WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological markers

  1. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette;

    2011-01-01

    variability), markers related to inflammation (C-reactive protein, cytokines and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and other stress hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline) were studied. The focus was on healthy adult populations; studies on patient populations and pregnant women were excluded. Studies on genome....... Several of the markers tested showed low or no association with any of the measurements of salivary cortisol. The number of studies exploring the association between cortisol in saliva and markers for inflammation is low, which limits the possibility of interpretation. The number of studies on adrenaline...... and noradrenaline is also low. To sum up, the proportion of non-significant findings was considerable. This may be due to a large number of studies with relatively small study populations. This is true for metabolic abnormalities, markers related to inflammation as well as other stress hormones...

  2. Statistical Aspects of Using Biologic Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Margolin, Barry H.

    1988-01-01

    This expository paper surveys a variety of statistical issues pertinent to the design and analysis of studies involving biologic markers of human genotoxic exposure. Examples with cytogenetic and mutagenic end points are presented. One principal theme is the valuable interplay of ideas among statistical analyses for in vitro, in vivo and human assays for genetic toxicity; e.g., statistical analysis of sister chromatid exchanges in vitro is suggestive of an analytical approach to the study of ...

  3. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, F.; Mayer, J.; Santella, R. M.; Brenner, D; Jeffrey, A.; Latriano, L; Smith, S.; Warburton, D; Young, T. L.; Tsai, W. Y.; Hemminki, K; Brandt-Rauf, P

    1991-01-01

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers h...

  4. Oligothiophenes as Fluorescent Markers for Biological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manetto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes some of our results on the application of oligothiophenes as fluorescent markers for biological studies. The oligomers of thiophene, widely known for their semiconductor properties in organic electronics, are also fluorescent compounds characterized by chemical and optical stability, high absorbance and quantum yield. Their fluorescent emission can be easily modulated via organic synthesis by changing the number of thiophene rings and the nature of side-chains. This review shows how oligothiophenes can be derivatized with active groups such as phosphoramidite, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl and 4-sulfotetrafluorophenyl esters, isothiocyanate and azide by which the (biomolecules of interest can be covalently bound. This paper also describes how molecules such as oligonucleotides, proteins and even nanoparticles, tagged with oligothiophenes, can be used in experiments ranging from hybridization studies to imaging of fixed and living cells. Finally, a few multilabeling experiments are described.

  5. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  6. Biological markers of invasive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akiko; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Ando, Tomofumi; Fujii, Taku; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Saito, Junichi; Takahashi, Maiko; Hayashida, Tetsu; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-02-01

    Biological markers for breast cancer are biomolecules that result from cancer-related processes and are associated with particular clinical outcomes; they thus help predict responses to therapy. In recent years, gene expression profiling has made the molecular classification of breast cancer possible. Classification of breast cancer by immunohistochemical expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 and Ki-67 is standard practice for clinical decision-making. Assessments of hormone receptor expression and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpression help estimate benefits from targeted therapies and have greatly improved prognoses for women with these breast cancer types. Although Ki-67 positivity is associated with an adverse outcome, its clear identification is an aid to optimal disease management. Standardization of testing methodology to minimize inter-laboratory measurement variations is a remaining issue. Multi-gene assays provide prognostic information and identify those most likely to benefit from systemic chemotherapy. Incorporating molecular profiles with conventional pathological classification would be more precise, and could enhance the clinical development of personalized therapy in breast cancer. PMID:26486826

  7. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, F.; Mayer, J.; Santella, R.M.; Brenner, D.; Jeffrey, A.; Latriano, L.; Smith, S.; Warburton, D.; Young, T.L.; Tsai, W.Y.; Brandt-Rauf, P. (Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)); Hemminki, K. (Finnish School of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers have, however, already provided valuable insights into the magnitude of interindividual variation in response to carcinogenic exposures, with major implications for risk assessment.

  8. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers have, however, already provided valuable insights into the magnitude of interindividual variation in response to carcinogenic exposures, with major implications for risk assessment

  9. Plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 as a biological marker?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Anne F.; Frederiksen, Camilla B.; Christensen, Ib J.;

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may be a valuable biological marker in Colorectal Cancer (CRC). However, prospective validation of TIMP-1 as a biological marker should include a series of pre-analytical considerations. TIMP-1 is stored in platelets, which may degranulate during ...... collection and storage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of platelet TIMP-1 contamination on plasma TIMP-1 levels in healthy volunteers.......Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may be a valuable biological marker in Colorectal Cancer (CRC). However, prospective validation of TIMP-1 as a biological marker should include a series of pre-analytical considerations. TIMP-1 is stored in platelets, which may degranulate during...

  10. Established and emerging biological activity markers of inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O H; Vainer, B; Madsen, S M; Seidelin, J B; Heegaard, Niels Henrik Helweg

    2000-01-01

    Assessment of disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), is done using clinical parameters and various biological disease markers. Ideally, a disease marker must: be able to identify individuals at risk of a given disorder, be dis...

  11. Clincal Aspects of Biological Brain Damage Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Undén, Johan

    2006-01-01

    Biomarkers for organ damage and/or dysfuntion are used in almost all areas of medicine. The brain has eluded this technological development for some time. Recently, the S100B protein has been shown to be a promising marker of brain damage. However, before S100S can reach clinical reality, several problems must be solved. The specificity of S100B requires special investigative attention. Although the sensitivity has seldom been criticised in the literature and assumed to be very high for S100B...

  12. Biological markers of Alzheimer?s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cruz de Souza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The challenges for establishing an early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD have created a need for biomarkers that reflect the core pathology of the disease. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF levels of total Tau (T-tau, phosphorylated Tau (P-Tau and beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ42 reflect, respectively, neurofibrillary tangle and amyloid pathologies and are considered as surrogate markers of AD pathophysiology. The combination of low Aβ42 and high levels of T-tau and P-Tau can accurately identify patients with AD at early stages, even before the development of dementia. The combined analysis of the CSF biomarkers is also helpful for the differential diagnosis between AD and other degenerative dementias. The development of these CSF biomarkers has evolved to a novel diagnostic definition of the disease. The identification of a specific clinical phenotype combined with the in vivo evidence of pathophysiological markers offers the possibility to make a diagnosis of AD before the dementia stage with high specificity.

  13. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; D' Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1991-12-15

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

  14. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO6-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O6-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP

  15. Identification of biological/biochemical marker(s) for preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Schendel, Diana; Deshpande, Anjali D.;

    2001-01-01

    controls drawn from the ongoing Danish National Birth Cohort study of 100 000 pregnant women enrolled during 1997-2001. The second study will provide the opportunity to refine and retest hypotheses from the first study, as well as to explore new hypotheses. Our preliminary work suggests that a single...... predictive marker effectively accounting for a large proportion of PTD is unlikely to be found. Rather, a search for multiple markers indicative of the multifactorial aetiology of PTD is likely to be more successful. Knowledge gained from the proposed studies will be implemented in a third, clinical...... intervention study against PTD. The first phase of the clinical intervention study will be to establish a risk-assessment model based on the "best" combination of biological/biochemical measures and other factors associated with PTD in order to identify pregnant women at very high risk of PTD. The second phase...

  16. Quality control of X-ray irradiator by biological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exposure of animals or cultured cells to radiation is the essential and common step in experimental researches to elucidate biological effects of radiation. When an X-ray generator is used as a radiation source, physical parameters including dose, dose rate, and the energy spectrum of X-ray play crucial roles in biological outcome. Therefore, those parameters are the important points to be checked in quality control and to be carefully considered in advance to the irradiation to obtain the accurate and reproductive results. Here we measured radiation dose emitted from the X-ray irradiator for research purposes by using clonogenic survival of cultured mammalian cells as a biological marker in parallel with physical dosimetry. The results drawn from both methods exhibited good consistency in the dose distribution on the irradiation stage. Furthermore, the close relationship was observed between cell survival and the photon energy spectrum by using different filter components. These results suggest that biological dosimetry is applicable to quality control of X-ray irradiator in adjunct to physical dosimetry and that it possibly helps better understanding of the optimal irradiating condition by X-ray users in life-science field. (author)

  17. Biological Markers Predictive of Invasive Recurrence in DCIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Nofech-Mozes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available DCIS is a heterogeneous group of non-invasive cancers of the breast characterized by various degrees of differentiation and unpredictable propensity for transformation into invasive carcinoma. We examined the expression and prognostic value of 9 biological markers with a potential role in tumor progression in 133 patients with pure DCIS treated with breast conserving surgery alone, between 1982–2000. Histology was reviewed and immunohistochemical staining was performed. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the associations between markers and histopathological features. Univariate and multivariate analysis examined associations between time to recurrence and clinico-pathologic features and biological markers.Median age at diagnosis was 55 years (25–85. With a median follow up of 8.91 years, 41/133 patients recurred (21 as invasive recurrence. In this cohort 13.5% had low, 43% intermediate and 42% high nuclear grade. Comedo necrosis was found in 65% of cases. Expression of ER (62.4%, PR (55.6%, HER2/neu (31.6%, MIB1 (39.8%, p53 (22.6%, p21 (39.8%, Cyclin D1 (95.5% calgranulin (20.5%, psoriasin (12%, was found in DCIS. HER2/neu was overexpressed in 45% that recurred as DCIS and 42.9% that recurred as invasive cancer, and only in 26.1% in cases that never recurred. On univariate analysis, HER2/neu overexpression was the only marker associated with an increased risk for any recurrence (p = 0.044. The hazard ratio for recurrence for HER2/neu positive DCIS was 1.927 (confidence interval 1.016–3.653 compared to HER2 negative DCIS. On multivariate analysis, HER2/neu overexpression remained the only independent variable significantly associated with any recurrence (p = 0.014 and with invasive recurrence (p = 0.044.This data suggest that HER2/neu testing may become an important parameter in the management of DCIS and the treatment of cases with positive HER2/neu status could be modified accordingly, similar to the current approach

  18. Expression of biological markers in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Thomazi Gassen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinomas are the most commonly diagnosed oral malignancy, accounting for about 90% of all malignant oral lesions. Detection of the condition at early stages is rare; as a result, the clinical and histological characteristics and prognosis of this tumor have not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical and microscopic features of squamous cell carcinomas using immunohistochemical analysis and assessing biological markers of angiogenesis and tumor vascular activity (anti-CD31, anti-CD34, Factor VIII, cell proliferation (Ki-67, and loss of cell suppression (p53. Tolonium chloride 1% was used to determine the optimal biopsy site. Six patients seen at the Stomatology Service of a university hospital in Canoas, southern Brazil, with a suspected diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma were analyzed. All patients were male, with a mean age of 56.6 years, and four had a white skin color. Lesions were detected in the tongue (4 and tonsillar pillar (2. All diagnoses were confi rmed by microscopy (hematoxylin-eosin staining. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed p53 expression in 5 of the cases, Ki-67 in 6, and anti-CD34 in 1; anti-CD31 and Factor VIII were not detected in any patient. Our fi ndings suggest an important contribution of tumor markers in the diagnosis and prognosis of these malignancies, as well as in treatment planning.

  19. Schizophrenia: from the brain to peripheral markers. A consensus paper of the WFSBP task force on biological markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stober, Gerald; Ben-Shachar, Dorit; Cardon, M;

    2009-01-01

    traits that are specific to particular conditions. An important aim of biomarker discovery is the detection of disease correlates that can be used as diagnostic tools. Method. A selective review of the WFSBP Task Force on Biological Markers in schizophrenia is provided from the central nervous system to...... phenotypes, functional brain systems, chromosomal loci with potential genetic markers to the peripheral systems. Results. A number of biological measures have been proposed to be correlated with schizophrenia. At present, not a single biological trait in schizophrenia is available which achieves sufficient...

  20. Biological markers for kidney injury and renal function in the intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, M.J.; Spronk, P.E.; Royakkers, A.A.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the investigations described in this thesis was to seek for answers to two relevant questions in ICUs in resource-rich settings, i.e., can new biological markers play a role in early recognition of AKI, and can new biological markers predict recovery of renal function in patients who receive CVVH? A second aim was to answer a relevant question in ICUs in resource-poor settings, i.e., can novel biological markers predict development of AKI and need for RRT in patients with sever...

  1. Sequence-Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP Markers: A Potential Resource for Studies in Plant Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. H. Robarts

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR, random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open reading frames. These markers have proven to be robust and highly variable, on par with AFLP, and are attained through a significantly less technically demanding process. SRAP markers have been used primarily for agronomic and horticultural purposes, developing quantitative trait loci in advanced hybrids and assessing genetic diversity of large germplasm collections. Here, we suggest that SRAP markers should be employed for research addressing hypotheses in plant systematics, biogeography, conservation, ecology, and beyond. We provide an overview of the SRAP literature to date, review descriptive statistics of SRAP markers in a subset of 171 publications, and present relevant case studies to demonstrate the applicability of SRAP markers to the diverse field of plant biology. Results of these selected works indicate that SRAP markers have the potential to enhance the current suite of molecular tools in a diversity of fields by providing an easy-to-use. highly variable marker with inherent biological significance.

  2. Psychological markers associated with successful scientific work of biology students

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Ramendik

    2011-01-01

    The paper report results from a psychological study of 90 biology students (Moscow State University) and five doctors of biology. Faculty expert opinions were used to determine ten most successful performers and ten poor performers among students. They were compared by several cognitive and personal factors. The paper shows that success in scientific work is connected not with separate cognitive, communicative and personal characteristics, but with their system interaction. When this interact...

  3. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz;

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from...... among the top performers. When extending CVAT to utilize a mixture of SNP effects, we found an increase in power to detect the causal sets. Applying the methods to a Danish schizophrenia case–control data set, we found genomic evidence for association of schizophrenia with vitamin A metabolism and...

  4. Surrogate biochemical markers: precise measurement for strategic drug and biologics development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Hulse, J D; Colburn, W A

    1995-05-01

    More efficient drug and biologics development is necessary for future success of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. One way to achieve this objective is to use rationally selected surrogate markers to improve the early decision-making process. Using typical clinical chemistry methods to measure biochemical markers may not ensure adequate precision and reproducibility. In contrast, using analytical methods that meet good laboratory practices along with rational selection and validation of biochemical markers can give those who use them a competitive advantage over those who do not by providing meaningful data for earlier decision making. PMID:7657845

  5. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) markers in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Beata; Belov, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Human impacts through habitat destruction, introduction of invasive species and climate change are increasing the number of species threatened with extinction. Decreases in population size simultaneously lead to reductions in genetic diversity, ultimately reducing the ability of populations to adapt to a changing environment. In this way, loss of genetic polymorphism is linked with extinction risk. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean that obtaining measures of genetic diversity at functionally important genes is within reach for conservation programs. A key region of the genome that should be targeted for population genetic studies is the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC). MHC genes, found in all jawed vertebrates, are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genomes. They play key roles in immune function via immune-recognition and -surveillance and host-parasite interaction. Therefore, measuring levels of polymorphism at these genes can provide indirect measures of the immunological fitness of populations. The MHC has also been linked with mate-choice and pregnancy outcomes and has application for improving mating success in captive breeding programs. The recent discovery that genetic diversity at MHC genes may protect against the spread of contagious cancers provides an added impetus for managing and protecting MHC diversity in wild populations. Here we review the field and focus on the successful applications of MHC-typing for conservation management. We emphasize the importance of using MHC markers when planning and executing wildlife rescue and conservation programs but stress that this should not be done to the detriment of genome-wide diversity. PMID:21954351

  6. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC Markers in Conservation Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Belov

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human impacts through habitat destruction, introduction of invasive species and climate change are increasing the number of species threatened with extinction. Decreases in population size simultaneously lead to reductions in genetic diversity, ultimately reducing the ability of populations to adapt to a changing environment. In this way, loss of genetic polymorphism is linked with extinction risk. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean that obtaining measures of genetic diversity at functionally important genes is within reach for conservation programs. A key region of the genome that should be targeted for population genetic studies is the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC. MHC genes, found in all jawed vertebrates, are the most polymorphic genes in vertebrate genomes. They play key roles in immune function via immune-recognition and -surveillance and host-parasite interaction. Therefore, measuring levels of polymorphism at these genes can provide indirect measures of the immunological fitness of populations. The MHC has also been linked with mate-choice and pregnancy outcomes and has application for improving mating success in captive breeding programs. The recent discovery that genetic diversity at MHC genes may protect against the spread of contagious cancers provides an added impetus for managing and protecting MHC diversity in wild populations. Here we review the field and focus on the successful applications of MHC-typing for conservation management. We emphasize the importance of using MHC markers when planning and executing wildlife rescue and conservation programs but stress that this should not be done to the detriment of genome-wide diversity.

  7. Biological and Physiological Markers of Tactile Sensorial Processing in Healthy Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, MG; Caldeira-da-Silva, P

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this review is to provide a descriptive analysis of the biological and physiological markers of tactile sensorial processing in healthy, full-term newborns. Research articles were selected according to the following study design criteria: (a) tactile stimulation for touch sense as an independent variable; (b) having at least one biological or physiological variable as a dependent variable; and (c) the group of participants were characterized as full-term and healthy newb...

  8. Searching for disease-modifying drugs in AD: can we combine neuropsychological tools with biological markers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraci, Filippo; Castellano, Sabrina; Salomone, Salvatore; Drago, Filippo; Bosco, Paolo; Di Nuovo, Santo

    2014-02-01

    Drug discovery efforts in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been directed in the last ten years to develop "disease-modifying drugs" able to exert neuroprotective effects in an early phase of AD pathogenesis. Unfortunately several candidate disease-modifying drugs have failed in Phase III clinical trials conducted in mild to moderate AD for different methodological difficulties, such as the time course of treatment in relation to development of disease as well as the appropriate use of validated biological and neuropsychological markers. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has been considered a precursor of AD. Much effort is now directed to identify the most appropriate and sensitive markers which can predict the progression from MCI to AD, such as neuroimaging markers (e.g. hippocampal atrophy and amyloid positron emission tomography imaging), cerebrospinal fluid markers (i.e. association of elevated tau with low levels of amyloid β -peptide(1-42) and neuropsychological markers (i.e. episodic memory deficits and executive dysfunction). Recent studies demonstrate that the combination of these different biomarkers significantly increases the chance to predict the conversion into AD within 24 months. These biomarkers will be essential in the future to analyze clinical efficacy of disease-modifying drugs in MCI patients at high risk to develop AD. In the present review we analyze recent evidence on the combination of neuropsychological and biological markers in AD as a new tool to track disease progression in early AD as well as the response to disease-modifying drugs. PMID:24040795

  9. Biological marker of furfural, chemicals without administrative control level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Hori, Hajime; Higashi, Toshiaki; Nagatomo, Hiroko; Hino, Yoshiyuki; Ohsato, Atsushi; Uchino, Bungo

    2007-06-01

    Furfural, a colorless liquid used in solvent-extraction processes, petroleum refining and as a rubber additive, has been assigned an occupational exposure limit of 2.5 ppm by the Japan Society for Occupational Health, but an administrative control level for furfural has not been established. In order to conduct effective occupational health management in workplaces where furfural is used, we measured furfural concentrations in working environments and collected urine samples to measure furoic acid levels (one of the principal metabolites), which act as a biomarker of exposure to furfural. The measurements of airborne concentrations in a working environment where furfural or a solution containing furfural was handled were made in 2004. Workers answered a questionnaire on working conditions, urine samples were collected at the end of the workshift, and furoic acid in the urine was measured by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID). The ambient concentrations of furfural during the period were 2.1 ppm in a mixer room and 1.6 ppm in a filling room. The mean concentrations of furoic acid in the workers' urine were 7.7 +/- 7.8 mg/g-creatinine in summer and winter, respectively (normal range: 3 - 60 mg/g-creatinine). The average exposure to furfural per month calculated by multiplying the concentration in the working environment by working hours for a month was 86.4 +/- 108.6 ppm hours/months (mean +/- standard deviation) (range; 0 - 336 ppm hours/month). The relationship between average exposure to furfural and furoic acid in the urine was analyzed by simple linear regression analysis and a positive correlation was found. These findings suggest that furoic acid in urine is useful for biological monitoring of exposure to furfural, and that the measurement of both furfural in the environment and furoic acid in the urine are beneficial in occupational health management of furfural. PMID:17582986

  10. Systems Biology in Animal Breeding: Identifying relationships among markers, genes, and phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breeding and Genetics Symposium titled “Systems Biology in Animal Breeding: Identifying relationships among markers, genes, and phenotypes” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 201...

  11. Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2011

    2011-01-01

    Dry erase whiteboards come with toxic dry erase markers and toxic cleaning products. Dry erase markers labeled "nontoxic" are not free of toxic chemicals and can cause health problems. Children are especially vulnerable to environmental health hazards; moreover, schools commonly have problems with indoor air pollution, as they are more densely…

  12. Physical Activity, Physical Performance, and Biological Markers of Health among Sedentary Older Latinos

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Moreno; Mangione, Carol M; Pin-Chieh Wang; Laura Trejo; Anthony Butch; Chi-Hong Tseng; Sarkisian, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Physical activity is associated with better physical health, possibly by changing biological markers of health such as waist circumference and inflammation, but these relationships are unclear and even less understood among older Latinos—a group with high rates of sedentary lifestyle. Methods. Participants were 120 sedentary older Latino adults from senior centers. Community-partnered research methods were used to recruit participants. Inflammatory (C-reactive protein) and metabol...

  13. The Prognostic Significance of Apoptosis-Related Biological Markers in Chinese Gastric Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiaowen; Cai, Hong; Huang, Hua; Long, Ziwen; Shi, Yingqiang; Wang, Yanong

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective The prognosis varied among the patients with the same stage, therefore there was a need for new prognostic and predictive factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of apoptosis-related biological markers such as p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc, and clinicopathological features and their prognostic value. Methods From 1996 to 2007, 4426 patients had undergone curative D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Among 5...

  14. A Candidate Gene for a Biological Marker of Schizophrenia in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Akiko; Toyota, Tomoko; Owada, Yuji; Hayashi, Takeshi; Iwayama, Yoshimi; Matsumata, Miho; Ishitsuka, Yuichi; Nakaya, Akihiro; Maekawa, Motoko; Ohnishi, Tetsuo; Arai, Ryoichi; Sakurai, Katsuyasu; Yamada, Kazuo; Kondo, Hisatake; Hashimoto, Kenji

    2007-01-01

    Author Summary A startle response to an unexpected, strong startling stimulus can be suppressed by an immediately preceding low-intensity stimulus, thereby eliciting little behavioral response. This phenomenon, called prepulse inhibition (PPI), has been observed in all mammals tested and is thought to reflect sensory-motor gating functions in organisms. PPI is diminished in human schizophrenia, raising the possibility that PPI might serve as a potential biological marker for the disease. Once...

  15. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane; Tamouza, Ryad; Arango, Celso; Fleischhacker, W Wolfgang; Glenthøj, Birte; Leweke, Markus; Lewis, Shôn; McGuire, Phillip; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Sommer, Iris E; Winter-van Rossum, Inge; Kapur, Shitij; Kahn, René S; Rujescu, Dan; Leboyer, Marion

    2015-05-01

    Successful treatment of first-episode psychosis is one of the major factors that impacts long-term prognosis. Currently, there are no satisfactory biological markers (biomarkers) to predict which patients with a first-episode psychosis will respond to which treatment. In addition, a non-negligible rate of patients does not respond to any treatment or may develop side effects that affect adherence to the treatments as well as negatively impact physical health. Thus, there clearly is a pressing need for defining biomarkers that may be helpful to predict response to treatment and sensitivity to side effects in first-episode psychosis. The present systematic review provides (1) trials that assessed biological markers associated with antipsychotic response or side effects in first-episode psychosis and (2) potential biomarkers associated with biological disturbances that may guide the choice of conventional treatments or the prescription of innovative treatments. Trials including first-episode psychoses are few in number. Most of the available data focused on pharmacogenetics markers with so far only preliminary results. To date, these studies yielded-beside markers for metabolism of antipsychotics-no or only a few biomarkers for response or side effects, none of which have been implemented in daily clinical practice. Other biomarkers exploring immunoinflammatory, oxidative, and hormonal disturbances emerged as biomarkers of first-episode psychoses in the last decades, and some of them have been associated with treatment response. In addition to pharmacogenetics, further efforts should focus on the association of emergent biomarkers with conventional treatments or with innovative therapies efficacy, where some preliminary data suggest promising results. PMID:25759473

  16. Prognostic Cell Biological Markers in Cervical Cancer Patients Primarily Treated With (Chemo)radiation: A Systematic Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the prognostic and predictive significance of cell biological markers in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation. A PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane literature search was performed. Studies describing a relation between a cell biological marker and survival in ≥50 cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation were selected. Study quality was assessed, and studies with a quality score of 4 or lower were excluded. Cell biological markers were clustered on biological function, and the prognostic and predictive significance of these markers was described. In total, 42 studies concerning 82 cell biological markers were included in this systematic review. In addition to cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC-ag) levels, markers associated with poor prognosis were involved in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling (EGFR and C-erbB-2) and in angiogenesis and hypoxia (carbonic anhydrase 9 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α). Epidermal growth factor receptor and C-erbB-2 were also associated with poor response to (chemo)radiation. In conclusion, EGFR signaling is associated with poor prognosis and response to therapy in cervical cancer patients primarily treated with (chemo)radiation, whereas markers involved in angiogenesis and hypoxia, COX-2, and serum SCC-ag levels are associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, targeting these pathways in combination with chemoradiation may improve survival in advanced-stage cervical cancer patients.

  17. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  18. Biological markers in animals can provide information on exposure and bioavailability of environmental contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; Adams, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D.; Talmage, S.S.; McCarthy, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of agents present in the environment seek to identify the extent to which they contribute to the causation of a specific toxic, clinical, or pathological endpoint. The multifactorial nature of disease etiology, long latency periods and the complexity of exposure, all contribute to the difficulty of establishing associations and casual relationships between a specific exposure and an adverse outcome. These barriers to studies of exposures and subsequent risk assessment cannot generally be changed. However, the appropriate use of biological markers in animal species living in a contaminated habitat can provide a measure of potential damage from that exposure and, in some instances, act as a surrogate for human environmental exposures. Quantitative predictivity of the effect of exposure to environmental pollutants is being approached by employing an appropriate array of biological end points. 34 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  19. Clinical Significance of Biological Markers at Primary Operation for Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhenhuan; YAMASHITA Hiroko; TOYAMA Tatsuya; YAMAMOTO Yutaka; IWASE Hirotaka

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To identify the prognostic value of biological markers at initial operation for metastatic breast cancer, we measured the presence of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα), progesterone receptor (PgR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2),and histological grade (HG) of tumors. Methods: One-hundred and seventy-six patients, aged 29 to 90 (median: 51 years), with recurrent breast cancer underwent primary operation at our department during the period from 1983 to 2000. Clinicopathological factors examined at primary operation included menopausal symptoms, presence of axillary lymph node metastasis, tumor size, HG, HER2, ERα and PgR.Factors examined at recurrence included site of primary recurrence, disease-free interval(DFI) and tumor markers, such as CEA and CA15-3. The relationship between these factors and prognosis following recurrence was assessed. Results: Menopausal status, axillary lymph node metastasis and tumor size at primary operation had no significant effect on prognosis. Patients with low HG, positive expession of ERα and PgR, and low HER2 expression had a good prognosis, similar to those with long DFI and distant metastases. After distant metastases, HER2 was found to be the most important prognostic factor following recurrence and in predicting response to drug therapy.Conclusion: Biological factors indicating tumor malignancy at the time of the first operation are also important prognostic factors following tumor recurrence.

  20. Emergence of biological markers of musicianship with school-based music instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Strait, Dana L

    2015-03-01

    Musician children and adults demonstrate biological distinctions in auditory processing relative to nonmusicians. For example, musician children and adults have more robust neural encoding of speech harmonics, more adaptive sound processing, and more precise neural encoding of acoustically similar sounds; these enhancements may contribute to musicians' linguistic advantages, such as for hearing speech in noise and reading. Such findings have inspired proposals that the auditory and cognitive stimulation induced by musical practice renders musicians enhanced according to biological metrics germane to communication. Cross-sectional methodologies comparing musicians with nonmusicians, however, are limited by the inability to disentangle training-related effects from demographic and innate qualities that may predistinguish musicians. Over the past several years, our laboratory has addressed this problem by examining the emergence of neural markers of musicianship in children and adolescents using longitudinal approaches to track the development of biological indices of speech processing. This work was conducted in partnership with successful community-based music programs, thus avoiding reliance on a synthetic program for the purposes of laboratory study. Outcomes indicate that many of musicians' auditory-related biological enhancements emerge with training and may promote the acquisition of language skills, including in at-risk populations. PMID:25773631

  1. Biological markers as predictive factors of response to neoadjuvant taxanes and anthracycline chemotherapy in breast carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Bo; YANG De-qi; XIE Fei

    2008-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant chemotherapy provides an excellent model for evaluation of potential predictive factors.The objective of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of different biological factors in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant taxane and anthracycline chemotherapy.Methods One hundred and thirty-five patients treated with 4 cycles of neoadjuvant taxanes and anthracycline were included in this retrospective study.Using pretreatment biopsy materials,immunohistochemical studies were performed for estrogen receptor(ER),progesterone receptor(PgR),HER-2,Ki-67 and p53 protein expression.The associations among biological markers and clinical and pathological complete response (pCR)were analyzed.Results The overall clinical response was 86%,including 33%clinical complete response(cCR)and 53%clinical partial response.The pCR was iust 17%.In the univariate analysis,only HER-2 overexpression was predictive of cCR to neoadjuvant chemotherapy(P=0.018).No significant associations between other biological factors and cCR were found.Absence of ER,PgR expression and overexpression of HER-2 were predictive of the pCR(P=0.002,0.001,0.01,respectively).Ki-67 and p53 failed to show an association with pCR.In multivariate analysis,overexpression of HER-2remained as an independent variable in predicting the cCR(P=0.021).However,negative ER was the only parameter that maintained statistical significance in predicting the pCR(P=0.001).Conclusions Patients with overexoression of HER-2 and negative hormonal receptor status are much more likely to respond to neoadjuvant taxane and anthracycline chemotherapy than those with the opposite characte ristics.These factors could serve as predictive markers for this regimen.

  2. The prognostic significance of apoptosis-related biological markers in Chinese gastric cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The prognosis varied among the patients with the same stage, therefore there was a need for new prognostic and predictive factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of apoptosis-related biological markers such as p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc, and clinicopathological features and their prognostic value. METHODS: From 1996 to 2007, 4426 patients had undergone curative D2 gastrectomy for gastric cancer at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center. Among 501 patients, the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc were examined by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic value of biological markers and the correlation between biological markers and other clinicopathological factors were investigated. RESULTS: There were 339 males and 162 females with a mean age of 57. The percentages of positive expression of p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc were 65%, 22%, 43%, and 58%, respectively. There was a strong correlation between p53, bax, and c-myc expression (P=0.00. There was significant association between bcl-2, and bax expression (P<0.05. p53 expression correlated with histological grade (P=0.01; bcl-2 expression with pathological stage (P=0.00; bax expression with male (P=0.02, histological grade (P=0.01, Borrmann type (P=0.01, tumor location (P=0.00, lymph node metastasis (P=0.03, and pathological stage (P=0.03; c-myc expression with Borrmann type (P=0.00. bcl-2 expression was related with good survival in univariate analysis (P=0.01. Multivariate analysis showed that bcl-2 expression and pathological stage were defined as independent prognostic factors. There were significant differences of overall 5-year survival rates according to bcl-2 expression or not in stage IIB (P=0.03. CONCLUSION: The expression of bcl-2 was an independent prognostic factor for patients with gastric cancer; it might be a candidate for the gastric cancer staging system.

  3. Pimonidazole: a novel hypoxia marker for complementary study of tumor hypoxia and tumor biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objectives: Tumor hypoxia appears to be associated with treatment resistance and with gene expression that may lead to hypoxia-mediated selection of tumor cells as a source for cell growth and metastases. The objective of this study was to develop complementary techniques of hypoxia detection with molecular markers of cell proliferation and metastases in order to investigate the role of tumor hypoxia in tumor biology. Materials and Methods: Pimonidazole is a 2-nitroimidazole which is reductively-activated and becomes covalently bound to thiol-containing proteins only in hypoxic cells. These adducts can be detected using immunohistochemistry, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay or flow cytometry as a measure of hypoxia in tumors. Quantitative immunohistochemical analysis has been completed for five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix who were given pimonidazole hydrochloride (0.5 g/m2 intravenously) followed by cervical biopsies 24 hours later. Informed consent was obtained according to a protocol approved by the Institutional Review Board. A minimum of 3 random biopsies were obtained from the tumors and at least four sections examined from each biopsy site. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections were immunostained for pimonidazole binding using a mouse monoclonal antibody. Commercially available monoclonal antibodies were used to detect cell proliferation markers MIB-1 (Ki-67) and to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in tumor cells in contiguous sections. The extent of immunostaining was expressed as the percent of immunostained to total tumor cells as determined by Chalkley point counting. Results: No clinical toxicities were associated with pimonidazole infusion. Immunostaining with pimonidazole antibody was observed in all patients indicating the presence of tumor hypoxia. Qualitatively there is little or no overlap between the areas of hypoxia and proliferation. Quantitative data tabulated below show the

  4. Sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers: A potential resource for studies in plant molecular biology1

    OpenAIRE

    Robarts, Daniel W. H.; Wolfe, Andrea D.

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, many investigations in the field of plant biology have employed selectively neutral, multilocus, dominant markers such as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) to address hypotheses at lower taxonomic levels. More recently, sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers have been developed, which are used to amplify coding regions of DNA with primers targeting open readin...

  5. Effects of exercise on knee joints with osteoarthritis: a pilot study of biologic markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautch, J. C.; Malone, D. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of low intensity weight-bearing exercise on osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. METHODS: Synovial fluid keratan sulfate (KS) and hydroxyproline were measured as markers of cartilage degradation. The Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales (AIMS) were used to measure health status, and a visual analog scale for pain assessment was used before and after intervention. An exercise (EX) group (n = 15) received a thrice-weekly 12-week low intensity exercise program and a weekly educational program, and a minimal treatment (Min RX) group (n = 15) received only the education program. RESULTS: Pain levels declined in the EX group, and the Min RX group showed improvement on the AIMS. Synovial fluid was obtained in 11 subjects before and after the intervention. Levels of KS and hydroxyproline did not change. CONCLUSION: Further study of exercise effects should include both clinical and biologic parameters to examine the outcome of exercise as a therapeutic intervention in OA of the knee.

  6. Malignant transformation in vitro: criteria, biological markers, and application in environmental screening of carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological markers which distinguish malignantly transformed fibroblasts from their normal counterpart include pleomorphic morphology, lowered requirement for nutritional factors, loss of density inhibition of growth, complex topography as discernible by scanning electron microscopy, loss in surface proteins, incomplete glycosylation of membrane glycolylipids and glycoproteins, increased production of specific proteases, decreased organization of the cytoskeleton, and acquisition of neoantigens. Several of these markers are not consistently found in transformed epithelial cells and therefore cannot serve to distinguish unequivocally neoplastic epithelial cells from the normal counterparts. The only criteria associated with the transformed nature of both fibroblasts and epithelial cells are the ability of the cells to proliferate in semisolid medium and to induce tumors in appropriate hosts. In vitro systems represent a powerful tool for screening the mutagenic/oncogenic potential of physical, chemical, and environmental agents. Fibroblasts rather than epithelial cells are preferred for this purpose at the present time because of the clear-cut phenotypic differences between the normal and the transformed cells. These systems have been useful in establishing that malignant transformation can be induced by doses as low as 1 rad of X rays or 0.1 rad of neutrons, and that fractionation at low dose levelsleads to enhanced transformation. They have been useful in identifying a large number of hazardous chemicals and in evaluating the relationship between the mutagenic and carcinogenic potential of radiation and chemicals

  7. Which Biology Marker Can be a Predictor for Higher Syntax Score?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Lison

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syntax score is a lesion-based angiographic scoring system, originally devised to grade the anatomic complexity of coronary artery disease (CAD and thereby facilitate consensus in the study of a diagnostic angiogram between surgeons and interventional cardiologists. Suitable biology marker to predict the severity of CAD and to have a treatment decision for revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI or bypass surgery, is still unknown. Which biology marker can be a predictor for higher Syntax score remains unknown as well. METHODS: Severity of 105 patients who underwent coronary angiography, were evaluated with Syntax score. Laboratory tests were conducted for routine blood test, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, kidney function, creatinine and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c. RESULTS: Ureum had significant correlation with Syntax score, p=0.016 and 95% confidence interval (CI=0.05-0.55. Result of logistic regression analysis showed that HDL and haematocrit had significant correlation with Syntax score, with cut off point 34 (p=0.02, p=0.0033, respectively. Based on multi-variate analysis, Syntax score 34 = 16 (HDL ≤40 + Ureum ≥23 + 10 (Neutrophil/Lymphocyte ≥3.789 +10 (HbA1c ≥7 + 13 ( monocyte ≥9%. CONCLUSIONS: HDL cholesterol, ureum, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, HbA1c and monocyte altogether can predict the higher Syntax score. KEYWORDS: syntax, neutrophil, lymphocyte, HDL, cholesterol, ureum, HbA1c, monocyte.

  8. Mass-spectrometric identification of primary biological particle markers: indication for low abundance of primary biological material in the pristine submicron aerosol of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of marker compounds for primary biological particles in submicron aerosol was investigated by means of aerosol mass spectrometry. Mass spectra of amino acids, carbohydrates, small peptides, and proteins, all of which are key building blocks of biological particles, were recorded in laboratory experiments. Several characteristic marker peaks were identified. The identified marker peaks were compared with mass spectra recorded during AMAZE-08, a field campaign conducted in the pristine rainforest of the Central Amazon Basin, Brazil, during the wet season of February and March 2008. The low abundance of identified marker peaks places upper limits of 7.5 % for amino acids and 5.6 % for carbohydrates on the contribution of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs to the submicron organic aerosol mass concentration during this time period. Upper limits for the absolute submicron concentrations for both compound classes range from 0.01 to 0.1 μg m−3. Carbohydrates and protein amino acids make up for about two thirds of the dry mass of a biological cell. Thus, our findings suggest an upper limit for the PBAPs mass fraction of about 20 % to the submicron organic aerosol.

  9. Review: domestic animal forensic genetics - biological evidence, genetic markers, analytical approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthaswamy, S

    2015-10-01

    This review highlights the importance of domestic animal genetic evidence sources, genetic testing, markers and analytical approaches as well as the challenges this field is facing in view of the de facto 'gold standard' human DNA identification. Because of the genetic similarity between humans and domestic animals, genetic analysis of domestic animal hair, saliva, urine, blood and other biological material has generated vital investigative leads that have been admitted into a variety of court proceedings, including criminal and civil litigation. Information on validated short tandem repeat, single nucleotide polymorphism and mitochondrial DNA markers and public access to genetic databases for forensic DNA analysis is becoming readily available. Although the fundamental aspects of animal forensic genetic testing may be reliable and acceptable, animal forensic testing still lacks the standardized testing protocols that human genetic profiling requires, probably because of the absence of monetary support from government agencies and the difficulty in promoting cooperation among competing laboratories. Moreover, there is a lack in consensus about how to best present the results and expert opinion to comply with court standards and bear judicial scrutiny. This has been the single most persistent challenge ever since the earliest use of domestic animal forensic genetic testing in a criminal case in the mid-1990s. Crime laboratory accreditation ensures that genetic test results have the courts' confidence. Because accreditation requires significant commitments of effort, time and resources, the vast majority of animal forensic genetic laboratories are not accredited nor are their analysts certified forensic examiners. The relevance of domestic animal forensic genetics in the criminal justice system is undeniable. However, further improvements are needed in a wide range of supporting resources, including standardized quality assurance and control protocols for sample

  10. Biological markers of oxidative stress: Applications to cardiovascular research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a common mediator in pathogenicity of established cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, it likely mediates effects of emerging, less well-defined variables that contribute to residual risk not explained by traditional factors. Functional oxidative modifications of cellular proteins, both reversible and irreversible, are a causal step in cellular dysfunction. Identifying markers of oxidative stress has been the focus of many researchers as they have the potential to act as an “integrator” of a multitude of processes that drive cardiovascular pathobiology. One of the major challenges is the accurate quantification of reactive oxygen species with very short half-life. Redox-sensitive proteins with important cellular functions are confined to signalling microdomains in cardiovascular cells and are not readily available for quantification. A popular approach is the measurement of stable by-products modified under conditions of oxidative stress that have entered the circulation. However, these may not accurately reflect redox stress at the cell/tissue level. Many of these modifications are “functionally silent”. Functional significance of the oxidative modifications enhances their validity as a proposed biological marker of cardiovascular disease, and is the strength of the redox cysteine modifications such as glutathionylation. We review selected biomarkers of oxidative stress that show promise in cardiovascular medicine, as well as new methodologies for high-throughput measurement in research and clinical settings. Although associated with disease severity, further studies are required to examine the utility of the most promising oxidative biomarkers to predict prognosis or response to treatment.

  11. Metadiscourse Markers in Biological Research Articles and Journal Impact Factor: Non-Native Writers vs. Native Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Javad; Ilghami, Roghayeh

    2016-01-01

    Metadiscourse markers (MDMs) are lexical resources that writers employ to organize their discourse and state their stance towards the content or the reader. This study investigated the frequency with which interactive and interactional MDMs were employed in biological research articles (RAs). It also explored the possible relationship between the…

  12. Mass-spectrometric identification of primary biological particle markers and application to pristine submicron aerosol measurements in Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of primary biological material in submicron aerosol by means of thermal desorption/electron impact ionization aerosol mass spectrometry was investigated. Mass spectra of amino acids, carbohydrates, small peptides, and proteins, all of which are key building blocks of biological particles, were recorded in laboratory experiments. Several characteristic marker fragments were identified. The intensity of the marker signals relative to the total organic mass spectrum allows for an estimation of the content of primary biological material in ambient organic aerosol. The developed method was applied to mass spectra recorded during AMAZE-08, a field campaign conducted in the pristine rainforest of the central Amazon Basin, Brazil, during the wet season of February and March 2008. The low abundance of identified marker fragments places upper limits of 7.5% for amino acids and 5.6% for carbohydrates on the contribution of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP to the submicron organic aerosol mass concentration during this time period. Upper limits for the absolute submicron concentrations for both compound classes range from 0.01 to 0.1 μg m−3. Carbohydrates and proteins (composed of amino acids make up for about two thirds of the dry mass of a biological cell. Thus, our findings suggest an upper limit for the PBAP mass fraction of about 20% to the submicron organic aerosol measured in Amazonia during AMAZE-08.

  13. Total and phosphorylated tau protein as biological markers of Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, Harald

    2012-02-01

    Advances in our understanding of tau-mediated neurodegeneration in Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) are moving this disease pathway to center stage for the development of biomarkers and disease modifying drug discovery efforts. Immunoassays were developed detecting total (t-tau) and tau phosphorylated at specific epitopes (p-tauX) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), methods to analyse tau in blood are at the experimental beginning. Clinical research consistently demonstrated CSF t- and p-tau increased in AD compared to controls. Measuring these tau species proved informative for classifying AD from relevant differential diagnoses. Tau phosphorylated at threonine 231 (p-tau231) differentiated between AD and frontotemporal dementia, tau phosphorylated at serine 181 (p-tau181) enhanced classification between AD and dementia with Lewy bodies. T- and p-tau are considered "core" AD biomarkers that have been successfully validated by controlled large-scale multi-center studies. Tau biomarkers are implemented in clinical trials to reflect biological activity, mechanisms of action of compounds, support enrichment of target populations, provide endpoints for proof-of-concept and confirmatory trials on disease modification. World-wide quality control initiatives are underway to set required methodological and protocol standards. Discussions with regulatory authorities gain momentum defining the role of tau biomarkers for trial designs and how they may be further qualified for surrogate marker status.

  14. Does age difference really matter? Facial markers of biological quality and age difference between husband and wife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danel, D P; Dziedzic-Danel, A; Kleisner, K

    2016-08-01

    Information conveyed by facial attractiveness markers such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and secondary sexual characteristics may play an important adaptive role in human sexual selection. Nonetheless, mate choice also relies on other non-physical characteristics such as, for instance, an individual's age. Women prefer and enter in relationships with older partners, whereas in men the inverse relation is observed. Surprisingly, the link between facial morphological markers of biological quality on the one hand and age disparity between partners on the other hand has been as yet subject of very little research. This study aims to fill this gap. We had used facial photographs and demographic data of heterosexual marriages. Facial cues of biological quality, such as averageness, bilateral symmetry, and sexual dimorphism, were digitally measured using geometric morphometric methods and then associated with spouses' age difference. It turned out that a greater age disparity between spouses correlates, in both partners, with higher scores in facial measures which indicate partners' biological quality. One exception is female facial masculinity - generally regarded as an unattractive marker of a low biological quality - which, too, is associated with higher spouse age disparity. In general, our results show that facial symmetry, averageness, and secondary sexual characteristics may play a role in age-dependent mate choice. We suggest that in marriages where the wife is considerably younger than the husband, wife's greater facial masculinity may increase her perceived age and with it, her perceived maturity. PMID:27238548

  15. Circulating VEGF as a biological marker in patients with rheumatoid arthritis? Preanalytical and biological variability in healthy persons and in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hetland, Merete Lund; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Lottenburger, Tine;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a promising biomarker in monitoring rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but studies of pre-analytical and biologic variability are few. METHODS: VEGF was measured by ELISA methods in serum and plasma from healthy persons and RA patients. Pre....../ml (range: non-detectable to 352); serum: 328 pg/ml (53-1791)) were independent of gender and age. Short- and long-term biologic variability included diurnal variation (sampling should take place after 7 AM) and impact of exercise (increased VEGF immediately after bicycling normalised within 1 hour......). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-analytical factors and biologic variability including diurnal variation and impact of exercise should be accounted for in future studies that include circulating VEGF as a biological marker....

  16. Effects of 3,4-Dichloroaniline on Testicle Enzymes as Biological Markers in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo ZHANG; SEN LIN

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of 3,4-dichlomaniline (3,4-DCA) on activities of testicle enzymes as biological markers in rats. Methods Fifty male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10). One group was left untreated and used as a solvent control (administered orally by corn oil), while the other 4 groups were treated with 3, 4-DCA. Corn oil was used as a solvent, and 3,4-DCA was diluted into tested concentrations (39, 81, 170, and 357 mg/kg). All the groups orally administered 3,4-DCA or corn oil, once a day for 4 weeks. The testicle tissue was homogenized in a 0.1 mol/L potassium phosphate buffer (0.1 mol/L, pH 7.2). The crude homogenate was centrifuged at 6000 rpm for 5 rain at 4 ℃. The supematant obtained was used as an enzyme extract for determination of the enzyme activities. Results Compared with the control, the activities of ALP, ACE and SDH were increased significantly at a lower level of 3,4-DCA, and decreased at a higher level of 3, 4-DCA, whreas the activities of LDH, LDH-X, and G6PDH were inhibited significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. Organ coefficient "organ weight/total body weight × 100" of testis, liver, and spleen increased significantly with the increased 3,4-DCA concentration. These results suggest that 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system was associated with the activities of testicular enzymes which are the sensitive biochemical endpoints reflecting 3,4-DCA toxicity to the male reproductive system. Conclusion 3,4-DCA has toxicity to the reproductive system in male rats.

  17. Genetic markers in biological fluids for aging-related major neurocognitive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Chavira, S A; Fernandez, T; Nicolini, H; Diaz-Cintra, S; Prado-Alcala, R A

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), formerly named dementia, comprises of the different acquired diseases whose primary deficit is impairment in cognitive functions such as complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual/motor skills, and social cognition, and that are related to specific brain regions and/or networks. According to its etiology, the most common subtypes of major NCDs are due to Alzheimer' s disease (AD), vascular disease (VaD), Lewy body disease (LBD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). These pathologies are frequently present in mixed forms, i.e., AD plus VaD or AD plus LBD, thus diagnosed as due to multiple etiologies. In this paper, the definitions, criteria, pathologies, subtypes and genetic markers for the most common age-related major NCD subtypes are summarized. The current diagnostic criteria consider cognitive decline leading to major NCD or dementia as a progressive degenerative process with an underlying neuropathology that begins before the manifestation of symptoms. Biomarkers associated with this asymptomatic phase are being developed as accurate risk factor and biomarker assessments are fundamental to provide timely treatment since no treatments to prevent or cure NCD yet exist. Biological fluid assessment represents a safer, cheaper and less invasive method compared to contrast imaging studies to predict NCD appearance. Genetic factors particularly have a key role not only in predicting development of the disease but also the age of onset as well as the presentation of comorbidities that may contribute to the disease pathology and trigger synergistic mechanisms which may, in turn, accelerate the neurodegenerative process and its resultant behavioral and functional disorders. PMID:25731625

  18. Changes in biological markers, particularly hormone receptors, due to pre-operative chemotherapy (epirubicin/docetaxel in operable breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiko Tashima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the correlation between biological markers prior to pre-operative chemotherapy with epirubicin and docetaxel (ET therapy and the effect of treatment as well as the clinically significant changes in biological markers before and after chemotherapy. Since April 2002, 52 patients with tumors ≥3 cm in diameter or lymph node metastases have received pre-operative ET chemotherapy. The items investigated were ER/PgR, proliferative activity (MIB-1, etc. The correlation of changes in these factors between pre- and post-treatment status and the clinical and pathological responses was investigated. Clinical response was 82%, BCS rate was 67%. Pathological response was 31.4%. The ER/PgR positive cell rate significantly decreased from 48%/32% to 37%/14%. The MIB-1 decreased from 48% to 27%. The pathological response was significantly high in patients with low ER/PgR-positive rates and those with high MIB-1 values.

  19. Social and Behavioral Risk Marker Clustering Associated with Biological Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease: NHANES 2001–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Everage

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Social and behavioral risk markers (e.g., physical activity, diet, smoking, and socioeconomic position cluster; however, little is known whether clustering is associated with coronary heart disease (CHD risk. Objectives were to determine if sociobehavioral clustering is associated with biological CHD risk factors (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and diabetes and whether associations are independent of individual clustering components. Methods. Participants included 4,305 males and 4,673 females aged ≥20 years from NHANES 2001–2004. Sociobehavioral Risk Marker Index (SRI included a summary score of physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, smoking, and educational attainment. Regression analyses evaluated associations of SRI with aforementioned biological CHD risk factors. Receiver operator curve analyses assessed independent predictive ability of SRI. Results. Healthful clustering (SRI = 0 was associated with improved biological CHD risk factor levels in 5 of 6 risk factors in females and 2 of 6 risk factors in males. Adding SRI to models containing age, race, and individual SRI components did not improve C-statistics. Conclusions. Findings suggest that healthful sociobehavioral risk marker clustering is associated with favorable CHD risk factor levels, particularly in females. These findings should inform social ecological interventions that consider health impacts of addressing social and behavioral risk factors.

  20. Comparison of the cerebral SPECT and biological markers in the Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aim was to compare the contribution of SPECT of cerebral perfusion and bio markers of the cerebrospinal liquid in the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease. Our preliminary conclusions show that the concordance of the SPECT and cerebrospinal liquid is good in the possible Alzheimer disease. the interest of the cerebral SPECT and bio markers of the cerebrospinal liquid, used alone or conjointly, for a more reliable diagnosis of Alzheimer disease must be evaluated of prospective way. (N.C.)

  1. Cross-sectional study with multiple measurements of biological markers for assessing stomach cancer risks at the population level.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugane, S; Tsuda, M; Gey, F; Watanabe, S.

    1992-01-01

    A cross-sectional study to determine correlations between measurable biologic markers and mortality from stomach cancer was performed in various areas of Japan. Blood and urine were collected from randomly selected 40- to 49-year-old men and their spouses in four areas with different rates of mortality from stomach cancer. The samples were analyzed for levels of the micronutrients vitamins A, C, and E, beta-carotene, and lycopene in plasma and for levels of NaCl, nitrate, and N-nitrosamino ac...

  2. Adiposity, Biological Markers of Disease, and Insulin Resistance in Mexican American Adolescents, 2004-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Anne R. Rentfro, PhD, RN; Jeanette C. Nino, MS; Rosa M. Pones, MPH, RN; Wendy Innis-Whitehouse, PhD; Cristina S. Barroso, DrPH; Mohammed H. Rahbar, PhD; Joseph B. McCormick, MD, MS; Susan P. Fisher-Hoch, MD, MBBS, MSc, MRCPath

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Rates of obesity and overweight, which frequently lead to type 2 diabetes, have increased dramatically among US children during the past 30 years. We analyzed associations between insulin resistance and other markers of disease in a sample of Mexican American adolescents from a severely disadvantaged community on the Texas-Mexico border. Methods We analyzed results from 325 students from 1 high school in this descriptive study. We measured height, weight, waist circumference, blo...

  3. Environmental DNA Marker Development with Sparse Biological Information: A Case Study on Opossum Shrimp (Mysis diluviana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carim, Kellie J; Christianson, Kyle R; McKelvey, Kevin M; Pate, William M; Silver, Douglas B; Johnson, Brett M; Galloway, Bill T; Young, Michael K; Schwartz, Michael K

    2016-01-01

    The spread of Mysis diluviana, a small glacial relict crustacean, outside its native range has led to unintended shifts in the composition of native fish communities throughout western North America. As a result, biologists seek accurate methods of determining the presence of M. diluviana, especially at low densities or during the initial stages of an invasion. Environmental DNA (eDNA) provides one solution for detecting M. diluviana, but building eDNA markers that are both sensitive and species-specific is challenging when the distribution and taxonomy of closely related non-target taxa are poorly understood, published genetic data are sparse, and tissue samples are difficult to obtain. To address these issues, we developed a pair of independent eDNA markers to increase the likelihood of a positive detection of M. diluviana when present and reduce the probability of false positive detections from closely related non-target species. Because tissue samples of closely-related and possibly sympatric, non-target taxa could not be obtained, we used synthetic DNA sequences of closely related non-target species to test the specificity of eDNA markers. Both eDNA markers yielded positive detections from five waterbodies where M. diluviana was known to be present, and no detections in five others where this species was thought to be absent. Daytime samples from varying depths in one waterbody occupied by M. diluviana demonstrated that samples near the lake bottom produced 5 to more than 300 times as many eDNA copies as samples taken at other depths, but all samples tested positive regardless of depth. PMID:27551919

  4. BIOLOGICAL MARKERS FOR SELECTION ON THE FROST RESISTANCE OF WINTER WHEAT AND BARLEY FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnikov V. K.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have described the theoretical assumptions and methodological solutions in the present review. They are innovative possibilities in the development of laboratory methods for assessing biological features of grain during the selection process

  5. Perspective Biological Markers for Autism Spectrum Disorders: Advantages of the Use of Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves in Evaluating Marker Sensitivity and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provvidenza M. Abruzzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders. Recognized causes of ASD include genetic factors, metabolic diseases, toxic and environmental factors, and a combination of these. Available tests fail to recognize genetic abnormalities in about 70% of ASD children, where diagnosis is solely based on behavioral signs and symptoms, which are difficult to evaluate in very young children. Although it is advisable that specific psychotherapeutic and pedagogic interventions are initiated as early as possible, early diagnosis is hampered by the lack of nongenetic specific biological markers. In the past ten years, the scientific literature has reported dozens of neurophysiological and biochemical alterations in ASD children; however no real biomarker has emerged. Such literature is here reviewed in the light of Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC analysis, a very valuable statistical tool, which evaluates the sensitivity and the specificity of biomarkers to be used in diagnostic decision making. We also apply ROC analysis to some of our previously published data and discuss the increased diagnostic value of combining more variables in one ROC curve analysis. We also discuss the use of biomarkers as a tool for advancing our understanding of nonsyndromic ASD.

  6. Adiposity, Biological Markers of Disease, and Insulin Resistance in Mexican American Adolescents, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne R. Rentfro, PhD, RN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionRates of obesity and overweight, which frequently lead to type 2 diabetes, have increased dramatically among US children during the past 30 years. We analyzed associations between insulin resistance and other markers of disease in a sample of Mexican American adolescents from a severely disadvantaged community on the Texas-Mexico border.MethodsWe analyzed results from 325 students from 1 high school in this descriptive study. We measured height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipids; calculated body mass index; and estimated insulin resistance.ResultsApproximately 50% of our sample (mean age, 16 y were overweight or obese, and more participants were obese than overweight. More than 40% had high waist circumference, and 66% had elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These characteristics were already present in the youngest participants (aged 12 y. Although only 1% of participants had elevated fasting blood glucose, 27% exhibited insulin resistance and most of these were also obese. Similarly, participants with high waist circumference were more likely to exhibit insulin resistance than those with normal waist circumference.ConclusionParticipants in this sample had insulin resistance, a potent predictor of diabetes. Two markers, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high waist circumference, were strongly linked to insulin resistance; the surrogate for central adiposity, waist circumference, exhibited strong association. We identified high levels of obesity and markers for future disease in our sample. These findings emphasize the need to address insulin resistance at least as early as adolescence to prevent adverse economic, social, and health consequences.

  7. A multimodal imaging workflow to visualize metal mixtures in the human placenta and explore colocalization with biological response markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiecki, Megan M; Austin, Christine; Remark, Romain; Merad, Miriam; Gnjatic, Sacha; Estrada-Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Espejel-Nuñez, Aurora; Borboa-Olivares, Hector; Guzman-Huerta, Mario; Wright, Rosalind J; Wright, Robert O; Arora, Manish

    2016-04-01

    Fetal exposure to essential and toxic metals can influence life-long health trajectories. The placenta regulates chemical transmission from maternal circulation to the fetus and itself exhibits a complex response to environmental stressors. The placenta can thus be a useful matrix to monitor metal exposures and stress responses in utero, but strategies to explore the biologic effects of metal mixtures in this organ are not well-developed. In this proof-of-concept study, we used laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to measure the distributions of multiple metals in placental tissue from a low-birth-weight pregnancy, and we developed an approach to identify the components of metal mixtures that colocalized with biological response markers. Our novel workflow, which includes custom-developed software tools and algorithms for spatial outlier identification and background subtraction in multidimensional elemental image stacks, enables rapid image processing and seamless integration of data from elemental imaging and immunohistochemistry. Using quantitative spatial statistics, we identified distinct patterns of metal accumulation at sites of inflammation. Broadly, our multiplexed approach can be used to explore the mechanisms mediating complex metal exposures and biologic responses within placentae and other tissue types. Our LA-ICP-MS image processing workflow can be accessed through our interactive R Shiny application 'shinyImaging', which is available at or through our laboratory's website, . PMID:26987553

  8. Molecular biology of breast cancer metastasis Molecular expression of vascular markers by aggressive breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During embryogenesis, the formation of primary vascular networks occurs via the processes of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In uveal melanoma, vasculogenic mimicry describes the 'embryonic-like' ability of aggressive, but not nonaggressive, tumor cells to form networks surrounding spheroids of tumor cells in three-dimensional culture; these recapitulate the patterned networks seen in patients' aggressive tumors and correlates with poor prognosis. The molecular profile of these aggressive tumor cells suggests that they have a deregulated genotype, capable of expressing vascular phenotypes. Similarly, the embryonic-like phenotype expressed by the aggressive human breast cancer cells is associated with their ability to express a variety of vascular markers. These studies may offer new insights for consideration in breast cancer diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies

  9. Biological (molecular and cellular) markers of toxicity. Final report, September 15, 1988--September 14, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; D`Surney, S.J.; Gettys-Hull, C.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.

    1991-12-15

    Several molecular and cellular markers of genotoxicity were adapted for measurement in the Medaka (Oryzias latipes), and were used to describe the effects of treatment of the organism with diethylnitrosamine (DEN). NO{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts were detected, and a slight statistically significant, increase in DNA strand breaks was observed. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to high levels of DEN induced alkyltransferase activity which enzymatically removes any O{sup 6}-ethyl guanine adducts but does not result in strand breaks or hypomethylation of the DNA such as might be expected from excision repair of chemically modified DNA. Following a five week continuous DEN exposure with 100 percent renewal of DEN-water every third day, the F values (DNA double strandedness) increased considerably and to similar extent in fish exposed to 25, 50, and 100 ppM DEN. This has been observed also in medaka exposed to BaP.

  10. The relationship between environmental monitoring and biological markers in exposure assessment.

    OpenAIRE

    Rappaport, S. M.; Symanski, E.; Yager, J W; Kupper, L L

    1995-01-01

    The poor quality of traditional assessments of exposure has encouraged epidemiologists to explore biological monitoring in studies of chronic diseases. Yet, despite theoretical advantages, biomarkers have not been widely used in such applications. This article compares the general utility of a biomarker with that of the measurement of exposure per se. Points are illustrated with a longitudinal study of boat workers in which levels of styrene in the breathing zone and in exhaled air were compa...

  11. RECENT ADVANCES OF QUINAZOLINONE DERIVATIVES AS MARKER FOR VARIOUS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Anshul Chawla; Chesta Batra

    2013-01-01

    Heterocyclic chemistry comprises at least half of all organic chemistry research worldwide. Quinazolinone and its derivatives constitute an important class of heterocyclic compounds. The chemistry of quinazoline compounds has more than centuries old history; however the intense search for biologically active substances in this series began only in the last few decades. In this present communication an attempt is made to cover the medicinally active compounds, along with the recent discoveries...

  12. Assessment of the autonomic nervous system is an appropriate biological marker for the well-being in erectile dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tolga Dogru; Orhan Murat Kocak; Nurper Erberk-Ozen; Murat Basar

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether the autonomic nervous system (ANS) components are suitable biological markers for representing well-being in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED). Methods: The present study included 74 male patients who had applied for check-ups in the cardiology outpatient clinic at Kirikkale University (Kirikkale, Turkey) and who had been diagnosed as having hyperlipidemia. Of these patients, 26 had an additional diagnosis of ED and made up the patient group. The remaining 48 patients formed the control group. Well-being was assessed with short- form 36 (SF-36). The International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) was used as a measure of libido and erectile function. Quantitative assessment of the ANS was made based on the analysis of heart rate variability by means of 24-h holter monitorization. Results: Comparisons between the ED and control groups showed significant differences only in energy scale of SF-36. The ED group also had significantly higher values of sympathetic activity. Except for the general health score of SF-36, which was found to be correlated with parasympathetic activity only in ED group, there were similar correlation patterns within the groups. Although well-being and sympathetic activity were corre- lated negatively, parasympathetic activity and well-being were correlated positively. Conclusion: Quantitative as- sessment of the ANS by heart rate variability analysis might be a suitable marker for well-being of patients with ED. (Asian J Androl 2008 Jul; 10: 643-650)

  13. A life course approach to explore the biological embedding of socioeconomic position and social mobility through circulating inflammatory markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagné, Raphaële; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Campanella, Gianluca; Guida, Florence; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Lang, Thierry; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) has consistently been associated with poorer health. To explore potential biological embedding and the consequences of SEP experiences from early life to adulthood, we investigate how SEP indicators at different points across the life course may be related to a combination of 28 inflammation markers. Using blood-derived inflammation profiles measured by a multiplex array in 268 participants from the Italian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we evaluate the association between early life, young adulthood and later adulthood SEP with each inflammatory markers separately, or by combining them into an inflammatory score. We identified an increased inflammatory burden in participants whose father had a manual occupation, through increased plasma levels of CSF3 (G-CSF; β = 0.29; P = 0.002), and an increased inflammatory score (β = 1.96; P = 0.029). Social mobility was subsequently modelled by the interaction between father’s occupation and the highest household occupation, revealing a significant difference between “stable Non-manual” profiles over the life course versus “Manual to Non-manual” profiles (β = 2.38, P = 0.023). Low SEP in childhood is associated with modest increase in adult inflammatory burden; however, the analysis of social mobility suggests a stronger effect of an upward social mobility over the life course. PMID:27117519

  14. Evolving Evidence for the Value of Neuroimaging Methods and Biological Markers in Subjects Categorized with Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, Jose L; Cavedo, Enrica; Rami, Lorena; Amouyel, Philippe; Teipel, Stefan J; Garaci, Francesco; Toschi, Nicola; Habert, Marie-Odile; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh; Galluzzi, Samantha; Bokde, Arun L W; Broich, Karl; Herholz, Karl; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Dubois, Bruno; Jessen, Frank; Carrillo, Maria C; Aisen, Paul S; Hampel, Harald

    2015-09-24

    There is evolving evidence that individuals categorized with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are potentially at higher risk for developing objective and progressive cognitive impairment compared to cognitively healthy individuals without apparent subjective complaints. Interestingly, SCD, during advancing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), may denote very early, subtle cognitive decline that cannot be identified using established standardized tests of cognitive performance. The substantial heterogeneity of existing SCD-related research data has led the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) to accomplish an international consensus on the definition of a conceptual research framework on SCD in preclinical AD. In the area of biological markers, the cerebrospinal fluid signature of AD has been reported to be more prevalent in subjects with SCD compared to healthy controls; moreover, there is a pronounced atrophy, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, and an increased hypometabolism, as revealed by positron emission tomography, in characteristic brain regions affected by AD. In addition, SCD individuals carrying an apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele are more likely to display AD-phenotypic alterations. The urgent requirement to detect and diagnose AD as early as possible has led to the critical examination of the diagnostic power of biological markers, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods for AD-related risk and clinical progression in individuals defined with SCD. Observational studies on the predictive value of SCD for developing AD may potentially be of practical value, and an evidence-based, validated, qualified, and fully operationalized concept may inform clinical diagnostic practice and guide earlier designs in future therapy trials. PMID:26402088

  15. Role of serum eosinophil cationic protein as a biological marker to assess the severity of bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The study was carried out to evaluate the role of serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) as a biological marker for the diagnosis and to assess the severity of bronchial asthma. Methodology: This observational cross-sectional study was conducted among 70 bronchial asthma patients and 45 disease controls (tuberculosis-15, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-15, interstitial lung disease-15) enrolled from patients attending the outpatient department of the National Institute of Disease of the Chest and Hospital (NIDCH), Dhaka, Bangladesh during July 2010 to June 2011. Global Initiative of Asthma Management and Prevention (GINA) criteria were followed for selection of both atopic and non-atopic patients with intermittent or persistent (mild, moderate and severe) asthma. Serum level of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), IgE, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1% predicted) and circulatory eosinophil (CE) count were estimated. Results: Mean serum ECP level (28.8 +- 42.9 vs. 6.82 +- 3.5 ng/mL; P<0.001), IgE level (383.59 - 225.3 vs. 135 +- 131.8 IU/mL; P<0.001) and percent circulatory eosinophil count (9.95 +- 3.7 vs. 5.95 +- 1.4; P<0.024) were all found significantly raised among asthma patients than disease controls but % FEV1 was equivocal. All grades of persistent asthma patients had significantly (P<0.025 and P<0.002) higher mean ECP level than intermittent cases but serum IgE level and CE count did not differ significantly. FEV1 % predicted correlated well among moderate and severe persistent asthma but was equivocal for intermittent and mild persistent cases. Conclusion: This study has reinforced that serum eosinophil cationic protein is a dependable biological marker with more discriminatory power over other indicators for bronchial asthma and to assess its severity. (author)

  16. Biological effect of dose distortion by fiducial markers in spot-scanning proton therapy with a limited number of fields: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In accurate proton spot-scanning therapy, continuous target tracking by fluoroscopic x ray during irradiation is beneficial not only for respiratory moving tumors of lung and liver but also for relatively stationary tumors of prostate. Implanted gold markers have been used with great effect for positioning the target volume by a fluoroscopy, especially for the cases of liver and prostate with the targets surrounded by water-equivalent tissues. However, recent studies have revealed that gold markers can cause a significant underdose in proton therapy. This paper focuses on prostate cancer and explores the possibility that multiple-field irradiation improves the underdose effect by markers on tumor-control probability (TCP). Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the dose distortion effect. A spherical gold marker was placed at several characteristic points in a water phantom. The markers were with two different diameters of 2 and 1.5 mm, both visible on fluoroscopy. Three beam arrangements of single-field uniform dose (SFUD) were examined: one lateral field, two opposite lateral fields, and three fields (two opposite lateral fields + anterior field). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was set to 1.1 and a dose of 74 Gy (RBE) was delivered to the target of a typical prostate size in 37 fractions. The ratios of TCP to that without the marker (TCPr) were compared with the parameters of the marker sizes, number of fields, and marker positions. To take into account the dependence of biological parameters in TCP model, α/β values of 1.5, 3, and 10 Gy (RBE) were considered. Results: It was found that the marker of 1.5 mm diameter does not affect the TCPs with all α/β values when two or more fields are used. On the other hand, if the marker diameter is 2 mm, more than two irradiation fields are required to suppress the decrease in TCP from TCPr by less than 3%. This is especially true when multiple (two or three) markers are used

  17. Biological effect of dose distortion by fiducial markers in spot-scanning proton therapy with a limited number of fields: A simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuura, Taeko; Maeda, Kenichiro; Sutherland, Kenneth; Takayanagi, Taisuke; Shimizu, Shinichi; Takao, Seishin; Miyamoto, Naoki; Nihongi, Hideaki; Toramatsu, Chie; Nagamine, Yoshihiko; Fujimoto, Rintaro; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Ishikawa, Masayori; Umegaki, Kikuo; Shirato, Hiroki [Department of Medical Physics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638 (Japan); Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory, 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki 319-1221 (Japan); Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Medical Physics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638 (Japan); Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Works, 3-1-1 Saiwai-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki 317-8511 (Japan); Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi Research Laboratory, 7-2-1 Omika-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki 319-1221 (Japan); Department of Medical Physics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, 060-8638 (Japan)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: In accurate proton spot-scanning therapy, continuous target tracking by fluoroscopic x ray during irradiation is beneficial not only for respiratory moving tumors of lung and liver but also for relatively stationary tumors of prostate. Implanted gold markers have been used with great effect for positioning the target volume by a fluoroscopy, especially for the cases of liver and prostate with the targets surrounded by water-equivalent tissues. However, recent studies have revealed that gold markers can cause a significant underdose in proton therapy. This paper focuses on prostate cancer and explores the possibility that multiple-field irradiation improves the underdose effect by markers on tumor-control probability (TCP). Methods: A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the dose distortion effect. A spherical gold marker was placed at several characteristic points in a water phantom. The markers were with two different diameters of 2 and 1.5 mm, both visible on fluoroscopy. Three beam arrangements of single-field uniform dose (SFUD) were examined: one lateral field, two opposite lateral fields, and three fields (two opposite lateral fields + anterior field). The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) was set to 1.1 and a dose of 74 Gy (RBE) was delivered to the target of a typical prostate size in 37 fractions. The ratios of TCP to that without the marker (TCP{sub r}) were compared with the parameters of the marker sizes, number of fields, and marker positions. To take into account the dependence of biological parameters in TCP model, {alpha}/{beta} values of 1.5, 3, and 10 Gy (RBE) were considered. Results: It was found that the marker of 1.5 mm diameter does not affect the TCPs with all {alpha}/{beta} values when two or more fields are used. On the other hand, if the marker diameter is 2 mm, more than two irradiation fields are required to suppress the decrease in TCP from TCP{sub r} by less than 3%. This is especially true when multiple

  18. Molecular markers and biological targeted therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer: expert opinion and recommendations derived from the 11th ESMO/World Congress on Gastrointestinal Cancer, Barcelona, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cutsem, E; Dicato, M; Arber, N; Berlin, J; Cervantes, A; Ciardiello, F; De Gramont, A; Diaz-Rubio, E; Ducreux, M; Geva, R; Glimelius, B; Glynne Jones, R; Grothey, A; Gruenberger, T; Haller, D; Haustermans, K; Labianca, R; Lenz, H J; Minsky, B; Nordlinger, B; Ohtsu, A; Pavlidis, N; Rougier, P; Schmiegel, W; Van de Velde, C; Schmoll, H J; Sobrero, A; Tabernero, J

    2010-06-01

    The article summarizes the expert discussion and recommendations on the use of molecular markers and of biological targeted therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), as well as a proposed treatment decision strategy for mCRC treatment. The meeting was conducted during the 11th ESMO/World Gastrointestinal Cancer Congress (WGICC) in Barcelona in June 2009. The manuscript describes the outcome of an expert discussion leading to an expert recommendation. The increasing knowledge on clinical and molecular markers and the availability of biological targeted therapies have major implications in the optimal management in mCRC. PMID:20534623

  19. Recombinant Allergens Combined with Biological Markers in the Diagnosis of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis in Cystic Fibrosis Patients▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Coltey, Bérangère; Llerena, Catherine; Renversez, Jean-Charles; Grillot, Renée; Pin, Isabelle; Pelloux, Hervé; Pinel, Claudine

    2010-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a frequent complication in cystic fibrosis patients. The diagnosis remains difficult and requires a combination of clinical, radiological, biological, and mycological criteria. The aim of this study was to analyze the added value of two recombinant antigens, rAspf4 and rAspf6, associated with the detection of specific IgG; precipitins; total IgE; and Aspergillus fumigatus in sputum for the diagnosis of ABPA. In a retrospective study, we determined the specific IgE responses to these recombinants in 133 sera of 65 cystic fibrosis patients. We selected an average of five serum samples from each of the 17 patients with ABPA (13 proven and 4 probable ABPA) and from 3 patients with Aspergillus bronchitis and rhinosinusitis. One serum sample for the 45 patients without ABPA was tested. The sensitivity of specific IgE detection against rAspf4 calculated per patient (92.3%) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of rAspf6 (53.8%). When rAspf4 IgE detection was associated with anti-Aspergillus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and precipitin detection, the sensitivity rose to 100%. The specificities of rAspf4 and rAspf6 IgE detection were 93.7% and 91.6%, respectively. Other diagnostic criteria had slightly lower specificities (87.5% for anti-Aspergillus IgG ELISA, 89.6% for precipitins, 84.4% for total IgE, and 85.0% for positive A. fumigatus culture in sputum). In conclusion, this retrospective study showed the relevance of rAspf4 IgE detection, in combination with other biological markers (Aspergillus IgG ELISA, precipitins, and total IgE), for improving the biological diagnosis of ABPA. PMID:20631331

  20. Airway remodeling assessed by high-resolution computed tomography in patients with asthma:relationship to biological markers in induced sputum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴世满

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of assessing asthma control by high-resolution computed tomography(HRCT) and biological markers in induced sputum.Methods Forty-eight patients with asthma(asthma group) and 10 healthy subjects(control group) were retrospectively analyzed.

  1. Prediction for steatosis in type-2 diabetes: clinico-biological markers versus {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiu, Boris; Krause, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Radiology, 2 boulevard Marechal de Lattre de Tassigny, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Crevisy-Girod, Elodie [CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Binquet, Christine [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biostatistics and Medical Informatics, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Duvillard, Laurence [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); Masson, David [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Biochemistry, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Lepage, Come; Hamza, Samia; Minello, Anne; Hillon, Patrick [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Hepatology, BP 77908, Dijon (France); Verges, Bruno; Petit, Jean-Michel [University of Burgundy, INSERM U866, BP 87900, Dijon (France); CHU (University Hospital), Department of Endocrinology, Diabetology, and Metabolic Diseases, BP 77908, Dijon (France)

    2012-04-15

    The SteatoTest, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) are clinico-biological scores of steatosis validated in general or selected populations. Serum adiponectin (s-adiponectin) and retinol binding protein 4 (s-RBP4) are adipokines that could predict liver steatosis. We investigated whether the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin and s-RBP4 could be valid predictors of liver steatosis in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We enrolled 220 consecutive T2D patients. Reference standard was 3.0 T {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy (corrected for T1 and T2 decays). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Kappa statistic measures of agreement, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Median liver fat content was 91 mg triglyceride/g liver tissue (range: 0-392). ICCs among the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 and spectroscopy were low: 0.384, 0.281, 0.087, -0.297 and 0.048. Agreement between scores and spectroscopy was poor (Kappa range: 0.042-0.281). The areas under the ROC curves were low: 0.674, 0.647, 0.637, 0.616 and 0.540. S-adiponectin and s-RBP4 levels were strongly related to the presence of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.004; Mann-Whitney). The SteatoTest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 are not valid predictors of steatosis in T2D patients. Clino-biological markers cannot replace {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy for the assessment of liver fat in this population. (orig.)

  2. Prediction for steatosis in type-2 diabetes: clinico-biological markers versus 1H-MR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SteatoTest, fatty liver index (FLI) and hepatic steatosis index (HSI) are clinico-biological scores of steatosis validated in general or selected populations. Serum adiponectin (s-adiponectin) and retinol binding protein 4 (s-RBP4) are adipokines that could predict liver steatosis. We investigated whether the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin and s-RBP4 could be valid predictors of liver steatosis in type-2 diabetic (T2D) patients. We enrolled 220 consecutive T2D patients. Reference standard was 3.0 T 1H-MR spectroscopy (corrected for T1 and T2 decays). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), Kappa statistic measures of agreement, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were assessed. Median liver fat content was 91 mg triglyceride/g liver tissue (range: 0-392). ICCs among the Steatotest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 and spectroscopy were low: 0.384, 0.281, 0.087, -0.297 and 0.048. Agreement between scores and spectroscopy was poor (Kappa range: 0.042-0.281). The areas under the ROC curves were low: 0.674, 0.647, 0.637, 0.616 and 0.540. S-adiponectin and s-RBP4 levels were strongly related to the presence of diabetic nephropathy (P = 0.0037 and P = 0.004; Mann-Whitney). The SteatoTest, FLI, HSI, s-adiponectin, s-RBP4 are not valid predictors of steatosis in T2D patients. Clino-biological markers cannot replace 1H-MR spectroscopy for the assessment of liver fat in this population. (orig.)

  3. Effects of short-term propofol and dexmedetomidine on pulmonary morphofunction and biological markers in experimental mild acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Vinícius; Santos, Cintia Lourenço; Samary, Cynthia Santos; Araújo, Mariana Neves; Heil, Luciana Boavista Barros; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Silva, Pedro Leme; Pelosi, Paolo; Fernandes, Fatima Carneiro; Villela, Nivaldo; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated whether the short-term use of dexmedetomidine and propofol may attenuate inflammatory response and improve lung morphofunction in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). Thirty-six Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups. Control (C) and ALI animals received sterile saline solution and Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide by intraperitoneal injection respectively. After 24h, ALI animals were randomly treated with dexmedetomidine, propofol, or thiopental sodium for 1h. Propofol reduced static lung elastance and resistive pressure and was associated with less alveolar collapse compared to thiopental sodium and dexmedetomidine. Dexmedetomidine improved oxygenation, but did not modify lung mechanics or histology. Propofol was associated with lower IL (interleukin)-6 and IL-1β expression, whereas dexmedetomidine led to reduced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression in lung tissue compared to thiopental sodium. In conclusion, in this model of mild ALI, short-term use of dexmedetomidine and propofol led to different functional effects and activation of biological markers associated with pulmonary inflammation. PMID:25149586

  4. Predictable factors for lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer analysis of clinicopathologic factors and biological markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Wei; Zhu, Mei-Ling; Wang, Rui-Fen; Xue, Wen-Ji; Zhu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Li-Feng; Zheng, Lei-Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Predicting lymph node metastasis (LNM) accurately is very important to decide treatment strategies preoperatively. The aim of this study was to explore risk factors that predict the presence of LNM in early gastric cancer (EGC). A total of 230 patients with EGC who underwent curative gastrectomy with lymph adenectomy at Xinhua Hospital from January 2006 to July 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. We studied the relationship between clinicopathological factors, biological markers (p53, ki67, nm23, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), E-cadherin (E-cad), beta-catenin (b-catenin), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and topoisomerase II (Topo II)), and LNM of EGC patients by chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Meta-analyses were further conducted to review the effects of the proteins (P53, ki67, E-cad, and b-catenin) on LNM in ECG patients. LNM was detected in 42 (18.3 %) of 230 patients. Incidences of LNM was distinct in different tumor size (p = 0.044), depth of submucosal invasion (p validation in single large studies. PMID:26733174

  5. Impact of different welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate of 58 mild steel welders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeyer, Frank; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Lehnert, Martin; Kendzia, Benjamin; Bernard, Sabine; Berresheim, Hans; Düser, Maria; Henry, Jana; Weiss, Tobias; Koch, Holger M; Pesch, Beate; Brüning, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Total mass and composition of welding fumes are predominantly dependent on the welding technique and welding wire applied. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of welding techniques on biological effect markers in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of 58 healthy welders. The welding techniques applied were gas metal arc welding with solid wire (GMAW) (n=29) or flux cored wire (FCAW) (n=29). Welding fume particles were collected with personal samplers in the breathing zone inside the helmets. Levels of leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and 8-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF(2α)) were measured with immunoassay kits and the EBC pH was measured after deaeration. Significantly higher 8-iso-PGF(2α) concentrations and a less acid pH were detected in EBC of welders using the FCAW than in EBC of welders using the GMAW technique. The lowest LTB(4) concentrations were measured in nonsmoking welders applying a solid wire. No significant influences were found in EBC concentrations of PGE(2) based upon smoking status or type of welding technique. This study suggests an enhanced irritative effect in the lower airways of mild steel welders due to the application of FCAW compared to GMAW, most likely associated with a higher emission of welding fumes. PMID:22686312

  6. The A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR): therapeutic target and predictive biological marker in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Pnina; Cohen, Shira

    2016-09-01

    The Gi protein-associated A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) is over-expressed in inflammatory cells, and this high expression is also reflected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease. CF101, a selective agonist with high affinity to the A3AR, is known to induce robust anti-inflammatory effect in experimental animal models of adjuvant-, collagen-, and tropomyosin-induced arthritis. The effect is mediated via a definitive molecular mechanism entailing deregulation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the Wnt signal transduction pathways resulting in apoptosis of inflammatory cells. CF101 was found to be safe and well tolerated in all preclinical, phase I, and phase II human clinical studies. In two phase II clinical studies where CF101 was administered to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients as a stand-alone drug, a significant anti-rheumatic effect and a direct significant correlation were found between receptor expression at baseline and patients' response to the drug, suggesting that A3AR may be utilized as a predictive biomarker. The A3AR is a promising therapeutic target in rheumatoid arthritis and can be used also as a biological marker to predict patients' response to CF101. This is a unique type of a personalized medicine approach which may pave the way for a safe and efficacious treatment for this patient population. PMID:26886128

  7. RAPD markers for the characterisation of the olive fruit fly parasitoid, Opius concolor (Spzel.), used in biological control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The koinobiont endoparasitoid Opius concolor (Spzel.) has been used as a biological control agent in area-wide biological control programmes of the olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin), which consists of massive releases of parasitoids in fields where indigenous wild ones are present. Field differentiation between the released and the indigenous parasitoids, and the estimation of the proportion of released individuals in the field population are a prerequisite to estimate the efficiency of biological control programmes. Because wild and released parasitoids are morphologically indistinguishable, a DNA molecular technique, based on Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) was used to differentiate between five different populations of this parasitoid: Two populations from Jordan, two populations from southern Italy and a laboratory reared strain. RAPD-PCR is a powerful and useful technique when there is no prior knowledge of the genome and the DNA sequence of the tested organism as in the case of the parasitoid O. concolor. In RAPD-PCR three different primers (NP4, D17, A10) were used to test polymorphism between individuals from the five populations by checking the presence/absence of amplified DNA bands from the PCR reactions. Where certain bands were found in some individuals and not found in others, those bands are called polymorphic bands and they could be used to distinguish between individuals within the same population or individuals of one population and individuals of another population. The genomic DNA amplification of 90 individuals of O. concolor, from five different populations (18 individuals from each), two from Jordan, two from southern Italy and the laboratory strain, using the three primers (A10, D17, NP4), resulted in a total of 39 interpretable bands ranging in size from 170 bp to 830 bp. Twenty-one of these bands were polymorphic (i.e. present in some individuals and absent in others). Two strain

  8. Discrimination of uranium chemo-toxic and radio-toxic effects: definition of biological markers for evaluating professional risks in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium (U) is a heavy metal that is also considered as an alpha emitter. Thus the origin of U toxicity is both chemical and radiological. The identification of bio-markers to discriminate chemical and radiological toxicity for a given U compound is required to assess accurately the health effects of isotopic mixtures such as depleted U in 235U with a low specific activity. Data from the literature show that the best candidates are cytogenetic markers. In the present work, the assessment of bio-markers of U contamination was performed on three cellular models (mouse fibroblasts, rat lymphocytes and human lymphocytes) that were exposed to different isotopic mixtures of U. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (MN) centromere assay was performed to discriminate the chemo-toxic and radio-toxic effects of U. This study showed that the evaluation of micronuclei in bi-nucleated cells could not assess U genotoxicity accurately. Instead, the assessment of centromere-negative micronuclei and nucleo-plasmic bridges correlated with the radio-toxic effects of U. The evaluation of centromere-positive micronuclei and micronuclei in mono-nucleated cells correlated with the chemo-toxic effects of U. These cytogenetic markers should be validated on different biological models and could be proposed to discriminate radiological and chemical toxicity of a given isotopic mixture of U. These four cytogenetic markers could be a useful complement of the classical dosimetric bio-markers for the assessment of internal uranium contamination. (author)

  9. Functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis and infections of the lower respiratory tract in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danza Francesco

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A progressive lung disease and a worse survival have been observed in patients with systemic sclerosis and alveolitis. The objective of this study was to define the functional, radiological and biological markers of alveolitis in SSc patients. Methods 100 SSc patients (76 with limited and 24 with diffuse disease underwent a multistep assessment of cardiopulmonary system: pulmonary function tests (PFTs every 6–12 months, echocardiography, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL, if clinically advisable. Alveolar and interstitial scores on HRCT and IL-6 plasma levels were also assessed as lung disease activity indices. Results 90 SSc patients with abnormal PFTs and 3 with signs and/or symptoms of lung involvement and normal PFTs underwent HRCT and echocardiography. HRCT revealed evidence of fibrosis in 87 (93.5% patients, with 55 (59.1% showing both ground glass attenuation and fibrosis. In 42 patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and consented to undergo BAL, 16 (38.1% revealed alveolitis. 12 (75% of these patients had restrictive lung disease (p 14 (OR(95%CIs:7.03(1.40–34.33. The alveolar score showed a significant correlation with IL-6 plasma levels (r = 0.36, p = 0.001 and with the skin score (r = 0.33, p = 0.001. Cultures of BAL fluid resulted positive in 10 (23.8% of the 42 patients that underwent BAL and after one year a deterioration in PFTs occurred in 8 (80% of these patients (p = 0.01. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure ≥ 40 mmHg was found in 6 (37.5% patients with alveolitis. Conclusion We found alveolitis only in 38.1% of the patients who had exhibited ground glass on HRCT and then underwent BAL, probably because the concomitant fibrosis influenced results. A diffuse skin involvement and a restrictive pattern on PFTs together with ground glass on HRCT were judged possible markers of alveolitis, a BAL examination being indicated as the next step. Nevertheless BAL

  10. Entendendo o papel de marcadores biológicos no câncer de pulmão Understanding the role of biological markers in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA LUIZA CAPELOZZI

    2001-11-01

    ógicos intermediários.Biological markers are cellular, structural and biochemical components that can define cellular as well as molecular changes in both normal and neoplastic cells. There are two types of biological markers: 1 intermediate markers that evaluate cellular and molecular alterations before malignancy occurs; and 2 diagnostic markers, present in association with malignancy. The identification and validation of biological markers for clinical use are performed in stages: ¨ initial identification in cell cultures of the tumor; ¨ testing of the marker in tissues obtained in biopsies of patients with an established diagnosis of the tumor; ¨ testing of biopsies of normal tissues and tissues with an inflammatory process; ¨ sputum, blood or urine tests for validation as a non-invasive test that can be used in high-risk populations. Sorologic and histopathologic biological markers are cellular, structural and biochemical components found in both normal and neoplastic cells that can be quantitatively assessed by biochemical, immunological and molecular methods in the body fluids or tissues, respectively, and may be associated with malignancies and, possibly, with the neoplastic organ. Biological markers are studied in diverse primary neoplasms. However, few of them proved to be clinically valuable. The role of biological markers in lung cancer patients remains unclear because only a small number of markers has been properly assessed. The aim of this paper is to understand the role of sorologic and histologic biological markers in the prognosis and survival of lung cancer patients based on our previous works. Furthermore, we present a future perspective of the early detection of lung cancer on the basis of the role of intermediate biological markers.

  11. Validation of Alzheimer's disease CSF and plasma biological markers: the multicentre reliability study of the pilot European Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (E-ADNI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buerger, Katharina; Frisoni, Giovanni; Uspenskaya, Olga;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiatives ("ADNI") aim to validate neuroimaging and biochemical markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data of the pilot European-ADNI (E-ADNI) biological marker programme of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma candidate biomarkers are reported. METHODS......: Six academic EADC centres recruited 49 subjects (healthy controls, subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD). We measured CSF beta-amyloid 42 (CSF Abeta42), total tau-protein (t-tau), phosphorylated tau-proteins (P-tau181, P-tau231), plasma beta-amyloid 40 and 42 (Abeta40/Abeta42......). Immediate fresh shipment was compared to freezing and later shipment on dry ice. RESULTS: CSF T-tau (fresh samples) was increased in AD versus controls (p=0.049), CSF Abeta42 (frozen samples) was decreased in MCI and AD (p=0.02), as well as plasma Abeta40 (fresh and frozen samples) in AD (p=0.049 and p=0...

  12. Consensus paper of the WFSBP Task Force on Biological Markers: Criteria for biomarkers and endophenotypes of schizophrenia part I: Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, Florence; Boutros, Nash N; Jarema, Marek; Oranje, Bob; Hasan, Alkomiet; Daskalakis, Zafiris Jeffrey; Wichniak, Adam; Schmitt, Andrea; Riederer, Peter; Falkai, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The neurophysiological components that have been proposed as biomarkers or as endophenotypes for schizophrenia can be measured through electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), polysomnography (PSG), registration of event-related potentials (ERPs), assessment of smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) and antisaccade paradigms. Most of them demonstrate deficits in schizophrenia, show at least moderate stability over time and do not depend on clinical status, which means that they fulfil the criteria as valid endophenotypes for genetic studies. Deficits in cortical inhibition and plasticity measured using non-invasive brain stimulation techniques seem promising markers of outcome and prognosis. However the utility of these markers as biomarkers for predicting conversion to psychosis, response to treatments, or for tracking disease progression needs to be further studied. PMID:26213111

  13. Biological identifications through mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers: the case of commercially important crabs from Indian EEZ

    OpenAIRE

    Cubelio, Sherine Sonia; Bineesh, K. K.; Raj, K.; Tewari, Suraj; Gopalakrishnan, Achamveettil; Valaparambil, Saidumohammad Basheer; Lakra, Wazir Singh

    2010-01-01

    The ability of a 600- 700 base pair section of mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers (COI, 16S & ITS-I) to provide species level identifications has been demonstrated for large taxonomic assemblages of animals such as insects, birds, fishes and crustaceans. In the Indian context, there had been no comprehensive attempt to determine the molecular sytematics, evolutionary relationships or phylogeny within the crabs of genera Scylla, Portunus and Charybdis which suppor...

  14. Radiosynthesis of [131I]IAZGP via nucleophilic substitution and its biological evaluation as a hypoxia marker - is specific activity a factor influencing hypoxia-mapping ability of a hypoxia marker?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The hypoxia marker IAZGP, 1-(6-deoxy-6-iodo-β-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole, has been labeled with 123I/124I/125I/131I via iodine-radioiodine exchange, which gives the radiotracer in a specific activity of 10-90 MBq/μmol. We synthesized the same radiotracer possessing several hundred to thousand times higher specific activity (high-SA IAZGP) via nucleophilic substitution and compared its biological behavior with that of conventionally produced IAZGP (low-SA IAZGP) to determine if specific activity is a factor influencing cell uptake kinetics, biodistribution and intratumor microregional localization of the radiotracer. Methods: High-SA [131I]IAZGP was prepared by substitution of the tosyl functionality with [131I]iodide. In vitro uptake of high- and low-SA [131I]IAZGP by HCT8 and HT29 cells was assessed in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Biodistribution and intratumor localization of high- and low-SA [131I]IAZGP were determined by injection into HT29 tumor-bearing mice. Results: The nucleophilic substitution reaction proceeded efficiently in acetonitrile at 150oC, giving the final product in an average yield of 42% and an average specific activity of 30 GBq/μmol. In vitro, high-SA [131I]IAZGP was incorporated into the tumor cells with similar kinetics and oxygen dependence to low-SA [131I]IAZGP. In HT29 tumor-bearing mice, biodistributions of high- and low-SA [131I]IAZGP were equivalent. Ex vivo autoradiography revealed heterogeneous intratumor localization of high-SA [131I]IAZGP corresponding closely to distributions of other exogenous and endogenous hypoxia markers. Comparable microregional distribution patterns were observed with low-SA [131I]IAZGP. Conclusions: Radiolabeled IAZGP produced via nucleophilic substitution is validated as an exogenous hypoxia marker. Specific activity does not appear to influence the in vivo hypoxia-mapping ability of the radiotracer.

  15. Application of biological markers for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments: Alluvial formation of the Danube river, Oil refinery Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašović Aleksandar S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to examine to which extent the abundance and distribution of certain biological markers may be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants in recent sediments and ground waters. The samples were taken from the area of the Oil Refinery Pančevo (alluvial formation of the Danube River. The organic matter of the investigated samples was isolated using an extraction method with chloroform. The group composition and usual biological markers were analyzed in the obtained extracts. n-Alkanes and acyclic isoprenoids, pristane and phytane were analyzed using gas chromatographie (GC analysis of saturated hydrocarbons. Polycyclic alkanes of the sterane and terpane type were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, i.e. by analyzing the carbamide non-adduct of the total alkane fraction (Single Ion Monitoring SIM-technique. The obtained results indicate that n-alkanes can be used for the identification of oil-type pollutants (for example, if the oil-pollutant is biodegraded or present in very low concentrations, and steranes and triterpanes can be used as very reliable indicators of oil-type pollution in recent sediments and ground waters.

  16. Changes in the ER, PgR, HER2, p53 and Ki-67 biological markers between primary and recurrent breast cancer: discordance rates and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tashima Rumiko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In breast cancer, ER/PgR, HER2, and Ki-67 are important biological markers for predicting prognosis and making effective treatment decisions. In addition, changes in markers due to relapse are also clinically experienced; however, the frequency and clinical significance are still not fully understood. Thus, changes in markers and their correlations with prognosis were investigated. Patients and Methods Out of the patients with relapse from 1997 to March 2011, there were 97 consecutive patients from whom the lesion was resected and evaluated by immunostaining. The biopsy sites were chest wall, lymph node, ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence, lungs, bones, ovaries and brain. The markers sought were ER, PgR, HER2, p53 and Ki-67. Results The hormone receptor positive rate from the primary tumor to recurrence decreased from 63.9% to 57.7% and from 56.7% to 43.3% for ER and PgR, respectively. Changes in the positive/negative evaluation were seen at the rate of 10.3% and 25.8% for ER and PgR, respectively. The Ki-67 index increased significantly from a mean of 29.1% at primary tumor to 36.3% at relapse. When divided into 2 groups ( Conclusion Estrogen receptor and PgR decreased while Ki-67 increased due to relapse; however, the rate of change was high for PgR and Ki-67. Change in the subtypes was seen in 25%. In addition, PgR at relapse and Ki-67 at primary tumor were significant factors for post-relapse prognosis while PgR becoming negative was a poor prognostic factor. These findings are important for making effective treatment decisions.

  17. Radiosynthesis of [{sup 131}I]IAZGP via nucleophilic substitution and its biological evaluation as a hypoxia marker - is specific activity a factor influencing hypoxia-mapping ability of a hypoxia marker?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suehiro, Makiko [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States)], E-mail: suehirom@mskcc.org; Burgman, Paul; Carlin, Sean; Burke, Sean [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Yang Guangbin; Ouerfelli, Ouathek [Organic Synthesis Core Facility, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Oehler-Janne, Christoph; O' Donoghue, Joseph; Ling, Clifton; Humm, John [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Introduction: The hypoxia marker IAZGP, 1-(6-deoxy-6-iodo-{beta}-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole, has been labeled with {sup 123}I/{sup 124}I/{sup 125}I/{sup 131}I via iodine-radioiodine exchange, which gives the radiotracer in a specific activity of 10-90 MBq/{mu}mol. We synthesized the same radiotracer possessing several hundred to thousand times higher specific activity (high-SA IAZGP) via nucleophilic substitution and compared its biological behavior with that of conventionally produced IAZGP (low-SA IAZGP) to determine if specific activity is a factor influencing cell uptake kinetics, biodistribution and intratumor microregional localization of the radiotracer. Methods: High-SA [{sup 131}I]IAZGP was prepared by substitution of the tosyl functionality with [{sup 131}I]iodide. In vitro uptake of high- and low-SA [{sup 131}I]IAZGP by HCT8 and HT29 cells was assessed in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Biodistribution and intratumor localization of high- and low-SA [{sup 131}I]IAZGP were determined by injection into HT29 tumor-bearing mice. Results: The nucleophilic substitution reaction proceeded efficiently in acetonitrile at 150{sup o}C, giving the final product in an average yield of 42% and an average specific activity of 30 GBq/{mu}mol. In vitro, high-SA [{sup 131}I]IAZGP was incorporated into the tumor cells with similar kinetics and oxygen dependence to low-SA [{sup 131}I]IAZGP. In HT29 tumor-bearing mice, biodistributions of high- and low-SA [{sup 131}I]IAZGP were equivalent. Ex vivo autoradiography revealed heterogeneous intratumor localization of high-SA [{sup 131}I]IAZGP corresponding closely to distributions of other exogenous and endogenous hypoxia markers. Comparable microregional distribution patterns were observed with low-SA [{sup 131}I]IAZGP. Conclusions: Radiolabeled IAZGP produced via nucleophilic substitution is validated as an exogenous hypoxia marker. Specific activity does not appear to influence the in vivo hypoxia-mapping ability of

  18. Radiosynthesis of [131I]IAZGP via nucleophilic substitution and its biological evaluation as a hypoxia marker — is specific activity a factor influencing hypoxia-mapping ability of a hypoxia marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Makiko; Burgman, Paul; Carlin, Sean; Burke, Sean; Yang, Guangbin; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Oehler-Janne, Christoph; O’Donoghue, Joseph; Ling, Clifton; Humm, John

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The hypoxia marker IAZGP, 1-(6-deoxy-6-iodo-β-D-galactopyranosyl)-2-nitroimidazole, has been labeled with 123I/124I/125I/131I via iodine–radioiodine exchange, which gives the radiotracer in a specific activity of 10–90 MBq/μmol. We synthesized the same radiotracer possessing several hundred to thousand times higher specific activity (high-SA IAZGP) via nucleophilic substitution and compared its biological behavior with that of conventionally produced IAZGP (low-SA IAZGP) to determine if specific activity is a factor influencing cell uptake kinetics, biodistribution and intratumor microregional localization of the radiotracer. Methods High-SA [131I]IAZGP was prepared by substitution of the tosyl functionality with [131I]iodide. In vitro uptake of high- and low-SA [131I]IAZGP by HCT8 and HT29 cells was assessed in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Biodistribution and intratumor localization of high- and low-SA [131I]IAZGP were determined by injection into HT29 tumor-bearing mice. Results The nucleophilic substitution reaction proceeded efficiently in acetonitrile at 150°C, giving the final product in an average yield of 42% and an average specific activity of 30 GBq/μmol. In vitro, high-SA [131I]IAZGP was incorporated into the tumor cells with similar kinetics and oxygen dependence to low-SA [131I]IAZGP. In HT29 tumor-bearing mice, biodistributions of high- and low-SA [131I]IAZGP were equivalent. Ex vivo autoradiography revealed heterogeneous intratumor localization of high-SA [131I]IAZGP corresponding closely to distributions of other exogenous and endogenous hypoxia markers. Comparable microregional distribution patterns were observed with low-SA [131I]IAZGP. Conclusions Radiolabeled IAZGP produced via nucleophilic substitution is validated as an exogenous hypoxia marker. Specific activity does not appear to influence the in vivo hypoxia-mapping ability of the radiotracer. PMID:19520288

  19. Utility of OCT3/4, TSPY and β-Catenin as Biological Markers for Gonadoblastoma Formation and Malignant Germ Cell Tumor Development in Dysgenetic Gonads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Icela; Garibay, Nayely; Pena-Yolanda, Rocio; Contreras, Alejandra; Raya, Atlantida; Dominguez, Carolina; Romero, Mirna; Aristi, Gerardo; Queipo, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gonadoblastoma (GB) is regarded as an in situ form of germ cell tumor in dysgenetic gonads, and 30% of patients with GB develop a dysgerminoma/seminoma tumor. OBJECTIVE: Determine whether OCT3/4 and β-catenin are expressed in dysgenetic gonads before GB development and whether TSPY participates in the OCT3/4-β-catenin pathways in the malignant invasive behavior. METHODS: dysgenetic gonads of Disorders of sex differentiation (DSD) patients with mixed gonadal dysgenesis were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence for comparison with GB and dysgerminoma/seminoma. RESULTS: Our results suggest that the development of GB is secondary to the interaction of OCT3/4 and TSPY, that β-catenin does not participate in this process. CONCLUSIONS: The use of this biological markers detects the potential high risk gonads. PMID:23396295

  20. Physical exercise, fitness and dietary pattern and their relationship with circadian blood pressure pattern, augmentation index and endothelial dysfunction biological markers: EVIDENT study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Eguskiñe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles may help to delay arterial aging. The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship of physical activity and dietary pattern to the circadian pattern of blood pressure, central and peripheral blood pressure, pulse wave velocity, carotid intima-media thickness and biological markers of endothelial dysfunction in active and sedentary individuals without arteriosclerotic disease. Methods/Design Design: A cross-sectional multicenter study with six research groups. Subjects: From subjects of the PEPAF project cohort, in which 1,163 who were sedentary became active, 1,942 were sedentary and 2,346 were active. By stratified random sampling, 1,500 subjects will be included, 250 in each group. Primary measurements: We will evaluate height, weight, abdominal circumference, clinical and ambulatory blood pressure with the Radial Pulse Wave Acquisition Device (BPro, central blood pressure and augmentation index with Pulse Wave Application Software (A-Pulse and SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV with SphymgoCor System Px (Pulse Wave Velocity, nutritional pattern with a food intake frequency questionnaire, physical activity with the 7-day PAR questionnaire and accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X, physical fitness with the cycle ergometer (PWC-170, carotid intima-media thickness by ultrasound (Micromax, and endothelial dysfunction biological markers (endoglin and osteoprotegerin. Discussion Determining that sustained physical activity and the change from sedentary to active as well as a healthy diet improve circadian pattern, arterial elasticity and carotid intima-media thickness may help to propose lifestyle intervention programs. These interventions could improve the cardiovascular risk profile in some parameters not routinely assessed with traditional risk scales. From the results of this study, interventional approaches could be obtained to delay vascular aging that combine physical

  1. Biological Parameters and Molecular Markers of Clone CL Brener - The Reference Organism of the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Zingales

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Clone CL Brener is the reference organism used in the Trypanosoma cruzi Genome Project. Some biological parameters of CL Brener were determined: (a the doubling time of epimastigote forms cultured in liver infusion-tryptose (LIT medium at 28oC is 58±13 hr; (b differentiation of epimastigotes to metacyclic trypomastigotes is obtained by incubation in LIT-20% Grace´s medium; (c trypomastigotes infect mammalian cultured cells and perform the complete intracellular cycle at 33 and 37oC; (d blood forms are highly infective to mice; (e blood forms are susceptible to nifurtimox and benznidazole. The molecular typing of CL Brener has been determined: (a isoenzymatic profiles are characteristic of zymodeme ZB; (b PCR amplification of a 24Sa ribosomal RNA sequence indicates it belongs to T. cruzi lineage 1; (c schizodeme, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD and DNA fingerprinting analyses were performed

  2. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  3. The impact of acute gastroenteritis on haematological markers used for the athletes biological passport - report of 5 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Y O; Pottgiesser, T

    2011-02-01

    The haematological module of the "Athletes Biological Passport" (ABP) is used to detect blood doping through the longitudinal variation of blood variables, such as haemoglobin concentration (Hb). Sporting federations have opened disciplinary procedures against athletes based on ABP results. Suspicious athletes try to explain the variations in their blood values with dehydration caused by gastrointestinal (GI) problems. The aim of the present report is to describe haemoglobin concentration, a key variable of the ABP, during acute gastroenteritis in athletes. 5 athletes with severe gastroenteritis were studied in retrospective. Blood test results (Hb, white blood cell count (WBC) and differential, CRP) obtained on hospital admission for GI problems were compared to data obtained from the same athletes in states of good health on previous occasions. During GI problems, athletes displayed marked inflammatory constellations with increased CRP and typical WBC shifts. Hb was not affected and remained mostly unchanged. This is in line with basic physiologic fluid regulation, where plasma volume is kept constant, even under conditions of severe dehydration. It is therefore unlikely that fluid loss associated with gastroenteritis will cause athletes blood data to reach levels of abnormality that will be suspicious of blood doping. PMID:21110289

  4. Use of bio markers as indicators of biological precursors of oil, pa leo environmental conditions and maturity of source rocks using gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-Ms) and (GC-Ms-Ms)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies performed on hydrocarbon source rocks of the Early Cambrian from the Officer Basin Australia led to the identification of significant bio markers. Characteristic features of these bio markers from Tallaringa Trough are predominance of 17-hopane over 17-30-nor hopane. This study reveals that transformation of normal sterane s and ho panes respectively to rearranged sterane s and rearranged ho panes in clay-free carbonates was aided by bacterial reworking (methylotrophic bacteria). Maturity of these carbonates using C29 (20 S/20 S +20 R) ratio is suggested to be marginally mature. Another significant bio marker associated with the Tallaringa carbonates is the occurrence of an unusual compound called 24-isopropyl cholestane. This bio marker was originated from marine sponges and it has been reported from Cambrian sediments from other parts of the world. The age-specificity of the aforementioned compound makes it a powerful marker in oil to source and source to source correlations. Dino sterane is another significant molecular fossil identified in this study. Dino sterane is derived from dino flagellates and other algae. This paper is the first report of the dino sterane from Early Cambrian sediments. Identification of the above mentioned biological markers is significant in determining biological precursors, pa leo ecological conditions and geological time

  5. Ácidos graxos como marcadores biológicos da ingestão de gorduras Fatty acids as biological markers of fat intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana dos Santos Vaz

    2006-08-01

    of dietary fat intake. The aim of this study is to evidence the metabolic aspects of some fatty acids and their role as markers of dietary fat intake, and to present the analytical methods used in their determination. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue provides long-term information on dietary fat intake, whereas the determination of the fatty acid composition of serum lipid fractions accounts for the short- and medium-term dietary intakes. The essential fatty acids, the saturated fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms (15:0 and 17:0 and the trans fatty acids are used as biological markers of dietary fat intake or of these individual components, since they are not synthesized endogenously. Gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography are the main analytical methods used to determine fatty acid composition. At present, the most comprehensive evaluation of dietary fat intake comprises the determination of biological markers in association with dietary assessment methods.

  6. Large scale fusion of gray matter and resting-state functional MRI reveals common and shared biological markers across the psychosis spectrum in the B-SNIP cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether aberrant interactions between brain structure and function present similarly or differently across probands with psychotic illnesses (schizophrenia (SZ, schizoaffective disorder (SAD, and bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BP and whether these deficits are shared with their first-degree non-psychotic relatives. A total of 1199 subjects were assessed, including 220 SZ, 147 SAD, 180 psychotic BP, 150 first-degree relatives of SZ, 126 SAD relatives, 134 BP relatives and 242 healthy controls. All subjects underwent structural MRI (sMRI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI scanning. Joint independent analysis (jICA was used to fuse sMRI gray matter (GM and rs-fMRI amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF data to identify the relationship between the two modalities. Joint ICA revealed two significantly fused components. The association between functional brain alteration in a prefrontal-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar network and structural abnormalities in the default mode network (DMN was found to be common across psychotic diagnoses and correlated with cognitive function, social function and Schizo-Bipolar Scale (SBS scores. The fused alteration in the temporal lobe was unique to SZ and SAD. The above effects were not seen in any relative group (including those with cluster-A personality. Using a multivariate fused approach involving two widely used imaging markers we demonstrate both shared and distinct biological traits across the psychosis spectrum. Further, our results suggest that the above traits are psychosis biomarkers rather than endophenotypes.

  7. 7种红萍的生物学特性研究与ISSR分子标记%Biological Characteristics Seven Crossbred Azolla and ISSR Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟珍梅; 黄勤楼; 黄毅斌; 黄秀声; 陈钟佃; 冯德庆; 唐龙飞

    2011-01-01

    Biological characteristics observation and ISSR markers were used to verify homology and distinction between crossbred Azolla, MMC3-3, MMC5-1,and MMC1-7, with the parents. The results indicated the three Azolla hybrids were separated with the parents on genotype. MMC3-3 is heat resistant, while MMC5-1 and MMC1-7 are cold resistant. The results of ISSR markers showed that MMC3-3, MMC5-land MMC1-7 were Azolla hybrids, and had differences with the parents. By clustering analysis, there was close genetic relationship between MMC3-3 with 3001, MMC1-7 with MMC5-1.%通过杂交育种育出3个杂交萍品系MMC3-3、MMC5-1、MMC1-7,采用生物学特性观测和ISSR标记方法对杂交红萍和亲本进行鉴定,验证3个杂交萍品系与亲本的同源性和区别,结果表明,3个杂交红萍与亲本在基因型上已经发生分离,其中MMC3-3较耐热,而MMC5-1、MMC1-7较耐寒.ISSR分子标记结果表明,MMC3-3、MMC 1-7和MMC5-1与亲本之间存在差异,且3个品系之间也存在差异,为杂交后代.经过聚类分析可知,MMC3-3与亲本3001遗传距离较近,MMC1-7与MMC5-1遗传距离较近.

  8. Tumor Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... guidelines on a variety of topics, including tumor markers for breast cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, and others. The ... of recurrence 70-Gene signature (Mammaprint®) Cancer type: Breast ... Can tumor markers be used in cancer screening? Because tumor markers ...

  9. 生物除磷体系中生物标志物的管理初探%Study on the Management of Biological Markers in Biological Phosphorus Removal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周恩红; 刘德启

    2012-01-01

    通过研究MDA、电解质渗出量和Q2^-这3个损伤性指标,初步探讨了通过生物标志物来管理生物除磷体系的可行性。结果表明,MDA、电解质渗出量和Q.^-这3个指标中,利用SOD电极在线检测Q.^-的变化来管理除磷体系最为简便。从Q.^-的变化规律得出当体系由好氧交替到厌氧时。前90min对释放磷尤为重要,即受氧胁迫时,系统产生O2.^-浓度不能高于0.025mmol/g,否则磷的释放不会增加,进而影响系统的除磷效果。因此,可以通过在线监测O2.^-的浓度变化来动态管理除磷体系。%Through the three injury index such as MDA, electrolyte leakage and O2. - , the feasibility in using biological markers to manage biological phosphorus removal system was discussed preliminarily. The results showed that, in the three indicators, online detection of 02. - changes using SOD electrode, to manage the phosphorus removal system was simple. From the changes of O2. -, the system from aerobic to anaerobic, the first 90min on the release of phosphorus is particularly important, that is, with the oxygen stress, the system produced O2. - concentration could not be higher than 0.025 mmol/g, otherwise, the release of phosphorus would not increase, then phosphorus removal was affected. So, dynamic management of phosphorus removal system could be conducted through on-line monitoring the changes of O2.

  10. Genetics and biology of human ovarian teratomas. II. Molecular analysis of origin of nondisjunction and gene-centromere mapping of chromosome I markers.

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, R; Chakravarti, A; Surti, U; Hauselman, E; Reefer, J; Majumder, P P; Ferrell, R E

    1990-01-01

    Chromosomal heteromorphisms and DNA polymorphisms have been utilized to identify the mechanisms that lead to formation of human ovarian teratomas and to construct a gene-centromere map of chromosome 1 by using those teratomas that arise by meiotic nondisjunction. Of 61 genetically informative ovarian teratomas, 21.3% arose by nondisjunction at meiosis I, and 39.3% arose by meiosis II nondisjunction. Eight polymorphic marker loci on chromosome 1p and one marker on 1q were used to estimate a ge...

  11. Genetic investigation of biological materials from patients after stem cell transplantation based on autosomal as well as Y-chromosomal markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jacewicz, Renata; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Rupa-Matysek, Joanna; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej; Komarnicki, Mieczysław; Berent, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    The authors presented the results of DNA polymorphism investigation of blood, buccal swabs and hair follicles originating from patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The real-time and multiplex assays based on polymerase chain reaction within the range of autosomal as well as Y-chromosomal markers were applied to assess the possible dangers arising from investigation of these materials in forensic genetics. The results revealed that not only post-transplant blood a...

  12. Planar optical waveguide based sandwich assay sensors and processes for the detection of biological targets including protein markers, pathogens and cellular debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jennifer S.; Swanson, Basil I.; Grace, Karen M.; Grace, Wynne K.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2009-06-02

    An assay element is described including recognition ligands bound to a film on a single mode planar optical waveguide, the film from the group of a membrane, a polymerized bilayer membrane, and a self-assembled monolayer containing polyethylene glycol or polypropylene glycol groups therein and an assay process for detecting the presence of a biological target is described including injecting a biological target-containing sample into a sensor cell including the assay element, with the recognition ligands adapted for binding to selected biological targets, maintaining the sample within the sensor cell for time sufficient for binding to occur between selected biological targets within the sample and the recognition ligands, injecting a solution including a reporter ligand into the sensor cell; and, interrogating the sample within the sensor cell with excitation light from the waveguide, the excitation light provided by an evanescent field of the single mode penetrating into the biological target-containing sample to a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide thereby exciting the fluorescent-label in any bound reporter ligand within a distance of less than about 200 nanometers from the waveguide and resulting in a detectable signal.

  13. Distribution and localization of microsatellites in the Perigord black truffle genome and identification of new molecular markers (2010) Fungal Genetics and Biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murat, Claude [INRA, Nancy, France; Riccioni, C [INRA, Nancy, France; Belfiori, B [INRA, Nancy, France; Cichocki, N [INRA, Nancy, France; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Morin, Emmanuelle [INRA, Nancy, France; Tisserant, Emilie [INRA, Nancy, France; Paolocci, F [INRA, Nancy, France; Rubini, A [INRA, Nancy, France; Martin, Francis [INRA, Nancy, France

    2011-01-01

    The level of genetic diversity and genetic structure in the Perigord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) has been debated for several years, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic markers. Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are important for the genome organisation, phenotypic diversity and are one of the most popular molecular markers. In this study, we surveyed the T. melanosporum genome (1) to characterise its SSR pattern; (2) to compare it with SSR patterns found in 48 other fungal and three oomycetes genomes and (3) to identify new polymorphic SSR markers for population genetics. The T. melanosporum genome is rich in SSRs with 22,425 SSRs with mono-nucleotides being the most frequent motifs. SSRs were found in all genomic regions although they are more frequent in non-coding regions (introns and intergenic regions). Sixty out of 135 PCR-amplified mono-, di-, tri-, tetra, penta, and hexanucleotides were polymorphic (44%) within black truffle populations and 27 were randomly selected and analysed on 139 T. melanosporum isolates from France, Italy and Spain. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 18 and the expected heterozygosity from 0.124 to 0.815. One hundred and thirty-two different multilocus genotypes out of the 139 T. melanosporum isolates were identified and the genotypic diversity was high (0.999). Polymorphic SSRs were found in UTR regulatory regions of fruiting bodies and ectomycorrhiza regulated genes, suggesting that they may play a role in phenotypic variation. In conclusion, SSRs developed in this study were highly polymorphic and our results showed that T. melanosporum is a species with an important genetic diversity, which is in agreement with its recently uncovered heterothallic mating system.

  14. Bone Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone turnover: C-telopeptide (C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTx)) – a marker for bone resorption. It is ... resorption include: N-telopeptide (N-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (NTx)) – a peptide fragment from the amino terminal ...

  15. Synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo biological evaluation of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled MAG{sub 3}-based bisnitroimidazole complexes as tumor hypoxia markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Lei; Chu, Taiwei [Peking Univ., Beijing (China). Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia, as a common phenomenon in solid tumors, is of interest for its relationship with resistance to tumor therapies and malignant progression of tumor. The noninvasive nuclear medical imaging technique using hypoxia markers is an important method for the detection of tumor hypoxia. The aim of current study is designing tumor hypoxia markers with hypoxia selectivity and improved properties. Two MAG{sub 3}-based bisnitroimidazole compounds were synthesized and purified by semi-preparative HPLC. Both the MAG{sub 3} derivatives were labeled with {sup 99m}Tc-oxo-technetium core via stannous tartrate exchange method in high yields (> 95%). The {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3} complexes were stable at 37 C, 4 h after preparation, and were more hydrophilic than {sup 99m}Tc-MAMA complexes. As biodistribution results showed, clearances of background activity for both the complexes were fast and they were excreted mainly through the hepatobiliary tract and part of renal tract. Although tumor uptakes of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-B2NIL were lower than those of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-B4NIL, tumor-to-blood ratios of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-B2NIL showed an increasing trend and were better than those of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-B4NIL after 2 h due to their different blood clearances. Tumor-to-muscle ratios of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-B2NIL and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-B4NIL were similar. Comparing with {sup 99m}Tc-MAMA complexes, {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-B2NIL with better tumor-to-blood ratios exhibits improved feature for hypoxia imaging, though it has lower tumor uptake than {sup 99m}Tc-MAMA complexes. (orig.)

  16. Synthesis, radiolabeling and in vivo biological evaluation of 99mTc-labeled MAG3-based bisnitroimidazole complexes as tumor hypoxia markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia, as a common phenomenon in solid tumors, is of interest for its relationship with resistance to tumor therapies and malignant progression of tumor. The noninvasive nuclear medical imaging technique using hypoxia markers is an important method for the detection of tumor hypoxia. The aim of current study is designing tumor hypoxia markers with hypoxia selectivity and improved properties. Two MAG3-based bisnitroimidazole compounds were synthesized and purified by semi-preparative HPLC. Both the MAG3 derivatives were labeled with 99mTc-oxo-technetium core via stannous tartrate exchange method in high yields (> 95%). The 99mTc-MAG3 complexes were stable at 37 C, 4 h after preparation, and were more hydrophilic than 99mTc-MAMA complexes. As biodistribution results showed, clearances of background activity for both the complexes were fast and they were excreted mainly through the hepatobiliary tract and part of renal tract. Although tumor uptakes of 99mTc-MAG3-B2NIL were lower than those of 99mTc-MAG3-B4NIL, tumor-to-blood ratios of 99mTc-MAG3-B2NIL showed an increasing trend and were better than those of 99mTc-MAG3-B4NIL after 2 h due to their different blood clearances. Tumor-to-muscle ratios of 99mTc-MAG3-B2NIL and 99mTc-MAG3-B4NIL were similar. Comparing with 99mTc-MAMA complexes, 99mTc-MAG3-B2NIL with better tumor-to-blood ratios exhibits improved feature for hypoxia imaging, though it has lower tumor uptake than 99mTc-MAMA complexes. (orig.)

  17. Using Biologic Markers in Blood to Assess Exposure to Multiple Environmental Chemicals for Inner-City Children 3–6 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Sexton, Ken; Adgate, John L.; Fredrickson, Ann L; Ryan, Andrew D.; Needham, Larry L.; Ashley, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Biomarkers of exposure & early effects: field studiesBiomarker: 50 environmental chemicalsExposure/effect represented:detection of 11 VOCs, 2 heavy metals, 11organochlorine pesticides, 30 PCB congenersStudy design: cross-sectionalStudy size: 43 ethnically diverse childrenAnalytical technique: GC/MSTissue/biological material/sample size: bloodIntra-individual variation: for 6 VOCs (1,4 dichlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, m-l-p-xylene, o-xylene, styrene, tetrachloroethylene) and PCB 66, 105, 110, 18...

  18. Triglycerides as a biological marker of repeated re-hospitalization resulting from deliberate self-harm in acute psychiatry patients: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Roaldset, John Olav; Linaker, Olav Morten; Bjørkly, Stål

    2014-01-01

    Background: Biological factors have been associated with deliberate self-harm (DSH) but have not been integrated with clinical factors in routine risk assessments. This study aimed to examine the incremental validity of lipid levels and platelet serotonin when combined with psychosocial factors in risk assessments for repeated admissions due to DSH. Methods: In this prospective observational study of 196 acutely admitted patients, results of blood tests performed upon admission and the MI...

  19. Random amplified polymorphic DNA markers for DNA fingerprinting and genetic variability assessment of minute parasitic wasp species (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) used in biological control programs of phytophagous insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landry, B S; Dextraze, L; Boivin, G

    1993-06-01

    Biological control of insects that feed on our crops has become more practical in recent years by mass release of egg parasitoid microhymenoptera. Trichogramma species are now commercially reared and spread in commercial fields to control specific insect pests. Microhymenoptera species are, however, very small and morphologically indistinguishable within species, although strains of a given species differ in their efficiency to control specific insect pests. Traditional taxonomy is unable to differentiate microhymenoptera species at the strain level. It is becoming increasingly important to develop a reliable system to monitor genetic variations both within and between strains of commercially important microhymenoptera, to detect genetic drift occurring during several generations of multiplication, to protect patents, and to certify the lots of commercially released microhymenoptera. We have developed a system based on DNA markers to rapidly characterize individuals of five species of microhymenoptera from the genus Anaphes and Trichogramma including a new species of Anaphes not previously described. The main components of our system are a rapid and simple DNA micro-extraction method and fast DNA polymorphism analyses based on random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. PMID:8349128

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel 99mTcN-labeled bisnitroimidazole complexes containing monoamine-monoamide dithiol as potential tumor hypoxia markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumor hypoxia can decrease the efficacy of clinical therapy due to resistance toward radiation damage and chemotherapy, thus detection of tumor hypoxia by radiolabeled hypoxia markers is important for the control of tumor. Radiopharmaceuticals with two bioreductive groups, such as propylene amine oxime-bisnitroimidazole or monoamine-monoamide dithiol (MAMA) -bisnitroimidazole, have potential to improve hypoxia selectivity. In order to obtain radiopharmaceuticals with better features, we synthesized two novel [99mTcN]2+ complexes with bisnitroimidazole moieties and MAMA ligand for targeting tumor hypoxia. Their physicochemical characters and biodistribution were also investigated. Both the [99mTcN]2+ complexes show good stability and hydrophilicity. They show faster clearance from blood and soft tissues, better tumor retention and favorable tumor-to-tissue ratios compared with a control complex without nitroimidazole group. In addition, both of them show more favorable biodistribution patterns than the corresponding [99mTcO]3+ complexes. These results indicate that the 99mTcN-labeled MAMA-bisnitroimidazole complexes would have potential to image tumor hypoxia in vivo. (author)

  1. Recursive Partitioning Analysis of Mediastinal N2 Lymph Node Involvement with Selected Biological Markers in Operable Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Correlative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Bozcuk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Expressions of various biomarkers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC have been linked with the prognosis and involvement of mediastinal lymph nodes.Methods: In this study, we utilized recursive partitioning analysis (RPA by using P53, c-erb-B2, and P-glycoprotein (PGP expressions evaluated by immunohistochemistry to estimate retrospectively the likelihood of the occult N2 mediastinal lymph node involvement in patients with operable NSCLC.Results: In univariate tests, immunohistochemical staining of the primary tumor for these 3 markers in 61 patients undergoing surgery revealed no direct relationship with the N2 involvement. However, RPA demonstrated in patients aged 75 and with 4 mediastinal lymph nodes removed that, high PGP expression frequency (20% predicted an increased likelihood of the N2 involvement (46.7%, R2 = 0.25. Univariate nominal logistic regression analysis revealed that RPA group affiliation, and the number of mediastinal lymph nodes resected (logarithmic transformation were associated with the metastasis to N2 lymph nodes (χ2 = 17.59, p = 0.0005, and χ2 = 2.40, p = 0.0654, respectively. Multivariate analysis confirmed that only RPA group affiliation predicted the N2 involvement (χ2 = 14.63, p = 0.0022.Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that PGP expression of the primary tumor may help to predict the occult N2 mediastinal lymph node involvement in NSCLC. Thus, further research is required to understand whether PGP expression may aid in the decision process for preoperative mediastinoscopy.

  2. The combined analysis of biological markers for the prognosis of acute cerebral infarction%影响急性脑梗死预后的各生物学标志物联合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东杰; 杜宗孝; 张亚梅; 朴文花

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prognosis effects of biological markers on acute cerebral infarction .Methods 111 patients with acute cerebral infarction and 104 normal controls were randomly recruited .S100B protein,myelin basic protein(MBP),glial fi-brillary acidic protein(GFAP),interleukin-6(IL-6) were determined within 24 h and 3 d alter acute cerebral infarction .All biological markers concentration in normal controls were determined immediately alter medical check-up .All biological markers and risk factors were evaluated by logistic regression .Results The logistic regression analysis results showed that serum IL-6,S100B protein, smoking,GFAP,hs-CRP,MBP,D-Dimer,body mass index,alcohol drunken were associated with poor outcomes of acute cerebral infarction,odds ratio (OR ) values were 3 .21,2 .70,2 .53,2 .11,1 .91,1.57,1.50,1 .13 and 1.11 .Conclusion IL-6,S100B protein, smoking,glial fibrillary acidic protein, hs-CRP, myelin basic protein,D-Dimer,body mass index, alcohol drunken were associated with poor outcomes of acute cerebral infarction .It has great significance to monitor the changing of those markers for prognosis e-valuation of acute cerebral infarction .%目的 探讨各生物学标志物对急性脑梗死预后的影响.方法 选取急性脑梗死病例111例,健康对照组104例,在发病24 h内、发病后3 d检测病例组血清S100B蛋白、髓鞘碱性蛋白(MBP)、胶质纤维酸性蛋白(GFAP)、白细胞介素-6 (IL-6)浓度,在发病24 h内检测血清超敏C-反应蛋白(hs-CRP)、血浆D-二聚体(DD)浓度,并于体检当天检测对照组相应标志物浓度.对各标志物浓度及风险因素进行Logistic回归分析.结果 血清IL-6、S100B、吸烟、GFAP、hs-CRP、MBP、血浆DD、体质量指数、饮酒与急性脑梗死的不良结局相关,其OR值分别为3.21、2.70、2.53、2.11、1.91、1.57、1.50、1.13、1.11.结论 血清IL-6、S100B、吸烟、GFAP、hs-CRP、MBP、血浆DD、体质量指数、饮酒与急性脑梗

  3. La infección por el virus del papiloma humano, un posible marcador biológico de comportamiento sexual en estudiantes universitarios Human papillomavirus infection is a possible biological marker of sexual behavior among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Sánchez-Alemán

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de infección por el virus del papiloma humano (VPH en estudiantes universitarios y utilizar dicha frecuencia como un marcador biológico para evaluar el comportamiento sexual. Material y métodos. Se realizó un estudio transversal, en estudiantes de la Universidad Autónoma del estado de Morelos, México, durante el periodo 2000-2001. Se aplicó un cuestionario y se colectaron muestras genitales para detectar ADN de los VPH oncogénicos. Los datos se analizaron utilizando pruebas de Ji cuadrada y razones de momios. Resultados. La prevalencia global del VPH en 194 estudiantes fue de 14.4%. Las mujeres con dos o más parejas sexuales durante el último año presentaron mayor riesgo de infección por el VPH (RM 6.0 IC 1.7-21.1, al igual que las que utilizaron anticonceptivos hormonales y espermicidas en su última relación sexual (RM 3.0 IC 1.0-8.7. Los hombres que consumieron cocaína tuvieron más riesgo de infección por el VPH (RM 7.6 IC 1.3-45.1. Conclusiones. La prevalencia del VPH es relativamente alta. La utilización del VPH como un marcador biológico de comportamientos sexuales en mujeres es pertinente; en hombres, es necesario ampliar la muestra.Objective. To estimate the prevalence of Human papillomavirus (HPV among university students and to use it as a biological marker to assess sexual behavior. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out between 2000 and 2001 among 194 students at Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Mexico. A data collection instrument was applied and genital samples were taken to detect oncogenic HPV DNA. Data were analyzed using the chi-squared test and odds ratios. Results. Overall HPV prevalence was 14.4%. Women who had had two or more sexual partners during the previous year showed a greater risk of HPV infection (OR 6.0, 95% CI 1.7-21.1, as did women who had used oral contraceptives and spermicides at their latest intercourse (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1

  4. Clinical tumour markers in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, A; Nikliński, J; Laudański, T; Pluygers, E

    1998-02-01

    Within past few years, the measurement of serological, histochemical and molecular genetic markers has had an increasing influence on clinical decisions about initial treatment and follow-up. This review presents data concerning the most studied and interesting markers in ovarian cancer. CA 125, CA 19.9, TATI, CASA, CEA, TPA, TPS and CYFRA21-1 are now the most widely used serological tumour markers for management of ovarian cancer patients. Ras oncogenes, C-erb2 proto-oncogene, p53 suppressor gene and Bcl-2 oncogene are examples of currently used molecular genetic markers. As histochemical markers-proliferation markers, flow cytometric analysis, thymidine labelling index, Ki-67 nuclear antigen or differentiation markers are nowadays the ones most often determined. Some of these markers might be useful adjuncts for monitoring response to therapy, including early detection of tumour reactivation to allow curative therapy and rapid detection of treatment failure. The study of these markers may also lead to a better understanding of the biological characteristics of ovarian cancer. Numerous tumour markers characterized in this paper have been recognized as promising prognostic factors. The information derived from studies of these markers also represents the most promising avenue towards new treatment strategies; nevertheless to validate these factors, prospective studies of a large patient population are needed. PMID:9511849

  5. CGMD: An integrated database of cancer genes and markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jangampalli Adi Pradeepkiran; Sri Bhashyam Sainath; Konidala Kramthi Kumar; Lokanada Balasubramanyam; Kodali Vidya Prabhakar; Matcha Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Integrating cancer genes and markers with experimental evidence might provide valuable information for the further investigation of crosstalk between tumor genes and markers in cancer biology. To achieve this objective, we developed a database known as the Cancer Gene Marker Database (CGMD), which integrates data on tumor genes and markers based on experimental evidence. The major goal of CGMD is to provide the following: 1) current systematic treatment approaches and recent advances in diffe...

  6. Study of biological markers for radiation pretreatment of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients%造血干细胞移植辐射预处理生物标志物的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶; 胡莉钧; 徐军; 杨淑琴

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究小鼠受60C0γ射线照射后血液和免疫系统的早期生物参数变化,为造血干细胞移植(HSCT)受者放疗预处理寻找灵敏可靠的生物剂量标志物.方法 采用纯品系BALB/c雄性小鼠,随机分为1个对照组和3个照射组.应用60Coγ射线全身照射,吸收剂量分别为0、2、4和6Gy.照射后24 h,外周血白细胞计数及淋巴细胞百分率应用血常规计数测定;外周血和骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核(mn-PCE)应用Giemsa染色镜下计数观察;骨髓细胞、脾脏和胸腺早期凋亡率应用Annexin Ⅴ/PI双染法流式细胞仪检测.结果 与对照组比较,各照射组小鼠外周血白细胞计数及淋巴细胞百分率随辐射剂量增加而显著降低(P<0.01),其回归方程分别为E=0.1750D2-1.7440D+ 5.2020和E=84.9390-3.4255D;外周血和骨髓mn-PCE随辐射剂量增加而显著增加(P<0.01),骨髓mn-PCE与辐射剂量呈正相关,其回归方程为E=3.9725D+2.9700;骨髓细胞、脾脏和胸腺早期凋亡率随辐射剂量增加而显著增高(P<0.01),呈线性正相关,回归方程分别为E=3.42D+ 8.36,E=3.0645D+ 3.1840和E=2.5620D+2.5090.结论 外周血淋巴细胞计数和骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核率与辐射剂量呈线性相关,其回归方程可作为放射预处理剂量评估灵敏可靠的早期生物剂量标志物;骨髓细胞、脾脏和胸腺淋巴细胞早期凋亡率与辐射剂量呈线性正相关,其回归方程可用于HCST受者放射预处理免疫系统抑制程度的判定指标.%Objective To study the early biological parameterchanges of blood andimmune systems of mice after 60Co γ-ray irradiation in order to find sensitive and reliable biological dose markers for radiation pretreatment of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.Methods Pure strain BALB/c male mice were randomly divided into control group and three irradiation groups and absorbed doses of total body irradiation by 60Co γ-ray were 0,2,4,6 Gy,respectively.In 24h after

  7. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Lan Ma; Liang Li; Wenxiu Zhao; Xiang Ji; Fangfang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other type...

  8. Radiopaque anastomosis marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to split ring markers fabricated in whole or in part from a radiopaque material, usually metal, having the terminal ends thereof and a medial portion formed to define eyelets by means of which said marker can be sutured to the tissue at the site of an anastomosis to provide a visual indication of its location when examined fluoroscopically

  9. Incorporation of conventional genetic markers and RAPD markers into an RFLP based map in maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Integration of classical genetic markers, in particular mutants, onto the maize Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) map will provide the tools necessary to further our understanding of plant development and of complex traits. Initially integration was accomplished by visual alignment of common markers and sometimes involved the use of information from several different molecular maps to determine the relative placement of a single mutant. The maize core marker set was designed to provide a common set of markers which could be used for integration of map data. We have completed the mapping, of 56 mutants on chromosome one relative to the core marker set. Phenotypes included whole plant, seedling, and kernel effects and represented a variety of biological processes. Since these mutants were previously located to chromosome arm, mapping required the use of only seven markers per mutant to define the correct bin location. Two mistakes in marker order relative to the classical map were identified, as well as, six groups of mutants which require allelism testing. Placement of mutants and cDNAs into bins using, the core markers provides a necessary resource for identification of gene function in maize. (author)

  10. Embryonic Stem Cell Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Ma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cell (ESC markers are molecules specifically expressed in ES cells. Understanding of the functions of these markers is critical for characterization and elucidation for the mechanism of ESC pluripotent maintenance and self-renewal, therefore helping to accelerate the clinical application of ES cells. Unfortunately, different cell types can share single or sometimes multiple markers; thus the main obstacle in the clinical application of ESC is to purify ES cells from other types of cells, especially tumor cells. Currently, the marker-based flow cytometry (FCM technique and magnetic cell sorting (MACS are the most effective cell isolating methods, and a detailed maker list will help to initially identify, as well as isolate ESCs using these methods. In the current review, we discuss a wide range of cell surface and generic molecular markers that are indicative of the undifferentiated ESCs. Other types of molecules, such as lectins and peptides, which bind to ESC via affinity and specificity, are also summarized. In addition, we review several markers that overlap with tumor stem cells (TSCs, which suggest that uncertainty still exists regarding the benefits of using these markers alone or in various combinations when identifying and isolating cells.

  11. The bio markers of ionizing radiation; Los biomarcadores de las radaiciones ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernot, E.; Cardis, E.

    2011-07-01

    This article reviews bio markers currently used to study the biological effects of ionizing radiation and proposed a classification based on the time of onset of biological effects related to exposure time and persistence over time.

  12. Herbs and spices: characterization and quantitation of biologically-active markers for routine quality control by multiple headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with separative or non-separative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgorbini, Barbara; Bicchi, Carlo; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Liberto, Erica; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Herbs and spices are used worldwide as food flavoring, thus determination of their identity, origin, and quality is mandatory for safe human consumption. An analysis strategy based on separative (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and non-separative (HS-SPME-MS) approaches is proposed for the volatile fraction of herbs and spices, for quality control and to quantify the aromatic markers with a single analysis directly on the plant material as such. Eight-to-ten lots of each of the following herbs/spices were considered: cloves (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry), American peppertree (Schinus molle L.), black pepper and white pepper (Piper nigrum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Homogeneity, origin, and chemotypes of the investigated lots of each herb/spice were defined by fingerprinting, through statistical elaboration with principal component analysis (PCA). Characterizing aromatic markers were directly quantified on the solid matrix through multiple headspace extraction-HS-SPME (MHS-SPME). Reliable results were obtained with both separative and non-separative methods (where the latter were applicable); the two were in full agreement, RSD% ranging from 1.8 to 7.7% for eugenol in cloves, 2.2-18.4% for carvacrol+thymol in thyme, and 3.1-16.8% for thujones in sage. PMID:25541091

  13. Biological markers of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage%蛛网膜下腔出血后脑血管痉挛的生物学标记物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕涛; 张晓华

    2015-01-01

    Cerebralvasospasmisthemostcommonandmostdangerouscomplicationofsubarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). If it can not be diagnosed and treated early, it w il result in delayed cerebral ischemia and delayed ischemic neurological deficits, and seriously affect the outcomes of patients. SAH can cause oxidative stress and inflammation, causing vasospasm, and leading to brain tissue damage. Numerous studies have show n that the concentrations and activities of numerous metabolites w il change in these pathological physiological processes. Identification of the changes of location, time and trend of these markers has important clinical significance for investigating the mechanism of cerebral vasospasm after SAH and seeking better therapeutic targets. This article review s the molecular markers of cerebral vasospasm after SAH.%脑血管痉挛是蛛网膜下腔出血(subarachnoidhemorrhage,SAH)最常见和最凶险的并发症,如果不能早期诊断和治疗,将会造成迟发性脑缺血和迟发性缺血性神经功能缺损,严重影响患者的转归。 S AH会造成氧化应激和炎症反应,引发血管痉挛,进而导致脑组织损伤。很多研究显示,这些病理生理学过程中多种代谢产物浓度或活性会发生改变,明确这些标记物发生变化的部位、时间和趋势,对于探讨S AH后脑血管痉挛的发生机制和寻找更佳的治疗靶点具有重要临床意义。文章对S AH后脑血管痉挛的生物学标记物进行了综述。

  14. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.)

  15. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  16. Correlation between EGFR gene mutation, cytologic tumor markers, 18F-FDG uptake in non-small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Arthur; Hur, Jin; Moon, Yong Wha; Hong, Sae Rom; Suh, Young Joo; Kim, Yun Jung; Im, Dong Jin; Hong, Yoo Jin; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Young Jin; Shim, Hyo Sup; Lee, Jae Seok; Kim, Joo-Hang; Choi, Byoung Wook

    2016-01-01

    Background EGFR mutation-induced cell proliferation causes changes in tumor biology and tumor metabolism, which may reflect tumor marker concentration and 18F-FDG uptake on PET/CT. Direct aspirates of primary lung tumors contain different concentrations of tumor markers than serum tumor markers, and may correlate better with EGFR mutation than serum tumor markers. The purpose of this study is to investigate an association between cytologic tumor markers and FDG uptake with EGFR mutation statu...

  17. Magik Markers Trehvis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Müra-rock'i viljelevast USA duost Magik Markers (ansambel osaleb režissöör Veiko Õunapuu uue mängufilmi "Püha Tõnu kiusamine" võtetel, kontsert 15. nov. Tartus klubis Trehv, vt. www.magikmarkers.audiosport.org.)

  18. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION IN DISEASE RESISTANCE BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narasimhulu Ragimekula

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Feeding ever-increasing population is the main challenge faced by the agricultural scientists and to meet this plant breeders have to put continuous efforts to develop new crop varieties on fast track basis. DNA based polymorphism, commonly known as DNA markers can be used for genetic improvement through selection for favourable traits such as disease resistance. Molecular markers are becoming an essential component in backcross breeding programs for tracking the resistance genes in gene pyramiding. Marker assisted selection (MAS, is expected to increase genetic response by affecting efficiency and accuracy of selection. Even though marker-assisted selection now plays a prominent role in the field of plant breeding, examples of successful, practical outcomes are rare. MAS, with few exceptions, has not yet delivered its expected benefits in commercial breeding. It is clear that DNA markers hold great promise, but realizing that promise remains elusive. The economic and biological constraints such as a low return of investment in small-grain cereal breeding, lack of diagnostic markers, and the prevalence of QTL-background effects hinder the broad implementation of MAS. Until complex traits can be fully dissected, the application of MAS will be limited to genes of moderate-to-large effect and to applications that do not endanger the response to conventional selection. Till then, observable phenotype will remain an important component of genetic improvement programmes, because it takes in to account the collective effect of all genes. In future, chip-based, high-throughput genotyping platforms and the introduction of genomic selection will reduce the current problems of integrating MAS in practical breeding programs and open new avenues for a molecular-based resistance breeding.

  19. Preparation of Fluorescent Graphene Quantum Dots as Biological Imaging Marker for Cells%荧光石墨烯量子点制备及其在细胞成像中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢文菁; 傅英懿; 马红; 张沫; 范楼珍

    2012-01-01

    in the cells, and thus the GQDs might be used as a bioimaging marker in tumor cell imaging.%利用电化学方法在碱性条件下电解石墨棒, 通过常温下水合肼还原, 得到5~10 nm的荧光石墨烯量子点(Graphene Quantum Dots, GQDs)。 通过透射电子显微镜(TEM)、原子力显微镜(AFM)对所制备的GQDs进行形貌表征, GQDs的粒子大小均一, 为单层石墨烯。 通过傅里叶变换红外光谱(FTIR)、荧光光谱(PL)、紫外可见吸收光谱(UV-vis)、X 射线衍射光谱(XRD)对所制备的GQDs进行性质测定, 发现GQDs可以发出黄色荧光, 量子产率为14%, 毒性低、具有良好的水溶性、荧光稳定性和生物兼容性, 可顺利进入细胞, 在肿瘤细胞的成像研究方面具有广泛的应用前景。

  20. Radioimmunoassay for the measurement of tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the present time, the new concept of tumour markers (TM) includes not only the ''classical'' secretion products bu also all changes (immunological, biochemical, morphological, antigenic, etc.) which the cell undergoes throughout the transformation process. With the use of isotopic methods we can determine some tumour markers in biological fluids which are useful in clinical practice (preferentially in the follow-up of cancer patients undergoing treatment). Nevertheless, with the new concept to TM, we can also determine other new substances in tumour specimens, prior to any treatment, which can help in the early characterization of the tumour (tissular markers) related to hormone dependence, aggressiveness, drug resistance, free survival interval, etc. The isotopic methods allow us to determine hormone receptors (e.g. oestrogen, androgen, progesterone receptors), growth factor receptors (e.g. epidermal, insulin-like, platelet derived), changes in oncogenes and anti-oncogenes (amplifications, mutations, deletions, overexpression, etc.) oncogene and anti-oncogene products (neu, p53, Rb protein, etc.), proteinases (cathepsins, collagenases, etc.), proteinase inhibitors, some biochemical changes of the different components of cell surface, proteins related to drug resistance and to cell proliferation, etc. In conclusion, the new concept of tumour marker includes all aspects of tumours cells and requires an intercollaborative and co-ordinated study to determine early on the behaviour (characterization) of a tumour and to provide the oncologist with ''real'' information. (author). 26 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  1. Studies on rhizobial ecology using marker genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Not only traditional approaches such as serology, antibiotic resistance and plasmid profile analysis but also technologies based on molecular biology have been used for strain identification in studies on microbial ecology. Many methods suffer from certain limitations because they are often laborious and time consuming, requiring analysis of individual nodules, and therefore only a restricted amount of data can be collected. Use of marker genes has become popular, especially when they allow visual identification. The Escherichia coli gusA marker gene has proved to be a highly suitable tool for studying plant-microbe interactions. Nodules containing gusA marked rhizobia can be identified simply by their blue colour, which they produce after incubation in a phosphate buffer containing the substrate X-gluc, but marked bacteria can also be detected on plates or in liquid culture. Colorigenic markers have several advantages, since they are easy to use and it is possible to analyse a large sample size. They are suitable for competition studies of Rhizobium, detecting also double occupancy in nodules, and for studies on motility and survival. Marker genes greatly facilitate screening for successful strains in a specific environment and could be used in future for quality control of inoculants. (author). 30 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  2. Pollen dispersal analysis using DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modes of pollen dispersal are important for plant ecology, conservation, and evolutionary biology as pollen-mediated gene flow connects one generation of sexually-reproducing plants to the next. With the development of DNA molecular techniques, molecular markers (especially microsatellite markers have replaced traditional physical markers for pollen flow analysis. Methods of paternity assignment with maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference have greatly improved the estimation of pollen flow characteristics with regard to direction, distance, and strength. Pollen dispersal curves have been characterized by single parameter, two-parameter, multi-parameter, and two-component composite models to better evaluate the shape of dispersal distributions. These innovative techniques and methods have been successfully applied to assess pollination patterns in studies of plant sexual polymorphism, population connectivity, and natural hybridization, which, in turn, have provided important insights into basic theories of evolution, ecology, and conservation. In the coming years, high-throughput sequencing technologies are expected to accelerate the application of molecular marker-based pollen flow analysis across a wide range of plant taxa.

  3. The urine marker test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elbe, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Stine Nylandsted; Elsborg, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urine sample collection for doping control tests is a key component of the World Anti-Doping Agency's fight against doping in sport. However, a substantial number of athletes experience difficulty when having to urinate under supervision. Furthermore, it cannot always be ensured...... that athletes are actually delivering their own urine. A method that can be used to alleviate the negative impact of a supervised urination procedure and which can also identify urine as coming from a specific athlete is the urine marker test. Monodisperse low molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs......) are given orally prior to urination. Urine samples can be traced to the donor by analysis of the PEGs previously given. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the urine marker during urine doping control testing. METHODS: Two studies investigated athletes' acceptance...

  4. Lipoprotein marker for hypertriglyceridemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubicciotti, Roger S.; Karu, Alexander E.; Krauss, Ronald M.

    1986-01-01

    Methods and compositions are provided for the detection of a particular low density lipoprotein which has been found to be a marker for patients suffering from type IV hypertriglyceridemia. A monoclonal antibody capable of specifically binding to a characteristic epitopic site on this LDL subspecies can be utilized in a wide variety of immunoassays. Hybridoma cell line SPL.IVA5A1 was deposited at the American Type Culture Collection on Mar. 29, 1984, and granted accession no. HB 8535.

  5. Prostate cancer stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Chunyan; Yao, Zhi; Jiang, Yuan; Keller, Evan T.

    2012-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model provides insights into pathophysiology of cancers and their therapeutic response. The CSC model has been both controversial, yet provides a foundation to explore cancer biology. In this review, we provide an overview of CSC concepts, biology and potential therapeutic avenues. We then focus on prostate CSC including (1) their purported origin as either basal-derived or luminal-derived cells; (2) markers used for prostate CSC identification; (3) alterations of s...

  6. Cardiovascular risk during early adult life. Risk markers among participants in "Live for Life" health promotion programme in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, L. G.; Lindstrom, K.; Lingfors, H; Bengtsson, C; Lissner, L

    1998-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study differences in cardiovascular lifestyle risk factors and biological risk markers in early adult life, with special attention to age and sex differences. Lifestyle cardiovascular risk factors included dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol habits, psychosocial strain, and mental stress. Biological risk markers included anthropometric variables, arterial blood pressure, and serum cholesterol concentration. DESIGN: A combined individual and communit...

  7. The biology of melanoma prognostic factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spatz, A.; Stock, N.; Batist, G.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma still represents a paradox among all solid tumors. It is the cancer for which the best prognostic markers ever identified in solid tumors are available, yet there is very little understanding of their biological significance. This review focuses on recent biological data that shed

  8. Genetic markers for flowering in perennial ryegrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paina, Cristiana; Byrne, Stephen; Andersen, Jeppe Reitan;

    2011-01-01

    genes will be converted to molecular markers and mapped in an existing mapping population previously characterized for flowering time and vernalization response. References: Amasino, R.M., Michaels S.D. (2010). The Timing of Flowering. Plant Physiology 154: 516–520 Greenup, A., W. Peacock, W.J., Dennis...... stage there is a significant reduction in digestibility due to an increase in the stem to leaf ratio. Thus, the controlled inhibition or delay of flowering would result in a significant increase of forage quality. Traditional breeding programs have been successfully breeding new varieties of perennial...... E.S., Trevaskis, B. (2009). The molecular biology of seasonal flowering-responses in Arabidopsis and the cereals. Annals of Botany 103: 1165–1172 Distelfeld, A.,Li, C., Dubcovsky J. (2009). Regulation of flowering in temperate cereals. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12:178–184 Jung, C., Müller, A...

  9. A Novel Selection Marker for Efficient DNA Cloning and Recombineering in E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Wei Jang; Terry Magnuson

    2013-01-01

    Production of recombinant DNA in bacterial cells is an essential technique in molecular biology. Plasmids are usually maintained in an E. coli host by antibiotic selection. However, there are only a few antibiotic-resistance markers available in common use. Here we report the adoption of a novel selection marker, mfabI (mutant fabI) for plasmid propagation in E. coli. mfabI expands the limited repertoire of selection markers and allows for more efficient molecular manipulation and plasmid pro...

  10. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  11. POPULAR MOLECULAR MARKERS IN BACTERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Weilong, Liu; Lv, Li; MD. ASADUZZAMAN KHAN AND FEIZHOU ZHU

    2012-01-01

    Molecular markers are defined as the fragments of DNA sequence associated with a genome, which are used to identify a particular DNA sequence. Nowadays, with the explosive growth of genetic research and bacterial classification, molecular marker is an important tool to identify bacterial species. Taking account to its significant roles in clinic, medicine and food industry, in this review article, we summarize the traditional research and new development about molecular markers (also called g...

  12. Neonatal cytokines and chemokines and risk of Autism Spectrum Disorder: the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) study: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Zerbo, Ousseny; Yoshida, Cathleen; Grether, Judith K.; Van de Water, Judy; Ashwood, Paul; Delorenze, Gerald N; Hansen, Robin L.; Kharrazi, Marty; Croen, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Biologic markers of infection and inflammation have been associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) but prior studies have largely relied on specimens taken after clinical diagnosis. Research on potential biologic markers early in neurodevelopment is required to evaluate possible causal pathways and screening profiles. Objective To investigate levels of cytokines and chemokines in newborn blood specimens as possible early biologic markers for autism. Methods We conducted a pop...

  13. Biochemical markers of bone turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical markers of bone turnover has received increasing attention over the past few years, because of the need for sensitivity and specific tool in the clinical investigation of osteoporosis. Bone markers should be unique to bone, reflect changes of bone less, and should be correlated with radiocalcium kinetics, histomorphometry, or changes in bone mass. The markers also should be useful in monitoring treatment efficacy. Although no bone marker has been established to meet all these criteria, currently osteocalcin and pyridinium crosslinks are the most efficient markers to assess the level of bone turnover in the menopausal and senile osteoporosis. Recently, N-terminal telopeptide (NTX), C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase are considered as new valid markers of bone turnover. Recent data suggest that CTX and free deoxypyridinoline could predict the subsequent risk of hip fracture of elderly women. Treatment of postmenopausal women with estrogen, calcitonin and bisphosphonates demonstrated rapid decrease of the levels of bone markers that correlated with the long-term increase of bone mass. Factors such as circadian rhythms, diet, age, sex, bone mass and renal function affect the results of biochemical markers and should be appropriately adjusted whenever possible. Each biochemical markers of bone turnover may have its own specific advantages and limitations. Recent advances in research will provide more sensitive and specific assays

  14. Developmental Dyslexia: Early Precursors, Neurobehavioral Markers, and Biological Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benasich, April A., Ed.; Fitch, R. Holly, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the precursors and early indicators of dyslexia is key to early identification and effective intervention. Now there's a single research volume that brings together the very latest knowledge on the earliest stages of dyslexia and the diverse genetic, neurobiological, and cognitive factors that may contribute to it. Based on findings…

  15. Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Markers in Conservation Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine Belov; Beata Ujvari

    2011-01-01

    Human impacts through habitat destruction, introduction of invasive species and climate change are increasing the number of species threatened with extinction. Decreases in population size simultaneously lead to reductions in genetic diversity, ultimately reducing the ability of populations to adapt to a changing environment. In this way, loss of genetic polymorphism is linked with extinction risk. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean that obtaining measures of genetic diversity at...

  16. Biological Markers May Indicate Poor Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A team of researchers has found an association between breast cancer survival and two proteins that, when present in the blood in high levels, are indicators of inflammation. Using data from the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle (HEAL) study sponsor

  17. Biology and Molecular Markers of Malignant Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Salonen, Jonna

    2009-01-01

    Germ cell tumors occur both in the gonads of both sexes and in extra-gonadal sites during adoles-cence and early adulthood. Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of all cases of ovarian malignancy. In contrast, testicular cancer is the most common malignancy among young males. Most of patients survive the disease. Prognostic factors of gonadal germ cell tumors include histology, clinical stage, size of the primary tumor and residua, and levels of tu...

  18. Sarcopenia: clinical evaluation, biological markers and other evaluation tools

    OpenAIRE

    Pahor, M.; Manini,, Claudia; CESARI, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by a lower skeletal muscle quantity, higher fat accumulation in the muscle, lower muscle strength, and lower physical performance. The most commonly used, low cost and accessible methods to assess skeletal muscle mass include dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT) and creatinine excretion are the most specific golden standards for assessing mus...

  19. Testosterone as a biological marker in psychopathy and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålenheim, E G; Eriksson, E; von Knorring, L; Wide, L

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the relationships between testosterone and alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and specific personality characteristics and behaviors in a forensic psychiatric population. Serum levels of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT-DPC) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were determined in 61 male subjects undergoing forensic psychiatric examinations. All subjects had been detoxified from drugs and alcohol during previous incarceration in jail or hospital. TT and FT-DPC were found to be highly correlated (r=0.63, P antisocial personality disorder. Furthermore, TT and SHBG were related to socially deviant behavior, reflected in factor 2 in the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R). In a multiple regression, FT-DPC was also clearly associated with the psychopathy-related scales of the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) when age and signs of hepatic damage were kept under control. PMID:9541143

  20. The prognostic molecular markers in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun-Xiu Qin; Zhao-You Tang

    2002-01-01

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stillremains dismal, although many advances in its clinicalstudy have been made. It is important for tumor control toidentity the factors that predispose patients to death. Withnew discoveries in cancer biology, the pathological andbiological prognostic factors of HCC have been studied quiteextensively. Analyzing molecular markers (biomarkers) withprognostic significance is a complementary method. A largenumber of molecular factors have been shown to associatewith the invasiveness of HCC, and have potential prognosticsignificance. One important aspect is the analysis ofmolecular markers for the cellular malignancy phenotypeThese include alterations in DNA ploidy, cellularproliferation markers (PCNA, Ki-67, Mcm2, MIB1, MIA, andCSE1L/CAS protein), nuclear morphology, the p53 geneand its related molecule MDM2, other cell cycle regulators(cyclin A, cyclin D, cyclin E, cdc2, p27, p73), oncogenesand their receptors (such as ras, c-myc, c-fms, HGF, c-met, and erb-B receptor family members ), apoptosisrelated factors (Fas and FasL), as well as telomeraseactivity. Another important aspect is the analysis ofmolecular markers involved in the process of cancerinvasion and metastasis. Adhesion molecules (E-cadherin,catenins, serum intercellular adhesion molecule-1, CD44variants), proteinases involved in the clegradation ofextracellular matrix (MMP-2, MMP-9, uPA, uPAR, PAl), aswell as other molecules have been regarded as biomarkersfor the malignant phenotype of HCC, and are related toprognosis and therapeutic outcomes. Tumor angiogenesisis critical to both the growth and metastasis of cancersincluding HCC, and has drawn much attention in recentyears. Many angiogenesis-related markers, such as vascularendothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growthfactor (bFGF), platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor( PD-ECGF ), thrombospondin ( TSP ), angiogenin,pleiotrophin, and endostatin (ES) levels, as well asinratumor

  1. Searching for biological markers of personality : are there neuroendocrine markers of anxiety?

    OpenAIRE

    Armario, Antonio; Nadal, Roser

    2013-01-01

    The existence of stable individual differences in cognitive and emotional capabilities both in animals and humans is well-accepted. The theories of personality assume that such individual differences can be categorized and that the richness of individual differences in humans would be the result of the combination of differences in a few underlying personality factors.

  2. Advances in research on molecular biological markers for the differential diagnosis of basal cell ;carcinoma and trichoblastoma%基底细胞癌与毛母细胞瘤鉴别相关分子标记物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙成帅; 丁跃明; 潘云

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma has much difference with trichoblastoma in therapy and prognosis. In the past years, due to the lack of definite classification and distinctions of basal cell carcinoma and trichoblastoma, misdiagnosis and mismanagement were often encountered and the patients underwent inappropriate treatment. So we must differentiate basal cell carcinoma from trichoblastoma early and accurately. It is difficult to distinguish them distinctly only by clinical presentation and pathologic features. In recent years, with the development of molecular biology, research in immunohistochemisty and genetics have increased, and provide us some new identification. This review article mainly describes the recent development of molecular biological markers AR, CD10, Ln5γ2, Nestin, PHLDAl and CK20 for the differential diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and trichoblastoma.%基底细胞癌与毛母细胞瘤在治疗和预后方面有很大的不同。过去由于对两者的分类和诊断比较混乱,给临床治疗带来诸多不便,也给患者增加了不必要的痛苦。这就要求临床医师能及时、准确、有效地鉴别诊断基底细胞癌和毛母细胞瘤。临床上,尤其在病理上,明确鉴别两者很困难。近些年,随着分子生物学技术的发展,从免疫组织化学和遗传学等方面对两者的研究增多,为我们提供一些新的鉴别依据。本文综述几种近年来研究较多的用于两者鉴别诊断的分子生物学标记物AR、CD10、Ln5γ2、Nestin、PHLDAl和CK20的进展。

  3. Markers of renal function tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaraj Gowda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The markers of renal function test assess the normal functioning of kidneys. These markers may be radioactive and non radioactive. They indicate the glomerular filtration rate, concentrating and diluting capacity of kidneys (tubular function. If there is an increase or decrease in the valves of these markers it indicates dysfunction of kidney. Aim: The aim of this review is to compare and analyze the present and newer markers of renal function tests which help in diagnosis of clinical disorders. Material & Methods: An extensive literature survey was done aiming to compare and compile renal function tests makers required in diagnosis of diseases. Results: Creatinine, urea, uric acid and electrolytes are makers for routine analysis whereas several studies have confirmed and consolidated the usefulness of markers such as cystatin C and β-Trace Protein. Conclusion: We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these biomarkers in terms of usefulness in assessing renal function.

  4. Metabolomics profiling reveals novel markers for leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierer, Jonas; Kastenmüller, Gabi; Suhre, Karsten; Gieger, Christian; Codd, Veryan; Tsai, Pei-Chien; Bell, Jordana; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Schulz, Holger; Weidinger, Stephan; Mohney, Robert P; Samani, Nilesh J; Spector, Tim; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is considered one of the most predictive markers of biological aging. The aim of this study was to identify novel pathways regulating LTL using a metabolomics approach. To this end, we tested associations between 280 blood metabolites and LTL in 3511 females from TwinsUK and replicated our results in the KORA cohort. We furthermore tested significant metabolites for associations with several aging-related phenotypes, gene expression markers and epigenetic markers to investigate potential underlying pathways. Five metabolites were associated with LTL: Two lysolipids, 1-stearoylglycerophosphoinositol (P=1.6×10(-5)) and 1-palmitoylglycerophosphoinositol (P=1.6×10(-5)), were found to be negatively associated with LTL and positively associated with phospholipase A2 expression levels suggesting an involvement of fatty acid metabolism and particularly membrane composition in biological aging. Moreover, two gamma-glutamyl amino acids, gamma-glutamyltyrosine (P=2.5×10(-6)) and gamma-glutamylphenylalanine (P=1.7×10(-5)), were negatively correlated with LTL. Both are products of the glutathione cycle and markers for increased oxidative stress. Metabolites were also correlated with functional measures of aging, i.e. higher blood pressure and HDL cholesterol levels and poorer lung, liver and kidney function. Our results suggest an involvement of altered fatty acid metabolism and increased oxidative stress in human biological aging, reflected by LTL and age-related phenotypes of vital organ systems. PMID:26797767

  5. MarkerSet: a marker selection tool based on markers location and informativity in experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demeure Olivier

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent sequencing of full genomes has led to the availability of many SNP markers which are very useful for the mapping of complex traits. In livestock production, there are still no commercial arrays and many studies use home-made sets of SNPs. Thus, the current methodologies for SNP genotyping are still expensive and it is a crucial step to select the SNPs to use. Indeed, the main factors affecting the power of the linkage analyses are the density of the genetic map and the heterozygosity of markers in tested animal parents. Findings This is why we have developed a PERL program selecting a defined number of markers based on their locations on the genome and their informativity in specific experimental designs. As an option, different experimental designs can be combined in order to select the best possible common marker set. The program has been tested using different conditions of marker informativity and density with both real and simulated datasets. The results show the efficiency of our program to select the most informative markers even if there is a wide range of informativity for whole genome scan mapping analyses. In case of combination of different experimental crosses, the multidesign mode can optimize the SNP markers selection. Conclusion Written in PERL, it assures a maximum portability to other operating systems (OS and the source code availability for user modifications. Except for the simulation mode which could be time consuming, MarkerSet can compute results in a very short time.

  6. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  7. Prenatal Screening Using Maternal Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Cuckle

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maternal markers are widely used to screen for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs, chromosomal abnormalities and cardiac defects. Some are beginning to broaden prenatal screening to include pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia. The methods initially developed for NTDs using a single marker have since been built upon to develop high performance multi-maker tests for chromosomal abnormalities. Although cell-free DNA testing is still too expensive to be considered for routine application in public health settings, it can be cost-effective when used in combination with existing multi-maker marker tests. The established screening methods can be readily applied in the first trimester to identify pregnancies at high risk of pre-eclampsia and offer prevention though aspirin treatment. Prenatal screening for fragile X syndrome might be adopted more widely if the test was to be framed as a form of maternal marker screening.

  8. Natural hybridization in tropical spikerushes of Eleocharis subgenus Limnochloa (Cyperaceae): Evidence from morphology and DNA markers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košnar, J.; Košnar, Ji.; Macek, Petr; Herbstová, Miroslava; Rejmánková, E.; Stech, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 7 (2010), s. 1229-1240. ISSN 0002-9122 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Belize * Cyperaceae * DNA markers * hybridization Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BU-J) Impact factor: 3.052, year: 2010

  9. Laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis: Current insights and future advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michele; Cioffi; Antonella; De; Rosa; Rosalba; Serao; Ilaria; Picone; Maria; Teresa; Vietri

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis(UC)and Crohn’s disease(CD)are the major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD)in man.Despite some common features,these forms can be distinguished by different genetic predisposition,risk factors and clinical,endoscopic and histological characteristics.The aetiology of both CD and UC remains unknown,but several evidences suggest that CD and perhaps UC are due to an excessive immuneresponse directed against normal constituents of the intestinal bacterial flora.Tests sometimes invasive are routine for the diagnosis and care of patients with IBD.Diagnosis of UC is based on clinical symptoms combined with radiological and endoscopic investigations.The employment of non-invasive biomarkers is needed.These biomarkers have the potential to avoid invasive diagnostic tests that may result in discomfort and potential complications.The ability to determine the type,severity,prognosis and response to therapy of UC,using biomarkers has long been a goal of clinical researchers.We describe the biomarkers assessed in UC,with special reference to acute-phase proteins and serologic markers and thereafter,we describe the new biological markers and the biological markers could be developed in the future:(1)serum markers of acute phase response:The laboratory tests most used to measure the acute-phase proteins in clinical practice are the serum concentration of C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.Other biomarkers of inflammation in UC include platelet count,leukocyte count,and serum albumin and serum orosomucoid concentrations;(2)serologic markers/antibodies:In the last decades serological and immunologic biomarkers have been studied extensively in immunology and have been used in clinical practice to detect specific pathologies.In UC,the presence of these antibodies can aid as surrogate markers for the aberrant host immune response;and(3)future biomarkers:The development of biomarkers in UC will be very important in the future.The progress

  10. Uniparental genetic markers in South Amerindians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Bisso-Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive review of uniparental systems in South Amerindians was undertaken. Variability in the Y-chromosome haplogroups were assessed in 68 populations and 1,814 individuals whereas that of Y-STR markers was assessed in 29 populations and 590 subjects. Variability in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup was examined in 108 populations and 6,697 persons, and sequencing studies used either the complete mtDNA genome or the highly variable segments 1 and 2. The diversity of the markers made it difficult to establish a general picture of Y-chromosome variability in the populations studied. However, haplogroup Q1a3a* was almost always the most prevalent whereas Q1a3* occurred equally in all regions, which suggested its prevalence among the early colonizers. The STR allele frequencies were used to derive a possible ancient Native American Q-clade chromosome haplotype and five of six STR loci showed significant geographic variation. Geographic and linguistic factors moderately influenced the mtDNA distributions (6% and 7%, respectively and mtDNA haplogroups A and D correlated positively and negatively, respectively, with latitude. The data analyzed here provide rich material for understanding the biological history of South Amerindians and can serve as a basis for comparative studies involving other types of data, such as cultural data.

  11. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  12. Exploration of Disease Markers under Translational Medicine Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy; Octavio Fernandes; Arturo Chiti

    2015-01-01

    Disease markers are defined as the biomarkers with specific characteristics during the general physical, pathological or therapeutic process, the detection of which can inform the progression of present biological process of organisms. However, the exploration of disease markers is complicated and difficult, and only a few markers can be used in clinical practice and there is no significant difference in the mortality of cancers before and after biomarker exploration. Translational medicine focuses on breaking the blockage between basic medicine and clinical practice. In addition, it also establishes an effective association between researchers engaged on basic scientific discovery and clinical physicians well informed of patients’ requirements, and gives particular attentions on how to translate the basic molecular biological research to the most effective and appropriate methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, hoping to translate basic research into the new therapeutic methods in clinic. Therefore, this study mainly summarized the exploration of disease markers under translational medicine model so as to provide a basis for the translation of basic research results into clinical application.

  13. Exploration of Disease Markers under Translational Medicine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajagopal Krishnamoorthy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease markers are defined as the biomarkers with specific characteristics during the general physical, pathological or therapeutic process, the detection of which can inform the progression of present biological process of organisms. However, the exploration of disease markers is complicated and difficult, and only a few markers can be used in clinical practice and there is no significant difference in the mortality of cancers before and after biomarker exploration. Translational medicine focuses on breaking the blockage between basic medicine and clinical practice. In addition, it also establishes an effective association between researchers engaged on basic scientific discovery and clinical physicians well informed of patients' requirements, and gives particular attentions on how to translate the basic molecular biological research to the most effective and appropriate methods for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases, hoping to translate basic research into the new therapeutic methods in clinic. Therefore, this study mainly summarized the exploration of disease markers under translational medicine model so as to provide a basis for the translation of basic research results into clinical application.

  14. Protein-bound acrolein: Potential markers for oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Uchida, Koji; Kanematsu, Masamichi; Sakai, Kensuke; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Hattori, Nobutaka; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyata, Toshio; Noguchi, Noriko; Niki, Etsuo; Osawa, Toshihiko

    1998-01-01

    Acrolein (CH2=CH—CHO) is known as a ubiquitous pollutant in the environment. Here we show that this notorious aldehyde is not just a pollutant, but also a lipid peroxidation product that could be ubiquitously generated in biological systems. Upon incubation with BSA, acrolein was rapidly incorporated into the protein and generated the protein-linked carbonyl derivative, a putative marker of oxidatively modified proteins under oxidative stress. To verify the presence of protein-bound acrolein ...

  15. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  16. Marker evaluation of human breast and bladder cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayall, B.H.; Carroll, P.R.; Chen, Ling-Chun; Cohen, M.B.; Goodson, W.H. III; Smith, H.S.; Waldman, F.M. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1990-11-02

    We are investigating multiple markers in human breast and bladder cancers. Our aim is to identify markers that are clinically relevant and that contribute to our understanding of the disease process in individual patients. Good markers accurately assess the malignant potential of a cancer in an individual patient. Thus, they help identify those cancers that will recur, and they may be used to predict more accurately time to recurrence, response to treatment, and overall prognosis. Therapy and patient management may then be optimized to the individual patient. Relevant markers reflect the underlying pathobiology of individual tumors. As a tissue undergoes transformation from benign to malignant, the cells lose their differentiated phenotype. As a generalization, the more the cellular phenotype, cellular proliferation and cellular genotype depart from normal, the more advanced is the tumor in its biological evolution and the more likely it is that the patient has a poor prognosis. We use three studies to illustrate our investigation of potential tumor markers. Breast cancers are labeled in vivo with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) to give a direct measure of the tumor labeling index. Bladder cancers are analyzed immunocytochemically using an antibody against proliferation. Finally, the techniques of molecular genetics are used to detect allelic loss in breast cancers. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Pancreatic cancer stem cell markers and exosomes - the incentive push.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiler, Sarah; Wang, Zhe; Zöller, Margot

    2016-07-14

    Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) has the highest death rate and incidence is increasing. Poor prognosis is due to late diagnosis and early metastatic spread, which is ascribed to a minor population of so called cancer stem cells (CSC) within the mass of the primary tumor. CSC are defined by biological features, which they share with adult stem cells like longevity, rare cell division, the capacity for self renewal, differentiation, drug resistance and the requirement for a niche. CSC can also be identified by sets of markers, which for pancreatic CSC (Pa-CSC) include CD44v6, c-Met, Tspan8, alpha6beta4, CXCR4, CD133, EpCAM and claudin7. The functional relevance of CSC markers is still disputed. We hypothesize that Pa-CSC markers play a decisive role in tumor progression. This is fostered by the location in glycolipid-enriched membrane domains, which function as signaling platform and support connectivity of the individual Pa-CSC markers. Outside-in signaling supports apoptosis resistance, stem cell gene expression and tumor suppressor gene repression as well as miRNA transcription and silencing. Pa-CSC markers also contribute to motility and invasiveness. By ligand binding host cells are triggered towards creating a milieu supporting Pa-CSC maintenance. Furthermore, CSC markers contribute to the generation, loading and delivery of exosomes, whereby CSC gain the capacity for a cell-cell contact independent crosstalk with the host and neighboring non-CSC. This allows Pa-CSC exosomes (TEX) to reprogram neighboring non-CSC towards epithelial mesenchymal transition and to stimulate host cells towards preparing a niche for metastasizing tumor cells. Finally, TEX communicate with the matrix to support tumor cell motility, invasion and homing. We will discuss the possibility that CSC markers are the initial trigger for these processes and what is the special contribution of CSC-TEX. PMID:27468191

  18. Pancreatic cancer stem cell markers and exosomes - the incentive push

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiler, Sarah; Wang, Zhe; Zöller, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PaCa) has the highest death rate and incidence is increasing. Poor prognosis is due to late diagnosis and early metastatic spread, which is ascribed to a minor population of so called cancer stem cells (CSC) within the mass of the primary tumor. CSC are defined by biological features, which they share with adult stem cells like longevity, rare cell division, the capacity for self renewal, differentiation, drug resistance and the requirement for a niche. CSC can also be identified by sets of markers, which for pancreatic CSC (Pa-CSC) include CD44v6, c-Met, Tspan8, alpha6beta4, CXCR4, CD133, EpCAM and claudin7. The functional relevance of CSC markers is still disputed. We hypothesize that Pa-CSC markers play a decisive role in tumor progression. This is fostered by the location in glycolipid-enriched membrane domains, which function as signaling platform and support connectivity of the individual Pa-CSC markers. Outside-in signaling supports apoptosis resistance, stem cell gene expression and tumor suppressor gene repression as well as miRNA transcription and silencing. Pa-CSC markers also contribute to motility and invasiveness. By ligand binding host cells are triggered towards creating a milieu supporting Pa-CSC maintenance. Furthermore, CSC markers contribute to the generation, loading and delivery of exosomes, whereby CSC gain the capacity for a cell-cell contact independent crosstalk with the host and neighboring non-CSC. This allows Pa-CSC exosomes (TEX) to reprogram neighboring non-CSC towards epithelial mesenchymal transition and to stimulate host cells towards preparing a niche for metastasizing tumor cells. Finally, TEX communicate with the matrix to support tumor cell motility, invasion and homing. We will discuss the possibility that CSC markers are the initial trigger for these processes and what is the special contribution of CSC-TEX. PMID:27468191

  19. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ''paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with 144Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to 60Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness

  20. The importance of prognostic markers of tumor progression Ki-67 and р53 in the breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bondareva V.A.; Shponka I.S.

    2007-01-01

    The increase of morbidity and invalidization frequency of patients with the breast cancer stipulates a necessity to find of the new diagnostic ways and prognostic markers with the aim for early diagnostic, optimization and individual way of therapy that will allow to improve the quality of life, patients’ physical and social reabilitation. The purpose of our investigation was to estimate an expression of important biological markers of tumor’s bihavior – p53 and Ki-67 (proliferative markers) ...

  1. Reporting of prognostic studies of tumour markers: a review of published articles in relation to REMARK guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Mallett, S.; Timmer, A.; Sauerbrei, W.; Altman, D. G.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Poor reporting compromises the reliability and clinical value of prognostic tumour marker studies. We review articles to assess the reporting of patients and events using REMARK guidelines, at the time of guideline publication. Methods: We sampled 50 prognostic tumour marker studies from higher impact cancer journals between 2006 and 2007. The inclusion criteria were cancer; focus on single biological tumour marker; survival analysis; multivariable analysis; and not gene array or ...

  2. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibrosis is a central histological feature of chronic liver diseases and is characterized by the accumulation and reorganization of the extracellular matrix. The gold standard for assessment of fibrosis is histological evaluation of a percutaneous liver biopsy. Albeit a considerable......-epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo...... systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  3. Application of molecular markers in livestock improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Teneva A.; Petrović M.P.

    2010-01-01

    With recent developments in DNA technologies, a large number of genetic polymorphisms at DNA sequence level has been introduced over the last decades as named DNA-based markers. The discovery of new class of DNA profiling markers has facilitated the development of marker-based gene tags, mapbased cloning of livestock important genes, variability studies, phylogenetic analysis, synteny mapping, marker-assisted selection of favourable genotypes, etc. The most commonly used DNA-based markers hav...

  4. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  5. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  6. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  7. Literature Review of Discourse Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵蕴萱; 王孝伟

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to supplying theoretical foundation for discourse markers(DMs),introducing the relevant definitions as well as the previous classifications of DMs.The functions of discourse markers are also added so as to provide a deep insight into

  8. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  9. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  10. Determinação de rotina do crômio em fezes, como marcador biológico, pelo método espectrofotométrico ajustado da 1,5-difenilcarbazida The spectrophotometric method on the routine of 1,5-diphenylcarbazide was adjusted on chromium determination in feces, after its utilization as a biological marker as chromium (III oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Bremer Neto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi ajustar o método espectrofotométrico da 1,5-difenilcarbazida à determinação do crômio em fezes, como marcador biológico, adequando-o à rotina laboratorial. Fatores que poderiam exercer interferência na transformação do crômio (III à crômio (VI foram testados, como a recuperação do metal, quantidade de amostra, quantidade e ordem de emprego dos ácidos oxidantes da digestão úmida, temperatura e tempo de digestão e perda por volatilização do crômio como cloreto de cromila, porém não se determinou estatisticamente interferência destes fatores. No método ajustado, a amostra é digerida pela clássica mistura ácida nítrica/perclórica, levando a oxidação do crômio (III a crômio (VI, e alíquota do extrato diluído é usado para reação com 1,5-difenilcarbazida; as absorbâncias são medidas a 550nm, utilizando-se de cubetas de um centímetro de caminho óptico, contra prova em branco conduzida simultaneamente. Dicromato de potássio foi empregado como substância de referência para obtenção da curva padrão na faixa de 0,25 - 2,5mg.mL-1 de Cr2O3 (1mg Cr2O3 º 1,9355mg K2Cr2O7.This work aims at adjusting the spectrophotometric method of 1,5-diphenylcarbazide for the determination of chromium in feces, as a biological marker. Factors that could interfere with the transformation of chromium (III into chromium (VI were tested, as the metal recovery, the sample amount, the amount and the order of use of the oxidant acids of the wet digestion, digestion temperature and digestion time, loss of chromium by volatilization as chromyl chlorid. However the interference of these factors were not statistically determined. In the adjusted method, the sample is classically digested by nitric/perchloric acid mixture leading to the oxidation of chromium (III to chromium (VI, and an aliquot of the diluted extract is used for reaction with 1,5-diphenylcarbazide; absorbance was measured at 550nm, using 1cm

  11. Genetic structure of cultivated flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) based on retrotransposon-based markers

    OpenAIRE

    Habibollahi Hadi; Noormohammadi Zahra; Sheidai Masoud; Farahani Farah

    2015-01-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the most important fiber and oil crop plants cultivated since ancient time. The flax seeds contain high amount of omega- 3-fatty acids and biologically active lignans. In spite of economic importance of cultivated flax, no information is available on its genetic variability and population structure in Iran. Therefore, we used six inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) markers and 15 combined IRAP markers ...

  12. Histopathology and Prognostic Indices of Carcinoma Breast with Special Reference to p53 Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Radha, Rajesh Kanna Nandagopal; P, Viswanathan; B, Krishnaswamy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cancer of the breast is one of the commonest carcinomas in women, both in western world and in India. The high frequency of breast cancer in women has prompted an intensive study of possible modifiable risk factors (clinical parameters, morphological typing, and biological markers) for assessment of prognosis, prevention strategies, and treatment modalities. p53 is one of the most significant prognostic markers for breast carcinomas.

  13. Marine Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  14. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes laboratory procedures, demonstrations, and classroom activities/materials, including water relation exercise on auxin-treated artichoke tuber tissue; aerobic respiration in yeast; an improved potometer; use of mobiles in biological classification, and experiments on powdery mildews and banana polyphenol oxidase. Includes reading lists…

  15. Research Status of Molecular Biology in Flax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jian-zhong

    2016-01-01

    Flax is a kind of worldwide fiber and oil crops, and it has a very important role in economic crop production in the world. With the development of molecular biology techniques, the research of flax molecular level has a very big breakthrough. But, flax molecular biology researches are less reported due to the later starting. This paper summarized the latest research progress of molecular biology of flax, including molecular marker technology, construction of genetic map, gene engineering and omics researches, in order to provide the reference to understand the development and research status for flax molecular breeding researchers.

  16. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  17. Biological programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  18. Biological radioprotector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the patent description, the biological radioprotector is deuterium depleted water, DDW, produced by vacuum distillation with an isotopic content lower than natural value. It appears as such or in a mixture with natural water and carbon dioxide. It can be used for preventing and reducing the ionizing radiation effects upon humans or animal organisms, exposed therapeutically, professionally or accidentally to radiation. The most significant advantage of using DDW as biological radioprotector results from its way of administration. Indeed no one of the radioprotectors currently used today can be orally administrated, what reduces the patients' compliance to prophylactic administrations. The biological radioprotector is an unnoxious product obtained from natural water, which can be administrated as food additive instead of drinking water. Dose modification factor is according to initial estimates around 1.9, what is a remarkable feature when one takes into account that the product is toxicity-free and side effect-free and can be administrated prophylactically as a food additive. A net radioprotective action of the deuterium depletion was evidenced experimentally in laboratory animals (rats) hydrated with DDW of 30 ppm D/(D+H) concentration as compared with normally hydrated control animals. Knowing the effects of irradiation and mechanisms of the acute radiation disease as well as the effects of administration of radiomimetic chemicals upon cellular lines of fast cell division, it appears that the effects of administrating DDW result from stimulation of the immunity system. In conclusion, the biological radioprotector DDW presents the following advantages: - it is obtained from natural products without toxicity; - it is easy to be administrated as a food additive, replacing the drinking water; - besides radioprotective effects, the product has also immunostimulative and antitumoral effects

  19. [Biochemical markers for acute and chronic alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Zaba, Czesław

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the fact, that ethyl alcohol is a legal and socially accepted recreational drug its abuse may cause numerous problems for the individual and society. Casualties of car accidents caused by drunk drivers, aggressive behavior, family problems and effective less work are the main problems connected with alcohol abuse. The easiest and most effective way of proving recent alcohol consumption is confirming its presence in biological samples taken from the individual. However, the main disadvantage of this method is a short window detection for ethanol, because of its high speed of elimination process. Nowadays, in order to prevent and have a better control of alcohol abuse, markers that could provide a better view of short and long term ethanol consumption are in frequent use. Ethyl alcohol present in the body cause many qualitative and quantitative disturbances in biochemical metabolites that could be used as markers of its consumption. In practice markers of ethanol consumption are usually divided into acute (tests confirm single alcohol intake) and chronic (confirm long term alcohol consumption or lack of teetotalism). Markers of ethanol consumption are valuable alternative and complementation to customary examinations performed in medical practice and forensic medicine. PMID:23421117

  20. Effects of space flight on surface marker expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1999-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to affect expression of several cell surface markers. These markers play important roles in regulation of immune responses, including CD4 and CD8. The studies have involved flight of experimental animals and humans followed by analysis of tissue samples (blood in humans, rats and monkeys, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes and bone marrow in rodents). The degree and direction of the changes induced by space flight have been determined by the conditions of the flight. Also, there may be compartmentalization of the response of surface markers to space flight, with differences in the response of cells isolated from blood and local immune tissue. The same type of compartmentalization was also observed with cell adhesion molecules (integrins). In this case, the expression of integrins from lymph node cells differed from that of splenocytes isolated from rats immediately after space flight. Cell culture studies have indicated that there may be an inhibition in conversion of a precursor cell line to cells exhibiting mature macrophage characteristics after space flight, however, these experiments were limited as a result of technical difficulties. In general, it is clear that space flight results in alterations of cell surface markers. The biological significance of these changes remains to be established.

  1. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  2. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  3. Molecular markers for thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more accessible and potentially usable from a methodological viewpoint for diagnosis of the thyroid nodule before surgery. The importance of the study of the thyroid nodule lies in excluding the possibility of a malignant lesion because the majority of lesions are benign but there is a malignancy risk of 5 to 10%. Most of them are well differentiated carcinomas originating in the follicular epithelium. In spite of the fact that the majority are benign lesions, distinguishing them from carcinomas is crucial to treatment and adequate follow-up. Fine-needle biopsy allows making the diagnosis in most of cases. However, this method is restricted, particularly when diagnosing follicular lesions. In an effort to improve the diagnostic accuracy of biopsy and to provide new diagnosing criteria, a number of molecular markers have been put forward, some of which has wide range of approval whereas others still awaits to be validated for further implementation. This article presented an updated review of molecular markers with higher number of evidence, more

  4. Embedding filtering criteria into a wrapper marker selection method for brain tumor classification: an application on metabolic peak area ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to identify reliable sets of metabolic markers that provide accurate classification of complex brain tumors and facilitate the process of clinical diagnosis. Several ratios of metabolites are tested alone or in combination with imaging markers. A wrapper feature selection and classification methodology is studied, employing Fisher's criterion for ranking the markers. The set of extracted markers that express statistical significance is further studied in terms of biological behavior with respect to the brain tumor type and grade. The outcome of this study indicates that the proposed method by exploiting the intrinsic properties of data can actually reveal reliable and biologically relevant sets of metabolic markers, which form an important adjunct toward a more accurate type and grade discrimination of complex brain tumors

  5. APPLICATION OF MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR CUCUMBER IMPROVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The historicity of marker development, map construction, and the utility of marker-assisted selection is presented. Experimental results indicate that the identification of marker-trait associations will continue to be extremely expensive and time consuming, but will likely pay large dividends for ...

  6. Expression Marker-Based Strategy to Improve Beef Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Picard, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    For beef cattle research, a main objective is to control concomitantly the development of muscles and the qualities of beef cuts. Beef quality is a complex phenotype that is only detectable after slaughter and is highly variable. The beef industry is in need of tools to estimate beef quality of live cattle or online in abattoirs, with specific attention towards sensory attributes (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, and colour). Identification of relevant genetic and genomic markers is ongoing, especially for tenderness—a top priority quality attribute. In this paper, we describe the steps of an expression marker-based strategy to improve beef sensory quality, from the discovery of biomarkers that identify consistent beef and the biological functions governing beef tenderness to the integration of the knowledge into detection tests for desirable animals. These tools should soon be available for the management of sensory quality in the beef production chain for meeting market's demands and assuring good quality standards. PMID:27066527

  7. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  8. New prognostic markers in liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Determining the prognosis of cirrhotic patients is not aneasy task. Prognostic scores, like Child-Pugh and Modelof End-stage Liver Disease scores, are commonly usedby hepatologists, but do not always reflect superimposedevents that may strongly influence the prognosis.Among them, bacterial intestinal translocation is a keyphenomenon for the development of cirrhosis-relatedcomplications. Several biological variables (C-reactiveprotein, serum free cortisol, copeptin, von Willebrandfactor antigen) are surrogates of "inflammatory stress"and have recently been identified as potential prognosticmarkers in cirrhotic patients. Most of these abovementioned markers were investigated in pilot studieswith sometimes a modest sample size but allow us tocatch a glimpse of the pathophysiological mechanismsleading to the worsening of cirrhosis. These new datashould generate further well-designed studies to betterassess the benefit for liver function of preventingintestinal bacterial translocation and microvascularthrombosis. The control of infection is vital and amongall actors of immunity, vitamin D also appears to actas an anti-infective agent and therefore has probably aprognostic value.

  9. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  10. Skin wounds vitality markers in forensic pathology: An updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casse, Jean-Matthieu; Martrille, Laurent; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Gauchotte, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    Wound age evaluation is one of the most challenging issues in forensic pathology. In the first minutes or hours, standard histological examination may not determine whether the wound was inflicted in the pre- or post-mortem period. While red blood cell infiltration is classically considered as a sign of vital reaction, several studies have shown that extravasation of blood cells may also occur after death and cannot be used as a reliable marker in the diagnosis of wound vitality. Numerous studies about wound vitality are available in the literature. They have evaluated markers involved in coagulation or inflammation, using various methods such as enzymology, molecular biology or immunohistochemistry. In this update, we first introduce some methodological principles. Then, we review the main studies available in the literature. Immunohistochemistry seems to be the most valuable method, given its easy application and the possibility to analyse the localization of the molecules of interest. Some markers are promising, such as CD15, TNFα, IL-6, IL-1β, TGFα or TGFβ1. Prior to their application in daily practice, these early results need to be confirmed with other studies, conducted by independent teams and integrating multiple controls. Most notably, the antibodies have to be tested in numerous post-mortem wounds. Indeed, a critical risk of overexpression in post-mortem wounds is present. Some promising markers have been later invalidated because of post-mortem false positivity. Finally, optimal sensitivity and specificity values could probably be reached by combining several markers, validated by large groups of pre- and post-mortem wounds. PMID:26101444

  11. Molecular Markers: an Introduction and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas Rashad Al-Samarai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The dramatic development of molecular genetics has laid the groundwork for genomics. It has introduced new generations of molecular markers for use in the genetic improvement of farm animals. These markers provide more accurate genetic information and better understanding of the animal genetic resources. Scientists, unfamiliar with the different molecular techniques tend to get lost as each has its own advantages and disadvantages. This review represents a trail to shade alight on the different types of molecular markers by introducing a brief summary on the development of genetic markers including both the classical genetic markers and more advanced DNA-based molecular markers. This review could be helpful to better understand the characteristics of different genetic markers and the genetic diversity of animal genetic resources.

  12. Immunological markers of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Matuszewska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is the most common connective tissue disease of autoimmune origin. The disease is characterized by chronic inflammation leading to bone erosions and organ involvement. RA is a progressive disease. It affects the quality of life, leading to disability and death mainly due to premature cardiovascular disease. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for prognosis and quality of life improvement. In 2010 the American College of Rheumatology (ACR and The European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR established new RA classification criteria. Besides clinical symptoms it includes two immunologic criteria: rheumatoid factor (RF and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (anti-CCP antibodies. RF is the first well-known RA immunologic marker. It is observed in 80-85% of patients with RA. Elevated serum level of RF has been associated with increased disease activity, radiographic progression, and the presence of extraarticular manifestations. The sensitivity of RF is 50-90%, and specificity is 50-95%. Anti-CCP antibodies appear to be a more specific marker than RF. They are often present at the very beginning of the disease, or even years before the first symptoms. The prognostic value of anti-CCP antibodies is well established. High serum level of anti-CCP correlates with poor prognosis and early erosions of the joints. The sensitivity of anti-CCP2 is 48-80%, and specificity is 96-98%. New immunologic markers include anti-carbamylated protein antibodies (anti-CarP and antibodies against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (anti-hnRNP A2/B1, RA33. Scientists aim to identify a highly sensitive and specific biomarker of the disease that not only has diagnostic and prognostic value but also may predict the response to treatment.

  13. Bone markers and osteoporosis therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bandeira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several factors are involved in determining bone quality including bone density, bone turnover, the extent of trabecular bone connectivity, cortical porosity and geometry. Metabolically active and in a continuous process of remodeling, approximately 20% of bone tissue is renewed annually. Bone turn over markers (BTM are frequently used in clinical trials and to provide valid information about the effectiveness of osteoporosis treatment, reflecting the state of bone metabolism and its response to treatment, although they are not useful alone to estimate bone loss. In this review the behavior of BTM from different clinical trials or different osteoporotic drugs will be addressed.

  14. Molecular and cellular markers of toxicity in the Japanese Medaka @

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shugart, L.R.; McCarthy, J.F.; D' Surney, S.J.; Greeley, M.S. Jr.; Hull, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) has been recommended for use as a model organism to detect carcinogenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, and genotoxic compounds in aquatic systems. Because a long latent period often occurs between initial contact with deleterious chemicals and subsequent expression of the pathology, we are investigating early biologically-relevant responses that can be used as genotoxicity markers of exposure and effect. This project focuses on the development of genotoxic bioassays and experimental protocols for exposing Japanese Medaka to genotoxic compounds. 21 refs., 8 figs, 2 tabs.

  15. Isoprostanes – A novel major group of oxidative stress markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Czerska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Isoprostanes are a recently discovered group of prostaglandin isomers. Results of previous studies suggest that they can be used as oxidative stress markers, because in a number of cardiovascular, pulmonary and neurological diseases their levels in biological samples considerably increase. It has been found that people suffering from diabetes, obesity, homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, moderate hypercholesterolemia, and smokers have higher levels of isoprostanes in urine. The same refers to patients with asthma, Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome. This paper reviews the results of relevant studies.

  16. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH)

  17. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  18. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryJoe K Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  19. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  20. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  1. FONZIE: An optimized pipeline for minisatellite marker discovery and primer design from large sequence data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balesdent Marie-Hélène

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micro-and minisatellites are among the most powerful genetic markers known to date. They have been used as tools for a large number of applications ranging from gene mapping to phylogenetic studies and isolate typing. However, identifying micro-and minisatellite markers on large sequence data sets is often a laborious process. Results FONZIE was designed to successively 1 perform a search for markers via the external software Tandem Repeat Finder, 2 exclude user-defined specific genomic regions, 3 screen for the size and the percent matches of each relevant marker found by Tandem Repeat Finder, 4 evaluate marker specificity (i.e., occurrence of the marker as a single copy in the genome using BLAST2.0, 5 design minisatellite primer pairs via the external software Primer3, and 6 check the specificity of each final PCR product by BLAST. A final file returns to users all the results required to amplify markers. A biological validation of the approach was performed using the whole genome sequence of the phytopathogenic fungus Leptosphaeria maculans, showing that more than 90% of the minisatellite primer pairs generated by the pipeline amplified a PCR product, 44.8% of which showed agarose-gel resolvable polymorphism between isolates. Segregation analyses confirmed that the polymorphic minisatellites corresponded to single-locus markers. Conclusion FONZIE is a stand-alone and user-friendly application developed to minimize tedious manual operations, reduce errors, and speed up the search for efficient minisatellite and microsatellite markers departing from whole-genome sequence data. This pipeline facilitates the integration of data and provides a set of specific primer sequences for PCR amplification of single-locus markers. FONZIE is freely downloadable at: http://www.versailles-grignon.inra.fr/bioger/equipes/leptosphaeria_maculans/outils_d_analyses/fonzie

  2. Molecular genetic diversity of Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) as revealed by microsatellite DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is one of the oldest known edible fruits and more and more it arouse interest of scientific community given its numerous biological activities. However, information about its genetic resources and characterization using reliable molecular markers are still scarce. In...

  3. Identification of keratinocyte-specific markers using phage display and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Bak; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Ravn, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    Specific molecular markers for various normal and pathogenic cell states and cell types provide knowledge of basic biological systems and have a direct application in targeted therapy. We describe a proteomic method based on the combination of new and improved phage display antibody technologies...

  4. Profiling tumor-associated markers for early detection of malignant mesothelioma: an epidemiologic study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amati, M.; Tomasetti, M.; Scartozzi, M.; Mariotti, L.; Alleva, R.; Pignotti, E.; Borghi, B.; Valentino, M.; Governa, M.; Neužil, Jiří; Santarelli, L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2008), s. 163-170. ISSN 1055-9965 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520602 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514; CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : malignant mesothelioma * tumor markers * asbestos Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.770, year: 2008

  5. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  6. A novel selection marker for efficient DNA cloning and recombineering in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Wei Jang

    Full Text Available Production of recombinant DNA in bacterial cells is an essential technique in molecular biology. Plasmids are usually maintained in an E. coli host by antibiotic selection. However, there are only a few antibiotic-resistance markers available in common use. Here we report the adoption of a novel selection marker, mfabI (mutant fabI for plasmid propagation in E. coli. mfabI expands the limited repertoire of selection markers and allows for more efficient molecular manipulation and plasmid propagation in E. coli. We show that mfabI is not only an efficient plasmid selection marker, but it also possesses unique activity that may facilitate molecular manipulation of unstable sequences. Furthermore, we have incorporated mfabI in the recombineering tool kit for generating mouse gene targeting vectors and demonstrate the advantage of using mfabI-containing recombineering vectors.

  7. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  8. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  9. Highly Informative Single-Copy Nuclear Microsatellite DNA Markers Developed Using an AFLP-SSR Approach in Black Spruce (Picea mariana) and Red Spruce (P. rubens)

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Zhong Shi; Natascha Forneris; Rajora, Om P

    2014-01-01

    Background Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are highly informative molecular markers for various biological studies in plants. In spruce (Picea) and other conifers, the development of single-copy polymorphic genomic microsatellite markers is quite difficult, owing primarily to the large genome size and predominance of repetitive DNA sequences throughout the genome. We have developed highly informative single-locus genomic microsatellite markers in black spruce (Picea mariana)...

  10. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    MaryJoe K Rice; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic bi...

  11. PROTEOMIC AND EPIGENOMIC MARKERS OF SEPSIS-INDUCED DELIRIUM (SID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adonis eSfera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In elderly population sepsis is one of the leading causes of intensive care unit (ICU admissions in the United States. Sepsis-induced delirium (SID is the most frequent cause of delirium in ICU (1. Together delirium and SID represent under recognized public health problems which place an increasing financial burden on the US health care system, currently estimated at 143 to 152 billion dollars per year (2. The interest in SID was recently reignited as it was demonstrated that, contrary to prior beliefs, cognitive deficits induced by this condition may be irreversible and lead to dementia (3-4. Conversely, it is construed that diagnosing SID early or mitigating its full blown manifestations may preempt geriatric cognitive disorders. Biological markers specific for sepsis and SID would facilitate the development of potential therapies, monitor the disease process and at the same time enable elderly individuals to make better informed decisions regarding surgeries which may pose the risk of complications, including sepsis and delirium.This article proposes a battery of peripheral blood markers to be used for diagnostic and prognostic purposes in sepsis and SID. Though each individual marker may not be specific enough, we believe that together as a battery they may achieve the necessary accuracy to answer two important questions: who may be vulnerable to the development of sepsis, and who may develop SID and irreversible cognitive deficits following sepsis?

  12. Screening study on new tumor marker periplakin for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin Dai; Wei Li; Mian Kong; Yuzhen Zheng; Shuying Chen; Junye Wang; Linquan Zang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use lung cancer targeting binding polypeptide ZS-9 to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer and obtain ZS-9 specific ligand to confirm tumor marker of non small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Artificially synthesize biotin labeled peptide ZS-9, anchored ZS-9 in the enzyme label plate coupled by avidin, used ZS-9 as probe to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer, after screening, obtained bacteriophage clone specifically binding with anchored polypeptide ZS-9. Extracted plasmid of bacteriophage and performed sequencing after amplified by PCR. Results: It was demonstrated by bioinformatic analysis on the sequence of ligand binded by lung cancer specific peptide ZS-9 that the ligand was the cytoskeletal protein periplakin on the surface of lung cancer cells, suggesting that periplakin might be a new marker for non-small-cell lung cancer in lung cancer. Conclusion: Use specific lung cancer binding peptide to screen new tumor marker periplakin in lung cancer and further studies on its biologic functions in genesis and development of lung cancer are still needed.

  13. Salivary Markers for Periodontal and General Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Stepan Podzimek; Lucie Vondrackova; Jana Duskova; Tatjana Janatova; Zdenek Broukal

    2016-01-01

    The determination of biomarkers in saliva is becoming an important part of laboratory diagnostics and the prediction of not only periodontal, but also other tissue and organ diseases. Biomarkers in saliva (e.g., enzymes, protein markers, or oxidative stress markers) can be used for activity determination and for periodontal disease prognosis. Saliva also contains many markers which can predict the risk of certain diseases (e.g., diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular, oncology, endocrinology, and ...

  14. What makes cancer stem cell markers different?

    OpenAIRE

    Karsten, Uwe; Goletz, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Since the cancer stem cell concept has been widely accepted, several strategies have been proposed to attack cancer stem cells (CSC). Accordingly, stem cell markers are now preferred therapeutic targets. However, the problem of tumor specificity has not disappeared but shifted to another question: how can cancer stem cells be distinguished from normal stem cells, or more specifically, how do CSC markers differ from normal stem cell markers? A hypothesis is proposed which might help to solve t...

  15. Newer markers for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Jorge A; Lok, Anna S F

    2004-11-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing worldwide; the overall survival of patients with HCC is grim because most patients are diagnosed late, when curative treatment is not possible. Cirrhosis is the strongest risk factor for the development of HCC. HCC surveillance with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and ultrasonography has been recommended for persons with cirrhosis. However, AFP level is insensitive for the early detection of HCC, and ultrasonography is expensive and operator dependent. Clearly, there is a need for novel strategies for the early detection of HCC. The ideal biomarker assay for HCC would be sensitive, specific, noninvasive, reproducible, inexpensive, and acceptable to patients. The Early Detection Research Network of the National Cancer Institute has proposed 5 phases for biomarker validation: preclinical exploratory studies, clinical assay development for disease, retrospective longitudinal study to detect preclinical disease, prospective screening study, and cancer control studies. Several biomarkers, such as des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP, human hepatocyte growth factor, and insulin-like growth factor-1, are promising, but none of these markers has been validated for clinical use. Limitations of the current literature include inadequate sample size, heterogeneity in biomarker assay methods and result reporting, limited analysis of demographics and cause of liver disease as covariates in the expression of these markers, and a scarcity of longitudinal studies evaluating the ability of biomarkers to detect preclinical disease. There is an urgent need for novel biomarkers for the detection of early HCC; the National Cancer Institute proposal provides a framework for future validation studies. PMID:15508074

  16. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tugwell, Jenna, E-mail: jenna.tugwell@googlemail.co [Department of Radiology, Ysbyty Gwynedd Hospital, Bangor, North Wales (United Kingdom); Maddison, Adele [Nuffield Health, Shrewsbury Hospital (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  17. Serum Tumor Markers for Lung Cancer Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaoyun; Zhou, Shijie; Zhidong LIU; Xu, Shaofa; Zikun LIANG

    2008-01-01

    Background and objective Progress has been made in research of lung cancer tumor markers in recent years, and these tumor markers have been used in clinical application. This study is to evaluate the regimens of six serum tumor markers in lung cancer diagnosis. Methods The serum levels of the six tumor markers (NSE、pro-GRP、CYFRA21-1、SCC、p53 antibody and CA199) were detected in 80 healthy adults, 170 patients with lung cancer and 80 patients with respiratory infection by ELISA. Results The lev...

  18. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-01-01

    A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored) and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.). But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which i...

  19. Radiographic markers - A reservoir for bacteria?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Amongst the most frequently handled objects in the radiology department are radiographic markers. They are personal accessories used with every patient, and are kept in the radiographers pockets when not utilised. Upon enquiry it was discovered that many radiographers disregarded the potential of these accessories to become a vector for cross-contamination thus never or rarely clean them. The aims of this study were therefore to identify if radiographic markers are a reservoir for bacteria and to establish an effective cleaning method for decontaminating them. Methodology: 25 radiographers/student radiographers were selected for this study. Swabbing of their markers prior and post cleaning took place. The microbiology laboratory subsequently analyzed the results by quantifying and identifying the bacteria present. The participants also completed a closed questionnaire regarding their markers (e.g. frequency of cleaning and type of marker) to help specify the results gained from the swabbing procedure. Results: From the sample swabbed, 92% were contaminated with various organisms including Staphylococcus and Bacillus species, the amount of bacteria present ranged from 0 to >50 CFU. There were no significant differences between disinfectant wipes and alcohol gel in decontaminating the markers. Both successfully reduced their bacterial load, with 80% of the markers post cleaning having 0 CFU. Conclusion: The results indicated that radiographic markers can become highly contaminated with various organisms thus serve as a reservoir for bacteria. In addition, the markers need to be cleaned on a regular basis, with either disinfectant wipes or alcohol gel to reduce their bacterial load.

  20. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  1. Synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-5-bromo-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([{sup 18}F]-FBAU) and 2'-deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-5-chloro-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyl-uracil ([{sup 18}F]-FCAU), and their biological evaluation as markers for gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alauddin, Mian M. E-mail: alauddin@usc.edu; Shahinian, Antranic; Park, Ryan; Tohme, Michel; Fissekis, John D.; Conti, Peter S

    2004-05-01

    [{sup 18}F]-FBAU and [{sup 18}F]-FCAU have been synthesized and evaluated in vivo as markers for HSV1-tk gene expression. At 2 hours, uptake of [{sup 18}F]-FBAU and [{sup 18}F]-FCAU in HSV1-tk-positive tumors was 7.9-fold and 6.0-fold higher than the control tumors, respectively. Micro-PET images also showed very high uptake in HSV-tk tumors. Compared to [{sup 14}C]-FMAU, total uptake of [{sup 18}F]-FBAU and [{sup 18}F]-FCAU was similar in tk-positive cells, but the uptake ratio (tk+/wild) was higher. [{sup 18}F]-FBAU and [{sup 18}F]-FCAU appear to be potential PET imaging agents for gene expression.

  2. Marker-assisted selection in fish and shellfish breeding schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goals of breeding programmes for fish and shellfish are to increase the profitability and sustainability of aquaculture. Traditionally, these have been carried out successfully using pedigree information by selecting individuals based on breeding values predicted for traits measured on candidates using an 'animal model'. This methodology assumes that phenotypes are explained by a large number of genes with small effects and random environmental deviations. However, information on individual genes with medium or large effects cannot be used in this manner. In selective breeding programmes using pedigree information, molecular markers have been used primarily for parentage assignment when tagging individual fish is difficult and to avoid causing common environmental effects from rearing families in separate tanks. The use of these techniques in such conventional breeding programmes is discussed in detail. Exploiting the great biological diversity of many fish and shellfish species, different experimental designs may use either chromosomal manipulations or large family sizes to increase the likelihood of finding the loci affecting quantitative traits, the so-called QTL, by screening the segregation of molecular markers. Using information on identified loci in breeding schemes in aquaculture is expected to be cost-effective compared with traditional breeding methods only when the accuracy of predicting breeding values is rather low, e.g. for traits with low heritability such as disease resistance or carcass quality. One of the problems facing aquaculture is that some of the resources required to locate QTL accurately, such as dense linkage maps, are not yet available for the many species. Recently, however, information from expressed sequence tag (EST) databases has been used for developing molecular markers such as microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) or genome-wide marker-assisted selection (G-MAS) using

  3. Inflammatory markers in primary aldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šomlóová, Z; Petrák, O; Rosa, J; Štrauch, B; Indra, T; Zelinka, T; Haluzík, M; Zikán, V; Holaj, R; Widimský, J

    2016-06-20

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension with a high frequency of cardiovascular complications. The unfavorable cardiometabolic profile may be due to aldosterone-mediated activation of inflammatory cells, circulatory cytokines and activation of collagen synthesis in the vessel wall. Aim of our study was to evaluate differences in the levels of hsCRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha and N-terminal propeptide of collagen I (PINP) in patients with PA and essential hypertension (EH) as a control group, and between the subtypes of PA (aldosterone producing adenoma - APA, idiopathic hyperaldosteronism - IHA). We studied 28 patients with PA (IHA - 10 patients, APA - 12 patients, 6 unclassified) and 28 matched patients with EH. There were no differences in the levels of inflammatory markers between the followed groups [EH vs. PA: TNF-alpha (5.09 [3.68-6.32] vs. 4.84 [3.62-6.50] pg/ml), IL-6 (0.94 [0.70-1.13] vs. 0.97 [0.71-1.28] pg/ml), hsCRP (0.53 [0.25-1.54] vs. 0.37 [0.31-0.61] mg/l), leukocytes (6.35+/-1.42 vs. 5.97+/-1.29 10(9) l); APA vs. IHA: TNF-alpha (4.54 [3.62-7.03] vs. 5.19 [4.23-5.27] pg/ml), IL-6 (0.96 [0.63-1.21] vs. 0.90 [0.65-1.06] pg/ml), hsCRP (0.34 [0.29-0.47] vs. 0.75 [0.36-1.11] mg/l), leukocytes (6.37+/-1.41 vs. 5.71+/-1.21 10(9) l)]. Significant differences in the levels of PINP between PA and EH group were observed (35.18 [28.46-41.16] vs. 45.21 [36.95-62.81] microg/l, pmarkers were observed between the followed groups, we confirmed higher levels of PINP in patients with PA. PMID:26447510

  4. Update on genetic markers for pork quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the robustness of reported marker associations with pork quality traits, assay systems were developed for as many polymorphisms from the literature as possible. These assays were genotyped across pigs (n = 1,291) with pork quality data available from four populations. Genetic marker-phe...

  5. New immunological serum markers in bacteraemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaïni, S; Pedersen, S S; Koldkjær, O G;

    2008-01-01

    High mobility group-box 1 protein (HMGB1) is a late-onset proinflammatory cytokine. Soluble haemoglobin scavenger receptor (sCD163) is a specific marker of anti-inflammatory macrophages. The study purpose was to relate the levels of these new markers in bactaeremic patients to levels of well-know...

  6. Percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, G.F.; Josipovic, Mirjana; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund;

    2013-01-01

    A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications.......A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications....

  7. Bilingual Discourse Markers in Indigenous Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Lourdes

    2006-01-01

    This review of research considers the occurrence and function of Spanish discourse markers and other particles in indigenous speech. I discuss important research that has examined these phenomena and refer to studies of bilingual discourse markers in other non-indigenous language contact situations to address unresolved issues concerning the form…

  8. Smart magnetic markers use in hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-11-01

    One of the main challenges and unknowns during shale gas exploration is to assess the range and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing. It is also essential to assess the distribution of proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. Solving these problems may considerably increase the efficiency of the shale gas extraction. Because of that, the idea of smart magnetic marker, which can be detected when added to fracturing fluid, has been considered for a long time. This study provides overview of the possibilities of magnetic marker application for shale gas extraction. The imaging methods using electromagnetic markers, are considered or developed in two directions. The first possibility is the markers' electromagnetic activity throughout the whole volume of the fracturing fluid. Thus, it can be assumed that the whole fracturing fluid is the marker. Among these type of hydraulic fracturing solutions, ferrofluid could be considered. The second possibility is marker, which is just one of many components of the fracturing fluid. In this case feedstock magnetic materials, ferrites and nanomaterials could be considered. Magnetic properties of magnetite could be too low and ferrofluids' or nanomaterials' price is unacceptably high. Because of that, ferrites, especially ZnMn ferrites seems to be the best material for magnetic marker. Because of the numerous applications in electronics, it is cheap and easily available, although the price is higher, then that of magnetite. The disadvantage of using ferrite, could be too small mechanical strength. It creates an essential need for combining magnetic marker with proppant into magnetic-ceramic composite. PMID:27475294

  9. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  10. Characterization of tumorigenicity and radio-sensitivity markers by an ex vivo approach. In vivo identification of p53 dependent radio-sensitivity markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a detailed discussion of the relationship between cancer and genetic instability, of the structure, activation mechanisms, activity and biological functions of the p53 protein, a presentation of p53 mutants, and a recall of the effects of ionizing radiations, the author reports a biology research during which he investigated a cell model established from rat embryo lungs treated with Benzo[a]pyrene and made of tumoral lines muted by the p53 gene. He tried to identify markers which could report differences of tumorigenicity and radio-sensitivity observed in these different lines. He also tried to characterize radio-sensitivity molecular markers dependent on the p53 gene in a context of normal cells

  11. DNA damage markers in dermal fibroblasts in vitro reflect chronological donor age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaijer, Mariëtte E C; Croco, Eleonora; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Slagboom, P Eline; Sedivy, John M; Lorenzini, Antonello; Maier, Andrea B

    2016-01-01

    The aging process is accompanied by an accumulation of cellular damage, which compromises the viability and function of cells and tissues. We aim to further explore the association between in vitro DNA damage markers and the chronological age of the donor, as well as long-lived family membership...... damage markers and long-lived family membership or cardiovascular disease. Results were comparable when fibroblasts were stressed in vitro with rotenone. In conclusion, we found that DNA damage foci of cultured fibroblasts are significantly associated with the chronological age, but not biological age...

  12. Characterization of 10 microsatellite markers for the understorey Amazonian herb Heliconia acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrtes, M C; Gowda, V; Kress, W J; Bruna, E M; Uriarte, M

    2009-07-01

    We characterized 10 microsatellite loci for the plant Heliconia acuminata from the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project (Manaus, Brazil). Markers were screened in 61 individuals from one population and were found to be polymorphic with an average of eight alleles per locus. We found moderate to high levels of polymorphic information content, and observed and expected heterozygosities. All 10 markers are suitable for spatial genetic structure and parentage analyses and will be used for understanding H. acuminata dynamics across a fragmented landscape. PMID:21564896

  13. Multi-Marker Strategy in Heart Failure: Combination of ST2 and CRP Predicts Poor Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Anne Marie; Curinier, Corentin; Kuster, Nils; Huet, Fabien; Leclercq, Florence; Davy, Jean Marc; Cristol, Jean Paul; Roubille, François

    2016-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides (BNP and NT-proBNP) are recognized as gold-standard predictive markers in Heart Failure (HF). However, currently ST2 (member of the interleukin 1 receptor family) has emerged as marker of inflammation, fibrosis and cardiac stress. We evaluated ST2 and CRP as prognostic markers in 178 patients with chronic heart failure in comparison with other classical markers such as clinical established parameters but also biological markers: NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT alone or in combination. In multivariate analysis, subsequent addition of ST2 led to age, CRP and ST2 as the only remaining predictors of all-cause mortality (HR 1.03, HR 1.61 and HR 2.75, respectively) as well as of cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.00, HR 2.27 and HR 3.78, respectively). The combined increase of ST2 and CRP was significant for predicting worsened outcomes leading to identify a high risk subgroup that individual assessment of either marker. The same analysis was performed with ST2 in combination with Barcelona score. Overall, our findings extend previous data demonstrating that ST2 in combination with CRP as a valuable tool for identifying patients at risk of death. PMID:27311068

  14. A Quantitative Perspective on Surface Marker Selection for the Isolation of Functional Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahall, Calvin F; Lilly, Jacob L; Hirschowitz, Edward A; Berron, Brad J

    2015-01-01

    Much effort has gone into developing fluid biopsies of patient peripheral blood for the monitoring of metastatic cancers. One common approach is to isolate and analyze tumor cells in the peripheral blood. Widespread clinical implementation of this approach has been hindered by the current choice of targeting epithelial markers known to be highly variable in primary tumor sites. Here, we review current antigen-based tumor cell isolation strategies and offer biological context for commonly studied cancer surface markers. Expression levels of the most common markers are quantitated for three breast cancer and two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lineage models. These levels are contrasted with that present on healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for comparison to expected background levels in a fluid biopsy setting. A key feature of this work is establishing a metric of markers per square micrometer. This describes an average marker density on the cell membrane surface, which is a critical metric for emerging isolation strategies. These results serve to extend expression of key tumor markers in a sensitive and dynamic manner beyond traditional positive/negative immunohistochemical staining to guide future fluid biopsy targeting strategies. PMID:26309407

  15. MOLECULAR MARKERS FOR METASTATIC PROSTATE ADENOCARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Kunin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The search of molecular markers of metastasing and prognosis in prostate cancer remains an urgent task. In this study, we investigated the relationship of gene expression heparanase-1 (HPSE1 and D-glucuronil C5-epimerase (GLCE with early disease relapse and metastasis of a 2,5−3 years after diagnosis. It was shown that the ratio of the expression levels of genes HPSE1/GLCE > 1 may serve as a prognostic relapse marker and trends of the tumour to metastasis. The data obtained suggest to use this option as a molecular marker for the diagnostics of metastatic process and the disease prognosis.

  16. Efficient marker data utilization in genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edriss, Vahid

    Genomic prediction is a novel method to recognize the best animals for breeding. The aim of this PhD is to improve the accuracy of genomic prediction in dairy cattle by effeiently utilizing marker data. The thesis focuses on three aspects for improving the genomc prediction, which are: criteria of...... editing marker data, methods to handle missing genotypes and prediction using haplotypes constructed with an advanced method. The results of this study show that the accuracy of genomc prediction increases by: optimal criteria for marker data editing parameters, proper handling of missing genotypes using...

  17. Additional first-trimester ultrasound markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonek, J; Nicolaides, K

    2010-09-01

    The first trimester (11-13 +6 weeks) ultrasound examination is useful for several reasons: determination of an accurate date of confinement, diagnostic purposes, and screening for fetal defects. Nuchal translucency measurement combined with maternal serum markers (free b-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A) is the mainstay of first-trimester screening for chromosomal defects. However, over the past decade additional ultrasound markers have been developed that improve the performance of this type of screening. The novel markers include evaluation of the nasal bone, fronto-maxillary angle measurement, and Doppler evaluations of the blood flow across the tricuspid valve and in the ductus venosus. PMID:20638573

  18. DNA-based genetic markers for Rapid Cycling Brassica rapa (Fast Plants type designed for the teaching laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryn E. Slankster

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed DNA-based genetic markers for rapid-cycling Brassica rapa (RCBr, also known as Fast Plants. Although markers for Brassica rapa already exist, ours were intentionally designed for use in a teaching laboratory environment. The qualities we selected for were robust amplification in PCR, polymorphism in RCBr strains, and alleles that can be easily resolved in simple agarose slab gels. We have developed two single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP based markers and 14 variable number tandem repeat (VNTR-type markers spread over four chromosomes. The DNA sequences of these markers represent variation in a wide range of genomic features. Among the VNTR-type markers, there are examples of variation in a nongenic region, variation within an intron, and variation in the coding sequence of a gene. Among the SNP-based markers there are examples of polymorphism in intronic DNA and synonymous substitution in a coding sequence. Thus these markers can serve laboratory exercises in both transmission genetics and molecular biology.

  19. Tumor markers: applications and recommendations. New IZOTOPE products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At work aspects are discussed: Tumor markers; New products IZOTOP; Measuring principle of IRMA kits for tumor markers; Guidelines and Recommendations for the use of tumor markers. pre-analytical, post-analytical and Quality control recommendations are given

  20. Progestins and cardiovascular risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, R

    2000-01-01

    Several risks are attributed to progestins as a class-effect; however, the progestins used in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have varying pharmacologic properties and do not induce the same side effects. Natural progesterone (P) and some of its derivatives, such as the 19-norprogesterones, do not exert any androgenic effect and, hence, have no negative effect on the lipids. On the other hand, the 19-nortestosterone derivatives and even some 17-hydroxyprogesterones have a partial androgenic effect, which may explain some of the negative effects observed on surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk. The relevance of the lipid changes induced by sex steroids has been questioned, and studies in the female cynomolgous monkey have not shown a direct relationship to atherosclerosis. Results suggest that estrogens (E) have antiatherogenic effects and that P does not reverse the beneficial effect of estradiol. Also, sex hormones modulate the vasomotor response of the main arteries. E preserves the normal endothelium-mediated dilation of coronary arteries, and P does not reverse this potential cardioprotective mechanism. In the same animal model, the addition of cyclic or continuous medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to E inhibited vasodilatation by 50%, while nomegestrol acetate did not diminish the E-induced vasodilatation. Not all progestins act similarly on vasomotion or affect cardiovascular risk factors in the same way. Progestins, such as MPA or norethisterone acetate (NETA), exert a partial detrimental effect on the beneficial actions of estrogens with regard to lipid changes, atheroma development, or vasomotion. In contrast, progesterone itself does not have this inhibitory effect on lipid changes and vascular reactivity in animal models or on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia in humans. Nonandrogenic molecules of P itself and of derivatives, such as 19-norprogesterones, would appear neutral on the vessels. Several ongoing randomized controlled trials of HRT are

  1. Male Inmate Profiles and Their Biological Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Mathilde; Potvin, Stephane; Allaire, Jean-François; Côté, Gilles; Gobbi, Gabriella; Benkirane, Karim; Vachon, Jeanne; Dumais, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Borderline and antisocial personality disorders (PDs) share common clinical features (impulsivity, aggressiveness, substance use disorders [SUDs], and suicidal behaviours) that are greatly overrepresented in prison populations. These disorders have been associated biologically with testosterone and cortisol levels. However, the associations are ambiguous and the subject of controversy, perhaps because these heterogeneous disorders have been addressed as unitary constructs. A consideration of profiles of people, rather than of exclusive diagnoses, might yield clearer relationships. Methods: In our study, multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis were employed to identify subgroups among 545 newly convicted inmates. The groups were then compared in terms of clinical features and biological markers, including levels of cortisol, testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and sulfoconjugated dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S). Results: Four clusters with differing psychiatric, criminal, and biological profiles emerged. Clinically, one group had intermediate scores for each of the tested clinical features. Another group comprised people with little comorbidity. Two others displayed severe impulsivity, PD, and SUD. Biologically, cortisol levels were lowest in the last 2 groups and highest in the group with less comorbidity. In keeping with previous findings reported in the literature, testosterone was higher in a younger population with severe psychiatric symptoms. However, some apparently comparable behavioural outcomes were found to be related to distinct biological profiles. No differences were observed for estradiol, progesterone, or DHEA-S levels. Conclusions: The results not only confirm the importance of biological markers in the study of personality features but also demonstrate the need to consider the role of comorbidities and steroid coregulation. PMID:25161069

  2. Molecular markers: tools to improve genebank efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hintum, van T.J.L.; Treuren, van R.

    2002-01-01

    Possibilities for using molecular markers to improve genebank efficiency are increasingly present thanks to developments in genebanks and developments in molecular genetics. These possibilities relate to all aspects of genebank management: acquisition, maintenance, characterisation and utilisation.

  3. Confirmation of Clematis hybrids using molecular markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hybrid origin of two progeny from reciprocal crosses of Clematis tubulosa and C. brevicaudata was investigated using molecular markers generated by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Morphologi...

  4. Diagnostically Relevant Molecular Markers in Head and Neck Neoplasms

    OpenAIRE

    Soma Susan Varghese; Philips Mathew; Jithin Jose

    2013-01-01

    Tumor markers are grouped into diagnostic and prognostic markers. Specific diagnostic markers appear extensively in cells of a particular neoplasm and not in other tumors. These markers can be used to assess the cellular lineage and histogenic origin of various neoplasms. Thus, diagnostic markers can be used for the confirmatory diagnosis of various tumors. This paper reviews the literature on various diagnostic markers and aims to group them based on the cellular lineage of neoplasms.

  5. Molecular markers of tumor invasiveness in ameloblastoma: An update

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yi; Guo, Wei; Wang, Li; CHEN, XINMING

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present article was to review the current new knowledge on the molecular markers of tumor invasion in ameloblastoma. In this review, tumor molecular markers were identified and allocated to the following six groups according to their functions: (I) Markers involved in extracellular matrix degradation, (II) Molecular markers involved in cell adhesion lost, (III) Molecular markers involved in bone remodeling, (IV) Cytokines involved in angiogenesis, (V) Molecular markers related ...

  6. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  7. Forced-choice Five Factor markers

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Anna; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The Big Five Questionnaire (Brown & Maydeu-Olivares, 2011) was developed in the context of a study researching item response theory (IRT) modeling of forced-choice questionnaires. The purpose of the questionnaire is to measure the Big Five personality factor markers. Items were drawn from the 100 items of the International Personality Item Pool. The authors selected 60 items so that 12 items would measure each of the five marker traits, with 8 positively and 4 negatively keyed items per trait...

  8. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  9. Detection of immunocytological markers in photomicroscopic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, David; zur Jacobsmühlen, Joschka; Braunschweig, Till; Bell, André; Chaisaowong, Kraisorn; Knüchel-Clarke, Ruth; Aach, Til

    2012-03-01

    Early detection of cervical cancer can be achieved through visual analysis of cell anomalies. The established PAP smear achieves a sensitivity of 50-90%, most false negative results are caused by mistakes in the preparation of the specimen or reader variability in the subjective, visual investigation. Since cervical cancer is caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), the detection of HPV-infected cells opens new perspectives for screening of precancerous abnormalities. Immunocytochemical preparation marks HPV-positive cells in brush smears of the cervix with high sensitivity and specificity. The goal of this work is the automated detection of all marker-positive cells in microscopic images of a sample slide stained with an immunocytochemical marker. A color separation technique is used to estimate the concentrations of the immunocytochemical marker stain as well as of the counterstain used to color the nuclei. Segmentation methods based on Otsu's threshold selection method and Mean Shift are adapted to the task of segmenting marker-positive cells and their nuclei. The best detection performance of single marker-positive cells was achieved with the adapted thresholding method with a sensitivity of 95.9%. The contours differed by a modified Hausdorff Distance (MHD) of 2.8 μm. Nuclei of single marker positive cells were detected with a sensitivity of 95.9% and MHD = 1.02 μm.

  10. MicroRNAs as molecular markers in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer death in the western world for both men and women. Lung cancer appears to be a perfect candidate for a screening program, since it is the number one cancer killer, it has a long preclinical phase, curative treatment for the minority of patients who are diagnosed early and a target population at risk (smokers and it is also a major economic burden. The earliest approaches to identifying cancer markers were based on preliminary clinical or pathological observations, although molecular biology is a strong candidate for occupying a place among the set of methods. In search of markers, several alterations, such as mutations, loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite instability, DNA methylation, mitochondrial DNA mutations, viral DNA, modified expression of mRNA, miRNA and proteins, and structurally altered proteins have all been analysed. MicroRNAs (miRNA are small RNA molecules, about 19-25 nucleotides long and encoded in genomes of plants, animals, fungi and viruses. It has been reported that miRNAs may have multiple functions in lung development and that aberrant expression of miRNAs could induce lung tumorigenesis. We review here the role of miRNAs in lung tumorigenesis and also as a novel type of biomarker.-----------------------------------Cite this article as:Silva J, Garcia V, Lopez-Gonzalez A, Provencio M. MicroRNAs as molecular markers in lung cancer. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2013;1(1:010111. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0101.11

  11. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  12. Pictures of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Cserer, Amelie; Seiringer, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the representation of Synthetic Biology in the media and by biotechnology experts. An analysis was made of German-language media articles published between 2004 and 2008, and interviews with biotechnology-experts at the Synthetic Biology conference SB 3.0 in Zurich 2007. The results have been reflected in terms of the definition of Synthetic Biology, applications of Synthetic Biology and the perspectives of opportunities and risks. In the media, Synthetic Biolog...

  13. Blood-based Tumor Markers in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caicun ZHOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, "liquid biopsy" received enormous attentionas a new detecting method. As a non-invasive tumor screening method, the applications of liquid biopsyinclude early detection, monitoring relapse, assessment of therapy and molecule expression in lung cancer. The main source of liquid biopsy comes from circulating tumor cells (CTCs, ctDNA, and so on. This review will explore the biological characteristics, detection technologies and clinical applications of CTCs, ctDNA and other tumor markers in lung cancerand summarize liquid biopsy which in accord with three important criteria of high sensitivity (highspecificity, clinical utility and repeatability, especially a new method of ligand-targeted PCR (LT-PCR that showed a high sensitivity of 67.2% in stage I lung cancer. We expect that "liquid biopsy" could be really explored from scientific research to clinical application.

  14. Induced mutations and marker assisted breeding approaches to crop improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The crop improvement programme at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology involves use of mutation breeding techniques, particularly for improving plant architecture, maturity, period and induction/incorporation of genes for biotic and abiotic tolerance in important food and fibre crops. Recent advances in molecular genetics offered us new techniques to elucidate differences at the molecular level in the mutated genes with the help of marker assisted breeding techniques, i.e. restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Efforts are therefore being made to incorporate salt tolerance in cultivated wheat and rice from their wild relatives through wide hybridization. Thirteen improved varieties of rice, cotton, mungbeam and chickpea have been developed using the mutation breeding technique and then released for commercial cultivation. These improved varieties have played a significant role in increasing agricultural production in the country. In addition, a wealth of genetic variability has been developed for use in the cross-breeding programmes, and a few varieties of cotton have been developed in Pakistan with an induced mutation as one of their parents. Marker assisted wide hybridization in rice has helped to monitor the flow of genetic material carrying salt tolerance from wild to cultivated species. In wheat, DNA fingerprinting has been attempted to differentiate salt tolerant line (hybrids) from their parents

  15. Antioxidants and biological radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, by combatting oxygen radical-mediated radiation-induced oxidative stress, may prevent the accumulation of damage involved in tumor initiation, promotion and progression, and thus serve to protect us against ionizing radiation. We are testing the possible role of dietary antioxidants, and other biological response modifiers, in determining individual radiation response. These experiments use the fluorescent protein beta-phycoerythrin as a target and biomolecular marker for radiation-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants are ranked according to their radioprotectiveness by their ability to compete with beta-phycoerythrin for radiolytic oxygen radicals. Samples of blood serum from cancer patients have been analyzed using this technique. There is a trend towards decreasing antioxidant levels with increasing donor age, and this is consistent with data showing an increasing radiosensitivity with age. We are presently monitoring antioxidant and antioxidant enzyme levels in atomic radiation workers and the general public, in order to assess whether they influence individual radiosensitivity. Knowledge of this source of biological response modification will be useful in applying radiation protection practices to those individuals or groups most at risk, and for estimating individual risks associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  16. Antioxidants and biological radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenten, K.J.; Greenstock, C.L. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes, by combatting oxygen radical-mediated radiation-induced oxidative stress, may prevent the accumulation of damage involved in tumor initiation, promotion and progression, and thus serve to protect us against ionizing radiation. We are testing the possible role of dietary antioxidants, and other biological response modifiers, in determining individual radiation response. These experiments use the fluorescent protein beta-phycoerythrin as a target and biomolecular marker for radiation-induced oxidative stress. Antioxidants are ranked according to their radioprotectiveness by their ability to compete with beta-phycoerythrin for radiolytic oxygen radicals. Samples of blood serum from cancer patients have been analyzed using this technique. There is a trend towards decreasing antioxidant levels with increasing donor age, and this is consistent with data showing an increasing radiosensitivity with age. We are presently monitoring antioxidant and antioxidant enzyme levels in atomic radiation workers and the general public, in order to assess whether they influence individual radiosensitivity. Knowledge of this source of biological response modification will be useful in applying radiation protection practices to those individuals or groups most at risk, and for estimating individual risks associated with radiation exposure. (author)

  17. Biological aerosol warner and analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlemmer, Harry; Kürbitz, Gunther; Miethe, Peter; Spieweck, Michael

    2006-05-01

    The development of an integrated sensor device BiSAM (Biological Sampling and Analysing Module) is presented which is designed for rapid detection of aerosol or dust particles potentially loaded with biological warfare agents. All functional steps from aerosol collection via immuno analysis to display of results are fully automated. The core component of the sensor device is an ultra sensitive rapid analyser PBA (Portable Benchtop Analyser) based on a 3 dimensional immuno filtration column of large internal area, Poly HRP marker technology and kinetic optical detection. High sensitivity despite of the short measuring time, high chemical stability of the micro column and robustness against interferents make the PBA an ideal tool for fielded sensor devices. It is especially favourable to combine the PBA with a bio collector because virtually no sample preparation is necessary. Overall, the BiSAM device is capable to detect and identify living micro organisms (bacteria, spores, viruses) as well as toxins in a measuring cycle of typically half an hour duration. In each batch up to 12 different tests can be run in parallel together with positive and negative controls to keep the false alarm rate low.

  18. Mutant germplasm characterization using molecular markers. A manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plant biotechnology applications must not only respond to the challenge of improving food security and fostering socio-economic development, but in doing so, promote the conservation, diversification and sustainable use of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Nowadays the biotechnology toolbox available to plant breeders offers several new possibilities for increasing productivity, crop diversification and production, while developing a more sustainable agriculture. This training course focuses on one of the most promising set of techniques used in modern crop improvement programmes, i.e. on molecular markers. These are rapidly being adopted by plant breeders and molecular biologists as effective and appropriate tools for basic and applied studies addressing biological components in agricultural production systems. Their use in applied breeding programmes can range from facilitating the appropriate choice of parents for crosses, to mapping/tagging of gene blocks associated with economically important traits (often termed 'quantitative trait loci' (QTLs)). Gene tagging and QTL mapping in turn permit marker-assisted selection (MAS) in backcross, pedigree, and population improvement programmes, thereby facilitating more efficient incremental improvement of specific individual target traits. And through comparative genomics, molecular markers can be used in ways that allow us to more effectively discover and efficiently exploit biodiversity and the evolutionary relationships between organisms. Substantial progress has been made in recent years in mapping, tagging and isolating many agriculturally important genes using molecular markers due in large part to improvements in the techniques that have been developed to help find markers of interest. Among the techniques that are particularly promising are Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLPs), Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLPs), Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPDs), Microsatellites

  19. Biology of peripheral T cell lymphomas – Not otherwise specified: Is something finally happening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maura

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: Although no recurrent and specific biological aberrations have been discovered yet, novel integrated genomic and transcriptomics approaches are significantly improving our knowledge of PTCL biology and support the development of new powerful diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as targets of future therapies.

  20. Key signaling pathways in the muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma: Clinical markers for disease modeling and optimized treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselyov, Alex; Bunimovich-Mendrazitsky, Svetlana; Startsev, Vladimir

    2016-06-01

    In this review, we evaluate key molecular pathways and markers of muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). Overexpression and activation of EGFR, p63, and EMT genes are suggestive of basal MIBC subtype generally responsive to chemotherapy. Alterations in PPARγ, ERBB2/3, and FGFR3 gene products and their signaling along with deregulated p53, cytokeratins KRT5/6/14 in combination with the cellular proliferation (Ki-67), and cell cycle markers (p16) indicate the need for more radical treatment protocols. Similarly, the "bell-shape" dynamics of Shh expression levels may suggest aggressive MIBC. A panel of diverse biological markers may be suitable for simulation studies of MIBC and development of an optimized treatment protocol. We conducted a critical evaluation of PubMed/Medline and SciFinder databases related to MIBC covering the period 2009-2015. The free-text search was extended by adding the following keywords and phrases: bladder cancer, metastatic, muscle-invasive, basal, luminal, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, cancer stem cell, mutations, immune response, signaling, biological markers, molecular markers, mathematical models, simulation, epigenetics, transmembrane, transcription factor, kinase, predictor, prognosis. The resulting selection of ca 500 abstracts was further analyzed in order to select the latest publications relevant to MIBC molecular markers of immediate clinical significance. PMID:26547270

  1. On identification problems requiring linked autosomal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Thore; Sheehan, Nuala

    2008-06-01

    This paper considers identification problems based on DNA marker data. The topics we discuss are general, but we will exemplify them in a simple context. There is DNA available from two persons. There is uncertainty about the relationship between the two individuals and a number of hypotheses describing the possible relationship is available. The task is to determine the most likely pedigree. This problem is fairly standard. However, there are some problems that cannot be solved using DNA from independently segregating loci. For example, the likelihoods for (i) grandparent-grandchild, (ii) uncle-niece and (iii) half-sibs coincide for such DNA data and so these relations cannot be distinguished on the basis of markers normally used for forensic identification problems: the likelihood ratio comparing any pair of hypotheses will be unity. Sometimes, but not in the examples we consider, other sources of DNA like mtDNA or sex chromosomes can help to distinguish between such equally likely possibilities. Prior information can likewise be of use. For instance, age information can exclude alternative (i) above and also indicate that alternative (iii) is apriori more likely than alternative (ii). More generally, the above problems can be solved using linked autosomal markers. To study the problem in detail and understand how linkage works in this regard, we derive an explicit formula for a pair of linked markers. The formula extends to independent pairs of linked markers. While this approach adds to the understanding of the problem, more markers are required to obtain satisfactory results and then the Lander-Green algorithm is needed. Simulation experiments are presented based on a range of scenarios and we conclude that useful results can be obtained using available freeware (MERLIN and R). The main message of this paper is that linked autosomal markers deserve greater attention in forensic genetics and that the required laboratory and statistical analyses can be performed

  2. A Quantitative Perspective on Surface Marker Selection for the Isolation of Functional Tumor Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Cahall, Calvin F; Lilly, Jacob L.; Hirschowitz, Edward A.; Berron, Brad J

    2015-01-01

    Much effort has gone into developing fluid biopsies of patient peripheral blood for the monitoring of metastatic cancers. One common approach is to isolate and analyze tumor cells in the peripheral blood. Widespread clinical implementation of this approach has been hindered by the current choice of targeting epithelial markers known to be highly variable in primary tumor sites. Here, we review current antigen-based tumor cell isolation strategies and offer biological context for commonly stud...

  3. Molecular Markers in Peripheral Blood of Iranian Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Oloomi, Mana; Bouzari, Saeid; Mohagheghi, Mohammad-Ali; Khodayaran-Tehrani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A biomarker is a quantifiable laboratory measure of a disease specific biologically relevant molecule that can act as an indicator of a current or future disease state. The purpose of this study is to detect the expression of RNA biomarkers using Cytokeratin 19 (CK-19), Mammaglobin (MAM), Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), Mucin (MUC), C-Myc, erb-B2, a proliferation marker (Ki-67), Epidermal growth factor receptor (Her2/neu) and Estrogen receptor (ER) in Iranian women who were diagnosed with bre...

  4. Serologic and laboratory markers in prediction of the disease course in inflammatory bowel disease

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The search for biologic markers that can assess the natural history and perhaps predict the course of individual’s disease including response to treatments over time has become an important focus of inflammatory bowel disease research. The knowledge of an individual’s prognosis can help physicians and patients make important management decisions and aid communication on risk and benefits of disease and treatment.

  5. Specific Protein Markers for Stem Cell Cross-Talk with Neighboring Cells in the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Seung Won; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Um, Soong Ho

    2013-01-01

    A stem cell interacts with the neighboring cells in its environment. To maintain a living organism’s metabolism, either cell-cell or cell-environment interactions may be significant. Usually, these cells communicate with each other through biological signaling by interactive behaviors of primary proteins or complementary chemicals. The signaling intermediates offer the stem cell’s functionality on its metabolism. With the rapid advent of omics technologies, various specific markers by which s...

  6. Identification of Interconnected Markers for T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Guven Maiorov; Ozlem Keskin; Ozden Hatirnaz Ng; Ugur Ozbek; Attila Gursoy

    2013-01-01

    Hindawi Publishing Corporation BioMed Research International Volume 2013, Article ID 210253, 20 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/210253 Research Article Identification of Interconnected Markers for T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Emine Guven Maiorov,1 Ozlem Keskin,1 Ozden Hatirnaz Ng,2 Ugur Ozbek,2 and Attila Gursoy1 1 Center for Computational Biology and Bioinformatics and College of Engineering, Koc¸ University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer, 34450 Istanbu...

  7. Early markers of in vitro microspore reprogramming to embryogenesis in olive (Olea europaea L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Solís, M. T.; Pintoz, B.; Prado, M.J.; Bueno, M.T.; Raška, Ivan; Risueňo, M. C.; Testillano, P. S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 6 (2008), s. 597-605. ISSN 0168-9452 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LC535; Spanish National Research Council(ES) 2006CZ0006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : olive pollen embryogenesis * cellular markers * microspore culture Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.974, year: 2008

  8. Laser-guidance based cell detection for identifying malignant cancerous cells without any fluorescent markers

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhen; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2011-01-01

    Laser guidance technique employs the optical forces generated from a focused Gaussian laser beam incident on a biological cell to trap and guide the cell along the laser propagation direction. The optical force, which determines the guidance speed, is dependent on the cellular characteristics of the cell being guided, such as size, shape, composition and morphology. Different cell populations or subpopulations can be detected without any fluorescent markers by measuring their guidance speeds....

  9. From dysplastic nevus to melanoma: functional proteomic approach for the identification of bio markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project ultimately aims to identify bio markers from serum or other biological fluids helpful for early diagnosis of melanoma. Parametric analysis combined with advanced skin imaging technology, such as con focal microscopy, is directed to the identification of different types of benign melanocyte lesions, as well as to the characterization of different melanomas and dysplastic nevi, in order to understand different tumour progression behaviours and to identify possible melanoma precursors

  10. Blood antioxidant enzymes as markers of exposure or effect in coal miners.

    OpenAIRE

    Perrin-Nadif, R; Auburtin, G; Dusch, M; Porcher, J. M.; Mur, J M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate if blood Cu++/Zn++ superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and total plasma antioxidant activities could be markers of biological activity resulting from exposure to respirable coal mine dust in active miners, and of pneumoconiosis in retired miners. METHODS--Blood samples were randomly obtained from active surface workers (n = 30) and underground miners (n = 34), and from retired miners without (n = 21), and with (n = 33) pneumoconiosis. Antioxidant ...

  11. a Sensitive Physiological Marker of Zinc Status in Vivo (Gallus gallus)

    OpenAIRE

    Spenser Reed; Xia Qin; Rinat Ran-Ressler; James Thomas Brenna; Glahn, Raymond P.; Elad Tako

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is a vital micronutrient used for over 300 enzymatic reactions and multiple biochemical and structural processes in the body. To date, sensitive and specific biological markers of zinc status are still needed. The aim of this study was to evaluate Gallus gallus as an in vivo model in the context of assessing the sensitivity of a previously unexplored potential zinc biomarker, the erythrocyte linoleic acid: dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (LA:DGLA) ratio. Diets identical in composition were formu...

  12. Fear Responding to 35% CO2 Challenge as a Vulnerability Marker for Later Social Anxiety Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Norman B.; Cromer, Kiara R.; Buckner, Julia D.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of biological challenge studies have focused on panic disorder though there is a small literature suggesting that patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) show comparable responding. These cross-sectional studies suggest that CO2 reactivity may be a marker of vulnerability to social anxiety. However, the nature of this association is unclear due to design limitations in this literature. The present report prospectively evaluated whether response to a 20% CO2 challenge was pred...

  13. Transcriptome Analysis and Development of SSR Molecular Markers in Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.

    OpenAIRE

    Yaling Liu; Pengfei Zhang; Meiling Song; Junling Hou; Mei Qing; Wenquan Wang; Chunsheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Licorice is an important traditional Chinese medicine with clinical and industrial applications. Genetic resources of licorice are insufficient for analysis of molecular biology and genetic functions; as such, transcriptome sequencing must be conducted for functional characterization and development of molecular markers. In this study, transcriptome sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing platform generated a total of 5.41 Gb clean data. De novo assembly yielded a total of 46,641 uni...

  14. cpDNA Microsatellite Markers for Lemna minor (Araceae: Phylogeographic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowher A. Wani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A lack of genetic markers impedes our understanding of the population biology of Lemna minor. Thus, the development of appropriate genetic markers for L. minor promises to be highly useful for population genetic studies and for addressing other life history questions regarding the species. Methods and Results: For the first time, we characterized nine polymorphic and 24 monomorphic chloroplast microsatellite markers in L. minor using DNA samples of 26 individuals sampled from five populations in Kashmir and of 17 individuals from three populations in Quebec. Initially, we designed 33 primer pairs, which were tested on genomic DNA from natural populations. Nine loci provided markers with two alleles. Based on genotyping of the chloroplast DNA fragments from 43 sampled individuals, we identified one haplotype in Quebec and 11 haplotypes in Kashmir, of which one occurs in 56% of the genotypes, one in 8%, and nine in 4%, respectively. There was a maximum of two alleles per locus. Conclusions: These new chloroplast microsatellite markers for L. minor and haplotype distribution patterns indicate a complex phylogeographic history that merits further investigation.

  15. Neopterin and beta 2-microglobulin as serum markers in a placebo-controlled anti-HIV therapy trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstens, J; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Black, F T

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the biologic immune activation markers neopterin and beta 2-microglobulin in monitoring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated with isoprinosine and placebo. Serum samples ...

  16. Antioxidant markers based TLC-DPPH differentiation on four commercialized botanical sources of Shankhpushpi (A Medhya Rasayana): A preliminary assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj K Sethiya; M K Mohan Maruga Raja; Shri Hari Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Shankhpushpi is a cognition boosting traditional ayurvedic brain supplement. Convolvulus pluricaulis (Convolvulaceae), Evolvulus alsinoides (Convolvulaceae), Clitoria ternatea (Papilionaceae), and Canscora decussata (Gentianaceae) are botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi. This investigation is to focus the identification of the compound based on biological marker differentiation of four botanical claimants of Shankhpushpi for their antioxidant evaluation on thin layer chromatography (TLC) by 2...

  17. Plasmacytoma with aberrant expression of myeloid markers, T-cell markers, and cytokeratin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, J S; Stopyra, G A; Warhol, M J; Multhaupt, H A

    2001-01-01

    for myeloid markers such as CD13, CD33, CD38, and CD138. Significant negative markers include CD20 (L26), CD45RO (UCHL-1), and CD79alpha. The unusual phenotypic features of this plasmacytoma illustrate potential diagnostic pitfalls. It is important to fully study such lesions to correctly classify...

  18. A case against bio markers as they are currently used in radioecological risk analyses: a problem of linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio-markers are successfully used in human risk analyses as early indicators of contaminant exposure and predictors of deleterious effects. This has boosted the search for bio-markers in determining ecological risks to non-human biota, and particularly for assessments related to radioactive contaminants. There are difficulties, however, that prevent an easy transfer of the bio-marker concept from humans to non-human biota, as there are significant differences in endpoints of concern, units of observation and dose response relationships between human and ecological risk analyses. The use of bio-markers in ecological risk analyses currently lacks a linkage between molecular-level effects and quantifiable impacts observed in individuals and populations. This is important because ecological risk analyses generally target the population level of biological organisation. We highlight various examples that demonstrate the difficulties of linking individual responses to population-level impacts, such as indirect effects and compensatory interactions. Eco-toxicologists cope with such difficulties through the use of uncertainty or extrapolation factors. Extrapolation factors (EF) typically range from 1 to 1000 when linking effects observed in individuals to those predicted to occur in populations. We question what magnitude of EF will be required when going from a molecular level effect, measured by a bio-marker, all the way up to the population level of biological organisation. Particularly, we stress that a successful application of bio-markers to radioecological risk assessment can only be achieved once the connection has been made between changes in individual resource allocation-based life histories and population dynamics. This clearly emphasises the need to quantify the propagation of molecular and cellular level effects to higher levels of biological organisation, especially in the long-term via several generations of exposure. Finally, we identify pertinent research

  19. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Backes, G.; de Vriend, H.;

    2010-01-01

    Plant geneticists consider molecular marker assisted selection a useful additional tool in plant breeding programs to make selection more efficient. Standards for organic agriculture do not exclude the use of molecular markers as such, however for the organic sector the appropriateness of molecular...... markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input farming conditions require breeding for robust and flexible varieties, which may be hampered by too much focus on the molecular level. Pros and contras for application of molecular markers in breeding for organic agriculture was the...... topic of a recent European plant breeding workshop. The participants evaluated strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the use of molecular markers and we formalized their inputs into breeder’s perspectives and perspectives seen from the organic sector’s standpoint. Clear strengths were...

  20. Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M C G; Zaviezo, T; Le Maguet, J; Herrbach, E; Malausa, T

    2014-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of insects, both at inter- and intra-specific level. Despite their potential uses, microsatellites have been developed only for one mealybug species so far. Hence, it is unclear whether microsatellites may be useful to assess mealybug population differentiation and structuring. In this work, we tested the feasibility of developing microsatellite markers in mealybugs by: (i) producing and characterizing microsatellite DNA libraries for three species: Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus comstocki and Heliococcus bohemicus, and (ii) by developing and testing markers for Ps. viburni. The obtained libraries contained balanced percentages of dinucleotide (ranging from 15 to 25%) and trinucleotide (from 5 to 17%) motifs. The marker setup for Ps. viburni was successful, although 70% of the primers initially tested were discarded for a lack of polymorphism. Finally, 25 markers were combined in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions with 21 displaying no evidence of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Ps. viburni markers were tested on one population from France and one from Chile. The markers revealed a significant genetic differentiation between the two populations with an Fst estimate of 0.266. PMID:24345408

  1. Trophoblastic markers in women using intrauterine contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylikorkala, O; Siljander, M; Huhtaniemi, I; Kauppila, A; Seppälä, M

    1980-03-01

    Serum levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (PSBG) were measured in 214 women using Copper-T200 intrauterine devices (CIUDs). In a cross-sectional study the samples were taken between the 25th and 35th cycle days, 1 sample per cycle. Either trophoblastic marker was detectable in 8 women (3.7%), hCG in 3 (1.4%), PSBG in 7 (3.3%), and both markers together in (0.9%). Normal menstruation-like bleeding ensued in all but 1 woman whose bleeding was delayed by 5 days. Our results suggest that the intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) prevents pregnancy mainly before significant amounts of trophoblastic products are secreted. Still, the incidence of subclinical abortion based on the demonstration of trophoblastic markers in serum was 7 to 10 times higher than that of established pregnancy in women using a CIUD. PMID:6965779

  2. Markers of metastatic carcinoma of breast origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gown, Allen M; Fulton, Regan S; Kandalaft, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the three major breast-associated markers that can be of assistance in evaluating metastatic carcinomas for which a breast primary diagnosis is entertained. These markers include gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), mammaglobin, and GATA3. The first two are cytoplasmic markers that show comparable sensitivities for breast cancer, although relatively few of the published studies have employed the same antibodies against the target molecule, making direct comparisons challenging. GATA3 is a nuclear transcription factor that shows superior sensitivity to GCDFP-15 and mammaglobin. However, the specificity of GATA3 can pose challenges, inasmuch as carcinomas of the bladder and other sites can show significant levels of positivity. Determination of the optimal panel of antibodies employed in a given clinical setting will thus depend on the non-breast tumours included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26768031

  3. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  4. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  5. Engineering scalable biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial, and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic, and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast, and mammal...

  6. Systems interface biology

    OpenAIRE

    Francis J Doyle; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Henc...

  7. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  8. Depression, osteoporosis, serotonin and cell membrane viscosity between biology and philosophical anthropology

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielli Fabio; Tonello Lucio; Cocchi Massimo; Pregnolato Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Due to the relationship between biology and culture, we believe that depression, understood as a cultural and existential phenomenon, has clear markers in molecular biology. We begin from an existential analysis of depression constituting the human condition and then shift to analysis of biological data confirming, according to our judgment, its original (ontological) structure. In this way philosophy is involved at the anthropological level, in as much as it detects the underlying m...

  9. Arabic Interface Analysis Based on Cultural Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadi Akheela Khanum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the Arabic interface design elements that are largely influenced by the cultural values. Cultural markers are examined in websites from educational, business, and media. Cultural values analysis is based on Geert Hofstedes cultural dimensions. The findings show that there are cultural markers which are largely influenced by the culture and that the Hofstedes score for Arab countries is partially supported by the website design components examined in this study. Moderate support was also found for the long term orientation, for which Hoftsede has no score.

  10. Home care safety markers: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; Storch, Jan; Stevenson, Lynn; Donaldson, Susan; Barber, Tanya; Iaboni, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Safety in home care is a new research frontier, and one in which demand for services continues to rise. A scoping review of the home care literature on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and congestive heart failure was thus completed to identify safety markers that could serve to develop our understanding of safety in this sector. Results generated seven safety markers: (a) Home alone; (b) A fixed agenda in a foreign language; (c) Strangers in the home; (d) The butcher, the baker, the candlestick maker; (e) Medication mania; (f) Out of pocket: The cost of caring at home; and (g) My health for yours: Declining caregiver health. PMID:23679662

  11. Arabic Interface Analysis Based on Cultural Markers

    CERN Document Server

    Khanum, Mohammadi Akheela; Chaurasia, Mousmi A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the Arabic interface design elements that are largely influenced by the cultural values. Cultural markers are examined in websites from educational, business, and media. Cultural values analysis is based on Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions. The findings show that there are cultural markers which are largely influenced by the culture and that the Hofstede's score for Arab countries is partially supported by the website design components examined in this study. Moderate support was also found for the long term orientation, for which Hoftsede has no score.

  12. Towards Common Balkan Lexical Evidential Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim M. Makartsev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple listing of lexical evidential markers in Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian uncovers unusual problems, because a significant part of the markers are common, both due to genetic relations between the languages (e.g. Bulg. and Maced. spored and to areal factors (e.g. Turk. word güya / gûya was loaned into Bulg. dialectal gyoa, Maced. ǵoa and Alb. gjoja; this marker also exists in Serb.. But these common markers with the same etymology do not necessarily have similar meanings, which is both a theoretical problem for the description of the language data and a practical issue for translation between the languages. As Bulgarian, Macedonian and Albanian have grammatical evidential systems as well, there is a question how the lexical evidential markers interact with evidential forms. Here the distinction between analytic and holistic reading can be quite helpful, as it clarifies the role of each of the components in constructions. In the article it is analysed on the basis of translations between the Balkan languages. The definition of evidentiality I employ in this article is the one stated by A. Aikhenvald: “evidentiality is a linguistic category whose primary meaning is [the] source of information. […] [T]his covers the way in which the information was acquired, without necessarily relating to the degree of [the] speaker’s certainty concerning the statement or whether it is true or not” [Aikhenvald 2004: 3]. It is well known that there is a certain variety of domains for expressing evidentiality; first and foremost there is a distinction between lexical and grammatical markers.1 In the following article I will concentrate on the common lexical evidential markers in Albanian, Bulgarian, and Macedonian, with a short introduction to grammatical evidentiality in these languages._______________________1 As for the grammatical evidential markers in the Balkan languages, there is a tradition of their analysis dating back to the second

  13. Macrophage serum markers in pneumococcal bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Weis, Nina;

    2006-01-01

    probability of survival when sCD163 and CRP were known (p = .25). CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage marker response in pneumococcal bacteremia was compromised in old age. In patients <75 yrs old, sCD163 was superior to other markers, including C-reactive protein, in predicting fatal disease outcome....... pneumococcal bacteremia. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Five university hospitals in Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 133 patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (positive blood culture) and 133 age- and gender-matched controls. INTERVENTIONS: Samples were collected for biochemical...

  14. Cell Surface Markers in HTLV-1 Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea K. Kress

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenotype of HTLV-1-transformed CD4+ T lymphocytes largely depends on defined viral effector molecules such as the viral oncoprotein Tax. In this review, we exemplify the expression pattern of characteristic lineage markers, costimulatory receptors and ligands of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, cytokine receptors, and adhesion molecules on HTLV-1-transformed cells. These molecules may provide survival signals for the transformed cells. Expression of characteristic surface markers might therefore contribute to persistence of HTLV-1-transformed lymphocytes and to the development of HTLV-1-associated disease.

  15. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  16. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  17. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology. PMID:24156739

  18. Evaluation of different fiducial markers for image-guided radiotherapy and particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern radiotherapy (RT) techniques are widely used in the irradiation of moving organs. A crucial step in ensuring the correct position of a target structure directly before or during treatment is daily image guidance by computed tomography (CT) or X-ray radiography (image-guided radiotherapy, IGRT). Therefore, combinations of modern irradiation devices and imaging, such as on-board imaging (OBI) with X-rays, or in-room CT such as the tomotherapy system, have been developed. Moreover, combinations of linear accelerators and in-room CT-scanners have been designed. IGRT is of special interest in hypofractionated and radiosurgical treatments where high single doses are applied in the proximity of critical organs at risk. Radiographically visible markers in or in close proximity to the target structure may help to reproduce the position during RT and could therefore be used as external surrogates for motion monitoring. Criteria sought for fiducial markers are visibility in the radiologic modalities involved in radiotherapeutic treatment planning and image guidance, such as CT and kilovoltage (kV) OBI, low production of imaging artifacts, and low perturbation of the therapeutic dose to the target volume. Photon interaction with interstitial markers has been shown to be not as important as in particle therapy, where interaction of the particle beam, especially with metal markers, can have a significant impact on treatment. This applies especially with a scanned ion beam. Recently we commenced patient recruitment at our institution within the PROMETHEUS trial, which evaluates a hypofractionation regime, starting with 4 x 10 Gy (relative biological effectiveness (RBE)), for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this work is, therefore, to evaluate potential implantable fiducial markers for enabling precise patient and thus organ positioning in scanned ion beams. To transfer existing knowledge of marker application from photon to particle therapy, we used a

  19. Biological Water or Rather Water in Biology?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jungwirth, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 13 (2015), s. 2449-2451. ISSN 1948-7185 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : biological water * protein * interface Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 7.458, year: 2014

  20. The role of Molecular Markers in Improvement of Fruit Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Markers have been used over the years for the classification of plants. Markers are any trait of an organism that can be identified with confidence and relative easy, and can be followed in a mapping population on another hand markers be defined as heritable entities associated with the economically important trait under the control of polygenes. Morphological markers can be detected with naked eye (naked eye polymorphism or as difference in physical or chemical properties of the macromolecules. In other words, there are two types of genetic markers viz. morphological markers or naked eye polymorphism and non-morphological markers or molecular markers. Morphological markers include traits such as plant height, disease response, photoperiod, sensitivity, shape or colour of flowers, fruits or seeds etc. Molecular markers include biochemical constituents. Morphological markers have many limitations for being used as markers particularly in fruit crops because of long generation time and large size of fruit trees besides being influenced by environment. Consequently, molecular markers could be appropriate choice to study and preserve the diversity in any germplasm. Molecular markers have diverse applications in fruit crop improvement, particularly in the areas of genetic diversity and varietal identification studies, gene tagging, disease diagnostics, pedigree analysis, hybrid detection, sex differentiation and marker assisted selection.

  1. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  2. Recent advances in hematopoietic stem cell biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Hess, David A; Nolta, Jan A

    2004-01-01

    made recently in the field of stem cell biology, researchers now have improved tools to define novel populations of stem cells, examine them ex vivo using conditions that promote self-renewal, track them into recipients, and determine whether they can contribute to the repair of damaged tissues......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exciting advances have been made in the field of hematopoietic stem cell biology during the past year. This review summarizes recent progress in the identification, culture, and in vivo tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. RECENT FINDINGS: The roles of Wnt and Notch proteins...... in regulating stem cell renewal in the microenvironment, and how these molecules can be exploited in ex vivo stem cell culture, are reviewed. The importance of identification of stem cells using functional as well as phenotypic markers is discussed. The novel field of nanotechnology is then discussed...

  3. Identification of novel markers that demarcate the nucleolus during severe stress and chemotherapeutic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitong Su

    Full Text Available The nucleolus, the ribosomal factory of the cell, has emerged as a key player that regulates many aspects of cell biology. Several thousand proteins associate at least transiently with nucleoli, thereby generating a highly dynamic compartment with a protein profile which is sensitive to changes in cell physiology and pharmacological agents. Powerful tools that reliably demarcate the nucleoli are a prerequisite to measure their composition and activities. Previously, we developed quantitative methods to measure fluorescently labeled molecules in nucleoli. While these tools identify nucleoli under control and mild stress conditions, the accurate detection of nucleolar boundaries under harsh experimental conditions is complicated by the lack of appropriate markers for the nucleolar compartment. Using fluorescence microscopy we have now identified new marker proteins to detect nucleoli upon (a severe stress and (b drug treatments that trigger a pronounced reorganization of nucleoli. Our results demonstrate that nucleolin is an ideal marker to delimit nucleoli when cells are exposed to heat or oxidative stress. Furthermore, we show for the first time that cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS and human antigen R protein (HuR are excluded from nucleoli and can be employed to delimit these compartments under severe conditions that redistribute major nucleolar proteins. As proof-of-principle, we used these markers to demarcate nucleoli in cells treated with pharmacological compounds that disrupt the nucleolar organization. Furthermore, to gain new insights into the biology of the nucleolus, we applied our protocols and quantified stress- and drug-induced changes in nucleolar organization and function. Finally, we show that CAS, HuR and nucleolin not only identify nucleoli in optical sections, but are also suitable to demarcate the nucleolar border following 3D reconstruction. Taken together, our studies present novel marker proteins that

  4. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  5. Associations between STR autosomal markers and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediaga, N G; Aznar, J M; Elcoroaristizabal, X; Albóniga, O; Gómez-Busto, F; Artaza Artabe, I; Rocandio, Ana; de Pancorbo, M M

    2015-10-01

    Life span is a complex and multifactorial trait, which is shaped by genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and stochastic factors. The possibility that highly hypervariable short tandem repeats (STRs) associated with longevity has been largely explored by comparing the genotypic pools of long lived and younger individuals, but results so far have been contradictory. In view of these contradictory findings, the present study aims to investigate whether HUMTHO1 and HUMCSF1PO STRs, previously associated with longevity, exert a role as a modulator of life expectancy, as well as to assess the extent to which other autosomal STR markers are associated with human longevity in population from northern Spain. To that end, 21 autosomal microsatellite markers have been studied in 304 nonagenarian individuals (more than 90 years old) and 516 younger controls of European descent. Our results do not confirm the association found in previous studies between longevity and THO1 and CSF1PO loci. However, significant association between longevity and autosomal STR markers D12S391, D22S1045, and DS441 was observed. Even more, when we compared allelic frequency distribution of the 21 STR markers between cases and controls, we found that 6 out of the 21 STRs studied showed different allelic frequencies, thus suggesting that the genomic portrait of the human longevity is far complex and probably shaped by a high number of genomic loci. PMID:26335621

  6. Interpreting Whole-Genome Marker Data

    OpenAIRE

    Weir, Bruce S.

    2013-01-01

    The challenges of whole-genome data, when genotypes are available from hundreds of thousands of genetic markers, are explored for four topics in statistical genetics: Hardy-Weinberg testing, estimating linkage disequilibrium from unphased genotypic data, association mapping and characterizing population structure.

  7. Association of genetic markers with cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karthik

    2015-09-01

    Results: The inter group heterogeneity for ESD and SOD of red cell enzymes and GC system of plasma proteins was found to be a significant value (ESD: and #967;2 =10.2564; d.f. = 2; 0.01>p>0.001; SOD: and #967;2 = 11.1120; d.f. = 2; 0.01>p>0.001; GC: and #967;2 = 15.5044; d.f. = 2; p>0.001, when observed between cardiomyopathy patients and controls. Thus, all the examined groups were deviating from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium indicating a significant association between cardiomyopathy and these red cell enzymes and plasma protein markers. There was a predominant occurrence of Haptoglobin 2 phenotype in patients when compared to controls. Risk estimates show significant association with both ESD and GC systems with an increased risk of 100% and more, indicating that individuals with ESD (2-2 and 2-1 and GC (2-1 phenotypes are more likely to get the disease when compared with the other phenotypes of the ESD and GC systems. Conclusions: Out of seven genetic markers, four markers (ESD, SOD, HP and GC are found to be significant i.e. they show some relation with the cardiomyopathy which influences the disease. Furthermore studies on genetic markers, to be attempted in future, would certainly enlighten us to assess the role of these polymorphic systems in different cardiomyopathies. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2190-2197

  8. 21 CFR 878.4660 - Skin marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4660 Skin marker. (a) Identification. A skin... I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart...

  9. DNA methylation markers for breast cancer prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dedeurwaerder, Sarah; Fuks, François

    2012-01-01

    Currently, most of the prognostic and predictive gene expression signatures emerging for breast cancer concern the tumor component. In Dedeurwaerder et al. we show that DNA methylation profiling of breast tumors is a particularly sensitive means of capturing features of the immune component of breast tumors. Most importantly, correlation is observed between T-cell marker genes and breast cancer clinical outcome.

  10. Linguistic Markers of Inference Generation While Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; Carlson, Sarah E.; Seipel, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Words can be informative linguistic markers of psychological constructs. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between word use and the process of making meaningful connections to a text while reading (i.e., inference generation). To achieve this purpose, think-aloud data from third-fifth grade students (N = 218) reading narrative…

  11. New softwares for automated microsatellite marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Wellington; de Sousa, Daniel; Proite, Karina; Guimarães, Patrícia; Moretzsohn, Marcio; Bertioli, David

    2006-01-01

    Microsatellites are repeated small sequence motifs that are highly polymorphic and abundant in the genomes of eukaryotes. Often they are the molecular markers of choice. To aid the development of microsatellite markers we have developed a module that integrates a program for the detection of microsatellites (TROLL), with the sequence assembly and analysis software, the Staden Package. The module has easily adjustable parameters for microsatellite lengths and base pair quality control. Starting with large datasets of unassembled sequence data in the form of chromatograms and/or text data, it enables the creation of a compact database consisting of the processed and assembled microsatellite containing sequences. For the final phase of primer design, we developed a program that accepts the multi-sequence 'experiment file' format as input and produces a list of primer pairs for amplification of microsatellite markers. The program can take into account the quality values of consensus bases, improving success rate of primer pairs in PCR. The software is freely available and simple to install in both Windows and Unix-based operating systems. Here we demonstrate the software by developing primer pairs for 427 new candidate markers for peanut. PMID:16493138

  12. Diagnostic markers for germ cell neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Nielsen, John E; Skakkebaek, Niels E;

    2015-01-01

    This concise review summarises tissue and serum markers useful for differential diagnosis of germ cell tumours (GCTs), with focus on the most common testicular GCTs (TGCTs). GCTs are characterised by phenotypic heterogeneity due to largely retained embryonic pluripotency and aberrant somatic diff...

  13. Tumor markers in breast cancer - European Group on Tumor Markers recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Rafael; Barak, Vivian; van Dalen, Arie; Duffy, Michael J.; Einarsson, Roland; Gion, Massimo; Goike, Helena; Lamerz, Rolf; Nap, Marius; Sölétormos, György; Stieber, Petra

    2005-01-01

    Recommendations are presented for the routine clinical use of serum and tissue-based markers in the diagnosis and management of patients with breast cancer. Their low sensitivity and specificity preclude the use of serum markers such as the MUC-1 mucin glycoproteins ( CA 15.3, BR 27.29) and carcinoembryonic antigen in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. However, serial measurement of these markers can result in the early detection of recurrent disease as well as indicate the efficacy of the...

  14. Genome-wide distribution and organization of microsatellites in plants: an insight into marker development in Brachypodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humira Sonah

    Full Text Available Plant genomes are complex and contain large amounts of repetitive DNA including microsatellites that are distributed across entire genomes. Whole genome sequences of several monocot and dicot plants that are available in the public domain provide an opportunity to study the origin, distribution and evolution of microsatellites, and also facilitate the development of new molecular markers. In the present investigation, a genome-wide analysis of microsatellite distribution in monocots (Brachypodium, sorghum and rice and dicots (Arabidopsis, Medicago and Populus was performed. A total of 797,863 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were identified in the whole genome sequences of six plant species. Characterization of these SSRs revealed that mono-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant repeats, and that the frequency of repeats decreased with increase in motif length both in monocots and dicots. However, the frequency of SSRs was higher in dicots than in monocots both for nuclear and chloroplast genomes. Interestingly, GC-rich repeats were the dominant repeats only in monocots, with the majority of them being present in the coding region. These coding GC-rich repeats were found to be involved in different biological processes, predominantly binding activities. In addition, a set of 22,879 SSR markers that were validated by e-PCR were developed and mapped on different chromosomes in Brachypodium for the first time, with a frequency of 101 SSR markers per Mb. Experimental validation of 55 markers showed successful amplification of 80% SSR markers in 16 Brachypodium accessions. An online database 'BraMi' (Brachypodium microsatellite markers of these genome-wide SSR markers was developed and made available in the public domain. The observed differential patterns of SSR marker distribution would be useful for studying microsatellite evolution in a monocot-dicot system. SSR markers developed in this study would be helpful for genomic studies in Brachypodium

  15. A Review of Microsatellite Markers and Their Applications in Rice Breeding Programs to Improve Blast Disease Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Latif

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the use of molecular markers has played an increasing role in rice breeding and genetics. Of the different types of molecular markers, microsatellites have been utilized most extensively, because they can be readily amplified by PCR and the large amount of allelic variation at each locus. Microsatellites are also known as simple sequence repeats (SSR, and they are typically composed of 1–6 nucleotide repeats. These markers are abundant, distributed throughout the genome and are highly polymorphic compared with other genetic markers, as well as being species-specific and co-dominant. For these reasons, they have become increasingly important genetic markers in rice breeding programs. The evolution of new biotypes of pests and diseases as well as the pressures of climate change pose serious challenges to rice breeders, who would like to increase rice production by introducing resistance to multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. Recent advances in rice genomics have now made it possible to identify and map a number of genes through linkage to existing DNA markers. Among the more noteworthy examples of genes that have been tightly linked to molecular markers in rice are those that confer resistance or tolerance to blast. Therefore, in combination with conventional breeding approaches, marker-assisted selection (MAS can be used to monitor the presence or lack of these genes in breeding populations. For example, marker-assisted backcross breeding has been used to integrate important genes with significant biological effects into a number of commonly grown rice varieties. The use of cost-effective, finely mapped microsatellite markers and MAS strategies should provide opportunities for breeders to develop high-yield, blast resistance rice cultivars. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the linkage of microsatellite markers to rice blast resistance genes, as well as to explore the use of MAS

  16. Salivary inflammatory mediator profiling and correlation to clinical disease markers in asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric F Little

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: There is a need for a readily available, non-invasive source of biomarkers that predict poor asthma control. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine if there is an association between the salivary inflammatory profile and disease control in children and adults with asthma. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we collected demographic and clinical information from two independent populations at different sites, resulting in convenience samples of 58 pediatric and 122 adult urban asthmatics. Control was assessed by symptom questionnaire (children and by Asthma Control Questionnaire and current exacerbation (adults. Saliva was collected in all subjects. We applied principal component analysis to a 10-plex panel of relevant inflammatory markers to characterize marker profiles and determined if profiles were associated with asthma control. RESULTS: There were similar, strong correlations amongst biologically related markers in both populations: eosinophil-related: eotaxin-1/CCL11, RANTES/CCL5, and IL-5 (p<.001; myeloid/innate: IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1/CCL2, and IL-8/CXCL8 (p<.001. The first three principal components captured ≥74% of variability across all ten analytes in both populations. In adults, the Principal Component 1 score, broadly reflective of all markers, but with greater weight given to myeloid/innate markers, was associated with Asthma Control Questionnaire score and exacerbation. The Principal Component 3 score, reflective of IP-10/CXCL10, was associated with current exacerbation. In children, the Principal Component 1, 2, and 3 scores were associated with recent asthma symptoms. The Principal Component 2 score, reflective of higher eosinophil markers, was inversely correlated with symptoms. The Principal Component 3 score was positively associated with all symptom outcomes. CONCLUSION: The salivary inflammatory profile is associated with disease control in children and adults with asthma.

  17. Biological research for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Kug Chan; Shim, Hae Won; Oh, Tae Jeong; Park, Seon Young; Lee, Kang Suk

    2000-04-01

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by {gamma}-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by {gamma}-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate {gamma}-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by {gamma}-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  18. Biological research for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work scope of Biological research for the radiation protection had contained the search of biological microanalytic methods for assessing the health effect by γ-radiation and toxic agents, the standardization of human T-lymphocyte cell culture and polymerase chain reaction, T-cell clonal assay, and the quantification of mutation frequency in the hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene locus by single exposure or combined exposure. Especially, the polymerase chain reaction methods using reverse transcriptase has been developed to analyze the mutant gene induced by γ-radiation and chemical (pentachlorophenol) agent exposure, and to investigate the point mutations in the HPRT gene locus of T-lymphocytes. The HPRT T-cell clonal assay revealed that it could not differentiate γ-irradiation from pentachlorophenol, because the frequency of somatic mutations induced by both damaging agents increased in a dose-dependent manner. The analysis of DNA sequence alterations of HPRT mutant clones clearly showed that both damaging agents induced different mutational spectra in the HPRT locus of T-cells. The large deletions, which account for 75 percent of the analyzed mutants, are characteristic mutations induced by γ-irradiation. By contrast, point mutations such as base substitutions and insertion, come up to 97 percent in the case of pentachlorophenol-treated cells. The point mutation frequencies at 190 base pair and 444 base pair positions are 3-6 folds as high as in those at other mutation positions. It may be that these mutation sites are hot spots induced by pentachlorophenol. These results suggest that the HPRT mutation spectrum can be used as a potential bio marker for assessing a specific environmental risk. (author)

  19. Towards marker assisted breeding in garden roses: from marker development to QTL detection

    OpenAIRE

    Vukosavljev, M.

    2014-01-01

      Over the last few decades the rose market in Eastern Europe showed a steady growth, which indicates that there is increasing demand for new cultivars that are adapted to the climate as well as to the customs and beauty criterion of that region. One of the possibilities to speed up breeding is to implement marker assisted selection (MAS). Implementation of MAS requires a specific infrastructure (molecular markers, knowledge on genetics of important traits, genetic maps) which is not yet...

  20. Marker list - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ic name authority Name Common name Family Family Marker Marker name Marker type Marker type Taxonomy ID Taxonomy ID of NCBI Journal... name Journal name of reference Published year Published year of reference DOI DOI of

  1. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  2. Spectroscopy of biological nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    Ortac, Inanc; Severcan, Feride

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystals have gained much interest in recent years, due to their unusual properties allowing interesting applications in physical and biological science. In this literature review, biological nanocrystals are discussed from the spectroscopic point of view. Firstly, the theory behind the outstanding abilities of the nanocrystals is described. Secondly, the spectroscopic properties of biological nanocrystals are mentioned. Lastly, the use of nanocrystals with various spectroscopic applicati...

  3. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2014-04-15

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  4. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.

    2015-11-24

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  5. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  6. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  7. Glycobiology Current Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabire KARAÇALI

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate chemistry evolved into carbohydrate biochemistry and gradually into the biology of carbohydrates, or glycobiology, at the end of the last century. Glycobiology is the new research area of modern molecular biology, and it investigates the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans. The numbers, linkage types (a or b), positions, binding points and functional group differences of monosaccharides create microheterogeneity. Thus, numerous glycoforms with precise stru...

  8. Foundations of biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorav, Jean-Louis; Braslau, Alan; Goldar, Arach

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that there are no laws in biology, where everything is contingent and could have been otherwise, being solely the result of historical accidents. Furthermore, the customary introduction of fundamental biological entities such as individual organisms, cells, genes, catalysts and motors remains largely descriptive; constructive approaches involving deductive reasoning appear, in comparison, almost absent. As a consequence, both the logical content and principles of biology ne...

  9. Minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS) and minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS) specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Kottmann, Renzo; Field, Dawn;

    2011-01-01

    Here we present a standard developed by the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) for reporting marker gene sequences--the minimum information about a marker gene sequence (MIMARKS). We also introduce a system for describing the environment from which a biological sample originates. The 'environment...... present the minimum information about any (x) sequence (MIxS). Adoption of MIxS will enhance our ability to analyze natural genetic diversity documented by massive DNA sequencing efforts from myriad ecosystems in our ever-changing biosphere....

  10. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  11. HPTLC Fingerprint Profile and Isolation of Marker Compound of Ruellia tuberosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daya L. Chothani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to identification, isolation, and quantification of marker in R. tuberosa (Acanthaceae. HPTLC fingerprinting was carried out for various extract of root, stem, and leaf of R. tuberosa. From the HPTLC fingerprint the florescent band (under 366 nm at : 0.56 (mobile phase chloroform : toluene : ethyl acetate (6 : 3 : 1, v/v was found in leaf, root, and stem of R. tuberosa. So, the florescent band (under 366 nm at : 0.56 was isolated as marker compound RT-F2 from root of R. tuberosa. The marker compound RT-F2 was quantified by using HPTLC technique. The percentage (W/W amount of RT-F2 was found to 40.0% and 44.6% in petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extract of R. tuberosa roots, respectively. Further study is suggested to characterization and biological nature of marker compound.

  12. Cystatin C: a new renal marker and its potential use in small animal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, L; Paepe, D; Smets, P; Lefebvre, H; Delanghe, J; Daminet, S

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of chronic kidney disease is underestimated in both human and veterinary medicine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the gold standard for evaluating kidney function. However, GFR assessment is time-consuming and labor-intensive and therefore not routinely used in practice. The commonly used indirect GFR markers, serum creatinine (sCr) and urea, are not sufficiently sensitive or specific to detect early renal dysfunction. Serum cystatin C (sCysC), a proteinase inhibitor, has most of the properties required for an endogenous GFR marker. In human medicine, numerous studies have evaluated its potential use as a GFR marker in several populations. In veterinary medicine, this marker is gaining interest. The measurement is easy, which makes it an interesting parameter for clinical use. This review summarizes current knowledge about cystatin C (CysC) in humans, dogs, and cats, including its history, assays, relationship with GFR, and biological and clinical variations in both human and veterinary medicine. PMID:24814357

  13. Markers of small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma SK

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer death; however, no specific serum biomarker is available till date for detection of early lung cancer. Despite good initial response to chemotherapy, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to identify molecular markers that might influence survival and may serve as potential therapeutic targets. The review aims to summarize the current knowledge of serum biomarkers in SCLC to improve diagnostic efficiency in the detection of tumor progression in lung cancer. The current knowledge on the known serum cytokines and tumor biomarkers of SCLC is emphasized. Recent findings in the search for novel diagnostic and therapeutic molecular markers using the emerging genomic technology for detecting lung cancer are also described. It is believed that implementing these new research techniques will facilitate and improve early detection, prognostication and better treatment of SCLC.

  14. Markers for blood-brain barrier integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Dziegielewska, Katarzyna M; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in brain barriers and various roles their intrinsic mechanisms may play in neurological disorders. Such studies require suitable models and markers to demonstrate integrity and functional changes at the interfaces between blood, brain, and...... cerebrospinal fluid. Studies of brain barrier mechanisms and measurements of plasma volume using dyes have a long-standing history, dating back to the late nineteenth-century. Their use in blood-brain barrier studies continues in spite of their known serious limitations in in vivo applications. These were well...... known when first introduced, but seem to have been forgotten since. Understanding these limitations is important because Evans blue is still the most commonly used marker of brain barrier integrity and those using it seem oblivious to problems arising from its in vivo application. The introduction of...

  15. Biomolecular Markers in Cancer of the Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daris Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of tongue cancer is increasing worldwide, and its aggressiveness remains high regardless of treatment. Genetic changes and the expression of abnormal proteins have been frequently reported in the case of head and neck cancers, but the little information that has been published concerning tongue tumours is often contradictory. This review will concentrate on the immunohistochemical expression of biomolecular markers and their relationships with clinical behaviour and prognosis. Most of these proteins are associated with nodal stage, tumour progression and metastases, but there is still controversy concerning their impact on disease-free and overall survival, and treatment response. More extensive clinical studies are needed to identify the patterns of molecular alterations and the most reliable predictors in order to develop tailored anti-tumour strategies based on the targeting of hypoxia markers, vascular and lymphangiogenic factors, epidermal growth factor receptors, intracytoplasmatic signalling and apoptosis.

  16. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus of...... this book is on the optimization framework, which can be applied to every pose estimation problem of articulated objects. The motion function is formed with a combination of kinematic chains. This formulation leads to a Nonlinear Optimization problem and is solved with gradient-based methods, which are...... compared with respect to their efficiency. A new contribution is the inclusion of second order motion derivatives within the pose estimation. The pose estimation step requires correspondences between known model of the person and observed data. Computer Vision techniques are used to combine multiple types...

  17. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dainat

    Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  18. Protein markers specify of sunflower inbred lines

    OpenAIRE

    Aksyonov Igor V.

    2005-01-01

    Protein markers inheritance has been studied in 30 sunflower inbred lines developed by self-pollination method. During the development of the inbred lines, plants selection was routine led on the basis of morphological characteristics and electrophoretic spectrums of seed storage proteins. Genetic purity sunflower plants was determined on the basis of electrophoretic spectrums of storage proteins. The sunflower lines differed in polypeptide spectrums of helianhtin, a major seed protein. This ...

  19. Significance of tumor markers in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mumbarkar, P. P.; Raste, A. S.; Ghadge, M. S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to test the utility of the cytokeratins CYFRA 21-1, tissue polypeptide specific antigen (TPS), Neuron specific enolase (NSE) and Carcino Embryonic antigen (CEA) in patients with lung cancer and in the pleural fluid of the patients with lung cancer and also the predicting ability of these tumor markers with respect to the histological types [including non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC)] and pathological stages. 40 normal subjects and 222 case...

  20. Markers of small cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma SK; Taneja Tarvinder

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer death; however, no specific serum biomarker is available till date for detection of early lung cancer. Despite good initial response to chemotherapy, small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) has a poor prognosis. Therefore, it is important to identify molecular markers that might influence survival and may serve as potential therapeutic targets. The review aims to summarize the current knowledge of serum biomarkers in SCLC to improve diagnostic effi...

  1. Immunogenetic markers in immune mediated diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitina-Zake, Liene

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study HLA class II markers, as well as other - MHC and non MHC genes in different immune - mediated diseases, namely, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), cervical cancer, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and type I diabetes mellitus (T1 DM). HLA class II genes are located on the short arm of chromosome 6 and are known to be important for pathogenesis of immune - mediated diseases due to the fu...

  2. Metadiscoursal Markers in Medical and Literary Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Mostafavi; Ghaffar Tajalli

    2012-01-01

    English medical and literary texts were compared and contrasted to find out whether there were any significant differences between the two kinds of texts in terms of the number and types of metadiscoursal markers. To this end, first, 30 medical and literary journal articles were chosen. Then, 3 successive paragraphs were extracted randomly from each of the selected articles which totaled 90 paragraphs out of which 45 were medical and 45 literary. The frequency and type of metadiscoursal marke...

  3. Markers of systemic inflammatory response in coxarthrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Korshunov G.V.; Shakhmartova S.G.; Puchinyan D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to detect markers of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in patients with coxarthrosis by means of assessment of the status of the hemostasis system, endothelium function and inflammation intensity. Material and Methods. The indices of the plasmatic hemostasis, levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VEGF-A, neop-terin were analyzed. Results. It has been found that among the patients with hip coxarthrosis a group of patients (47%) with endothelium dysfunction, cellular immunity a...

  4. Cloneable marker for use in microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Risco, Cristina; Sanmartín, Eva

    2012-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a peptide that can be used as a cloneable marker for the detection of proteins of interest by means of microscopy, preferably electronic or correlative microscopy, in which the design of the amino acid sequence has been based on the skeleton of cysteines from the metallothionein (MT) sequence, but where the remaining amino acids have been substituted with small amino acids with no charge. The invention also relates to smaller fragments of the above-mentioned p...

  5. Procalcitonin as a marker of neonatal sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Nazeer Ahmad Jeergal; Rizwan-u-zama; Naushad Ali .N. Malagi; Faisal Farooqui; Sadashiva .B. Ukkali; Ravindra Naganoor; A.N. Thobbi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest causes of neonatal mortality in the developing world. Procalcitonin (PCT) has emerged as the most studied and promising sepsis biomarker. Objective: To assess the role of procalcitonin (PCT) as a marker in the early diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of neonatal sepsis. Methods: Twenty five neonates with clinical (n=5), suspected (n=13) and proven sepsis (n=7) were evaluated. The PCT levels were measured by immunoluminoassay before and on ...

  6. Marker-assisted selection in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among livestock species, chicken has the most extensive genomics toolbox available for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and marker-assisted selection (MAS). The uptake of MAS is therefore not limited by technical resources but mostly by the priorities and financial constraints of the few remaining poultry breeding companies. With the cost of genotyping decreasing rapidly, an increase in the use of direct trait- single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-associations in MAS can be predicted. (author)

  7. Immunohistochemical markers for arthritis in psoriasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, D J; Barnes, L.; Rogers, S.; FitzGerald, O

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine the immunohistological features in the involved skin of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PA) (n = 15), compared with those in involved skin from patients with psoriasis but no arthritis (n = 5), and with a group with normal skin (n = 4), to identify markers for arthritis in psoriasis. METHODS--Skin was obtained from patients by 6 mm punch biopsy and normal skin was provided by the department of plastic surgery. Samples were stained with monoclonal antibodies against T...

  8. Lipid-related markers and cardiovascular disease prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Gao, Pei; Pennells, Lisa;

    2012-01-01

    The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated.......The value of assessing various emerging lipid-related markers for prediction of first cardiovascular events is debated....

  9. A Study on College English Teachers' Use of discourse Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The paper intends to explore the use of Discourse Markers (DMs) by college English teachers in the classroom and to achieve an understanding of the range of functions that those discourse markers perform.

  10. Functional molecular markers for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kage, Udaykumar; Kumar, Arun; Dhokane, Dhananjay; Karre, Shailesh; Kushalappa, Ajjamada C

    2016-10-01

    A tremendous decline in cultivable land and resources and a huge increase in food demand calls for immediate attention to crop improvement. Though molecular plant breeding serves as a viable solution and is considered as "foundation for twenty-first century crop improvement", a major stumbling block for crop improvement is the availability of a limited functional gene pool for cereal crops. Advancement in the next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies integrated with tools like metabolomics, proteomics and association mapping studies have facilitated the identification of candidate genes, their allelic variants and opened new avenues to accelerate crop improvement through development and use of functional molecular markers (FMMs). The FMMs are developed from the sequence polymorphisms present within functional gene(s) which are associated with phenotypic trait variations. Since FMMs obviate the problems associated with random DNA markers, these are considered as "the holy grail" of plant breeders who employ targeted marker assisted selections (MAS) for crop improvement. This review article attempts to consider the current resources and novel methods such as metabolomics, proteomics and association studies for the identification of candidate genes and their validation through virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) for the development of FMMs. A number of examples where the FMMs have been developed and used for the improvement of cereal crops for agronomic, food quality, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerance traits have been considered. PMID:26171816

  11. Prognostic markers for idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Xiaomin; Jin Hongfang; Du Junbao

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to review the research on the prognostic markers of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH).Date sources We searched literature from PubMed and CNKI databases both in English and Chinese up to 2013.Study selection Data about mortality and cut-off value are from clinical trials and identified by analysis.Results IPAH is an unexplained,progressive,and rare disease characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance.The diagnosis is difficult,mortality of IPAH is high,and the survival periods are only 2-3 years after diagnosis.Investigations in recent years have identified a range of prognostic markers for IPAH,including the 6-minute walking test,red blood cell distribution width,and platelet levels,as well as imaging findings.Changes in these markers are important sources of information to predict the prognosis of patients with IPAH,which carries significant benefits for treatment planning.Conclusion Even though the prognosis of IPAH has been investigated,the mortality is also high.More accurate and meaningful assessment for the prognosis of IPAH is required.

  12. Prognostic DNA Methylation Markers for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siri H. Strand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181 and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC.

  13. Prognostic DNA methylation markers for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Siri H; Orntoft, Torben F; Sorensen, Karina D

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is the most commonly diagnosed neoplasm and the third most common cause of cancer-related death amongst men in the Western world. PC is a clinically highly heterogeneous disease, and distinction between aggressive and indolent disease is a major challenge for the management of PC. Currently, no biomarkers or prognostic tools are able to accurately predict tumor progression at the time of diagnosis. Thus, improved biomarkers for PC prognosis are urgently needed. This review focuses on the prognostic potential of DNA methylation biomarkers for PC. Epigenetic changes are hallmarks of PC and associated with malignant initiation as well as tumor progression. Moreover, DNA methylation is the most frequently studied epigenetic alteration in PC, and the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers for PC has been demonstrated in multiple studies. The most promising methylation marker candidates identified so far include PITX2, C1orf114 (CCDC181) and the GABRE~miR-452~miR-224 locus, in addition to the three-gene signature AOX1/C1orf114/HAPLN3. Several other biomarker candidates have also been investigated, but with less stringent clinical validation and/or conflicting evidence regarding their possible prognostic value available at this time. Here, we review the current evidence for the prognostic potential of DNA methylation markers in PC. PMID:25238417

  14. Serum biochemical markers in carcinoma breast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth R

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the extensive research for many years throughout the world, the etiopathogenesis of cancer still remains obscure. For the early detection of carcinoma of various origins, a number of biochemical markers have been studied to evaluate the malignancy. AIM: To analyse serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD in carcinoma breast patients. SETTINGS & DESIGN: The serum biochemical markers were estimated in twenty five histopathologically confirmed patients with carcinoma breast and equal number of healthy age- matched individuals served as control. MATERIAL & METHODS: Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and superoxide dismutase (SOD were estimated and their sensitivity determined. Statistics: Data was analysed with student′s ′t′-test and sensitivity score of these markers was determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS: The mean serum GGTP, LDH and SOD activities in patients with carcinoma breast were tremendously increased as compared to controls, and a steady increase was observed in their activities from stage I through stage IV as well as following distant metastasis. Serum GGTP, LDH and SOD might prove to be most sensitive biomarkers in carcinoma breast in early detection of the disease.

  15. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  16. Malignancy markers in the cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskiniemi, M

    1988-10-01

    The specificity and sensitivity of malignancy marker determinations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are often insufficient. Even at the subclinical stage of the disease the marker should be present. The effect of therapy should be monitored and relapses noted. Thus high standards of methodology are required. There are many substances that may indicate a malignant process in the central nervous system. However, there are many pitfalls in their determination. Malignant cells may occur in CSF via processes involving leptomeningeal structures such as metastases and leukaemia, but primary brain tumours seldom show cells in CSF. Human chorionic gonadotrophin and alpha-fetoprotein determinations assist in the early detection of cerebral germ cell tumours and of relapses, even in the subclinical stage. Desmosterol may aid in the diagnosis of medulloblastomas and malignant gliomas and in monitoring therapy. Putrescine levels are elevated in CSF of patients with medulloblastoma and correlate with the clinical state, and serial analyses may reveal relapses. Fibronectin, when determined in CSF at the time of diagnosis, appears to be of great significance for the prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Ferritin and beta-2-microglobulin may help in some well-defined conditions. Brain-specific proteins and antibodies to them are non-specific markers whereas tumour-specific antigens and growth factors may be more significant. PMID:3058481

  17. Strawberry cultivar identification based on hypervariable SSR markers

    OpenAIRE

    Honjo, Masanori; Nunome, Tsukasa; Kataoka, Sono; Yano, Takayoshi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Hamano, Megumi; Yui, Susumu; Morishita, Masami

    2011-01-01

    We genotyped strawberry cultivars by two newly selected and two previously reported SSR markers. All four markers produced interpretable electropherograms from 75 accessions consisting of 72 Fragaria × ananassa cultivars or lines and three octoploid Fragaria species accessions. These SSR markers were highly polymorphic; in particular, one of the newly developed markers, FxaHGA02P13, was capable of distinguishing all of the accessions except for a mutant strain that was derived from another ac...

  18. The role of Molecular Markers in Improvement of Fruit Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT; Wasakha Singh DHILLON; Rashid, Rizwan; Javid Ahmad BHAT; Waseem Ali DAR; Mohammad Yousf GANAIE

    2010-01-01

    Markers have been used over the years for the classification of plants. Markers are any trait of an organism that can be identified with confidence and relative easy, and can be followed in a mapping population on another hand markers be defined as heritable entities associated with the economically important trait under the control of polygenes. Morphological markers can be detected with naked eye (naked eye polymorphism) or as difference in physical or chemical properties of the macromolecu...

  19. Biological Clocks & Circadian Rhythms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Jones, M. Gail

    2009-01-01

    The study of biological clocks and circadian rhythms is an excellent way to address the inquiry strand in the National Science Education Standards (NSES) (NRC 1996). Students can study these everyday phenomena by designing experiments, gathering and analyzing data, and generating new experiments. As students explore biological clocks and circadian…

  20. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  1. Bioinformatics and School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpech, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The rapidly changing field of bioinformatics is fuelling the need for suitably trained personnel with skills in relevant biological "sub-disciplines" such as proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, etc. But because of the complexity--and sheer weight of data--associated with these new areas of biology, many school teachers feel…

  2. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  3. Biological pretreatment sewages water

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with waste water purification at the stage of pre-inflow of water into the biological waste water treatment plants. It is divided into two parts, a theoretical and calculation. The theoretical part deals about sewage water and the method of biological treatment. Design proposal is part of the activation tank for quantity EO.

  4. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  5. L-split marker for augmented reality in aircraft assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Zhao, Gang

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve the performance of conventional square markers widely used by marker-based augmented reality systems in aircraft assembly environments, an L-split marker is proposed. Every marker consists of four separate L-shaped parts and each of them contains partial information about the marker. Geometric features of the L-shape, which are more discriminate than the symmetrical square shape adopted by conventional markers, are used to detect proposed markers from the camera images effectively. The marker is split into four separate parts in order to improve the robustness to occlusion and curvature to some extent. The registration process can be successfully completed as long as three parts are detected (up to about 80% of the area could be occluded). Moreover, when we attach the marker on nonplanar surfaces, the curvature status of the marker can be roughly analyzed with every part's normal direction, which can be obtained since their six corners have been explicitly determined in the previous detection process. And based on the marker design, new detection and recognition algorithms are proposed and detailed. The experimental results show that the marker and the algorithms are effective.

  6. 14 CFR 171.269 - Marker beacon performance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marker beacon performance requirements. 171.269 Section 171.269 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Landing System (ISMLS) § 171.269 Marker beacon performance requirements. ISMLS marker beacon...

  7. Unraveling biocomplexity of Northeast Atlantic herring stocks using SNP markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkevold, Dorte; Limborg, Morten; Helyar, Sarah;

    2012-01-01

    polymorphism (SNP) markers in Northeast Atlantic herring population samples. Marker panels were targeted to include gene‐associated loci to maximize statistical resolution. Application of 281 SNP markers to samples representing different levels of stock complexity showed that the regional origin of individual...

  8. Molecular markers for detection, surveillance and prognostication of bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrooman, O.P.; Witjes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Many markers for the detection of bladder cancers have been tested and almost all urinary markers reported are better than cytology with regard to sensitivity, but they score lower in specificity. Currently molecular and genetic changes play an important role in the discovery of new molecular marker

  9. Markers of early disease and prognosis in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    vary substantially over time. This review explores potential markers of early disease and prognosis in COPD by examining genetic markers in the alpha(1)-antitrypsin, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), and MBL-2 genes, and by examining the biochemical markers fibrinogen and C...

  10. 21 CFR 886.4570 - Ophthalmic surgical marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic surgical marker. 886.4570 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4570 Ophthalmic surgical marker. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic surgical marker is a device intended to mark by use of ink, dye, or indentation...

  11. Mouse like rodents as objective biological marker of radiation and chemical contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the paper is the study of nuclear-fuel enterprises or the combination of nuclear-fuel and chemical enterprises influence on the contents of glucocorticoids in suprarenal of mouse like rodents, as well as the level of serotonin in hypothalamus of the mice inhabiting the territory of such industrial enterprises. It is stated that the counting of glucocorticoids of the mice inhabiting the territory contaminated with radiation increases more than by two times, yet the mice inhabiting the territories effected by the combined impact of radiation and chemical waste suffer the major change of the adaptation hormones. Hypertrophy of the suprarenal of mouse like rodents indicates the effect of low dosage of chronic irradiation on small mammals' adaptation system, as well as the boost of this effect in case of the combination of radiation and chemical waste. The hypothalamus of mice inhabiting the contaminated territories shows convincing decrease of serotonin contents in comparison with that of the mammals inhabiting ecologically clean territories. The deficiency of serotonin in the brain can cause depression, anxiety and depending on individual personality nay cause aggression and submissive behavior. Mouse like rodents are objective signs for observation of the chronic impact of environmental factors

  12. Biological markers in Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and carcinoma: the value of a scoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis has been linked to the pathogenesis of gastric adenocarcinoma (GA), especially when assciated with intestinal metaplasia (IM) and atypia/dysplasia (A/D). We examined p53 expression, ploidy and proliferative activity and assessed H.pylori infection in relationship to IM and A/Din case of gastritis not associated with GA and in cases of GA. We examined 53 gastric biopsies from patients with gastritis not associated with GA, including patients with IM and/or A/D (n=35) and with gastritis associated with IM and/or A/D (n=21). Thirty-six distal gastrectomy specimens from patients with GA constituted a third group of patients. A scoring system that encompassed the presence or absence of H.Pylori, degree of gastritis, IM and/or A/D, p53, MIB-1prolefarative index (MPI) and ploidy was estimated in the cases of gastritis and in cancer associated mucosa (CAM) and the adenocarcinoma from patients withGA. Patients with GA had a higher median age than those with gastritis without IM and more were males (ratio 2.2:1). H.pylori was detected in 75% (40/53) of gastritis specimen and in 55% (20/36) of GA cases. There was a statistically significant difference between the incidence of gastritis without IM and/or A/D and CAM (p=0.01). p53 expression was seen in 67% of the cases (14/21) of gastritis with IM and/or A/D and only in 5% (2 cases ) of gastritis without IM (p=0.0005). A statistically significant difference in MPI was seen between CAM and GA (p=0.01) and gastritis without IM and/or A/D and gastritis with IM(p=0.004). Cases of gastritis without IM and/or or A/D has a median score of 8 while cases of gastritis with IM and/or A/D had a median score of 12 (p=0.0003). CAM had a median score of 13, which was significantly different than gastritis without IM and/or A/D(p=0.0003) The presence of IM and/or A/D can be used in H.pylori -associated gastritis as as starting point to further investigate high risk lesions. Those showing p53 expression, high proliferative activity and aneuploidy require closer follow up and perhaps additional biopsies. Although aneuploidy is common seen in GA, its presence in cases of gastritis as an isolated findings should not indicate a high risk lesion. (author)

  13. Use of a biological marker in monitoring exposures among radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the introduction of more modern nuclear technology in nuclear medicine, there is an increased possibility for radiation exposure among workers handling nuclear materials which calls for the autoradiographic assay of Albertini's mutation assay for hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT). An in vivo somatic mutation of HGPRT gene due to radiation exposure could be assessed using this protocol. Favorable growth of lymphocytes in culture requires activated fetal bovine serum (FBS) in RPMI 1640 medium. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) specifically stimulates maximum proliferation of lymphocytes. Thioguanine, an anti proliferative agent, was used to screen for the presence of mutation at the HGPRT gene in which cells having mutation at the HGPRT gene locus survive the inhibitive condition. Twenty-three samples were analyzed from radiation (14) and non-radiation (9) workers. Mutation index values greater than 0.4 have been found to be higher among radiation workers (21%) than among non-radiation workers (11%). The study will facilitate the screening procedure for radiation workers and thus prevent overexposure to radiation among workers. (author.). 8 refs.; 4 tabs

  14. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine as a biological marker of in vivo oxidative DNA damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA is subject to constant oxidative damage from endogenous oxidants. The oxidized DNA is continuously repaired and the oxidized bases are excreted in the urine. A simple routine analytical procedure is described for urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, an oxidative DNA damage adduct, as an indicator of oxidative damage in humans and rodents. This adduct was purified from human urine and characterized. The described assay employs a series of solid-phase extraction steps that separate 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine from other urinary constituents, followed by analysis by gradient reversed-phase HPLC coupled to a dual-electrode high-efficient electrochemical detection system. Analysis of urine from three species by this method indicates that mice excrete approximately 3.3-fold more 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine than humans (582 vs. 178 residues per cell day), a result that supports the proposal that oxidative damage to DNA increases in proportion to species-specific basal metabolic rates

  15. Biological markers of amyloid beta-related mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, Harald

    2010-06-01

    Recent research progress has given detailed knowledge on the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD), which has been translated into an intense, ongoing development of disease-modifying treatments. Most new drug candidates are targeted on inhibiting amyloid beta (Abeta) production and aggregation. In drug development, it is important to co-develop biomarkers for Abeta-related mechanisms to enable early diagnosis and patient stratification in clinical trials, and to serve as tools to identify and monitor the biochemical effect of the drug directly in patients. Biomarkers are also requested by regulatory authorities to serve as safety measurements. Molecular aberrations in the AD brain are reflected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Core CSF biomarkers include Abeta isoforms (Abeta40\\/Abeta42), soluble APP isoforms, Abeta oligomers and beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). This article reviews recent research advances on core candidate CSF and plasma Abeta-related biomarkers, and gives a conceptual review on how to implement biomarkers in clinical trials in AD.

  16. Biological markers of amyloid beta-related mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hampel, Harald

    2012-02-01

    Recent research progress has given detailed knowledge on the molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD), which has been translated into an intense, ongoing development of disease-modifying treatments. Most new drug candidates are targeted on inhibiting amyloid beta (Abeta) production and aggregation. In drug development, it is important to co-develop biomarkers for Abeta-related mechanisms to enable early diagnosis and patient stratification in clinical trials, and to serve as tools to identify and monitor the biochemical effect of the drug directly in patients. Biomarkers are also requested by regulatory authorities to serve as safety measurements. Molecular aberrations in the AD brain are reflected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Core CSF biomarkers include Abeta isoforms (Abeta40\\/Abeta42), soluble APP isoforms, Abeta oligomers and beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1). This article reviews recent research advances on core candidate CSF and plasma Abeta-related biomarkers, and gives a conceptual review on how to implement biomarkers in clinical trials in AD.

  17. Biological and within-subject variability of calcium kinetics and biochemical markers of bone turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone loss is a critical issue during space flight. Evaluating changes in bone and calcium metabolism in astronauts often requires multiple preflight data collection points. Bone turnover and calcium kinetics were measured in 4 healthy subjects, and the day-to-day and between-subject variations were ...

  18. The molecular marker of antagonistic genes of biological bacteria against rice sheath blight by RAPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Forrty-one isolates of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were differentiated from 184 G + bacterial strains having genetic similarities over 75%based on BOX-PCR fingerprint. Antagonism against to Rhizotonia solani in vitro was tested.Four isolates of B. arayloliquefaciens (2 isolates with antagonistic ability, G 396 + and G229 +, and 2 isolates without antagonistic ability, G433-and G434-) were selected to screen effective primers for RAPD analysis. Of 124 random primers (AA, AB, AC, AD, AE, AM, and AL) tested.

  19. Chapter 27 -- Breast Cancer Genomics, Section VI, Pathology and Biological Markers of Invasive Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spellman, Paul T.; Heiser, Laura; Gray, Joe W.

    2009-06-18

    Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of the genome with cancers arising and progressing through accumulation of aberrations that alter the genome - by changing DNA sequence, copy number, and structure in ways that that contribute to diverse aspects of cancer pathophysiology. Classic examples of genomic events that contribute to breast cancer pathophysiology include inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, and CHK2 that contribute to the initiation of breast cancer, amplification of ERBB2 (formerly HER2) and mutations of elements of the PI3-kinase pathway that activate aspects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and deletion of CDKN2A/B that contributes to cell cycle deregulation and genome instability. It is now apparent that accumulation of these aberrations is a time-dependent process that accelerates with age. Although American women living to an age of 85 have a 1 in 8 chance of developing breast cancer, the incidence of cancer in women younger than 30 years is uncommon. This is consistent with a multistep cancer progression model whereby mutation and selection drive the tumor's development, analogous to traditional Darwinian evolution. In the case of cancer, the driving events are changes in sequence, copy number, and structure of DNA and alterations in chromatin structure or other epigenetic marks. Our understanding of the genetic, genomic, and epigenomic events that influence the development and progression of breast cancer is increasing at a remarkable rate through application of powerful analysis tools that enable genome-wide analysis of DNA sequence and structure, copy number, allelic loss, and epigenomic modification. Application of these techniques to elucidation of the nature and timing of these events is enriching our understanding of mechanisms that increase breast cancer susceptibility, enable tumor initiation and progression to metastatic disease, and determine therapeutic response or resistance. These studies also reveal the molecular differences between cancer and normal that may be exploited to therapeutic benefit or that provide targets for molecular assays that may enable early cancer detection, and predict individual disease progression or response to treatment. This chapter reviews current and future directions in genome analysis and summarizes studies that provide insights into breast cancer pathophysiology or that suggest strategies to improve breast cancer management.

  20. Genetic Markers in Biological Fluids for Aging-Related Major Neurocognitive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Chavira, S.A.; Fernández, T.; Nicolini, H.; Diaz-Cintra, S.; Prado-Alcalá, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related major neurocognitive disorder (NCD), formerly named dementia, comprises of the different acquired diseases whose primary deficit is impairment in cognitive functions such as complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, language, perceptual/motor skills, and social cognition, and that are related to specific brain regions and/or networks. According to its etiology, the most common subtypes of major NCDs are due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD), vascular disease (VaD), L...

  1. Head movements in schizophrenia: new biological marker, critical neurological flaw, or artifact of subvocalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olevitch, B A; Stern, J A

    1996-12-01

    Findings (Kolada & Pitman, 1983; Pollack & Krieger, 1958; Stevens, 1977) that schizophrenics use a combination of head and eye movements while doing tasks in which normal subjects use only eye movements were replicated using reading materials with varied line lengths. Schizophrenics (N = 12) began making head movements during silent reading at an average visual angle of 15 degrees, whereas normal subjects (N = 42) began at an average angle of 19 degrees, (p reading out loud. Results for a checking task (p reading task (p = .05) with a smaller sample (N = 14) also indicated more use of head movements by schizophrenic subjects. Literature is reviewed suggesting that these easily observable head movements may be an especially interesting focus for schizophrenia research because of their possible relationships to pursuit tracking, dopamine metabolism, cognitive activity, and subvocalization. PMID:9076569

  2. The promise of biological markers for treatment response in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fond, Guillaume; d'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Jamain, Stéphane;

    2015-01-01

    -no or only a few biomarkers for response or side effects, none of which have been implemented in daily clinical practice. Other biomarkers exploring immunoinflammatory, oxidative, and hormonal disturbances emerged as biomarkers of first-episode psychoses in the last decades, and some of them have been...

  3. Marcadores biológicos de infección neonatal Biological markers of neonatal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Costa Romero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La sepsis es uno de los cuadros más frecuentes en la etapa neonatal. Según datos del Grupo Castrillo, la incidencia de sepsis vertical en 2008 fue 1,08 casos por cada 1.000 recién nacidos vivos y la de sepsis nosocomial 2,1%, llegando al 15,6% entre los recién nacidos menores de 1.500 gramos. A pesar de la alta incidencia y, en ocasiones, extrema gravedad de las infecciones, la definición de “sepsis neonatal” continúa siendo uno de los grandes retos de la medicina actual. Por ese motivo, en los últimos años se han llevado a cabo múltiples consensos y reuniones e incluso se han desarrollado nuevos términos (SIRS y PIRO, pero los criterios y definiciones resultantes aún poseen una especificidad insuficiente, lo que favorece diagnósticos erróneos, sobretratamiento y dificulta la comparación de estudios.

  4. Cell Biological Markers in Breast Tumours: Applications in cyto- and histopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kuenen-Boumeester (Vibeke)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most common malignant tumour among women in the western world, affecting 8-12 % of the female population. In the Netherlands, breast cancer occurs yearly in IOOO per IOO,OOO women with an absolute incidence of 9,000 new cases per year. The etiology is multifactorial.

  5. Eye Blink Rate as a biological marker of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladas, Aristea; Frantzidis, Christos; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Vivas, Ana B

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between dopamine activity (DA), as measured by Eye Blink Rate (EBR), and cognitive function in old adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and healthy controls. Research has been inconclusive so far about the factors responsible for the transition from MCI to dementia. However, some studies suggest that cortical hyperexcitability in very early stages of pathological aging may progressively lead to cell death, and thus to Alzheimer's disease. Hence, we speculated that a dysfunction of DA activity, as measured by EBR, may characterize people with MCI, and account for their poor cognitive function. Thirty three (33) healthy and thirty six (36) old adults with MCI (Mean age = 67.52 y.o.) participated in this study. The EBR was recorded under resting conditions, using two gold skin electrodes above and below the left eye. Cognitive function was assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Participants with MCI showed significantly higher EBR than the healthy controls. Also, EBR was negatively related to scores on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA) test. We propose that abnormally increased dopamine activity, as indexed by relatively high EBR, may be partially responsible for the neurotransmitter imbalance in the central nervous system of people with MCI, and the overall impaired cognitive performance. In addition, this finding suggests that an abnormally high EBR may be a potential biomarker of the transition from healthy aging to dementia. PMID:23912068

  6. Disturbances of motility and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome: biological markers or epiphenomenon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2012-02-03

    Motility and visceral hypersentitivity are regarded as the primary mechanisms of symptom development in irritable bowel syndrome(IBS). While a variety of motor abnormalities have been described throughout the gastrointestinal tract in IBS, their specificity and relationship to symptoms remain unclear. Visceral hypersensitivity is ubiquitous in functional gastrointestinal disease and is especially common in IBS. Again, however, its specificity for IBS has been questioned. Many factors, including stress and psychopathology,complicate the interpretation of these phenomena and new re-search suggests that mucosal inflammation and luminal factors may be more fundamental to the etiology of this common disorder.

  7. Comparative analysis of disease-linked single nucleotide polymorphic markers from Brassica rapa for their applicability to Brassica oleracea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Il Cho

    Full Text Available Numerous studies using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been conducted in humans, and other animals, and in major crops, including rice, soybean, and Chinese cabbage. However, the number of SNP studies in cabbage is limited. In this present study, we evaluated whether 7,645 SNPs previously identified as molecular markers linked to disease resistance in the Brassica rapa genome could be applied to B. oleracea. In a BLAST analysis using the SNP sequences of B. rapa and B. oleracea genomic sequence data registered in the NCBI database, 256 genes for which SNPs had been identified in B. rapa were found in B. oleracea. These genes were classified into three functional groups: molecular function (64 genes, biological process (96 genes, and cellular component (96 genes. A total of 693 SNP markers, including 145 SNP markers [BRH--developed from the B. rapa genome for high-resolution melt (HRM analysis], 425 SNP markers (BRP--based on the B. rapa genome that could be applied to B. oleracea, and 123 new SNP markers (BRS--derived from BRP and designed for HRM analysis, were investigated for their ability to amplify sequences from cabbage genomic DNA. In total, 425 of the SNP markers (BRP-based on B. rapa genome, selected from 7,645 SNPs, were successfully applied to B. oleracea. Using PCR, 108 of 145 BRH (74.5%, 415 of 425 BRP (97.6%, and 118 of 123 BRS (95.9% showed amplification, suggesting that it is possible to apply SNP markers developed based on the B. rapa genome to B. oleracea. These results provide valuable information that can be utilized in cabbage genetics and breeding programs using molecular markers derived from other Brassica species.

  8. Biological sample collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.

    2010-09-07

    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  9. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  10. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  11. Microsatellite markers: what they mean and why they are so useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro; Santini, Luciane; Diniz, Augusto Lima; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Microsatellites or Single Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are extensively employed in plant genetics studies, using both low and high throughput genotyping approaches. Motivated by the importance of these sequences over the last decades this review aims to address some theoretical aspects of SSRs, including definition, characterization and biological function. The methodologies for the development of SSR loci, genotyping and their applications as molecular markers are also reviewed. Finally, two data surveys are presented. The first was conducted using the main database of Web of Science, prospecting for articles published over the period from 2010 to 2015, resulting in approximately 930 records. The second survey was focused on papers that aimed at SSR marker development, published in the American Journal of Botany's Primer Notes and Protocols in Plant Sciences (over 2013 up to 2015), resulting in a total of 87 publications. This scenario confirms the current relevance of SSRs and indicates their continuous utilization in plant science. PMID:27561112

  12. Effects of cysteinyl leukotrienes and leukotriene receptor antagonists on markers of inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampson, Anthony P; Pizzichini, Emilio; Bisgaard, Hans

    2003-01-01

    The understanding that asthma pathophysiology includes an inflammatory component has spurred the more aggressive use of anti-inflammatory therapies and created a need for effective tools to measure inflammation. Biomarkers of airway inflammation proposed are obtained by methods that are direct but...... mediators in a wide range of diseases, implying that their biological activities reach far beyond acute bronchoconstriction, the activity traditionally ascribed to them. The validity of examining sputum for "biomarkers" has improved the understanding of asthma pathophysiology, optimization of asthma...... treatment and management, and investigation of the relation between CysLTs and airway inflammation in asthma. Nitric oxide is also a surrogate marker of asthma and reflects airway inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effects of the leukotriene receptor antagonists and the markers of their activity continue...

  13. 3-Hydroxylysine, a potential marker for studying radical-induced protein oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, B; Bubb, W A; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Dean, R T; Fu, S

    1998-01-01

    albumin (BSA) and human low-density lipoprotein (LDL)] and diseased human tissues (atherosclerotic plaques and lens cataractous proteins). This work was aimed at investigating oxidized lysine as a sensitive marker for protein oxidation, as such residues are present on protein surfaces, and are therefore...... with globular proteins such as BSA. Hydroxylysines, and particularly 3-hydroxylysine, may therefore be sensitive and useful markers of radical-mediated protein oxidation in biological systems....... likely to be particularly susceptible to oxidation by radicals in bulk solution. HO* attack on lysine in the presence of oxygen, followed by NaBH4 reduction, is shown to give rise to (2S)-3-hydroxylysine [(2S)-2,6-diamino-3-hydroxyhexanoic acid], (2S)-4-hydroxylysine [(2S)-2,6-diamino-4-hydroxyhexanoic...

  14. Microsatellite markers: what they mean and why they are so useful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Maria Lucia Carneiro; Santini, Luciane; Diniz, Augusto Lima; Munhoz, Carla de Freitas

    2016-08-01

    Microsatellites or Single Sequence Repeats (SSRs) are extensively employed in plant genetics studies, using both low and high throughput genotyping approaches. Motivated by the importance of these sequences over the last decades this review aims to address some theoretical aspects of SSRs, including definition, characterization and biological function. The methodologies for the development of SSR loci, genotyping and their applications as molecular markers are also reviewed. Finally, two data surveys are presented. The first was conducted using the main database of Web of Science, prospecting for articles published over the period from 2010 to 2015, resulting in approximately 930 records. The second survey was focused on papers that aimed at SSR marker development, published in the American Journal of Botany's Primer Notes and Protocols in Plant Sciences (over 2013 up to 2015), resulting in a total of 87 publications. This scenario confirms the current relevance of SSRs and indicates their continuous utilization in plant science. PMID:27494201

  15. Large-scale transcriptome analyses reveal new genetic marker candidates of head, neck, and thyroid cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reis, Eduardo M; Ojopi, Elida P B; Alberto, Fernando L;

    2005-01-01

    A detailed genome mapping analysis of 213,636 expressed sequence tags (EST) derived from nontumor and tumor tissues of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and thyroid was done. Transcripts matching known human genes were identified; potential new splice variants were flagged and subjected to manual...... amplification was selected by identifying transcripts that mapped to genomic regions previously known to be frequently amplified or deleted in head, neck, and thyroid tumors. Three of these markers were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in an independent set of individual samples. Along with...... detailed clinical data about tumor origin, the information reported here is now publicly available on a dedicated Web site as a resource for further biological investigation. This first in silico reconstruction of the head, neck, and thyroid transcriptomes points to a wealth of new candidate markers that...

  16. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: An allometric comparative analysis of different ECG markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomini, M. P.; Ingallina, F.; Barone, V.; Valentinuzzi, M. E.; Arini, P. D.

    2011-12-01

    Allometry, in general biology, measures the relative growth of a part in relation to the whole living organism. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is the heart adaptation to excessive load (systolic or diastolic). The increase in left ventricular mass leads to an increase in the electrocardiographic voltages. Based on clinical data, we compared the allometric behavior of three different ECG markers of LVH. To do this, the allometric fit AECG = δ + β (VM) relating left ventricular mass (estimated from ecocardiographic data) and ECG amplitudes (expressed as the Cornell-Voltage, Sokolow and the ECG overall voltage indexes) were compared. Besides, sensitivity and specifity for each index were analyzed. The more sensitive the ECG criteria, the better the allometric fit. In conclusion: The allometric paradigm should be regarded as the way to design new and more sensitive ECG-based LVH markers.

  17. Synthetic strategies for efficient conjugation of organometallic complexes with pendant protein reactive markers

    KAUST Repository

    Jantke, Dominik

    2013-11-01

    Site-directed conjugation of metal centers to proteins is fundamental for biological and bioinorganic applications of transition metals. However, methods for the site-selective introduction of metal centers remain scarce. Herein, we present broadly applicable synthetic strategies for the conjugation of bioactive molecules with a range of organometallic complexes. Following three different synthetic strategies, we were able to synthesize a small library of metal conjugated protein markers featuring different types of protein reactive sites (epoxides, phenylphosphonates, fluorosulfonates and fluorophosphonate groups) as well as different late transition metals (iron, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium and platinum). The products were isolated in moderate to excellent yields and high purity. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction of the metalated protein markers corroborates structural integrity of the metal complex and the protein reactive site. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Expression of squamous cell carcinoma markers and adenocarcinoma markers in primary pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masai, Kyohei; Tsuta, Koji; Kawago, Mitsumasa; Tatsumori, Takahiro; Kinno, Tomoaki; Taniyama, Tomoko; Yoshida, Akihiko; Asamura, Hisao; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Recent clinical trials have revealed that accurate histologic typing of non-small cell lung cancer is essential. Until now, squamous cell carcinoma (SQC) and adenocarcinoma (ADC) markers have not been thoroughly analyzed for pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). We analyzed the expression of 8 markers [p63, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, SOX2, CK7, desmocollin 3, thyroid transcription factor-1 (8G7G3/1 and SPT24), and napsin A] in 224 NECs. SOX2 (76.2%) had the greatest expression for NECs. CK5/6 (1.4%), desmocollin 3 (0.5%), and napsin A (0%) were expressed less or not at all in NECs. Although our investigated markers have been reported useful for differentiating between SQC and ADC, some of them were also present in a portion of pulmonary NECs. In our study, CK5/6 and desmocollin 3 were highly specific markers for SQC, and napsin A was highly specific for ADC. These markers are recommended for diagnosis of poorly differentiated non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:23060301

  19. Tumor markers in pancreatic cancer: a European Group on Tumor Markers (EGTM) status report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M J

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most difficult malignancies to diagnose and treat. The aim of this article is to review how tumor markers can aid the diagnosis and management of patients with this malignancy. The most widely used and best validated marker for pancreatic cancer is CA 19-9. Inadequate sensitivity and specificity limit the use of CA 19-9 in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. In non-jaundiced patients, however, CA 19-9 may complement other diagnostic procedures. In patients with resectable pancreatic cancer, presurgical and postresection CA 19-9 levels correlate with overall survival. In advanced disease, elevated pretreatment levels of CA 19-9 are associated with adverse patient outcome and thus may be combined with other factors for risk stratification. Most, but not all, reports indicate that serial levels of CA 19-9 correlate with response to systemic therapy. Use of CA 19-9 kinetics in conjunction with imaging is therefore recommended in monitoring therapy. Although several potential serum and tissue markers for pancreatic cancer are currently undergoing evaluation, none are sufficiently validated for routine clinical use. CA 19-9 thus remains the serum pancreatic cancer marker against which new markers for this malignancy should be judged.

  20. Standardisation and Validation of Cytogenetic Markers to Quantify Radiation Absorbed Dose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Perumal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of radiation exposure received by radiation workers are monitored generally by physical dosimeters like thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD and film badge. However, in practice the over-exposure recorded by physical dosimeters need to be confirmed with biological dosimeters. In addition to confirming the dose recorded by physical dosimeters, biological dosimeters play an important role in estimating the doses received during accidental exposures. Exposure to high levels of radiation induces certain  biochemical, biophysical, and immunological changes (biomarkers in a cell. Measurement of these changes are generally precise but cannot be effectively used to assess the dose, as the level of these changes return to normalcy within hours to months after exposure. Thus, among various biological indicators, cytogenetic indicators are considered practical and reliable for dose estimation. The paper highlights the importance and establishment of biodosimetry facility using genetic markers such as the sensitive dicentric chromosomes, rapid micronucleus assay and stable translocations measured using fluorescence in situ hybridisation and GTG banding for retrospective dose estimation. Finally, the development of gH2AX assay, as a potential marker of triage dosimeter, is discussed.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(2, pp.125-132, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.832

  1. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  2. Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, T.

    2012-06-25

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of

  3. Neutron in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  4. Identification, utilisation and mapping of novel transcriptome-based markers from blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedley Pete E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep-level second generation sequencing (2GS technologies are now being applied to non-model species as a viable and favourable alternative to Sanger sequencing. Large-scale SNP discovery was undertaken in blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L. using transcriptome-based 2GS 454 sequencing on the parental genotypes of a reference mapping population, to generate large numbers of novel markers for the construction of a high-density linkage map. Results Over 700,000 reads were produced, from which a total of 7,000 SNPs were found. A subset of polymorphic SNPs was selected to develop a 384-SNP OPA assay using the Illumina BeadXpress platform. Additionally, the data enabled identification of 3,000 novel EST-SSRs. The selected SNPs and SSRs were validated across diverse Ribes germplasm, including mapping populations and other selected Ribes species. SNP-based maps were developed from two blackcurrant mapping populations, incorporating 48% and 27% of assayed SNPs respectively. A relatively high proportion of visually monomorphic SNPs were investigated further by quantitative trait mapping of theta score outputs from BeadStudio analysis, and this enabled additional SNPs to be placed on the two maps. Conclusions The use of 2GS technology for the development of markers is superior to previously described methods, in both numbers of markers and biological informativeness of those markers. Whilst the numbers of reads and assembled contigs were comparable to similar sized studies of other non-model species, here a high proportion of novel genes were discovered across a wide range of putative function and localisation. The potential utility of markers developed using the 2GS approach in downstream breeding applications is discussed.

  5. Strawberry cultivar identification based on hypervariable SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Masanori; Nunome, Tsukasa; Kataoka, Sono; Yano, Takayoshi; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Hamano, Megumi; Yui, Susumu; Morishita, Masami

    2011-12-01

    We genotyped strawberry cultivars by two newly selected and two previously reported SSR markers. All four markers produced interpretable electropherograms from 75 accessions consisting of 72 Fragaria × ananassa cultivars or lines and three octoploid Fragaria species accessions. These SSR markers were highly polymorphic; in particular, one of the newly developed markers, FxaHGA02P13, was capable of distinguishing all of the accessions except for a mutant strain that was derived from another accession in the set. When two markers were combined, all 48 full-sib individuals could be distinguished. Fingerprinting patterns were reproducible between multiple samples, including the leaves, sepals, and fruit flesh of the same accession. Principal-coordinate analysis of the 75 accessions detected several groups, which reflect taxon and breeding site. Together with other available markers, these SSR markers will contribute to the management of strawberry genetic resources and the protection of breeders' rights. PMID:23136480

  6. Fiducial Marker Based on Projective Invariant for Augmented Reality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Li; Yong-Tian Wang; Yue Liu

    2007-01-01

    Fiducial marker based Augmented Reality has many applications. So far the inner pattern of the fiducial marker is always used to encode the markers. Thus a large portion of the fiduciat marker image is used for encoding instead of providing corresponding feature points for pose accuracy. This paper presents a novel method which utilizes directly the projective invariant contained in the positional relation of the corresponding feature points to encode the marker. The proposed method does not require the region of pattern image for encoding any more and can provide more corresponding feature points so that higher pose accuracy can be achieved easily. Many related approaches suchas cumulative distribution function, reprojection verification and robust process are proposed to overcome the problem of sensibility of the projective invariant. Experimental results show that the proposed fiducial marker system is reliable and robust, and can provide higher pose accuracy than that achieved by existing fiducial marker systems.

  7. Mammographic density and epithelial histopathologic markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explored the association of mammographic density, a breast cancer risk factor, with hormonal and proliferation markers in benign tissue from tumor blocks of pre-and postmenopausal breast cancer cases. Breast cancer cases were recruited from a case-control study on breast density. Mammographic density was assessed on digitized prediagnostic mammograms using a computer-assisted method. For 279 participants of the original study, we obtained tumor blocks and prepared tissue microarrays (TMA), but benign tissue cores were only available for 159 women. The TMAs were immunostained for estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ), progesterone receptor (PR), HER2/neu, Ki-67, and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA). We applied general linear models to compute breast density according to marker expression. A substantial proportion of the samples were in the low or no staining categories. None of the results was statistically significant, but women with PR and ERβ staining had 3.4% and 2.4% higher percent density. The respective values for Caucasians were 5.7% and 11.6% but less in Japanese women (3.5% and -1.1%). Percent density was 3.4% higher in women with any Ki-67 staining and 2.2% in those with positive PCNA staining. This study detected little evidence for an association between mammographic density and expression of steroid receptors and proliferation markers in breast tissue, but it illustrated the problems of locating tumor blocks and benign breast tissue samples for epidemiologic research. Given the suggestive findings, future studies examining estrogen effects in tissue, cell proliferation, and density in the breast may be informative

  8. Lipase as a marker enzyme for bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection of various biochemical analytes is usually carried out after the biorecognition with labeled molecules. The most common label is still the radioactivity. However, the short half-life and health hazard of the radionuclides make the non-radioactive labels more popular. The fluorescence and chemiluminescence markers allow direct measurements, but they are not as sensitive as the enzymatic labels. Enzyme labels are the most sensitive non-radioactive markers and in combination with suitable colorimetric or chemiluminescence substrates the same detection limits as with radioactivity can be achieved. Direct enzyme markers offer not only a high sensitivity, but also a low background and non problematic and fast detection. The most commonly used enzymatic labels are horse-radish peroxidase and the alkaline phosphatase. In this work a new enzymatic label, lipase from Candida rugosa, was introduced. This 60 kDa large protein from the group of hydrolases is more active then the commercially available enzymes. In this thesis the most important characteristics of the lipase were characterized: specific activity, substrate specificity, temperature stability, pH optimum, storage stability and influence of detergents an the protein. The lipase was used for the labeling of short oligonucleotides (20-30 nucleotides long). The labeling was carried out through a terminal pending reactive group not to prevent the formation of hybrids during the hybridization process. The hybridization with labeled oligonucleotides is a fast process in comparison to the hybridization with long nucleic acids. This process takes place in simple working solutions at relatively low temperatures. Under these condition lipase remains active and stable, which leads to high signals. According to the high stability of lipase under working conditions, wide pH optimum and extreme high specific activity in comparison to the commonly used enzyme labels make it possible to open new perspectives for

  9. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography–mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m3 (N = 5) and 0.0007/m3 (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m3 (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m3 (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: ► Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. ► Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. ► LPS from mainstream smoke contains 3-hydroxy 14:0 and 12:0 fatty acids in similar proportion as in

  10. Induced marker gene mutations in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Non-fluorescent root mutants in soybean are useful as markers in genetic studies. 13 such mutants were detected among more than 150 000 seedlings derived from soybean lines treated with 6 mutagens. One of them, derived from variety 'Williams' treated with 20 kR gamma rays, did not correspond to the already known spontaneous non-fluorescent mutants. It was assigned the identification no. T285 and the gene symbol fr5. The other mutants corresponded with known loci fr1, fr2 or fr4. (author)

  11. Connective tissue markers of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, H J

    1998-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common systemic autoimmune disorder of unknown aetiology. The most common outcome of RA is a progressive development of joint destruction and deformity. Early introduction of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs seems important for prevention of the long term...... rheumatoid factor contributes to the classification of arthritis as RA, and acute phase reactants are useful for quantifying and comparing the level of inflammatory activity in the course of a given patient. There is, however, a lack of sensitive and specific biochemical markers for RA, and frontline...

  12. Bacterial and fungal markers in tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szponar, B., E-mail: szponar@iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Polish Academy of Sciences, Rudolfa Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Pehrson, C.; Larsson, L. [Lund University, Dept. of Laboratory Medicine, Soelvegatan 23, 223 62 Lund (Sweden)

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that cigarette smoke contains bacterial and fungal components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ergosterol. In the present study we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze tobacco as well as mainstream and second hand smoke for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH FAs) of 10 to 18 carbon chain lengths, used as LPS markers, and ergosterol, used as a marker of fungal biomass. The air concentrations of LPS were 0.0017 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) and 0.0007/m{sup 3} (N = 6) in the smoking vs. non-smoking rooms (p = 0.0559) of the studied private houses, and 0.0231 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) vs. 0.0006 nmol/m{sup 3} (N = 5) (p = 0.0173), respectively, at the worksite. The air concentrations of ergosterol were also significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than in rooms without smoking. A positive correlation was found between LPS and ergosterol in rooms with smoking but not in rooms without smoking. 3-OH C14:0 was the main 3-OH FA, followed by 3-OH C12:0, both in mainstream and second hand smoke and in phenol:water smoke extracts prepared in order to purify the LPS. The Limulus activity of the phenolic phase of tobacco was 3900 endotoxin units (EU)/cigarette; the corresponding amount of the smoke, collected on filters from 8 puffs, was 4 EU/cigarette. Tobacco smoking has been associated with a range of inflammatory airway conditions including COPD, asthma, bronchitis, alveolar hypersensitivity etc. Significant levels of LPS and ergosterol were identified in tobacco smoke and these observations support the hypothesis that microbial components of tobacco smoke contribute to inflammation and airway disease. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Air concentration of bacterial and fungal markers is significantly higher in rooms with ongoing smoking than without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bacterial LPS correlates with fungal marker in rooms with ongoing smoking but not without smoking. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS

  13. Hydrocarbons as markers for identifying postirradiated peanuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbons produced by γ-radiation of peanuts were analyzed to determine the relationship between irradiation and production of hydrocarbons, and the use of hydrocarbons as markers for identifying postirradiated peanuts. Hydrocarbons in peanuts were determined by a sequential procedure of lipid extraction by hexane, Florisil column chromatography, and gas chromatography. Hydrocarbons C17:1, C16:2, C17:2, and C16:3 were easily detected in peanuts irradiated at 0.5 kGy or higher, but not in unirradiated ones. The hydrocarbons were minimally changed by roasting the irradiated peanuts and were not detected in unirradiated roasted peanuts

  14. A Molecular Biology Database Digest

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Kröger, Peer

    2000-01-01

    Computational Biology or Bioinformatics has been defined as the application of mathematical and Computer Science methods to solving problems in Molecular Biology that require large scale data, computation, and analysis [18]. As expected, Molecular Biology databases play an essential role in Computational Biology research and development. This paper introduces into current Molecular Biology databases, stressing data modeling, data acquisition, data retrieval, and the integration...

  15. SOIL BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term "Soil Biology", the study of organism groups living in soil, (plants, lichens, algae, moss, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes, and arthropods), predates "Soil Ecology", the study of interactions between soil organisms as mediated by the soil physical environment. oil ...

  16. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  17. Teaching evolutionary biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tidon Rosana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary Biology integrates several disciplines of Biology in a complex and interactive manner, where a deep understanding of the subject demands knowledge in diverse areas. Since this knowledge is often inaccessible to the majority of specialized professionals, including the teachers, we present some reflections in order to stimulate discussions aimed at the improvement of the conditions of education in this area. We examine the profile of evolutionary teaching in Brazil, based on questionnaires distributed to teachers in Secondary Education in the Federal District, on data provided by the "National Institute for Educational Studies and Research", and on information collected from teachers working in various regions of this country. Issues related to biological misconceptions, curriculum and didactic material are discussed, and some proposals are presented with the objective of aiding discussions aimed at the improvement of the teaching of evolutionary biology.

  18. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F

    2013-01-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  19. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... biology research. The paper also shows as a proof-of-concept that a systems biology approach to diet is meaningful and demonstrates some basic principles on how to work with diet systematic. The second chapter of this thesis we developed the resource NutriChem v1.0. A foodchemical database linking...... sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...

  20. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted or...... residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled, and...

  1. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean....

  2. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  3. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  4. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted or...... residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled, and...

  5. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  6. The Biology of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  7. Biological satellite Kosmos-936

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  8. Ontologies for molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze-Kremer, S

    1998-01-01

    Molecular biology has a communication problem. There are many databases using their own labels and categories for storing data objects and some using identical labels and categories but with a different meaning. A prominent example is the concept "gene" which is used with different semantics by major international genomic databases. Ontologies are one means to provide a semantic repository to systematically order relevant concepts in molecular biology and to bridge the different notions in various databases by explicitly specifying the meaning of and relation between the fundamental concepts in an application domain. Here, the upper level and a database branch of a prospective ontology for molecular biology (OMB) is presented and compared to other ontologies with respect to suitability for molecular biology (http:/(/)igd.rz-berlin.mpg.de/approximately www/oe/mbo.html). PMID:9697223

  9. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  10. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  11. The Biology of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  12. Synthesis and use of radio cobaltic EDTA as an extracellular marker in rabbit heart

    OpenAIRE

    Bridge, John H. B.; Bersohn, Malcolm M.; Gonzalez, Frank; BASSINGTHWAIGHTE, JAMES B.

    1982-01-01

    A new γ-labeled marker for extracellular space is the cobaltic form of 58Co-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (58Co-EDTA). The cobaltic ion has a much higher affinity for EDTA than the cobaltous ion; it is prepared as a potassium salt, K+(58Co3+-EDTA4−), and is apparently biologically inert. Testing by equilibration in intact rabbits and comparing the myocardial content with that of [14C]sucrose give values of the volume of distribution in the myocardium of 0.294 ± 0.052 ml/g for 58Co-EDTA and ...

  13. Synthetic biology: A foundation for multi-scale molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Adam G; McClintock, Maria K; Stephen S. Fong

    2010-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology has made rapid progress in a number of areas including method development, novel applications and community building. In seeking to make biology “engineerable,” synthetic biology is increasing the accessibility of biological research to researchers of all experience levels and backgrounds. One of the underlying strengths of synthetic biology is that it may establish the framework for a rigorous bottom-up approach to studying biology starting at the DNA level. Bu...

  14. Floral transcriptome sequencing for SSR marker development and linkage map construction in the tea plant (Camellia sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Qiang Tan

    Full Text Available Despite the worldwide consumption and high economic importance of tea, the plant (Camellia sinensis is not well studied in molecular biology. Under the few circumstances in which the plant is studied, C. sinensis flowers, which are important for reproduction and cross-breeding, receive less emphasis than investigation of its leaves or roots. Using high-throughput Illumina RNA sequencing, we analyzed a C. sinensis floral transcriptome, and 26.9 million clean reads were assembled into 75,531 unigenes averaging 402 bp. Among them, 50,792 (67.2% unigenes were annotated with a BLAST search against the NCBI Non-Redundant (NR database and 10,290 (16.67% were detected that contained one or more simple sequence repeats (SSRs. From these SSR-containing sequences, 2,439 candidate SSR markers were developed and 720 were experimentally tested, validating 431 (59.9% novel polymorphic SSR markers for C. sinensis. Then, a consensus SSR-based linkage map was constructed that covered 1,156.9 cM with 237 SSR markers distributed in 15 linkage groups. Both transcriptome information and the genetic map of C. sinensis presented here offer a valuable foundation for molecular biology investigations such as functional gene isolation, quantitative trait loci mapping, and marker-assisted selection breeding in this important species.

  15. Computational Thinking in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Priami, Corrado

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a new approach based on process calculi to systems modeling suitable for biological systems. The main characteristic of process calculi is a linguistic description level to dene incrementally and compositionally executable models. The formalism is suitable to be exploited on the same systems at dierent levels of abstractions connected through well dened formal rules. The abstraction principle that represents biological entities as interacting computational units is the basi...

  16. Biological Sciences Building

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    One element of the CIVCAL project Web-based resources containing images, tables, texts and associated data on the construction of the Biological Sciences Building. The HKU Kadoorie Biological Sciences Building is an 11-storey reinforced concrete framed building with a structural steel arch roof. The building dimensions are approximately 60 metres x 30 metres. The estimated project cost for the superstructure construction (excluding the bored pile foundations) was about HK$ 400 million....

  17. Biological treatment for sewage

    OpenAIRE

    Xintai, Wang; Luc Sanya, Eric

    2007-01-01

    The sewage treatment is by no means insignificant in our world, and for many sewage treatment plants, the biological treatment is the best choice to eliminate the nutrients and organic compounds in the waste water. Today, in most waste water treatment plants, there are two main kinds of biological waste water treatment – the active sludge method and the biofilm method. Each of these two methods have their own advantages and disadvantages. For different towns or cities, the waste water treatme...

  18. Synthetic biology and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robienski, Jürgen; Simon, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict fields and legal questions of synthetic biology, esp. concerning biosecurity. A respective jurisprudential discussion has not taken place yet in Germany apart from few statements and recommendations. But in Germany, Europe and the USA, it is generally accepted that a broad discussion is necessary. This is esp. true for the question of biosecurity and the possible dangers arising from Synthetic Biology. PMID:25845204

  19. Biological sequence analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Speed, T. P.

    2003-01-01

    This talk will review a little over a decade's research on applying certain stochastic models to biological sequence analysis. The models themselves have a longer history, going back over 30 years, although many novel variants have arisen since that time. The function of the models in biological sequence analysis is to summarize the information concerning what is known as a motif or a domain in bioinformatics, and to provide a tool for discovering instances of that motif or domain in a separa...

  20. Noise in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimring, Lev S

    2014-01-01

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms, and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evol...

  1. Application of molecular markers in apple breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Slađana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Apple is economically the most important species of genus Malus Miller. In respect of production, trade and consumption, it ranks first among deciduous fruit and third on a global scale among all fruit species. Apple breeding is carried out on a large scale in several scientific institutes throughout the world. Due to this activity, apple is a fruit species with the highest number of described monogenic traits; 76 genes, encoding morphological traits, pest and disease resistance, as well as 69 genes encoding enzymes. The development of molecular markers (RFLPs, AFLPs, SCARs and SSRs has allowed the mapping of the apple genome and the development of several saturated genetic maps, to which genes controlling important traits are assigned. Markers flanking these genes not only play an important role in selecting parental combinations and seedlings with positive traits, but they are also particularly important in detecting recessive traits, such as seedless fruit. In addition they enable pre-selection for polygenic quantitative traits. In recent years, particular attention has been paid to biochemical and physiological processes involved in the pathway of important traits e.g., ripening and the storage capability of apple fruit.

  2. Evaluation of DNA markers for fish identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Riina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Species substitution is a common commercial fraud, mainly applied to fish species. It is thus important to have analytical methods for species identification. DNA analysis can be a suitable technique: some mitochondrial genes are actually recognized as valuable markers for species discrimination. Aim of this work was thus to evaluate the capability of cytb and COI genes to discriminate the species of fish (n=89 which are commonly substituted. In the last four years of activity on field, the laboratory analysed, using the FINS method (Forensically Informative Nucleotide Sequencing, 146 samples, belonging to several fish species, sent by veterinary officers in the frame of their activities of control: in this work, results about number and kind of fraud are reported. Additionally, samples directly purchased by the lab were examined. The obtained results showed that the genetic markers have a high discriminatory power and that the method is highly suitable. The frequent detection of species substitution in the samples collected on field showed the importance of controlling this kind of frauds in the fish market.

  3. Markers of systemic inflammatory response in coxarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshunov G.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect markers of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in patients with coxarthrosis by means of assessment of the status of the hemostasis system, endothelium function and inflammation intensity. Material and Methods. The indices of the plasmatic hemostasis, levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VEGF-A, neop-terin were analyzed. Results. It has been found that among the patients with hip coxarthrosis a group of patients (47% with endothelium dysfunction, cellular immunity activation, a high content of Soluble Fibrin Monomer Complex and D-dimers and a group of patients (53% without any abnormalities in these parameters should be differentiated. Conclusion. Among the patients with hip coxarthrosis a group with signs of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (occurrence of endothelium dysfunction, cellular immunity activation, a high content of Soluble Fibrin Monomer Complex and D-dimers and a group of patients with reference values of these parameters can be determined. The markers of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in cases with hip osteoarthrosis are Soluble Fibrin Monomer Complex and D-dimers, high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (slCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-2 (sVCAM-1, cell adhesion E-selectin-1 (ELAM-1 and Neopterin (Np.

  4. Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, M. C. G.; Zaviezo, T.; Le Maguet, Jean; HERRBACH, Etienne; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of in...

  5. Genetically Engineered Protein Modules: Development and Applications in Anti-Viral Agent Screening and Cancer Marker Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Payal

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OF THE DISSERTATION Genetically Engineered Protein Modules: Development and Applications in Anti-Viral Agent Screening and Cancer Marker Detection byPayal BiswasDoctor of Philosophy Cell Molecular and Developmental Biology Graduate ProgramUniversity of California, Riverside, August 2010Dr. Wilfred Chen, ChairpersonOne of the most critical aspects in drug discovery is the bioactivity screening assay, by which compounds that most effectively inhibit the target are identified. During t...

  6. Feasibility of proposed single-nucleotide polymorphisms as predictive markers for targeted regimens in metastatic colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J. C.; Ha, Y J; Roh, S A; Choi, E. Y.; Yoon, Y.S.; Kim, K P; Hong, Y S; Kim, T. W.; Cho, D H; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surrogate biomarkers for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) are urgently needed to achieve the best outcomes for targeted therapy. Methods: A clinical association analysis was performed to examine the three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were previously proposed as markers of chemosensitivity to the cetuximab (124 patients) and bevacizumab regimens (100 patients) in mCRC patients. In addition, biological correlations were examined for the candidate SNPs in terms of t...

  7. A rapid and robust selection procedure for generating drug-selectable marker-free recombinant malaria parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoni, Giulia; Briquet, Sylvie; Risco-Castillo, Veronica; Gaultier, Charlotte; Topçu, Selma; Ivănescu, Maria Larisa; Franetich, Jean-François; Hoareau-Coudert, Bénédicte; Mazier, Dominique; Silvie, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Experimental genetics have been widely used to explore the biology of the malaria parasites. The rodent parasites Plasmodium berghei and less frequently P. yoelii are commonly utilised, as their complete life cycle can be reproduced in the laboratory and because they are genetically tractable via homologous recombination. However, due to the limited number of drug-selectable markers, multiple modifications of the parasite genome are difficult to achieve and require large numbers of mice. Here...

  8. Marker based standardization of polyherbal formulation (SJT-DI-02) by high performance thin layer chromatography method

    OpenAIRE

    Ladva, Bhakti J.; Vijay M Mahida; Urmi D Kantaria; Gokani, Rina H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Preparation of highly standardized herbal products with respect to chemical composition and biological activity is considered to be a valuable approach in this field. SJT-DI-02 polyherbal formulation was successfully developed at our institute and filed for patent at Mumbai patent office. Objective: The present work was marker based standardization of patented, novel and efficacious polyherbal formulation namely SJT-DI-02 for the treatment of diabetes. The SJT-DI-02 was comprised ...

  9. The use of ISSR markers for species determination and a genetic study of the invasive lionfish in Guanahacabibes, Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Labastida; Dorka Cobián; Yann Hénaut; María del Carmen García-Rivas; Pedro P Chevalier; Salima Machkour-M’Rabet

    2015-01-01

    The red lionfish (Pterois volitans) and devil fire-fish (Pterois miles) are invasive species that pose a threat to the biodiversity and stability of coral reefs in the Western Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Species identification of lionfish is uncertain in some parts of Cuba, and research has mainly been focused on their biology and ecology. The principal aim of this study was to determine highly polymorphic markers (Inter Simple Sequence Repeat, ISSR) that could be used in rese...

  10. Molecular biology of microbial ureases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, H L; Island, M D; Hausinger, R P

    1995-09-01

    Urease (urea amidohydrolase; EC 3.5.1.5) catalyzes the hydrolysis of urea to yield ammonia and carbamate. The latter compound spontaneously decomposes to yield another molecule of ammonia and carbonic acid. The urease phenotype is widely distributed across the bacterial kingdom, and the gene clusters encoding this enzyme have been cloned from numerous bacterial species. The complete nucleotide sequence, ranging from 5.15 to 6.45 kb, has been determined for five species including Bacillus sp. strain TB-90, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Helicobacter pylori, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Sequences for selected genes have been determined for at least 10 other bacterial species and the jack bean enzyme. Urease synthesis can be nitrogen regulated, urea inducible, or constitutive. The crystal structure of the K. aerogenes enzyme has been determined. When combined with chemical modification studies, biophysical and spectroscopic analyses, site-directed mutagenesis results, and kinetic inhibition experiments, the structure provides important insight into the mechanism of catalysis. Synthesis of active enzyme requires incorporation of both carbon dioxide and nickel ions into the protein. Accessory genes have been shown to be required for activation of urease apoprotein, and roles for the accessory proteins in metallocenter assembly have been proposed. Urease is central to the virulence of P. mirabilis and H. pylori. Urea hydrolysis by P. mirabilis in the urinary tract leads directly to urolithiasis (stone formation) and contributes to the development of acute pyelonephritis. The urease of H. pylori is necessary for colonization of the gastric mucosa in experimental animal models of gastritis and serves as the major antigen and diagnostic marker for gastritis and peptic ulcer disease in humans. In addition, the urease of Y. enterocolitica has been implicated as an arthritogenic factor in the development of infection-induced reactive arthritis. The significant

  11. Impact of tumor chronology and tumor biology on lymph node metastasis in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Smeets, Ann; Ryckx, Andries; Belmans, Ann; Wildiers, Hans; Neven, Patrick; Floris, Giuseppe; Schöffski, Patrick; Christiaens, Marie-Rose

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The significance of nodal metastasis in breast cancer is under discussion. We investigated the impact of variables of tumor chronology and tumor biology on the presence of lymph node metastases. Purpose Lymph node involvement is the main prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, it is under discussion whether nodal metastasis in breast cancer only reflects the chronological age of the tumor or whether it is also a marker of tumor biology. The goal of our study was to investigate t...

  12. Schizotypal, Schizoid and Paranoid Characteristics in the Biological Parents of Social Anhedonics

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Alex S.; Emmerson, Lindsay C.; Mann, Monica C.; Forbes, Courtney B.; Blanchard, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that social anhedonia may be a marker of genetic liability for schizophrenia-spectrum pathology. To examine this hypothesis, we conducted a study of severity of schizotypal, schizoid and paranoid pathology (i.e., Cluster A personality disorders) in the biological parents of individuals with high levels of social anhedonia and healthy controls. Eighty-six individuals with social anhedonia, 89 healthy controls and their biological parents were recruited from a large c...

  13. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  14. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F(sub 2) progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar

  15. Evaluation of systemic markers of inflammation in atomic-bomb survivors with special reference to radiation and age effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Tomonori; Morishita, Yukari; Khattree, Ravindra; Misumi, Munechika; Sasaki, Keiko; Hayashi, Ikue; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Imai, Kazue; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Nakachi, Kei

    2012-11-01

    Past exposure to atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation has exerted various long-lasting deleterious effects on the health of survivors. Some of these effects are seen even after >60 yr. In this study, we evaluated the subclinical inflammatory status of 442 A-bomb survivors, in terms of 8 inflammation-related cytokines or markers, comprised of plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-4, IL-10, and immunoglobulins, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). The effects of past radiation exposure and natural aging on these markers were individually assessed and compared. Next, to assess the biologically significant relationship between inflammation and radiation exposure or aging, which was masked by the interrelationship of those cytokines/markers, we used multivariate statistical analyses and evaluated the systemic markers of inflammation as scores being calculated by linear combinations of selected cytokines and markers. Our results indicate that a linear combination of ROS, IL-6, CRP, and ESR generated a score that was the most indicative of inflammation and revealed clear dependences on radiation dose and aging that were found to be statistically significant. The results suggest that collectively, radiation exposure, in conjunction with natural aging, may enhance the persistent inflammatory status of A-bomb survivors. PMID:22872680

  16. Development and Validation of Marker-Aided Selection Methods for Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine and Hybrid Poplar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuskan, G.A.

    2001-06-20

    Wood properties influence pulp and paper quality. Certainly, overall pulp yields are directly related to the cellulose content, changes in hemicellulose content are associated with changes in pulp cohesiveness, and pulping efficiency is related to lignin content. Despite the importance of wood properties on product quality, little progress has been made in improving such traits because current methods of assessing wood and fiber characteristics are time-consuming, expensive, and often imprecise. Genetic improvement of wood and fiber properties has been further hampered by the large size of trees, delayed reproductive maturity and long harvest cycles. Recent developments in molecular genetics will help overcome the physical, economic and biological constraints in assessing and improving wood properties. Genetic maps consisting of numerous molecular markers are now available for loblolly pine and hybrid poplar. Such markers/maps may be used as part of a marker-aided selection and breeding effort or to expedite the isolation and characterization of genes and/or promoters that directly control wood properties. The objectives of this project are: (1) to apply new and rapid analytical techniques for assessing component wood properties to segregating F2 progeny populations of loblolly pine and hybrid poplar, (2) to map quantitative trait loci and identify molecular markers associated with wood properties in each of the above species and (3) to validate marker-aided selection methods for wood properties in loblolly pine and hybrid poplar.

  17. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for

  18. NIR fluorescent dyes: versatile vehicles for marker and probe applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patonay, Gabor; Chapman, Gala; Beckford, Garfield; Henary, Maged

    2013-02-01

    The use of the NIR spectral region (650-900 nm) is advantageous due to the inherently lower background interference and the high molar absorptivities of NIR chromophores. Near-Infrared (NIR) dyes are increasingly used in the biological and medical field. The binding characteristics of NIR dyes to biomolecules are possibly controlled by several factors, including hydrophobicity, size and charge just to mention a few parameters. Binding characteristics of symmetric carbocyanines and found that the hydrophobic nature of the NIR dye is only partially responsible for the binding strength. Upon binding to biomolecules significant fluorescence enhancement can be observed for symmetrical carbocyanines. This fluorescence amplification facilitates the detection of the NIR dye and enhances its utility as NIR reporter. This manuscript discusses some probe and marker applications of such NIR fluorescent dyes. One application discussed here is the use of NIR dyes as markers. For labeling applications the fluorescence intensity of the NIR fluorescent label can significantly be increased by enclosing several dye molecules in nanoparticles. To decrease self quenching dyes that have relatively large Stokes' shift needs to be used. This is achieved by substituting meso position halogens with amino moiety. This substitution can also serve as a linker to covalently attach the dye molecule to the nanoparticle backbone. We report here on the preparation of NIR fluorescent silica nanoparticles. Silica nanoparticles that are modified with aminoreactive moieties can be used as bright fluorescent labels in bioanalytical applications. A new bioanalytical technique to detect and monitor the catalytic activity of the sulfur assimilating enzyme using NIR dyes is reported as well. In this spectroscopic bioanalytical assay a family of Fischer based n-butyl sulfonate substituted dyes that exhibit distinct variation in absorbance and fluorescence properties and strong binding to serum albumin as its

  19. Transformation of tobacco cpDNA with fusion E7GGG/GUS gene and homologous recombination mediated elimination of the marker gene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bříza, Jindřich; Vlasák, Josef; Ryba, Š.; Ludvíková, V.; Niedermeierová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2013), s. 3644-3648. ISSN 1310-2818 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500960903 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : E7GGG oncogene * chloroplast transformation * marker-free plant * homologous recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2013

  20. Anthropopression markers in lake bottom sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolna, Anna; Nowicka, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Lakes are vulnerable to various types of anthropogenic disturbances. Responses of lake ecosystems to environmental stressors are varied and depend not only on the type of a factor but also on the lake natural resistance to degradation. Within the EULAKES project an evaluation of anthropogenic stress extent in a flow-through, postglacial, ribbon lake (Lake Charzykowskie) was carried out. It was assumed, that this impact manifests unevenly, depending on a type and degree of the pressure on the shore zones, water quality of tributaries, lake basin shape and dynamics of a water movement. It was stated, that anthropogenic markers are substances accumulated in bottom sediments as a result of allochthonous substances inflow from the catchment and atmosphere. Along the selected transects 105 samples from the top layer of sediments (about 20 cm) was collected representing the contemporary accumulation (about 15 years). The content of selected chemical elements and compounds was examined, including nutrients (TN and TP), heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, mercury, iron, and manganese) and pesticides (DDT, DDD, DDE, DMDT , γ-HCH). The research was conducted in the deepest points of each lake basin and along the research transects - while choosing the spots, the increased intensity of anthropogenic impact (ports, roads with heavy traffic, wastewater discharge zones, built-up areas) was taken into consideration. The river outlets to the lake, where there are ecotonal zones between limnic and fluvial environment, were also taken into account. Analysis of the markers distribution was carried out against the diversity of chemical characteristics of limnic sediments. Ribbon shape of the lake basin and the dominant wind direction provide an opportunity of easy water mixing to a considerable depth. Intensive waving processes cause removal of the matter from the littoral zone towards lake hollows (separated by the underwater tresholds), where the

  1. Detection of fiducial gold markers for automatic on-line megavoltage position verification using a marker extraction kernel (MEK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In this study automatic detection of implanted gold markers in megavoltage portal images for on-line position verification was investigated. Methods and Materials: A detection method for fiducial gold markers, consisting of a marker extraction kernel (MEK), was developed. The detection success rate was determined for different markers using this MEK. The localization accuracy was investigated by measuring distances between markers, which were fixed on a perspex template. In order to generate images comparable to images of patients with implanted markers, this template was placed on the skin of patients before the start of the treatment. Portal images were taken of lateral prostate fields at 18 MV within 1-2 monitor units (MU). Results: The detection success rates for markers of 5 mm length and 1.2 and 1.4 mm diameter were 0.95 and 0.99 respectively when placed at the beam entry and 0.39 and 0.86 when placed at the beam exit. The localization accuracy appears to be better than 0.6 mm for all markers. Conclusion: Automatic marker detection with an acceptable accuracy at the start of a radiotherapy fraction is feasible. Further minimization of marker diameters may be achieved with the help of an a-Si flat panel imager and may increase the clinical acceptance of this technique

  2. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  3. Biological races in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  4. Stability of percutaneously implanted markers for lung stereotactic radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Gitte Bjørnsen Fredberg; Josipovic, Mirjana; Von Der Recke, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of complex markers implanted into lung tumors throughout a course of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Fifteen patients referred for lung SBRT were prospectively included. Radio-opaque markers were implanted percutaneously, guided by...... mm in one or more registrations throughout the SBRT course. This is the first study to evaluate stability of complex markers implanted percutaneously into lung tumors for image guidance in SBRT. We conclude that the observed stability of marker position within the tumor indicates that complex markers...... computed tomography (CT). Deep inspiration breath-hold CT scans (BHCT) were acquired at planning and on three treatment days. The treatment days' BHCTs were registered to the planning BHCT. Intraobserver uncertainty in both tumor and marker registration was determined. Deviations in the difference between...

  5. Estimating missing marker positions using low dimensional Kalman smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M; Lasenby, J

    2016-06-14

    Motion capture is frequently used for studies in biomechanics, and has proved particularly useful in understanding human motion. Unfortunately, motion capture approaches often fail when markers are occluded or missing and a mechanism by which the position of missing markers can be estimated is highly desirable. Of particular interest is the problem of estimating missing marker positions when no prior knowledge of marker placement is known. Existing approaches to marker completion in this scenario can be broadly divided into tracking approaches using dynamical modelling, and low rank matrix completion. This paper shows that these approaches can be combined to provide a marker completion algorithm that not only outperforms its respective components, but also solves the problem of incremental position error typically associated with tracking approaches. PMID:27155749

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Markers for MRI-Guided High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy: Novel Marker-Flange for Cervical Cancer and Marker Catheters for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindel, Joshua; Muruganandham, Manickam [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Pigge, F. Christopher [Department of Chemistry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Anderson, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Kim, Yusung, E-mail: yusung-kim@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To present a novel marker-flange, addressing source-reconstruction uncertainties due to the artifacts of a titanium intracavitary applicator used for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy (BT); and to evaluate 7 different MRI marker agents used for interstitial prostate BT and intracavitary gynecologic HDR BT when treatment plans are guided by MRI. Methods and Materials: Seven MRI marker agents were analyzed: saline solution, Conray-60, copper sulfate (CuSO{sub 4}) (1.5 g/L), liquid vitamin E, fish oil, 1% agarose gel (1 g agarose powder per 100 mL distilled water), and a cobalt–chloride complex contrast (C4) (CoCl{sub 2}/glycine = 4:1). A plastic, ring-shaped marker-flange was designed and tested on both titanium and plastic applicators. Three separate phantoms were designed to test the marker-flange, interstitial catheters for prostate BT, and intracavitary catheters for gynecologic HDR BT. T1- and T2-weighted MRI were analyzed for all markers in each phantom and quantified as percentages compared with a 3% agarose gel background. The geometric accuracy of the MR signal for the marker-flange was measured using an MRI-CT fusion. Results: The CuSO{sub 4} and C4 markers on T1-weighted MRI and saline on T2-weighted MRI showed the highest signals. The marker-flange showed hyper-signals of >500% with CuSO{sub 4} and C4 on T1-weighted MRI and of >400% with saline on T2-weighted MRI on titanium applicators. On T1-weighted MRI, the MRI signal inaccuracies of marker-flanges were measured <2 mm, regardless of marker agents, and that of CuSO{sub 4} was 0.42 ± 0.14 mm. Conclusion: The use of interstitial/intracavitary markers for MRI-guided prostate/gynecologic BT was observed to be feasible, providing accurate source pathway reconstruction. The novel marker-flange can produce extremely intense, accurate signals, demonstrating its feasibility for gynecologic HDR BT.

  7. Informing Biological Design by Integration of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Smolke, Christina D.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields.

  8. Instagram photos reveal predictive markers of depression

    CERN Document Server

    Reece, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    Using Instagram data from 166 individuals, we applied machine learning tools to successfully identify markers of depression. Statistical features were computationally extracted from 43,950 participant Instagram photos, using color analysis, metadata components, and algorithmic face detection. Resulting models outperformed general practitioners' average diagnostic success rate for depression. These results held even when the analysis was restricted to posts made before depressed individuals were first diagnosed. Photos posted by depressed individuals were more likely to be bluer, grayer, and darker. Human ratings of photo attributes (happy, sad, etc.) were weaker predictors of depression, and were uncorrelated with computationally-generated features. These findings suggest new avenues for early screening and detection of mental illness.

  9. MACD: an imaging marker for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; de Bruijne, Marleen; Nielsen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Despite general acceptance that a healthy lifestyle and the treatment of risk factors can prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), CVD are the most common cause of death in Europe and the United States. It has been shown that abdominal aortic calcifications (AAC) correlate strongly...... with coronary artery calcifications. Hence an early detection of aortic calcified plaques helps to predict the risk of related coronary diseases. Also since two thirds of the adverse events have no prior symptoms, possibilities to screen for risk in low cost imaging are important. To this end the Morphological...... imaging markers described. Finally we present that the MACD index predicts cardiovascular death with a hazard ratio of approximately four....

  10. Genetic taste markers and food preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, A; Henderson, S A; Barratt-Fornell, A

    2001-04-01

    Sensitivity to the bitter taste of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) is an inherited trait. Although some people find PROP to be extremely bitter, others cannot distinguish PROP solutions from plain water. In a series of studies, greater PROP sensitivity was linked with lower acceptability of other bitter compounds and with lower reported liking for some bitter foods. Women, identified as "super-tasters" of PROP, had lower acceptance scores for grapefruit juice, green tea, Brussels sprouts, and some soy products. Many of these foods contain bitter phytochemicals with reputed cancer-protective activity. These include flavonoids in citrus fruit, polyphenols in green tea and red wine, glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables, and isoflavones in soy products. Consumer acceptance of these plant-based foods may depend critically on inherited taste factors. This review examines the role of genetic taste markers in determining taste preferences and food choices. PMID:11259346

  11. Procholecystokinin as marker of human Ewing sarcomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reubi, Jean Claude; Koefoed, Pernille; Hansen, Thomas von O; Stauffer, Edouard; Rauch, Daniel; Nielsen, Finn C; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: Ewing sarcoma is a rapidly growing mesenchymal tumor in young adults. Although it was shown previously to express the cholecystokinin (CCK) gene, it is unknown whether CCK gene expression is detectable at protein level in Ewing sarcoma tumor cell lines, in tumor tissue, and in plasma fro...... metabolism in human cancer; Ewing sarcomas synthesize and secrete proCCK that can be identified in plasma as circulating tumor marker....... found in plasma from patients before treatment and after tumor recurrence, whereas successful chemotherapy reduced proCCK to basal concentrations. Plasma concentrations of proCCK paralleled the respective tumor size. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study that consistently documents an altered CCK...

  12. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  13. Prognostic significance of new immunohistochemical markers in refractory classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a study of 59 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Canioni

    Full Text Available Although most classical Hodgkin lymphoma patients are cured, a significant minority fail after primary therapy and may die as result of their disease. To date, there is no consensus on biological markers that add value to usual parameters (which comprise the International Prognostic Score used at diagnosis to predict outcome. We evaluated 59 patients (18 with primary refractory or early relapse disease and 41 responders for bcl2, Ki67, CD20, TiA1 and c-kit expression by semi-quantitative immunohistochemical study and correlated the results with the response to treatment.The results showed that expression of bcl2 and CD20 in Hodgkin and Reed Sternberg cells, and expression of TiA1 in micro-environmental lymphocytes, and c-kit positive mast cells in microenvironment, were independent prognostic markers. These novel cHL markers could be used in association with clinical parameters to identify newly diagnosed patients with favorable or unfavorable prognosis and to better tailor treatment for different risk groups.

  14. Physiological evaluation of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei in production processes by marker gene expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penttilä Merja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biologically relevant molecular markers can be used in evaluation of the physiological state of an organism in biotechnical processes. We monitored at high frequency the expression of 34 marker genes in batch, fed-batch and continuous cultures of the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei by the transcriptional analysis method TRAC (TRanscript analysis with the aid of Affinity Capture. Expression of specific genes was normalised either with respect to biomass or to overall polyA RNA concentration. Expressional variation of the genes involved in various process relevant cellular functions, such as protein production, growth and stress responses, was related to process parameters such as specific growth and production rates and substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Results Gene expression of secreted cellulases and recombinant Melanocarpus albomyces laccase predicted the trends in the corresponding extracellular enzyme production rates and was highest in a narrow "physiological window" in the specific growth rate (μ range of 0.03 – 0.05 h-1. Expression of ribosomal protein mRNAs was consistent with the changes in μ. Nine starvation-related genes were found as potential markers for detection of insufficient substrate feed for maintaining optimal protein production. For two genes induced in anaerobic conditions, increasing transcript levels were measured as dissolved oxygen decreased. Conclusion The data obtained by TRAC supported the usefulness of focused and intensive transcriptional analysis in monitoring of biotechnical processes providing thus tools for process optimisation purposes.

  15. ESAM is a novel human hematopoietic stem cell marker associated with a subset of human leukemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Tomohiko; Yokota, Takafumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Ichii, Michiko; Sudo, Takao; Satoh, Yusuke; Doi, Yukiko; Ueda, Tomoaki; Tanimura, Akira; Hamanaka, Yuri; Ezoe, Sachiko; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2016-04-01

    Reliable markers are essential to increase our understanding of the biological features of human hematopoietic stem cells and to facilitate the application of hematopoietic stem cells in the field of transplantation and regenerative medicine. We previously identified endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (ESAM) as a novel functional marker of hematopoietic stem cells in mice. Here, we found that ESAM can also be used to purify human hematopoietic stem cells from all the currently available sources (adult bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, and cord blood). Multipotent colony-forming units and long-term hematopoietic-reconstituting cells in immunodeficient mice were found exclusively in the ESAM(High) fraction of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells. The CD34(+)CD38(-) fraction of cord blood and collagenase-treated bone marrow contained cells exhibiting extremely high expression of ESAM; these cells are likely to be related to the endothelial lineage. Leukemia cell lines of erythroid and megakaryocyte origin, but not those of myeloid or lymphoid descent, were ESAM positive. However, high ESAM expression was observed in some primary acute myeloid leukemia cells. Furthermore, KG-1a myeloid leukemia cells switched from ESAM negative to ESAM positive with repeated leukemia reconstitution in vivo. Thus, ESAM is a useful marker for studying both human hematopoietic stem cells and leukemia cells. PMID:26774386

  16. A marker chromosome in post-transplant bone marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Morsberger, Laura; Powell, Kerry; Ning, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Detection of small supernumerary marker chromosomes in karyotype analysis represents a diagnostic challenge. While such markers are usually detected during cytogenetic studies of constitutional chromosome abnormalities, they have also been found in specimens submitted from patients with acquired malignancies. We report here the detection of a marker chromosome in a bone marrow specimen from a patient who received a bone marrow transplantation. We discuss the importance of proper characterizat...

  17. Analysis of Discourse Markers in Chinese Students’Argumentative Speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Jingwen; WANG Yongli; DING Shaojun

    2015-01-01

    DMs are a set of lexical and non-lexical forms which commonly appear in communication.Rather than other researches who focus on discourse markers in natural English speaking context,this paperexamines Chinese students’ usage of DMs in argumentative speeches and indicates that proper use of discourse markers could facilitate the communication process and more attention should be given to learning and teaching discourse markers by both students and teachers.

  18. Utilization of Cotton DNA Markers in Cotton Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CANTRELL Roy G; XIAO Jin-hua

    2008-01-01

    @@ Informative,portable,and efficient DNA markers have the potential to accelerate genetic gain in cotton breeding.Discovery and widespread application of DNA markers to cotton has traditionally lagged behind other major crop species.The reasons are well known to ICGI participants.The foundation for widespread development and application of DNA markers has been laid by ICGI and research within the private sector.

  19. Characterization of Fluorescent Eye Markers for Mammalian Transgenic Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Cornett, Jonathan C.; Landrette, Sean F.; Xu, Tian

    2011-01-01

    Genotyping mice by DNA based methods is both laborious and costly. As an alternative, we systematically examined fluorescent proteins expressed in the lens as transgenic markers for mice. A set of eye markers has been selected such that double and triple transgenic animals can be visually identified and that fluorescence intensity in the eyes can be used to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous mice. Taken together, these eye markers dramatically reduce the time and cost of genotyping tran...

  20. Politeness markers in English for business purposes textbook

    OpenAIRE

    Alemi, Minoo; Razzaghi, Sajedeh

    2013-01-01

    The inadequacy of research studies in evaluating ESP textbooks in terms of politeness markers in business communication cannot be neglected. To this end, the present study aimed to investigate the politeness markers based on House and Kasper’s (1981) politeness structure taxonomy in the spoken discourse of the ESP textbook entitled Business Result in order to find a pattern of these politeness markers in business conversations. The overall findings of the present study revealed that according...