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Sample records for biological indicators

  1. Biological indicators of exposure to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of recent investigations into mutagenesis and carcinogenesis due to alpha irradiation by the radon progeny. Studies of the occurrence of chromosomal aberrations after alpha irradiation are given particular attention. In the author's opinion, up to now no useful biological indicator of response to high and low doses of alpha particles has been found, including those of radon on the molecular and cellular level. (A.K.)

  2. Biological Indicators in Studies of Earthquake Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorin, A. Ya.; Deshcherevskii, A. V.

    2012-04-01

    Time series of data on variations in the electric activity (EA) of four species of weakly electric fish Gnathonemus leopoldianus and moving activity (MA) of two cat-fishes Hoplosternum thoracatum and two groups of Columbian cockroaches Blaberus craniifer were analyzed. The observations were carried out in the Garm region of Tajikistan within the frameworks of the experiments aimed at searching for earthquake precursors. An automatic recording system continuously recorded EA and DA over a period of several years. Hourly means EA and MA values were processed. Approximately 100 different parameters were calculated on the basis of six initial EA and MA time series, which characterize different variations in the EA and DA structure: amplitude of the signal and fluctuations of activity, parameters of diurnal rhythms, correlated changes in the activity of various biological indicators, and others. A detailed analysis of the statistical structure of the total array of parametric time series obtained in the experiment showed that the behavior of all animals shows a strong temporal variability. All calculated parameters are unstable and subject to frequent changes. A comparison of the data obtained with seismicity allow us to make the following conclusions: (1) The structure of variations in the studied parameters is represented by flicker noise or even a more complex process with permanent changes in its characteristics. Significant statistics are required to prove the cause-and-effect relationship of the specific features of such time series with seismicity. (2) The calculation of the reconstruction statistics in the EA and MA series structure demonstrated an increase in their frequency in the last hours or a few days before the earthquake if the hypocenter distance is comparable to the source size. Sufficiently dramatic anomalies in the behavior of catfishes and cockroaches (changes in the amplitude of activity variation, distortions of diurnal rhythms, increase in the

  3. Fingernails as biological indices of metal exposure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rita Mehra; Meenu Juneja

    2005-03-01

    Metal determination in human tissues is the most common application of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of metal exposures and their risks. Various biopsy-materials may be used. This paper deals with the quantitative determination of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations in nails of male subjects exposed to these metals alongwith their respective controls, while working in locomotive, carriage and roadways workshops, and lead battery factories. The levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in fingernails, assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, were compared with their respective controls by student ‘’ test. All the obtained values were correlated to the personal and medical history of the subjects under study. Significantly high levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were present in smokers, compared to nonsmokers. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn and Fe were not significantly high in vegetarian subjects. It was also observed that there is no contribution of liquor towards nail-metal concentration. Significant correlations were observed between skin disease and Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu; hypertension and Cd, Mn, Cu; mental stress and Cd, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn; diabetes and Cr, Mn, Ni; chest pain and Pb; respiratory trouble and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn; tuberculosis and Zn; acidity and Cd; and ophthalmic problems and Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn.

  4. Use of biological indicators in TMDL assessment and implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Yagow, G.; Wilson, B.; Srivastava, P; Obropta, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Most states in the U.S. have a general water quality standard intended to protect water from all potential pollutants not specifically named or identified in other standards. Biological indicators are used, in part, to assess the level of water quality with respect to this general standard. Under EPA's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, impaired waters based on a biological assessment require an additional step compared with non-biological TMDLs. In non-biological TMDLs, the "pollutant"...

  5. Use of biological indicators to evaluate environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the usefulness of biological analyses for evaluating environmental stress. All forms of stress are addressed; particular attention, however, is paid to the use of biological analyses to evaluate the impact on the environment from radioactive releases of the nuclear industry. First, we will review different biological analyses which are grouped into two approaches: the holistic approach (biotic and diversity indices) and the reductionist approach ('biological indicators' per se). Secondly, we will compare the usefulness of plants and animals as indicators based on the established criteria. This report ends with a compilation of letters received from different organizations which outline the present usage in Canada of biological indicators for evaluating environmental stress

  6. Use of biological indicators for evaluating environmental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the usefulness of biological analyses for evaluating environmental stress. All forms of stress are addressed; particular attention, however, is paid to the use of biological analyses to evaluate the impact on the environment from radioactive releases of the nuclear industry. First, we will review different biological analyses which are grouped into two approaches: the holistic approach (biotic and diversity indices) and the reductionist approach ('biological indicators' per se). Secondly, we will compare the usefulness of plants and animals as indicators based on the established criteria. This report ends with a compilation of letters received from different organizations which outline the present use in Canada of biological indicators for evaluating environmental stress

  7. Further approaches to biological indicators of radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite of the decades-long investigations, the search for proper biological indicator of radiation injuries did not result in techniques fulfilling all the requirements. So far, the most reliable assay is the dicentric chromosome aberration analysis. New developments have been made recently on a cytogenetic technique, the micronucleus assay, and for local injuries on the application of thermography

  8. Identification of Bacteria and Determination of Biological Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; La Duc, Myron T.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of planetary protection research is to develop superior strategies for inactivating resistance bearing micro-organisms like Rummeli - bacillus stabekisii. By first identifying the particular physiologic pathway and/or structural component of the cell/spore that affords it such elevated tolerance, eradication regimes can then be designed to target these resistance-conferring moieties without jeopardizing the structural integrity of spacecraft hardware. Furthermore, hospitals and government agencies frequently use biological indicators to ensure the efficacy of a wide range of sterilization processes. The spores of Rummelibacillus stabekisii, which are far more resistant to many of such perturbations, could likely serve as a more significant biological indicator for potential survival than those being used currently.

  9. Biological indicators in Cuba. Current trends and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction and development of biological indicators of radiation damage began in Cuba in 1986 with the creation of the department of Radiobiology at the Centre for Hygiene and Radiation Protection. The first experiences however began in Cuba in the sixties. The initial task of the work started in the 80 was to introduce the cytogenetic dosimetry. This task finalised with the consolidation of a regular cytogenetic service, currently analyses the cases of presumed overexposures in the country. Additionally a group of research projects are carried out using cytogenetic indicators among them a project with children from territories affected by the Chernobyl accident. The biochemical indicators of radiation damage were developed in a parallel way, at the moment a group of them are available.The nucleic acid concentration and oxidative stress indicators in patients selected for bone marrow transplants are in use in research projects. In the near future a comet assay and the p53 expression will be include in the list of laboratory indicators. In the paper are presented the main results obtained until the moment in the regular services, in the ongoing projects and the works planing for the future. (author)

  10. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  11. Biologically controlled minerals as potential indicators of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, D. E.; Mancinelli, R. L.; Kaneshiro, E.

    1991-01-01

    Minerals can be produced and deposited either by abiotic or biologic means. Regardless of their origin, mineral crystals reflect the environment conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, chemical composition, and redox potential) present during crystal formation. Biologically-produced mineral crystals are grown or reworked under the control of their host organism and reflect an environment different from the abiotic environment. In addition, minerals of either biologic or abiotic origin have great longevities. For these reasons, biologically produced minerals have been proposed as biomarkers. Biomarkers are key morphological, chemical, and isotopic signatures of living systems that can be used to determine if life processes have occurred. Studies of biologically controlled minerals produced by the protist, Paramecium tetraurelia, were initiated since techniques have already been developed to culture them and isolate their crystalline material, and methods are already in place to analyze this material. Two direct crystalline phases were identified. One phase, whose chemical composition is high in Mg, was identified as struvite. The second phase, whose chemical composition is high in Ca, has not been previously found occurring naturally and may be considered a newly discovered material. Analyses are underway to determine the characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of these minerals in order to compare them with characteristics of minerals formed abiotically, but with the same chemical composition.

  12. Biological indicators for radiation absorbed dose: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry has an important role to play in assessing the cumulative radiation exposure of persons working with radiation and also in estimating the true dose received during accidents involving external and internal exposure. Various biodosimetric methods have been tried to estimate radiation dose for the above purposes. Biodosimetric methods include cytogenetic, immunological and mutational assays. Each technique has certain advantages and disadvantages. We present here a review of each technique, the actual method used for detection of dose, the sensitivity of detection and its use in long term studies. (author)

  13. Biological Markers May Indicate Poor Breast Cancer Prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A team of researchers has found an association between breast cancer survival and two proteins that, when present in the blood in high levels, are indicators of inflammation. Using data from the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle (HEAL) study sponsor

  14. Seagrass epiphytes: useful indicator, potential biological criterion, or forlorn hope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epiphytes on seagrasses have been studied for more than 50 years, and proposed as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment for over 30 years. Epiphytes have been correlated with seagrass declines, causally related to nutrient additions in both field and mesocosm experim...

  15. Heavy-metal air pollution study using biological indicators and nuclear analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of industry and the increase in vehicle road traffic are responsible for the ever-growing environmental pollution by toxic elements. Some biological organisms strongly accumulate certain heavy toxic elements and thus can be considered as indicators of the environmental pollution. In this work different types of biological indicators were collected in almost all main cities and industrial zones of Vietnam. They were subsequently analysed by different modern analytical methods. The concentration of different elements and their correlation matrices may provide valuable information on the nature and sources of pollution (author)

  16. A guide to the biological indicators of the watercourses of the Province of Viterbo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    European legislation recognised to biological indicators a main role among the instruments for the evaluation of the ecological status of fresh running waters (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC). The analysis of the communities of different biological components, such as Diatoms, Macrophytes, Macro invertebrates and Fishes, can provide an approach at ecosystem level, essential for a correct interpretation of river conditions. Therefore, it is fundamental to provide useful instruments for the taxonomic identification of the aquatic organisms. The Viterbo Province has a long time activity in this context, through the organisation of several events focused on training courses and dissemination. This work, even if preliminary, provides a scheme of Atlas of Biological Indicators of running waters, available for all stake holders, and that could represent a stepping stone for the future realization of guides at national level

  17. Phytoecological indicators for biological recultivation of soils polluted with oil in the Absheron peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    E. M. Gurbanov; A. A. Akhundova

    2009-01-01

    Phytoecological indicators of polluted soils of Amirov Oil-and-Gas Production Department (Garadag district, Baku) were studied. Phytocenological and biomorphological analysis of flora was done with the aim of further biological rehabilitation of Absheron peninsula. Oil products (black oil, boring waters, etc.) pollution turns the plant cover into a dead mass. Decontamination of soil and rehabilitation of microbial community improve the soil’s fertility. Wild and cultured plant indicators may ...

  18. Environmental Learning Workshop: Lichen as Biological Indicator of Air Quality and Impact on Secondary Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Wahid; Daik, Rusli; Abas, Azlan; Meerah, T. Subahan Mohd; Halim, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the learning of science outside the classroom is believe to be an added value to science learning as well as it offers students to interact with the environment. This study presents data obtained from two days' workshop on Lichen as Biological Indicator for Air Quality. The aim of the workshop is for the students to gain an…

  19. BILIARY PAH METABOLITES AS A BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR OF FISH EXPOSURE IN TRIBUTARIES OF LAKE ERIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) metabolites have been studied as a biological indicator of fish exposure to PAHs since the mid 1980's. Brown bullheads were collected from the following Lake Erie tributaries: Buffalo River (BUF), Niagara River at Love Canal (NIA)...

  20. Predicting Salmonella populations from biological, chemical, and physical indicators in Florida surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEgan, Rachel; Mootian, Gabriel; Goodridge, Lawrence D; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D

    2013-07-01

    Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and various physicochemical water characteristics have been suggested as indicators of microbial water quality or index organisms for pathogen populations. The relationship between the presence and/or concentration of Salmonella and biological, physical, or chemical indicators in Central Florida surface water samples over 12 consecutive months was explored. Samples were taken monthly for 12 months from 18 locations throughout Central Florida (n = 202). Air and water temperature, pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), turbidity, and conductivity were measured. Weather data were obtained from nearby weather stations. Aerobic plate counts and most probable numbers (MPN) for Salmonella, E. coli, and coliforms were performed. Weak linear relationships existed between biological indicators (E. coli/coliforms) and Salmonella levels (R(2) Salmonella levels (R(2) Salmonella levels. The lack of good correlations between biological indicators and Salmonella levels and between physicochemical indicators and Salmonella levels shows that the relationship between pathogens and indicators is complex. However, Escherichia coli provides a reasonable way to predict Salmonella levels in Central Florida surface water through logistic regression.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of a New Fluorescent Indicator for the Intracellular Calcium Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Huaizhen; LEI Lei; LI Jianli; SHI Zhen

    2009-01-01

    A novel calcium-selective fluorescent indicator Fluo-3M AM was synthesized by introduction of a methyl group into the Ca2+-chelating moiety and adequately characterized by spectral methods (1H NMR, GC-MS, IR and MALDI-TOF MS). Meanwhile, its fluorescence spectra and some biological activities have been also studied. The results indicate that the new fluorescent indicator has relatively high affinity to calcium and a strong fluorescence signal, which should be useful for biomedical researchers to investigate the effects of calcium ions in biosystems.

  2. Using a biological indicator to detect potential sources of cross-contamination in the dental operatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, R W; Crawford, J J; Tulis, J J

    1998-11-01

    The authors conducted a study using surveillance monitoring methodology to identify operatory contamination and to evaluate the effectiveness of infection control procedures. Viridans streptococci were evaluated as biological indicators of oral contamination. Viridans streptococci, abundant in human saliva, were detected on operatory surfaces after dental treatments were finished and surfaces were disinfected. The findings validate current concepts of infection control as demonstrated in barrier methods.

  3. Influence of TACE combined with radioactive seed radiotherapy on primary liver cancer patients’ malignant biological indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Liu; Yu Wang; Guang-Yan Lei; Xiao-Hong Yan; Qiao Yang; Hai-Ping Zhu; Yi Geng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influence of TACE combined with radioactive seed radiotherapy on primary liver cancer patients’ malignant biological indicators.Methods:A total of 112 cases of primary liver cancer patients who received treatment in our hospital, Xijing Hospital and Tumor Hospital of Shaanxi Province were chosen as research subjects and divided into control group (TACE therapy alone) with 63 cases in it and observation group (TACE combined with radioactive seed radiotherapy) with 49 cases according to different treatment, and then the levels of malignant biological indicators after 2 months of treatment were compared between two groups.Results:Serum VEGF, FGF and MMP levels of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group; serum AFP-L3, GP73, Sb7-H3, AFU and CatS levels were significantly lower than those of control group; serum ICAM-1, ESM-1 and uPA levels were lower than those of control group.Conclusion: TACE combined with radioactive seed radiotherapy can effectively reduce primary liver cancer patients’ serum malignant biological indicator levels, decrease the degree of malignancy of cancer cells and slow disease progression, and is an ideal treatment.

  4. Phytoecological indicators for biological recultivation of soils polluted with oil in the Absheron peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Gurbanov

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Phytoecological indicators of polluted soils of Amirov Oil-and-Gas Production Department (Garadag district,Baku were studied. Phytocenological and biomorphological analysis of flora was done with the aim of further biological rehabilitation of Absheron peninsula. Oil products (black oil, boring waters, etc. pollution turns the plant cover into a dead mass. Decontamination of soil and rehabilitation of microbial community improve the soil’s fertility. Wild and cultured plant indicators may be used in biopurification of the soils polluted with oil products. Sowing of the fodder crops followed by the technical remediation forms the clean areas of higher productivity.

  5. Indicators of Club Management Practices and Biological Measurements of Patrons’ Drug and Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic Music Dance Events in nightclubs attract patrons with heavy alcohol/drug use. Public health concerns are raised from risks related to these behaviors. Practices associated with increased risk in these club settings need to be identified. Objectives The relationship between club management practices and biological measures of patrons’ alcohol/drug use is examined. Methods Observational data from 25 events across 6 urban clubs were integrated with survey data (N=738 patrons, 42.8% female) from patrons exiting these events, 2010–2012. Five indicators of club management practices were examined using mixed model regressions: club security, bar crowding, safety signs, serving intoxicated patrons, and isolation. Results Analyses revealed that serving intoxicated patrons and safety signs were related to less substance use. Specifically, serving intoxicated patrons was related to heavy alcohol and drug use at exit, while safety signs were marginally related to less exit drug use. Conclusions/Importance Findings indicate observable measures in nightclubs provide important indicators for alcohol/drug use, suggesting practices to target. Study strengths include the use of biological measures of substance use on a relatively large scale. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:24832721

  6. Chemical and biological indicators of water quality in three agricultural watersheds of the Po valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Pieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has both direct and indirect effects on quality of surface water and is one of the key activities causing water quality degradation. Its environmental impact can be evaluated by the determination of indicators of the quality of water bodies that collect drainage and runoff waters from agricultural watersheds. For this research, the water quality draining from three watersheds, totally or partially cultivated, all within the Po river valley (Italy, was determined, using chemical indicators (N-NO3 and N-NH4 concentration, N balance, trophic status (chlorophyll-a concentration and benthic population indexes. Together, they should provide an overview of the water status, which is supposed to be strictly related to the land use and the management. Results show that the chemical parameters are well related to land use and farming management: intensive agricultural activity leads to high N-NO3 concentration in water and N surplus and vice versa. The chlorophyll-a concentration follows the same trend, being linked to nitrogen loads and land use. Not always there is accordance between chemical and biological indicators: no direct correspondence is evident between the N-NO3 concentration in waters and benthic community. Its presence and abundance seems to be mostly correlated with the geomorphology, hydrology, riparian strips, etc. of the habitat than to the land use. Only the integration of chemical and biological parameters allows a correct understanding of the state of health of water body and benthic communities.

  7. Ozone valuation using biological indicators; Valutazione della presenza di ozono mediante l`impiego di bioindicatori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettassa, T. [AUSL, Piacenza (Italy). Servizio igiene pubblica; Robotti, A. [Azienda agraria sperimentale Vittorio Tadini, Piacenza (Italy)

    1996-02-01

    The paper reports a study to evaluate air ozone during the summer of the year l994, in some sites around Piacenza (Italy) using biological indicators. The leaf injury on plants of Nicotiana tabacum cv Bel-W3 leads to value, by proper algorithms, the ozone dose and the exposition hours over 80 nl l{sup -1} of concentration. This method can make up for shorting of instrumental measurements and, in this case, put in evidence the ozone level probably near to the attention bound on some rural places; in the urban zones the doses are sharply lower.

  8. Variance partitioning of stream diatom, fish, and invertebrate indicators of biological condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Meador, Michael R.; Potapova, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Stream indicators used to make assessments of biological condition are influenced by many possible sources of variability. To examine this issue, we used multiple-year and multiple-reach diatom, fish, and invertebrate data collected from 20 least-disturbed and 46 developed stream segments between 1993 and 2004 as part of the US Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program. We used a variance-component model to summarize the relative and absolute magnitude of 4 variance components (among-site, among-year, site × year interaction, and residual) in indicator values (observed/expected ratio [O/E] and regional multimetric indices [MMI]) among assemblages and between basin types (least-disturbed and developed). We used multiple-reach samples to evaluate discordance in site assessments of biological condition caused by sampling variability. Overall, patterns in variance partitioning were similar among assemblages and basin types with one exception. Among-site variance dominated the relative contribution to the total variance (64–80% of total variance), residual variance (sampling variance) accounted for more variability (8–26%) than interaction variance (5–12%), and among-year variance was always negligible (0–0.2%). The exception to this general pattern was for invertebrates at least-disturbed sites where variability in O/E indicators was partitioned between among-site and residual (sampling) variance (among-site  =  36%, residual  =  64%). This pattern was not observed for fish and diatom indicators (O/E and regional MMI). We suspect that unexplained sampling variability is what largely remained after the invertebrate indicators (O/E predictive models) had accounted for environmental differences among least-disturbed sites. The influence of sampling variability on discordance of within-site assessments was assemblage or basin-type specific. Discordance among assessments was nearly 2× greater in developed basins (29–31%) than in least

  9. High resolution mapping of Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) of biological soil crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Veste, M.; Eisele, A.; Bens, O.; Spyra, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2012-04-01

    Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) are typically determined using satellite or airborne remote sensing, or field portable spectrometers, which give an averaged signal on centimetre to meter scale plots. Biological soil crust (BSC) patches may have smaller sizes, and ecophysiological, hydrological as well as pedological processes may be heterogeneously distributed within this level of resolution. A ground-based NDVI imaging procedure using low-cost equipment (Olympus Camedia 5000z digital camera equipped with a Hoya R72 infrared filter) was developed in this study to fill this gap at the level of field research, where carrying costly and bulky equipment to remote locations is often the limiting factor for data collection. A commercially available colour rendition chart (GretagMacbeth ColorChecker®) with known red (600-700 nm) and NIR (800-900 nm) reflectances was placed into each scene and used for calibration purposes on a per-image basis. Generation of NDVI images involved (i) determination of red and NIR reflectances from the pixel values of the red and NIR channels, respectively, and (ii) calculation and imaging of the NDVI, where NDVI values of -1 to +1 were mapped to grey values of 0 to 255. The correlation between NDVI values retrieved from these images and NDVI values determined using conventional field spectrometry (ASD FieldSpec 3 portable spectroradiometer) was close (r2 =0.91), the 95% confidence interval amounted to 0.10 NDVI units. The pixel resolution was 0.8 mm in the field and 0.2 mm in the laboratory, but can still be improved significantly with closer distance to the crust or with higher camera resolution. Geostatistical analysis revealed that both spatial variability as well as size of individual objects characterized by the NDVI increased with crust development. The latter never exceeded 4 mm in the investigated crusts, which points to the necessity of high resolution imaging for linking remote sensing with ecophysiology

  10. Assessment of the ecological security of immobilized enzyme remediation process with biological indicators of soil health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Dong, Xiaonan; Jiang, Zhao; Cao, Bo; Ge, Shijie; Hu, Miao

    2013-08-01

    This study used the enzymes extracted from an atrazine-degrading strain, Arthrobacter sp. DNS10, which had been immobilized by sodium alginate to rehabilitate atrazine-polluted soil. Meanwhile, a range of biological indices were selected to assess the ecological health of contaminated soils and the ecological security of this bioremediation method. The results showed that there was no atrazine detected in soil samples after 28 days in EN+AT (the soil containing atrazine and immobilized enzyme) treatment. However, the residual atrazine concentration of the sample in AT (the soil containing atrazine only) treatment was about 5.02 ± 0.93 mg kg(-1). These results suggest that the immobilized enzyme exhibits an excellent ability in atrazine degradation. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme could relieve soil microbial biomass carbon and soil microbial respiration intensity to 772.33 ± 34.93 mg C kg(-1) and 5.01 ± 0.17 mg CO(2) g(-1) soil h(-1), respectively. The results of the polymerase chain reaction-degeneration gradient gel electrophoresis experiment indicated that the immobilized enzyme also could make the Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index of the soil sample increase from 1.02 and 0.74 to 1.51 and 0.84, respectively. These results indicated that the immobilized enzymes not only could relieve the impact from atrazine on the soil, but also revealed that the immobilized enzymes did no significant harm on the soil ecological health.

  11. Developing terrestrial, multi-taxon indices of biological integrity: An example from coastal sage scrub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, J.E.; Fleming, G.M.; Duggan, J.M.; Chapman, R.E.; Rahn, M.E.; Mitrovich, M.J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2007-01-01

    We screened 351 species or genera for their response to disturbance in coastal sage scrub (CSS) to develop a 15-metric, 5-taxon Index of Biological Integrity (IBI). We collected data on ants, birds, herpetofauna, small mammals, and plants for two years on 46 sites established across a gradient of disturbance in three reserves. The gradient spanned relatively intact CSS with thick stands of shrubs, to former CSS stands type-converted to exotic grasses. ANOVAs and clustering analyses indicated the IBI could distinguish four levels of disturbance in CSS. General measures of community structure, such as richness, did not show changes across the gradient for most taxa, and responses of taxa across the gradient were varied and rarely correlated. However, turnover in species or genera across the gradient was common across all taxa as shrub-obligate life forms were replaced by those favoring grassy or disturbed habitats. Our data indicate index-based approaches based on data collected across disturbance gradients may outperform more traditional community level metrics when responses to anthropogenic influences are complex and vary across species. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro

    2014-05-01

    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  13. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. CONCLUSION: It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  14. The need for and the importance of biological indicators of radiation effects with special reference to injuries in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need for further research on the existing and new biological indicators of radiation injury has been expressed. The studies on the radiation-induced alterations of membrane structure and function stimulated investigations aiming to develop an indicator based on membrane-phenomena. The co-ordinated research programme on ''Cell Membrane Probes as Biological Indicators of Radiation Injury in Radiation Accidents'' was initiated in mid 1977 and terminated in 1980. Within this programme many basic observations were made in connection with altered features of various animal and human cell membranes. Molecular, biophysical, biochemical and cell biological approaches were performed. The rapid reaction within minutes or hours of membranes against relatively low doses of various types of irradiations were described and the effects proved to be transitory, i.e. membrane regeneration occurred within hours. These dose- and timedependent alterations suggest the possibility of developing a biological indicator which would give signals at the earliest period after radiation injury when no other biological informations are available. The importance of a system of biological indicators is emphasized. (author)

  15. Soil Physical Characteristics and Biological Indicators of Soil Quality Under Different Biodegradable Mulches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, S. M.; Flury, M.; Sintim, H.; Bandopadhyay, S.; Ghimire, S.; Bary, A.; DeBruyn, J.

    2015-12-01

    biological properties which are important indicators of sustainability.

  16. Selecting cost effective and policy-relevant biological indicators for European monitoring of soil biodiversity and ecosystem function

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Bryan; Römbke, J.; Schmelz, R. M.; Scheffczyk, A.; Faber, J.H.; Bloem, J.; Peres, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Chabbi, A.; Suhadolc, M.; Sousa, J. P.; Martins da Silva, P.; F. Carvalho; Mendes, S; MORAIS, P.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Soils provide many ecosystem services that are ultimately dependent on the local diversity and belowground abundance of organisms. Soil biodiversity is affected negatively by many threats and there is a perceived policy requirement for the effective biological monitoring of soils at the European level. The aim of this study was to evaluate and recommend policy relevant, cost-effective soil biological indicators for biodiversity and ecosystem function across Europe. A t...

  17. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Sean; Russell, Gareth J.; Butler, Matthew J.; Selinger, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling), it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS) data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos). Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion), and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells) and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture sessions, which

  18. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Harris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling, it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos. Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion, and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture

  19. The impact of high commercial fishery load on biological indices of the roach (Rutilus rutilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Kotovska

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Age composition, length and weight indices of the roach populations (Rutilus rutilus L. were analyzed and compared in water bodies with the different commercial fishery loading levels. Presence of fast-growing and slow-growing forms is inherent to cyprinid fish. In Dnieper reservoirs these forms are mixed and it is difficult to separate any one of them. It is assumed that selective elimination of fast-growing forms by commercial fishing may cause accumulation of slow-growing forms in populations. On that ground, water bodies with different levels of commercial fishery pressure have been chosen to test this hypothesis. For instance, Kremenchuk Reservoir was selected as a water body with high level of commercial fishery load because it forms more than a half of roach commercial catching in Ukraine. On the contrary, “Dniprovsko-Orilskiy” Natural Reserve was taken as a water body where human impact is minimum. Subsequently, comparing of the basic biological features of the roach from water bodies with different commercial fishery load illustrated the value of the study. It is found that the roach age range in Kremenchuk Reservoir is much higher than in subordinate waters of the Natural Reserve fund. Namely, the roach population in Kremenchuk Reservoir consisted of seventeen age groups while in “Dniprovsko-Orilskiy” Natural Reserve it comprised ten age groups only. However, size-weight features of species under study across the age groups 6+ –10+ in water bodies with the intensive commercial fishery were statistically lower than in protected waters of the Nature Reserve. Namely, length of these age groups in Kremenchuk Reservoir was equal to 24.6–33.5 cm, compared with 25.0–37.0 cm in the National Reserve. Naturally, that weight was equal to 334–957 and 340–1320 g, respectively. In general, this result does not fit into the traditional concept that the fast-growing roach should inhabit the lacustrine biocenosis of the Dnieper

  20. In search of biological indicators for soil health and disease suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Semenov, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    While soil quality encompasses physical and chemical besides biological characteristics, soil health is primarily an ecological characteristic. Ecosystem health has been defined in terms of ecosystem stability and resilience in response to a disturbance or stress. We therefore, suggest that indicato

  1. Concept of Biological Progress and Information as Indication and Measure of Ontic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonci Kokic

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the idea of biological progress shows that it is not a selfexplanatory category, so a clear definition is required. Biological progress exists if: (1 “more progressive” is defined as “more complex” – in that case evolution is synonymous with progress, i.e. development from simple to complex, from homogeneous to heterogeneous; (2 we perceive the expression “more progressive” as more successful in relation to the environment, in these terms some groups in the history of life were more progressive because/so that they survived, while others were retrogressive or less progressive because/so that they died out; on the other hand, within their ecological niches, certain forms of life (species are perfectly adapted to their environment as long as it is stable (along these lines, mammals are no more progressive than bacteria; (3 we take the span or reach of a potential adaptation of populations as a measure (in which case differences exist. However, there is no active, innovative problem solving in relation to the environment either with plants or animals – only the variability mechanism / selection is in place, automatism, instinct. In the light of the above-mentioned biological criteria, man is the most complex living creature by his constitution (central nervous system, he is the least dependent on the environment and can be innovative in relation to the environment. Man is the only living creature capable of establishing an active relationship with the environment through his special tool – culture. Considering the level of organization and quantity of information, the mammal genome is more progressive than the bacterium genome, while the human genome comprises most information which makes man the most progressive living thing. We can talk about biological progress if we define progressiveness as advancement toward complexity of organisation, but sometimes the simplification of structure enables survival. It seems

  2. Technical specifications on harmonised epidemiological indicators for biological hazards to be covered by meat inspection of domestic sheep and goats

    OpenAIRE

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-01-01

    In this report, harmonised epidemiological indicators are proposed for food-borne biological hazards that are related to domestic sheep and goats and meat thereof and that can be addressed in the context of meat inspection. These hazards include Toxoplasma gondii, pathogenicverocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and mycobacteria. An epidemiological indicator is defined as the prevalence or concentration of the hazard at a certain stage of the food chain or an indirect measure of the hazard ...

  3. The lichens: general considerations. Role as pollution biological indicators; Les lichens: generalites. Role comme bioindicateurs de la pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivaux, E

    1998-03-25

    After having recalled the morphology and the different classification of lichens, the author presents the main lichenous substances, in particular the depsides and the depsidones. A detailed study on the role of lichens as pollution biological indicators is given. (O.M.)

  4. Effects of organic amendment on soil quality as assessed by biological indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Soil quality decline is one of the most predominant effect deriving from human activities. In particular, intensive agricultural management can affect negatively soils, principally due to rapid depletion of soil organic matter, that affects, in turn, soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The declining trend of soil quality coupled with mismanagement of agricultural production is pose a serious threat to sustainability of intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture is...

  5. Biological agents: investigation into leprosy and other infectious diseases before indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antônio, João Roberto; Soubhia, Rosa Maria Cordeiro; Paschoal, Vania Del Arco; Amarante, Carolina Forte; Travolo, Ana Regina Franchi

    2013-01-01

    Biological agents are widely used for various immune-mediated diseases, with remarkable effectiveness in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and Crohn's disease. However, attention needs to be drawn to the adverse effects of these therapies and the risk of reactivating underlying granulomatous infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, leprosy, syphilis, leishmaniasis, among others. The objective of this paper is to describe a case of leprosy in a patient with RA using anti-TNF alfa, demonstrating the need for systematic investigation of skin lesions suggestive of leprosy in patients who require rheumatoid arthritis therapeutic treatment, especially in endemic regions like Brazil. PMID:24346871

  6. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D.; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea. PMID:27579575

  7. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea. PMID:27579575

  8. Proposition of diagnostic tool to provide indicatives about the understanding of biological knowledge and their interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Andrade Caldeira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the developing and validating steps of a Likert’s evaluative scale. The aim is to systematize the answers of Biological Sciences students about to: 1 Understanding or notunderstanding thescientific knowledge; and 2.If there is a relationship amongscientific concepts in order to contemplate a systemic thinking about natural phenomena. The described scale was validated by Cronbach's Alpha tests (α = 0.741, KMO (0.779 and Bartlett (0.000 and a Multivariate Analysis was fulfilled, typePrincipal Component Analysis (PCA. We understood that this kind of instrument allows a large amount of data to be collected and it groups can be compared efficiently, which justified the development of evaluative scale presented here.

  9. Dissociation between changes in immunoreactive parathormone and its biological indices induced by cimetidine in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, P C; Fischer, H R; Hackeng, W H; Schopman, W; Koorevaar, G; den Ottolander, G J; Silberbusch, J

    1981-01-01

    In three out of four patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, 2 000 mg of cimetidine daily caused a reduction of immunoreactive parathormone (iPTH) when measured at 8.30 and 11.30 on days 16 and 17 on treatment. Serum Ca, PO4 and maximal tubular reabsorption of PO4 remained unchanged. Excretion of cAMP/100 ml GFR remained elevated to at least the same extent as before treatment. Two patients, in whom cimetidine treatment was continued for an additional 4 weeks, did not show further hormonal or biochemical changes compared with the evaluation on days 16 and 17. We conclude that reduction of iPTH is not accompanied by any change in biological activity of this hormone. The reason for this discrepancy remains unclear. PMID:6277160

  10. The radioinduced membranes injuries as biological dose indicators: mechanisms of studies and practical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After an accidental overexposure, the assessment of the received dose in biological dosimetry is performed by a method based on the effects of irradiation on the DNA molecule. But this technique shows some limitations; therefore we tried to find new bio-sensors of radiation exposure. We have pointed out that membrane is a critical target of ionising radiation after an in vitro and in vivo overexposure. In vitro, these modifications were involved in the radio-induced apoptotic pathway. The measure of membrane fluidity allowed us to obtain an overall view of cellular membrane. Moreover, in vivo, by changing the lipid nutritional status of animals, our results displayed the important role played by membrane lipid composition in radio-induced membrane alterations. Besides, membrane effects were adjusted by the extracellular physiological control, and in particular by the damages on membrane fatty acid pattern. Finally, we have tested the use of membrane fluidity index as a bio-sensor of radiation exposure on in vivo models and blood samples from medical total body irradiated patients. The results achieved on animal models suggested that the membrane fluidity index was a bio-sensor of radiation exposure. Nevertheless, the observations realised on patients highlight that the effect of the first dose fraction of the radiotherapy treatment had some difficulties to be noticed. Indeed, the combined treatment: chemotherapy and radiotherapy disturbed the membrane fluidity index measures. To conclude, whereas this parameter was not a bio-sensor of irradiation exposure usable in biological dosimetry, it may allow us to assess the radio-induced damages and their cellular but also tissue impacts. (author)

  11. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  12. Foraminiferal fauna from the Cochin backwaters: Biological indicators of man-made changes in the environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.K.

    ranging between 3.27 and 35.96 x 10 sup(-3 in the area. Among abiotic factors salinity has a major influence on the faunal distribution. Present study on the diversity and distribution of foraminifera indicates that there is no adverse effects on marine...

  13. Biological diversity values in semi-natural grasslands : indicators, landscape context and restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Öster, Mathias

    2006-01-01

    Semi-natural grasslands, which are a declining and fragmented habitat in Europe, contain a high biodiversity, and are therefore of interest to conservation. This thesis examines how plant diversity is influenced by the landscape context, and how plant and fungal diversity can be targeted by practical conservation using indicator species and congruence between species groups. Reproduction and recruitment of the dioecious herb Antennaria dioica was also investigated, providing a case study on h...

  14. Clinical indications and biological mechanisms of splenic irradiation in autoimmune diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Splenic irradiation (SI) is a fairly unknown treatment modality in autoimmune disorders like autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AIT) or autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), which may provide an effective, low toxic and cost-effective treatment for selected patients. Patients, Materials and Methods: This article reviews the limited experiences on splenic irradiation in autoimmune thrombocytopenia by analyzing the current studies including 71 patients and some preliminary reports on splenic irradiation in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Results: In autoimmune thrombocytopenia between 40 and 90% of all patients responded, but most of them relapsed within 4 to 6 months after splenic irradiation. Between 10 and 20% of all patients had a sustained response. The efficacy of splenic irradiation in HIV-associated cases of thrombocytopenia is probably lower than in other forms of autoimmune thrombocytopenia, but especially in this group immunosuppressive drug treatment of autoimmune thrombocytopenia exposes some problems. In autoimmune hemolytic anemia there are some case reports about efficacy of splenic irradiation. Toxicity of splenic irradiation in both diseases was very moderate. Conclusions: For HIV patients, for elderly patients or patients at high risk for complications following splenectomy splenic irradiation might be a treatment option. Splenic irradiation as preoperative treatment in patients not responding to or not suitable for immunosuppressive drugs prior to splenectomy may be a promising new application of splenic irradiation to reduce adverse effects of splenectomy in thrombocytopenic patients. A further analysis of the biological mechanisms underlying splenic irradiation may help to improve patient selection, to optimize dose concepts and treatment schedules and will improve understanding of radiotherapy as an immunomodulatory treatment modality. (orig.)

  15. The impact of high commercial fishery load on biological indices of the roach (Rutilus rutilus)

    OpenAIRE

    G. O. Kotovska; D. S. Khrystenko; R. O. Novitskiy

    2015-01-01

    Age composition, length and weight indices of the roach populations (Rutilus rutilus L.) were analyzed and compared in water bodies with the different commercial fishery loading levels. Presence of fast-growing and slow-growing forms is inherent to cyprinid fish. In Dnieper reservoirs these forms are mixed and it is difficult to separate any one of them. It is assumed that selective elimination of fast-growing forms by commercial fishing may cause accumulation of slow-growing forms in populat...

  16. Characterization of biological types of cattle: indicator traits offertility in beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Cushman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status; however, there are clearly genetic components to reproductive efficiency, and breed differences in a number of indicator traits associated with fertility and cow productivity have been identified. Historical indicators of fertility include scrotal circumference, age at puberty, and postpartum interval. Both age at puberty and postpartum interval are laborious traits to collect in heifers and cows because they require many days of detection of behavioral estrus. In recent years, the addition of ultrasonography to management practices has allowed for the collection of female traits such as follicle diameter, antral follicle counts, and fetal age that are not as labor intensive. These additional diagnostic traits provide novel phenotypes for the identification of genetic markers of fertility and cow productivity, which would be the ultimate goal. Genetic markers of the number of follicles in the bovine ovary have the potential to identify heifers that will be highly productive cows. Furthermore, identifying and understanding the genes that control various reproductive traits and the response to stressors, such as temperature and nutrient availability, could improve production efficiency by improving management and breeding decisions in a wide range of production environments.

  17. Prioritizing conservation effort through the use of biological soil crusts as ecosystem function indicators in an arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Miller, M.E.; Belnap, J.; Sisk, T.D.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Conservation prioritization usually focuses on conservation of rare species or biodiversity, rather than ecological processes. This is partially due to a lack of informative indicators of ecosystem function. Biological soil crusts (BSCs) trap and retain soil and water resources in arid ecosystems and function as major carbon and nitrogen fixers; thus, they may be informative indicators of ecosystem function. We created spatial models of multiple indicators of the diversity and function of BSCs (species richness, evenness, functional diversity, functional redundancy, number of rare species, number of habitat specialists, nitrogen and carbon fixation indices, soil stabilization, and surface roughening) for the 800,000-ha Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (Utah, U.S.A.). We then combined the indicators into a single BSC function map and a single BSC biodiversity map (2 alternative types of conservation value) with an unweighted averaging procedure and a weighted procedure derived from validations performance. We also modeled potential degradation with data from a rangeland assessment survey. To determine which areas on the landscape were the highest conservation priorities, we overlaid the function- and diversity-based conservation-value layers on the potential degradation layer. Different methods for ascribing conservation-value and conservation-priority layers all yielded strikingly similar results (r = 0.89-0.99), which suggests that in this case biodiversity and function can be conserved simultaneously. We believe BSCs can be used as indicators of ecosystem function in concert with other indicators (such as plant-community properties) and that such information can be used to prioritize conservation effort in drylands. ?? 2008 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Clinical indications and biological mechanisms of splenic irradiation in autoimmune diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinmann, M.; Becker, G. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlenonkologie; Einsele, H.; Bamberg, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Innere Medizin 2

    2001-02-01

    Background: Splenic irradiation (SI) is a fairly unknown treatment modality in autoimmune disorders like autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AIT) or autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), which may provide an effective, low toxic and cost-effective treatment for selected patients. Patients, Materials and Methods: This article reviews the limited experiences on splenic irradiation in autoimmune thrombocytopenia by analyzing the current studies including 71 patients and some preliminary reports on splenic irradiation in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Results: In autoimmune thrombocytopenia between 40 and 90% of all patients responded, but most of them relapsed within 4 to 6 months after splenic irradiation. Between 10 and 20% of all patients had a sustained response. The efficacy of splenic irradiation in HIV-associated cases of thrombocytopenia is probably lower than in other forms of autoimmune thrombocytopenia, but especially in this group immunosuppressive drug treatment of autoimmune thrombocytopenia exposes some problems. In autoimmune hemolytic anemia there are some case reports about efficacy of splenic irradiation. Toxicity of splenic irradiation in both diseases was very moderate. Conclusions: For HIV patients, for elderly patients or patients at high risk for complications following splenectomy splenic irradiation might be a treatment option. Splenic irradiation as preoperative treatment in patients not responding to or not suitable for immunosuppressive drugs prior to splenectomy may be a promising new application of splenic irradiation to reduce adverse effects of splenectomy in thrombocytopenic patients. A further analysis of the biological mechanisms underlying splenic irradiation may help to improve patient selection, to optimize dose concepts and treatment schedules and will improve understanding of radiotherapy as an immunomodulatory treatment modality. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Die Bestrahlung der Milz zur Behandlung von haematologischen

  19. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Iara [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, 13565-905 São Carlos (Brazil); Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira [Associação Educational de Vitória, Departamento de Biologia, 29053-360 Vitória (Brazil); Rodella, Roberto Antônio [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, C. Postal 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto, E-mail: dwunder@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos Córdoba (ICYTAC), CONICET, Dpto. Qca. Orgánica, Fac. Cs. Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); and others

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  20. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Rodella, Roberto Antônio; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (-0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. PMID:24496023

  1. Patterns of database citation in articles and patents indicate long-term scientific and industry value of biological data resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousfield, David; McEntyre, Johanna; Velankar, Sameer; Papadatos, George; Bateman, Alex; Cochrane, Guy; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Graef, Florian; Vartak, Vid; Alako, Blaise; Blomberg, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Data from open access biomolecular data resources, such as the European Nucleotide Archive and the Protein Data Bank are extensively reused within life science research for comparative studies, method development and to derive new scientific insights. Indicators that estimate the extent and utility of such secondary use of research data need to reflect this complex and highly variable data usage. By linking open access scientific literature, via Europe PubMedCentral, to the metadata in biological data resources we separate data citations associated with a deposition statement from citations that capture the subsequent, long-term, reuse of data in academia and industry.  We extend this analysis to begin to investigate citations of biomolecular resources in patent documents. We find citations in more than 8,000 patents from 2014, demonstrating substantial use and an important role for data resources in defining biological concepts in granted patents to both academic and industrial innovators. Combined together our results indicate that the citation patterns in biomedical literature and patents vary, not only due to citation practice but also according to the data resource cited. The results guard against the use of simple metrics such as citation counts and show that indicators of data use must not only take into account citations within the biomedical literature but also include reuse of data in industry and other parts of society by including patents and other scientific and technical documents such as guidelines, reports and grant applications. PMID:27092246

  2. Technical specifications on harmonised epidemiological indicators for biological hazards to be covered by meat inspection of domestic sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this report, harmonised epidemiological indicators are proposed for food-borne biological hazards that are related to domestic sheep and goats and meat thereof and that can be addressed in the context of meat inspection. These hazards include Toxoplasma gondii, pathogenicverocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and mycobacteria. An epidemiological indicator is defined as the prevalence or concentration of the hazard at a certain stage of the food chain or an indirect measure of the hazard that correlates with the human health risk caused by the hazard. The indicators can be used by the European Commission and the Member States to consider when adaptations to meat inspection methods may be required, and to carry out risk analysis to support such decisions. It is foreseen that the indicators will be used in the integrated sheep and goats meat safety assurance system outlined in the EFSA Scientific Opinion on the public health hazards to be covered by inspection of meat from sheep and goats, particularly to help categorise farms/flock and slaughterhouses according to the risk related to the hazards and process hygiene. Depending on the purpose and the epidemiological situation, risk managers should decide on the most appropriate indicator(s to use, either alone or in combination, at national, regional, slaughterhouse or farm/flock level. It is recommended that risk managers should define the harmonised requirements for controlled housing conditions of farms, and the requirements for food chain information. Member States are invited to report data generated by the implementation of the indicators in accordance with Directive 2003/99/EC. The proposed indicators should be regularly reviewed in light of new information and the data generated by their implementation.

  3. The use of remote sensors to relate biological and physical indicators to environmental and public health problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Relationships between biological, ecological and botanical structures, and disease organisms and their vectors which might be detected and measured by remote sensing are determined. In addition to the use of trees as indicators of disease or potential disease, an attempt is made to identify environmental factors such as soil moisture and soil and water temperatures as they relate to disease or health problems and may be detected by remote sensing. The following three diseases and one major health problem are examined: Malaria, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Encephalitis and Red Tide. It is shown that no single species of vascular plant nor any one environmental factor can be used as the indicator of disease or health problems. Entire vegetation types, successional stages and combinations of factors must be used.

  4. Assessment of water quality at selected sites in the White River Basin, Indiana, 1993 and 1995 using biological indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jeffrey W.; Baker, N.T.; Lydy, M.J.; Stone, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    As part of the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, fish communities were sampled at 11 sites in the White River Basin, Indiana, in 1993 and 1995 to help determine water-quality conditions. Ninety-one species of fish with representatives from 18 families were collected in the basin. Total numbers of fish collected at every site increased between collection years. The Index of Biological Integrity (IBI) and Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) were calculated for all 11 sites in 1995. The QHEI scores indicated six sites had excellent habitat to support fish communities. Only three sites were rated in the “good” to “excellent” IBI water-quality categories, indicating some type of nonhabitat environmental degradation to the fish communities. Eight of the sites were rated in the “fair,” “poor,” or “very poor” IBI water-quality categories.

  5. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium reveals indicators of biological function and developmental origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Higdon

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparing expression data from these cell types and whole embryos allowed us to reveal gene expression co-enrichment in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, as well as in melanocytes and iridophores. We found 214 genes co-enriched in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating the shared functions of melanin-producing cells. We found 62 genes significantly co-enriched in melanocytes and iridophores, illustrative of their shared developmental origins from the neural crest. This is also the first analysis of the iridophore transcriptome. Gene expression analysis for iridophores revealed extensive enrichment of specific enzymes to coordinate production of their guanine-based reflective pigment. We speculate the coordinated upregulation of specific enzymes from several metabolic pathways recycles the rate-limiting substrate for purine synthesis, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, thus constituting a guanine cycle. The purification procedure and expression analysis described here, along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data, provide the first mRNA sequencing data for multiple purified zebrafish pigment cell types, and will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology.

  6. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Bahgat, Magdy M; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham

    2014-07-01

    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water.

  7. Register indicators of physical endurance of biological objects when running a treadmill and swimming with weights using computer video markerless tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Datsenko A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: to study the use of video tracking to assess physical endurance and indicators of biological objects fatigue when running on a treadmill and swimming with the load. Material and methods. Physical endurance evaluated by test facilities for running on a treadmill and swimming with the load. As the object of the studies used laboratory rats. Results. For indicators of physical endurance biological objects isolated areas running track of treadmill and electrical stimulation site, when sw...

  8. Evaluating the response of biological assemblages as potential indicators for restoration measures in an intermittent Mediterranean river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane; Santos, Jose; Ferreira, Teresa; Mendes, Ana

    2010-08-01

    Bioindicators are essential for detecting environmental degradation and for assessing the success of river restoration initiatives. River restoration projects require the identification of environmental and pressure gradients that affect the river system under study and the selection of suitable indicators to assess habitat quality before, during and after restoration. We assessed the response of benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, bird and macrophyte assemblages to environmental and pressure gradients from sites situated upstream and downstream of a cofferdam on the River Odelouca, an intermittent Mediterranean river in southwest Portugal. The Odelouca will be permanently dammed in 2010. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) of environmental and pressure variables revealed that most variance was explained by environmental factors that clearly separated sites upstream and downstream of the partially built cofferdam. The pressure gradient describing physical impacts to the banks and channel as a result of land use change was less distinct. Redundancy Analysis revealed significant levels of explained variance to species distribution patterns in relation to environmental and pressure variables for all 4 biological assemblages. Partial Redundancy analyses revealed high levels of redundancy for pH between groups and that the avifauna was best associated with pressures acting upon the system. Patterns in invertebrates and fish were associated with descriptors of habitat quality, although fish distribution patterns were affected by reduced connectivity. Procrustean and RELATE (Mantel test) analyses gave broadly similar results and supported these findings. We give suggestions on the suitability of key indicator groups such as benthic macroinvertebrates and endemic fish species to assess in stream habitat quality and appropriate restoration measures, such as the release of peak flow patterns that mimic intermittent Mediterranean systems to combat habitat fragmentation and

  9. Evaluating the Response of Biological Assemblages as Potential Indicators for Restoration Measures in an Intermittent Mediterranean River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Samantha Jane; Santos, Jose; Ferreira, Teresa; Mendes, Ana

    2010-08-01

    Bioindicators are essential for detecting environmental degradation and for assessing the success of river restoration initiatives. River restoration projects require the identification of environmental and pressure gradients that affect the river system under study and the selection of suitable indicators to assess habitat quality before, during and after restoration. We assessed the response of benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, bird and macrophyte assemblages to environmental and pressure gradients from sites situated upstream and downstream of a cofferdam on the River Odelouca, an intermittent Mediterranean river in southwest Portugal. The Odelouca will be permanently dammed in 2010. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) of environmental and pressure variables revealed that most variance was explained by environmental factors that clearly separated sites upstream and downstream of the partially built cofferdam. The pressure gradient describing physical impacts to the banks and channel as a result of land use change was less distinct. Redundancy Analysis revealed significant levels of explained variance to species distribution patterns in relation to environmental and pressure variables for all 4 biological assemblages. Partial Redundancy analyses revealed high levels of redundancy for pH between groups and that the avifauna was best associated with pressures acting upon the system. Patterns in invertebrates and fish were associated with descriptors of habitat quality, although fish distribution patterns were affected by reduced connectivity. Procrustean and RELATE (Mantel test) analyses gave broadly similar results and supported these findings. We give suggestions on the suitability of key indicator groups such as benthic macroinvertebrates and endemic fish species to assess in stream habitat quality and appropriate restoration measures, such as the release of peak flow patterns that mimic intermittent Mediterranean systems to combat habitat fragmentation and

  10. Improvement of Biological Indicators by Uniformly Distributing Bacillus subtilis Spores in Monolayers To Evaluate Enhanced Spore Decontamination Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguse, Marina; Fiebrandt, Marcel; Stapelmann, Katharina; Madela, Kazimierz; Laue, Michael; Lackmann, Jan-Wilm; Thwaite, Joanne E; Setlow, Peter; Awakowicz, Peter; Moeller, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    Novel decontamination technologies, including cold low-pressure plasma and blue light (400 nm), are promising alternatives to conventional surface decontamination methods. However, the standardization of the assessment of such sterilization processes remains to be accomplished. Bacterial endospores of the genera Bacillus and Geobacillus are frequently used as biological indicators (BIs) of sterility. Ensuring standardized and reproducible BIs for reliable testing procedures is a significant problem in industrial settings. In this study, an electrically driven spray deposition device was developed, allowing fast, reproducible, and homogeneous preparation of Bacillus subtilis 168 spore monolayers on glass surfaces. A detailed description of the structural design as well as the operating principle of the spraying device is given. The reproducible formation of spore monolayers of up to 5 × 10(7) spores per sample was verified by scanning electron microscopy. Surface inactivation studies revealed that monolayered spores were inactivated by UV-C (254 nm), low-pressure argon plasma (500 W, 10 Pa, 100 standard cubic cm per min), and blue light (400 nm) significantly faster than multilayered spores were. We have thus succeeded in the uniform preparation of reproducible, highly concentrated spore monolayers with the potential to generate BIs for a variety of nonpenetrating surface decontamination techniques. PMID:26801572

  11. Seasonal assessment of biological indices, bioaccumulation and bioavailability of heavy metals in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from Algerian west coast, applied to environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rouane-Hacene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to broaden our knowledge on the variability of trace metals in mussel tissues, focusing on seasonal fluctuations in the three different sampling sites of Algerian west coast (Oran Harbor (S1, Ain Defla (S2 and Hadjaj (S3. For this purpose, the bioavailability (metal indices and bioaccumulation (metal concentrations in soft tissues of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, and the physiological characteristics (e.g. biological indices such as condition index (CI of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis have been assessed and related to seasons and sites. In S1, the highest levels of metal concentrations and indices were obtained in mussels sampled in winter for Zn, Cu and Cd, but in summer for Pb. The biological indices significantly decreased in winter. In S2, the levels of concentrations and indices of all metals varied whatever the seasons, excepting in summer where the values were the lowest. In summer and spring, the biological indices were lower than in autumn and winter. The low growth of organisms in spring and summer might be correlated to the reproductive period and the low trophic level known in S2. S3, considered as a “pristine” area, showed low metal concentrations and indices, and high biological indices, reflecting the favorable physiological conditions for the mussel growth. This approach might be used in the monitoring of the quality of coastal waters and the present work provided a useful data set for Mediterranean monitoring network.

  12. Microfauna communities as performance indicators for an A/O Shortcut Biological Nitrogen Removal moving-bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canals, O; Salvadó, H; Auset, M; Hernández, C; Malfeito, J J

    2013-06-01

    The microfauna communities present in the mixed liquor and biofilm of an Anoxic/Oxic Shortcut Biofilm Nitrogen Removal moving-bed biofilm process were characterised in order to optimise process control through the use of bioindicators. The system operated at high ammonium concentrations, with an average of 588 ± 220 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1) in the influent, 161 ± 80 mg L(-1) in the anoxic reactor and 74 ± 71.2 mg L(-1) in the aerobic reactor. Up to 20 different taxa were identified, including ciliates (4), flagellates (11), amoebae (4) and nematodes (1). Compared to conventional wastewater treatment processes (WWTPs), this process can be defined as a flagellates-predominant system with a low diversity of ciliates. Flagellates were mainly dominant in the mixed liquor, demonstrating high tolerance to ammonium and the capacity for survival over a long time under anoxic conditions. The data obtained provide interesting values of maximum and minimum tolerance ranges to ammonium, nitrates and nitrites for the ciliate species Cyclidium glaucoma, Colpoda ecaudata, Vorticella microstoma-complex and Epistylis cf. rotans. The last of these was the only ciliate species that presented a constant and abundant population, almost exclusively in the aerobic biofilm. Epistylis cf. rotans dynamics showed a high negative correlation with ammonium variations and a positive correlation with ammonium removal efficiency. Hence, the results indicate that Epistylis cf. rotans is a good bioindicator of the nitrification process in this system. The study of protozoan communities in unexplored WWTPs sheds light on species ecology and their role under conditions that have been little studied in WWTPs, and could offer new biological management tools.

  13. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  14. MECHANISTIC INDICATORS OF CHILDHOOD ASTHMA (MICA): A SYSTEMS BIOLOGY APPROACH FOR THE INTEGRATION OF MULTIFACTORIAL EXPOSURE AND ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH DATA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modem methods in molecular biology and advanced computational tools show promise in elucidating complex interactions that occur between genes and environmental factors in diseases such as asthma. However, appropriately designed studies are critical for these methods to reach the...

  15. Mass-spectrometric identification of primary biological particle markers: indication for low abundance of primary biological material in the pristine submicron aerosol of Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schneider

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of marker compounds for primary biological particles in submicron aerosol was investigated by means of aerosol mass spectrometry. Mass spectra of amino acids, carbohydrates, small peptides, and proteins, all of which are key building blocks of biological particles, were recorded in laboratory experiments. Several characteristic marker peaks were identified. The identified marker peaks were compared with mass spectra recorded during AMAZE-08, a field campaign conducted in the pristine rainforest of the Central Amazon Basin, Brazil, during the wet season of February and March 2008. The low abundance of identified marker peaks places upper limits of 7.5 % for amino acids and 5.6 % for carbohydrates on the contribution of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs to the submicron organic aerosol mass concentration during this time period. Upper limits for the absolute submicron concentrations for both compound classes range from 0.01 to 0.1 μg m−3. Carbohydrates and protein amino acids make up for about two thirds of the dry mass of a biological cell. Thus, our findings suggest an upper limit for the PBAPs mass fraction of about 20 % to the submicron organic aerosol.

  16. Register indicators of physical endurance of biological objects when running a treadmill and swimming with weights using computer video markerless tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsenko A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the use of video tracking to assess physical endurance and indicators of biological objects fatigue when running on a treadmill and swimming with the load. Material and methods. Physical endurance evaluated by test facilities for running on a treadmill and swimming with the load. As the object of the studies used laboratory rats. Results. For indicators of physical endurance biological objects isolated areas running track of treadmill and electrical stimulation site, when swimming on the total area of the container isolated subarea near the water surface. With video tracking performed computer timing of finding biological object in different zones of the treadmill and containers for swimming. On the basis of data on the time location rats in a given zone apparatus for running and swimming, obtained in the dynamics of the test of physical endurance, build a "fatigue curves", quantified changes in the indices of hard work, depending on the duration of its execution. Conclusion. Video tracking allows to define the execution of physical work to overflowing with loads of aerobic and mixed aerobic-anaerobic power, establish quantitative indicators of changes in the dynamics of biological objects operability testing with the construction of "fatigue curve" and objectively determine the times of occurrence in experimental animals exhaustion when fails to perform physical work.

  17. Evaluation of the Index of Bathing from Biological Indicators of the Soledade Reservoir in Soledade, State of Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lucia Antunes de Lima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It is known that water is one of the most important natural resources and is indispensable for the survival and various recreational activities. This study aimed to evaluate the water quality of the Reservoir Soledade, in Soledade, the state of Paraiba for the bathing. The study was conducted in the years 2008 and 2009, when they were assessed the biological parameter fecal coliform. The results showed that the waters of the Reservoir of Soledade aren’t in accordance with the pattern of quality set by CONAMA Resolution 274/2000 to water balneabilidade, and allowed this to be classified as inappropriate according to the methodology used by CETESB.

  18. Optimizing the use of biological indicators for detection of significant pollutant types. Optimierung verschiedener Bioindikationsverfahren zur Erfassung wichtiger Immissionstypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D.

    1982-04-14

    Bioindication methods to determine the different pollutant types have been compared using the accumulation indicators Halian ryegrass (cloned material) and pine (Picea abies) and the sensitive indicator species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), gladiolus (G. hybridus), tulip (T. gesneriana), leek (A. porrum), clover (T. pratense), alfalfa (M. sativa), spinach (S. oleracea), petunia (P. hybrida), pelargonium (P. zonale), French marigold (T. patula), salvia (S. splendens) and ipomoea (I. purpurea). Field tests were carried out on 15 different sites in Bavaria. By means of the accumulation indicators, inorganic pollutants (S, F, Cl, Pb, Cd, Zn) were to be determined by analyses of the plant material. In the sensitive indicator plants, growth and flowering were studied with regard to external damage. In tobacco plants, also the physiological parameters and the total nitrogen concentration were determined. The following recommendations can be made for region with unknown pollutant levels: Accumulation indicators can be used in large areas; they yield valid information in case of high pollutant levels and react in a highly differentiated manner to site-specific pollutant levels already within the normal concentration range. Sensitive indicators are of use only in the direct vicinity of large-scale pollution sources. They have a signal function and may warn of high air pollution levels.

  19. Manual accidents, biological risk control, and quality indicators at a children's hospital in north-east Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia Vascotto, Roberto Simeone, Patrizia Visconti Department of Health Technology Assessment, Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy Background: Working in health care carries the risk of transmission of infected blood to patients by hospital workers and to other health personnel in the form of occupational infections. Conscientious application of the standard precautions is the main method used to avoid needle stick injuries, contamination of skin and mucous membranes, cuts with sharp tools, and inadequate disposal and recapping of needles. The aim of this work was to investigate in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region in north-east Italy, the enhancement carried out to prevent situations of biologic risk for health care workers, and to verify the related laboratory analyses. Methods: Biological accidents occurring during the years 2012–2013 in the departments of oncology and pediatric-obstetric surgery, and in the intensive care unit at Burlo Garofolo Children's Hospital in Trieste (a large town in Friuli Venezia Giulia were reviewed, and a new panel of tests was introduced for patients and health care workers, to also detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and aspartate transaminase and immunoglobulin G. All tests were submitted for external quality assessment. Results: In total, 230 nosocomial events were reported by health care workers in the above-mentioned hospital departments in 2012–2013. There were 158 accidents in 2012, including 55 accidental needle stick injuries (34.81%, 59 blood splashes (37.34%, and 44 cuts with infected instruments (27.84%. The risk of sustaining a cut was related to movement error during surgery when the appropriate procedure was not followed or when devices were being assembled and passed between doctors and nurses. Most accidents happened among physicians compared to nurses; the high percentage of needle stick injuries (34

  20. Discourse and Review of Environmental Quality of River Bodies in India: An Appraisal of Physico-chemical and Biological Parameters as Indicators of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Manoj; Pratap Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    The present manuscript is an account of the studies conducted on some well known surface water bodies in India, with special emphasis on the river systems, to evaluate their quality status. The review covers the water quality estimation and identification of sources contributing to water quality deterioration. Commonly employed physicochemical and biological parameters as indicators of water quality have been thoroughly discussed. Some possible measures to prevent and control pollution of wat...

  1. Nitrogen Eutrophication on the Colorado Plateau: Using Biological Indicators to Detect Nutrient Enrichment in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, J. A.; Johnson, N.; Hultine, K. R.; Sesnie, S.; Sisk, T.

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have more than doubled the availability of biologically reactive forms of nitrogen (N) since the industrial and agricultural revolutions. Though N is an important plant nutrient, increased deposition initiates a cascade of deleterious effects including ecosystem acidification, biodiversity loss, and increased smog and haze. Atmospheric pollution continues to threaten the air quality of the 16 Class 1 Wilderness areas on the Colorado Plateau, including Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP). However, the ecological impacts of N deposition in these historically N-limited, nutrient sensitive arid regions, are little- known. Here, we report baseline atmospheric and terrestrial responses to anthropogenic N deposition derived from vehicular exhaust in GCNP and long-range deposition from a local coal-fired power plant, the Navajo Generating Station (NGS). We used passive air samplers, natural abundance δ15N stable isotope analysis, and nutrient analysis to observe N patterns in air, soils, and pinyon pine (Pinus edulis) foliage. In GCNP, samples were collected from ten sites over an eight-month period in areas of projected low to high vehicular N deposition (i.e. distance from primary roadways). On the Paria Plateau, northeast of GCNP and in close proximity to the NGS, samples were collected along a distance gradient from the NGS, across the Plateau. In both study areas, atmospheric deposition, as well as soil and pine- needle nutrient concentrations show significant negative relationships with increased distance from N-source (pbiodiversity and air quality standards for the southwestern U.S.

  2. Bifurcation Scenarios of Neural Firing Patterns across Two Separated Chaotic Regions as Indicated by Theoretical and Biological Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaguang Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics can be used to identify relationships between different firing patterns, which play important roles in the information processing. The present study provides novel biological experimental findings regarding complex bifurcation scenarios from period-1 bursting to period-1 spiking with chaotic firing patterns. These bifurcations were found to be similar to those simulated using the Hindmarsh-Rose model across two separated chaotic regions. One chaotic region lay between period-1 and period-2 burstings. This region has not attracted much attention. The other region is a well-known comb-shaped chaotic region, and it appears after period-2 bursting. After period-2 bursting, the chaotic firings lay in a period-adding bifurcation scenario or in a period-doubling bifurcation cascade. The deterministic dynamics of the chaotic firing patterns were identified using a nonlinear prediction method. These results provided details regarding the processes and dynamics of bifurcation containing the chaotic bursting between period-1 and period-2 burstings and other chaotic firing patterns within the comb-shaped chaotic region. They also provided details regarding the relationships between different firing patterns in parameter space.

  3. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore;

    2013-01-01

    into ecological functional groups and selecting those that deliver the identified environmental values. (3) All of the species or ecosystem processes related to the selected functional groups are identified and (4) multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is used to rank the indicator endpoint entities, which may......-driven, ecologically-based decision-making and provides formal methods for completing a screening level-ERA that can focus ERA on the most significant concerns. The process requires substantial human input but the human capital is available in most countries and regions of the world....

  4. Is the expression of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase messenger RNA an indicator of biological behavior in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I-Shyan Sheen; Kuo-Shyang Jeng; Yi-Chun Tsai

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the correlation between gammaglutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) expression in the primary HCC and post-resection recurrence and its biological behaviors.METHODS: Forty consecutive patients having curative resection for HCC were included in this study. The primers for reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) were corresponding to the 5'-noncoding human γ-GTP mRNA of fetal liver (type A), HepG2 cells (type B),and placenta (type C). Both the cancer and non-cancerous tissues of the resected liver were analyzed. The correlations between the expression of γ-GTP and the clinicopathological variables and outcomes (recurrence and survival) were studied.RESULTS: Those with type B γ-GTP mRNA in cancer had significant higher recurrence rate than those without it (63.6 % vs 14.3 %). Both those with type B in cancer and in non-cancer died significantly more than those without it (45.5 % vs 0 % and 53.6 % vs 0 %, respectively). By multivariate analysis, the significant predictors of recurrence included high serum AFP (P=0.0108), vascular permeation (P=0.0084), and type B γ-GTP mRNA in non-cancerous liver (P=0.0107). The significant predictors of postrecurrence death included high serum AFP (P=0.0141),vascular permeation (P=0.0130), and daughter nodules (P=0.0053). As to the manifestations (recurrent number ≥2, recurrent extent≥2 segments, extra-hepatic metastasis, and death) in recurrent patients, there were no statistical significant differences between those with type B in the primary tumor and those without it. The difference between those with type B in non-cancerous liver and those without it also was not significant.CONCLUSION: Patients of HCC with type B γ-GTP mRNA both in cancer and in non-cancerous tissue had a worse outcome, earlier recurrence, and more post-recurrence death.

  5. DNA double-strand breaks as potential indicators for the biological effects of ionising radiation exposure from cardiac CT and conventional coronary angiography: a randomised, controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, Dominik; Zimmermann, Elke; Rief, Matthias; Greupner, Johannes; Hamm, Bernd [Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Laule, Michael; Knebel, Fabian [Charite Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, Marc [Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite, Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    To prospectively compare induced DNA double-strand breaks by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). 56 patients with suspected coronary artery disease were randomised to undergo either CCA or cardiac CT. DNA double-strand breaks were assessed in fluorescence microscopy of blood lymphocytes as indicators of the biological effects of radiation exposure. Radiation doses were estimated using dose-length product (DLP) and dose-area product (DAP) with conversion factors for CT and CCA, respectively. On average there were 0.12 {+-} 0.06 induced double-strand breaks per lymphocyte for CT and 0.29 {+-} 0.18 for diagnostic CCA (P < 0.001). This relative biological effect of ionising radiation from CCA was 1.9 times higher (P < 0.001) than the effective dose estimated by conversion factors would have suggested. The correlation between the biological effects and the estimated radiation doses was excellent for CT (r = 0.951, P < 0.001) and moderate to good for CCA (r = 0.862, P < 0.001). One day after radiation, a complete repair of double-strand breaks to background levels was found in both groups. Conversion factors may underestimate the relative biological effects of ionising radiation from CCA. DNA double-strand break assessment may provide a strategy for individualised assessments of radiation. (orig.)

  6. DNA double-strand breaks as potential indicators for the biological effects of ionising radiation exposure from cardiac CT and conventional coronary angiography: a randomised, controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prospectively compare induced DNA double-strand breaks by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). 56 patients with suspected coronary artery disease were randomised to undergo either CCA or cardiac CT. DNA double-strand breaks were assessed in fluorescence microscopy of blood lymphocytes as indicators of the biological effects of radiation exposure. Radiation doses were estimated using dose-length product (DLP) and dose-area product (DAP) with conversion factors for CT and CCA, respectively. On average there were 0.12 ± 0.06 induced double-strand breaks per lymphocyte for CT and 0.29 ± 0.18 for diagnostic CCA (P < 0.001). This relative biological effect of ionising radiation from CCA was 1.9 times higher (P < 0.001) than the effective dose estimated by conversion factors would have suggested. The correlation between the biological effects and the estimated radiation doses was excellent for CT (r = 0.951, P < 0.001) and moderate to good for CCA (r = 0.862, P < 0.001). One day after radiation, a complete repair of double-strand breaks to background levels was found in both groups. Conversion factors may underestimate the relative biological effects of ionising radiation from CCA. DNA double-strand break assessment may provide a strategy for individualised assessments of radiation. (orig.)

  7. Responses of physical, chemical, and biological indicators of water quality to a gradient of agricultural land use in the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Meador, M.R.; Porter, S.D.; Gurtz, M.E.

    2000-01-01

    The condition of 25 stream sites in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Multimetric condition indices were developed and used to rank sites on the basis of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. These indices showed that sites in the Cascades and Eastern Cascades ecoregions were largely unimpaired. In contrast, all but two sites in the Columbia Basin ecoregion were impaired, some severely. Agriculture (nutrients and pesticides) was the primary factor associated with impairment and all impaired sites were characterized by multiple indicators of impairment. All indices of biological condition (fish, invertebrates, and algae) declined as agricultural intensity increased. The response exhibited by invertebrates and algae suggested a threshold response with conditions declining precipitously at relatively low levels of agricultural intensity and little response at moderate to high levels of agricultural intensity. This pattern of response suggests that the success of mitigation will vary depending upon where on the response curve the mitigation is undertaken. Because the form of the community condition response is critical to effective water-quality management, the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is conducting studies to examine the response of biota to gradients of land-use intensity and the relevance of these responses to water-quality management. These land-use gradient pilot studies will be conducted in several urban areas starting in 1999.

  8. Sublethal Effects of Some New Textile Dyes On the Freshwater Snail Biomphalaria alexandrina, as a Biological Indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Eco toxicological effects of three synthetic textile dyes; fast violet (FV), fast orange (FO) and fast yellow (FY) which mainly used in textile industry in Egypt, were tested on the freshwater snail Biomphalaria alexandrina, that used as a bio-indicator. The results demonstrated that only the FV dye is lethal and the 72 hr LC 50 is 500 ppm. The FO and dyes did not show any lethal effect on the snails at the concentrations used throughout the experiment time. The sublethal toxic concentration of non-irradiated FV dye (100 ppm) showed an increase in cellular and humoral defense responses of the snails exposed to the dye for 72 hr. Although the profile of the snail's nucleoproteins revealed minor qualitative differences; were quantitative differences differences reflected in the intensity of the separated bands, as well as, the percentage of the protein content. The protein content significantly decreased in the snails exposed to FV-dye when compared to FO,FY and non-exposed control snails

  9. Development of biological indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on freshwater ecosystems. Final report, June 1975-October 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, J. Jr.; Cherry, D.S.

    1980-09-30

    The ten Research Areas reported included: (1) the development of functional indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on Aufwuchs communities, (2) relationship of protozoan colonization rates to the eutrophication process, (3) testing of methods to determine the functioning of zooplankton communities subjected to entrainment stress, (4) the use of the first steps of detritus processing (microbial decomposition) as a technique for assessing pollutional stress on aquatic communities in a river system, (5) relationship of protozoan invasion and extinction rate to the eutrophication process, (6) extension of present early colonization studies to the simultaneous evaluation of natural environmental parameters and power plant effluents and application of the early colonization approach to microbial communities in streams of the New River drainage, (7) testing of single species-community responses of protozoans from selected heavy metals, (8) the effects of selected power plant pollutants on grazer utilization of Aufwuchs, (9) investigation of bioconcentration and bioaccumulation mechanisms of the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) populations in field artificial streams and laboratory microcosms with reference to physical chemistry and diet alterations, and (10) investigation of the homeostatic regulation in bluegill sunfish following acute hypothermal shock and to other power plant related effluents.

  10. Benthic macroalgae as biological indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environments: a biomonitoring approach for pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sukalyan; Bhattacharya, Tanushree; Singh, Gurmeet; Maity, Jyoti Prakash

    2014-02-01

    Metal pollution in the marine coastline environment is an important topical issue in the context of ecological disturbance and climate change. Heavy metal contaminations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in seawater and surficial sediments, as well as macroalgal diversity, were determined in six different locations along the coast of the Gulf of Kutch in India. The marine coastline environment was found to be enriched with Cd and Zn in comparison to other metals. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) inter-elemental positive-correlations were observed between Fe-Mn, Fe-Cu, Fe-Cr, Fe-Zn, Cr-Cu, Cu-Mn, and Cd-Zn, as well as negative-correlations between Cd-Pb, Ni-Pb, and Zn-Pb. Though genus specific macroalgal responses to heavy metal accumulation were significant, species specific response was insignificant (p ≤ 0.05). The relative abundance of metals in macroalgae followed the order of Fe>Zn>Mn>Cu>Cd>Cr>Ni>Pb. The high uptake of metals in green algae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis) and brown algae (Padina gymnospora and Dictyota bartayresiana) suggested that these algae may be used as potential biomonitors for heavy metal pollution. Three pollution indicators, Contamination Factor (CF), Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (Igeo) were calculated to determine the degree of metal pollution in the marine coastline and the contribution of anthropogenic influence.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA indicates late pleistocene divergence of populations of Heteronympha merope, an emerging model in environmental change biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Norgate

    Full Text Available Knowledge of historical changes in species range distribution provides context for investigating adaptive potential and dispersal ability. This is valuable for predicting the potential impact of environmental change on species of interest. Butterflies are one of the most important taxa for studying such impacts, and Heteronympha merope has the potential to provide a particularly valuable model, in part due to the existence of historical data on morphological traits and glycolytic enzyme variation. This study investigates the population genetic structure and phylogeography of H. merope, comparing the relative resolution achieved through partial DNA sequences of two mitochondrial loci, COI and ND5. These data are used to define the relationship between subspecies, showing that the subspecies are reciprocally monophyletic. On this basis, the Western Australian subspecies H. m. duboulayi is genetically distinct from the two eastern subspecies. Throughout the eastern part of the range, levels of migration and the timing of key population splits of potential relevance to climatic adaptation are estimated and indicate Late Pleistocene divergence both of the Tasmanian subspecies and of an isolated northern population from the eastern mainland subspecies H. m. merope. This information is then used to revisit historical data and provides support for the importance of clinal variation in wing characters, as well as evidence for selective pressure acting on allozyme loci phosphoglucose isomerase and phosphoglucomutase in H. merope. The study has thus confirmed the value of H. merope as a model organism for measuring responses to environmental change, offering the opportunity to focus on isolated populations, as well as a latitudinal gradient, and to use historical changes to test the accuracy of predictions for the future.

  12. Patterns of database citation in articles and patents indicate long-term scientific and industry value of biological data resources [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bousfield

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Data from open access biomolecular data resources, such as the European Nucleotide Archive and the Protein Data Bank are extensively reused within life science research for comparative studies, method development and to derive new scientific insights. Indicators that estimate the extent and utility of such secondary use of research data need to reflect this complex and highly variable data usage. By linking open access scientific literature, via Europe PubMedCentral, to the metadata in biological data resources we separate data citations associated with a deposition statement from citations that capture the subsequent, long-term, reuse of data in academia and industry.  We extend this analysis to begin to investigate citations of biomolecular resources in patent documents. We find citations in more than 8,000 patents from 2014, demonstrating substantial use and an important role for data resources in defining biological concepts in granted patents to both academic and industrial innovators. Combined together our results indicate that the citation patterns in biomedical literature and patents vary, not only due to citation practice but also according to the data resource cited. The results guard against the use of simple metrics such as citation counts and show that indicators of data use must not only take into account citations within the biomedical literature but also include reuse of data in industry and other parts of society by including patents and other scientific and technical documents such as guidelines, reports and grant applications.

  13. Water mosses as indicators of acidification. Practice-oriented biological indication techniques using water mosses for acidification monitoring of running waters with a low buffer capacity; Wassermoose als Versauerungsindikatoren. Praxisorientierte Bioindikationsverfahren mit Wassermoosen zur Ueberwachung des Saeurezustandes von pufferschwachen Fliessgewaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremp, H. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie; Kohler, A. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landschafts- und Pflanzenoekologie

    1993-12-31

    Since the beginning of the eighties, research in the Federal Republic of Germany on the acidification of rivers and lakes has been dominated by water-chemical investigation programmes. The use of biological indicators of water acidification is to complement water-chemical data surveys; therefore, the development of easily and rapidly applicable techniques must be given priority. This work has the aim to point out opportunities for, and limits to, the use of submersed mosses and liverworts for practice-oriented indication of acidification. Its main points of emphasis are the indicator value of mosses in running waters with a low buffer capacity and their use in passive monitoring, with iron and aluminium accumulation being primarily of interest. Investigations that build on these deal with the simple topochemical verification of these metals in moss leaves. (vhe) [Deutsch] Seit Beginn der achtziger Jahre ist die Erforschung der Gewaesserversauerung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland in erster Linie von wasserchemischen Untersuchungsprogrammen gepraegt. Der Einsatz von Bioindikatoren fuer die Gewaesserversauerung soll die Erhebung der wasserchemischen Kenngroessen ergaenzen, daher muss die Entwicklung von leicht und schnell anwendbaren Verfahren Vorrang haben. Ziel der vorliegenden Untersuchung ist es, die Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der Verwendung submerser Laub- und Lebermoose fuer eine praxisorientierte Versauerungsindikation aufzuzeigen. Die Untersuchungsschwerpunkte beschraenken sich auf den Zeigerwert von Moosen pufferschwacher Fliessgewaesser und ihren Einsatz im passiven Monitoring. Im Mittelpunkt stehen dabei die Eisen- und Aluminiumakkumulation. Darauf aufbauende Untersuchungen befassen sich mit dem einfachen topochemischen Nachweis dieser Metalle in Moosblaettern. (vhe)

  14. Biophysical and biological characterization of a new line of hyaluronan-based dermal fillers: A scientific rationale to specific clinical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Gatta, Annalisa; De Rosa, Mario; Frezza, Maria Assunta; Catalano, Claudia; Meloni, Marisa; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Chemico-physical and biological characterization of hyaluronan-based dermal fillers is of key importance to differentiate between numerous available products and to optimize their use. These studies on fillers are nowadays perceived as a reliable approach to predict their performance in vivo. The object of this paper is a recent line of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based dermal fillers, Aliaxin®, available in different formulations that claim a complete facial restoration. The aim of the study is to provide biophysical and biological data that may support the clinical indications and allow to predict performance possibly with respect to similar available products. Aliaxin® formulations were tested for their content in soluble HA, water uptake capacity, rheological behavior, stability to enzymatic degradation, and for in vitro capacity to stimulate extracellular matrix components production. The formulations were found to contain a low amount of soluble HA and were equivalent to each other regarding insoluble hydrogel concentration. The different crosslinking degree declared by the producer was consistent with the trend in water uptake capacity, rigidity, viscosity. No significant differences in stability to enzymatic hydrolysis were found. In vitro experiments, using a full thickness skin model, showed an increase in collagen production in the dermoepidermal junction. Results support the claims of different clinical indications, the classification of products regarding hydro-, lift-action and the specifically suggested needle gauge for the delivery. The biological outcomes also support products effectiveness in skin structure restoration. These data predicted a better performance regarding hydro-action, tissue integration, clinical management during delivery, and a high durability of the aesthetic effect when compared to data on marketed similar products.

  15. Biophysical and biological characterization of a new line of hyaluronan-based dermal fillers: A scientific rationale to specific clinical indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Gatta, Annalisa; De Rosa, Mario; Frezza, Maria Assunta; Catalano, Claudia; Meloni, Marisa; Schiraldi, Chiara

    2016-11-01

    Chemico-physical and biological characterization of hyaluronan-based dermal fillers is of key importance to differentiate between numerous available products and to optimize their use. These studies on fillers are nowadays perceived as a reliable approach to predict their performance in vivo. The object of this paper is a recent line of hyaluronic acid (HA)-based dermal fillers, Aliaxin®, available in different formulations that claim a complete facial restoration. The aim of the study is to provide biophysical and biological data that may support the clinical indications and allow to predict performance possibly with respect to similar available products. Aliaxin® formulations were tested for their content in soluble HA, water uptake capacity, rheological behavior, stability to enzymatic degradation, and for in vitro capacity to stimulate extracellular matrix components production. The formulations were found to contain a low amount of soluble HA and were equivalent to each other regarding insoluble hydrogel concentration. The different crosslinking degree declared by the producer was consistent with the trend in water uptake capacity, rigidity, viscosity. No significant differences in stability to enzymatic hydrolysis were found. In vitro experiments, using a full thickness skin model, showed an increase in collagen production in the dermoepidermal junction. Results support the claims of different clinical indications, the classification of products regarding hydro-, lift-action and the specifically suggested needle gauge for the delivery. The biological outcomes also support products effectiveness in skin structure restoration. These data predicted a better performance regarding hydro-action, tissue integration, clinical management during delivery, and a high durability of the aesthetic effect when compared to data on marketed similar products. PMID:27524055

  16. Application of translocation, γ-H2AX, and Sam68 as a biological indicators for the assessment of radiation exposure in nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kwang Hee; Park, Hyung Sun; Nam, Seon Young [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    This study showed that confirmation of the initial dose estimated by dicentric analysis is provided by the subsequent FISH analysis for translocation frequency and provides further evidence for the valid use of FISH as a retrospective biological dosimeter. The IAEA manual on cytogenetic dosimetry recommends a halftime value of 3 y to correct for the decrease of dicentrics in case of delayed sampling based on the patient data of Buckton. Support for this comes from the cytogenetic follow up of an individual exposed to tritium, which also indicated a decline in dicentrics with a half-time of ∼3 y. Naturally, the RBE of tritium, as well as other kinds of ionizing radiation, depends on the dose, exposure conditions, and studied parameters. The information about the RBE of tritium that is most important from an applied standpoint is that associated with the range of low doses. In our study, the dose dependence of tritium RBE was not identified because of very low dose Tritium (< 1mSv). However, The strong smooth relationship between translocation yield and age is shown in Table 2. The translocation yields reported here are only slightly lower than already published. The implication is that the increase of yield with age could be due to environmental factors, to a natural aging process or both. In addition, we confirmed that γ-H2AX and Sam68 associated with DNA damage and apoptosis, can be new biological indicators for radiation exposure. Radiation workers are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Ionizing radiation produces several types of DNA lesion, including DNA base alterations, DNA. DNA cross-links, and single- and double-strand breaks. As a protocol for biological dosimetry recommended by IAEA (2001), the analysis of solid stained dicentric chromosomes has been used since the mid 1960s. The intervening years have seen great improvements bringing the technique to a point where dicentric analysis has become a routine component of the radiological

  17. Application of translocation, γ-H2AX, and Sam68 as a biological indicators for the assessment of radiation exposure in nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study showed that confirmation of the initial dose estimated by dicentric analysis is provided by the subsequent FISH analysis for translocation frequency and provides further evidence for the valid use of FISH as a retrospective biological dosimeter. The IAEA manual on cytogenetic dosimetry recommends a halftime value of 3 y to correct for the decrease of dicentrics in case of delayed sampling based on the patient data of Buckton. Support for this comes from the cytogenetic follow up of an individual exposed to tritium, which also indicated a decline in dicentrics with a half-time of ∼3 y. Naturally, the RBE of tritium, as well as other kinds of ionizing radiation, depends on the dose, exposure conditions, and studied parameters. The information about the RBE of tritium that is most important from an applied standpoint is that associated with the range of low doses. In our study, the dose dependence of tritium RBE was not identified because of very low dose Tritium (< 1mSv). However, The strong smooth relationship between translocation yield and age is shown in Table 2. The translocation yields reported here are only slightly lower than already published. The implication is that the increase of yield with age could be due to environmental factors, to a natural aging process or both. In addition, we confirmed that γ-H2AX and Sam68 associated with DNA damage and apoptosis, can be new biological indicators for radiation exposure. Radiation workers are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Ionizing radiation produces several types of DNA lesion, including DNA base alterations, DNA. DNA cross-links, and single- and double-strand breaks. As a protocol for biological dosimetry recommended by IAEA (2001), the analysis of solid stained dicentric chromosomes has been used since the mid 1960s. The intervening years have seen great improvements bringing the technique to a point where dicentric analysis has become a routine component of the radiological

  18. New Markov-autocorrelation indices for re-evaluation of links in chemical and biological complex networks used in metabolomics, parasitology, neurosciences, and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Riera-Fernández, Pablo

    2012-12-21

    The development of new methods for the computational re-evaluation of links in chemical and biological complex networks is very important to save time and resources. The Moreau-Broto autocorrelation indices (MBis) are well-known topological indices (TIs) used in QSAR/QSPR studies to encode the structural information contained in molecular graphs. In addition, MBis and similar autocorrelation measures have been used to study other systems like, for example, proteins. In the present work, MBis are combined with Markov chains to develop a general class of stochastic MBis of order k (MB(k)) that is used to encode the structural information contained in different types of large complex networks. The MB(k) values obtained for the nodes (centralities) of these networks are used as input variables to seek QSPR-like equations (by means of linear discriminant analysis) in which the outputs are numerical scores S(L(ij)) that allow us to discriminate between connected and nonconnected nodes and therefore re-evaluate the connectivity of the whole network. The models developed in this work produced the following results in terms of overall accuracy for network reconstruction: metabolic networks (72.10%), parasite-host networks (88.70%), CoCoMac brain cortex coactivation network (81.89%), and fasciolosis spreading network (86.39%).

  19. Traffic-related heavy metals uptake by wild plants grow along two main highways in Hunan Province, China: effects of soil factors, accumulation ability, and biological indication potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yunbo; Dai, Qingyun; Jiang, Kang; Zhu, Yun; Xu, Bibo; Peng, Chuan; Wang, Tengfei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    This study was performed to investigate pollution of traffic-related heavy metals (HMs-Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, and Cd) in roadside soils and their uptake by wild plants growing along highways in Hunan Province, China. For this, we analyzed the concentration and chemical fractionation of HMs in soils and plants. Soil samples were collected with different depths in the profile and different distances from highway edge. And leaves and barks of six high-frequency plants were collected. Results of the modified European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) showed that the mobile fraction of these HMs was in the order of Cd > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr. A high percentage of the mobile fraction indicates Cd, Pb, and Zn were labile and available for uptake by wild plants. The total concentration and values of risk assessment code (RAC) showed that Cd was the main risk factor, which were in the range high to very high risk. The accumulation ability of HMs in plants was evaluated by the biological accumulation factor (BAF) and the metal accumulation index (MAI), and the results showed that all those plant species have good phyto-extraction ability, while accumulation capacity for most HMs plants tissues was bark > leaf. The highest MAI value (5.99) in Cinnamomum camphora (L) Presl indicates the potential for bio-monitoring and a good choice for planting along highways where there is contamination with HMs. PMID:27026539

  20. Assessment of sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus fisheries in the lower Paraná River basin (Argentina based on hydrological, biological, and fishery indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Baigún

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the change in fish exploitation patterns of the sábalo fisheries of the lower Paraná River basin based on hydrological, biological, and fishery indicators. From historical catch records, we recorded a shift from a lightly and moderate exploited status before 2001 to a heavily exploited one, as a result of the development of sábalo exports from 2001 onwards. Channel and floodplain connectivity indices demonstrated that the Paraná exhibited highly favorable hydrological conditions between 1972 and 1999 but more adverse conditions from 1999 to 2009, as a consequence of flood pulses reduction coincident with a fishing mortality increment. A total catch of 15,000 tons, including local consumption, regional market, informal sales, and exportation volumes, was estimated as the maximum sustainable catch. That level was instead exceeded 3 fold in 2004, in parallel with a decrease in the mean fish length from 48 to 42 cm, along with a reduction in both the mesh size from 16 to 12 cm and megaspawner proportion, and an increase of fishing mortality. Although growth overfishing was not noted, an analysis of the spawning potential ratio trend indicated that recruitment overfishing took place during 2005, since the fishing mortality rate was 4 times greater than the natural mortality rate. These observations suggest that less favorable hydrological conditions after 1999 coupled with a coincident high fishing pressure could have impacted the sábalo population biomass. Management of sábalo fisheries requires to set aside a single economic vision of the resource use moving to an ecosystem-oriented approach that incorporate, among others components, the hydrological regime, species life history traits, fishing impacts on other species, and main stakeholders socioeconomic requirements as key elements for the preservation of fishery sustainability.

  1. Fatores de risco cardiovasculares em adolescentes: indicadores biológicos e comportamentais Cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents: biological and behavioral indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2006-06-01

    between 15 and 18 years of age selected in a high school in the city of Londrina, Paraná. Risk factors of a behavioral nature were analyzed as regards insufficient physical activity, excessive intake of fat and cholesterol and smoking. As biological risk factor indicators we used overweight, high arterial pressure levels, and adverse concentration of serum lipids and lipoproteins. RESULTS: Approximately 20% of the girls and 16% of the boys presented at least one biological risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases. Overweight was significantly associated with excessive intake of fats, while elevated arterial pressure was related to sedentary lifestyle and smoking. Excessive intake of fat and cholesterol indicated increased risk of undesirable concentrations of serum lipids and lipoproteins. The risk associated with altered blood pressure and serum lipids and lipoprotein was increased two-fold in smokers when compared with nonsmokers. CONCLUSION: The results reinforce the need for interventions targeted at the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, including the regular practice of physical exercise, appropriate dietary patterns, and abstention from smoking as of an early age.

  2. Use of in situ biological indicators of pollution stress by the Venezuelan Petroleum Corporation (PDVSA): Bases for their industrial applications in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because Industry requires answers in a time-effective manner, PDVSA is promoting the use of biological indicators in an ecotoxicological context, replacing the classical view of species inventory or whole community structure analyses, widely used for ecological assessment studies. When the classical approach is followed, tropical ecosystem complexity consumes a great deal of effort just describing or identifying species, not to mention establishing trophic-structure relationships. If, on the contrary, key species or even communities of reduced species, not to mention establishing trophic-structure relationships. If, on the contrary, key species or even communities of reduced complexity belonging to a given ecological assessment could be simplified, allowing for an efficient response to the clients needs. Throughout this paper, in situ methods developed for these purposes will be discussed, showing the successful application of a large scale assessment through tissue level analyses of a ''sentinel'' mussel (Polymesoda arctata). In addition, when environmental assessment areas are of smaller scale, so that temporal and spatial variations are minimized, the application of community changes by the use of fouling communities will be shown as a novel means for reducing structural complexity. Methods herein proposed, are highly comprehensive, and could serve as basis for future environmental industrial monitoring throughout Latin America and many other regions of the world

  3. Changes in physical and biological soil quality indicators in a tropical crop system (Havana, Cuba) in response to different agroecological management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, I; Caravaca, F; Alguacil, M M; Roldán, A

    2003-11-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the response of physical (aggregate stability and bulk density) and biological (enzyme activities and microbial biomass) soil quality indicators to the adoption of agroecological management practices, such as the planting of forage species (forage area) and the rotation of local crops (polycrop area), carried out in a representative tropical pasture on an integrated livestock-crop farm. The pasture system was used as control (pasture area). In all three areas, the values of water-soluble C were higher in the rainy season compared to the dry season. Pasture and forage areas had the highest percentage of stable aggregates in the rainy season, while polycrops developed soils with less stable aggregates. Soil bulk density was lower in the pasture and forage areas than in the polycrop area. In the pasture area, the microbial biomass C values, dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA, acid phosphatase, and beta-glucosidase activities were higher than in the forage and polycrop areas, particularly in the dry season. The highest increase in the microbial biomass C in the rainy season, with respect to the dry season, was recorded in the pasture area (about 1.2-fold). In conclusion, the planting of forage species can be considered an effective practice for carrying out sustainable, integrated livestock-crop systems, due to its general maintenance of soil quality, while the adoption of polycrop rotations appears to be less favorable because it decreases soil quality.

  4. Effect of cytoreductive surgery-assisted postoperative intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy on serum malignant biological indicators of ovarian cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Lian Liu; Lei Yang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of cytoreductive surgery-assisted postoperative intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy on serum malignant biological indicators of ovarian cancer patients.Methods:Advanced ovarian cancer patients who received cytoreductive surgery in our hospital from June 2010 to August 2014 were selected for study. Based on different postoperative chemotherapy schemes, patients undergoing intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy were screened and enrolled in combination chemotherapy group; patients undergoing routine intravenous chemotherapy were screened and enrolled in intravenous chemotherapy group. Then contents of serum markers, proliferative genes and signaling pathway molecules of both groups were detected.Results:(1) Cell cycles: G0/G1 and S phase percentages in ovarian cancer biopsy tissues of combination chemotherapy group were lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; G2/M phase percentage was higher than that of intravenous chemotherapy group; (2) Tumor markers: after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 chemotherapy cycles, compared with intravenous chemotherapy group, serum HE4 and sTWEAK contents of combination chemotherapy group trended to decrease significantly; (3) Proliferative genes: compared with intravenous chemotherapy group, mRNA contents of mortalin, CIP2A, GILZ and Ki-67 in serum of combination chemotherapy group trended to decrease significantly; (4) Signaling pathway molecules: mRNA contents of Crk, Dock180, Rac1 and YAP in serum of combination chemotherapy group showed a decreasing trend; mRNA contents of C3G, Rap1 and Hippo showed an increasing trend.Conclusion:Intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy is helpful to kill ovarian cancer cells, inhibit expressions of proliferative genes and regulate functions of signaling pathways; it is an ideal chemotherapy scheme for ovarian

  5. Comparative analysis of functional spirometry indicators of the students of the Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology of the Al-Farabi Kazakh National University

    OpenAIRE

    GALYMQYZY G.; BAKTYBAEVA L.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory indicators of the lung with load and without load at the smokers was low than norm. The functional condition of the respiratory system at the nonsmoking students was performance. But in the respiratory system of smoking students did not indicate bronchial payback.

  6. Influence of the degree of exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and the biological indices of lead exposure: epidemiological study in a lead acid battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezard, C; Demarquilly, C; Boniface, M; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-09-01

    Alcohol has been shown to interact with lead to influence haem biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to define the dependence of this interaction on the degree of exposure to lead. Exposure to alcohol was estimated by measurement of alcohol concentrations in a sample of urine collected during the morning (AlcUM) (0.82 (SD 4.36) mmol/l) and in a sample collected during the afternoon (AlcUA) (1.15 (SD 3.49) mmol/l). The biological monitoring of exposure to lead included measurements of blood lead (Pb-B) (1.82 (SD 0.72) mumol/l), urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU) (35.33 (SD 28.00) mumol/l; d = 1.015), and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) (112.90 (SD 83.71) nmol/mmol Hb) concentrations. The study of the influence of the degree of occupational exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and effects of the exposure to lead led to the consideration of two different groups--namely, mildly and strongly exposed subjects. In the first group, individual biological susceptibility seemed to play a preponderant part. In the second, the pool of lead present in the body seemed to be sufficiently important to mask the effects of individual susceptibility.

  7. Combined use of GIS and environmental indicators for assessment of chemical, physical and biological soil degradation in a Spanish Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paz, José-Miguel; Sánchez, Juan; Visconti, Fernando

    2006-04-01

    Soil is one of the main non-renewable natural resources in the world. In the Valencian Community (Mediterranean coast of Spain), it is especially important because agriculture and forest biomass exploitation are two of the main economic activities in the region. More than 44% of the total area is under agriculture and 52% is forested. The frequently arid or semi-arid climate with rainfall concentrated in few events, usually in the autumn and spring, scarcity of vegetation cover, and eroded and shallow soils in several areas lead to soil degradation processes. These processes, mainly water erosion and salinization, can be intense in many locations within the Valencian Community. Evaluation of soil degradation on a regional scale is important because degradation is incompatible with sustainable development. Policy makers involved in land use planning require tools to evaluate soil degradation so they can go on to develop measures aimed at protecting and conserving soils. In this study, a methodology to evaluate physical, chemical and biological soil degradation in a GIS-based approach was developed for the Valencian Community on a 1/200,000 scale. The information used in this study was obtained from two different sources: (i) a soil survey with more than 850 soil profiles sampled within the Valencian Community, and (ii) the environmental information implemented in the Geo-scientific map of the Valencian Community digitised on an Arc/Info GIS. Maps of physical, chemical and biological soil degradation in the Valencian Community on a 1/200,000 scale were obtained using the methodology devised. These maps can be used to make a cost-effective evaluation of soil degradation on a regional scale. Around 29% of the area corresponding to the Valencian Community is affected by high to very high physical soil degradation, 36% by high to very high biological degradation, and 6% by high to very high chemical degradation. It is, therefore, necessary to draw up legislation and to

  8. Development of biological indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on freshwater ecosystems. Annual progress report, June 1, 1976--June 1, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, J. Jr.; Benfield, E.F.; Buikema, A.L. Jr.; Dickson, K.L.; Hendricks, A.C.

    1977-01-01

    The overall objectives of this joint research effort were to devise and evaluate biological methods for determining the functional response of aquatic organisms to perturbations. Structural and functional aspects of autotrophic and heterotrophic attached microbial communities were studied in lotic systems with emphasis on carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. The uptake of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur under controlled and field situations was investigated along with biomass, ATP and chlorophyll measurement. Relationship of protozoan invasion and extinction rates to the eutrophication process were investigated. Protozoan invasion and extinction rates (utilizing artificial substrates) were measured under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions in numerous lakes and reservoirs. Behavioral responses of zooplankton subjected to cooling water entrainment were examined. Zooplankton were subjected to various conditions that would be encountered during entrainment in order that the responses of the organisms might be ascertained. Detritus processing by macroinvertebrates was studied as a pollutional stress assessment technique.

  9. Potential biological indicators of multi-organ damage: Application to radiation accident victims; Bio-indicateurs potentiels d'atteinte multi-organe: application au cas des victimes d'irradiation accidentelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertho, J.M.; Souidi, M.; Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dir. de la Radioprotection de l' Homme 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2009-09-15

    Accidental irradiations induce a complex pathological situation, difficult to assess and to treat. However, recent results describing new biological indicators of radiation-induced damages such as Flt3-ligand, citrulline and oxy-sterol concentration in the plasma, together with results obtained in large animal models of high dose irradiation, allowed a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms induced by uncontrolled irradiations. This conducted to leave the classical paradigm of the acute radiation syndrome, described as the association of three individual syndromes, the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastro-intestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome, in favour of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with the implication of other organs and systems. Follow-up of victims from two recent radiation accidents brings a confirmation of the usefulness of the newly described biological indicators, and also a partial confirmation of this new concept of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. (authors)

  10. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  11. Development of biological indices for identifying and evaluating impacts of pollutants on freshwater ecosystems. Annual progress report, June 1, 1975--February 28, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, J. Jr.; Benfield, E.F.; Buikema, A.L. Jr.; Dickson, K.L.; Hendricks, A.C.

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective of this joint research effort was to devise and evaluate biological methods for determining the functional response of aquatic organisms to perturbations. The research effort fell into four general categories: structural and functional aspects of autotrophic and heterotrophic attached microbial communities in lotic systems with emphasis on carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. The uptake of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur under controlled and field situations was investigated along with biomass, ATP, and chlorophyll measurement. Relationship of protozoan invasion and extinction rates to the eutrophication process. Protozoan invasion and extinction rates (utilizing artificial substrates) were measured under oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions in numerous lakes and reservoirs. Behavioral responses of zooplankton subjected to cooling water entrainment. Zooplankton were subjected to various conditions that would be encountered during entrainment in order that the responses of the organisms might be ascertained. Detritus processing by macroinvertebrates as a pollutional stress assessment technique. Exposed measured units of detrital material to pollutional stress through time and compared their rates of processing to processing rates of similar units that were not exposed to the stress. (auth)

  12. Decreased radioiodine uptake of FRTL-5 cells after 131I incubation in vitro: molecular biological investigations indicate a cell cycle-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In radioiodine therapy the ''stunning phenomenon'' is defined as a reduction of radioiodine uptake after diagnostic application of 131I. In the current study, we established an in vitro model based on the ''Fisher rat thyrocyte cell line no. 5'' (FRTL-5) to investigate the stunning. TSH-stimulated FRTL-5 cells were incubated with 131I. Time-dependent 131I uptake and the viability of FRTL-5 cells were evaluated at 4-144 h after radioiodine application. All data was corrected for number of viable cells, half life and 131I concentration. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) and the housekeeping gene (β-actin, GAPDH) levels were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Additionally, immunohistochemical staining (IHC) of NIS on the cell membrane was carried out. FRTL-5 monolayer cell cultures showed a specific maximum uptake of 131I 24-48 h after application. Significantly decreased 131I uptake values were observed after 72-144 h. The decrease in radioiodine uptake was correlated with decreasing mRNA levels of NIS and housekeeping genes. In parallel, unlike in controls, IHC staining of NIS on FRTL-5 cells declined significantly after 131I long-term incubation. It could be demonstrated that during 131I incubation of FRTL-5 cells, radioiodine uptake decreased significantly. Simultaneously decreasing levels of NIS mRNA and protein expression suggest a NIS-associated mechanism. Since mRNA levels of housekeeping genes decreased, too, the reduced NIS expression might be provoked by a cell cycle arrest. Our investigations recommend the FRTL-5 model as a valuable tool for further molecular biological investigations of the stunning phenomenon. (orig.)

  13. Small scattered fragments do not a dwarf make: biological and archaeological data indicate that prehistoric inhabitants of Palau were normal sized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Current archaeological evidence from Palau in western Micronesia indicates that the archipelago was settled around 3000-3300 BP by normal sized populations; contrary to recent claims, they did not succumb to insular dwarfism. BACKGROUND: Previous and ongoing archaeological research of both human burial and occupation sites throughout the Palauan archipelago during the last 50 years has produced a robust data set to test hypotheses regarding initial colonization and subsequent adaptations over the past three millennia. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Close examination of human burials at the early (ca. 3000 BP and stratified site of Chelechol ra Orrak indicates that these were normal sized individuals. This is contrary to the recent claim of contemporaneous "small-bodied" individuals found at two cave sites by Berger et al. (2008. As we argue, their analyses are flawed on a number of different analytical levels. First, their sample size is too small and fragmentary to adequately address the variation inherent in modern humans within and outside of Palau. Second, the size and stature of all other prehistoric (both older and contemporaneous skeletal assemblages found in Palau fall within the normal parameters of modern human variation in the region, indicating this was not a case of insular dwarfism or a separate migratory group. Third, measurements taken on several skeletal elements by Berger et al. may appear to be from smaller-bodied individuals, but the sizes of these people compares well with samples from Chelechol ra Orrak. Last, archaeological, linguistic, and historical evidence demonstrates a great deal of cultural continuity in Palau through time as expected if the same population was inhabiting the archipelago. CONCLUSIONS: Prehistoric Palauan populations were normal sized and exhibit traits that fall within the normal variation for Homo sapiens-they do not support the claims by Berger et al. (2008 that there were smaller

  14. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Torres, Paulo, E-mail: biol.paulo@gmail.co [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Cannicci, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cannicci@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Narciso, Luis, E-mail: lfnarciso@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Paula, Jose, E-mail: jppaula@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)

    2011-02-15

    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one peri-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the peri-urban location were larger, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and peri-urban mangroves. However, a higher level of parasitation by a Bopyridae isopod, Pseudione elongata indicated some degree of stress on the host at the peri-urban mangrove, with potential effects on the host population dynamics. -Research highlights: Domestic sewage discharges at low concentrations increase fauna mangrove population parameters, due to the nutrient limitations. Shrimps in the peri-urban mangrove location were larger, had longer reproductive periods, higher ovigerous females proportions and better embryo. Physiological indice analysis (RNA/DNA ratio) between pristine and peri-urban mangroves. Within the peri-urban mangrove, high levels of parasitation by Pseudionee longata caused stress and potential effects on the host population dynamics. The effects of sewage on P. concinnus population increased the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal water. - The identification of the effects of the peri-urban conditions on P. concinnus increases the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal waters.

  15. Effect of ionizing radiations of lymphocyte membranes. Part of a coordinated programme on cell membrane probes as biological indicators in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the effects of low doses of irradiation on membrane receptors of lymphoid cells indicated that doses as low as 10 rads induced detectable changes in the antigen receptors of cell surfaces. Lymphoid cells from mice or rabbit lymph nodes, or circulating lymphocytes from human volunteers were irradiated and studied for their ability to bind antisera against the IgG membrane receptors. The isolated lymphoid cells were x-irradiated, and tested versus non-irradiated controls. They were incubated at 370C for different times, and IgG-positive cells stained by the direct or indirect immunofluorescence technique. The percentage of IgG-positive cells was reduced by low-dose irradiation, and proved dose -and temperature-dependent. The disappearance phenomenon depends on the microtubular structure, metabolic energy, and levels of C-AMP. Only the reappearance phase is temperature-dependent and not affected by the drugs tested. The phenomenon is dose-rate dependent, showing greater sensitivity at lower dose/rates. Experiments using anti-Fc and anti-Fab portions of the surface molecule, appear to confirm a partial internatlization of the surface molecule as cause (at least in rabbit cells). Similar experiments with human cells did not show a differential effect. Human T-cells and FC receptors of Mast cells did, however, indicate that these surface molecules are also modified by irradiation

  16. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penha-Lopes, G.; Torres, P.; Cannicci, S.;

    2011-01-01

    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance...... on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one pen-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the pen-urban location were larger......, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and pen-urban mangroves. However, a higher level...

  17. Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, Maud; Gallois, Mélanie; Sève, Bernard;

    2009-01-01

    Sodium butyrate (SB) provided orally favours body growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in milk-fed pigs. In weaned pigs, conflicting results have been obtained. Therefore, we hypothesised that the effects of SB (3 g/kg DM intake) depend on the period (before v. after weaning......) of its oral administration. From the age of 5 d, thirty-two pigs, blocked in quadruplicates within litters, were assigned to one of four treatments: no SB (control), SB before (for 24 d), or after (for 11-12 d) weaning and SB before and after weaning (for 35-36 d). Growth performance, feed intake...... and various end-point indices of GIT anatomy and physiology were investigated at slaughter. The pigs supplemented with SB before weaning grew faster after weaning than the controls (P

  18. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes in southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain. A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops and little owls (Athene noctua and tawny owls (Strix aluco. It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  19. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes) indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Kinsella, John M; Di Prisco, Francesca; Troisi, Sabatino; D'Alessio, Nicola; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Aznar, Francisco J

    2012-01-01

    We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy) and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain). A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops) and little owls (Athene noctua) and tawny owls (Strix aluco). It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness. PMID:23300921

  20. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Lim, Yong Tak

    1998-06-01

    KAERI and INP(Poland) have been carried out parallel study and joint experiments on the major topics according to MOU about their cooperative project. The experimental materials were T-4430 clones. Main results of the cooperative project were made on {sup r}esponse of TSH mutation to low LET radiation, response of TSH mutation to neutrons, response of TSH to mixed irradiation with different radiations and synergism between radiation and environmental factors such as photo period and diurnal temperature difference. Both institutes have established wide variety of research techniques applicable to tradescantia study through the cooperation. These result of research can make the role of fundamental basis for the better relationship between Korea and Poland. (author). 46 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs.

  1. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian

    1991-01-01

    In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted to the is......In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also...... poor indicators...

  2. Waste indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  3. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)

    2003-07-01

    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  4. Plugging indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is often difficult to measure a plugging temperature when the impurity concentration in liquid sodium is low. Then, the plugging temperature is considered to be inferior to 1100C. Sometimes, a more precise indication is required. We propose a use for the plugging indicator which satisfies this type of requirement. A partial plugging of the indicator orifice is produced and increases at a constant temperature. A mathematical model describes this growth: it is based mainly on the kinetics of Na2O and NaH crystal growth and links the plugging time to oxygen or hydrogen concentrations. (orig.)

  5. Meadow birds as indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beintema, A J

    1983-09-01

    The use of birds as indicators for 'biological qualities' is not without risks, and should always be based on a sound knowledge of population dynamics and ecological requirements of the species involved. Meadow birds form a comparatively well-studied group of waders, which breed in Dutch grasslands, heavily influenced by agricultural management. The individual species show different tolerances to intensity levels of management, and can therefore be used as indicators for these levels. PMID:24259105

  6. Solar Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  8. Indicadores biológicos de qualidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de uso no brejo paraibano Biological indicators of soil quality in different land use systems in paraiban swamp region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lima Pôrto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação da qualidade do solo é uma ferramenta importante para monitorar a sua degradação, bem como planejar a implantação de práticas sustentáveis de manejo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar indicadores biológicos de qualidade do solo em um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico, submetido a diferentes sistemas de uso em Areia-PB. Foram utilizadas amostras de solo coletadas na camada arável (0-20 cm em áreas de mata nativa, fruticultura, cana-de-açúcar, sucessão de cultivos, pastagem e consórcio de culturas. Foram avaliados o carbono orgânico total (COT, carbono da biomassa microbiana (CBM, quociente microbiano (qMic, respiração basal (RB e quociente metabólico (qCO2. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as áreas sob gramíneas apresentaram uma tendência de manutenção do COT e menores reduções no CBM, entretanto, apresentaram elevados valores de qCO2, indicando a ocorrência de um processo degradativo. A área sob fruticultura apresentou leves reduções no COT e CBM e baixos valores de qCO2, indicando que esse sistema pode estar se ajustando a um novo estado de equilíbrio. As áreas sob sucessão de cultivos e consórcio de culturas apresentaram as maiores reduções no COT e CBM e elevados valores de qCO2, demonstrando um elevado estágio de degradação desses sistemas. Pode-se concluir que todos os sistemas agrícolas estudados promoveram perda de qualidade do solo, sendo esse fato mais pronunciado nas áreas sob manejo mais intensivo. O CBM e qCO2 mostraram-se bastantes sensíveis às alterações decorrentes do uso agrícola do solo, apresentando grande potencial para estudos de sua qualidade.Soil quality evaluation is an important tool for the monitoring of soil degradation as well as for planning the adoption of sustainable agricultural management practices. The objective of this study was to evaluate some biological indicators of the soil quality of a dystrophic Yellow Latosol (Oxisol under different land use

  9. Indicadores biológicos da qualidade do solo em sistema agrossilvopastoril no noroeste do estado de Minas Gerais Biological indicators of soil quality in agricultural-forestry-pasture system in northwest region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Milene Nascente Neves

    2009-02-01

    nativo, em função da ação antrópica. Com o progresso do sistema agrossilvopastoril houve uma recuperação do carbono da biomassa microbiana. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre os sistemas de manejo e o cerrado nativo quanto ao quociente metabólico e à respiração basal.Soil quality studies are important for understanding its interaction with the ecosystem as a whole. In this context, the soil microorganisms play a fundamental role for the maintenance and productivity of various agricultural ecosystems. This work had the objective to evaluate the biological attributes (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration, and microbial quotient, as well as the organic matter content, possible indicators of alterations in soil quality imposed by different management systems, in relation to native cerrado, in agricultural - forestry - pasture system, in northwest of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Samples were collected at 0-5, 5-20, and 20-40 cm depths, from a typical Dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol, between Vazante and Paracatu counties. The systems were selected according to the history of use, as follows: (1 CN - native cerrado (reference; (2 EA - eucalyptus + rice (year zero of agricultural - forestry - pasture system, planted after removal of cerrado native vegetation; (3 EP - eucalyptus + soybeans (year one of system, soybeans sowing substituting rice; (4 - EP - ES - eucalyptus + pasture (year two of system, using Brachiaria Brizantha Stapf. for cattle raising; (5 - EPG - eucalyptus + pasture + cattle (year three of system, with introduction of cattle; (6 PP - pasture cultivated with Brachiaria Brizantha Stapf.; and (7 EC - eucalyptus under conventional system in 2x3m spacing. The organic carbon and the microbial biomass carbon presented higher values in the superficial layer (0 - 5 cm, in relation to the other depths, in all systems. The organic carbon showed substantial alteration in relation to the studied systems and depths assessed, revealing its

  10. Evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coke production and a graphite electrode manufacturing plant: assessment of urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene as a biological indicator of exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchet, J P; Gennart, J P; Mercado-Calderon, F; Delavignette, J P; Cupers, L; Lauwerys, R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--Characterisation of the airborne concentration of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at various workplaces in a graphite electrode and a coke production plant. Validation of the urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene (hydroxypyrene) as a biological marker of exposure to PAH. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of workers exposed to PAHs (106 in the graphite electrode producing plant and 16 in the coke works). METHODS--Personal air sampling during at least six hours per workshift u...

  11. Use of bio markers as indicators of biological precursors of oil, pa leo environmental conditions and maturity of source rocks using gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry (GC-Ms) and (GC-Ms-Ms)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies performed on hydrocarbon source rocks of the Early Cambrian from the Officer Basin Australia led to the identification of significant bio markers. Characteristic features of these bio markers from Tallaringa Trough are predominance of 17-hopane over 17-30-nor hopane. This study reveals that transformation of normal sterane s and ho panes respectively to rearranged sterane s and rearranged ho panes in clay-free carbonates was aided by bacterial reworking (methylotrophic bacteria). Maturity of these carbonates using C29 (20 S/20 S +20 R) ratio is suggested to be marginally mature. Another significant bio marker associated with the Tallaringa carbonates is the occurrence of an unusual compound called 24-isopropyl cholestane. This bio marker was originated from marine sponges and it has been reported from Cambrian sediments from other parts of the world. The age-specificity of the aforementioned compound makes it a powerful marker in oil to source and source to source correlations. Dino sterane is another significant molecular fossil identified in this study. Dino sterane is derived from dino flagellates and other algae. This paper is the first report of the dino sterane from Early Cambrian sediments. Identification of the above mentioned biological markers is significant in determining biological precursors, pa leo ecological conditions and geological time

  12. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  13. The radioinduced membranes injuries as biological dose indicators: mechanisms of studies and practical applications; Les dommages membranaires radio-induits comme bio-indicateurs de dose: etudes des mecanismes et applications pratiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent-Genod, Lucie

    2001-10-15

    After an accidental overexposure, the assessment of the received dose in biological dosimetry is performed by a method based on the effects of irradiation on the DNA molecule. But this technique shows some limitations; therefore we tried to find new bio-sensors of radiation exposure. We have pointed out that membrane is a critical target of ionising radiation after an in vitro and in vivo overexposure. In vitro, these modifications were involved in the radio-induced apoptotic pathway. The measure of membrane fluidity allowed us to obtain an overall view of cellular membrane. Moreover, in vivo, by changing the lipid nutritional status of animals, our results displayed the important role played by membrane lipid composition in radio-induced membrane alterations. Besides, membrane effects were adjusted by the extracellular physiological control, and in particular by the damages on membrane fatty acid pattern. Finally, we have tested the use of membrane fluidity index as a bio-sensor of radiation exposure on in vivo models and blood samples from medical total body irradiated patients. The results achieved on animal models suggested that the membrane fluidity index was a bio-sensor of radiation exposure. Nevertheless, the observations realised on patients highlight that the effect of the first dose fraction of the radiotherapy treatment had some difficulties to be noticed. Indeed, the combined treatment: chemotherapy and radiotherapy disturbed the membrane fluidity index measures. To conclude, whereas this parameter was not a bio-sensor of irradiation exposure usable in biological dosimetry, it may allow us to assess the radio-induced damages and their cellular but also tissue impacts. (author)

  14. Indicators and indices for sustainable water use in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. B.; Kim, Y.; Kong, I.; Kim, I. J.; Chae, Y.

    2015-12-01

    After the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit in 1992 established a mandate for the UN to establish a set of indicators of sustainable development, the indicators to gauge sustainability have been widely used. In the water sector, the concept of sustainable water use has been used in many different ways. In this study, we aimed to develop sustainability indicators and indices for sustainable water use in South Korea. We identified major indicators for sustainable water use with considering multiple aspects of water use: not only physical, biological and chemical aspects but also social and environmental aspects. Furthermore, stressors for sustainable water use were of major interests because they were straightforward and easy to measure in comparison to indicators representing the state- and impact-related indictors. As a result, sets of indicators were identified with a theme-based hierarchical approach, including 1) human water requirements, 2) renewability of water resources, 3) water quality requirements, 4) health of aquatic ecosystems and 5) equitable water use. Then for each sub-component, multiple indicators, i.e., proxy variables were identified. We have evaluated our indicators and indices for drainage basins as well as grid boxes with multiple sizes of 0.5 km and 0.25 km in South Korea. Indicator data were collected for concurrent time, 2010 per se, with number of datasets from earlier or later times and integrated. At last, we evaluated sustainability index with focusing on the spatial variability of index and indicators and the sensitivity of index to individual indicators. Also the sensitivities of indices to different spatial scales were examined.

  15. Indicators and signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The goal of this presentation is to give an idea of the methodology used to deal with proliferation problems. It can be useful for chemical, biological, balistical proliferation. Here, we underline nuclear proliferation scenarios. Nevertheless, the overall approach is also similar to activities related to terrorism. Everyone knows that to strengthen the NPT/IAEA safeguards and similar treaties verification protocols, the organisations in charge need to build strong capabilities to assess known situations and also to prepare themselves to unknown, or undeclared events and activities. To accomplish this, to collect, analyze, build ad hoc knowledge, organisations have to select the information, to manage the enormous amount of available data. Rather recently, the emergence of new crisis has confirmed the central and vital role that information processing plays at each levels of the international or national non-proliferation community. It is why looking for indicators and signatures is so important, to focus on pertinent information, that could mean something from a nuclear proliferation perspective. This allows people dealing with nuclear proliferation not to be overwhelmed by tons of paper or G bites of memory. A strong need for expertise. Identifying, select and following indicators or looking for signatures is not an easy task. It requires strong expertise. From the development and maintenance of its nuclear deterrence, France acquired expertise in the design, production of fissile material, manufacture and testing of nuclear weapons. There is also in France a long history of nuclear achievements, with small or large scale facilities, both in civilian and military fields; each step of the nuclear fuel cycle can be very precisely described. French nuclear technical assessment relies on Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA, i.e. Atomic Energy Commission). Since 1958, CEA laboratories are in charge of nuclear civilian and military applications. Other

  16. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  17. Parámetros químicos y biológicos como indicadores de calidad del suelo en diferentes manejos Chemical and biological parameters as indicators of soil quality under different managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferreras

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la sensibilidad de una serie de parámetros químicos y bioquímicos en suelos representativos de la Región Pampeana bajo diferentes manejos con la finalidad de: i establecer los parámetros que reflejen de manera más sensible y tempranamente el grado de degradación o recuperación; ii comparar la información generada de las parcelas bajo cultivo con el mismo tipo de suelo no perturbado, considerado como referencia (T. En ensayos con diferentes manejos localizados en las EEA INTA Oliveros, Marcos Juárez y Rafaela se evaluó: Carbono orgánico total (COT, carbono asociado a la fracción fina (COff, carbono asociado a la fracción gruesa (COfg, carbono de la biomasa microbiana (CBM, actividad respiratoria microbiana (ARM y actividad de las enzimas fosfatasa ácida (Pasa, deshidrogenasa (Dasa y ureasa (Uasa. Se calculó el cociente metabólico microbiano (qCO2, a través de la relación entre ARM y el CBM, como así también las relaciones entre actividades de las enzimas y CBM en función del COT. Para cada sitio, el suelo bajo cultivo presentó en la mayoría de las variables analizadas valores inferiores con respecto a T (pThe aim of the work was to assess the sensitivity of chemical and biochemical parameters in representative soils of the Pampa Region under different managements with the purpose of i establishing the soil parameters that may have a role as early and sensitive indicators of soil ecological stress and restoration; and ii comparing the results from cropped plots with the same undisturbed soil type, considered as reference (T. The experiment was carried out on experimental plots under different soil managements at the INTA Experimental Stations at Oliveros, Marcos Juárez and Rafaela. Total organic carbon (COT, organic carbon associated with the fine fraction (COff and organic carbon associated with the coarse fraction (COfg, microbial biomass carbon (CBM, soil microbial respiration (ARM

  18. Utilização de bioindicadores em diferentes hidrossistemas de uma indústria de papeis reciclados em Governador Valadares - MG Use of biological indicators in different hydrosystems of an industry of recycled papers in Governador Valadares - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan César de Oliveira Bastos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A bacia do rio Doce, quinta maior do estado de Minas Gerais, mostra-se bastante degradada com impactos diretos na vegetação, no solo, na biodiversidade e na qualidade das águas. Sabendo-se da importância da bacia em questão, a utilização de bioindicadores aquáticos representa uma das formas mais modernas para se detectar níveis diferenciados de carga orgânica, sendo premente seu estudo e aplicação. Este trabalho propõe a utilização de organismos microscópicos como o fitoplâncton que, aliados a parâmetros físico-químicos, poderiam indicar poluição em seus diferentes níveis. A metodologia utilizada foi estabelecida conforme Sladecek (1973 e Greenberg (1992. Foram amostradas sete estações de coleta no ribeirão Capim, na área de influência de uma empresa de papéis reciclados, objetivando-se detectar possíveis impactos na cadeia trófica. As análises mostraram a ocorrência de 41 taxa, destacando-se a predominância dos gêneros Oscylatoria a Anacystis pertencentes à divisão Cyanophyta nos ambientes de maior estresse, e organismos da divisão Chlorophyta nos demais ambientes amostrados. Observou-se ainda a capacidade de adaptação de alguns gêneros, entre eles Euglena e Navicula, os quais se fizeram presentes em quase todos os ambientes amostrados.The Rio Doce’s basin, which is the fifth greatest basin of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is severely degraded by the direct impacts on vegetation, soil, biodiversity, and water quality. Due to the importance of this basin, the use of aquatic bioindicators is one of the most modern methods to detect differentiated levels of organic matter, and its study and application is a relevant issue. This paper proposes the use microscopic organisms such phytoplankton, which combined with physicochemical parameters, would indicate pollution on its different levels. The applied methodology was according to Sladecek (1973 and Greenberg (1992. It was sampled seven collect stations

  19. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  20. Scientists' Stopping Behavior As Indicator of Writer's Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Katie

    1973-01-01

    Indicates that accurate science writers have undergraduate degrees in English, journalism, or biology, have taken post graduate biology or journalism courses, and have some newspaper and freelance writing experience, plus experience in public relations. (RB)

  1. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  2. Dental and Skeletal Maturity- A Biological Indicator of Chronologic Age

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Vivek; Saha, Sonali; Yadav, Gunjan; Tripathi, Abhay Mani; Grover, Kavita

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Precise evaluation of the developmental stage of a child is not only an integral part of both diagnosis and treatment of paediatric patients; it is also essential in Forensic Medicine and Dentistry. Physiologic age can be estimated by somatic, sexual, skeletal and dental maturity.

  3. Biological and oceanographic upwelling indicators at Cabo Frio (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyci A. O. Moser

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton biomass, chemical parameters and hydrology were studied in a transect 101.6 km long off Cabo Frio (RJ, Southeast Brazil, during summer (December 29 to 31, 1991 and winter (June 27 to 30, 1992. Wind induced upwelling events are frequently observed in the area during summer, becoming rare during winter. By the summer cruise a bloom of phytoplankton was observed in surface, close to the coast, with chlorophyll concentrations reaching 25.55 mg Chl-a m-3, uncoupled from the cold, nutrient rich waters of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW, found below 40 m depth. During the winter cruise, the SACW raised at the surface waters in front of Cabo Frio depicting an upwelling event. However, in spite of high surface nitrate concentrations (up to 7.7 f.1M chlorophyll-a were lower than 2 mg Chl-a m-3. The phytoplankton biomass, meteorological and hydrological data suggest a probable upwelling event immediately before the summer cruise, and an ongoing one during winter time. Cluster analyses and principal component analyses (PCA were applied to summer and winter data, pointing out multidimensional fronts in the area during both seasons.A biomassa fitoplanctônica, parâmetros químicos e hidrologia foram estudadas em um transecto de 101,6 Km ao largo de Cabo Frio, (RJ Brasil, durante o verão (Dezembro 29 a 31, 1991 e inverno (Junho 27 a 30, 1992. Nesta área, eventos de ressurgência induzidos pelo vento são comuns durante o verão, tornando-se mais raros durante o inverno. Durante o período de verão uma floração de fitoplâncton foi observada na superfície próximo ao continente, apresentando um máximo de clorofila-a igual a 25,55 mg Cl-a m'3 desacoplado das águas frias e ricas em nutrientes da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS, presente abaixo de 40 m. Durante o inverno, a ACAS alcançou a superflcie em frente a Cabo Frio, caracterizando um evento de ressurgência. Entretanto, apesar das altas concentrações de nitrato na superfície (até 7,7 f.1M, as concentrações de clorofila-a foram menores do que 2 mg CI-a m'3. Os dados meteorológicos, hidrológicos e de biomassa fitoplanctônica sugerem um provável evento de ressurgência imediatamente anterior ao período de amostragem de verão e um evento em andamento durante o inverno. Análises de agrupamento e de componentes principais (ACP foram aplicadas às coletas de verão e inverno separadamente, mostrando frentes multidimensionais na área, durante as duas estações.

  4. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is...

  5. 21 CFR 880.2800 - Sterilization process indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization process indicator. 880.2800 Section... Monitoring Devices § 880.2800 Sterilization process indicator. (a) Biological sterilization process indicator—(1) Identification. A biological sterilization process indicator is a device intended for use by...

  6. Indicators and their functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Joumard, Robert; Aschemann, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... in transport, in terms of measurement, monitoring and management. The methods and the criteria are exemplified for seven chains of causality. Methods for a comprehensive joint consideration of environmentally sustainable indicators are analyzed and evaluated. They concerned aggregated or composite indicators...

  7. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim;

    2010-01-01

    regulations in the countries participating in CREDIT. The Performance Indicator Framework encompassed 187 indicators grouped in 7 main groups of indicators and 42 sub-groups. Based on the CREDIT case studies it was concluded that there neither is link between certain indicators and specific building types...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...

  8. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  9. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  10. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  11. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  12. Altimeter Setting Indicator

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Altimeter Setting Indicator (ASI) is an aneroid system used at airports to provide an altimeter setting for aircraft altimeters. This indicator may be an analog...

  13. Geomagnetic aa Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  14. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-07-01

    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  15. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

  16. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  17. Crusts: biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  18. Biological programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  19. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  20. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  1. eHealth indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence...

  2. Regional economic indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Turvey; Jonathan Knight; Birgit Wosnitza

    2009-01-01

    This quarter, the regional economic indicators article focuses on household income. The regular part of the article then gives an overview of the economic activity of UK regions in terms of their gross value added (GVA), GVA per head and labour productivity. This is followed by a presentation of headline indicators of regional welfare, other drivers of regional productivity and regional labour market statistics. The indicators cover the nine Government Office Regions of England and the devolv...

  3. Africa Development Indicators 2006

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    Africa Development Indicators 2006 is the latest annual report from the World Bank on social and economic conditions across the continent. It was revamped this year to better report and monitor the challenges and transformations in Africa. Africa Development Indicators has evolved from a single data book, and this year consists of three independent but complementary products: this book, which brings together an essay and key outcome indicators for Africa, the Little Data Book on Africa 2006, ...

  4. Scopus' SNIP Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Rejoinder to Moed [arXiv:1005.4906]: Our main objection is against developing new indicators which, like some of the older ones (for example, the "crown indicator" of CWTS), do not allow for indicating error because they do not provide a statistics, but are based, in our opinion, on a violation of the order of operations. The claim of validity for the SNIP indicator is hollow because the normalizations are based on field classifications which are not valid. Both problems can perhaps be solved by using fractional counting.

  5. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    relationship between RA and nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases were discussed, which is still poorly understood. It is well known that airway diseases often accompany RA, which may be considered as a possible etiology for development of NTM diseases, but conversely it may lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease. Next, we evaluated justification for the contraindication of biologics in patients with NTM diseases. Recent multicenter study showed that prognosis of patients developing NTM diseases during treatment with biologics were not always poor, which throws doubt on uniform prohibition of biologics in NTM diseases. 3. Future guideline for treating latent tuberculosis infection: Seiya KATO (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan AntiTuberculosis Association) The Japanese Society for Tuberculosis issued a joint statement on chemoprophylaxis with the Japan College of Rheumatology in 2004. However, issues and challenges due to changing circumstance indicate application of interferon gamma release assay (IGRA), increased variety and indication of biologics, dissemination of knowledge on strategy and system for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), etc. Future guideline should include 1) promoting LTBI treatment to achieve low incidence, 2) updated information on IGRAs, 3) treatment strategy and target: contact to infectious cases, immunosuppressive cases (especially HIV and patients treated with biologics), high risk groups, etc. 4) fundamental information on tuberculosis control strategies, especially DOTS. 4. Therapy for RA and tuberculosis in patients with RA and TB activated by anti-TNF treatment: Tomoshige MATSUMOTO (Osaka Prefectural Medical Center for Respiratory and Allergic Diseases) Biologics targeting TNF, including infliximab, have brought about a paradigm shift in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 2001, tuberculosis, an ancient and also modem scourge, became spotlighted again, because Keane reported in the New England Journal of Medicine that

  6. Service Delivery Indicators : Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gayle H.; Pimhidzai, Obert

    2013-01-01

    Without consistent and accurate information on the quality of services, it is difficult for citizens or politicians (the principal) to assess how service providers (the agent) are performing and to take corrective action. The service delivery indicators (SDI) provide a set of metrics to benchmark the performance of schools and health clinics in Africa. The indicators can be used to track p...

  7. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without infor

  8. Indicators of CETA Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borus, Michael E.

    1978-01-01

    A study to find valid indicators of the long-run effects of Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973 (CETA) manpower programs that would meet prime sponsors' needs for short-term feedback indicated that the proxies being used were not strongly correlated with success in CETA programs. (MF)

  9. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  10. VP Ellipsis without Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie

    2013-01-01

    This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations....... On the process view, an index is not a syntactic object at all, but rather, an indication of the output of a resolution process.In this paper we argue that a recent body of data provides a clear empirical basis for distinguishing between these two views of indices. We argue that cases of sloppy VP ellipsis pose...... insurmountable problems for the structural view of indices, while these problems do not arise for the process view. Furthermore, we show that this resolution process is constrained by the semantics of various discourse relations....

  11. WANO Performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WANO performance indicator programme supports the exchange of information by collecting, trending, and disseminating nuclear plant performance data in key areas. The data is gathered for a set of quantitative indicators of plant performance in the areas of nuclear plant safety and reliability, plant efficiency, and personnel safety. WANO has completed a review of this set of indicators with a few changes as noted in this paper. Overall, performance at WANO member nuclear power plants continues to improve, as it has for the past ten years. WANO performance indicators provide WANO members with a means of exchanging plant performance data to support communication, comparison, and emulation of industry best practices. Although these indicators recently underwent an extensive review for potential changes, the majority have withstood the test of time and continue to be a valid means of comparison. (authors)

  12. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  13. Indicadores de contaminación biológica asociados a la erosión hídrica en una cuenca de Pampa Ondulada Argentina Indicators of biological contamination associated with water erosion in basin belonging the rolling pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I. Chagas

    2006-07-01

    í a nivel de la cuenca bajo estudio.Agriculture activities use 70% of the world water resources, partly for animal production and particularly cattle feeding. There is an outstanding risk of biological contamination associated with this kind of production because animal feces and urine containing pathogens can be transported to surface waterways through runoff. The present investigation was carried out in the Tala basin belonging to the Rolling Pampa region in which intense runoff and erosion processes are widespread. In this basin there are extensive cattle feeding farms which are located close to the natural waterways, in bottomlands with hydrohalomorphic soils. There is also an increasing surface devoted to feedlots and intensive swine and poultry productions. The main use of the surface waters from the river and tributaries is direct cattle drinking. The aim of the present work was to analyze through biological indicators, the potential contamination of runoff water and sediments accumulated in lowlands devoted to cattle production and to determinate their human or animal origin. The waters showed concentration of biological indicators belonging to faecal streptococci and enterococci which can be related to animal but no to human contamination processes. A close relationship was observed between total coliforms and erosion borne sediment concentration in the studied area. Thus, the capacity of these sediments for carrying bacteria potentially harmful for animal health like Salmonella spp. was confirmed. The runoff, erosion and biological contamination processes proved to be related in the studied basin.

  14. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  15. HANARO Safety Performance Indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HANARO is a 30 MW open-tank-in-pool type multi-purpose research reactor. Safety improvement activities have been implemented and the importance of safety management in nuclear activities for reactor application and utilization has also been emphasized. Safety performance indicators (SPIs) are used to assess the safety management status, in combination with other factors such as safety culture, human performance and operation status. The SPI system can provide a proactive approach to complement other safety assessment activities. HANARO has tried to develop a programme for the establishment of safety performance indicators. In this paper the application experience of safety performance indicators in HANARO is described. (author)

  16. Indicadores biológicos associados ao ciclo do fósforo em solos de Cerrado sob plantio direto e plantio convencional Soil biological indicators associated to the phosphorus cycle in a Cerrado soil under no-till and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guimarães Carneiro

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do plantio direto, do preparo convencional do solo e de plantas de cobertura sobre indicadores biológicos associados ao ciclo do fósforo (P. O trabalho foi realizado em três áreas adjacentes, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, distribuídas da seguinte maneira: área I, dois anos de experimentação, comparando esses sistemas de plantio; área II, seis anos de experimentação e área III, Cerrado nativo. Em julho/1998 e janeiro/1999, avaliaram-se: o P da biomassa, populações de fungos e bactérias totais e solubilizadores de fosfato e a atividade da fosfatase ácida, nas profundidades de 0-5 e de 5-20 cm. A atividade da fosfatase e a ocorrência de fungos e bactérias solubilizadoras nas áreas com plantio direto foram significativamente superiores às das áreas com plantio convencional, na profundidade de 0-5 cm. O tempo de implantação acentuou as diferenças entre plantio direto e convencional quanto aos indicadores avaliados. O P da biomassa diminuiu no tratamento plantio direto com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus da área II. Os fungos solubilizadores aumentaram na presença de guandu (Cajanus cajan e nabo forrageiro, e as bactérias solubilizadoras aumentaram na presença de guandu. O solo sob vegetação nativa apresentou maior atividade da fosfatase em relação ao das áreas cultivadas, evidenciando a importância da mineralização do P orgânico nesse ecossistema.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of no-till, conventional tillage and cover crops on biological indicators associated to the P cycle. The work was carried out on three adjacent areas on a Red-Yellow Oxisol: area I, a two-year experiment comparing the two management systems; area II, a six-year experiment, and area III, a native Cerrado vegetation. The soil was sampled at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm in July/1998 and January/1999. The biological indicators evaluated were microbial biomass P

  17. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  18. Note on PI and Szeged indices

    CERN Document Server

    c, Aleksandar Ili\\'

    2011-01-01

    In theoretical chemistry molecular structure descriptors are used for modeling physico-chemical, pharmacological, toxicologic, biological and other properties of chemical compounds. In this paper we study distance-based graph invariants and present some improved and corrected sharp inequalities for PI, vertex PI, Szeged and edge Szeged topological indices, involving the number of vertices and edges, the diameter, the number of triangles and the Zagreb indices. In addition, we give a complete characterization of the extremal graphs.

  19. NOHSS Adult Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for 1999 and even years from 2002 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median prevalence...

  20. Fishery Performance Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  1. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    gives incorrect interpretation and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. The paper firstly considers Chinese experience with use of indicators in SEA and secondly presents a comparative study of national systems and guidelines. The study takes a point of departure...... in the Chinese system, and compares this to Great Britain and Denmark. Great Britain represents a centrally guided SEA indicator system, while Denmark represent a SEA tradition with no formal indicator system in place. The paper explores and identifies the challenges and opportunities in using indicators...... in Chinese SEA: insufficient in indentifying the social and economical issues; difficulties in practice due to the low availability of data and availability of information. There is space for improving the Chinese SEA system especially when it comes to treating and using indictors in a process as well...

  2. NOHSS Adult Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999, 2002-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for 1999 and even years from 2002 through 2014. National estimates are represented...

  3. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Maple, Brenda T.

    1989-01-01

    Contained in this regular feature of the journal is a section on each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators.

  4. Solar Indices - Solar Corona

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  5. Solar Indices - Solar Flares

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  6. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  7. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  8. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  9. Solar Indices - Plage Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. Solar Indices Bulletin

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  11. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent screening surveys of a probability sample designed to...

  12. NOHSS Child Indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  13. ENSO Indices and Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhiren; WU Dexing; CHEN Xue'en; QIAO Ran

    2013-01-01

    New ENSO indices were developed and the spatial variability and temporal evolution of ENSO were analyzed based on the new indices and modeling experiments,as well as multiple data resources.The new indices,after being defined,were validated with their good diagnostic characteristics and correlation with wind and SST.In the analysis after the definition and validation of the new indices,ENSO feedbacks from wind,heat fluxes,and precipitation were spatially and temporally examined in order to understand ENSO variability and evolution with some emphasized points such as the interaction among the feedbacks,the role of westerly wind bursts and the transformation between zonal and meridional circulations in an ENSO cycle,and the typical pattern of modern ENSO.

  14. Leading Indicator Project : Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Everhart, Stephen S.; Duval-Hernandez, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a method for forecasting growth cycles in economic activity, measured as total industrial production. They construct a series which they aggregate into a composite leading indicator to predict the path of the economy in Lithuania. The cycle is the result of the economy's deviations from its long-term trend. A contractionary phase means a decline in the growth rate of the economy, not necessarily an absolute decline in economic activity. The indicator they select for econom...

  15. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Cathy A.; Letsch, Suzanne W.; Levit, Katharine R.; Maple, Brenda T.; Stewart, Madie W.

    1991-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a section on each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more compre...

  16. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Letsch, Suzanne W.; Maple, Brenda T.; Singer, Naphtale; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1991-01-01

    Contained in this regular feature of the journal is a section on each of the following four topics community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of more ...

  17. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Maple, Brenda T.; Cowan, Cathy A.; Donham, Carolyn S.; Letsch, Suzanne W.

    1991-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a section on each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of...

  18. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Cowan, Cathy A.; Donham, Carolyn S.; Letsch, Suzanne W.; Maple, Brenda T.; Lazenby, Helen C.

    1992-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a section on each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they provide indicators of the direction and magnitude of health care costs prior to the availability of...

  19. ATTITUDES OF BIOLOGY TEACHERS ON TEACHING EVOLUTION OF BIOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. R. Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the attitudes of teachers and high school biology in public schools in Cuiabá about the theory of biological evolution, characterizing its proximity to biological evolution and its opposite perspective to the presence of this theory in science curriculum. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire-type Likert scale of 4 points, descriptive analyzes were made, represented by absolute data, with the aid of Excel 2010. The results show that the theory of biological evolution is highly accepted by the teachers, even considering religious people or people of faith. Furthermore, they indicate that they do not feel prepared to teach and know how few strategies to encourage dialogue between these beliefs and concepts of biological evolution bases.

  20. ATTITUDES OF BIOLOGY TEACHERS ON TEACHING EVOLUTION OF BIOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. R. Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the attitudes of teachers and high school biology in public schools in Cuiabá about the theory of biological evolution, characterizing its proximity to biological evolution and its opposite perspective to the presence of this theory in science curriculum. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire-type Likert scale of 4 points, descriptive analyzes were made, represented by absolute data, with the aid of Excel 2010. The results show that the theory of biological evolution is highly accepted by the teachers, even considering religious people or people of faith. Furthermore, they indicate that they do not feel prepared to teach and know how few strategies to encourage dialogue between these beliefs and concepts of biological evolution bases.

  1. Biological indicators for radiation exposure. Thymidine concentration in human serum as 'biological dosemeter'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo test of blood from partial and whole-body irradiated patients revealed no strict differences in radiosensitivity in correlation to the dose, only tendencies for radiation-effects. The serum thymidine concentration appeared to be also dependent on non-investigated factors, such as diseases and previous therapies. Therefore, the suitability of thymidine concentration in blood as a 'biochemical dosimeter' could not be demonstrated. (orig.)

  2. Indicators for energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability, accessibility, affordability and acceptability of energy and classified indicators for energy security according to this taxonomy. There is no one ideal indicator, as the notion of energy security is highly context dependent. Rather, applying multiple indicators leads to a broader understanding. Incorporating these indicators in model-based scenario analysis showed accelerated depletion of currently known fossil resources due to increasing global demand. Coupled with increasing spatial discrepancy between consumption and production, international trade in energy carriers is projected to have increased by 142% in 2050 compared to 2008. Oil production is projected to become increasingly concentrated in a few countries up to 2030, after which production from other regions diversifies the market. Under stringent climate policies, this diversification may not occur due to reduced demand for oil. Possible benefits of climate policy include increased fuel diversity and slower depletion of fossil resources.

  3. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  4. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryJoe K Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  5. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS......, journal articles, book chapters/conference papers and monographs. Journal Crown Indicator (JCI) calculations was based on WoS. Three PPIs are proposed: thePublication Point Ratio (PPR), which measures the sum of obtained publiacation points over the sum of the ideal pointws for the same set of documents...

  6. The Logarithmic Hypervolume Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, T.; Bringmann, K.; Voß, T.;

    2011-01-01

    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp......It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio...

  7. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...... Construction Of Technology theory as a frame for the studies. It is concluded that it is not possible to develop a common set of indicators that all the central actors in the building sector find acceptable - at least not in a near future. Different sets of solutions are, however, outlined in the thesis...

  8. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  9. Pain indicators in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition of pain. The International Association for the Study of Pain has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage." The interpretation of pain is subjective. Each person forms an internal construct of pain through encountered injury. Pain and newborn. The issue of pain perception in newborns, its management and prevention has been neglected for decades. The inability of "self-report" of painful experience has contributed significantly to misunderstanding of the importance of this problem and in­adequate treatment. The main characteristic of this 'critical window of brain development' period is rapid enlargement of brain volume and its great plasticity. Harmful short-term and long-term consequences can arise as a consequence of disturbance of the sophisticated balance between newborn and its surrounding. Neonatal pain indicators. As a response to a present painful stimulus, the newborn adapts to this acute stress with changes in endocrine, vegetative, immune and behavioral area. An ideal pain indicator in neonatal period does not exist. There are several different groups o them, namely contextual and developmental indicators (gestational age, contributed illness, medication, for example, physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, breathing rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon-dioxide, intracranial pressure, palm sweating and behavioral ones (face expression, movements of limbs, cry, several neonatal pain scales were constructed on the basis of these indicators. .

  10. SD indicators for education

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2006-01-01

    The Sustainable Development Commission made the following proposal to the Department for Education and Skills and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs concerning the indicator of education for sustainable development announced in the UK Government strategy 'Securing the Future'. Publisher PDF

  11. Trends & Indicators: Enrollment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harney, John O.

    2011-01-01

    Since New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) began publishing tables and charts exploring "Trends & Indicators" in New England higher education more than a half-century ago, few figures have grabbed as much attention as college "enrollment" data. These local, state, regional and national data go beyond simple headcounts of students going to…

  12. "Healthy" Human Development Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari

    2010-01-01

    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  13. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Maple, Brenda T.; Lemieux, Jeffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    Contained in this regular feature of the journal is a section on each of the following five topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; hospital skill mix changes: 1980s; and national economic indicators.

  14. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdisciplinary Danish Institute of International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators wi...

  15. Indicators for energy security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.

    2009-01-01

    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability,

  16. Alternative policy indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Sandrine

    2001-01-01

    It is now often argued that society is steering with the wrong compass. Most decision-making processes are based on Gross Domestic Product (GDP), favouring economic options that generate its increase. GDP has long since been used as an indicator of economic performance, progress, and even welfare. Moreover, it is on the basis of GDP that countries are internationally 'ranked'.

  17. Environmental health indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This presentation gives a general overview of the project titled Environmental Health Indicators, coordinated by WHO and managed by the Research Centre on the Toxic Oil Syndrome and Rare Diseases in Spain. The presentations describes the objectives of the project, the steps taken and the results obtained during the feasibility study. The project aims to develop an environmental health information system that will allow the monitoring of public health and its health determinants and make international comparisons, develop environmental policies and facilitate communication with citizens. WHO developed a methodology for the development of these indicators within the conceptual framework of DPSEEA (Driving Force, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action and selected a total of 55 indicators (which included 168 variables in 10 environmental health areas. The feasibility study predicted the successful gathering of 89% of the indicators. However, data recollection proved difficult due to the frequent incompatibility of some variables in the Spanish information systems with the WHO defined variables. On a management level, the greatest difficulty arose from the disperse distribution of responsibilities in environmental health matters. In addition to the technical contribution of this project to Environmental Health in Spain, an added value has been to establish a close collaboration with the different Ministries involved.

  18. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  19. Biological Literacy in a College Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demastes, Sherry; Wandersee, James H.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the proposed definition of biological literacy as the understanding of a small number of pervasive biological principles appropriate to making informed personal and societal decisions. Utilizes the content of a major daily newspaper to adjust biology instruction to focus on this notion of biological literacy. Discusses benefits and…

  20. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  1. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites

  2. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    MaryJoe K Rice; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic bi...

  3. Poisson Indices of Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Angelo, Mele

    2009-01-01

    Existing indices of residential segregation are based on an arbitrary partition of the city in neighborhoods: given a spatial distribution of racial groups, the index provides different levels of segregation for different partitions. This paper proposes a method in which individual locations are mapped to aggregate levels of segregation, avoiding arbitrary partitions. Assuming a simple spatial process driving the locations of different racial groups, I define a location-specific segregation i...

  4. Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Kee, Hiau Looi; Nicita, Alessandro; Olarreaga, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the impact of trade restrictiveness on growth, poverty, or unemployment are frequent in the academic literature. Few authors, however, provide a precise definition of what they mean by trade restrictiveness. When they do, the definition is unlikely to have tight links with trade theory. The objective of this article is to fill this gap by providing for 78 developing and developed countries clearly defined indicators of trade restrictiveness that are well grounded in trade theory. R...

  5. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Maple, Brenda T.; Letsch, Suzanne W.

    1993-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the avai...

  6. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Maple, Brenda T.; Cowan, Cathy A.

    1992-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the avai...

  7. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Maple, Brenda T.; Sensenig, Arthur L.

    1994-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the avai...

  8. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Maple, Brenda T.; Sivarajan, Lekha

    1993-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the avail...

  9. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Sensenig, Arthur L.; Heffler, Stephen K.

    1995-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the avail...

  10. Health Care Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Donham, Carolyn S.; Sensenig, Arthur L.; Heffler, Stephen K.

    1995-01-01

    This regular feature of the journal includes a discussion of each of the following four topics: community hospital statistics; employment, hours, and earnings in the private health sector; health care prices; and national economic indicators. These statistics are valuable in their own right for understanding the relationship between the health care sector and the overall economy. In addition, they allow us to anticipate the direction and magnitude of health care cost changes prior to the avai...

  11. Other indications for surfactant].

    OpenAIRE

    PROENÇA FERNANDES, E.; Carvalho, C; Silva, A.; Ferreira, P.; Alegria, A.; Lopes, L.; AREIAS, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    An Esp Pediatr. 2002 Jan;56(1):45-8. [Other indications for surfactant] [Article in Spanish] Proença Fernandes E, Carvalho C, Silva A, Ferreira P, Alegria A, Lopes L, Areias MA. Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales y Pediátricos, Hospital Maria Pia, Spain. Abstract OBJECTIVE: The introduction of surfactant replacement therapy in the management of respiratory distress syndrome in the premature infant was a remarkable advance in neonatal intensive care. In the last few y...

  12. Indicators for Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  13. Transport Safety Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    WEGMAN, F.; Brouwer, M.; CAUZARD, J.P; Elvik, R.; MACHATA, K.; Makinen, T.; STENBORG, L.; Yannis, G.

    2001-01-01

    Transport safety is a key priority in the Common Transport Policy and a high level of protection for EU citizens in all harmonisation activity is required by the Treaty. Policymakers and managers aiming for a higher level of safety need to take an interest in as many of the factors influencing safety as possible and, at least, those factors they are able to affect or control. Safety performance indicators provide a means by which policymakers can ensure that their actions are as effective as ...

  14. Tamper indicating packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protecting sensitive items from undetected tampering in an unattended environment is crucial to the success of non-proliferation efforts relying on the verification of critical activities. Tamper Indicating Packaging (TIP) technologies are applied to containers, packages, and equipment that require an indication of a tamper attempt. Examples include: the transportation and storage of nuclear material, the operation and shipment of surveillance equipment and monitoring sensors, and the retail storage of medicine and food products. The spectrum of adversarial tampering ranges from attempted concealment of a pin-hole sized penetration to the complete container replacement, which would involve counterfeiting efforts of various degrees. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has developed a technology base for advanced TIP materials, sensors, designs, and processes which can be adapted to various future monitoring systems. The purpose of this technology base is to investigate potential new technologies, and to perform basic research of advanced technologies. This paper will describe the theory of TIP technologies and recent investigations of TIP technologies at SNL

  15. Bio-indicators for radiation dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In nuclear facilities, such as Chalk River Laboratories, dose to the atomic radiation workers (ARWs) is assessed routinely by using physical dosimeters and bioassay procedures in accordance with regulatory recommendations. However, these procedures may be insufficient in some circumstances, e.g., in cases where the reading of the physical dosimeters is questioned, in cases of radiation accidents where the person(s) in question was not wearing a dosimeter, or in the event of a radiation emergency when an exposure above the dose limits is possible. The desirability of being able to assess radiation dose on the basis of radio-biological effects has prompted the Dosimetric Research Branch to investigate the suitability of biological devices and techniques that could be used for this purpose. Current biological dosimetry concepts suggest that there does not appear to be any bio-indicator that could reliably measure the very low doses that are routinely measured by the physical devices presently in use. Nonetheless, bio-indicators may be useful in providing valuable supplementary information in cases of unusual radiation exposures, such as when the estimated body doses are doubtful because of lack of proper physical measurements, or in cases where available results need to be confirmed for medical treatment plannings. This report evaluates the present state of biological dosimetry and, in particular, assesses the efficiency and limits of individual indicators. This has led to the recommendation of a few promising research areas that may result in the development of appropriate biological dosimeters for operational and emergency needs at Chalk River

  16. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  17. Stability indicators in network reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filosi, Michele; Visintainer, Roberto; Riccadonna, Samantha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Furlanello, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    The number of available algorithms to infer a biological network from a dataset of high-throughput measurements is overwhelming and keeps growing. However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a 'gold standard' is available to measure how close the reconstructed network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is the stability of these predictions to data resampling approaches. We introduce NetSI, a family of Network Stability Indicators, to assess quantitatively the stability of a reconstructed network in terms of inference variability due to data subsampling. In order to evaluate network stability, the main NetSI methods use a global/local network metric in combination with a resampling (bootstrap or cross-validation) procedure. In addition, we provide two normalized variability scores over data resampling to measure edge weight stability and node degree stability, and then introduce a stability ranking for edges and nodes. A complete implementation of the NetSI indicators, including the Hamming-Ipsen-Mikhailov (HIM) network distance adopted in this paper is available with the R package nettools. We demonstrate the use of the NetSI family by measuring network stability on four datasets against alternative network reconstruction methods. First, the effect of sample size on stability of inferred networks is studied in a gold standard framework on yeast-like data from the Gene Net Weaver simulator. We also consider the impact of varying modularity on a set of structurally different networks (50 nodes, from 2 to 10 modules), and then of complex feature covariance structure, showing the different behaviours of standard reconstruction methods based on Pearson correlation, Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC) and False Discovery Rate (FDR) strategy. Finally, we demonstrate a strong combined effect of different reconstruction methods and phenotype subgroups on a hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA microarray dataset (240 subjects), and we validate the

  18. Stability indicators in network reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filosi

    Full Text Available The number of available algorithms to infer a biological network from a dataset of high-throughput measurements is overwhelming and keeps growing. However, evaluating their performance is unfeasible unless a 'gold standard' is available to measure how close the reconstructed network is to the ground truth. One measure of this is the stability of these predictions to data resampling approaches. We introduce NetSI, a family of Network Stability Indicators, to assess quantitatively the stability of a reconstructed network in terms of inference variability due to data subsampling. In order to evaluate network stability, the main NetSI methods use a global/local network metric in combination with a resampling (bootstrap or cross-validation procedure. In addition, we provide two normalized variability scores over data resampling to measure edge weight stability and node degree stability, and then introduce a stability ranking for edges and nodes. A complete implementation of the NetSI indicators, including the Hamming-Ipsen-Mikhailov (HIM network distance adopted in this paper is available with the R package nettools. We demonstrate the use of the NetSI family by measuring network stability on four datasets against alternative network reconstruction methods. First, the effect of sample size on stability of inferred networks is studied in a gold standard framework on yeast-like data from the Gene Net Weaver simulator. We also consider the impact of varying modularity on a set of structurally different networks (50 nodes, from 2 to 10 modules, and then of complex feature covariance structure, showing the different behaviours of standard reconstruction methods based on Pearson correlation, Maximum Information Coefficient (MIC and False Discovery Rate (FDR strategy. Finally, we demonstrate a strong combined effect of different reconstruction methods and phenotype subgroups on a hepatocellular carcinoma miRNA microarray dataset (240 subjects, and we

  19. Teriparatide - Indications beyond osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lee Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of impaired bone strength that results in an increased risk of fracture. The current and most popular pharmacological options for the treatment of osteoporosis include antiresorptive therapy, in particular, oral bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate. Anabolic agents like teriparatide have widened our therapeutic options. They act by directly stimulating bone formation and improving bone mass quantity and quality. Two forms of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH are available : full-length PTH (PTH 1-84; approved in the EU only and the 1-34 N-terminal active fragment of PTH (teriparatide, US FDA approved. This review aims to discuss the benefits of teriparatide beyond the currently licensed indications like fracture healing, dental stability, osteonecrosis of jaw, hypoparathyroidism, and hypocalcemia.

  20. Pilot project: maintenance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim was to contribute to the development of maintenance indicators based on computer-based reports of faults and on the on-line operation data which are currently measured. The feedwater system, including pumps and heat exchangers, in the reactor cooling system at the Barsebaeck reactors in Malmo, Sweden, was chosen as the focal point of the investigation. Available data on fault registration and on operation were examined in detail. The conclusion was that there was a satisfactory amount of relevant information at Barsebaeck to enable an evaluation of the reactor system's physical condition at any given point in time, and that this could be utilized for optimization of maintenance planning. (AB)

  1. International energy indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are tabulated and graphically represented on international energy indicators. The following are presented: world crude oil production, 1974 to October 1981; OPEC crude oil productive capacity; world crude oil and refined product inventory levels, 1975 to October, 1981; oil consumption in OECD countries, 1975 to October 1981; USSR crude oil production and exports, 1975 to October, 1981; free world and US nuclear electricity generation, 1973 to December, 1981 and current capacity. Specific US data presented are: US domestic oil supply, 1977 to June, 1981; US gross imports of crude oil and products, 1973 to October, 1981; landed cost of Saudi crude current and 1974 dollars; US coal trade, 1975 to September, 1981; US natural gas trade, 1975 to October, 1981; summary of US merchandise trade, 1977 to October, 1981; and energy/GNP ratio

  2. Dragline operator performance indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragan Komljenovic; Dragan Bogunovic; Vladislav Kecojevic [University of Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this research was to establish an operator performance indicator (OPI) that can be used by mining professionals/management to aid in the evaluation of dragline operators in surface coal mining. The OPI is defined as a ratio of hourly dragline production and hourly energy consumption, which needs to be maximised. A statistical approach based on confidence intervals is proposed as a means of classifying operators' performance. The results of an experiment conducted at a surface mine that is operated by one of the largest North American coal companies are discussed to demonstrate the practical application of developed method. The method applied in this article can also be adjusted and used for various mining equipment.

  3. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  4. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  5. Entanglement–breaking indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lami, L. [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Giovannetti, V. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement–breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two–qubit system is exactly solved in a general case.

  6. Solar Indices Forecasting Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henney, Carl John; Shurkin, Kathleen; Arge, Charles; Hill, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Progress to forecast key space weather parameters using SIFT (Solar Indices Forecasting Tool) with the ADAPT (Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport) model is highlighted in this presentation. Using a magnetic flux transport model, ADAPT, we estimate the solar near-side field distribution that is used as input into empirical models for predicting F10.7(solar 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz, radio flux), the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, and selected bands of solar far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. Input to the ADAPT model includes the inferred photospheric magnetic field from the NISP ground-based instruments, GONG & VSM. Besides a status update regarding ADAPT and SIFT models, we will summarize the findings that: 1) the sum of the absolute value of strong magnetic fields, associated with sunspots, is shown to correlate well with the observed daily F10.7 variability (Henney et al. 2012); and 2) the sum of the absolute value of weak magnetic fields, associated with plage regions, is shown to correlate well with EUV and FUV irradiance variability (Henney et al. 2015). This work utilizes data produced collaboratively between Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The ADAPT model development is supported by AFRL. The input data utilized by ADAPT is obtained by NISP (NSO Integrated Synoptic Program). NSO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The 10.7 cm solar radio flux data service, utilized by the ADAPT/SIFT F10.7 forecasting model, is operated by the National Research Council of Canada and National Resources Canada, with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  7. Precipitation Indices Low Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engelen, A. F. V.; Ynsen, F.; Buisman, J.; van der Schrier, G.

    2009-09-01

    Since 1995, KNMI published a series of books(1), presenting an annual reconstruction of weather and climate in the Low Countries, covering the period AD 763-present, or roughly, the last millennium. The reconstructions are based on the interpretation of documentary sources predominantly and comparison with other proxies and instrumental observations. The series also comprises a number of classifications. Amongst them annual classifications for winter and summer temperature and for winter and summer dryness-wetness. The classification of temperature have been reworked into peer reviewed (2) series (AD 1000-present) of seasonal temperatures and temperature indices, the so called LCT (Low Countries Temperature) series, now incorporated in the Millennium databases. Recently we started a study to convert the dryness-wetness classifications into a series of precipitation; the so called LCP (Low Countries Precipitation) series. A brief outline is given here of the applied methodology and preliminary results. The WMO definition for meteorological drought has been followed being that a period is called wet respectively dry when the amount of precipitation is considerable more respectively less than usual (normal). To gain a more quantitative insight for four locations, geographically spread over the Low Countries area (De Bilt, Vlissingen, Maastricht and Uccle), we analysed the statistics of daily precipitation series, covering the period 1900-present. This brought us to the following definition, valid for the Low Countries: A period is considered as (very) dry respectively (very) wet if over a continuous period of at least 60 days (~two months) cq 90 days (~three months) on at least two out of the four locations 50% less resp. 50% more than the normal amount for the location (based on the 1961-1990 normal period) has been measured. This results into the following classification into five drought classes hat could be applied to non instrumental observations: Very wet period

  8. Proposed indicators for a monitoring programme. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents proposals for a set of indicators to be used in a coordinated monitoring programme for the North Sea and Skagerrak ecosystems. This report suggests reference values and action thresholds for the indicators and suitable monitoring stations and survey transects, based on existing time series where possible. The relevance of the proposed indicators is also assessed to national and international environmental policy goals. The national targets of Norway's environmental policy and indicators used in the monitoring systems for the other Norwegian open sea areas were taken into account when drawing up the proposals. In the international context, The management plan was also assessed to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (the OSPAR Convention) and the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).(Author)

  9. Proposed indicators for a monitoring programme. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The report presents proposals for a set of indicators to be used in a coordinated monitoring programme for the North Sea and Skagerrak ecosystems. This report suggests reference values and action thresholds for the indicators and suitable monitoring stations and survey transects, based on existing time series where possible. The relevance of the proposed indicators is also assessed to national and international environmental policy goals. The national targets of Norway's environmental policy and indicators used in the monitoring systems for the other Norwegian open sea areas were taken into account when drawing up the proposals. In the international context, The management plan was also assessed to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (the OSPAR Convention) and the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).(Author)

  10. Rotifer trophic state indices as ecosystem indicators in brackish coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gutkowska

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to their short life cycles, rotifers react rapidly to changes in environmental conditions and so may be useful for biological monitoring. The objective of this paper was to investigate the applicability of rotifer trophic state indices as indicators of the trophic state of brackish waters, as exemplified by the Vistula Lagoon. Carried out in summer from 2007 to 2011, this study showed no significant correlation between the Lagoon's trophic state and the rotifer structure. This confirms the limited applicability of rotifer trophic state indices for evaluating water quality in brackish water bodies.

  11. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  12. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  13. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  14. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  15. Computational prognostic indicators for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Xinan Yang,1 Xindi Ai,2 John M Cunningham1 1Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, and Comer Children's Hospital, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Department of Biological Engineering, Whiting School of Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Breast cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women. Comprehensive genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics studies are emerging that offer an opportunity to model disease biology, prognosis, and response to specific therapies. Although many biomarkers have been identified through advances in data mining techniques, few have been applied broadly to make patient-specific decisions. Here, we review a selection of breast cancer prognostic indicators and their implications. Our goal is to provide clinicians with a general evaluation of emerging computational methodologies for outcome prediction. Keywords: computational model, precision prognosis, tumor

  16. Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Walpole, Matt; Collen, Ben; Van Strien, Arco; Scharlemann, Jorn P.W.; Almond, Rosamunde E.A.; Baillie, Jonathan E.M.; Bomhard, Bastian; Brown, Claire; Bruno, John; Carpenter, Kent E.; Carr, Genevieve M.; Chanson, Janice; Chenery, Anna M.; Csirke, Jorge; Davidson, Nick C.; Dentener, Frank; Foster, Matt; Galli, Alessandro; Galloway, James N.; Genovesi, Piero; Gregory, Richard D.; Hockings, Marc; Kapos, Valerie; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Leverington, Fiona; Loh, Jonathan; McGeoch, Melodie A.; McRae, Louise; Minasyan, Anahit; Morcillo, Monica Hernandez; Oldfield, Thomasina E.E.; Pauly, Daniel; Quader, Suhel; Revenga, Carmen; Sauer, John R.; Skolnik, Benjamin; Spear, Dian; Stanwell-Smith, Damon; Stuart, Simon N.; Symes, Andy; Tierney, Megan; Tyrrell, Tristan D.; Vie, Jean-Christophe; Watson, Reg

    2011-01-01

    In 2002, world leaders committed, through the Convention on Biological Diversity, to achieve a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010. We compiled 31 indicators to report on progress toward this target. Most indicators of the state of biodiversity (covering species' population trends, extinction risk, habitat extent and condition, and community composition) showed declines, with no significant recent reductions in rate, whereas indicators of pressures on biodiversity (including resource consumption, invasive alien species, nitrogen pollution, overexploitation, and climate change impacts) showed increases. Despite some local successes and increasing responses (including extent and biodiversity coverage of protected areas, sustainable forest management, policy responses to invasive alien species, and biodiversity-related aid), the rate of biodiversity loss does not appear to be slowing.

  17. Pictures of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Cserer, Amelie; Seiringer, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the representation of Synthetic Biology in the media and by biotechnology experts. An analysis was made of German-language media articles published between 2004 and 2008, and interviews with biotechnology-experts at the Synthetic Biology conference SB 3.0 in Zurich 2007. The results have been reflected in terms of the definition of Synthetic Biology, applications of Synthetic Biology and the perspectives of opportunities and risks. In the media, Synthetic Biolog...

  18. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  19. Características biológicas do solo indicadoras de qualidade após dois anos de aplicação de biossólido industrial e cultivo de milho Biological characteristics indicators of soil quality after two years of application of an industrial biosolid and corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina de Barros Trannin

    2007-10-01

    cultivated plots. Organic carbon and microbial biomass were highly correlated with the other characteristics. This indicates that the changes in the amount and quality of soil organic matter, as a result of biosolid application, altered microbial dynamics and influenced the biological parameters of soil quality positively.

  20. Platelets in Lung Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets and the lungs have an intimate relationship. Platelets are anucleate mammalian blood cells that continuously circulate through pulmonary vessels and that have major effector activities in hemostasis and inflammation. The lungs are reservoirs for megakaryocytes, the requisite precursor cell in thrombopoiesis, which is the intricate process by which platelets are generated. Platelets contribute to basal barrier integrity of the alveolar capillaries, which selectively restricts the transfer of water, proteins, and red blood cells out of the vessels. Platelets also contribute to pulmonary vascular repair. Although platelets bolster hemostatic and inflammatory defense of the healthy lung, experimental evidence and clinical evidence indicate that these blood cells are effectors of injury in a variety of pulmonary disorders and syndromes. Newly discovered biological capacities of platelets are being explored in the context of lung defense, disease, and remodeling. PMID:23043249

  1. [Woman and race biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, H

    1993-01-01

    Early 20th century race biology takes a special interest in woman as part of the "intra-racial" project of bringing forth healthy and competitive individuals. But there are other motives as well for the race biologist to take an interest in woman. She is believed to develop fewer individual characteristics and is therefore a more typical representative of her race than man. The development level of the race is also presupposed to be discernible by the degree of "gender diformism": a race of higher standing would exhibit a greater difference between the sexes. The anthropologist, anatomist, gynaecologist--or whatever guise the race biologist may adopt-- will, in principle, stress that the relation between the sexes is not a matter of "more or less", but one of differences in kind. In reality, the "more-or-less of comparison is the very cornerstone of the issue. Quantitative differences, directly observed or obtained from statistics, are construed as signs of difference in kind. 18th century medical philosophy and sex-linked anthropology laid the theoretical foundation of the 19th century essentialist conception of woman, which is also that adopted by race biology. Eugenics of social Darwinist inspiration regarded prophylactic health care and social welfare programs with scepticism. A race biology founded on the man-woman dualism could sustain altogether different conclusions. An advanced culture calls for extensive division of labour. An extended childhood renders possible higher development but will also impose higher demands on woman. The protection of the female organism is thus an exigency for any people or race striving to survive and evolve. From society's care for the female organism health care for women and preventive maternity care will emerge. Race biology has been a preeminently German concern, as indicated by the selection of works taken to represent this perspective on woman: Bartels-Ploss' Das Weib, C.H. Stratz' Die Rassenschönheit des Weibes and

  2. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  3. Values of Kp Indices, Ap Indices, Cp Indices, C9 Indices, Sunspot Number, and 10.7 cm Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data file consists of Kp indices, Ap indices, Cp indices, C9 indices, sunspot number, and 10.7 cm flux. The most often requested parameter of this file are the...

  4. Biological width: No violation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of gingival health is one of the keys for the longevity of teeth, as well as for the longevity of restorations. The concept of Biologic width has been widely described by periodontists and restorative dentists. An adequate understanding of relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function and esthetics, and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width and indications and applications of surgical crown lengthening. These violations lead to complications like gingival inflammation, alveolar bone loss and improper fit of the restorative component. This review gives the wide aspect of the complex question of biologic width and represents an attempt to answer some of the demands in relation to it. The article also discusses the possible methods to assess biologic width, problems that occur after improper margin placement in the periodontium and the alternative procedures for prevention of biological width violation.

  5. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  6. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  7. Biology is simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Tim

    2015-12-30

    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  8. Engineering scalable biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial, and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic, and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast, and mammal...

  9. Systems interface biology

    OpenAIRE

    Francis J Doyle; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Henc...

  10. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  11. Water relations in seed biology

    OpenAIRE

    Villela F. A.

    1998-01-01

    The water relations play a fundamental role in seed biology. Thus, the purpose of the present paper was to analyze the performance of water status in seed development and germination. The researches have suggested that the water potential of the seed or seed structures provides a better indicator of the seed water status than water content. The seed water status plays a regulatory role in seed development and germination.

  12. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.;

    2009-01-01

    is made for a set of suitable indicators for monitoring the decline in soil biodiversity (Bispo et al. 2007). These indicators were selected both from a literature review and an inventory of national monitoring programmes. Decline in soil biodiversity was defined as the reduction of forms of life living...... indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore...

  13. Fish as ecological indicators in mediterranean streams: The catalan experience

    OpenAIRE

    Benejam Vidal, Lluís; Ordeix i Rigo, Marc; Casals i Martí, Frederic; Caiola, Nuno; Sostoa Fernández, Adolfo de; Solà, Carolina; Munné, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive includes fish fauna as one of the biological elements, jointly with aquatic flora and benthic invertebrates, to assess and monitor water and habitat quality. Successful implementation of the Directive depends in part on the development of reliable, science-based tools to directly assess biological conditions. Although fish have been used as ecological indicators for more than 30 years around the world, mainly in North America and more recently i...

  14. Analyzing the high school biology education in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Abdulsalam Dael

    This study evaluated the high school biology education in Yemen based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Developing Biological Literacy (1993). The study used inductive analysis, a type of qualitative research, in which triangulation of six data sources was used to answer the four research questions developed for the study. Twenty-four teachers and 48 students from four high schools in Yemen responded to the questionnaires. The findings of this study indicated that 44% of the BSCS goals suggested for a biology program is included in the biology education program in Yemen. Fifty-one percent of the concepts related to the unifying principles of biology were found in the three Yemeni high school biology textbooks. The high school biology teachers used 33% of instructional strategies and 40% of the assessment methods suggested in the BSCS guide. The majority of teachers and students reported that laboratory activities in the high school biology program are insufficient. However, most of the teachers' and students' responses indicated their interest in integrating environmental issues in biological concepts. Almost all of the teachers and students reported that the high school biology education in Yemen does not allow students to investigate independently or help them develop awareness of social problems related to biology. Four strategic plans were designed to improve the goals and curriculum content of high school biology education, the preparation of biology teachers, the enhancement of content and teaching skills of in-service teachers, and administrative support for facilities, equipment, and supplies for biology classes.

  15. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  16. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  17. Topological Indices Study of Molecular Structure in Anticancer Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Gao; Weifan Wang; Mohammad Reza Farahani

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that there is strong inherent relationship between the chemical characteristics of chemical compounds and drugs (e.g., boiling point and melting point) and their molecular structures. Topological indices defined on these chemical molecular structures can help researchers better understand the physical features, chemical reactivity, and biological activity. Thus, the study of the topological indices on chemical structure of chemical materials and drugs can make up for...

  18. [Transfusion of plasma: products-indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoudi, R

    2013-05-01

    The use of therapeutic plasma has increased in France by more than 40% since 2002. This growth may be explained by the improvement in transfusion safety, the diminution of the risk of transmission of pathogens and the regained confidence of the physicians in blood products. Therapeutic plasma also benefits from additional procedures to reduce infectious (securisation) or immunological risks (selection of blood donors). Its application in massive transfusions has undergone a significant evolution over the last few years. A proactive attitude favouring early and important use of plasma on the basis of pre-established protocols is advocated henceforth. The prescription of therapeutic plasma for other indications must be guided by the results of biological tests and an evaluation of the haemorrhagic risk. Despite regular updating of the guidelines for good transfusion practice, plasma is still sometimes prescribed for prophylactic purposes in situations where the biological and/or clinical criteria do not justify it. Moreover, it is not recommended to use fresh frozen plasma in cases of deficiency of coagulation factors if the specific concentrates are available as intravenous fluids. Complementary clinical studies will be necessary to evaluate, in certain indications, the real benefits of the transfusion of plasma and the interest of replacing it by concentrates of coagulant factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin complex).

  19. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  20. Identifying novel drug indications through automated reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the large amount of pharmacological and biological knowledge available in literature, finding novel drug indications for existing drugs using in silico approaches has become increasingly feasible. Typical literature-based approaches generate new hypotheses in the form of protein-protein interactions networks by means of linking concepts based on their cooccurrences within abstracts. However, this kind of approaches tends to generate too many hypotheses, and identifying new drug indications from large networks can be a time-consuming process. METHODOLOGY: In this work, we developed a method that acquires the necessary facts from literature and knowledge bases, and identifies new drug indications through automated reasoning. This is achieved by encoding the molecular effects caused by drug-target interactions and links to various diseases and drug mechanism as domain knowledge in AnsProlog, a declarative language that is useful for automated reasoning, including reasoning with incomplete information. Unlike other literature-based approaches, our approach is more fine-grained, especially in identifying indirect relationships for drug indications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To evaluate the capability of our approach in inferring novel drug indications, we applied our method to 943 drugs from DrugBank and asked if any of these drugs have potential anti-cancer activities based on information on their targets and molecular interaction types alone. A total of 507 drugs were found to have the potential to be used for cancer treatments. Among the potential anti-cancer drugs, 67 out of 81 drugs (a recall of 82.7% are indeed known cancer drugs. In addition, 144 out of 289 drugs (a recall of 49.8% are non-cancer drugs that are currently tested in clinical trials for cancer treatments. These results suggest that our method is able to infer drug indications (original or alternative based on their molecular targets and interactions alone and has

  1. The SJR indicator: A new indicator of journals' scientific prestige

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Pereira, Borja; Moya-Anegon, Felix

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an indicator of journals' scientific prestige, the SJR indicator, for ranking scholarly journals based on citation weighting schemes and eigenvector centrality to be used in complex and heterogeneous citation networks such Scopus. Its computation methodology is described and the results after implementing the indicator over Scopus 2007 dataset are compared to an ad-hoc Journal Impact Factor both generally and inside specific scientific areas. The results showed that SJR indicator and JIF distributions fitted well to a power law distribution and that both metrics were strongly correlated, although there were also major changes in rank. There was an observable general trend that might indicate that SJR indicator values decreased certain JIF values whose citedeness was greater than would correspond to their scientific influence.

  2. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  3. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi;

    2013-01-01

    eHealth indicator and benchmarking activities are rapidly increasing nationally and internationally. The work is rarely based on a transparent methodology for indicator definition. This article describes first results of testing an indicator methodology for defining eHealth indicators, which...... was reported at the Medical Informatics Europe conference in 2012. The core elements of the methodology are illustrated, demonstrating validation of each of them in the context of Nordic eHealth Indicator work. Validation proved the importance of conducting each of the steps of the methodology, with several...

  4. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  5. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke;

    2013-01-01

    Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel...... reached agreement on two types of indicators. (a) Cancer prevalence indicators. These were proposed as a means of characterising the burden of cancer rehabilitation needs by time from diagnosis and patient health status. These indicators can be estimated from cancer registry data or by collecting data...... on follow-up and treatments for samples of cases archived in cancer registries. (b) Indicators of rehabilitation success. These include: return to work, quality of life, and satisfaction of specific rehabilitation needs. Studies can be performed to estimate these indicators in individual countries...

  6. Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1―2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.

  7. Risk-based performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to develop methods for monitoring an aspect of safety performance of licensed nuclear power plants; i.e., unavailability of safety systems. Various options were evaluated for constructing system unavailability indicators using basic reliability principles and consistent with the content of data collected. The capabilities of each indicator option, in terms of detection probabilities and false alarm rates within a fixed response period for various types of anomalies, were evaluated through detailed simulation studies. Brookhaven National Laboratory performed two studies to evaluate the capability of NPRDS (Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System) as a data source for construction of system unavailability indicators. Specific indicators were developed consistent with the limited scope of NPRDS data. In order to generate system unavailability indicators in an efficient manner, the processes for NPRDS data acquisition, indicator construction, and analyses were automated using personal computer software. Limited pilot applications and verification were also performed

  8. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, F.; Mayer, J.; Santella, R. M.; Brenner, D; Jeffrey, A.; Latriano, L; Smith, S.; Warburton, D; Young, T. L.; Tsai, W. Y.; Hemminki, K; Brandt-Rauf, P

    1991-01-01

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers h...

  9. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education (BAMBED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voet Donald

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education (BAMBED is a journal that is a publication of the In-ternational Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB and is published by the AmericanSociety of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB. BAMBED, as its name indicates, publishesarticles of interest to educators in biochemistry and molecular biology. These include invited reviewson subjects not yet in textbooks, discussions of curricular development, new laboratory exercises,and articles on educational research. BAMBED also publishes Features on Problem-Based Learning(PBL, Biotechnology Education, and Multimedia in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educati-on. An important aspect of these articles is that their educational eectiveness must be assessed. Ishall discuss in greater detail the types of articles that BAMBED publishes and the criteria used foraccepting them for publication. Conference attendees are encouraged to submit articles to BAMBED.

  10. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  11. Foundations of biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorav, Jean-Louis; Braslau, Alan; Goldar, Arach

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that there are no laws in biology, where everything is contingent and could have been otherwise, being solely the result of historical accidents. Furthermore, the customary introduction of fundamental biological entities such as individual organisms, cells, genes, catalysts and motors remains largely descriptive; constructive approaches involving deductive reasoning appear, in comparison, almost absent. As a consequence, both the logical content and principles of biology ne...

  12. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  13. Glycobiology Current Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabire KARAÇALI

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate chemistry evolved into carbohydrate biochemistry and gradually into the biology of carbohydrates, or glycobiology, at the end of the last century. Glycobiology is the new research area of modern molecular biology, and it investigates the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans. The numbers, linkage types (a or b), positions, binding points and functional group differences of monosaccharides create microheterogeneity. Thus, numerous glycoforms with precise stru...

  14. Trade Effects of Geographical Indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    This contribution addresses the effects of geographical indications on intra-EU and international trade. Trade is hampered by the exclusiveness of indications like “Protected Designations of Origin or Protected Geographical Indications”, which at the same time is necessary to protect their value. As

  15. Lexical-Grammatical Pragmatic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum-Kulka, Shoshana; Levenston, Edward A.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the interlanguage pragmatics of learners of Hebrew and English (L2s) focuses on pragmatic indicators used in requests and apologies (situations in Appendix). Deviations from native-speaker norms in the speech of non-native speakers are discussed. Results suggest L2s' misuse of pragmatic indicators can have serious interactional…

  16. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  17. Performance indicators for power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of Canadian and worldwide performance indicator definitions and data was performed to identify a set of indicators that could be used for comparison of performance among nuclear power plants. The results of this review are to be used as input to an AECB team developing a consistent set of performance indicators for measuring Canadian power reactor safety performance. To support the identification of performance indicators, a set of criteria was developed to assess the effectiveness of each indicator for meaningful comparison of performance information. The project identified a recommended set of performance indicators that could be used by AECB staff to compare the performance of Canadian nuclear power plants among themselves, and with international performance. The basis for selection of the recommended set and exclusion of others is provided. This report provides definitions and calculation methods for each recommended performance indicator. In addition, a spreadsheet has been developed for comparison and trending for the recommended set of indicators. Example trend graphs are included to demonstrate the use of the spreadsheet. (author). 50 refs., 11 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Geomagnetic Kn, Ks, Km Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A full description of the indices Kn, Ks, Km is given in a monography,"Indices Kn, Ks et Km, 1964-1967", edited in 1968 by the Centre National de la Recherche...

  19. International comparative indicators on teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amelsvoort, van H.W.C. Gonnie; Scheerens, Jaap

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of this chapter is to discuss the relevance and feasibility of international comparative indicators on teachers. Three rationales for the selection of teacher indicators are described. Data availability and interpretation problems due to lack of standard definitions appear to be i

  20. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  1. Biological Extinction in Earth History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raup, David M.

    1986-03-01

    Virtually all plant and animal species that have ever lived on the earth are extinct. For this reason alone, extinction must play an important role in the evolution of life. The five largest mass extinctions of the past 600 million years are of greatest interest, but there is also a spectrum of smaller events, many of which indicate biological systems in profound stress. Extinction may be episodic at all scales, with relatively long periods of stability alternating with short-lived extinction events. Most extinction episodes are biologically selective, and further analysis of the victims and survivors offers the greatest chance of deducing the proximal causes of extinction. A drop in sea level and climatic change are most frequently invoked to explain mass extinctions, but new theories of collisions with extraterrestrial bodies are gaining favor. Extinction may be constructive in a Darwinian sense or it may only perturb the system by eliminating those organisms that happen to be susceptible to geologically rare stresses.

  2. Identifying pelagic ecosystem indicators for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, Verena; Hintzen, Niels; Rindorf, Anna;

    2013-01-01

    to pelagic fisheries to further explore the setting of management objectives. The objectives were identified through a participatory process including industry, management, scientist and NGO representatives. These objectives were used to identify appropriate driver, pressure and state indicators. The links......When exploiting fish populations under the ecosystem approach, aiming for MSY is not necessarily sufficient to ensure wider ecosystem sustainability. All of the large stocks of pelagic fish are managed through harvest control rules based on an MSY approach. Ensuring good environmental status...... will probably require further constraints to be imposed by management. Most of the current paradigm with regards to GES for fisheries has been based on demersal fish. Pelagic fisheries and fish are operationally and biologically respectively different. We use the example of applying the ecosystem approach...

  3. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...

  4. Power Quality Indices Estimation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana I. Arango-Zuluaga

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An interactive platform for estimating the quality indices in single phase electric power systems is presented. It meets the IEEE 1459-2010 standard recommendations. The platform was developed in order to support teaching and research activities in electric power quality. The platform estimates the power quality indices from voltage and current signals using three different algorithms based on fast Fourier transform (FFT, wavelet packet transform (WPT and least squares method. The results show that the algorithms implemented are efficient for estimating the quality indices of the power and the platform can be used according to the objectives established. 

  5. Sustainable development and energy indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from the basic definition of sustainable development and its four dimensions, the role of indicators for sustainable energy development is analysed. In particular, it is shown that important energy efficiency indicators belong in fact to energy supply efficiency, while the end-use energy efficiency could be more pertinently represented by energy intensity indicators. Furthermore, the negentropic effects of science and technology related sustainable energy scenarios are pointed out. Finally, the sustainable development is related to wisdom, interpreted as a sum of knowledge, morality and timing. (Author)

  6. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  7. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  8. Sustainable development indicators for territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For different themes (Sustainable consumption and production, Knowledge and social and economic development society, governance, climate change and energy management, sustainable transport and modality, conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity and natural resources, public health, risk prevention and management, social and territorial cohesion), this study proposes a set of axis, and several indicators for each axis. Indicators correspond to different geographical scale and are determined from different sources. These indicators are for example: production of aggregates, proportion of organic agriculture in usable agricultural area, evolution in quantity of household waste collected per inhabitant, employment rate, research spending in relation to GDP, coverage of population by local Agenda 21, and so on. Thus, each indicator is discussed, commented and analysed

  9. Performance Indicators of Operating Reactors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A list of Performance Indicators (PI) that are reported to the NRC by licensees at the end of each quarter in accordance with Inspection Manual Chapters (IMC) 0608,...

  10. Investigation of Some Metallochromic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. V.; Nelson, M.

    1979-01-01

    Presents some introductory experiments involving the reaction between EDTA and several metal ions using metallochromic indicators. The experiments represent familiar reactions and are followed by suggestions for extension into areas of discovery work by students. (Author/SA)

  11. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  12. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2015 Public

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The eight EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone Traffic Proximity...

  13. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2015 Internal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 12 EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 12 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone, NATA Diesel PM, NATA...

  14. Developing macroeconomic energy cost indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indicators are more and more drawn on for policy making and assessment. This is also true for energy policy. However, while numerous different energy price figures are available, subordinate energy cost indicators are lacking. This paper lays out a general concept for such indicator sets and presents a flexible framework for representative and consistent energy cost indicators with an underlying weighting principle based on consumption shares. Their application would provide interesting new insights into the relationship between energy cost burdens of different sectors and countries. It would allow for more rigorous analysis in the field of energy economics and policy, particularly with regard to market monitoring and impact assessment as well as ex-post-policy analysis.

  15. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  16. Biological pretreatment sewages water

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with waste water purification at the stage of pre-inflow of water into the biological waste water treatment plants. It is divided into two parts, a theoretical and calculation. The theoretical part deals about sewage water and the method of biological treatment. Design proposal is part of the activation tank for quantity EO.

  17. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  18. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  19. Bioinformatics and School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpech, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The rapidly changing field of bioinformatics is fuelling the need for suitably trained personnel with skills in relevant biological "sub-disciplines" such as proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, etc. But because of the complexity--and sheer weight of data--associated with these new areas of biology, many school teachers feel…

  20. Indicators of Information Society Measurement :

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Elwy

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The indicator of information society describe the infrastructure of information and communication technology ; as well as it’s use and it’s production in different estate of society. The importance economic and social of tic is crescent in modern society. and the presentation of tendency inform above the situation of information society . in this article we want to describe the indicator of tic in Algeria according to librarian’s vision in Mentouri university

  1. Sustainable development indicators for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  2. Coincident Indicators of Capital Flows

    OpenAIRE

    Malika Pant; Yanliang Miao

    2012-01-01

    Capital flows data from Balance of Payments statistics often lag 3-6 months, which renders timely surveillance and policy deliberation difficult. To address the tension, we propose two coincident composite indicators for capital flows that improve upon existing proxies. We find that the most widely used proxy, the capital tracker, often overpredicts net flows by 30 percent. We augment the tracker into a composite indicator by assigning to it a lesser but optimally estimated weight while incor...

  3. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  4. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  5. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  6. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  7. Climate indices for vulnerability assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Gunn; Baerring, Lars; Kjellstroem, Erik; Strandberg, Gustav; Rummuk ainen, Markku

    2007-08-15

    The demand is growing for practical information on climate projections and the impacts expected in different geographical regions and different sectors. It is a challenge to transform the vast amount of data produced in climate models into relevant information for climate change impact studies. Climate indices based on climate model data can be used as means to communicate climate change impact relations. In this report a vast amount of results is presented from a multitude of indices based on different regional climate scenarios. The regional climate scenarios described in this report show many similarities with previous scenarios in terms of general evolution and amplitude of future European climate change. The broad features are manifested in increases in warm and decreases in cold indices. Likewise are presented increases in wet indices in the north and dry indices in the south. Despite the extensive nature of the material presented, it does not cover the full range of possible climate change. We foresee a continued interactive process with stakeholders as well as continued efforts and updates of the results presented in the report.

  8. Design of energy management indicator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Tomás Dalmau García

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This work has as a main goal to demostrate the viability of the energy management indicator, that will be a part of the Balanced Scorecard in the organization and the own process of calculation allows to obtain a Balanced Scorecard of energy management. It describes the executive order of the actions that have to be done to reach to the mentioned indicator, based on the selection of the selected period of time; the types of power carriers, the weight of each carrier in the structure of the consumption and the activities where they are used. With these elements several tools are used to reach to the expected results, as the bar charts, comparative tables and indices of power intensity. The indices of energy intensity are recommended as comparative elements for the contribution to the operativity and information level, meaning that not always is necessary to tie them , if not, in some cases, may be other selected indicators that may result as qualitatives type, The Cuban enterprise system uses the model Control of Consumption and Catchment Demand of fuels and lubricants (CDA 002 of the Ministry of Economy and Planning (MEP that is used in the work and it is recommended for the organizations who apply it. The study and application of this method were made in the Company of Raw materials Recovery in an experimental form.

  9. About the stress biological indicators changes of bunker using awareness to simulate combat-taking Nanjing Forest Police College as an example%掩体利用意识模拟实战训练的应激生物学指标变化--以南京森林警察学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昱欣

    2015-01-01

    In order to make the theoretical police tactical training into practical combat from both the physiological and psychological aspects,the tactical instructors design a training scheme in which the tactical training is conducted under the real situation pressure. This design scheme tries to make the police traineesˊreceive their training with the tactical consciousness of Cover-Using. And,with the testing of the traineesˊphysiological and psychological sensitive indexes that conducted in the laboratory,it aims to explore the biological mechanism that stimulates the generation of stress.The results suggest that compared with the control group ,the saliva cortisol level of the trainees’of the experiment group has a great increase(P<0.05),the average heart rate rises significantly(P<0.01),and the subjective stress levels also elevate greatly(P<0.01). Thus,the tactical instructorsˊinnovation of the training scheme with the Cover-Using tactical consciousness has a real combat stress in physiological and psychological aspects.%从心理和生理方面设计了现实情境压力训练方案进行“掩体利用”战术意识训练,并借助实验室对应激压力下警察战术训练学员的生理心理学敏感指标进行测试,旨在探索应激压力发生的生物学机制。结果表明:实验组与对照组相比,应激压力训练后唾液中皮质醇水平相对训练前显著升高(P<0.05),平均心率显著升高(P<0.01),主观紧张程度显著提高(P<0.01)。可见战术教官创新设计的“掩体利用”战术意识压力训练模式在生理和心理反应层面达到了实战应激。

  10. Sound construction of risk indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Thomsen, Marianne

      In spite of the great effort in the area of environmental risk assessment of chemicals, a critical amount of uncertainty is still a reality due to high complexity of the governing risk problem. Unexpected adverse effects may thus take place event though the risk assessment predicts no-risk. Some....... The purpose is to develop a novel approach for risk indicators that can support risk minimization. Risk indicators can identify risk reduction and thus yield a time trend analysis of the progress in risk level. Another option is to evaluate the current condition in relation to a reference condition defined...... that governs the method: HotSpot Driven Aggregation of Risk Indicators (HoSDARI) as described in Sørensen et al. (2008). The purpose of the risk assessment is to protect a defined target that has some value for protection. The target has a number of realizations each defined as a Protection Unit (PU...

  11. VELOCITY INDICATOR FOR EXTRUSION PRESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digney, F.J. Jr.; Bevilacqua, F.

    1959-04-01

    An indicator is presented for measuring the lowspeed velocity of an object in one direction where the object returns in the opposite direction at a high speed. The indicator comprises a drum having its axis of rotation transverse to the linear movement of the object and a tape wound upon the drum with its free end extending therefrom and adapted to be connected to the object. A constant torque is applied to the drum in a direction to wind the tape on the drum. The speed of the tape in the unwinding direction is indicated on a tachometer which is coupled through a shaft and clutch means to the drum only when the tape is unwinding.

  12. Some indicators of (unsuccessful reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we set the aim to determine whether phonological awareness and short-term verbal memory are indicators of a subsequent reading acquisition. The sample consisted of 194 first graders from two primary schools in Belgrade. The results of our research showed that the most significant indicator of the subsequent (unsuccessful reading was phonological awareness. The short-term verbal memory is, to a lesser extent, an indicator of the subsequent reading acquisition defined by the time needed for reading the text and by the text comprehension. Our findings offer basis for proposing that the phonological awareness assessment should be implemented into the regular procedure of assessing child's readiness for school. In this way children in need for preventive stimulation within the inclusive programme in primary schools could be identified.

  13. Hearing Aid with Visual Indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The invention comprises a hearing aid, which has a casing containing a signal receiving part for receiving an audio signal, an audio transducer for providing an audio signal to the user, a signal transmission path between the signal receiving part and the audio transducer, whereby a battery...... is provided for powering the signal receiving part, the signal path and the audio transducer, and where further means are provided for assessing the function of the hearing aid and for generating an electrical indication signal which indicates the function of the hearing aid and where further means...... are provided for intermittently generating a power signal in response to the electrical indication signal and where means are provided for converting the power signal into a light signal, such that the light signal is visible from outside the hearing aid....

  14. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  15. Biology and Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bascompte, Jordi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Biology has become the new “physics” of mathematics, one of the areas of greatest mathematical applications. In turn, mathematics has provided powerful tools and metaphors to approach the astonishing complexity of biological systems. This has allowed the development of sound theoretical frameworks. Here, I summarize some of the most significant contributions of mathematics to biology, ranging from population genetics, to developmental biology, and to networks of species interactions.La biología se ha convertido en la nueva “física” de las matemáticas, una de las áreas con mayores aplicaciones. Las matemáticas, por su parte, han proporcionado herramientas y metáforas muy poderosas para abordar la increíble complejidad de los sistemas biológicos. Esto ha permitido la génesis de marcos conceptuales sólidos. En este artículo resumo algunas de las aplicaciones más exitosas de las matemáticas a la biología que van desde la genética de poblaciones a la biología del desarrollo y las redes de interacciones ecológicas.

  16. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  17. INNOVATION IN ACCOUNTING BIOLOGIC ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolуarova M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the innovations in the classification and measurement of biological assets according to IFRS (IAS 41 "Agriculture". The difficulties faced by agricultural producers using standard, set out in article. The classification based on the adopted amendments, according to which the fruit-bearing plants, previously accounted for as biological assets are measured at fair value are included in the category of fixed assets. The structure of biological assets and main means has been studied in trials. Changes made to the IFRS (IAS 41 "Agriculture", make similar national and international accounting rules. In this way, the fruit-bearing plants are carried at cost, taking into account accumulated depreciation. This approach is similar in both accounting systems. The method of accounting of fruit-bearing assets, which after maturation are not significant biotransformation in the value, has been simplifying accounting. According to the fruit-bearing assets, active market was absent; therefore, the estimation of fair value for them is not correct. The model of using fruit-bearing assets is similar to the use of industrial equipment. Historical cost is more appropriate and meets economic substance of the objects. Assessment of performance of fruit-bearing assets and indicators of their use is represented on an example of perennial crops

  18. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi;

    This report describes first results of the Network: eHealth policy analysis and first common Nordic eHealth indicators. The results show similarities and also some differences in the eHealth policies, priorities and implementation. Interesting similarities and differences in availability and use...... of eHealth services in the Nordic countries were found with the first comparable eHealth indicators. The results create a basis for Evidence-based policy making as well as benchmarking and learning best practices from each other....

  19. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The idea that performance indicators in public management have unintended consequences is almost as old as performance measurement itself. But, is ‘unintended consequences’ an appropriate and insightful idea? The very term rests on an identification of intentions and assumptions about validity...... that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...

  20. CHALLENGES WHEN DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing key performance indicators (KPIs represents one step closer to the achievement of objectives and strategic vision of the organization. They are important elements of the pathway towards performance, they evaluate and indicate the level of progress, guide the organizational strategy, they can be considered even the qualitative or quantitative expression of the execution of the strategy. Building reliable and appropriate measurement systems is one of the most difficult stage in the performance evaluation process. Such systems of management will help the executives and the management teams identify and build upon the elements that create competitive advantage and opportunities for better results.

  1. THE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of profitability indicators is an activity that should preoccupy all companies. Profitabilitydoes not mean only obtaining profit. A company is competitive if the ownership equity grows (the shareholders’money, the company has a profit that is comparable to that of other companies from the same area of activity,has a positive cash flow and the employees are satisfied with their salaries. Multiple indicators are used tomeasure performance: profit, commercial, economic, financial, investment rate of return, breakeven point,economic value added, net operating result.

  2. Bayesian Sampling using Condition Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    The problem of control quality of components is considered for the special case where the acceptable failure rate is low, the test costs are high and where it may be difficult or impossible to test the condition of interest directly. Based on the classical control theory and the concept...... of condition indicators introduced by Benjamin and Cornell (1970) a Bayesian approach to quality control is formulated. The formulation is then extended to the case where the quality control is based on sampling of indirect information about the condition of the components, i.e. condition indicators...

  3. Academic appropriation and Impact Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson López López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of appropriation of scientific knowledge and the indicators designed to measure its impact is being hotly debated in Iberoamerica right now. I will separate what I call academic appropriation of knowledge from what many authors have called social appropriation of knowledge. The former isrelated to knowledge communication and transference practices in scientific communities, and the latter has to do with the multiple ways in which knowledge goes to society. This editorial will address academic appropriation.Academic appropriations are found in many levels: the first is that performed by colleagues (peers who use this knowledge, and citations are the indicators of usage. This is a sensitive indicator, and thus vulnerable to citation dynamics in academic communities. For example, communities with low levels of knowledge use are generally endogamic and have low international collaboration.They are also characterised by not easily modifying their citation habits. In this sense, a part of these citations generally make themselves invisible, this is, they do not acknowledge neither their own efforts, not those made by local peer groups (regional, and are negatively paradoxical, even when proclaimed in an anti-mainstream science discourse. At the same time, they downplay their own production or the regional production, and ground their work on the production that they claim to go beyond.On the other hand, research groups with an important output can improve or decrease the visibility of other groups and journals, since the amount of work ends up concentrating citations in particular works or journals, which affects themeasures derived from citation-expressed impacts. In this sense, and as a response with additional elements for assessing academic production, it is suggested that: 1. The quartile of the journal be used, since it gives a more accurate idea of its dynamics and shows the journal in relation to other journals with its variability

  4. Neutron in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  5. Information flow between stock indices

    OpenAIRE

    Okyu Kwon; Jae-Suk Yang

    2008-01-01

    Using transfer entropy, we observed the strength and direction of information flow between stock indices. We uncovered that the biggest source of information flow is America. In contrast, the Asia/Pacific region the biggest is receives the most information. According to the minimum spanning tree, the GSPC is located at the focal point of the information source for world stock markets.

  6. Indicatives, concessives, and evidential support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, Igor; Verbrugge, Sara

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of categorical acceptability of indicative and concessive conditionals. It presents experimental results in favour of two claims concerning the role of the evidential support relation for acceptability (or otherwise) of conditionals of both types. In particular, the re

  7. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators in f...

  8. A Molecular Biology Database Digest

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Kröger, Peer

    2000-01-01

    Computational Biology or Bioinformatics has been defined as the application of mathematical and Computer Science methods to solving problems in Molecular Biology that require large scale data, computation, and analysis [18]. As expected, Molecular Biology databases play an essential role in Computational Biology research and development. This paper introduces into current Molecular Biology databases, stressing data modeling, data acquisition, data retrieval, and the integration...

  9. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  10. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  11. The Biology of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  12. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  13. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  14. Chemistry and biology data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical monitoring data and biological data from field collected samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Biales , A., D. Denton , D....

  15. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  16. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  17. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean....

  18. Precision Measurement in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  19. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  20. [Systems biology of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  1. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  2. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F

    2013-01-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  3. EDITORIAL: Physical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Jane

    2004-06-01

    Physical Biology is a new peer-reviewed publication from Institute of Physics Publishing. Launched in 2004, the journal will foster the integration of biology with the traditionally more quantitative fields of physics, chemistry, computer science and other math-based disciplines. Its primary aim is to further the understanding of biological systems at all levels of complexity, ranging from the role of structure and dynamics of a single molecule to cellular networks and organisms. The journal encourages the development of a new biology-driven physics based on the extraordinary and increasingly rich data arising in biology, and provides research directions for those involved in the creation of novel bio-engineered systems. Physical Biology will publish a stimulating combination of full length research articles, communications, perspectives, reviews and tutorials from a wide range of disciplines covering topics such as: Single-molecule studies and nanobiotechnology Molecular interactions and protein folding Charge transfer and photobiology Ion channels; structure, function and ion regulation Molecular motors and force generation Subcellular processes Biological networks and neural systems Modeling aspects of molecular and cell biology Cell-cell signaling and interaction Biological patterns and development Evolutionary processes Novel tools and methods in physical biology Experts in the areas encompassed by the journal's scope have been appointed to the Editorial Scientific Committee and the composition of the Committee will be updated regularly to reflect the developments in this new and exciting field. Physical Biology is free online to everyone in 2004; you are invited to take advantage of this offer by visiting the journal homepage at http://physbio.iop.org This special print edition of Physical Biology is a combination of issues 1 and 2 of this electronic-only journal and it brings together an impressive range of articles in the fields covered, including a popular

  4. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...... materials are characterized by their hierarchical and composite design, where features with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters provide the basis for the functionality of the material. Understanding of biological materials is, while very interesting from a basic research perspective, also valuable...... as inspiration for the development of new materials for medical and technological applications. In order to successfully mimic biological materials we must first have a thorough understanding of their design. As such, the purpose of the characterization of biological materials can be defined as the establishment...

  5. Synthetic biology: A foundation for multi-scale molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Adam G; McClintock, Maria K; Stephen S. Fong

    2010-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology has made rapid progress in a number of areas including method development, novel applications and community building. In seeking to make biology “engineerable,” synthetic biology is increasing the accessibility of biological research to researchers of all experience levels and backgrounds. One of the underlying strengths of synthetic biology is that it may establish the framework for a rigorous bottom-up approach to studying biology starting at the DNA level. Bu...

  6. Noise in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimring, Lev S

    2014-01-01

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms, and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evol...

  7. Synthetic biology and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robienski, Jürgen; Simon, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict fields and legal questions of synthetic biology, esp. concerning biosecurity. A respective jurisprudential discussion has not taken place yet in Germany apart from few statements and recommendations. But in Germany, Europe and the USA, it is generally accepted that a broad discussion is necessary. This is esp. true for the question of biosecurity and the possible dangers arising from Synthetic Biology. PMID:25845204

  8. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  9. Subsoil Compaction as a Climate Damage Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Birkás

    2009-06-01

    Soil compaction has become a soil management problem during the last decade as a result of the occurrence of periods of water-logging as well as droughts. This study contains an evaluation of factors relating to subsoil compaction, as indicator of climate effects on arable fields. This paper is based on soil condition monitoring and measuring that was started 32 years ago and on short and long-term experiments modeling and checking the extension of compaction in the soil. The survey comprised 1526 monitoring places and 38 experimental plots. The following five points were chosen for monitoring: 1 root zone state (to a depth of 0-60 cm; 2 occurrence of compacted layer (indicating likelihood of risk; 3 extension of the compacted layer (indicating the degree of damage; 4 long term effects of tillage (soil state deterioration or improvement, and 5 tillage-induced water-logging and drought damage impacts on yield loss. The main objectives of the experiments were: 1 occurrence and the extent of tillage-pan damage in soils of different susceptibility to compaction; 2 consequences on water management in each of the years covered by the experiments; 3 soil quality consequences, and 4 alleviation of pan-compaction by mechanical and biological methods. Long-term field monitoring and experimental work have both convincingly proven a correlation between subsoil compaction and the degree of climatic damage. In view of the findings, trends in soil tillage can be grouped into the following two categories: climate damage mitigating and climate-stress increasing ones. The formation and location of compacted layers provided information concerning the depth, the method and the type of tillage applied, along with the expected risk for crop production under extreme climate conditions.

  10. Contemporary Crises and Sustainability Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Zidansek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Following six decades of fastest economic and technological development in history, the current crises have been triggered by collapse of unsustainable financial systems. The extent of these contemporary interconnected crises of economic, societal, environmental, financial and other systems has also shown a need to reevaluate the measurement of sustainable development. Although the existing sustainability indicators are very complex, interdisciplinary and multidimensional, they could neither predict the onset of the crises nor their extent. Therefore relations between indicators of sustainability, technological development and happiness are presented and discussed also in terms of some of the current crises. Some possible solutions are also presented, which could be used for better measurement of life quality and could potentially replace the Gross Domestic Product as the prevailing measure of development.

  11. Covariance Propagation in Spectral Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, P.J., E-mail: pjgriff@sandia.gov

    2015-01-15

    The dosimetry community has a history of using spectral indices to support neutron spectrum characterization and cross section validation efforts. An important aspect to this type of analysis is the proper consideration of the contribution of the spectrum uncertainty to the total uncertainty in calculated spectral indices (SIs). This paper identifies deficiencies in the traditional treatment of the SI uncertainty, provides simple bounds to the spectral component in the SI uncertainty estimates, verifies that these estimates are reflected in actual applications, details a methodology that rigorously captures the spectral contribution to the uncertainty in the SI, and provides quantified examples that demonstrate the importance of the proper treatment the spectral contribution to the uncertainty in the SI.

  12. Transgenic agriculture and environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid diffusion of transgenic crops, there are still few environmental impact studies capable of supplying a conclusive scientific response in regard to its technical and economic advantages and disadvantages. Prospective scenarios were elaborated to assist environmental impact assessment, using techniques derived from SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis and the DPSIR (Driving Force – human activity, Pressure, State, Impact, Response model, to evaluate the environmental indicators and the relationship between them. Control and management actions were identified, searching the integration of aspects related to the biotechnology applied to transgenic processes, biodiversity, biosafety and intellectual property. It was demonstrated that the DPSIR model is, in fact, an instrument for integrated environmental assessment and the application of the proposed methodology resulted in favorable indicators to the adoption of transgenic agriculture. The elaborated scenarios are useful to develop an Environmental Management System (EMS to agriculture.

  13. Prognostic Indicators in Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Several approaches have been used in an attempt to predict the severity and prognosis of attacks of acute pancreatitis. The Ranson and Glasgow criteria include a variety of simple laboratory parameters that are measured on admission and again within 48 h. They are the most widely used indices in clinical practice. The Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation II system is more complicated, but can be applied to a wide variety of conditions, especially in intensive care settings. The u...

  14. Taxonomy of Stock Market Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bonanno; Nicolas Vandewalle; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate sets of financial non-redundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By properly selecting the time horizon of returns and by using a reference currency we find a meaningful taxonomy. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in a set of nonsynchronously recorded time series.

  15. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  16. Taxonomy of stock market indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanno, Giovanni; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Mantegna, Rosario N.

    2000-12-01

    We investigate sets of financial nonredundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By properly selecting the time horizon of returns and by using a reference currency we find a meaningful taxonomy. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in a set of nonsynchronously recorded time series.

  17. Performance indicators: healthcare professionals' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to capture factors behind professional views of indicator usefulness as a common structure for assessing healthcare performance and their important characteristics to design limited key performance indicators (PIs) for holistic hospital management. Design/methodology/approach - Two surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires, in which hospital manager/staff respondents were asked to rate the 52 PIs' usefulness. In total, 228 manager and 894 staff responses were collected. Findings - Eight factors were elicited from manager and staff responses as performance measures with 72 percent cumulative variance accounted for. Hospital managers and staff showed similar performance measure perceptions: high-utility acknowledgment on safety, operational efficiency and patient/employee satisfaction but relatively low-employee development concerns. Manager indicator usefulness perceptions were rather homogeneous and significantly higher than staff for almost all performance measures. Practical implications - Homogeneous manager views mean that a single key PI set for hospital management may be established regardless of hospital attributes. The following aspects may be measures that should be managed in a healthcare organization based on their key PIs: patient/employee safety, operational efficiency, financial effectiveness and patient/employee satisfaction. Originality/value - This is a pilot study on hospital management PIs in Japan. The eight-dimensional factor structure and findings about healthcare provider perceptions may be useful for healthcare management. PMID:27477935

  18. Energy indicators for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is an essential factor in overall efforts to achieve sustainable development. Countries striving to this end are seeking to reassess their energy systems with a view toward planning energy programmes and strategies in line with sustainable development goals and objectives. This paper summarizes the outcome of an international partnership initiative on indicators for sustainable energy development that aims to provide an analytical tool for assessing current energy production and use patterns at a national level. The proposed set of energy indicators represents a first step of a consensus reached on this subject by five international agencies-two from the United Nations system (the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the International Atomic Energy Agency), two from the European Union (Eurostat and the European Environment Agency) and one from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (the International Energy Agency). Energy and environmental experts including statisticians, analysts, policy makers and academics have started to implement general guidelines and methodologies in the development of national energy indicators for use in their efforts to monitor the effects of energy policies on the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development

  19. Chromospheric activity as age indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Giancarlo

    2013-01-01

    Chromospheric activity has been calibrated and widely used as age indicator. However, it has been suggested that the viability of such an age indicator is, in the best case, limited to stars younger than about 1.5 Gyr. I aim to define the age range for which chromospheric activity is a robust astrophysical clock. I collected literature measurements of the S-index in field stars, which is a measure of the strength of the H and K lines of the Ca II and a proxy for chromospheric activity, and exploited the homogeneous database of temperature and age determinations for field stars provided by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Field data, inclusive data previously used to calibrate chromospheric ages, confirm the result found using open cluster data, i.e. there is no decay of chromospheric activity after about 2 Gyr. The only existing indication supporting the viability of chromospheric ages larger than 2 Gyr, is the similarity of chromospheric activity levels in the components of 35 dwarf b...

  20. Polychaetes as environmental indicators revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giangrande, Adriana [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technology, University of Lecce, Marine Biological Station, 73100 Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: gianadri@ilenic.unile.it; Licciano, Margherita [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technology, University of Lecce, Marine Biological Station, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Musco, Luigi [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technology, University of Lecce, Marine Biological Station, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2005-11-15

    The utilization of polychaetes in descriptive ecology is reviewed in the light of recent research especially concerning the biota hard bottom environments. Polychaetes, often linked in the past to the concept of opportunistic species able to proliferate after an increase in organic matter, have played an important role especially with regard to impacted soft-bottom habitats. Increased knowledge of the group, suggests that not only opportunistic species can be utilised as indicators, so that these organisms can be disengaged from the old concept of opportunistic taxa. Moreover, recent researches conducted on this group allowed demonstrating as surrogacy is not always applicable. Among polychaetes inhabiting hard bottom environment, the analysis of family Syllidae appears particularly promising. Studied conducted in our laboratory demonstrated as syllid species decrease in abundance or completely disappear under varying sources of negative impact. The distribution of species also appeared indicative in underlying effects of marine protected areas (MPA) functioning, or in describing different climatic areas within biogeographical sectors. It is obvious that good results can only be obtained on the basis of good taxonomic resolution. We suggested that, in monitoring studies, operational time could be optimized not only by working at a higher-level on the whole invertebrate data set, but by also selecting a particularly indicative group and working at fine level.

  1. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  2. Performance indicators for rinderpest surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1986, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture initiated a programme of assistance to FAO and IAEA Member States for the development of effective, quality assured veterinary laboratory diagnostic services. This programme introduced the use of standardized and internationally validated ELISA-based systems for the diagnosis and surveillance of the major transboundary diseases that affect livestock. This approach has proved of immense value in the monitoring of national, regional and global animal disease control and eradication programmes. One such programme focuses on the global elimination of rinderpest. Co-ordinated by FAO through the Global Rinderpest Eradication Programme (GREP) the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has developed critical diagnostic and epidemiological tools to assist this effort. As the final stages of the global eradication of rinderpest are reached, it is fitting that the Joint Division should again take the lead in providing guidance to Member States on how best to meet the criteria for quality assurance of national disease surveillance programmes - a prerequisite for international acceptance of freedom from a particular disease. This publication is intended to provide countries involved in rinderpest eradication with a detailed protocol for using performance indicators in evaluating their disease surveillance system and making, where necessary, adjustments to meet the criteria for acceptance specified in the OIE Rinderpest Pathway - a pathway that leads to international recognition of freedom from rinderpest. An initial publication (IAEA-TECDOC-1161) described guidelines for the use of performance indicators in rinderpest surveillance programmes. This publication now describes in detail the protocols and the linked indicators which have been developed and field validated through a series of FAO/IAEA meetings and through IAEA expert assignments to countries in Africa

  3. Sewage-pollution indicator bacteria

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaiah, N.; Rodrigues, V.; Alwares, E.; Rodrigues, C.; Baksh, R.; Jayan, S.; Mohandass, C.

    ?8 September 2002), and post-monsoon (12?15 March 2003). The schedule of observations is given in table 11.1. At each location, water samples were collected every three hours for 24 hours. The eight samples collected over a 24-hour period allowed us to examine..., small (less than 2 mm June 13, 2007 20:6 RPS rpb001ch11 SEWAGE-POLLUTION INDICATOR BACTERIA 117 Table 11.1 Sampling schedule followed for enumeration of bacterial populations during this study. Estuary Sampling dates Sampling strategy Mandovi 28?29 April...

  4. [Sacral block: indications and effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, D; Dvorak, J

    1998-02-25

    It has been shown that during injection of 17 to 20 ml local anesthetics combined with a corticosteroid via the hiatus canalis sacralis that the solution is distributed up to the level of the thoraco-lumbar junction. The indication for therapeutical peridural injection are radicular symptoms as a result of disc herniation, foraminal stenosis as well as neurogenic claudicatio. Contraindications are anticoagulation, local infection as well as suspicion of systemic inflammatory disease of the peripheral nervous system. With proper technique and adequate desinfection, complications and side effects are very rare.

  5. Optimization by visualization of indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkamp, Uwe; Kriz, Jan; Eich, Hans Theodor [University Muenster, Department of Radiotherapy, Muenster (Germany); Norkus, Darius [Vilnius University, Oncology Institute, Vilnius (Lithuania); Mueller Minai, Mariam; Prott, Franz-Josef [RNS Radiotherapy Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Physical 3D treatment planning provides a pool of parameters describing dose distributions. It is often useful to define conformal indices to enable quicker evaluation. However, the application of individual indices is controversial and not always effective. The aim of this study was to design a quick check of dose distributions based on several indices detecting underdosages within planning target volumes (PTVs) and overdosages in normal tissue. Dose distributions of 215 cancer patients were considered. Treatment modalities used were three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), radiosurgery, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) and tomotherapy. The volumes recommended in ICRU 50 and 83 were used for planning and six conformation and homogeneity indices were selected: CI, CN, C{sub ICRU}, COV, C{sub ∇}, and HI. These were based on the PTV, the partial volume covered by the prescribed isodose (PI; PTV{sub PI}), the treated volume (TV{sub PI}), near maximum D{sub 2} and near minimum D{sub 98}. Results were presented as a hexagon - the corners of which represent the values of the indices - and a modified test function F (Rosenbrock's function) was calculated. Results refer to clinical examples and mean values, in order to allow evaluation of the power of F and hexagon-based decision support procedures in detail and in general. IMAT and tomotherapy showed the best values for the indices and the lowest standard deviation followed by static IMRT. DCRT and radiosurgery (e.g. CN: IMAT 0.85 ± 0.06; tomotherapy 0.84 ± 0.06; IMRT 0.83 ± 0.07; 3DCRT 0.65 ± 0.08; radiosurgery 0.64 ± 0.11). In extreme situations, not all indices reflected the situation correctly. Over- and underdosing of PTV and normal tissue could be qualitatively assessed from the distortion of the hexagon in graphic analysis. Tomotherapy, IMRT, IMAT, 3DCRT and radiosurgery showed increasingly distorted hexagons, the type of distortion indicating

  6. Simple indicators for Lorentzian causets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Tommaso; Lamb, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Several classes of directed acyclic graphs have been investigated in the last two decades, in the context of the causal set program, in search for good discrete models of spacetime. We introduce some statistical indicators that can be used for comparing these graphs and for assessing their closeness to the ideal Lorentzian causal sets (‘causets’)—those obtained by sprinkling points in a Lorentzian manifold. In particular, with the reversed triangular inequality of Special Relativity in mind, we introduce ‘longest/shortest path plots’, an easily implemented tool to visually detect the extent to which a generic causet matches the wide range of path lengths between events of Lorentzian causets. This tool can attribute some degree of ‘Lorentzianity’—in particular ‘non-locality’—also to causets that are not (directly) embeddable and that, due to some regularity in their structure, would not pass the key test for Lorentz invariance: the absence of preferred reference frames. We compare the discussed indicators and use them for assessing causets both of stochastic and of deterministic, algorithmic origin, finding examples of the latter that behave optimally w.r.t. our longest/shortest path plots.

  7. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warninghoff Jan-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Menière's disease (MD, vestibular migraine (VM, and phobic postural vertigo (PPV. Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research.

  8. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  9. Biological races in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  10. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  11. Risk indicators at Cofrentes NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the tend to try to find indicators to show the excellence in the performance where Nuclear Power Plants are currently involved, Cofrentes NPP are managing several indicators related with risk. The concept of risk is classically associated with the product RISK = PROBABILITY * DAMAGE So what a risk based indicator will show is the probability of having a 'damage'. Speaking about a period of time, we will have frequencies of having 'damages'. What is call 'damage' can be differently interpreted depending of what we concern. In western NPP is very extended the concept of 'core damage', meaning the loss of fuel integrity, as a final state to avoid. This have carried in most of western NPP to develop a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA/PSA), that using technical based in fault trees and event trees models, looks for the frequency to reach core damage. The PSA in Cofrentes NPP has been deeply applied to find weakness in the design and procedures, prioritizations in maintenance activities, quality assurance requirements, justifications to continued operation, and others. A Risk Monitor based in PSA models (and so monitoring the Core Damage Frequency) has been developed and is currently installed in the Control Room to help operators to control the risk associated with each configuration of availability or unavailability of equipments. This PSA Monitor is the source for some indicators that Cofrentes NPP has defined and are sharing with IAEA trying to find an standard. Maximum Core Damage Frequency reached and accumulated annual probability is calculated and compared with expected values and with predefined limits. As the PSA in Cofrentes NPP is only for at power Operations, there has been developed a methodology based on NUMARC 91-06 to measure and control the risk during shutdowns. The 'damage' here is a concept related with the safety functions. Some coefficients are applied to each configuration according with how the safety functions are fulfilled (defense

  12. Informing Biological Design by Integration of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Smolke, Christina D.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields.

  13. Biosimilars: A New Aspect in the Biological Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Başak Yalçın; Nilgün Atakan; Nihal Kundakçı; Ferda Artüz

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnological drugs (biological agents, biologics) are medical products, which are produced by DNA technology and hybridoma methods. Nowadays these drugs are effectively used in the treatment of several diseases with a consistently increasing diversity and indication spectrum. Psoriasis is the major dermatological disease in which biologics are used successfully. With the use of these drugs important improvements were achieved in the treatment of the disease. However these drugs are very e...

  14. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  15. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider. PMID:22639577

  16. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920's and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  17. The biology of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R

    1992-09-01

    Historically, models of personality have generally postulated, or assumed, a link with biology. This century has witnessed a major revision of these ideas with both behavioural and psychoanalytic theorists emphasising life experiences as being largely responsible for behaviour as adults. Challenges to this assumption of the overwhelming importance of life experiences are reviewed. An extensive body of data now exists suggesting that biology contributes significantly to individual variability. This biological contribution occurs at a relatively low level in the central nervous system, best defined as temperament. Further research has suffered from the lack of a cohesive psychobiological model. Cloninger's tridimensional theory of personality is presented as a model which attempts to bridge the gap between theoretical temperamental traits, neurotransmitter function and clinical psychiatry. It is to be hoped that new theoretical models will be formulated which will focus on the importance of temperamental variables in psychiatric disorders.

  18. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  19. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  20. Selected Banks Economic Efficiency Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.

  1. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  2. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Many patients with prostate cancer for whom hormonal therapy is indicated are still physically and sexually active; quality of life is therefore a vital issue when considering treatment options. Traditional castration-based therapies, although effective, have implications with respect to quality...... of life, causing loss of libido, impotence, fatigue, and reduced bone mineral density. Monotherapy with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen is an attractive therapeutic alternative to castration, offering effective therapy with potential quality-of-life benefits. Of the available nonsteroidal antiandrogens...... with castration, in terms of sexual interest and physical capacity, in patients with either M0 and M1 stage disease. Data from a small subgroup of patients with stage M0 disease suggest that bicalutamide may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis compared with castration. Long-term therapy with bicalutamide 150-mg...

  3. CT colonography: techniques, indications, findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Thomas; Graser, Anno; Schima, Wolfgang; Maier, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions. PMID:17224254

  4. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions

  5. CT colonography: Techniques, indications, findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mang, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: thomas.mang@meduniwien.ac.at; Graser, Anno [Department of Clinical Radiology, Grosshadern Campus, University of Munich, Marchioninistrasse 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); Schima, Wolfgang [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Maier, Andrea [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-03-15

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is a minimally invasive technique for imaging the entire colon. Based on a helical thin-section CT of the cleansed and air-distended colon, two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections are used for image interpretation. Several clinical improvements in patient preparation, technical advances in CT, and new developments in evaluation software have allowed CTC to develop into a powerful diagnostic tool. It is already well established as a reliable diagnostic tool in symptomatic patients. Many experts currently consider CTC a comparable alternative to conventional colonoscopy, although there is still debate about its sensitivity for the detection of colonic polyps in a screening population. This article summarizes the main indications, the current techniques in patient preparation, data acquisition and data analysis as well as imaging features for common benign and malignant colorectal lesions.

  6. Blood amylase - a biochemical radiation indicator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the suitability of the biological radiation indicator 'amylase in human blood serum' to identify, if previous irradiation has occurred. After 'in vivo' exposure, of the human body with organ doses > 0,5 Gy, high activities of the enzyme are found in serum. The important results of examinations from different work groups and from own experiments were summarized in tabular form and evaluated from the statistic point of view. The results show that in more than 90% of all cases, the amylase system is suitable to identify exposure beyond 0,5 to 1 Gy, approximately. However, this is only possible if the salivary glands were also exposed and blood samples are taken about 18 hours after exposure. For the differentiation between induced increase of amylase from disease and radiation induced increase, it is recommended to carry out the isoamylase test, which makes it possible to distinguish between the individual enzymes. The assessment of the total amylase is appropriate to detect, with a range of significance of P = 0,05 that radiation exposure has occurred. The increase of activity is dose dependent when the salivary glands lie in the radiation field, however, the variations of activity are very high. Therefore the radiation dose cannot be considered. Only in cases where a very high radiation induced increase of activity is observed, a rough estimation of dose at the parotid glands can be made. (orig./MG)

  7. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  8. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron structural biology will be one of the most important fields in the life sciences which will interest human beings in the 21st century because neutrons can provide not only the position of hydrogen atoms in biological macromolecules but also the dynamic molecular motion of hydrogen atoms and water molecules. However, there are only a few examples experimentally determined at present because of the lack of neutron source intensity. Next generation neutron source scheduled in JAERI (Performance of which is 100 times better than that of JRR-3M) opens the life science of the 21st century. (author)

  9. Chemical and Biological Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel', N. M.

    1981-10-01

    Examples of the application of the methods and ideas of chemical kinetics in various branches of chemistry and biology are considered and the results of studies on the kinetics and mechanisms of autoxidation and inhibited and catalysed oxidation of organic substances in the liquid phase are surveyed. Problems of the kinetics of the ageing of polymers and the principles of their stabilisation are discussed and certain trends in biological kinetics (kinetics of tumour growth, kinetic criteria of the effectiveness of chemotherapy, problems of gerontology, etc.) are considered. The bibliography includes 281 references.

  10. Listeriosis in patients receiving biologic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodro, M; Paterson, D L

    2013-09-01

    The evolution of inflammatory diseases has radically changed since the introduction of biologic therapies, such as tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (anti-TNFα). They, therefore, represent a widely used therapeutic modality. Nevertheless, post-marketing studies reveal an increased risk of infection in patients taking these drugs, especially granulomatous infections such as listeriosis. We aimed to evaluate the reported cases of listeriosis in patients treated with biologic treatments. We used the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) from 2004 to 2011. We also perform a literature review of previously reported cases of listeriosis in patients taking biologic therapies. We identified 266 cases of Listeria monocytogenes infection associated with biologic therapies. The majority of patients were receiving infliximab (77.1 %), followed by etanercept (11.7 %), adalimumab (9.8 %), rituximab (4.1 %), abatacept (0.4 %) and golimumab (0.4 %). Indications for the use of biologics were as follows: 47.7 % for rheumatologic diseases, 38 % for inflammatory bowel diseases, 3.4 % for haematological diseases and 10.5 % for other indications. Seventy-three percent of the patients were receiving concomitant immunosuppressant drugs, especially steroids (56 %) and methotrexate (31.6 %). The median time to the onset of infection was 184 days. Mortality rates range from 11.1 % in adalimumab-treated patients to 27.3 % in rituximab-treated patients (p = 0.7). Listeriosis is common in biologics-treated patients, especially related to infliximab use given concomitantly with other immunosuppressive therapies. Infections after treatment with biologics mostly occurred in the first year after initiating treatment. PMID:23568606

  11. Networks in Cell Biology = Modelling cell biology with networks

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The science of complex biological networks is transforming research in areas ranging from evolutionary biology to medicine. This is the first book on the subject, providing a comprehensive introduction to complex network science and its biological applications. With contributions from key leaders in both network theory and modern cell biology, this book discusses the network science that is increasingly foundational for systems biology and the quantitative understanding of living systems. It ...

  12. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes an

  13. Mathematics in the Biology Classroom: A Model of Interdisciplinary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ted; Keck, Robert; Patterson, Richard; Maki, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary course that develops essential mathematical modeling skills within an introductory biology setting. The course embodies recent recommendations regarding the need for interdisciplinary, inquiry-based mathematical preparation of undergraduates in the biological sciences. Evaluation indicates that the…

  14. Relationships between Attitude and Achievement among College Biology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Harold E.; Simpson, Ronald D.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated (1) changes in community college students' (N=208) attitudes toward introductory biology, school, and academic self and (2) relationships between attitudes/achievement (measured by Nelson Biology Test and course grade). Data indicated that while cognitive behavior was changed during the course, attitudes either stayed the same or…

  15. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  16. Photoacoustic tomography of water in biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhun; Li, Changhui; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    As an emerging imaging technique that combines high optical contrast and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic tomography (PAT) has been widely used to image optically absorptive objects in both human and animal tissues. PAT overcomes the depth limitation of other high-resolution optical imaging methods, and it is also free from speckle artifacts. To our knowledge, water has never been imaged by PAT in biological tissue. Here, for the first time, we experimentally imaged water in both tissue phantoms and biological tissues using a near infrared (NIR) light source. The differences among photoacoustic images of water with different concentrations indicate that laser-based PAT can usefully detect and image water content in tissue.

  17. [Principles of management in biological infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of the management in respiratory infection is depending on the nature of the biological pathogen and the immune status of the patient. For this reason, providing assistance to victims the organ function support, similarly as defining the pathogen and targeted antibiotic therapy should be applied. Available diagnostic tests provide rapid ability to identify the pathogen and antibiotics are able to control infection. Lack of efficacy of treatment may indicate the diversity of the pathogen than previously known and raises suspicion of biological warfare pathogen.

  18. Optically broadcasting wind direction indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zysko, Jan A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An optically broadcasting wind direction indicator generates flashes of light which are separated by a time interval that is directly proportional to the angle of the wind direction relative to a fixed direction, such as north. An angle/voltage transducer generates a voltage that is proportional to the wind direction relative to the fixed direction, and this voltage is employed by timing circuitry or a microprocessor that generates pulses for actuating a light source trigger circuit first at the start of the time interval, and then at the end of the time interval. To aid an observer in distinguishing between the beginning and end of the interval, two stop flashes can be provided in quick succession. The time scale is preferably chosen so that each second of the time interval corresponds to 30 deg of direction relative to north. In this manner, an observer can easily correlate the measured time interval to the wind direction by visualizing the numbers on a conventional clock face, each of which correspond to one second of time and 30 deg of angle.

  19. Situeret interesse i biologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2006-01-01

    Interesse hævdes at spille en vigtig rolle i læring. Med udgangspunkt i interesseteori og situeret læring har jeg foretaget et studium i en gymnasieklasse med biologi på højt niveau, med henblik på at identificere hvilke forhold der har betydning for hvad der fanger elevers interesse. Jeg har...

  20. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Biology Curriculum Support Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  2. Molecular Biology of Medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of diagnosis and treatment of medulloblastoma, and the influence of new biological advances in the development of more effective and less toxic therapies are reviewed by researchers at Children’s National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.

  3. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  4. Openers for Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  5. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  6. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira;

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  7. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  8. Nuclear physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about nuclear instrumentation and biological concepts, based on images from appropriate Β detectors. First, three detectors are described: the SOFI detector, for gene mapping, the SOFAS detector, for DNA sequencing and the RIHR detector, for in situ hybridization. Then, the paper presents quantitative imaging in molecular genetic and functional imaging. (TEC)

  9. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  10. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  11. Low level radiation: biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is imperative that physicians and scientists using radiations in health care delivery continue to assess the benefits derived, vs. potential risk, to patients and radiation workers being exposed to radiation in its various forms as part of our health delivery system. Insofar as possible we should assure our patients and ourselves that the benefits outweigh the potential hazards involved. Inferences as to the possible biological effects of low level radiation are generally based on extrapolations from those effects observed and measured following acute exposures to considerably higher doses of radiation. Thus, in order to shed light on the question of the possible biological effects of low level radiation, a wide variety of studies have been carried out using cells in culture and various species of plant and animal life. This manuscript makes reference to some of those studies with indications as to how and why the studies were done and the conclusions that might be drawn there from. In addition reference is made to the handling of this information by scientists, by environmentalists, and by the news media. Unfortunately, in many instances the public has been misled by what has been said and/or written. It is hoped that this presentation will provide an understandable and reasonable perspective on the various appropriate uses of radiation in our lives and how such uses do provide significant improvement in our health and in our quality of life

  12. The biological function of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This research is an investigation of whether consciousness—one's ongoing experience—influences one's behavior and, if so, how. Analysis of the components, structure, properties, and temporal sequences of consciousness has established that, (1) contrary to one's intuitive understanding, consciousness does not have an active, executive role in determining behavior; (2) consciousness does have a biological function; and (3) consciousness is solely information in various forms. Consciousness is associated with a flexible response mechanism (FRM) for decision-making, planning, and generally responding in nonautomatic ways. The FRM generates responses by manipulating information and, to function effectively, its data input must be restricted to task-relevant information. The properties of consciousness correspond to the various input requirements of the FRM; and when important information is missing from consciousness, functions of the FRM are adversely affected; both of which indicate that consciousness is the input data to the FRM. Qualitative and quantitative information (shape, size, location, etc.) are incorporated into the input data by a qualia array of colors, sounds, and so on, which makes the input conscious. This view of the biological function of consciousness provides an explanation why we have experiences; why we have emotional and other feelings, and why their loss is associated with poor decision-making; why blindsight patients do not spontaneously initiate responses to events in their blind field; why counter-habitual actions are only possible when the intended action is in mind; and the reason for inattentional blindness. PMID:25140159

  13. Soil quality indicators in Urban watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damame, D. B.; Longo, R. M.; Nardi, L. A. A.; Fengler, F. H.

    2015-12-01

    Soil quality can be defined as the ability of this function within the boundaries of an ecosystem can be assessed three different aspects: physical, biological and chemical. As no indicator alone able to quantify the quality of the soil and should relate various attributes. In this context, this study aimed to characterize soil quality in urban sub basins to the northwest of the city of Campinas / SP-Brazil. These are characterized by strong urbanization, with the presence of rural areas and fragmented native vegetation. Disturbed soil samples were collected along the area in which the parameters were analyzed: potential acidity, pH, organic matter, potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) base saturation (SB) and cation exchange capacity (CTC). Data were discussed by cluster analysis using Ward clustering strategy and using as the similarity coefficient between pairs Euclidean distance. Thus, one can divide the points collected from three different groups: Group 1 consists of 91% of the points belonging to the urban and rural use; group 2 showed about 73% of the points belonging to vegetated areas; Group 3 had 82% of points distributed between rural and vegetated areas. In terms of soil quality, it follows that on average the group 1 had the worst scores. Group 2 presented the best characteristics, except for K, higher in group 3, which can be attributed to chemical fertilizer used in agricultural areas. Knowing also that the acceptable limits for pH, in tropical soils vary between 5.5 and 6.8 is observed that the groups 2 and 3 were within this range, only the group 1 presented below this standard. In terms of soil quality indicators, group 2 stood out positively, with good quality, group 3 was between the two groups, with median values of quality, while the group 1 showed the most deterioration of the research group, It can be attributed to the fact that 54.5% of the points in this group have urban wear, indicating the need for recovery.

  14. Subsoil Compaction as a Climate Damage Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Birkás

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Some forms of soil compaction occur on arable lands both in Hungary (1.82 million ha and in Croatia (0.97 million ha having negative impacts on agricultural production. Tillage-induced subsoil compaction has oft en occurred in the Pannonian region in relation to traffic-induced compaction.Soil compaction has become a soil management problem during the last decade as a result of the occurrence of periods of water-logging as well as droughts. This study contains an evaluation of factors relating to subsoil compaction, as indicator of climate effects on arable fields. This paper is based on soil condition monitoring and measuring that was started 32 years ago and on short and long-term experiments modeling and checking the extension of compaction in the soil. The survey comprised 1526 monitoring places and 38 experimental plots. The following five points were chosen for monitoring: 1 root zone state (to a depth of 0-60 cm; 2 occurrence of compacted layer (indicating likelihood of risk; 3 extension of the compacted layer (indicating the degree of damage; 4 long term effects of tillage (soil state deterioration or improvement, and 5 tillage-induced water-logging and drought damage impacts on yield loss. The main objectives of the experiments were: 1 occurrence and the extent of tillage-pan damage in soils of different susceptibility to compaction; 2 consequences on water management in each of the years covered by the experiments; 3 soil quality consequences, and 4 alleviation of pan-compaction by mechanical and biological methods. Long-term field monitoring and experimental work have both convincingly proven a correlation between subsoil compaction and the degree of climatic damage. In view of the findings, trends in soil tillage can be grouped into the following two categories: climate damage mitigating and climate-stress increasing ones. The formation and location of compacted layers provided information concerning the depth, the method and the

  15. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  16. Biological trade and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  17. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  18. Method for detecting biological toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligler, F.S.; Campbell, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Biological toxins are indirectly detected by using polymerase chain reaction to amplify unique nucleic acid sequences coding for the toxins or enzymes unique to toxin synthesis. Buffer, primers coding for the unique nucleic acid sequences and an amplifying enzyme are added to a sample suspected of containing the toxin. The mixture is then cycled thermally to exponentially amplify any of these unique nucleic acid sequences present in the sample. The amplified sequences can be detected by various means, including fluorescence. Detection of the amplified sequences is indicative of the presence of toxin in the original sample. By using more than one set of labeled primers, the method can be used to simultaneously detect several toxins in a sample.

  19. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette;

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  20. Biological conversion of synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackerson, M.D.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1992-06-30

    Overall mass transfer coefficients for CO have been determined in a continuous stirred-tank reactor at agitation rates of 300--700 rpm using a biological system with the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. A non-steady state approach was employed in order to separate mass transfer and kinetic limited regions of the fermentation. As a result, a kinetic model could be developed for specific CO uptake by the culture including the apparent CO inhibition. The maximum specific CO uptake rate found matched the earlier results obtained in batch culture and by other investigators. CO inhibition was more predominant in CSTR culture than in batch culture, perhaps due to CO acclimation. The growth of the photosynthetic bacterium Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum on CO[sub 2] has been studied at light intensities ranging from 27-1723 lux in batch culture. Modeling results indicate that growth is dependent upon light intensity according to a Monod type relationship.

  1. Evaluation models for contaminated sites – biological system at risk

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the different methods that can be used correspond to three types of approaches, testing, monitoring, and modeling: experimental models, in situ indicators and mathematical models, and choice of model for contaminated sites – biological system at risk.

  2. Biological indicators in relation to coastal pollution along Karnataka coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Desai, S.R.; Sarkar, A.; Dalal, S.G.

    by complexing with dithizone at pH<2. The complex was extracted in acid and back-titrated in 5 M HCl and brought to aqueous phase and measured by cold vapor AAS. The frozen sediments were thawed in laboratory and dried in oven at 400C, then finely....7 to 144?g/l at Padubidri respectively 9 (Fig. 3). A thick film of petroleum was visibly evident covering the entire stretch of Kulai waters. Although, petroleum hydrocarbon was not estimated in bottom sediment, chunks of tar residues were collected...

  3. Effect of Pesticides On Certain Soil Biological and Biochemical Indices of a Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO; Min; XIE; Xiao-mei; HUANG; Chang-yong

    2003-01-01

    A 21-day laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of pesticides (Triazophos, Butaehlor and Jinggangmycin) on a paddy field soil health under controlled moisture (flooded soil) and temperature (25℃ ) conditions. The electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity displayed a negative correlation with pesticides concentrations, and the activity was affected adversely as the concentration of the pesticides increased. The higher doses of pesticides,5 and 10 folds field rates, significantly inhibited ETS activity, while lower rates failed to produce any significant reducing effect against the control. The relative toxicity level of pesticides in decreasing the ETS activity was in the following order:Triazophos>Jinggangmycin>Butachlor, irrespective of their rates of application. The pesticides caused an improvement in the soil phenol content and it increased with increasing the concentration of agrochemicals. The pesticide incorporation did not produce any significant change in soil protein content. The response of biomass phospholipid content was nearly similar to ETS activity. The phospholipid content was decreased with the addition of pesticides in the given order of Triazophos>Jinggangmycin>Butachlor; and the toxicity was in the order: 10 FR (times of field rate)>5 FR>1.0 FR>0.5 FR>control.

  4. Soil nematode assemblages indicate the potential for biological regulation of pest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Hanne; Ferris, Howard

    2016-05-01

    In concept, regulation or suppression of target nematode pest species should be enhanced when an abundance of predator species is supported by ample availability of bacterial- fungal- and non-damaging plant-feeding prey species. We selected soils from natural and managed environments that represented different levels of resource availability and disturbance. In microcosm chambers of each soil, in its natural state or after heat defaunation, we introduced test prey species not already resident in the soils (Meloidogyne incognita and Steinernema feltiae). Survival of the test prey was determined after a 5-day bioassay exposure. Across the soils tested, predator abundance and biomass were greater in undisturbed soils with plentiful resources and lower in soils from agricultural sites. Suppressiveness to the two introduced species increased with both numerical abundance and metabolic footprint of the predator assemblages. The magnitude of the increase in suppressiveness was greater at low numbers of predators then dampened to an asymptotic level at greater predator abundance, possibly determined by temporal and spatial aspects of the bioassay system and/or satiation of the predators. The more resource-limited the predators were and the higher the metabolic predator footprint, the greater the suppressiveness. The applied implications of this study are that soil suppressiveness to pest species may be enhanced by increasing resources to predators, removing chemical and physical constraints to their survival and increase, and altering management practices so that predators and target prey are co-located in time and space.

  5. Biological activity as an indicator of chernozem fertility in different biocenoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakhurlova, L. D.; Svistova, I. D.; Shcheglov, D. I.

    2007-06-01

    Meadow chernozemic soil was studied in an idle land-shelterbelt-cropland system. It was found that the long-term agricultural use of chernozems leads to a decrease in the total nitrogen content and to changes in the soil microbial community. The portion of phytopathogenic Fusarium, Aspergillus ustus, Penicillium daleae, and Penicillium rubrum microorganisms in the complex of soil fungi increases, and the phytosanitary state of the soil worsens. The use of biotests made it possible to estimate the role of particular microorganisms in the soil phytotoxicity.

  6. Hypermutation in mantle cell lymphoma does not indicate a clinical or biological subentity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraders, Margit; Oeschger, Sabine; Kluin, Philip M.; Hebeda, Konnie; Schuuring, Ed; Groenen, Patricia J. T. A.; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; van Krieken, Johan H. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is a prime example of a well-defined entity based on morphology, phenotype, genetics and also clinical features. Although most patients have an adverse clinical course, some have a better survival than others. The most consistently reported adverse prognostic parameter is a high

  7. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando

    2016-05-01

    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8-41µm in length and 0.4-1.39µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance. PMID:26855127

  8. Biologic indicators of exposure to cadmium and lead palmerton, Pennsylvania. Part 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarasua, S.M.; McGeehin, M.A.; Stallings, F.L.; Terracciano, G.L.; Amler, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    In Part 2 of this study, no difference was reported in the results of medical tests of the blood, liver, kidney, and immune systems of participants living in the two study areas. No relationships was found between exposure to cadmium and lead and the immune, liver, and blood system tests. No community wide medical action is needed in Palmerton based on the results of this study. No further site-specific health studies are recommended.

  9. Biological indicators of radiation exposure - serum amylase increase following irradiation of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an isoenzyme test is described which enables the proteins of pancreas to be differentiated from those of the salivary glands. This isoenzyme test, in combination with an antibody lipase test which inturn is sensitive to the pancreatic enzyme triacylglycerinlipase, has been used to examine a total of the 42 patients under radiation therapy. 25 of these patients had been subjected to partial body exposure of the head region and 17 to whole body exposure. The results show that the amount of activity increase depends upon the dose to the salivary glands and that almost exclusively the isoenzymes of these organs are responsible for the radiation-induced activity increase in the serum. The isoenzyme test proved to be a good approach in cases where pathogenic variations in the serum α-amylase activity concerning primarily the pancreatic glands had to be differentiated from radiation-induced variations. (orig./MG)

  10. Biological indicators of radiation exposure - increase of blood serum amylase following irradiation of salivary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, an isoenzyme test is described which enables the proteins of pancreas to be differentiated from those of the salivary glands. This isoenzyme test, in combination with an antibody lipase test which in turn is sensitive to the pancreatic enzyme triacylglycerinlipase, has been used to examine a total of the 42 patients under radiation therapy. 25 of these patients had been subjected to partial body exposure of the head region and 17 to whole body exposure. The results show that the amount of activity increase depends upon the dose to the salivary glands and that almost exclusively the isoenzymes of these organs are responsible for the radiation-induced activity increase in the serum. The isoenzyme test proved to be a good approach in cases where pathogenic variations in the serum α-amylase activity concerning primarily the pancreatic glands had to be differentiated from radiation-induced variations. (orig./MG)

  11. 76 FR 30093 - Effectiveness Indications Statements in Veterinary Biologics Labeling; Notice of Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...) administers and enforces the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act (the Act), as amended (21 U.S.C. 151-159). The regulations... Medical Association met with APHIS to discuss the Agency's current labeling guidance and to explore the...., ``This product has been shown to be effective for the vaccination of healthy animals X weeks of age...

  12. Forward versus inverse planning in oropharyngeal cancer: A comparative study using physical and biological indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sundaram

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Possible benefits of inverse planning. Aims: To analyze possible benefits of inverse planning intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT over field-in-field 3D conformal radiation therapy (FIF-3DCRT and to evaluate the differences if any, between low (6 Million Volts and high energy (15 Million Volts IMRT plans. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx, previously treated with 6 MV step and shoot IMRT were studied. V 100 , V 33 , V 66 , mean dose and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP were evaluated for parotid glands. Maximum dose and NTCP were the parameters for spinal cord. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-tailed t-test was applied to analyze statistical significance between the different techniques. Results: For combined parotid gland, a reduction of 4.374 Gy, 9.343 Gy and 7.883 Gy were achieved for D 100 , D 66 and D 33 , respectively in 6 MV-IMRT when compared with FIF-3DCRT. Spinal cord sparing was better in 6 MV-IMRT (40.963 ± 2.650, with an average reduction of maximum spinal cord dose by 7.355 Gy from that using the FIF-3DCRT technique. The uncomplicated tumor control probabilities values were higher in IMRT plans thus leading to a possibility of dose escalation. Conclusions: Though low-energy IMRT is the preferred choice for treatment of oropharyngeal cancers, FIF-3DCRT must be given due consideration as a second choice for its well established advantages over traditional conventioan technique.

  13. Floral humidity and other indicators of energy rewards in pollination biology

    OpenAIRE

    von Arx, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Floral traits that correlate with nectar availability or are linked functionally to nectar production carry the potential to enable remote assessment of energy rewards by pollinators. Such floral traits can be considered “honest” in the sense that they convey information about the quality or profitability of a flower to a pollinator. Recently a new sensory channel used in plant-pollinator interactions was identified. We demonstrated that evaporation of water from the nectar itself and the pet...

  14. Floral humidity and other indicators of energy rewards in pollination biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arx, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Floral traits that correlate with nectar availability or are linked functionally to nectar production carry the potential to enable remote assessment of energy rewards by pollinators. Such floral traits can be considered "honest" in the sense that they convey information about the quality or profitability of a flower to a pollinator. Recently a new sensory channel used in plant-pollinator interactions was identified. We demonstrated that evaporation of water from the nectar itself and the petals create local humidity gradients above Oenothera cespitosa (Onagraceae) flowers. Since these humidity gradients are directly linked to nectar volume, they convey reliable information about nectar rewards to hawkmoth pollinators (Sphingidae). Several studies document a variety of sensory cues that constitute honest signaling between plants and pollinators, and shed light on the central question of when the two parties should communicate honestly. In the following sections, I will comment on different honest signals mediating plant-pollinator interactions, with a special emphasis on our recent findings about floral humidity gradients. PMID:23802044

  15. Can Lucifer Yellow Indicate Correct Permeability of Biological Cell Membrane under An Electric and Magnetic Field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of external magnetic and electric fields, in the range of electroporation and magnetoporation, on Lucifer Yellow (LY fluorescence in the absence of cells is studied. Electric-field-induced quenching and magnetic field-induced increase are observed for fluorescence intensity of LY. Regard to the fact that the variation of field-induced fluorescence, even in the absence of cells, can be observed, the application of LY, as a marker, is debatable in electroporation and magnetoporation techniques.

  16. BOOTSTRAPPING AND MONTE CARLO METHODS OF POWER ANALYSIS USED TO ESTABLISH CONDITION CATEGORIES FOR BIOTIC INDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotic indices have been used ot assess biological condition by dividing index scores into condition categories. Historically the number of categories has been based on professional judgement. Alternatively, statistical methods such as power analysis can be used to determine the ...

  17. EFFECTIVE INDICATORS FOR SCIENCE INTERNATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan da Cunha-Melo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review of concepts and actions that aim to analyze the effects of internationalization of science and education, with emphasis in the medical field and its basement in development policies adopted by nations, exploring the potential for international interdisciplinary cooperation of each laboratory, department, university or institute. Method: Search of indicators to assess the degree of internationalization of universities and research institutes in several interconnected levels: organizational, regional, sectoral and global, and policy-making in science, technology innovation and higher education. Result: Scientific research is still carried out individually, but is now much more closely integrated with other social processes. The scientist is no longer a stranger who is allowed to surrender to his hobby to do what it wants. Internationalization of research and medical education, although it is among the topics of greatest need, as the globalized world, is difficult activity to be assessed. The leaders seem to have understood that the knowledge societies, leading to economic policy based on knowledge, can result in economic and social progress of nations. This fact has motivated increasingly the incentive to actions aimed at addressing global problems (eg health, climate change by funding research that generates new knowledge. Conclusion: The consensus is that the internationalization of science is desirable and necessary for the sustainable development of nations. However it cannot be done only by encouraging and promoting the outward students and researchers abroad. It is necessary, in addition, offer conditions to foreign researchers and students teachers to work in collaboration with Brazilian and raise the country to international scientific standards.

  18. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  19. Systems biology, emergence and antireductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan

    2016-09-01

    This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology. The second phase happened when systems molecular biology and systems mathematical biology, together, were applied for analysis of biological data. Finally, after successful application in science, medicine and biotechnology, the process of the formation of modern systems biology was completed. Systems and molecular reductionist views on organisms were completely opposed to each other. Implications of systems and molecular biology on reductionist-antireductionist debate were quite different. The analysis of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence issues, in the era of systems biology, revealed the hierarchy between methodological, epistemological and ontological antireductionism. Primarily, methodological antireductionism followed from the systems biology. Only after, epistemological and ontological antireductionism could be supported.

  20. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    OpenAIRE

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that...

  1. Spring Indices (SI): National (and Global) Indicators of Climate Impacts on Ecosystems and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.; Schwartz, M. D.; Ault, T. R.; McCabe, G. J.; Macalady, A. K.; Pederson, G. T.; Cook, B. P.; Henebry, G. M.; Moore, D. J.; Enquist, C.

    2011-12-01

    Indicators are vital in everyday life, such as tracking blood pressure to assess your health or monitoring the nation's economy using unemployment rates. Tracking the state of the environment in a uniform and integrated manner requires simple and broadly-applicable indicators of year-to-year variability and change. For example, indices such as the Start of Season (SOS) in remotely-sensed land surface phenology, Center of Mass (CM) in the hydrology of snowfed inland waters, and other biogeophysical metrics are being widely used as metrics of global change in seasonal timing. Here, we present a new, standardized spring index (SSI) that uses only daily minimum and maximum temperatures as input. This builds on an earlier version of the spring indices (SI) for lilac and honeysuckle phenology (first leaf and first flower) that required plant chilling to be satisfied over winter. The SSI tracks the transition from winter to spring by tallying phenologically relevant variables, (such as the number and intensity of warm days and total hours of sunlight) from January 1st onward, while ignoring the chilling requirement. This adjustment allows determination of first leaf and first bloom dates across the entire USA, including southernmost latitudes. Outputs from the new SSI is highly correlated with the earlier version, and both models process weather data into indices directly related to growth and development of many plants. Spatially averaged anomalies of SSI are well correlated with remotely sensed data and phenological observations from a wide variety of trees and shrubs in Europe, China, and North America. An advantage of SSI is that it only "sees" the atmosphere, meaning that it is free of local biological effects. Therefore, it can enhance the ability to identify important relationships between the large-scale climate modes of variability and the index itself, an advantage over other plant-based indices (such as SOS). If the state of these atmospheric modes can be

  2. Gamma radiographic exposure time indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In industrial radiography, with the proper selection of source and film, the radiographic quality depends very much on the exposure time, which in turn depends upon the source strength and the source to film distance. Conventional methods to arrive at correct exposure time involve time consuming calculations and in these methods the knowledge of the above mentioned parameters is imperative. An instrument to determine the required exposure time has been developed which indicates exposure times in about 30 secs. This covers two commonly used gamma radiography sources, viz., 192Ir and 60Co and six commonly used radiography films of different speeds. Knowledge of source strength and source to film distance is not required with the use of this instrument. With a knowledge of the total exposure required by the film to give the required sensitivity and by the measurement of radiation level at the film location, the correct exposure time is determined. The radiation level is measured by placing a GM counter behind the radiographic specimen at the film location. To match the responses of the film and the GM counter, the counter is incorporated in a suitably designed probe. In this instruments, an integrator to integrate the GM-pulses and a constant current integrator (timer) are started simultaneously. The voltage at the GM-pulse integrator is compared with a preselected voltage, (selected on the basis of film type, source, source strength and order of object thickness) by a comparator. The comparator is so adjusted that when the GM-pulse integrator voltage exceeds the preselected voltage, it switches its state and stops the integration of constant current. The constant current integrator output which is proportional to the time taken for the GM-pulse integrator to reach the preselected voltage, is read on a meter graduated in terms of exposure time. The instrument can measure exposure times from 5 minutes to 10 hours read in two ranges, the range-changing being automatic

  3. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, F.; Mayer, J.; Santella, R.M.; Brenner, D.; Jeffrey, A.; Latriano, L.; Smith, S.; Warburton, D.; Young, T.L.; Tsai, W.Y.; Brandt-Rauf, P. (Columbia Univ. School of Public Health, New York, NY (United States)); Hemminki, K. (Finnish School of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers have, however, already provided valuable insights into the magnitude of interindividual variation in response to carcinogenic exposures, with major implications for risk assessment.

  4. Biologic markers in risk assessment for environmental carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential of biologic markers to provide more timely and precise risk assessments for environmental carcinogens is viewed against the current state-of-the-art in biological monitoring/molecular epidemiology. Biologic markers such as carcinogen-DNA adducts and oncogene activation are currently considered valid qualitative indicators of potential risk, but for most chemical exposures research is needed to establish their validity as quantitative predictors of cancer risk. Biologic markers have, however, already provided valuable insights into the magnitude of interindividual variation in response to carcinogenic exposures, with major implications for risk assessment

  5. Toxicity Studies on "840 Biologic Pesticide"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    [Objective] "840 Biologic Pesticide" is a very effective biologic pesticide. It consists of Abamectin and celastrus angulatus. Toxicity study was aimed to provide scientific toxicological basis. [Methods] The acute toxicity test,Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were done. [Results] The acute toxicity of single dose of "840 Biologic Pesticide" showed that acute oral LD50 for female and male rats are 4 300 and 4 280 mg/kg,and for female and male mice are 2 330 and 5 110 mg/kg,respectively. The dermal LD50 was >2 000 mg/kg for female and male rats. The mutagenesis studies indicated that Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were negative. [Conclusion] Tested pesticidc belongs to low toticity grade.

  6. Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly; Dotson, Curtis L.

    2014-07-24

    Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County (GCPUD) operates the Priest Rapids Dam (PRD), a hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River in Washington State. The dam contains 10 Kaplan-type turbine units that are now more than 50 years old. Plans are underway to refit these aging turbines with new runners. The Columbia River at PRD is a migratory pathway for several species of juvenile and adult salmonids, so passage of fish through the dam is a major consideration when upgrading the turbines. In this paper, a method for turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) is demonstrated. Using this method, a suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a CFD model of a proposed turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism. Using known relationships between the dose of an injury mechanism and frequency of injury (dose–response) from laboratory or field studies, the likelihood of fish injury for a turbine design can be computed from the performance indicator. By comparing the values of the indicators from proposed designs, the engineer can identify the more-promising alternatives. We present an application of the BioPA method for baseline risk assessment calculations for the existing Kaplan turbines at PRD that will be used as the minimum biological performance that a proposed new design must achieve.

  7. Biological Threats Detection Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among many decisive factors, which can have the influence on the possibility of decreases the results of use biological agents should be mentioned obligatory: rapid detection and identification of biological factor used, the proper preventive treatment and the medical management. The aims of identification: to identify the factor used, to estimate the area of contamination, to evaluate the possible countermeasure efforts (antibiotics, disinfectants) and to assess the effectiveness of the decontamination efforts (decontamination of the persons, equipment, buildings, environment etc.). The objects of identification are: bacteria and bacteria's spores, viruses, toxins and genetically modified factors. The present technologies are divided into: based on PCR techniques (ABI PRISM, APSIS, BIOVERIS, RAPID), immuno (BADD, RAMP, SMART) PCR and immuno techniques (APDS, LUMINEX) and others (BDS2, LUNASCAN, MALDI). The selected technologies assigned to field conditions, mobile and stationary laboratories will be presented.(author)

  8. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  9. Radiation biology for environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution problems such as the green-house effect by increase of CO2, acid rain caused by flue gases, and contamination of chemicals and pesticides in foods and water, have become serious in the world with the rapid development of industry and agriculture. To solve some of these problems, radiation treatment has being applied for the removal of the contaminants from flue gases and waste water from industrial plants. On the other hand, the contribution of radiation biology for these environmental pollution problems is not direct but it has contributed indirectly in many fields. This paper describes the contributions of radiation biology for environment in the following two topics: 1) control of insects and microorganisms, and 2) application of radiation for agricultural wastes

  10. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K;

    2015-01-01

    . Efforts to improve the traceability should, in the short term, be focused toward encouraging health professionals and patients to systematically record and report detailed exposure information. Long-term solutions lie in expanding the accessibility to, and increasing the electronic exchange of exposure......INTRODUCTION: Traceability is important in the postmarketing surveillance of biologicals, since changes in the manufacturing process may give rise to product- or batch-specific risks. With the expected expansion of the biosimilar market, there have been concerns about the ability to trace...... individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place...

  11. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R P Rau

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber’s law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as -1/4 in terms of the mass of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  12. Quantum physics meets biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-12-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  13. Biological scaling and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, A R P

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  14. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  15. Lagrangians for biological models

    CERN Document Server

    Nucci, M C

    2011-01-01

    We show that a method presented in [S.L. Trubatch and A. Franco, Canonical Procedures for Population Dynamics, J. Theor. Biol. 48 (1974), 299-324] and later in [G.H. Paine, The development of Lagrangians for biological models, Bull. Math. Biol. 44 (1982) 749-760] for finding Lagrangians of classic models in biology, is actually based on finding the Jacobi Last Multiplier of such models. Using known properties of Jacobi Last Multiplier we show how to obtain linear Lagrangians of those first-order systems and nonlinear Lagrangian of the corresponding single second-order equations that can be derived from them, even in the case where those authors failed such as the host-parasite model.

  16. Heritability and biological explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, E

    1998-10-01

    Modern neuroscientific and genetic technologies have provoked intense disagreement between scientists who envision a future in which biogenetic theories will enrich or even replace psychological theories, and others who consider biogenetic theories exaggerated, dehumanizing, and dangerous. Both sides of the debate about the role of genes and brains in the genesis of human behavior have missed an important point: All human behavior that varies among individuals is partially heritable and correlated with measurable aspects of brains, but the very ubiquity of these findings makes them a poor basis for reformulating scientists' conceptions of human behavior. Materialism requires psychological processes to be physically instantiated, but more crucial for psychology is the occasional empirical discovery of behavioral phenomena that are specific manifestations of low-level biological variables. Heritability and psychobiological association cannot be the basis for establishing whether behavior is genetic or biological, because to do so leads only to the banal tautology that all behavior is ultimately based in the genotype and brain.

  17. Male mating biology

    OpenAIRE

    Howell Paul I; Knols Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes...

  18. Integrative radiation systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group "Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer" of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology. PMID:24411063

  19. [Biological etiologies of transsexualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butty, Anne-Virginie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2016-03-16

    Transsexualism or gender dysphoria is a disorder of sexual identity of unknown etiology. At the biological level, one assumes atypical brain development during certain periods of its formation (genesis) notably during embryogenesis, as a result of altered hormonal influence and a particular genetic polymorphism. This article summarizes the research conducted to date in these three areas only, excluding psycho-social and environmental factors. PMID:27149713

  20. Integrative radiation systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  1. Biology of infantile hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinteang, Tinte; Withers, Aaron H J; Davis, Paul F; Tan, Swee T

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by an initial proliferation during infancy followed by spontaneous involution over the next 5-10 years, often leaving a fibro-fatty residuum. IH is traditionally considered a tumor of the microvasculature. However, recent data show the critical role of stem cells in the biology of IH with emerging evidence suggesting an embryonic developmental anomaly due to aberrant proliferation and differentiation of a hemogenic endothelium with a neural crest phenotype that possesses the capacity for endothelial, hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neuronal differentiation. Current evidence suggests a putative placental chorionic mesenchymal core cell embolic origin of IH during the first trimester. This review outlines the emerging role of stem cells and their interplay with the cytokine niche that promotes a post-natal environment conducive for vasculogenesis involving VEGFR-2 and its ligand VEGF-A and the IGF-2 ligand in promoting cellular proliferation, and the TRAIL-OPG anti-apoptotic pathway in preventing cellular apoptosis in IH. The discovery of the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the biology of IH provides a plausible explanation for the programed biologic behavior and the β-blocker-induced accelerated involution of this enigmatic condition. This crucially involves the vasoactive peptide, angiotensin II, that promotes cellular proliferation in IH predominantly via its action on the ATIIR2 isoform. The role of the RAS in the biology of IH is further supported by the effect of captopril, an ACE inhibitor, in inducing accelerated involution of IH. The discovery of the critical role of RAS in IH represents a novel and fascinating paradigm shift in the understanding of human development, IH, and other tumors in general. PMID:25593962

  2. Biology of Infantile Hemangioma

    OpenAIRE

    Itinteang, Tinte; Withers, Aaron H. J.; Davis, Paul F.; Tan, Swee T.

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by an initial proliferation during infancy followed by spontaneous involution over the next 5–10 years, often leaving a fibro-fatty residuum. IH is traditionally considered a tumor of the microvasculature. However, recent data show the critical role of stem cells in the biology of IH with emerging evidence suggesting an embryonic developmental anomaly due to aberrant proliferation and differentiation of a hemogenic ...

  3. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  4. Biological Rhythms and Preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Ditisheim, Agnès J.; Dibner, Charna; Philippe, Jacques; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer. Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing h...

  5. Lung Stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ardhanareeswaran, Karthikeyan; Mirotsou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years new insights have been added to the study of stem cells in the adult lung. The exploration of the endogenous lung progenitors as well as the study of exogenously delivered stem cell populations holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of lung repair mechanisms. Moreover, it opens new possibilities for the use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. Here, we discuss the main type...

  6. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  7. Neutrons in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start of JRR-3M in 1990 was a great epoch to the neutron scattering research in Japan. Abundant neutron beam generated by the JRR-3M made it possible to widen the research field of neutron scattering in Japan. In the early days of neutron scattering, biological materials were too difficult object to be studied by neutrons not only because of their complexity but also because of the strong incoherent scattering by hydrogen. However, the remarkable development of the recent neutron scattering and its related sciences, as well as the availability of higher flux, has made the biological materials one of the most attractive subjects to be studied by neutrons. In early September 1992, an intensive workshop titled 'Neutrons in Biology' was held in Hitachi City by making use of the opportunity of the 4th International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation (BSR92) held in Tsukuba. The workshop was organized by volunteers who are eager to develop the researches in this field in Japan. Numbers of outstanding neutron scattering biologists from U.S., Europe and Asian countries met together and enthusiastic discussions were held all day long. The editors believe that the presentations at the workshop were so invaluable that it is absolutely adequate to put them on record as an issue of JAERI-M and to make them available for scientists to refer to in order to further promote the research in the future. (author)

  8. Biological heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Anatol; Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Beckmann, Erik; Hilfiker, Andres; Haverich, Axel

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac valvular pathologies are often caused by rheumatic fever in young adults, atherosclerosis in elderly patients, or by congenital malformation of the heart in children, in effect affecting almost all population ages. Almost 300,000 heart valve operations are performed worldwide annually. Tissue valve prostheses have certain advantages over mechanical valves such as biocompatibility, more physiological hemodynamics, and no need for life-long systemic anticoagulation. However, the major disadvantage of biological valves is related to their durability. Nevertheless, during the last decade, the number of patients undergoing biological, rather than mechanical, valve replacement has increased from half to more than three-quarters for biological implants. Continuous improvement in valve fabrication includes development of new models and shapes, novel methods of tissue treatment, and preservation and implantation techniques. These efforts are focused not only on the improvement of morbidity and mortality of the patients but also on the improvement of their quality of life. Heart valve tissue engineering aims to provide durable, "autologous" valve prostheses. These valves demonstrate adaptive growth, which may avoid the need of repeated operations in growing patients.

  9. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  10. Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A.N.; Muller, W.E.G.

    the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular...

  11. Synthetic biology: Understanding biological design from synthetic circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherji, Shankar; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of synthetic biology is to uncover the design principles of natural biological systems through the rational design of gene and protein circuits. Here, we highlight how the process of engineering biological systems — from synthetic promoters to the control of cell–cell interactions — has contributed to our understanding of how endogenous systems are put together and function. Synthetic biological devices allow us to grasp intuitively the ranges of behaviour generated by simple...

  12. Review of Pasteuria penetrans: Biology, Ecology, and Biological Control Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z. X.; Dickson, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last 10 years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, and biological control potential of P. penetrans and other P...

  13. Bridging the gap between systems biology and synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Di; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary science that studies the complex interactions and the collective behavior of a cell or an organism. Synthetic biology, as a technological subject, combines biological science and engineering, allowing the design and manipulation of a system for certain applications. Both systems and synthetic biology have played important roles in the recent development of microbial platforms for energy, materials, and environmental applications. More importantly, syst...

  14. Photosynthetic system as a biological functional element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic apparatus of high plants and photosynthetic bacteria is essentially autonomic system in terms of genetics and structural -functional properties located in specific medium, a bio-membrane. Processes of light absorption and exciton migration in light harvesting antenna, separation and further transfer of charges in reaction centers have specific features, which may be used for application of these objects as key elements in construction of future biological functional elements. Progress in study and genetic modification of photosynthetic membranes achieved during the last decade opens great prospects in development biological functional elements and systems. The main characteristics of photosynthetic system for these purposes are: (i) energy conversion processes in the first light phase of the photosynthesis have very short periods, up to picoseconds, which indicates possibility of creation of ultrafast functional elements on their basis; (ii) characteristics sizes of photosynthetic units, 10-100 nm, and possibility to arrange regularly disposed elements in relevant membranes could be prospective point for creation of nano structures and on their basis relevant biologic functional elements; (iii) elements based on modified photosynthetic apparatus and bio-membranes might be efficiently created by methods of gene engineering and manipulation, that open huge opportunities for development of read biological functional systems. In the paper structural-functional properties and characteristics of high plants and purple photosynthetic bacteria, which may be useful for creation of future biological functional elements are considered. (author)

  15. Biological surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemo, Bengt

    2002-03-01

    Biological surface science (BioSS), as defined here is the broad interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments are investigated and biofunctional surfaces are fabricated. Six examples are used to introduce and discuss the subject: Medical implants in the human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnostics, tissue engineering, bioelectronics, artificial photosynthesis, and biomimetic materials. They are areas of varying maturity, together constituting a strong driving force for the current rapid development of BioSS. The second driving force is the purely scientific challenges and opportunities to explore the mutual interaction between biological components and surfaces. Model systems range from the unique water structures at solid surfaces and water shells around proteins and biomembranes, via amino and nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, phospholipid membranes, to cells and living tissue at surfaces. At one end of the spectrum the scientific challenge is to map out the structures, bonding, dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules at surfaces in a similar way as has been done for simple molecules during the past three decades in surface science. At the other end of the complexity spectrum one addresses how biofunctional surfaces participate in and can be designed to constructively participate in the total communication system of cells and tissue. Biofunctional surfaces call for advanced design and preparation in order to match the sophisticated (bio) recognition ability of biological systems. Specifically this requires combined topographic, chemical and visco-elastic patterns on surfaces to match proteins at the nm scale and cells at the micrometer scale. Essentially all methods of surface science are useful. High-resolution (e.g. scanning probe) microscopies, spatially resolved and high sensitivity, non-invasive optical spectroscopies, self-organizing monolayers, and nano- and microfabrication

  16. The why, what, and how of global biodiversity indicators beyond the 2010 target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julia P G; Collen, Ben; Atkinson, Giles; Baxter, Peter W J; Bubb, Philip; Illian, Janine B; Katzner, Todd E; Keane, Aidan; Loh, Jonathan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Nicholson, Emily; Pereira, Henrique M; Possingham, Hugh P; Pullin, Andrew S; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Sommerville, Matthew; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2011-06-01

    The 2010 biodiversity target agreed by signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity directed the attention of conservation professionals toward the development of indicators with which to measure changes in biological diversity at the global scale. We considered why global biodiversity indicators are needed, what characteristics successful global indicators have, and how existing indicators perform. Because monitoring could absorb a large proportion of funds available for conservation, we believe indicators should be linked explicitly to monitoring objectives and decisions about which monitoring schemes deserve funding should be informed by predictions of the value of such schemes to decision making. We suggest that raising awareness among the public and policy makers, auditing management actions, and informing policy choices are the most important global monitoring objectives. Using four well-developed indicators of biological diversity (extent of forests, coverage of protected areas, Living Planet Index, Red List Index) as examples, we analyzed the characteristics needed for indicators to meet these objectives. We recommend that conservation professionals improve on existing indicators by eliminating spatial biases in data availability, fill gaps in information about ecosystems other than forests, and improve understanding of the way indicators respond to policy changes. Monitoring is not an end in itself, and we believe it is vital that the ultimate objectives of global monitoring of biological diversity inform development of new indicators.

  17. BIOLOGY OF POLYPHOSPHATE-ACCUMULATING BACTERIA INVOLVED IN ENHANCED BIOLOGICAL PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KORTSTEE, GJJ; APPELDOORN, KJ; BONTING, CFC; VANNIEL, EWJ; VANVEEN, HW

    1994-01-01

    Recent research on the process of biological phosphorus removal in lab-scale treatment systems has indicated that: (i) the development of an actively polyP-accumulating bacterial community after the introduction of an anaerobic period may take at least 4 months; (ii) up to 80% of all aerobic bacteri

  18. Developing the Use of Quality Indicators in Sterilization Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mehrabi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health-care-associated infections are a major threat to the safety of patient care. Control of such problem is a major criterion for hospital accreditation. This study was aimed to determine the developing use of chemical (class 6 products and biological indicators in Tabriz district hospitals since 1997 to 2011.Methods: We conducted this time-trend interventional study with all of the public and private hospitals, which counted to 21 in Tabriz district as a sample. The situations of indicator use were presented for each time in the base of indicator groups. Furthermore, the results were showed in the base of hospital groups.Results: All of district hospital (n=21 with 74 autoclave machine and 22 central sterilization room were studied. The result of second time study in 2008 showed a markedly improvement in the control of sterilization processes. Furthermore, we continued our intervention results 6 month later in 2009 and 2 years later in 2011. The most striking result were use of chemical indicator in 100% of hospitals. However, there are defects in the use of biological indicators (63.65%.Conclusion: The most obvious finding was significant improvement in sterilization control especially in development the use of chemical indicators. The finding of this study has a number of important implications for hospital managers and infection control practitioners such as continuous practical training of CSSD personnel in hospitals and mandating of indicator using in all sterilization process with controlling of this subject in evaluation and accreditation of hospital programs.

  19. Biological knowledge in the National Curriculum of High School: an historical and philosophical analysis from the statutes of biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Fernandes Nascimento Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the National Curriculum for Secondary Schools with respect to the ontological, epistemological, historical, social and conceptual biology. This study aims to bring information and thinking about the inclusion of history and philosophy of biology for secondary education and for teacher training. We performed an analysis of PCNEM, PCNEM+ and Curriculum Guidelines as a whole from established categories. The results indicate a predominance of the ontological view of mechanistic biology. Epistemologically, although acknowledged, the question of scientific method is rarely discussed. The historical approach and social scientific activity and scientific knowledge are recognized by the documents, but an instrumental view prevails. The conceptual aspects are comprehensive and take into account the theories of structural biology. A philosophical discussion on the biology is missing in the parameters, indicating the need for the inclusion of issues related to ideas of determinism, chance and teleology.

  20. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2005-01-01

    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....