and also dynamics of the initial attack on primary contaminants and intermediate species generation. Furthermore, better economic models must be developed to estimate how the cost of this combined process varies with specific industrial wastewater characteristics, the overall decontamination efficiency and the relative cost of the AOP versus biological treatment.

  16. Medical Treatments for Endometriosis-Associated Pelvic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Zito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main sequelae of endometriosis are represented by infertility and chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain causes disability and distress with a very high economic impact. In the last decades, an impressive amount of pharmacological agents have been tested for the treatment of endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. However, only a few of these have been introduced into clinical practice. Following the results of the controlled studies available, to date, the first-line treatment for endometriosis associated pain is still represented by oral contraceptives used continuously. Progestins represent an acceptable alternative. In women with rectovaginal lesions or colorectal endometriosis, norethisterone acetate at low dosage should be preferred. GnRH analogues may be used as second-line treatment, but significant side effects should be taken into account. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely used, but there is inconclusive evidence for their efficacy in relieving endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. Other agents such as GnRH antagonist, aromatase inhibitors, immunomodulators, selective progesterone receptor modulators, and histone deacetylase inhibitors seem to be very promising, but there is not enough evidence to support their introduction into routine clinical practice. Some other agents, such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-γ ligands, antiangiogenic agents, and melatonin have been proven to be efficacious in animal studies, but they have not yet been tested in clinical studies.

  17. Gender differences in pathological gamblers seeking medication treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Kim, Suck Won

    2002-01-01

    Gender differences in pathological gambling disorder (PGD) have received little investigation. This study was constructed to detail the demographic and phenomenological differences in men and women with PGD. We assessed gender differences in 131 subjects with PGD who were evaluated in terms of demographic characteristics, clinical features of PGD, and treatment history. Seventy-eight (60%) subjects were women, and 53 (40%) were men. Men had an earlier age of onset of gambling behavior, while women progressed to pathological gambling sooner after beginning to gamble. In terms of gambling behavior, men were more likely to engage in blackjack, cards, sporting events, and the track, whereas women played slot machines and bingo. Women reported that loneliness was the major trigger to gambling, while men were more likely to gamble secondary to sensory stimuli. Although men were as likely as women to have filed bankruptcy because of gambling, women were more likely to have written bad checks and men were more likely to have lost significant savings. Both groups were equally likely to seek treatment, but Gamblers Anonymous (GA) and outpatient therapy were reported equally ineffective in reducing gambling symptoms. There appear to be some gender differences in the clinical features of PGD, and these differences may have treatment implications. Copyright 2002 by W.B. Saunders Company

  18. Influence of medical treatment, smoking and disease activity on pregnancy outcomes in Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julsgaard, Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hvas, Christian Lodberg

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Little is known about predictors for adverse pregnancy outcomes among women with Crohn’s disease (CD). In this population-based study, we examined pregnancy outcomes in CD stratified by medical treatment and smoking status while accounting for disease activity. Methods. In two Danish......) for adverse pregnancy outcomes by different predictors. Results. Among 105 (80%) respondents, 55 (52%) reported taking medication during pregnancy. The majority (95%) were in disease remission. The children’s mean birth weight did not differ by maternal medical treatment. As expected, smoking was a predictor...

  19. Ozonisation of model compounds as a pretreatment step for the biological wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degen, U.

    1979-11-01

    Biological degradability and toxicity of organic substances are two basic criteria determining their behaviour in natural environment and during the biological treatment of waste waters. In this work oxidation products of model compounds (p-toluenesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid and aniline) generated by ozonation were tested in a two step laboratory plant with activated sludge. The organic oxidation products and the initial compounds were the sole source of carbon for the microbes of the adapted activated sludge. The progress of elimination of the compounds was studied by measuring DOC, COD, UV-spectra of the initial compounds and sulfate. Initial concentrations of the model compounds were 2-4 mmole/1 with 25-75ion of sulfonic acids. As oxidation products of p-toluenesulfonic acid the following compounds were identified and quantitatively measured: methylglyoxal, pyruvic acid, oxalic acid, acetic acid, formic acid and sulfate. With all the various solutions with different concentrations of initial compounds and oxidation products the biological activity in the two step laboratory plant could maintain. p-Toluenesulfonic acid and the oxidation products are biologically degraded. The degradation of p-toluenesulfonic acid is measured by following the increasing of the sulfate concentration after biological treatment. This shows that the elimination of p-toluenesulfonic acid is not an adsorption but a mineralization step. At high p-toluenesulfonic acid concentration and low concentration of oxidation products p-toluenesulfonic acid is eliminated with a high efficiency (4.3 mole/d m 3 = 0.34 kg p-toluenesulfonic acid/d m 3 ). However at high concentration of oxidation products p-toluenesulfonic acid is less degraded. The oxidation products are always degraded with an elimination efficiency of 70%. A high load of biologically degradable oxidation products diminished the elimination efficiency of p-toluenesulfonic acid. (orig.) [de

  20. Medical complications of anorexia nervosa and their treatments: an update on some critical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carrie; Mehler, Philip S

    2015-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa has the highest mortality rate of any psychiatric disorder. Many of the deaths are attributable to medical complications which arise as the malnutrition and weight loss worsens. Every body system may be adversely affected by anorexia nervosa. Yet, remarkably, most of the medical complications of anorexia nervosa are treatable and reversible with optimal medical care, as part of a multidisciplinary team who are often involved in the care of these patients. Herein, we will describe the medical complications of anorexia nervosa and their treatments.