Sample records for biological indicators

  1. Biological Indicator Systems in Floodplains - a Review (United States)

    Dziock, Frank; Henle, Klaus; Foeckler, Francis; Follner, Klaus; Scholz, Mathias


    Based on a literature review, the different approaches to biological indicator systems in floodplains are summarised. Four general categories of bioindication are defined and proposed here: 1. Classification indicators, 2.1 Environmental indicators, 2.2 Biodiversity indicators, 3. Valuation indicators. Furthermore, existing approaches in floodplains are classified according to the four categories. Relevant and widely used approaches in floodplains are explained in more detail. The results of the RIVA project are put into the context of these indication approaches. It is concluded that especially functional assessment approaches using biological traits of the species can be seen as very promising and deserve more attention by conservation biologists and floodplain ecologists.

  2. Fingernails as biological indices of metal exposure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rita Mehra; Meenu Juneja


    Metal determination in human tissues is the most common application of biological monitoring for screening, diagnosis and assessment of metal exposures and their risks. Various biopsy-materials may be used. This paper deals with the quantitative determination of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn concentrations in nails of male subjects exposed to these metals alongwith their respective controls, while working in locomotive, carriage and roadways workshops, and lead battery factories. The levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn in fingernails, assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, were compared with their respective controls by student ‘’ test. All the obtained values were correlated to the personal and medical history of the subjects under study. Significantly high levels of Cd, Pb, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were present in smokers, compared to nonsmokers. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn and Fe were not significantly high in vegetarian subjects. It was also observed that there is no contribution of liquor towards nail-metal concentration. Significant correlations were observed between skin disease and Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu; hypertension and Cd, Mn, Cu; mental stress and Cd, Pb, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn; diabetes and Cr, Mn, Ni; chest pain and Pb; respiratory trouble and Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn; tuberculosis and Zn; acidity and Cd; and ophthalmic problems and Mn, Fe, Ni, and Zn.

  3. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicator plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyoo; Chun, Ki Jung; Kim, Kook Chan; Kim, In Kyoo; Song, Heui Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Some clones of Tradescantia had dose response relationship involving somatic mutations such as appearance of pink, colorless or giant cell, and/or loss of reproductive integrity of stamen hair cells when exposed to radiation. Since Tradescantia could respond to radiation level as low as human being could be exposed to, it could play an important role as scientific tool of botanical tester for radiation. Especially TSH system can be easily applied to in situ monitoring of radiation by virtue of its excellent radiation indicator ship and simpleness in detection of mutations by radiation. 10 figs, 6 tabs, 19 refs. (Author).

  4. Identification of Bacteria and Determination of Biological Indicators (United States)

    Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; La Duc, Myron T.; Vaishampayan, Parag A.


    The ultimate goal of planetary protection research is to develop superior strategies for inactivating resistance bearing micro-organisms like Rummeli - bacillus stabekisii. By first identifying the particular physiologic pathway and/or structural component of the cell/spore that affords it such elevated tolerance, eradication regimes can then be designed to target these resistance-conferring moieties without jeopardizing the structural integrity of spacecraft hardware. Furthermore, hospitals and government agencies frequently use biological indicators to ensure the efficacy of a wide range of sterilization processes. The spores of Rummelibacillus stabekisii, which are far more resistant to many of such perturbations, could likely serve as a more significant biological indicator for potential survival than those being used currently.

  5. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a possible indicator of extraterrestrial biology (United States)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.


    The ubiquity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in terrestrial organisms provides the basis for proposing the assay of this vital metabolic intermediate for detecting extraterrestrial biological activity. If an organic carbon chemistry is present on the planets, the occurrence of ATP is possible either from biosynthetic or purely chemical reactions. However, ATP's relative complexity minimizes the probability of abiogenic synthesis. A sensitive technique for the quantitative detection of ATP was developed using the firefly bioluminescent reaction. The procedure was used successfully for the determination of the ATP content of soil and bacteria. This technique is also being investigated from the standpoint of its application in clinical medicine.

  6. Cryptogams as indicator organisms in ecology and conservation biology


    Simmel, Josef


    The present thesis was designed to compare the influence of land-use effects on three groups of cryptogam species, namely the bryophytes, lichens, and macromycetes. Further topics were to newly develop an indicator value system for macromycetes and to compile a broad overview of functional traits applicable to macromycetes. These research topics are intended to (further) stimulate ecological research using macromycetes. In Chapter 2, I present a methodology for Ellenberg indicator values ...

  7. Seagrass epiphytes: useful indicator, potential biological criterion, or forlorn hope? (United States)

    Epiphytes on seagrasses have been studied for more than 50 years, and proposed as an indicator of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment for over 30 years. Epiphytes have been correlated with seagrass declines, causally related to nutrient additions in both field and mesocosm experim...

  8. Urinary metallothionein as a biological indicator of occupational cadmium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohyama, C.; Shaikh, Z.A.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.


    Radioimmunoassay and neutron activation data indicate that the urinary metallothionein concentration is related to the liver Cd concentration in occupational Cd exposure. It is also related to the kidney Cd content - but only before the onset of renal dysfunction. Further epidemiological studies are needed to establish a dose-response relationship, which may be useful in minimizing the hazard of Cd-induced renal dysfunction.

  9. Biological indicators of soil quality and soil organic matter characteristics in an agricultural management continuum (United States)

    Relationships among biological indicators of soil quality and soil organic matter characteristics in a claypan soil were evaluated across a continuum of long-term agricultural practices in Missouri, USA. In addition to chemical and physical soil quality indicators, dehydrogenase and phenol oxidase a...

  10. Environmental Learning Workshop: Lichen as Biological Indicator of Air Quality and Impact on Secondary Students' Performance (United States)

    Samsudin, Mohd Wahid; Daik, Rusli; Abas, Azlan; Meerah, T. Subahan Mohd; Halim, Lilia


    In this study, the learning of science outside the classroom is believe to be an added value to science learning as well as it offers students to interact with the environment. This study presents data obtained from two days' workshop on Lichen as Biological Indicator for Air Quality. The aim of the workshop is for the students to gain an…


    Biliary polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) metabolites have been studied as a biological indicator of fish exposure to PAHs since the mid 1980's. Brown bullheads were collected from the following Lake Erie tributaries: Buffalo River (BUF), Niagara River at Love Canal (NIA)...

  12. Predicting Salmonella populations from biological, chemical, and physical indicators in Florida surface waters. (United States)

    McEgan, Rachel; Mootian, Gabriel; Goodridge, Lawrence D; Schaffner, Donald W; Danyluk, Michelle D


    Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and various physicochemical water characteristics have been suggested as indicators of microbial water quality or index organisms for pathogen populations. The relationship between the presence and/or concentration of Salmonella and biological, physical, or chemical indicators in Central Florida surface water samples over 12 consecutive months was explored. Samples were taken monthly for 12 months from 18 locations throughout Central Florida (n = 202). Air and water temperature, pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), turbidity, and conductivity were measured. Weather data were obtained from nearby weather stations. Aerobic plate counts and most probable numbers (MPN) for Salmonella, E. coli, and coliforms were performed. Weak linear relationships existed between biological indicators (E. coli/coliforms) and Salmonella levels (R(2) Salmonella levels (R(2) Salmonella levels. The lack of good correlations between biological indicators and Salmonella levels and between physicochemical indicators and Salmonella levels shows that the relationship between pathogens and indicators is complex. However, Escherichia coli provides a reasonable way to predict Salmonella levels in Central Florida surface water through logistic regression.

  13. [Comparison and application of biological indices of macroinvertebrates in river health assessment]. (United States)

    Geng, Shi-Wei; Qu, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Yuan; Lin, Kun-De


    The different biological indices usually result in different results in the river health assessment. It is imperative and valuable to identify the correlation among different indices and their applicability for assessing stream health. In this study, totally five biological indices were selected and compared in the investigation of macroinvertebrate communities in the Taizi river. The results showed significant correlations among the five indices. However, due to the difference in health rating criteria for each biological index, different results of health ratings were obtained when different indices were used. The responding sensitivities to disturbance caused by different types of human activities were studied for each index to determine their applicability in assessment of river health. The data indicated that the BI index had significant correlations with land use and dissolved oxygen and was a good indicator for these two types of disturbance. The FBI index could well reflect the acid and ammonia contamination of the investigated stream. Strong negative correlation was found between the ASPT index and several water quality parameters concerning oxygen consumption. The B-IBI index had a significant negative correlation with the total nitrogen concentration, being a good indicator for nitrogen contamination. Besides, the B-IBI index was also significantly correlated to disturbance caused by other types of human activities and can be used as an indicator for both land use and aquatic pollution. To be concluded, the BI index and ASPT index can be individually used to assess the land use of a riverine and the impact of hydrochemical index on the ecosystems, whereas the B-IBI index could be a suitable indicator for evaluating the stream health correlated with various human activities.

  14. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of a New Fluorescent Indicator for the Intracellular Calcium Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Huaizhen; LEI Lei; LI Jianli; SHI Zhen


    A novel calcium-selective fluorescent indicator Fluo-3M AM was synthesized by introduction of a methyl group into the Ca2+-chelating moiety and adequately characterized by spectral methods (1H NMR, GC-MS, IR and MALDI-TOF MS). Meanwhile, its fluorescence spectra and some biological activities have been also studied. The results indicate that the new fluorescent indicator has relatively high affinity to calcium and a strong fluorescence signal, which should be useful for biomedical researchers to investigate the effects of calcium ions in biosystems.

  15. Using a biological indicator to detect potential sources of cross-contamination in the dental operatory. (United States)

    Hackney, R W; Crawford, J J; Tulis, J J


    The authors conducted a study using surveillance monitoring methodology to identify operatory contamination and to evaluate the effectiveness of infection control procedures. Viridans streptococci were evaluated as biological indicators of oral contamination. Viridans streptococci, abundant in human saliva, were detected on operatory surfaces after dental treatments were finished and surfaces were disinfected. The findings validate current concepts of infection control as demonstrated in barrier methods.

  16. Phytoecological indicators for biological recultivation of soils polluted with oil in the Absheron peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Gurbanov


    Full Text Available Phytoecological indicators of polluted soils of Amirov Oil-and-Gas Production Department (Garadag district,Baku were studied. Phytocenological and biomorphological analysis of flora was done with the aim of further biological rehabilitation of Absheron peninsula. Oil products (black oil, boring waters, etc. pollution turns the plant cover into a dead mass. Decontamination of soil and rehabilitation of microbial community improve the soil’s fertility. Wild and cultured plant indicators may be used in biopurification of the soils polluted with oil products. Sowing of the fodder crops followed by the technical remediation forms the clean areas of higher productivity.

  17. Radioactive indicators in biology and their medical applications; Indicateurs radioactifs en biologie et leurs applications medicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F


    This talk was given at the society of promotion of the national industry on December 1, 1949. The report is a pre-print of an article published in L'Industrie Nationale no.2 (1950). It presents the state-of-the-art of the use of artificial radioisotopes in biology and medicine: 1 - definitions (isotopes, decay, radiation emission); 2 - modalities of the use of radioisotopes in biology: basic instrumentation (Geiger-Mueller counter, counting techniques, photography, auto-histo-radiography); 3 - applications in physiology (digestive absorption, excretion, vascular exchanges, tracer techniques) and biochemistry (metabolism, thyroxine synthesis and fixation indicators, tracer techniques for drugs); 4 - radiotherapy, internal and external irradiation. (J.S.)

  18. Response signatures of four biological indicators to an iron and steel industrial landfill (United States)

    Stewart, Paul M.; Butcher, Jason T.; Simon, Thomas P.; Simon, Thomas P.


    Industrial landfills greatly modify surrounding areas by affecting chemical, physical, and biological integrity. Few data quantifying contaminant levels near landfills in sediments or in the organisms living near landfills exist. We examined several indicators of the aquatic community to determine whether a relationship existed between proximity to an industrial landfill and a decrease in biological integrity. The purpose was to determine patterns in community compositions and concentrations of contaminants in organisms and to assess the effects of contaminants on several trophic levels in the Grand Calumet Lagoons and adjacent ponds. In most aquatic systems, it is difficult to establish causal relationships between contaminants and ecosystem health due to the many ecological factors that can influence the responses of organisms and communities to particular stressors.

  19. Chemical and biological indicators of water quality in three agricultural watersheds of the Po valley, Italy

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    Linda Pieri


    Full Text Available Agriculture has both direct and indirect effects on quality of surface water and is one of the key activities causing water quality degradation. Its environmental impact can be evaluated by the determination of indicators of the quality of water bodies that collect drainage and runoff waters from agricultural watersheds. For this research, the water quality draining from three watersheds, totally or partially cultivated, all within the Po river valley (Italy, was determined, using chemical indicators (N-NO3 and N-NH4 concentration, N balance, trophic status (chlorophyll-a concentration and benthic population indexes. Together, they should provide an overview of the water status, which is supposed to be strictly related to the land use and the management. Results show that the chemical parameters are well related to land use and farming management: intensive agricultural activity leads to high N-NO3 concentration in water and N surplus and vice versa. The chlorophyll-a concentration follows the same trend, being linked to nitrogen loads and land use. Not always there is accordance between chemical and biological indicators: no direct correspondence is evident between the N-NO3 concentration in waters and benthic community. Its presence and abundance seems to be mostly correlated with the geomorphology, hydrology, riparian strips, etc. of the habitat than to the land use. Only the integration of chemical and biological parameters allows a correct understanding of the state of health of water body and benthic communities.

  20. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses (United States)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.


    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  1. Ozone valuation using biological indicators; Valutazione della presenza di ozono mediante l`impiego di bioindicatori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettassa, T. [AUSL, Piacenza (Italy). Servizio igiene pubblica; Robotti, A. [Azienda agraria sperimentale Vittorio Tadini, Piacenza (Italy)


    The paper reports a study to evaluate air ozone during the summer of the year l994, in some sites around Piacenza (Italy) using biological indicators. The leaf injury on plants of Nicotiana tabacum cv Bel-W3 leads to value, by proper algorithms, the ozone dose and the exposition hours over 80 nl l{sup -1} of concentration. This method can make up for shorting of instrumental measurements and, in this case, put in evidence the ozone level probably near to the attention bound on some rural places; in the urban zones the doses are sharply lower.

  2. High resolution mapping of Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) of biological soil crusts (United States)

    Fischer, T.; Veste, M.; Eisele, A.; Bens, O.; Spyra, W.; Hüttl, R. F.


    Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) are typically determined using satellite or airborne remote sensing, or field portable spectrometers, which give an averaged signal on centimetre to meter scale plots. Biological soil crust (BSC) patches may have smaller sizes, and ecophysiological, hydrological as well as pedological processes may be heterogeneously distributed within this level of resolution. A ground-based NDVI imaging procedure using low-cost equipment (Olympus Camedia 5000z digital camera equipped with a Hoya R72 infrared filter) was developed in this study to fill this gap at the level of field research, where carrying costly and bulky equipment to remote locations is often the limiting factor for data collection. A commercially available colour rendition chart (GretagMacbeth ColorChecker®) with known red (600-700 nm) and NIR (800-900 nm) reflectances was placed into each scene and used for calibration purposes on a per-image basis. Generation of NDVI images involved (i) determination of red and NIR reflectances from the pixel values of the red and NIR channels, respectively, and (ii) calculation and imaging of the NDVI, where NDVI values of -1 to +1 were mapped to grey values of 0 to 255. The correlation between NDVI values retrieved from these images and NDVI values determined using conventional field spectrometry (ASD FieldSpec 3 portable spectroradiometer) was close (r2 =0.91), the 95% confidence interval amounted to 0.10 NDVI units. The pixel resolution was 0.8 mm in the field and 0.2 mm in the laboratory, but can still be improved significantly with closer distance to the crust or with higher camera resolution. Geostatistical analysis revealed that both spatial variability as well as size of individual objects characterized by the NDVI increased with crust development. The latter never exceeded 4 mm in the investigated crusts, which points to the necessity of high resolution imaging for linking remote sensing with ecophysiology

  3. Hair as a biological indicator of drug use, drug abuse or chronic exposure to environmental toxicants. (United States)

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Ziavrou, Kallirroe S; Vougiouklakis, Theodore


    In recent years hair has become a fundamental biological specimen, alternative to the usual samples blood and urine, for drug testing in the fields of forensic toxicology, clinical toxicology and clinical chemistry. Moreover, hair-testing is now extensively used in workplace testing, as well as, on legal cases, historical research etc. This article reviews methodological and practical issues related to the application of hair as a biological indicator of drug use/abuse or of chronic exposure to environmental toxicants. Hair structure and the mechanisms of drug incorporation into it are commented. The usual preparation and extraction methods as well as the analytical techniques of hair samples are presented and commented on. The outcomes of hair analysis have been reviewed for the following categories: drugs of abuse (opiates, cocaine and related, amphetamines, cannabinoids), benzodiazepines, prescribed drugs, pesticides and organic pollutants, doping agents and other drugs or substances. Finally, the specific purpose of the hair testing is discussed along with the interpretation of hair analysis results regarding the limitations of the applied procedures.

  4. Assessment of the ecological security of immobilized enzyme remediation process with biological indicators of soil health. (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Dong, Xiaonan; Jiang, Zhao; Cao, Bo; Ge, Shijie; Hu, Miao


    This study used the enzymes extracted from an atrazine-degrading strain, Arthrobacter sp. DNS10, which had been immobilized by sodium alginate to rehabilitate atrazine-polluted soil. Meanwhile, a range of biological indices were selected to assess the ecological health of contaminated soils and the ecological security of this bioremediation method. The results showed that there was no atrazine detected in soil samples after 28 days in EN+AT (the soil containing atrazine and immobilized enzyme) treatment. However, the residual atrazine concentration of the sample in AT (the soil containing atrazine only) treatment was about 5.02 ± 0.93 mg kg(-1). These results suggest that the immobilized enzyme exhibits an excellent ability in atrazine degradation. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme could relieve soil microbial biomass carbon and soil microbial respiration intensity to 772.33 ± 34.93 mg C kg(-1) and 5.01 ± 0.17 mg CO(2) g(-1) soil h(-1), respectively. The results of the polymerase chain reaction-degeneration gradient gel electrophoresis experiment indicated that the immobilized enzyme also could make the Shannon-Wiener index and evenness index of the soil sample increase from 1.02 and 0.74 to 1.51 and 0.84, respectively. These results indicated that the immobilized enzymes not only could relieve the impact from atrazine on the soil, but also revealed that the immobilized enzymes did no significant harm on the soil ecological health.

  5. [Validation of two indices of biological integrity (IBI) for the Angulo River subbasin in Central Mexico]. (United States)

    Ramírez-Herrejón, Juan Pablo; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Medina-Nava, Martina; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar


    Efforts to halt freshwater ecosystem degradation in central Mexico can benefit from using bio-monitoring tools that reflect the condition of their biotic integrity. We analyzed the applicability of two fish-based indices of biotic integrity using data from lotic and lentic systems in the Angulo River subbasin (Lerma-Chapala basin). Both independent data from our own collections during two consecutive years, and existing information detailing the ecological attributes of each species, were used to calculate indices of biological integrity for 16 sites in lotic and lentic habitats. We assessed environmental quality by combining independent evaluations water and habitat quality for each site. We found sites with poor, regular and good biotic integrity. Our study did not find sites with good environmental quality. Fish-based IBI scores were strongly and significantly correlated with scores from independent environmental assessment techniques. IBI scores were adequate at representing environmental conditions in most study sites. These results expand the area where a lotic system fish-based IBI can be used, and constitute an initial validation of a lentic system fish-based IBI. Our results suggest that these bio-monitoring tools can be used in future conservation efforts in freshwater ecosystems in the Middle Lerma Basin.

  6. Behaviour of biological indicators of cadmium in relation to occupational exposure

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    Ghezzi, I.; Toffoletto, F.; Sesana, G.; Fagioli, M.G.; Micheli, A.; Di Silvestro, P.; Zocchetti, C.; Alessio, L.


    Cadmium in blood (CdB), cadmium in urine (CdU) and beta 2-microglobulins (beta 2MU) were determined in 83 male workers exposed to cadmium fumes. The behaviour of the biological indicators of cadmium was assessed in relation to degree of current exposure, length of exposure and cumulative exposure (computed as concentration of cadmium at the workplace multiplied by duration of exposure). CdB values were significantly higher in the subgroups of subjects with higher current cadmium exposure and in the subgroups of subjects with greater cumulative exposure, but the test levels were not influenced by duration of exposure. CdU levels were significantly higher in the subgroup of subjects with greater cumulative exposure, but were less influenced by current exposure or duration of exposure. Considering the entire population, a rather close correlation was observed between CdB and CdU. When the population was divided according to level of current exposure, a close relationship was observed between the two indicators in all subgroups; nevertheless, for identical CdU values, the CdB values were higher in the subjects with heavier current exposure. The data confirm that CdU is prevalently influenced by the body burden of metal, but they also suggest that the CdB levels are not influenced solely by the intensity of current exposure but also depend to a considerable degree on the body burden.

  7. Short-term effects of different organic amendments on soil chemical, biochemical and biological indicators (United States)

    Mondelli, Donato; Aly, Adel; Yirga Dagnachew, Ababu; Piscitelli, Lea; Dumontet, Stefano; Miano, Teodoro


    The limited availability of animal manure and the high cost of good quality compost lead to difficult soil quality management under organic agriculture. Therefore, it is important to find out alternative organic soil amendments and more flexible strategies that are able to sustain crop productivity and maintain and enhance soil quality. A three years study was carried out in the experimental fields of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari located in Valenzano, Italy. The main objective of this research is to investigate the effects of different fertility management strategies on soil quality in order to estimate the role of innovative matrices for their use in organic farming. The experiment consists of seven treatments applied to a common crop rotation. The treatments include alternative organic amendments (1- olive mill wastewater OMW, 2- residues of mushroom cultivation MUS, 3- coffee chaff COF), common soil amendments (4- compost COM, 5- faba bean intercropping LEG, 6- cow manure - MAN) and as a reference treatment (7- mineral fertilizer COV). The soil quality was assessed before and after the application of the treatments, through biological (microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, soil respiration and metabolic quotient), biochemical (soil enzymatic activities: β-glucosidase, alkaline phospatase, urease, fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis), and chemical (pH, soil organic carbon, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable potassium, dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen) indicators. Based on the results obtained after the second year, all treatments were able to improve various soil chemical parameters as compared to mineral fertilizer. The incorporation of COF and OMW seemed to be more effective in improving soil total N and exchangeable K, while MAN significantly increased available P. All the amendments enhance dissolved organic C, soil respiration, microbial biomass and metabolic quotient as

  8. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

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    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. CONCLUSION: It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  9. Biological and structural characterization of new linear gomesin analogues with improved therapeutic indices. (United States)

    Fázio, Marcos A; Jouvensal, Laurence; Vovelle, Françoise; Bulet, Philippe; Miranda, M Terêsa M; Daffre, Sirlei; Miranda, Antonio


    Gomesin (Gm) is a potent antimicrobial peptide isolated from the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana. The two disulfide bridges Cys(2,15) and Cys(6,11) facilitate the folding of the molecule in a beta-hairpin structure, conferring on the peptide a high stability in human plasma. We report herein biological and structural features of new linear Gm analogues, obtained by combining the removal of both disulfide bridges and the incorporation of a D- or L-proline. Regarding their biological properties, two analogues, namely, [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(9)]-D-Gm and [Thr(2,6,11,15), D-Pro(9)]-Gm, are as potent as Gm against Candida albicans and only fourfold less against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In addition, at 100 microM they are approximately threefold less hemolytic than Gm. The best therapeutic indices were found for [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(9)]-D-Gm and for [(Des-pGlu(1), -Thr(2), -Arg(3)), Thr(6,11,15), D-Pro(9)]-Gm with a 32-fold increase of their activity against bacteria, and from 128- to 512-fold against yeast when compared with Gm. Regarding the stability, [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(9)]-D-Gm appeared to be the most resistant in human serum, along with [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(8)]-D-Gm and [Thr(2,6,11,15), D-Arg(4,16), D-Pro(9)]-Gm. When evaluating their conformation by CD spectroscopy in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), most linear analogues display beta-conformation characteristics. Moreover, considering its high therapeutic index and stability in serum, [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(9)]-D-Gm was further analyzed by NMR spectroscopy. (1)H NMR experiments in SDS micelles demonstrated that [D-Thr(2,6,11,15), Pro(9)]-D-Gm presents a conformation very similar to that of Gm. In our search for Gm analogues with enhanced potential for drug development, we demonstrated that designing cysteine-free analogues can improve the therapeutic index of Gm derivatives.

  10. Sampling designs matching species biology produce accurate and affordable abundance indices

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    Grant Harris


    Full Text Available Wildlife biologists often use grid-based designs to sample animals and generate abundance estimates. Although sampling in grids is theoretically sound, in application, the method can be logistically difficult and expensive when sampling elusive species inhabiting extensive areas. These factors make it challenging to sample animals and meet the statistical assumption of all individuals having an equal probability of capture. Violating this assumption biases results. Does an alternative exist? Perhaps by sampling only where resources attract animals (i.e., targeted sampling, it would provide accurate abundance estimates more efficiently and affordably. However, biases from this approach would also arise if individuals have an unequal probability of capture, especially if some failed to visit the sampling area. Since most biological programs are resource limited, and acquiring abundance data drives many conservation and management applications, it becomes imperative to identify economical and informative sampling designs. Therefore, we evaluated abundance estimates generated from grid and targeted sampling designs using simulations based on geographic positioning system (GPS data from 42 Alaskan brown bears (Ursus arctos. Migratory salmon drew brown bears from the wider landscape, concentrating them at anadromous streams. This provided a scenario for testing the targeted approach. Grid and targeted sampling varied by trap amount, location (traps placed randomly, systematically or by expert opinion, and traps stationary or moved between capture sessions. We began by identifying when to sample, and if bears had equal probability of capture. We compared abundance estimates against seven criteria: bias, precision, accuracy, effort, plus encounter rates, and probabilities of capture and recapture. One grid (49 km2 cells and one targeted configuration provided the most accurate results. Both placed traps by expert opinion and moved traps between capture

  11. Assessment of Diverse Biological Indicators in Gulf War Illness: Are They Replicable Are They Related (United States)


    investigators. There are also few instances in which measures related to different biological systems, for example, measures of brain function and...War veterans in the region who have come forward to enroll in VA’s Gulf War Registry since their return from Desert Storm . Accessing veterans through

  12. Assessment of Diverse Biological Indicators in Gulf War Illness: Are They Replicable Are They Related (United States)


    treatments, it is imperative to establish a more definitive and integrated understanding of GWI pathophysiology. This study utilizes a case-control design...distinguished by biological measures, deployment experiences /exposures, or illness severity and characteristics. Veterans are evaluated over two...initiated. Over the performance period, we continued to experience extended institutional delays in project start-up associated with our local and

  13. In search of biological indicators for soil health and disease suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.H.C.; Semenov, A.M.


    While soil quality encompasses physical and chemical besides biological characteristics, soil health is primarily an ecological characteristic. Ecosystem health has been defined in terms of ecosystem stability and resilience in response to a disturbance or stress. We therefore, suggest that indicato

  14. Concept of Biological Progress and Information as Indication and Measure of Ontic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonci Kokic


    Full Text Available The history of the idea of biological progress shows that it is not a selfexplanatory category, so a clear definition is required. Biological progress exists if: (1 “more progressive” is defined as “more complex” – in that case evolution is synonymous with progress, i.e. development from simple to complex, from homogeneous to heterogeneous; (2 we perceive the expression “more progressive” as more successful in relation to the environment, in these terms some groups in the history of life were more progressive because/so that they survived, while others were retrogressive or less progressive because/so that they died out; on the other hand, within their ecological niches, certain forms of life (species are perfectly adapted to their environment as long as it is stable (along these lines, mammals are no more progressive than bacteria; (3 we take the span or reach of a potential adaptation of populations as a measure (in which case differences exist. However, there is no active, innovative problem solving in relation to the environment either with plants or animals – only the variability mechanism / selection is in place, automatism, instinct. In the light of the above-mentioned biological criteria, man is the most complex living creature by his constitution (central nervous system, he is the least dependent on the environment and can be innovative in relation to the environment. Man is the only living creature capable of establishing an active relationship with the environment through his special tool – culture. Considering the level of organization and quantity of information, the mammal genome is more progressive than the bacterium genome, while the human genome comprises most information which makes man the most progressive living thing. We can talk about biological progress if we define progressiveness as advancement toward complexity of organisation, but sometimes the simplification of structure enables survival. It seems

  15. The lichens: general considerations. Role as pollution biological indicators; Les lichens: generalites. Role comme bioindicateurs de la pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivaux, E


    After having recalled the morphology and the different classification of lichens, the author presents the main lichenous substances, in particular the depsides and the depsidones. A detailed study on the role of lichens as pollution biological indicators is given. (O.M.)

  16. Effects of organic amendment on soil quality as assessed by biological indicators


    Sultana, Salma


    Soil quality decline is one of the most predominant effect deriving from human activities. In particular, intensive agricultural management can affect negatively soils, principally due to rapid depletion of soil organic matter, that affects, in turn, soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The declining trend of soil quality coupled with mismanagement of agricultural production is pose a serious threat to sustainability of intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture is...

  17. Prevalence of lead disease among secondary lead smelter workers and biological indicators of lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R. (City Univ. of New York); Fischbein, A.; Eisinger, J.


    The report concerns itself primarily with the assessment of medical and biochemical effects of chronic lead exposure and comparing the usefulness of various biological screening parameters. In addition it appraises the effects of chelation therapy to control blood lead levels in lead workers, which have recently attracted critical attention. It is of considerable importance to ascertain whether such a therapeutic approach may, under some circumstances, in fact contribute to the deleterious effects of undue lead exposure.

  18. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D.; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María del Carmen


    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea. PMID:27579575

  19. Coral Reef Health Indices versus the Biological, Ecological and Functional Diversity of Fish and Coral Assemblages in the Caribbean Sea. (United States)

    Díaz-Pérez, Leopoldo; Rodríguez-Zaragoza, Fabián Alejandro; Ortiz, Marco; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar Leví; Carriquiry, Jose D; Ríos-Jara, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Troncoso, Alma Paola; García-Rivas, María Del Carmen


    This study evaluated the relationship between the indices known as the Reef Health Index (RHI) and two-dimensional Coral Health Index (2D-CHI) and different representative metrics of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals in 101 reef sites located across seven zones in the western Caribbean Sea. Species richness and average taxonomic distinctness were used to asses biological estimation; while ecological diversity was evaluated with the indices of Shannon diversity and Pielou´s evenness, as well as by taxonomic diversity and distinctness. Functional diversity considered the number of functional groups, the Shannon diversity and the functional Pielou´s evenness. According to the RHI, 57.15% of the zones were classified as presenting a "poor" health grade, while 42.85% were in "critical" grade. Based on the 2D-CHI, 28.5% of the zones were in "degraded" condition and 71.5% were "very degraded". Differences in fish and coral diversity among sites and zones were demonstrated using permutational ANOVAs. Differences between the two health indices (RHI and 2D-CHI) and some indices of biological, ecological and functional diversity of fish and corals were observed; however, only the RHI showed a correlation between the health grades and the species and functional group richness of fish at the scale of sites, and with the species and functional group richness and Shannon diversity of the fish assemblages at the scale of zones. None of the health indices were related to the metrics analyzed for the coral diversity. In general, our study suggests that the estimation of health indices should be complemented with classic community indices, or should at least include diversity indices of fish and corals, in order to improve the accuracy of the estimated health status of coral reefs in the western Caribbean Sea.

  20. Proposition of diagnostic tool to provide indicatives about the understanding of biological knowledge and their interrelationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria de Andrade Caldeira


    Full Text Available This paper describes the developing and validating steps of a Likert’s evaluative scale. The aim is to systematize the answers of Biological Sciences students about to: 1 Understanding or notunderstanding thescientific knowledge; and 2.If there is a relationship amongscientific concepts in order to contemplate a systemic thinking about natural phenomena. The described scale was validated by Cronbach's Alpha tests (α = 0.741, KMO (0.779 and Bartlett (0.000 and a Multivariate Analysis was fulfilled, typePrincipal Component Analysis (PCA. We understood that this kind of instrument allows a large amount of data to be collected and it groups can be compared efficiently, which justified the development of evaluative scale presented here.

  1. Using dual classifications in the development of avian wetland indices of biological integrity for wetlands in West Virginia, USA. (United States)

    Veselka, Walter; Anderson, James T; Kordek, Walter S


    Considerable resources are being used to develop and implement bioassessment methods for wetlands to ensure that "biological integrity" is maintained under the United States Clean Water Act. Previous research has demonstrated that avian composition is susceptible to human impairments at multiple spatial scales. Using a site-specific disturbance gradient, we built avian wetland indices of biological integrity (AW-IBI) specific to two wetland classification schemes, one based on vegetative structure and the other based on the wetland's position in the landscape and sources of water. The resulting class-specific AW-IBI was comprised of one to four metrics that varied in their sensitivity to the disturbance gradient. Some of these metrics were specific to only one of the classification schemes, whereas others could discriminate varying levels of disturbance regardless of classification scheme. Overall, all of the derived biological indices specific to the vegetative structure-based classes of wetlands had a significant relation with the disturbance gradient; however, the biological index derived for floodplain wetlands exhibited a more consistent response to a local disturbance gradient. We suspect that the consistency of this response is due to the inherent nature of the connectivity of available habitat in floodplain wetlands.

  2. [The hyperiricosuria as an indicator of derangement of biologic functions of endoecology and adaptation, biologic reactions of excretion, inflammation and arterial tension]. (United States)

    Titov, V N; Oshchepkova, E V; Dmitriev, V A; Gushchina, O V; Shiriaeva, Iu K; Iashin, A Ia


    During millions years in all animals allantoine (oxidized by uricase uric acid) was catabolite of purines and ascorbic acid was an acceptor of active forms of oxygen. The proximal tubules of nephron reabsorbed the trace amounts of uric acid Then during phylogenesis the primates had a mutation of ascorbic acid gen minus. Later on occurred a second spontaneous mutation and uricase gen minus and uric acid became catabolites of purines. In absence of ascorbic acid synthesis ions of urates became a major capturers of active forms of oxygen and all uric acid as before underwent the reabsorption. Later the carriers were formed which began in epithelium of proximal tubules to secrete all uric acid into urine. At every incident of "littering" of intercellular medium with endogenic flogogens (impairment of biologic function of endoecology) under compensatory development of biologic reaction of inflammation the need in inactivation of active forms of oxygen increases. Hence later on in phylogenesis one more stage was formed--post secretory reabsorption of uric acid In the biologic reaction of inflammation epithelium of proximal tubules initiates retentional hyperiricosuria. The general antioxidant activity of human blood plasma in 60% is presented by urates' ions. The excretion of uric acid includes 4 stages: filtration, full reabsorption, secretion and post secretory reabsorption. In phylogenesis these stages formed in sequence. The mild hyperiricosuria is most frequently considered as a non-specific indicator of activation of biologic reaction of inflammation. The productive hyperiricosuria develops more infrequently under surplus of meat food and cytolysis syndrome (intensification of cell loss in vivo). Under concentration of uric acid more than 400 mkmol/l part of urates circulates in intercellular medium in the form of crystals. The microcrystals of uric acid (biologic "litter") initiate the syndrome of systemic inflammatory response as an endogenic flogogen

  3. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyniuk O.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  4. Evaluation of Immunoassays and General Biological Indicator Tests for Field Screening of Bacillus anthracis and Ricin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Arce, Jennifer S.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Hofstad, Beth A.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Jarman, Kristin; Melville, Angela M.; Victry, Kristin D.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.


    The goal of this testing was to evaluate the ability of currently available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) biological indicator tests and immunoassays to detect Bacillus anthracis (Ba) spores and ricin. In general, immunoassays provide more specific identification of biological threats as compared to indicator tests [3]. Many of these detection products are widely used by first responders and other end users. In most cases, performance data for these instruments are supplied directly from the manufacturer, but have not been verified by an external, independent assessment [1]. Our test plan modules included assessments of inclusivity (ability to generate true positive results), commonly encountered hoax powders (which can cause potential interferences or false positives), and estimation of limit of detection (LOD) (sensitivity) testing.

  5. Quantifying the responses of biological indices to rare macroinvertebrate taxa exclusion: Does excluding more rare taxa cause more error? (United States)

    Yu, Zhengda; Wang, Hui; Meng, Jiao; Miao, Mingsheng; Kong, Qiang; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian


    Including or excluding rare taxa in bioassessment is a controversial topic, which essentially affects the reliability and accuracy of the result. In the present paper, we hypothesize that biological indices such as Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson's index, Margalef index, evenness, BMWP (biological monitoring working party), and ASPT (Average Score Per Taxon) respond differently to rare taxa exclusion. To test this hypothesis, a benthic macroinvertebrate data set based on recent fifteen-year studies in China was built for suppositional plot analyses. A field research was conducted in the Nansi Lake to perform related analyses. The results of suppositional plot simulations showed that Simpson's index placed more weight on common taxa than any other studied indices, followed by Shannon-Wiener index which remained a high value with the exclusion of rare taxa. The results indicated that there was not much of effect on Simpson's index and Shannon-Wiener index when rare taxa were excluded. Rare taxa played an important role in Margalef index and BMWP than in other indices. Evenness showed an increase trend, while ASPT varied inconsistently with the exclusion of rare taxa. Results of the field study also indicated that rare taxa had few impacts on the Shannon-Wiener index. By examining the relationships between the rare taxa and biological indices in our study, it is suggested that including the rare taxa when using BMWP and excluding them in the proposed way (e.g., fixed-count subsampling) to calculate Shannon-Wiener index and Simpson's index could raise the efficiency and reduce the biases in the bioassessment of freshwater ecosystems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fedonenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate, analyze and summarize the biological indices of commercial fish species in the main fishery water bodies of Dnіpropetrovsk region for the last 10 years. Methodology. Field data were collected in the Zaporizhzhia reservoir during 2003 – 2013 using a standard set of monitoring fishing gears (gill nets with mesh size a=30–120 mm. Juvenile fish were caught in third decade of June - first decade of August using the juvenile fish beach seine with a length of 10 m. Processing of ichthyological materials was conducted according to generally accepted methods. Findings. When comparing the biological indices of fish in the Zaporіzhzhia reservoir with the data for the past decade reflected in the normative documents, we found significant changes in the population of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca and gibel carp (Carassius gibelio, which concern the average fish weight, fertility and the relative proportion of females in the spawning stock. Roach (Rutilus rutilus, perch (Perca fluviatilis, and gibel carp are characterized a reduced number of spawning events. The biological indices of bream (Abramis brama, common carp (Cyprinus, pike (Esox lucius and catfish (Silurus glanis populations remain virtually unchanged during the study period. As for biological indices of Black and Caspian Sea sprat, rudd, gobies and crayfish, the information on these species in the relevant regulatory documents is missing, so it is not possible to assess the dynamics of their changes. Due to an inventory of small fishery water bodies we received the information on the biological indicators of major species, which can also be used for updating the normative database. Originality. For the first time we summarized the characteristic of fish fauna in major fishery water bodies of Dnepropetrovsk region and analyzed main indices, which define the conditions of fish stock development and exploitation of aquatic living aquatic resources in fishery water bodies

  7. Characterization of biological types of cattle: indicator traits offertility in beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Cushman


    Full Text Available Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status; however, there are clearly genetic components to reproductive efficiency, and breed differences in a number of indicator traits associated with fertility and cow productivity have been identified. Historical indicators of fertility include scrotal circumference, age at puberty, and postpartum interval. Both age at puberty and postpartum interval are laborious traits to collect in heifers and cows because they require many days of detection of behavioral estrus. In recent years, the addition of ultrasonography to management practices has allowed for the collection of female traits such as follicle diameter, antral follicle counts, and fetal age that are not as labor intensive. These additional diagnostic traits provide novel phenotypes for the identification of genetic markers of fertility and cow productivity, which would be the ultimate goal. Genetic markers of the number of follicles in the bovine ovary have the potential to identify heifers that will be highly productive cows. Furthermore, identifying and understanding the genes that control various reproductive traits and the response to stressors, such as temperature and nutrient availability, could improve production efficiency by improving management and breeding decisions in a wide range of production environments.

  8. Epilithic algae as indicators of biological recovery in acid-stresed lakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinebrooke, R.D.


    The responsiveness of benthic algae to lake acidification and chemical recovery prompted a survey of epilithic algae along an acid-stressed lake gradient. A primary acid-stress recovery gradient, best defined by increasing dissolved inorganic carbon, was characterized by increasing epilithic algal production, and a shift from an Actinotaenium cucurbita/Fragilaria acidobiontica/Homoeothrix juliana/Zygogonium ericetorum to an Achnanthes minutissima/Cymbella spp./Gomphonema spp. indicator assemblage. Increased total, filamentous green, and desmid production, and a shift towards a placoderm desmid-dominated community, typified a secondary recovery gradient defined by increasing water colour. A reciprocal transplant experiment indicated that physiological tolerance of acid-stress was the primary ecological mechanism regulating epilithic algal production and community structure. Macrograzing was of secondary importance, affecting community architecture and species composition only in low acid-stressed habitats. Tadpoles reduced the growth of metaphyton-forming epilithic algae by selective removal of loosely attached filaments of zygnematacean genera. Metaphytic algae from two lakes of different acid-stress levels had contrasting acidity and aluminium tolerance ranges. Z. ericetorum had both a low pH optimum and relative growth rate, along with high aluminium resistance, while a less acidophilic Z. tunetanum exhibited faster growth over a broader range of acidities, but also sensitivity to aluminium concentrations in excess of naturally occurring background levels. 172 refs., 30 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Prioritizing conservation effort through the use of biological soil crusts as ecosystem function indicators in an arid region (United States)

    Bowker, M.A.; Miller, M.E.; Belnap, J.; Sisk, T.D.; Johnson, N.C.


    Conservation prioritization usually focuses on conservation of rare species or biodiversity, rather than ecological processes. This is partially due to a lack of informative indicators of ecosystem function. Biological soil crusts (BSCs) trap and retain soil and water resources in arid ecosystems and function as major carbon and nitrogen fixers; thus, they may be informative indicators of ecosystem function. We created spatial models of multiple indicators of the diversity and function of BSCs (species richness, evenness, functional diversity, functional redundancy, number of rare species, number of habitat specialists, nitrogen and carbon fixation indices, soil stabilization, and surface roughening) for the 800,000-ha Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (Utah, U.S.A.). We then combined the indicators into a single BSC function map and a single BSC biodiversity map (2 alternative types of conservation value) with an unweighted averaging procedure and a weighted procedure derived from validations performance. We also modeled potential degradation with data from a rangeland assessment survey. To determine which areas on the landscape were the highest conservation priorities, we overlaid the function- and diversity-based conservation-value layers on the potential degradation layer. Different methods for ascribing conservation-value and conservation-priority layers all yielded strikingly similar results (r = 0.89-0.99), which suggests that in this case biodiversity and function can be conserved simultaneously. We believe BSCs can be used as indicators of ecosystem function in concert with other indicators (such as plant-community properties) and that such information can be used to prioritize conservation effort in drylands. ?? 2008 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Clinical indications and biological mechanisms of splenic irradiation in autoimmune diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinmann, M.; Becker, G. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Strahlenonkologie; Einsele, H.; Bamberg, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Innere Medizin 2


    Background: Splenic irradiation (SI) is a fairly unknown treatment modality in autoimmune disorders like autoimmune thrombocytopenia (AIT) or autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), which may provide an effective, low toxic and cost-effective treatment for selected patients. Patients, Materials and Methods: This article reviews the limited experiences on splenic irradiation in autoimmune thrombocytopenia by analyzing the current studies including 71 patients and some preliminary reports on splenic irradiation in autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Results: In autoimmune thrombocytopenia between 40 and 90% of all patients responded, but most of them relapsed within 4 to 6 months after splenic irradiation. Between 10 and 20% of all patients had a sustained response. The efficacy of splenic irradiation in HIV-associated cases of thrombocytopenia is probably lower than in other forms of autoimmune thrombocytopenia, but especially in this group immunosuppressive drug treatment of autoimmune thrombocytopenia exposes some problems. In autoimmune hemolytic anemia there are some case reports about efficacy of splenic irradiation. Toxicity of splenic irradiation in both diseases was very moderate. Conclusions: For HIV patients, for elderly patients or patients at high risk for complications following splenectomy splenic irradiation might be a treatment option. Splenic irradiation as preoperative treatment in patients not responding to or not suitable for immunosuppressive drugs prior to splenectomy may be a promising new application of splenic irradiation to reduce adverse effects of splenectomy in thrombocytopenic patients. A further analysis of the biological mechanisms underlying splenic irradiation may help to improve patient selection, to optimize dose concepts and treatment schedules and will improve understanding of radiotherapy as an immunomodulatory treatment modality. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Die Bestrahlung der Milz zur Behandlung von haematologischen

  11. Hydrogen as an Indicator to Assess Biological Activity During Trace-Metal Bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter R. Jaffe, John Komlos, Derick Brown


    Trace-metal and/or radionuclide bioremediation schemes require that specific redox conditions be achieved at given zones of an aquifer. Tools are therefore needed to identify the terminal electron acceptor processes (TEAPs) that are being achieved during bioremediation in an aquifer. Dissolved hydrogen (H2) concentrations have been shown to correlate with specific TEAPs during bioremediation in an aquifer. Theoretical analysis has shown that these steady-state H2 levels are solely dependent upon the physiological parameters of the hydrogen-consuming microorganisms, with H2 concentrations increasing as each successive TEAP yields less energy for bacterial growth. The objective of this research was to determine if H2 can still be used as an indicator of TEAPs during a uranium bioremediation scheme where an organic substrate is injected into the subsurface and organisms may consume H2 and carbon simultaneously. In addition, the effect of iron bioavailability on H2 concentrations during iron reduction was observed. The first phase of research determined the effect of a competing electron donor (acetate) on the kinetics of H2 utilization by Geobacter sulfurreducens in batch cultures under iron reducing conditions. The results indicate that, though the Monod kinetic coefficients describing the rate of H2 utilization under iron-reducing conditions correlate energetically with the coefficients found in previous experiments under methanogenic and sulfate-reducing conditions, conventionally measured growth kinetics do not predict the steady state H2 levels typical for each TEAP. In addition, with acetate and H2 as simultaneous electron donors, there is slight inhibition between the two electron donors for G. sulfurreducens, and this can be modeled through competitive inhibition terms in the classic Monod formulation, resulting in slightly higher H2 concentrations under steady state conditions in the presence of acetate. This dual-donor model indicates that the steady state H

  12. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Iara [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, 13565-905 São Carlos (Brazil); Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira [Associação Educational de Vitória, Departamento de Biologia, 29053-360 Vitória (Brazil); Rodella, Roberto Antônio [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, C. Postal 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto, E-mail: [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos Córdoba (ICYTAC), CONICET, Dpto. Qca. Orgánica, Fac. Cs. Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); and others


    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  13. Hydrogen as an Indicator to Assess Biological Activity During Trace-Metal Bioremediation (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Komlos, J.; Brown, D. G.; Lovley, D. R.


    The design and operation of a trace-metal or radionuclide bioremediation scheme requires that specific redox conditions be achieved at given zones of an aquifer for a predetermined duration. Tools are therefore needed to identify and quantify the terminal electron acceptor processes (TEAPs) that are being achieved during bioremediation in an aquifer, and that this is done at a high spatial resolution. Hydrogen holds the promise of being a key parameter that may be used to identify TEAPs. Theoretical analysis have shown that steady-state hydrogen levels in the subsurface are solely dependent upon the physiological parameters of the hydrogen-consuming microorganisms, and that hydrogen concentrations increase as each successive TEAP yields less energy for bacterial growth. The assumptions for this statement may not hold during a bioremediation scheme in which an organic substrate is injected into the subsurface and where organisms may consume hydrogen and carbon simultaneously. The objective of the research is to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen dynamics in an aquifer during a trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation scheme. For this purpose, a series of batch studies have been conducted during the first year of this project. In these studies the utilization of acetate and hydrogen by geobacter sulfurreducens were studied. In all cases Fe(III) was the electron acceptor. Microcosms were set up to investigate the utilization of hydrogen and acetate when either of them is the sole electron donor and when both are present and utilized simultaneously as electron donor. These experiments were conducted for varying initial conditions of the hydrogen and acetate concentration, and the disappearance of these compounds plus the evolution of Fe(II) as well as biomass was monitored over time. The results of these studies indicate that the biokinetic coefficients describing the rate of hydrogen utilization are not affected by the simultaneous utilization of acetate. While

  14. Patterns of database citation in articles and patents indicate long-term scientific and industry value of biological data resources. (United States)

    Bousfield, David; McEntyre, Johanna; Velankar, Sameer; Papadatos, George; Bateman, Alex; Cochrane, Guy; Kim, Jee-Hyub; Graef, Florian; Vartak, Vid; Alako, Blaise; Blomberg, Niklas


    Data from open access biomolecular data resources, such as the European Nucleotide Archive and the Protein Data Bank are extensively reused within life science research for comparative studies, method development and to derive new scientific insights. Indicators that estimate the extent and utility of such secondary use of research data need to reflect this complex and highly variable data usage. By linking open access scientific literature, via Europe PubMedCentral, to the metadata in biological data resources we separate data citations associated with a deposition statement from citations that capture the subsequent, long-term, reuse of data in academia and industry.  We extend this analysis to begin to investigate citations of biomolecular resources in patent documents. We find citations in more than 8,000 patents from 2014, demonstrating substantial use and an important role for data resources in defining biological concepts in granted patents to both academic and industrial innovators. Combined together our results indicate that the citation patterns in biomedical literature and patents vary, not only due to citation practice but also according to the data resource cited. The results guard against the use of simple metrics such as citation counts and show that indicators of data use must not only take into account citations within the biomedical literature but also include reuse of data in industry and other parts of society by including patents and other scientific and technical documents such as guidelines, reports and grant applications.

  15. A systems biology strategy to identify molecular mechanisms of action and protein indicators of traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Yu, Chenggang; Boutté, Angela; Yu, Xueping; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feala, Jacob D; Schmid, Kara; Dave, Jitendra; Tawa, Gregory J; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques


    The multifactorial nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the complex secondary tissue injury involving intertwined networks of molecular pathways that mediate cellular behavior, has confounded attempts to elucidate the pathology underlying the progression of TBI. Here, systems biology strategies are exploited to identify novel molecular mechanisms and protein indicators of brain injury. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of four distinct high-throughput gene expression studies involving different animal models of TBI. By using canonical pathways and a large human protein-interaction network as a scaffold, we separately overlaid the gene expression data from each study to identify molecular signatures that were conserved across the different studies. At 24 hr after injury, the significantly activated molecular signatures were nonspecific to TBI, whereas the significantly suppressed molecular signatures were specific to the nervous system. In particular, we identified a suppressed subnetwork consisting of 58 highly interacting, coregulated proteins associated with synaptic function. We selected three proteins from this subnetwork, postsynaptic density protein 95, nitric oxide synthase 1, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1, and hypothesized that their abundance would be significantly reduced after TBI. In a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury rat model of severe TBI, Western blot analysis confirmed our hypothesis. In addition, our analysis recovered 12 previously identified protein biomarkers of TBI. The results suggest that systems biology may provide an efficient, high-yield approach to generate testable hypotheses that can be experimentally validated to identify novel mechanisms of action and molecular indicators of TBI.

  16. Prioritizing conservation effort through the use of biological soil crusts as ecosystem function indicators in an arid region. (United States)

    Bowker, Matthew A; Miller, Mark E; Belnap, Jayne; Sisk, Thomas D; Johnson, Nancy C


    Conservation prioritization usually focuses on conservation of rare species or biodiversity, rather than ecological processes. This is partially due to a lack of informative indicators of ecosystem function. Biological soil crusts (BSCs) trap and retain soil and water resources in arid ecosystems and function as major carbon and nitrogen fixers; thus, they may be informative indicators of ecosystem function. We created spatial models of multiple indicators of the diversity and function of BSCs (species richness, evenness, functional diversity, functional redundancy, number of rare species, number of habitat specialists, nitrogen and carbon fixation indices, soil stabilization, and surface roughening) for the 800,000-ha Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument (Utah, U.S.A.). We then combined the indicators into a single BSC function map and a single BSC biodiversity map (2 alternative types of conservation value) with an unweighted averaging procedure and a weighted procedure derived from validations performance. We also modeled potential degradation with data from a rangeland assessment survey. To determine which areas on the landscape were the highest conservation priorities, we overlaid the function- and diversity-based conservation-value layers on the potential degradation layer. Different methods for ascribing conservation-value and conservation-priority layers all yielded strikingly similar results (r= 0.89-0.99), which suggests that in this case biodiversity and function can be conserved simultaneously. We believe BSCs can be used as indicators of ecosystem function in concert with other indicators (such as plant-community properties) and that such information can be used to prioritize conservation effort in drylands.

  17. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium reveals indicators of biological function and developmental origin. (United States)

    Higdon, Charles W; Mitra, Robi D; Johnson, Stephen L


    In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparing expression data from these cell types and whole embryos allowed us to reveal gene expression co-enrichment in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, as well as in melanocytes and iridophores. We found 214 genes co-enriched in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating the shared functions of melanin-producing cells. We found 62 genes significantly co-enriched in melanocytes and iridophores, illustrative of their shared developmental origins from the neural crest. This is also the first analysis of the iridophore transcriptome. Gene expression analysis for iridophores revealed extensive enrichment of specific enzymes to coordinate production of their guanine-based reflective pigment. We speculate the coordinated upregulation of specific enzymes from several metabolic pathways recycles the rate-limiting substrate for purine synthesis, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, thus constituting a guanine cycle. The purification procedure and expression analysis described here, along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data, provide the first mRNA sequencing data for multiple purified zebrafish pigment cell types, and will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology.

  18. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium reveals indicators of biological function and developmental origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Higdon

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparing expression data from these cell types and whole embryos allowed us to reveal gene expression co-enrichment in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, as well as in melanocytes and iridophores. We found 214 genes co-enriched in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating the shared functions of melanin-producing cells. We found 62 genes significantly co-enriched in melanocytes and iridophores, illustrative of their shared developmental origins from the neural crest. This is also the first analysis of the iridophore transcriptome. Gene expression analysis for iridophores revealed extensive enrichment of specific enzymes to coordinate production of their guanine-based reflective pigment. We speculate the coordinated upregulation of specific enzymes from several metabolic pathways recycles the rate-limiting substrate for purine synthesis, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, thus constituting a guanine cycle. The purification procedure and expression analysis described here, along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data, provide the first mRNA sequencing data for multiple purified zebrafish pigment cell types, and will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology.

  19. Cilioprotists as biological indicators for estimating the efficiency of using Gravel Bed Hydroponics System in domestic wastewater treatment. (United States)

    El-Serehy, Hamed A; Bahgat, Magdy M; Al-Rasheid, Khaled; Al-Misned, Fahad; Mortuza, Golam; Shafik, Hesham


    Interest has increased over the last several years in using different methods for treating sewage. The rapid population growth in developing countries (Egypt, for example, with a population of more than 87 millions) has created significant sewage disposal problems. There is therefore a growing need for sewage treatment solutions with low energy requirements and using indigenous materials and skills. Gravel Bed Hydroponics (GBH) as a constructed wetland system for sewage treatment has been proved effective for sewage treatment in several Egyptian villages. The system provided an excellent environment for a wide range of species of ciliates (23 species) and these organisms were potentially very useful as biological indicators for various saprobic conditions. Moreover, the ciliates provided excellent means for estimating the efficiency of the system for sewage purification. Results affirmed the ability of this system to produce high quality effluent with sufficient microbial reduction to enable the production of irrigation quality water.

  20. Quantification of River Nile/Quaternary aquifer exchanges via riverbank filtration by hydrochemical and biological indicators, Assiut, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fathy Abdalla; Mohamed Shamrukh


    This study approach seeks to characterize the hydraulic interactions between the Nile and the Quaternary aquifer via riverbank filtration (RBF) in Abu Tieg area, Assuit Governorate. The substantial removal/reduction of the most problematic substances during percolation of Nile water into abstraction wells was investigated using physico-chemical and biological indicators. Four sites with 11 municipal wells (20–750 m from the Nile) tapping the alluvial aquifer that is fed by the riverbank infiltrate were monitored. Bank-filtrated water was compared with those of the Nile and groundwater. Results showed that infiltrated Nile water ratio into the wells ranged from 39 to 80% reflecting the effect of distance from the Nile. Removal efficiency of total algal, total and faecal coliforms in bank-filtered water was 99.9%, while turbidity removal ranged from 93 to 98%. Fe, Mn and Zn in the bank-filtered water were relatively higher than those in the Nile, but were still under the allowable standards except those of Mn. LSI and WQI for the bank-filtered water indicated that the water was ranked as non-corrosive and of excellent quality. Comparison of physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the bank-filtered water with those of the Nile and groundwater showed the high efficiency of RBF as a treatment technology with minimal cost compared to conventional methods.

  1. Behavior of metals, pathogen parasites, and indicator bacteria in sewage effluents during biological treatment by activated sludge. (United States)

    Tonani, K A A; Julião, F C; Trevilato, T M B; Takayanagui, A M M; Bocio, Ana; Domingo, Jose L; Segura-Muñoz, Susana I


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of metals, pathogen parasites, and indicator bacteria in sewage effluents during biological treatment by activated sludge in a wastewater treatment plant in Ribeirão Preto (WTP-RP), Sao Paulo, Brazil. The evaluation was done during a period of 1 year. Results showed that metal concentrations in treated effluents decreased, reaching concentrations according to those established by national regulations. The activated sludge process at the WTP-RP promoted a partial removal of parasites considered as possible indicators according to the WHO guidelines. Reduction factors varied between 18.2% and 100% for agents such as Endolimax nana, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hystolitica, Giardia sp., Ancylostoma sp., Ascaris sp., Fasciola hepatica, and Strongyloides stercoralis. A removal was also observed in total and fecal coliforms quantification. The present study represents an initial evaluation of the chemical and microbiological removal capacity of the WTP-RP. The results should be of interest for the authorities responsible for the environmental health at municipal, regional, national, and international levels.

  2. Quantification of River Nile/Quaternary aquifer exchanges via riverbank filtration by hydrochemical and biological indicators, Assiut, Egypt (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Shamrukh, Mohamed


    This study approach seeks to characterize the hydraulic interactions between the Nile and the Quaternary aquifer via riverbank filtration (RBF) in Abu Tieg area, Assuit Governorate. The substantial removal/reduction of the most problematic substances during percolation of Nile water into abstraction wells was investigated using physico-chemical and biological indicators. Four sites with 11 municipal wells (20-750 m from the Nile) tapping the alluvial aquifer that is fed by the riverbank infiltrate were monitored. Bank-filtrated water was compared with those of the Nile and groundwater. Results showed that infiltrated Nile water ratio into the wells ranged from 39 to 80% reflecting the effect of distance from the Nile. Removal efficiency of total algal, total and faecal coliforms in bank-filtered water was 99.9%, while turbidity removal ranged from 93 to 98%. Fe, Mn and Zn in the bank-filtered water were relatively higher than those in the Nile, but were still under the allowable standards except those of Mn. LSI and WQI for the bank-filtered water indicated that the water was ranked as non-corrosive and of excellent quality. Comparison of physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of the bank-filtered water with those of the Nile and groundwater showed the high efficiency of RBF as a treatment technology with minimal cost compared to conventional methods.

  3. Molecular biological test systems for indicator bacteria in drinking water; Molekularbiologische Testsysteme fuer den Nachweis von Indikatorbakterien im Trinkwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frahm, E. [WFM Wasserforschung Mainz GmbH (Germany)


    The authors intended to develop a molecular biological detection method for common indicator bacteria which can be an alternative to conventional methods. The method was to be fast (max. 24 h), simple, and economical. Tests were carried out on E. coli, P. aeruginosa and enterococci. [German] Das Ziel der vorgestellten Arbeit ist es, ein molekularbiologisches Nachweisverfahren fuer gaengige Indikatorbakterien zu entwickeln, das als Alternative zu den konventionellen Verfahren eingesetzt werden kann. Es wurde versucht, Rahmenbedingungen entsprechend den geltenden Bestimmungen einzuhalten und folgende Schwerpunkte wurden gesetzt: - Schnelligkeit: Ziel ist die Abwicklung an einem Arbeitstag, maximal 24 Stunden; - Genauigkeit: Der Ablauf soll standardisierbar und Ergebnisse gut reproduzierbar sein; - Einfaches 'handling': Moeglichst geringer Trainingsaufwand fuer Laborpersonal; - Kostenguenstig: Geraete und Reagenzien sollen in einem gut ausgestatteten Labor moeglichst vorhanden bzw. schnell und preiswert verfuegbar sein. Als zu testende Indikatororganismen wurden, E. coli, P. aeruginosa und die Familie der Enterokokken ausgewaehlt. Sowohl in den existierenden als auch in zur Zeit entstehenden Regelwerken haben diese Parameter eine zentrale Stellung. (orig.)

  4. Seasonal assessment of biological indices, bioaccumulation and bioavailability of heavy metals in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis from Algerian west coast, applied to environmental monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rouane-Hacene


    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to broaden our knowledge on the variability of trace metals in mussel tissues, focusing on seasonal fluctuations in the three different sampling sites of Algerian west coast (Oran Harbor (S1, Ain Defla (S2 and Hadjaj (S3. For this purpose, the bioavailability (metal indices and bioaccumulation (metal concentrations in soft tissues of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd, and the physiological characteristics (e.g. biological indices such as condition index (CI of mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis have been assessed and related to seasons and sites. In S1, the highest levels of metal concentrations and indices were obtained in mussels sampled in winter for Zn, Cu and Cd, but in summer for Pb. The biological indices significantly decreased in winter. In S2, the levels of concentrations and indices of all metals varied whatever the seasons, excepting in summer where the values were the lowest. In summer and spring, the biological indices were lower than in autumn and winter. The low growth of organisms in spring and summer might be correlated to the reproductive period and the low trophic level known in S2. S3, considered as a “pristine” area, showed low metal concentrations and indices, and high biological indices, reflecting the favorable physiological conditions for the mussel growth. This approach might be used in the monitoring of the quality of coastal waters and the present work provided a useful data set for Mediterranean monitoring network.

  5. Microfauna communities as performance indicators for an A/O Shortcut Biological Nitrogen Removal moving-bed biofilm reactor. (United States)

    Canals, O; Salvadó, H; Auset, M; Hernández, C; Malfeito, J J


    The microfauna communities present in the mixed liquor and biofilm of an Anoxic/Oxic Shortcut Biofilm Nitrogen Removal moving-bed biofilm process were characterised in order to optimise process control through the use of bioindicators. The system operated at high ammonium concentrations, with an average of 588 ± 220 mg N-NH4(+) L(-1) in the influent, 161 ± 80 mg L(-1) in the anoxic reactor and 74 ± 71.2 mg L(-1) in the aerobic reactor. Up to 20 different taxa were identified, including ciliates (4), flagellates (11), amoebae (4) and nematodes (1). Compared to conventional wastewater treatment processes (WWTPs), this process can be defined as a flagellates-predominant system with a low diversity of ciliates. Flagellates were mainly dominant in the mixed liquor, demonstrating high tolerance to ammonium and the capacity for survival over a long time under anoxic conditions. The data obtained provide interesting values of maximum and minimum tolerance ranges to ammonium, nitrates and nitrites for the ciliate species Cyclidium glaucoma, Colpoda ecaudata, Vorticella microstoma-complex and Epistylis cf. rotans. The last of these was the only ciliate species that presented a constant and abundant population, almost exclusively in the aerobic biofilm. Epistylis cf. rotans dynamics showed a high negative correlation with ammonium variations and a positive correlation with ammonium removal efficiency. Hence, the results indicate that Epistylis cf. rotans is a good bioindicator of the nitrification process in this system. The study of protozoan communities in unexplored WWTPs sheds light on species ecology and their role under conditions that have been little studied in WWTPs, and could offer new biological management tools.

  6. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H


    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  7. Predicting the biological condition of streams: Use of geospatial indicators of natural and anthropogenic characteristics of watersheds (United States)

    Carlisle, D.M.; Falcone, J.; Meador, M.R.


    We developed and evaluated empirical models to predict biological condition of wadeable streams in a large portion of the eastern USA, with the ultimate goal of prediction for unsampled basins. Previous work had classified (i.e., altered vs. unaltered) the biological condition of 920 streams based on a biological assessment of macroinvertebrate assemblages. Predictor variables were limited to widely available geospatial data, which included land cover, topography, climate, soils, societal infrastructure, and potential hydrologic modification. We compared the accuracy of predictions of biological condition class based on models with continuous and binary responses. We also evaluated the relative importance of specific groups and individual predictor variables, as well as the relationships between the most important predictors and biological condition. Prediction accuracy and the relative importance of predictor variables were different for two subregions for which models were created. Predictive accuracy in the highlands region improved by including predictors that represented both natural and human activities. Riparian land cover and road-stream intersections were the most important predictors. In contrast, predictive accuracy in the lowlands region was best for models limited to predictors representing natural factors, including basin topography and soil properties. Partial dependence plots revealed complex and nonlinear relationships between specific predictors and the probability of biological alteration. We demonstrate a potential application of the model by predicting biological condition in 552 unsampled basins across an ecoregion in southeastern Wisconsin (USA). Estimates of the likelihood of biological condition of unsampled streams could be a valuable tool for screening large numbers of basins to focus targeted monitoring of potentially unaltered or altered stream segments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  8. Selecting cost effective and policy-relevant biological indicators for European monitoring of soil biodiversity and ecosystem function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, B.S.; Römbke, J.; Schmelz, R.M.; Scheffczyk, A.; Faber, J.H.; Bloem, J.; Peres, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Chabbi, A.; Suhadolc, M.; Sousa, J.P.; Silva, da P.M.; Carvalho, F.; Mendes, S.; Morais, P.; Francisco, R.; Pereira, C.; Bonkowski, M.; Geisen, Stefan; Bardgetti, R.D.; Vries, De F.T.; Bolger, T.; Dirilgen, T.; Schmidt, O.; Winding, Anne; Hendriksen, Nicolien; Johansen, A.; Philippot, L.; Plassart, P.; Bru, D.; Thomson, B.M.; Griffiths, R.I.; Bailey, Megan; Keith, A.; Rutgers, M.; Mulder, Christian; Hannula, S.E.; Creamer, Rachel; Stone, D.


    Soils provide many ecosystem services that are ultimately dependent on the local diversity and belowground abundance of organisms. Soil biodiversity is affected negatively by many threats and there is a perceived policy requirement for the effective biological monitoring of soils at the European lev

  9. Selecting cost effective and policy-relevant biological indicators for European monitoring of soil biodiversity and ecosystem function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, B.s.; Römbke, J.; Schmelz, R.m.; Scheffczyk, A.; Faber, J.h.; Bloem, Jaap; Pérès, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Chabbi, A.; Suhadolc, M.; Sousa, J.p.; Martins Da Silva, P.; Carvalho, F.; Mendes, S.; Morais, P.; Francisco, R.; Pereira, C.; Bonkowski, M.; Geisen, S.; Bardgett, R.d.; De Vries, F.t.; Bolger, T.; Dirilgen, T.; Schmidt, O.; Winding, A.; Hendriksen, N.b.; Johansen, A.; Philippot, L.; Plassart, P.; Bru, D.; Thomson, B.; Griffiths, R.i.; Bailey, M.j.; Keith, A.; Rutgers, M.; Mulder, C.; Hannula, S.e.; Creamer, R.; Stone, D.


    Soils provide many ecosystem services that are ultimately dependent on the local diversity and below ground abundance of organisms. Soil biodiversity is affected negatively by many threats and there is a perceived policy requirement for the effective biological monitoring of soils at the European le

  10. Register indicators of physical endurance of biological objects when running a treadmill and swimming with weights using computer video markerless tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Datsenko A.V.


    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the use of video tracking to assess physical endurance and indicators of biological objects fatigue when running on a treadmill and swimming with the load. Material and methods. Physical endurance evaluated by test facilities for running on a treadmill and swimming with the load. As the object of the studies used laboratory rats. Results. For indicators of physical endurance biological objects isolated areas running track of treadmill and electrical stimulation site, when swimming on the total area of the container isolated subarea near the water surface. With video tracking performed computer timing of finding biological object in different zones of the treadmill and containers for swimming. On the basis of data on the time location rats in a given zone apparatus for running and swimming, obtained in the dynamics of the test of physical endurance, build a "fatigue curves", quantified changes in the indices of hard work, depending on the duration of its execution. Conclusion. Video tracking allows to define the execution of physical work to overflowing with loads of aerobic and mixed aerobic-anaerobic power, establish quantitative indicators of changes in the dynamics of biological objects operability testing with the construction of "fatigue curve" and objectively determine the times of occurrence in experimental animals exhaustion when fails to perform physical work.

  11. A Systems Biology Strategy to Identify Molecular Mechanisms of Action and Protein Indicators of Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)


    microtubule-associated protein tau, which has been shown to be predictive of clinical outcome and intracranial pressure after severe TBI (Zemlan et al., 2002... intracranial pressure and clinical outcome. Brain Res 947:131–139. Zhang J, Yang Y, Wang Y, Zhang J, Wang Z, Yin M, Shen X. 2011. Identification of hub...1 illustrates the systems biology strategy. We started by performing computational analyses to generate TABLE I. Summary of the Four TBI Gene

  12. Assessing the effectiveness of regulatory controls on farm pollution using chemical and biological indices of water quality and pollution statistics. (United States)

    Foy, R H; Lennox, S D; Smith, R V


    Water quality was measured in 42 streams in the Colebrooke and Upper Bann catchments in Northern Ireland over the period 1990-1998. Despite ongoing pollution control measures, biological water quality, as determined by the invertebrate average score per taxon (ASPT) index, did not improve and there was no appreciable decline in recorded farm pollution incidents. However, the lack of decline in pollution incidents could reflect changes in detection policy, as a greater proportion of incidents were recorded from less polluting discharges such as farm-yard runoff. In contrast, there was an improvement during 1997 and 1998 in annual chemical water quality classification based on exceedence values (90th percentiles) for dissolved oxygen, ammonium and BOD concentrations. In 1998, 11.9% of streams were severely polluted compared to 26.2% in 1990, while the proportion classed as of salmonid water quality, increased from 40.5% in 1990 to 59.6% in 1998. Although water quality in 1996 did not improve relative to 1990 values, there was a notable increasing trend from 1990 in the numbers of samples taken during the summer which had good water quality with low ammonium ( 70% sat). The trend for samples with low BOD (<4 mgl(-1)) was more erratic, but an improvement was apparent from 1994. These improvements in chemical water quality suggest that point-source farm pollution declined after 1990. The fact that this was not reflected in stream biology may reflect the limited time scale for biological recovery. An important factor preventing biological recovery may be the high pollution capacity of manures and silage effluent, so that even reduced numbers of farm pollution incidents can severely perturb stream ecosystems. The intractable nature of farm pollution suggests that there is a need to consider an interactive approach to problem resolution involving both farmers and regulators.

  13. Long-term impact of acid resin waste deposits on soil quality of forest areas II. Biological indicators. (United States)

    Pérez-de-Mora, Alfredo; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco; Buegger, Franz; Fuss, Roland; Pritsch, Karin; Schloter, Michael


    In this study, we evaluated the effects of two acid resin deposits on the soil microbiota of forest areas by means of biomass, microbial activity-related estimations and simple biological ratios. The determinations carried out included: total DNA yield, basal respiration, intracellular enzyme activities (dehydrogenase and catalase) and extracellular enzyme activities involved in the cycles of C (beta-glucosidase and chitinase), N (protease) and P (acid-phosphatase). The calculated ratios were: total DNA/total N; basal respiration/total DNA; dehydrogenase/total DNA and catalase/total DNA. Total DNA yield was used to estimate soil microbial biomass. Results showed that microbial biomass and activity were severely inhibited in the deposits, whilst resin effects on contaminated zones were variable and site-dependant. Correlation analysis showed no clear effect of contaminants on biomass and activities outside the deposits, but a strong interdependence with natural organic matter related parameters such as total N. In contrast, by using simple ratios we could detect more stressful conditions in terms of organic matter turnover and basal metabolism in contaminated areas compared to their uncontaminated counterparts. These results stress that developed ecosystems such as forests can buffer the effects of pollutants and preserve high functionality via natural attenuation mechanisms, but also that acid resins can be toxic to biological targets negatively affecting soil dynamics. Acid resin deposits can therefore act as contaminant sources adversely altering soil processes and reducing the environmental quality of affected areas despite the solid nature of these wastes.

  14. Optimizing the use of biological indicators for detection of significant pollutant types. Optimierung verschiedener Bioindikationsverfahren zur Erfassung wichtiger Immissionstypen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, R.D.


    Bioindication methods to determine the different pollutant types have been compared using the accumulation indicators Halian ryegrass (cloned material) and pine (Picea abies) and the sensitive indicator species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), gladiolus (G. hybridus), tulip (T. gesneriana), leek (A. porrum), clover (T. pratense), alfalfa (M. sativa), spinach (S. oleracea), petunia (P. hybrida), pelargonium (P. zonale), French marigold (T. patula), salvia (S. splendens) and ipomoea (I. purpurea). Field tests were carried out on 15 different sites in Bavaria. By means of the accumulation indicators, inorganic pollutants (S, F, Cl, Pb, Cd, Zn) were to be determined by analyses of the plant material. In the sensitive indicator plants, growth and flowering were studied with regard to external damage. In tobacco plants, also the physiological parameters and the total nitrogen concentration were determined. The following recommendations can be made for region with unknown pollutant levels: Accumulation indicators can be used in large areas; they yield valid information in case of high pollutant levels and react in a highly differentiated manner to site-specific pollutant levels already within the normal concentration range. Sensitive indicators are of use only in the direct vicinity of large-scale pollution sources. They have a signal function and may warn of high air pollution levels.

  15. Indicator-based assessment of marine biological diversity – lessons from 10 case studies across the European Seas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Uusitalo


    Full Text Available The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the environmental status of European marine waters to be assessed using biodiversity as one out of 11 descriptors, but the complexity of marine biodiversity and its large span across latitudinal and salinity gradients have been a challenge to the scientific community aiming to produce approaches for integrating information from a broad range of indicators. The Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool (NEAT, developed for the integrated assessment of the status of marine waters, was applied to ten marine ecosystems to test its applicability and compare biodiversity assessments across the four European regional seas. We evaluate the assessment results as well as the assessment designs of the ten cases, and how the assessment design, particularly the choices made regarding the area and indicator selection, affected the results. The results show that only 2 out of the 10 case study areas show more than 50 % probability of being in good status in respect of biodiversity. No strong pattern among the ecosystem components across the case study areas could be detected, but marine mammals, birds, and benthic vegetation indicators tended to indicate poor status while zooplankton indicators indicated good status when included into the assessment. The analysis shows that the assessment design, including the selection of indicators, their target values, geographical resolution and habitats to be assessed, has potentially a high impact on the result, and the assessment structure needs to be understood in order to make an informed assessment. Moreover, recommendations are provided for the best practice of using NEAT for marine status assessments.

  16. Ants can be used as bio-indicators to reveal biological effects of electromagnetic waves from some wireless apparatus. (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Johansson, Olle


    Society is confronted with an increasing number of applications making use of wireless communication. We also notice an increasing awareness about potentially harmful effects of the related electromagnetic fields on living organisms. At present, it is not realistic to expect that wireless communication will decrease or disappear within the near future. That is why we currently are investigating the mechanisms behind these effects and the effectiveness of possible solutions. In order to be efficient and effective, we designed and validated a fast and easy test on ants - these insects being used as a biological model - for revealing the effect of wireless equipments like mobile phones, smartphones, digital enhanced cordless telephone (DECT) phones, WiFi routers and so on. This test includes quantification of ants' locomotion under natural conditions, then in the vicinity of such wireless equipments. Observations, numerical results and statistical results allow detecting any effect of a radiating source on these living organisms.

  17. Manual accidents, biological risk control, and quality indicators at a children's hospital in north-east Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parco S


    Full Text Available Sergio Parco, Fulvia Vascotto, Roberto Simeone, Patrizia Visconti Department of Health Technology Assessment, Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Trieste, Italy Background: Working in health care carries the risk of transmission of infected blood to patients by hospital workers and to other health personnel in the form of occupational infections. Conscientious application of the standard precautions is the main method used to avoid needle stick injuries, contamination of skin and mucous membranes, cuts with sharp tools, and inadequate disposal and recapping of needles. The aim of this work was to investigate in Friuli Venezia Giulia, a region in north-east Italy, the enhancement carried out to prevent situations of biologic risk for health care workers, and to verify the related laboratory analyses. Methods: Biological accidents occurring during the years 2012–2013 in the departments of oncology and pediatric-obstetric surgery, and in the intensive care unit at Burlo Garofolo Children's Hospital in Trieste (a large town in Friuli Venezia Giulia were reviewed, and a new panel of tests was introduced for patients and health care workers, to also detect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, and aspartate transaminase and immunoglobulin G. All tests were submitted for external quality assessment. Results: In total, 230 nosocomial events were reported by health care workers in the above-mentioned hospital departments in 2012–2013. There were 158 accidents in 2012, including 55 accidental needle stick injuries (34.81%, 59 blood splashes (37.34%, and 44 cuts with infected instruments (27.84%. The risk of sustaining a cut was related to movement error during surgery when the appropriate procedure was not followed or when devices were being assembled and passed between doctors and nurses. Most accidents happened among physicians compared to nurses; the high percentage of needle stick injuries (34

  18. Exploring the Non-Stationary Effects of Forests and Developed Land within Watersheds on Biological Indicators of Streams Using Geographically-Weighted Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Jin An


    Full Text Available This study examined the non-stationary relationship between the ecological condition of streams and the proportions of forest and developed land in watersheds using geographically-weighted regression (GWR. Most previous studies have adopted the ordinary least squares (OLS method, which assumes stationarity of the relationship between land use and biological indicators. However, these conventional OLS models cannot provide any insight into local variations in the land use effects within watersheds. Here, we compared the performance of the OLS and GWR statistical models applied to benthic diatom, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities in sub-watershed management areas. We extracted land use datasets from the Ministry of Environment LULC map and data on biological indicators in Nakdong river systems from the National Aquatic Ecological Monitoring Program in Korea. We found that the GWR model had superior performance compared with the OLS model, as assessed based on R2, Akaike’s Information Criterion, and Moran’s I values. Furthermore, GWR models revealed specific localized effects of land use on biological indicators, which we investigated further. The results of this study can be used to inform more effective policies on watershed management and to enhance ecological integrity by prioritizing sub-watershed management areas

  19. Study of the influence of sporulation conditions on heat resistance of Geobacillus stearothermophilus used in the development of biological indicators for steam sterilization. (United States)

    Guizelini, Belquis P; Vandenberghe, Luciana P S; Sella, Sandra Regina B R; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo


    Biological indicators are important tools in infection control via sterilization process monitoring. The use of a standardized spore crop with a well-defined heat resistance will guarantee the quality of a biological indicator. Ambient factors during sporulation can affect spore characteristics and properties, including heat resistance. The aim of this study is to evaluate the main sporulation factors responsible for heat resistance in Geobacillus stearothermophilus, a useful biological indicator for steam sterilization. A sequence of a three-step optimization of variables (initial pH, nutrient concentration, tryptone, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, manganese sulfate, magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride and potassium phosphate) was carried out to screen those that have a significant influence on heat resistance of produced spores. The variable exerting greatest influence on G. stearothermophilus heat resistance during sporulation was found to be the initial pH. Lower nutrient concentration and alkaline pH around 8.5 tended to enhance decimal reduction time at 121 °C (D(121°C)). A central composite design enabled a fourfold enhancement in heat resistance, and the model obtained accurately describes positive pH and negative manganese sulfate concentration influence on spore heat resistance.

  20. Feeding Patterns of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) Indicate That Mycophagy Is Not a Single and Homogeneous Category of Nutritional Biology. (United States)

    Smrž, Jaroslav; Soukalová, Hana; Čatská, Vlasta; Hubert, Jan


    Mycophagy should not be considered as a single and homogeneous category of nutritional biology due to the specific symbiotic chitinolytic bacteria associated with mites and fungi. To test interaction among mites, fungi, and chitinolytic bacteria, experiments were conducted on the model species Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank). Mucor sp, Alternaria alternata, Penicillium claviforme, P. griseofulvum, and Verticillium sp. were plated onto malt agar and offered to T. putrescentiae in the laboratory. Mites were evaluated utilizing microanatomical examination based on histology, excrement analysis using fluorescence microscopy, bacterial plating, impact of mite homogenate on fungi in Petri dishes, reproduction of mites feeding upon each fungus, and isolation of associated bacteria inside mites. There were clear differences regarding the digested spores of different fungi passing through the gut and subsequently in the feces. Abundances of bacterial cells in excrement also corresponded to the fungi offered. The extracts from mites had chitinolytic activity, and the plated bacteria are known to produce exochitinases. The various feeding patterns observed were caused by differences in the cell wall structures of the tested fungi. The study illustrates that mycophagy in saprophagous mites does not consist of a single pattern, but rather that it can be classified into several sub-patterns depending upon the digested fungal species and its parts. The results point to a nearly symbiotic relationship between chitinolytic bacteria and digested fungi in mycophagous microarthropods.

  1. Bifurcation Scenarios of Neural Firing Patterns across Two Separated Chaotic Regions as Indicated by Theoretical and Biological Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaguang Gu


    Full Text Available Nonlinear dynamics can be used to identify relationships between different firing patterns, which play important roles in the information processing. The present study provides novel biological experimental findings regarding complex bifurcation scenarios from period-1 bursting to period-1 spiking with chaotic firing patterns. These bifurcations were found to be similar to those simulated using the Hindmarsh-Rose model across two separated chaotic regions. One chaotic region lay between period-1 and period-2 burstings. This region has not attracted much attention. The other region is a well-known comb-shaped chaotic region, and it appears after period-2 bursting. After period-2 bursting, the chaotic firings lay in a period-adding bifurcation scenario or in a period-doubling bifurcation cascade. The deterministic dynamics of the chaotic firing patterns were identified using a nonlinear prediction method. These results provided details regarding the processes and dynamics of bifurcation containing the chaotic bursting between period-1 and period-2 burstings and other chaotic firing patterns within the comb-shaped chaotic region. They also provided details regarding the relationships between different firing patterns in parameter space.

  2. [The indices of water-salt metabolism and of the endocrine status in monkeys after flights on the Kosmos biological satellites]. (United States)

    Korol'kov, V I; Dotsenko, M A; Larina, I M; Shakhmatova, E I; Natochin, Iu V


    Findings of studying the indices of water-salt metabolism and endocrine status of monkeys after their exposure in the weightless environment onboard the biological satellites of Earth have revealed a change in the blood serum concentrations of electrolytes which is indicative of instability of the system responsible for maintenance of the fluid-mineral homeostasis during readaptation. Results of studying the endocrine status of monkeys infer alteration in calcium metabolism, i.e. decreased levels of parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and the transport form of vitamin D3.

  3. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore


    be species or ecological processes. MCDA focuses on those species and processes that are critical for the identified ecological functions and are likely to be highly exposed to the GE organism. The highest ranked indicator entities are selected for the next step. (5) Relevant risk hypotheses are identified....... Knowledge about the specific transgene and its possible environmental effects in other countries can be used to assist development of risk hypotheses. (6) The risk hypotheses are ranked using MCDA with criteria related to the severity of the potential risk. The model emphasizes transparent, expert...

  4. Is the expression of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase messenger RNA an indicator of biological behavior in recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I-Shyan Sheen; Kuo-Shyang Jeng; Yi-Chun Tsai


    AIM: To investigate the correlation between gammaglutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) expression in the primary HCC and post-resection recurrence and its biological behaviors.METHODS: Forty consecutive patients having curative resection for HCC were included in this study. The primers for reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) were corresponding to the 5'-noncoding human γ-GTP mRNA of fetal liver (type A), HepG2 cells (type B),and placenta (type C). Both the cancer and non-cancerous tissues of the resected liver were analyzed. The correlations between the expression of γ-GTP and the clinicopathological variables and outcomes (recurrence and survival) were studied.RESULTS: Those with type B γ-GTP mRNA in cancer had significant higher recurrence rate than those without it (63.6 % vs 14.3 %). Both those with type B in cancer and in non-cancer died significantly more than those without it (45.5 % vs 0 % and 53.6 % vs 0 %, respectively). By multivariate analysis, the significant predictors of recurrence included high serum AFP (P=0.0108), vascular permeation (P=0.0084), and type B γ-GTP mRNA in non-cancerous liver (P=0.0107). The significant predictors of postrecurrence death included high serum AFP (P=0.0141),vascular permeation (P=0.0130), and daughter nodules (P=0.0053). As to the manifestations (recurrent number ≥2, recurrent extent≥2 segments, extra-hepatic metastasis, and death) in recurrent patients, there were no statistical significant differences between those with type B in the primary tumor and those without it. The difference between those with type B in non-cancerous liver and those without it also was not significant.CONCLUSION: Patients of HCC with type B γ-GTP mRNA both in cancer and in non-cancerous tissue had a worse outcome, earlier recurrence, and more post-recurrence death.

  5. DNA double-strand breaks as potential indicators for the biological effects of ionising radiation exposure from cardiac CT and conventional coronary angiography: a randomised, controlled study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisel, Dominik; Zimmermann, Elke; Rief, Matthias; Greupner, Johannes; Hamm, Bernd [Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Laule, Michael; Knebel, Fabian [Charite Medical School, Department of Cardiology, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, Marc [Charite Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Charite, Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany)


    To prospectively compare induced DNA double-strand breaks by cardiac computed tomography (CT) and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). 56 patients with suspected coronary artery disease were randomised to undergo either CCA or cardiac CT. DNA double-strand breaks were assessed in fluorescence microscopy of blood lymphocytes as indicators of the biological effects of radiation exposure. Radiation doses were estimated using dose-length product (DLP) and dose-area product (DAP) with conversion factors for CT and CCA, respectively. On average there were 0.12 {+-} 0.06 induced double-strand breaks per lymphocyte for CT and 0.29 {+-} 0.18 for diagnostic CCA (P < 0.001). This relative biological effect of ionising radiation from CCA was 1.9 times higher (P < 0.001) than the effective dose estimated by conversion factors would have suggested. The correlation between the biological effects and the estimated radiation doses was excellent for CT (r = 0.951, P < 0.001) and moderate to good for CCA (r = 0.862, P < 0.001). One day after radiation, a complete repair of double-strand breaks to background levels was found in both groups. Conversion factors may underestimate the relative biological effects of ionising radiation from CCA. DNA double-strand break assessment may provide a strategy for individualised assessments of radiation. (orig.)

  6. Responses of physical, chemical, and biological indicators of water quality to a gradient of agricultural land use in the Yakima River Basin, Washington (United States)

    Cuffney, T.F.; Meador, M.R.; Porter, S.D.; Gurtz, M.E.


    The condition of 25 stream sites in the Yakima River Basin, Washington, were assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Multimetric condition indices were developed and used to rank sites on the basis of physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. These indices showed that sites in the Cascades and Eastern Cascades ecoregions were largely unimpaired. In contrast, all but two sites in the Columbia Basin ecoregion were impaired, some severely. Agriculture (nutrients and pesticides) was the primary factor associated with impairment and all impaired sites were characterized by multiple indicators of impairment. All indices of biological condition (fish, invertebrates, and algae) declined as agricultural intensity increased. The response exhibited by invertebrates and algae suggested a threshold response with conditions declining precipitously at relatively low levels of agricultural intensity and little response at moderate to high levels of agricultural intensity. This pattern of response suggests that the success of mitigation will vary depending upon where on the response curve the mitigation is undertaken. Because the form of the community condition response is critical to effective water-quality management, the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is conducting studies to examine the response of biota to gradients of land-use intensity and the relevance of these responses to water-quality management. These land-use gradient pilot studies will be conducted in several urban areas starting in 1999.

  7. Integrated risk assessment for WFD ecological status classification applied to Llobregat river basin (Spain). Part I-Fuzzy approach to aggregate biological indicators. (United States)

    Gottardo, S; Semenzin, E; Giove, S; Zabeo, A; Critto, A; de Zwart, D; Ginebreda, A; Marcomini, A


    Water Framework Directive (WFD) requirements and recommendations for Ecological Status (ES) classification of surface water bodies do not address all issues that Member States have to face in the implementation process, such as selection of appropriate stressor-specific environmental indicators, definition of class boundaries, aggregation of heterogeneous data and information and uncertainty evaluation. In this context the "One-Out, All-Out" (OOAO) principle is the suggested approach to lead the entire classification procedure and ensure conservative results. In order to support water managers in achieving a more comprehensive and realistic evaluation of ES, an Integrated Risk Assessment (IRA) methodology was developed. It is based on the Weight of Evidence approach and implements a Fuzzy Inference System in order to hierarchically aggregate a set of environmental indicators, which are grouped into five Lines of Evidence (i.e. Biology, Chemistry, Ecotoxicology, Physico-chemistry and Hydromorphology). The whole IRA methodology has been implemented as an individual module into a freeware GIS (Geographic Information System)-based Decision Support System (DSS), named MODELKEY DSS. The paper focuses on the conceptual and mathematical procedure underlying the evaluation of the most complex Line of Evidence, i.e. Biology, which identifies the biological communities that are potentially at risk and the stressors that are most likely responsible for the observed alterations. The results obtained from testing the procedure through application of the MODELKEY DSS to the Llobregat case study are reported and discussed.

  8. Application of translocation, γ-H2AX, and Sam68 as a biological indicators for the assessment of radiation exposure in nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kwang Hee; Park, Hyung Sun; Nam, Seon Young [Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This study showed that confirmation of the initial dose estimated by dicentric analysis is provided by the subsequent FISH analysis for translocation frequency and provides further evidence for the valid use of FISH as a retrospective biological dosimeter. The IAEA manual on cytogenetic dosimetry recommends a halftime value of 3 y to correct for the decrease of dicentrics in case of delayed sampling based on the patient data of Buckton. Support for this comes from the cytogenetic follow up of an individual exposed to tritium, which also indicated a decline in dicentrics with a half-time of ∼3 y. Naturally, the RBE of tritium, as well as other kinds of ionizing radiation, depends on the dose, exposure conditions, and studied parameters. The information about the RBE of tritium that is most important from an applied standpoint is that associated with the range of low doses. In our study, the dose dependence of tritium RBE was not identified because of very low dose Tritium (< 1mSv). However, The strong smooth relationship between translocation yield and age is shown in Table 2. The translocation yields reported here are only slightly lower than already published. The implication is that the increase of yield with age could be due to environmental factors, to a natural aging process or both. In addition, we confirmed that γ-H2AX and Sam68 associated with DNA damage and apoptosis, can be new biological indicators for radiation exposure. Radiation workers are exposed to ionizing radiation from various sources. Ionizing radiation produces several types of DNA lesion, including DNA base alterations, DNA. DNA cross-links, and single- and double-strand breaks. As a protocol for biological dosimetry recommended by IAEA (2001), the analysis of solid stained dicentric chromosomes has been used since the mid 1960s. The intervening years have seen great improvements bringing the technique to a point where dicentric analysis has become a routine component of the radiological

  9. Multi-level biological responses in Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) (Brachyura, Ucididae) as indicators of conservation status in mangrove areas from the western atlantic. (United States)

    Duarte, Luis Felipe de Almeida; Souza, Caroline Araújo de; Nobre, Caio Rodrigues; Pereira, Camilo Dias Seabra; Pinheiro, Marcelo Antonio Amaro


    There is a global lack of knowledge on tropical ecotoxicology, particularly in terms of mangrove areas. These areas often serve as nurseries or homes for several animal species, including Ucides cordatus (the uçá crab). This species is widely distributed, is part of the diet of human coastal communities, and is considered to be a sentinel species due to its sensitivity to toxic xenobiotics in natural environments. Sublethal damages to benthic populations reveal pre-pathological conditions, but discussions of the implications are scarce in the literature. In Brazil, the state of São Paulo offers an interesting scenario for ecotoxicology and population studies: it is easy to distinguish between mangroves that are well preserved and those which are significantly impacted by human activity. The objectives of this study were to provide the normal baseline values for the frequency of Micronucleated cells (MN‰) and for neutral red retention time (NRRT) in U. cordatus at pristine locations, as well to indicate the conservation status of different mangrove areas using a multi-level biological response approach in which these biomarkers and population indicators (condition factor and crab density) are applied in relation to environmental quality indicators (determined via information in the literature and solid waste volume). A mangrove area with no effects of impact (areas of reference or pristine areas) presented a mean value of MN‰120min, values which were assumed as baseline values representing genetic and physiological normality. A significant correlation was found between NRRT and MN, with both showing similar and effective results for distinguishing between different mangrove areas according to conservation status. Furthermore, crab density was lower in more impacted mangrove areas, a finding which also reflects the effects of sublethal damage; this finding was not determined by condition factor measurements. Multi-level biological responses were able to

  10. Use of biological characteristics of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) to indicate exposure to hormonally active agents in selected Minnesota streams, 1999 (United States)

    Lee, Kathy E.; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Goldstein, Robert M.; Talmage, Philip J.


    The presence of hormonally active agents (HAAs) was determined in selected Minnesota streams using biological characteristics (measures of endocrine disruption) of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) exposed to wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and runoff from agricultural and forested land. Four biological characteristics of common carp were used as indicators of HAAs in the streams selected for this study: (1) high concentrations of vitellogenin in male fish and low concentrations in female fish, (2) high or low plasma concentrations of the sex steroid hormones (17β-estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone), (3) low gonado-somatic index (GSI) (gonad weight divided by total body weight multiplied by 100) values, and (4) abnormal gonad histopathology (high percent of atretic oocytes in female ovaries and high percent ceroid/lipofuscin tissue in male or female gonads). The study design was a paired site approach targeting sites downstream and upstream of WWTP discharges on different streams. Male (221 individuals) and female (201 individuals) common carp were collected using electrofishing techniques from seven streams with sites at two locations (upstream and downstream of WWTPs), and eight sites located downstream of WWTPs with no upstream-paired sites. Samples were collected between August 3 and September 13, 1999.

  11. New Markov-autocorrelation indices for re-evaluation of links in chemical and biological complex networks used in metabolomics, parasitology, neurosciences, and epidemiology. (United States)

    González-Díaz, Humberto; Riera-Fernández, Pablo


    The development of new methods for the computational re-evaluation of links in chemical and biological complex networks is very important to save time and resources. The Moreau-Broto autocorrelation indices (MBis) are well-known topological indices (TIs) used in QSAR/QSPR studies to encode the structural information contained in molecular graphs. In addition, MBis and similar autocorrelation measures have been used to study other systems like, for example, proteins. In the present work, MBis are combined with Markov chains to develop a general class of stochastic MBis of order k (MB(k)) that is used to encode the structural information contained in different types of large complex networks. The MB(k) values obtained for the nodes (centralities) of these networks are used as input variables to seek QSPR-like equations (by means of linear discriminant analysis) in which the outputs are numerical scores S(L(ij)) that allow us to discriminate between connected and nonconnected nodes and therefore re-evaluate the connectivity of the whole network. The models developed in this work produced the following results in terms of overall accuracy for network reconstruction: metabolic networks (72.10%), parasite-host networks (88.70%), CoCoMac brain cortex coactivation network (81.89%), and fasciolosis spreading network (86.39%).

  12. Assessment of sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus fisheries in the lower Paraná River basin (Argentina based on hydrological, biological, and fishery indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Baigún

    Full Text Available This study assesses the change in fish exploitation patterns of the sábalo fisheries of the lower Paraná River basin based on hydrological, biological, and fishery indicators. From historical catch records, we recorded a shift from a lightly and moderate exploited status before 2001 to a heavily exploited one, as a result of the development of sábalo exports from 2001 onwards. Channel and floodplain connectivity indices demonstrated that the Paraná exhibited highly favorable hydrological conditions between 1972 and 1999 but more adverse conditions from 1999 to 2009, as a consequence of flood pulses reduction coincident with a fishing mortality increment. A total catch of 15,000 tons, including local consumption, regional market, informal sales, and exportation volumes, was estimated as the maximum sustainable catch. That level was instead exceeded 3 fold in 2004, in parallel with a decrease in the mean fish length from 48 to 42 cm, along with a reduction in both the mesh size from 16 to 12 cm and megaspawner proportion, and an increase of fishing mortality. Although growth overfishing was not noted, an analysis of the spawning potential ratio trend indicated that recruitment overfishing took place during 2005, since the fishing mortality rate was 4 times greater than the natural mortality rate. These observations suggest that less favorable hydrological conditions after 1999 coupled with a coincident high fishing pressure could have impacted the sábalo population biomass. Management of sábalo fisheries requires to set aside a single economic vision of the resource use moving to an ecosystem-oriented approach that incorporate, among others components, the hydrological regime, species life history traits, fishing impacts on other species, and main stakeholders socioeconomic requirements as key elements for the preservation of fishery sustainability.

  13. Investigation of heavy metal pollution in eastern Aegean Sea coastal waters by using Cystoseira barbata, Patella caerulea, and Liza aurata as biological indicators. (United States)

    Aydın-Önen, S; Öztürk, M


    In order to have an extensive contamination profile of heavy metal levels (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn), seawater, sediment, Patella caerulea, Cystoseira barbata, and Liza aurata were investigated by using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples were collected from five coastal stations along the eastern Aegean Sea coast (Turkey) on a monthly basis from July 2002 through May 2003. According to the results of this study, heavy metal levels were arranged in the following sequence: Fe > Pb > Zn > Mn > Ni > Cu > Cd for water, Fe > Cu > Mn > Ni > Zn > Pb > Cd for sediment, Fe > Zn > Mn > Pb > Ni > Cd > Cu for C. barbata, Fe > Zn > Mn > Ni > Pb > Cu > Cd for P. caerulea, and Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cd for L. aurata. Moreover, positive relationships between Fe in water and Mn in water, Fe in sediment and Mn in sediment, Fe in C. barbata and Mn in C. barbata, Fe in P. caerulea and Mn in P. caerulea, and Fe in L. aurata and Mn in L. aurata may suggest that these metals could be originated from the same anthropogenic source. C. barbata represented with higher bioconcentration factor (BCF) values, especially for Fe, Mn, and Zn values. This observation may support that C. barbata can be used as an indicator species for the determinations of Fe, Mn, and Zn levels. Regarding Turkish Food Codex Regulation's residue limits, metal values in L. aurata were found to be lower than the maximum permissible levels issued by Turkish legislation and also the recommended limits set by FAO/WHO guidelines. The results of the investigation indicated that P. caerulea, L. aurata, and especially C. barbata are quantitative water-quality bioindicators and biomonitoring subjects for biologically available metal accumulation for Aegean Sea coastal waters.

  14. Fluctuating Asymmetry in Two Common Freshwater Fishes as a Biological Indicator of Urbanization and Environmental Stress within the Middle Chattahoochee Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Lutterschmidt


    Full Text Available Deviations in bilateral symmetry or fluctuating asymmetry of an organism may result under environmental stressors that reduce developmental homeostasis and stability. Anthropogenic stressors such as increased urbanization can negatively impact environmental quality of aquatic ecosystems. Researchers have stressed the value in finding easy, accurate and inexpensive methods for assessing potential stress within ecosystems. Here we use fluctuating asymmetry (FA as a useful quantitative tool in assessing the environmental quality and potential urban-based stressors within eight creeks of the Bull and Upatoi Creeks Watershed within the larger watershed of the Middle Chattahoochee. Using Geographic Information System (GIS, we characterize land-use patterns and a decreasing urbanization gradient as related to each creek’s eastward position from Columbus, Georgia. We collected two common fishes (redbreast sunfish; Lepomis auritus and bluegill; Lepomis macrochirus, measured both metric and meristic traits and investigated if the degree of FA in these two common fishes correlated with the urbanization gradient across creeks. We found significant differences in FA among creeks with one of the highest FA measures for the most urban creek. Principal component analysis (PCA scores of urbanization and water chemistry were regressed against FA scores. We found no significant relationship between urbanization and FA nor environmental water chemistry and FA among creeks. We comment on the use of FA as a potential response variable and biological indicator of environmental stress within this watershed.

  15. Changes in physical and biological soil quality indicators in a tropical crop system (Havana, Cuba) in response to different agroecological management practices. (United States)

    Izquierdo, I; Caravaca, F; Alguacil, M M; Roldán, A


    The objective of our study was to assess the response of physical (aggregate stability and bulk density) and biological (enzyme activities and microbial biomass) soil quality indicators to the adoption of agroecological management practices, such as the planting of forage species (forage area) and the rotation of local crops (polycrop area), carried out in a representative tropical pasture on an integrated livestock-crop farm. The pasture system was used as control (pasture area). In all three areas, the values of water-soluble C were higher in the rainy season compared to the dry season. Pasture and forage areas had the highest percentage of stable aggregates in the rainy season, while polycrops developed soils with less stable aggregates. Soil bulk density was lower in the pasture and forage areas than in the polycrop area. In the pasture area, the microbial biomass C values, dehydrogenase, urease, protease-BAA, acid phosphatase, and beta-glucosidase activities were higher than in the forage and polycrop areas, particularly in the dry season. The highest increase in the microbial biomass C in the rainy season, with respect to the dry season, was recorded in the pasture area (about 1.2-fold). In conclusion, the planting of forage species can be considered an effective practice for carrying out sustainable, integrated livestock-crop systems, due to its general maintenance of soil quality, while the adoption of polycrop rotations appears to be less favorable because it decreases soil quality.

  16. The Influence of No-Till, Conventional Tillage and Nitrogen Fertilization on Physico-Chemical and Biological Indicators After Three Years of Monoculture Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Menta


    Full Text Available An experimental trial was carried out over three years at Cavacurta (Po valley, Italy on continuous barley. The soil was a coarse-loamy over sandy, mixed, mesic Fluventic Ustochrept. The experimental design was a split-plot with four replicates; the main factor was the soil management system (conventional tillage, CT, and no-tillage, NT, while the secondary factor was the nitrogen fertilization (N0 = 0, N1 = 50 and N2 = 90 kg N ha-1 year-1. At the end of the third year soil samples were taken in all plots at four depths (0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 cm. For these samples, pH, organic matter, total N, available P and cation exchange capacity were determined. On the contrary, water aggregate stability was determined for a single layer (0-20 cm depth, excluding the N1 level of fertilization. The biological indicator, QBS-ar index, was studied only in the layer 0-10 cm. Statistical analysis shows that no-till positively influenced all the indices except for CEC and QBS-ar. N fertilization had significant effects on CEC only; in the upper layer, the value in N2 subplots was of approx. 1 cmol+ kg-1 higher than in N0 and N1 subplots. There was no significant interaction for any of the indices. As regards only the 0-20 cm layer, the most important results are as follows. The organic matter content in NT plots was significantly higher than in CT plots (32.6 vs 29.8 g kg-1, as was the total N (2.11 vs 1.97 g kg-1. No-till also had a very clear effect on the Olsen-P (12.3 vs 9.3 mg kg-1. The most remarkable result was found for the water aggregate stability: for NT plots the value was 246% higher than for CT plots (34.3 vs 9.9%. As regards the microarthropod community, the value of the QBS-ar index was between 90 and 126, a typical range for soil under barley.

  17. Effect of cytoreductive surgery-assisted postoperative intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy on serum malignant biological indicators of ovarian cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Lian Liu; Lei Yang


    Objective: To study the effect of cytoreductive surgery-assisted postoperative intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy on serum malignant biological indicators of ovarian cancer patients.Methods:Advanced ovarian cancer patients who received cytoreductive surgery in our hospital from June 2010 to August 2014 were selected for study. Based on different postoperative chemotherapy schemes, patients undergoing intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy were screened and enrolled in combination chemotherapy group; patients undergoing routine intravenous chemotherapy were screened and enrolled in intravenous chemotherapy group. Then contents of serum markers, proliferative genes and signaling pathway molecules of both groups were detected.Results:(1) Cell cycles: G0/G1 and S phase percentages in ovarian cancer biopsy tissues of combination chemotherapy group were lower than those of intravenous chemotherapy group; G2/M phase percentage was higher than that of intravenous chemotherapy group; (2) Tumor markers: after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 chemotherapy cycles, compared with intravenous chemotherapy group, serum HE4 and sTWEAK contents of combination chemotherapy group trended to decrease significantly; (3) Proliferative genes: compared with intravenous chemotherapy group, mRNA contents of mortalin, CIP2A, GILZ and Ki-67 in serum of combination chemotherapy group trended to decrease significantly; (4) Signaling pathway molecules: mRNA contents of Crk, Dock180, Rac1 and YAP in serum of combination chemotherapy group showed a decreasing trend; mRNA contents of C3G, Rap1 and Hippo showed an increasing trend.Conclusion:Intraperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with intravenous chemotherapy is helpful to kill ovarian cancer cells, inhibit expressions of proliferative genes and regulate functions of signaling pathways; it is an ideal chemotherapy scheme for ovarian

  18. A Coauthorship Network as an Indicator for Scientifi c Collaboration: A Case Study for the School of Biology and Biotechnology, National University of Mongolia


    Bazartseren Boldgiv


    This case study analyzes coauthorship collaboration, or lack thereof, among individual faculty members and departments in the School of Biology and Biotechnology of the National University of Mongolia. I found that publication rates and coauthorship networks in impact-factor journals between 2008 and 2012 (as of October 31, 2012) are highly variable among the eight biology departments we studied, both within and among departments. Even in the best ...

  19. Optimization of a validated stability-indicating RP-LC method for the determination of fulvestrant from polymeric based nanoparticle systems, drugs and biological samples. (United States)

    Gumustas, Mehmet; Sengel-Turk, Ceyda Tuba; Hascicek, Canan; Ozkan, Sibel A


    Fulvestrant is used for the treatment of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer in postmenopausal women with disease progression following anti-estrogen therapy. Several reversed-phase columns with variable silica materials, diameters, lengths, etc., were tested for the optimization study. A good chromatographic separation was achieved using a Waters X-Terra RP(18) column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d. × 5 µm) and a mobile phase, consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile-water (65:35; v/v) containing phosphoric acid (0.1%). The separation was carried out 40 °C with detection at 215 nm.The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range between 1.0-300 and 1.0-200 µg/mL for standard solutions and biological media, respectively. The proposed method is accurate and reproducible. Forced degradation studies were also realized. This fully validated method allows the direct determination of fulvestrant in dosage form and biological samples. The average recovery of the added fulvestrant amount in the samples was between 98.22 and 104.03%. The proposed method was also applied for the determination of fulvestrant from the polymeric-based nanoparticle systems. No interference from using polymers and other excipients was observed in in vitro drug release studies. Therefore an incorporation efficiency of fulvestrant-loaded nanoparticle could be determined accurately and specifically.

  20. A Coauthorship Network as an Indicator for Scientifi c Collaboration: A Case Study for the School of Biology and Biotechnology, National University of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazartseren Boldgiv


    Full Text Available This case study analyzes coauthorship collaboration, or lack thereof, among individual faculty members and departments in the School of Biology and Biotechnology of the National University of Mongolia. I found that publication rates and coauthorship networks in impact-factor journals between 2008 and 2012 (as of October 31, 2012 are highly variable among the eight biology departments we studied, both within and among departments. Even in the best cases, publication rates and coauthorship networks were not suffi cient. We call such insuffi cient coauthorship collaboration among different departments as (nonnetwork of coauthorship. The size of departments and observed coauthorship networks (both connectance and linkage density appear to positively, although insignifi cantly, affect not only the total number of publications, but also the publication rate per faculty per year. We suggest that this kind of analysis can be important for administration of academic institutions, for improving the scientifi c outputs of academic entities by facilitating collaborative efforts and for rationalizing organizational structures and merit-based promotion systems for more productive and effi cient academic operations.

  1. Potential biological indicators of multi-organ damage: Application to radiation accident victims; Bio-indicateurs potentiels d'atteinte multi-organe: application au cas des victimes d'irradiation accidentelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertho, J.M.; Souidi, M.; Gourmelon, P. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Dir. de la Radioprotection de l' Homme 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)


    Accidental irradiations induce a complex pathological situation, difficult to assess and to treat. However, recent results describing new biological indicators of radiation-induced damages such as Flt3-ligand, citrulline and oxy-sterol concentration in the plasma, together with results obtained in large animal models of high dose irradiation, allowed a better understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms induced by uncontrolled irradiations. This conducted to leave the classical paradigm of the acute radiation syndrome, described as the association of three individual syndromes, the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastro-intestinal syndrome and the cerebrovascular syndrome, in favour of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, with the implication of other organs and systems. Follow-up of victims from two recent radiation accidents brings a confirmation of the usefulness of the newly described biological indicators, and also a partial confirmation of this new concept of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. (authors)

  2. Exoenzyme activity in contaminated soils before and after soil washing: ß-glucosidase activity as a biological indicator of soil health. (United States)

    Chae, Yooeun; Cui, Rongxue; Woong Kim, Shin; An, Gyeonghyeon; Jeong, Seung-Woo; An, Youn-Joo


    It is essential to remediate or amend soils contaminated with various heavy metals or pollutants so that the soils may be used again safely. Verifying that the remediated or amended soils meet soil quality standards is an important part of the process. We estimated the activity levels of eight soil exoenzymes (acid phosphatase, arylsulfatase, catalase, dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate hydrolase, protease, urease, and ß-glucosidase) in contaminated and remediated soils from two sites near a non-ferrous metal smelter, using colorimetric and titrimetric determination methods. Our results provided the levels of activity of soil exoenzymes that indicate soil health. Most enzymes showed lower activity levels in remediated soils than in contaminated soils, with the exception of protease and urease, which showed higher activity after remediation in some soils, perhaps due to the limited nutrients available in remediated soils. Soil exoenzymes showed significantly higher activity in soils from one of the sites than from the other, due to improper conditions at the second site, including high pH, poor nutrient levels, and a high proportion of sand in the latter soil. Principal component analysis revealed that ß-glucosidase was the best indicator of soil ecosystem health, among the enzymes evaluated. We recommend using ß-glucosidase enzyme activity as a prior indicator in estimating soil ecosystem health.

  3. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penha-Lopes, Gil, E-mail: gil.penha-lopes@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Torres, Paulo, E-mail: [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Cannicci, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.cannicci@unifi.i [Dipartimento di Biologia Evoluzionistica, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via Romana 17, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Narciso, Luis, E-mail: lfnarciso@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal); Paula, Jose, E-mail: jppaula@fc.ul.p [Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia, Centro de Oceanografia, FCUL, Avenida Na Senhora do Cabo, No 939, 2750-374 Cascais (Portugal)


    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one peri-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the peri-urban location were larger, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and peri-urban mangroves. However, a higher level of parasitation by a Bopyridae isopod, Pseudione elongata indicated some degree of stress on the host at the peri-urban mangrove, with potential effects on the host population dynamics. -Research highlights: Domestic sewage discharges at low concentrations increase fauna mangrove population parameters, due to the nutrient limitations. Shrimps in the peri-urban mangrove location were larger, had longer reproductive periods, higher ovigerous females proportions and better embryo. Physiological indice analysis (RNA/DNA ratio) between pristine and peri-urban mangroves. Within the peri-urban mangrove, high levels of parasitation by Pseudionee longata caused stress and potential effects on the host population dynamics. The effects of sewage on P. concinnus population increased the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal water. - The identification of the effects of the peri-urban conditions on P. concinnus increases the choice of possible bioindicators in East African coastal waters.

  4. Small scattered fragments do not a dwarf make: biological and archaeological data indicate that prehistoric inhabitants of Palau were normal sized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Current archaeological evidence from Palau in western Micronesia indicates that the archipelago was settled around 3000-3300 BP by normal sized populations; contrary to recent claims, they did not succumb to insular dwarfism. BACKGROUND: Previous and ongoing archaeological research of both human burial and occupation sites throughout the Palauan archipelago during the last 50 years has produced a robust data set to test hypotheses regarding initial colonization and subsequent adaptations over the past three millennia. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Close examination of human burials at the early (ca. 3000 BP and stratified site of Chelechol ra Orrak indicates that these were normal sized individuals. This is contrary to the recent claim of contemporaneous "small-bodied" individuals found at two cave sites by Berger et al. (2008. As we argue, their analyses are flawed on a number of different analytical levels. First, their sample size is too small and fragmentary to adequately address the variation inherent in modern humans within and outside of Palau. Second, the size and stature of all other prehistoric (both older and contemporaneous skeletal assemblages found in Palau fall within the normal parameters of modern human variation in the region, indicating this was not a case of insular dwarfism or a separate migratory group. Third, measurements taken on several skeletal elements by Berger et al. may appear to be from smaller-bodied individuals, but the sizes of these people compares well with samples from Chelechol ra Orrak. Last, archaeological, linguistic, and historical evidence demonstrates a great deal of cultural continuity in Palau through time as expected if the same population was inhabiting the archipelago. CONCLUSIONS: Prehistoric Palauan populations were normal sized and exhibit traits that fall within the normal variation for Homo sapiens-they do not support the claims by Berger et al. (2008 that there were smaller

  5. Aquatic biota as potential biological indicators of the contamination, bioaccumulation and health risks caused by organochlorine pesticides in a large, shallow Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Yan; He, Wei


    Aquatic biota have long been recognized as bioindicators of the contamination caused by hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in aquatic environments. The primary purpose of the present study is to identify which species of aquatic biota are the most sensitive to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs...... to OCPs and may serve as the most effective bioindicators for monitoring OCP contamination in the water and suspended solids of Lake Chaohu. Megalobrama amblycephala, which contained the highest wet weight mean OCP concentration, is the most sensitive OCP indicator and can be used to assess the human...

  6. Monitoring anthropogenic sewage pollution on mangrove creeks in southern Mozambique: A test of Palaemon concinnus Dana, 1852 (Palaemonidae) as a biological indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penha-Lopes, G.; Torres, P.; Cannicci, S.;


    Tropical coastal ecosystems, such as mangroves, have a great ecological and socioeconomic importance for adjacent systems and local populations, but intensive environmental impact monitoring is still lacking, mainly in East Africa. This study evaluated the potential anthropogenic disturbance...... on Palaemon concinnus population structure and fitness. Palaemon concinnus populations from one pen-urban (domestic sewage impacted) and two pristine mangrove creeks were studied by sampling nearly 100 shrimps per location every 15 days for 12 months. The shrimps at the pen-urban location were larger......, experienced longer reproductive periods, presented higher proportion of ovigerous females and better embryo quality when compared with shrimps inhabiting pristine locations. Physiological indices (RNA/DNA ratio) were similar between shrimps at pristine and pen-urban mangroves. However, a higher level...

  7. Comparative effect of orally administered sodium butyrate before or after weaning on growth and several indices of gastrointestinal biology of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gall, Maud; Gallois, Mélanie; Sève, Bernard;


    Sodium butyrate (SB) provided orally favours body growth and maturation of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in milk-fed pigs. In weaned pigs, conflicting results have been obtained. Therefore, we hypothesised that the effects of SB (3 g/kg DM intake) depend on the period (before v. after weaning......) of its oral administration. From the age of 5 d, thirty-two pigs, blocked in quadruplicates within litters, were assigned to one of four treatments: no SB (control), SB before (for 24 d), or after (for 11-12 d) weaning and SB before and after weaning (for 35-36 d). Growth performance, feed intake...... and various end-point indices of GIT anatomy and physiology were investigated at slaughter. The pigs supplemented with SB before weaning grew faster after weaning than the controls (P intake was higher in pigs supplemented with SB before or after weaning (P

  8. Helminth communities of owls (strigiformes indicate strong biological and ecological differences from birds of prey (accipitriformes and falconiformes in southern Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Santoro

    Full Text Available We compared the helminth communities of 5 owl species from Calabria (Italy and evaluated the effect of phylogenetic and ecological factors on community structure. Two host taxonomic scales were considered, i.e., owl species, and owls vs. birds of prey. The latter scale was dealt with by comparing the data here obtained with that of birds of prey from the same locality and with those published previously on owls and birds of prey from Galicia (Spain. A total of 19 helminth taxa were found in owls from Calabria. Statistical comparison showed only marginal differences between scops owls (Otus scops and little owls (Athene noctua and tawny owls (Strix aluco. It would indicate that all owl species are exposed to a common pool of 'owl generalist' helminth taxa, with quantitative differences being determined by differences in diet within a range of prey relatively narrow. In contrast, birds of prey from the same region exhibited strong differences because they feed on different and wider spectra of prey. In Calabria, owls can be separated as a whole from birds of prey with regard to the structure of their helminth communities while in Galicia helminths of owls represent a subset of those of birds of prey. This difference is related to the occurrence in Calabria, but not Galicia, of a pool of 'owl specialist' species. The wide geographical occurrence of these taxa suggest that local conditions may determine fundamental differences in the composition of local communities. Finally, in both Calabria and Galicia, helminth communities from owls were species-poor compared to those from sympatric birds of prey. However, birds of prey appear to share a greater pool of specific helmith taxa derived from cospeciation processes, and a greater potential exchange of parasites between them than with owls because of phylogenetic closeness.

  9. Biological monitoring of radiation using indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chun, Ki Jung; Lim, Yong Tak


    KAERI and INP(Poland) have been carried out parallel study and joint experiments on the major topics according to MOU about their cooperative project. The experimental materials were T-4430 clones. Main results of the cooperative project were made on {sup r}esponse of TSH mutation to low LET radiation, response of TSH mutation to neutrons, response of TSH to mixed irradiation with different radiations and synergism between radiation and environmental factors such as photo period and diurnal temperature difference. Both institutes have established wide variety of research techniques applicable to tradescantia study through the cooperation. These result of research can make the role of fundamental basis for the better relationship between Korea and Poland. (author). 46 refs., 11 tabs., 31 figs.

  10. Quality indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth-Andersen, Christian


    to the issue of how well these indicators perform, using market data provided by consumer magazines from 3 countries. The results strongly indicate that price is a poor quality indicator. The paper also presents some evidence which suggests that seller reputation and easily observable characteristics are also......In recent literature it has been suggested that consumers need have no knowledge of product quality as a number of quality indicators (or signals) may be used as substitutes. Very little attention has been paid to the empirical verification of these studies. The present paper is devoted...... poor indicators...

  11. Waste indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall, O.; Lassen, C.; Hansen, E. [Cowi A/S, Lyngby (Denmark)


    The Waste Indicator Project focuses on methods to evaluate the efficiency of waste management. The project proposes the use of three indicators for resource consumption, primary energy and landfill requirements, based on the life-cycle principles applied in the EDIP Project. Trial runs are made With the indicators on paper, glass packaging and aluminium, and two models are identified for mapping the Danish waste management, of which the least extensive focuses on real and potential savings. (au)

  12. Solar Indices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  13. Echinoderms as biological indicators of the quality of littoral waters in the Mar de Alboran (Western Mediterranean, Andalusia, Spain); Equinodermos como indicadores biologicos de la calidad de las aguas litorales en el Mar de Alboran (Mediterraneo Occidental, Andalucia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conesa Garcia, M. A.; Lozano Duran, R.; Pozo Camacho, E.; Ruiz Arias, R. [Colegio Maravillas, Benalmadena. Malaga (Spain)


    Since 1985, the European Foundation for Environmental Education (EFEE) has used the widely-known European Blue Flag and its logo as a distinction for beaches that comply with a series of environmental, aesthetic, microbiological and physico-chemical quality criteria. Although the Blue Flag has had a positive effect on the overall quality of bathing waters, its presence has not ensured that the flora and fauna of coastal waters were equally preserved. The results of this study indicate the many of the coastal areas studied, some of them holding the European Blue Flag, have a high level of bacterial pollution, with the associated negative impact on their biological diversity. Two scientific method used in sea ecology have been applied: the Jacard rate and the UPGMA algorithm (grouping according to the mean association). Samples of 20 echinoderms species (sea-urchins, starfish, and holothurian) were collected in 17 clearly defined beach strips along the coast of the Alboran Sea, in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The beach strips were evaluated according to their water pollution level. The results confirm the validity of some echinoderm species as good bio indicators of the quality of coastal fauna and flora. By simply evaluating the presence or absence of those easily identified species it is possible to assess the status of the coastal waters ecosystem. It is proposed to include a new logo that substitutes the laws European Blue Flags, with the shape of an echinoderm, using three different species to indicate the health status of the ecosystem. Seminars should be organized in Schools to present the usefulness of echinoderms as bio indicators in coastal areas, and to teach students the importance of preservation of the sea environment. (Author) 17 refs.

  14. Resetting Biological Clocks (United States)

    Winfree, Arthur T.


    Reports on experiments conducted on two biological clocks, in organisms in the plant and animal kingdoms, which indicate that biological oscillation can be arrested by a single stimulus of a definite strength delivered at the proper time. (GS)

  15. Social indicators. (United States)

    Sheldon, E B; Parke, R


    The notions of social indicators and social accounting, expressed by analogy with the national economic accounts, generated excitement in the 1960's, and the interest continues to grow if we may judge from governmental activity and the publication of programmatic and research papers. But the concepts which focused much of the early enthusiasm gave exaggerated promise of policy applications and provided an unproductive basis for research. The essential theoretical prerequisites for developing a system of social accounts-defining the variables and the interrelationships among them-are missing. It is now realized that evaluation research, particularly experimentation, must be relied on for evaluation of government programs. Through the development and analysis of descriptive time series and the modeling of social processes, we will be able to describe the state of the society and its dynamics and thus improve immensely our ability to state problems in a productive fashion, obtain clues as to promising lines of endeavor, and ask good questions. But these activities cannot measure program effectiveness. Finally, we must be skeptical about definitions of the social indicators enterprise which confine it to social engineering efforts. The issue is not whether social indicators are useful for policy but, rather, how this usefulness comes about. The interest in social indicators has stimulated a revival of interest in quantitative, comparative, social analysis (60), in the analysis of social change, in conceptual and measurement work on such topics as prejudice, crime, and learning, and in the development of models of social processes. The fruit of these efforts will be more directly a contribution to the policy-maker's cognition than to his decisions. Decision emerges from a mosaic of inputs, including valuational and political, as well as technical components. The work we have described deals with only one type of input; it is a contribution to the intellectual mapping

  16. Use of global sensitivity analysis in quantitative microbial risk assessment: application to the evaluation of a biological time temperature integrator as a quality and safety indicator for cold smoked salmon. (United States)

    Ellouze, M; Gauchi, J-P; Augustin, J-C


    The aim of this study was to apply a global sensitivity analysis (SA) method in model simplification and to evaluate (eO)®, a biological Time Temperature Integrator (TTI) as a quality and safety indicator for cold smoked salmon (CSS). Models were thus developed to predict the evolutions of Listeria monocytogenes and the indigenous food flora in CSS and to predict TTIs endpoint. A global SA was then applied on the three models to identify the less important factors and simplify the models accordingly. Results showed that the subset of the most important factors of the three models was mainly composed of the durations and temperatures of two chill chain links, out of the control of the manufacturers: the domestic refrigerator and the retail/cabinet links. Then, the simplified versions of the three models were run with 10(4) time temperature profiles representing the variability associated to the microbial behavior, to the TTIs evolution and to the French chill chain characteristics. The results were used to assess the distributions of the microbial contaminations obtained at the TTI endpoint and at the end of the simulated profiles and proved that, in the case of poor storage conditions, the TTI use could reduce the number of unacceptable foods by 50%.

  17. All biology is computational biology (United States)


    Here, I argue that computational thinking and techniques are so central to the quest of understanding life that today all biology is computational biology. Computational biology brings order into our understanding of life, it makes biological concepts rigorous and testable, and it provides a reference map that holds together individual insights. The next modern synthesis in biology will be driven by mathematical, statistical, and computational methods being absorbed into mainstream biological training, turning biology into a quantitative science. PMID:28278152

  18. Indicadores biológicos de qualidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de uso no brejo paraibano Biological indicators of soil quality in different land use systems in paraiban swamp region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Lima Pôrto


    Full Text Available A avaliação da qualidade do solo é uma ferramenta importante para monitorar a sua degradação, bem como planejar a implantação de práticas sustentáveis de manejo. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar indicadores biológicos de qualidade do solo em um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico, submetido a diferentes sistemas de uso em Areia-PB. Foram utilizadas amostras de solo coletadas na camada arável (0-20 cm em áreas de mata nativa, fruticultura, cana-de-açúcar, sucessão de cultivos, pastagem e consórcio de culturas. Foram avaliados o carbono orgânico total (COT, carbono da biomassa microbiana (CBM, quociente microbiano (qMic, respiração basal (RB e quociente metabólico (qCO2. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que as áreas sob gramíneas apresentaram uma tendência de manutenção do COT e menores reduções no CBM, entretanto, apresentaram elevados valores de qCO2, indicando a ocorrência de um processo degradativo. A área sob fruticultura apresentou leves reduções no COT e CBM e baixos valores de qCO2, indicando que esse sistema pode estar se ajustando a um novo estado de equilíbrio. As áreas sob sucessão de cultivos e consórcio de culturas apresentaram as maiores reduções no COT e CBM e elevados valores de qCO2, demonstrando um elevado estágio de degradação desses sistemas. Pode-se concluir que todos os sistemas agrícolas estudados promoveram perda de qualidade do solo, sendo esse fato mais pronunciado nas áreas sob manejo mais intensivo. O CBM e qCO2 mostraram-se bastantes sensíveis às alterações decorrentes do uso agrícola do solo, apresentando grande potencial para estudos de sua qualidade.Soil quality evaluation is an important tool for the monitoring of soil degradation as well as for planning the adoption of sustainable agricultural management practices. The objective of this study was to evaluate some biological indicators of the soil quality of a dystrophic Yellow Latosol (Oxisol under different land use

  19. Indicadores biológicos da qualidade do solo em sistema agrossilvopastoril no noroeste do estado de Minas Gerais Biological indicators of soil quality in agricultural-forestry-pasture system in northwest region of Minas Gerais state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Milene Nascente Neves


    nativo, em função da ação antrópica. Com o progresso do sistema agrossilvopastoril houve uma recuperação do carbono da biomassa microbiana. Não foi observada diferença significativa entre os sistemas de manejo e o cerrado nativo quanto ao quociente metabólico e à respiração basal.Soil quality studies are important for understanding its interaction with the ecosystem as a whole. In this context, the soil microorganisms play a fundamental role for the maintenance and productivity of various agricultural ecosystems. This work had the objective to evaluate the biological attributes (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration, and microbial quotient, as well as the organic matter content, possible indicators of alterations in soil quality imposed by different management systems, in relation to native cerrado, in agricultural - forestry - pasture system, in northwest of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Samples were collected at 0-5, 5-20, and 20-40 cm depths, from a typical Dystrophic Red Latosol (Oxisol, between Vazante and Paracatu counties. The systems were selected according to the history of use, as follows: (1 CN - native cerrado (reference; (2 EA - eucalyptus + rice (year zero of agricultural - forestry - pasture system, planted after removal of cerrado native vegetation; (3 EP - eucalyptus + soybeans (year one of system, soybeans sowing substituting rice; (4 - EP - ES - eucalyptus + pasture (year two of system, using Brachiaria Brizantha Stapf. for cattle raising; (5 - EPG - eucalyptus + pasture + cattle (year three of system, with introduction of cattle; (6 PP - pasture cultivated with Brachiaria Brizantha Stapf.; and (7 EC - eucalyptus under conventional system in 2x3m spacing. The organic carbon and the microbial biomass carbon presented higher values in the superficial layer (0 - 5 cm, in relation to the other depths, in all systems. The organic carbon showed substantial alteration in relation to the studied systems and depths assessed, revealing its

  20. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud


    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  1. The radioinduced membranes injuries as biological dose indicators: mechanisms of studies and practical applications; Les dommages membranaires radio-induits comme bio-indicateurs de dose: etudes des mecanismes et applications pratiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent-Genod, Lucie


    After an accidental overexposure, the assessment of the received dose in biological dosimetry is performed by a method based on the effects of irradiation on the DNA molecule. But this technique shows some limitations; therefore we tried to find new bio-sensors of radiation exposure. We have pointed out that membrane is a critical target of ionising radiation after an in vitro and in vivo overexposure. In vitro, these modifications were involved in the radio-induced apoptotic pathway. The measure of membrane fluidity allowed us to obtain an overall view of cellular membrane. Moreover, in vivo, by changing the lipid nutritional status of animals, our results displayed the important role played by membrane lipid composition in radio-induced membrane alterations. Besides, membrane effects were adjusted by the extracellular physiological control, and in particular by the damages on membrane fatty acid pattern. Finally, we have tested the use of membrane fluidity index as a bio-sensor of radiation exposure on in vivo models and blood samples from medical total body irradiated patients. The results achieved on animal models suggested that the membrane fluidity index was a bio-sensor of radiation exposure. Nevertheless, the observations realised on patients highlight that the effect of the first dose fraction of the radiotherapy treatment had some difficulties to be noticed. Indeed, the combined treatment: chemotherapy and radiotherapy disturbed the membrane fluidity index measures. To conclude, whereas this parameter was not a bio-sensor of irradiation exposure usable in biological dosimetry, it may allow us to assess the radio-induced damages and their cellular but also tissue impacts. (author)

  2. Bulk soil and rhizosphere bacterial community PCR-DGGE profiles and beta-galactosidase activity as indicators of biological quality in soils contaminated by heavy metals and cultivated with Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke. (United States)

    Martínez-Iñigo, M J; Pérez-Sanz, A; Ortiz, I; Alonso, J; Alarcón, R; García, P; Lobo, M C


    The biological quality of two heavy metal contaminated soils (soil C: Typic Calcixerept, pH 8.3 and soil H: Typic Haploxeraf, pH 7.3) was investigated after growing the metal-tolerant plant Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke for two vegetative periods. The activity of the enzyme beta-galactosidase, which is sensitive to the presence of contaminants in soil, and the polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of 16S rRNA gene fragments of culturable bacteria from bulk soil and rhizosphere were determined. The microbial enzymatic activity was higher in planted soils than in bare soils at the contamination level of 600 mg of total heavy metals kg(-1) soil. After growing S. vulgaris, beta-galactosidase activity was almost recovered in the calcareous soil. In this soil new bands appeared in the PCR-DGGE profiles of the rhizosphere bacterial community as a response to the exposure to heavy metals.

  3. [Biological weapons]. (United States)

    Kerwat, K; Becker, S; Wulf, H; Densow, D


    Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction that use pathogens (bacteria, viruses) or the toxins produced by them to target living organisms or to contaminate non-living substances. In the past, biological warfare has been repeatedly used. Anthrax, plague and smallpox are regarded as the most dangerous biological weapons by various institutions. Nowadays it seems quite unlikely that biological warfare will be employed in any military campaigns. However, the possibility remains that biological weapons may be used in acts of bioterrorism. In addition all diseases caused by biological weapons may also occur naturally or as a result of a laboratory accident. Risk assessment with regard to biological danger often proves to be difficult. In this context, an early identification of a potentially dangerous situation through experts is essential to limit the degree of damage.

  4. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology? (United States)

    Holm, Sune


    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  5. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue


    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  6. Parámetros químicos y biológicos como indicadores de calidad del suelo en diferentes manejos Chemical and biological parameters as indicators of soil quality under different managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferreras


    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue evaluar la sensibilidad de una serie de parámetros químicos y bioquímicos en suelos representativos de la Región Pampeana bajo diferentes manejos con la finalidad de: i establecer los parámetros que reflejen de manera más sensible y tempranamente el grado de degradación o recuperación; ii comparar la información generada de las parcelas bajo cultivo con el mismo tipo de suelo no perturbado, considerado como referencia (T. En ensayos con diferentes manejos localizados en las EEA INTA Oliveros, Marcos Juárez y Rafaela se evaluó: Carbono orgánico total (COT, carbono asociado a la fracción fina (COff, carbono asociado a la fracción gruesa (COfg, carbono de la biomasa microbiana (CBM, actividad respiratoria microbiana (ARM y actividad de las enzimas fosfatasa ácida (Pasa, deshidrogenasa (Dasa y ureasa (Uasa. Se calculó el cociente metabólico microbiano (qCO2, a través de la relación entre ARM y el CBM, como así también las relaciones entre actividades de las enzimas y CBM en función del COT. Para cada sitio, el suelo bajo cultivo presentó en la mayoría de las variables analizadas valores inferiores con respecto a T (pThe aim of the work was to assess the sensitivity of chemical and biochemical parameters in representative soils of the Pampa Region under different managements with the purpose of i establishing the soil parameters that may have a role as early and sensitive indicators of soil ecological stress and restoration; and ii comparing the results from cropped plots with the same undisturbed soil type, considered as reference (T. The experiment was carried out on experimental plots under different soil managements at the INTA Experimental Stations at Oliveros, Marcos Juárez and Rafaela. Total organic carbon (COT, organic carbon associated with the fine fraction (COff and organic carbon associated with the coarse fraction (COfg, microbial biomass carbon (CBM, soil microbial respiration (ARM

  7. Utilização de bioindicadores em diferentes hidrossistemas de uma indústria de papeis reciclados em Governador Valadares - MG Use of biological indicators in different hydrosystems of an industry of recycled papers in Governador Valadares - MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan César de Oliveira Bastos


    Full Text Available A bacia do rio Doce, quinta maior do estado de Minas Gerais, mostra-se bastante degradada com impactos diretos na vegetação, no solo, na biodiversidade e na qualidade das águas. Sabendo-se da importância da bacia em questão, a utilização de bioindicadores aquáticos representa uma das formas mais modernas para se detectar níveis diferenciados de carga orgânica, sendo premente seu estudo e aplicação. Este trabalho propõe a utilização de organismos microscópicos como o fitoplâncton que, aliados a parâmetros físico-químicos, poderiam indicar poluição em seus diferentes níveis. A metodologia utilizada foi estabelecida conforme Sladecek (1973 e Greenberg (1992. Foram amostradas sete estações de coleta no ribeirão Capim, na área de influência de uma empresa de papéis reciclados, objetivando-se detectar possíveis impactos na cadeia trófica. As análises mostraram a ocorrência de 41 taxa, destacando-se a predominância dos gêneros Oscylatoria a Anacystis pertencentes à divisão Cyanophyta nos ambientes de maior estresse, e organismos da divisão Chlorophyta nos demais ambientes amostrados. Observou-se ainda a capacidade de adaptação de alguns gêneros, entre eles Euglena e Navicula, os quais se fizeram presentes em quase todos os ambientes amostrados.The Rio Doce’s basin, which is the fifth greatest basin of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, is severely degraded by the direct impacts on vegetation, soil, biodiversity, and water quality. Due to the importance of this basin, the use of aquatic bioindicators is one of the most modern methods to detect differentiated levels of organic matter, and its study and application is a relevant issue. This paper proposes the use microscopic organisms such phytoplankton, which combined with physicochemical parameters, would indicate pollution on its different levels. The applied methodology was according to Sladecek (1973 and Greenberg (1992. It was sampled seven collect stations

  8. Biological Oceanography (United States)

    Dyhrman, Sonya


    The ocean is arguably the largest habitat on the planet, and it houses an astounding array of life, from microbes to whales. As a testament to this diversity and its importance, the discipline of biological oceanography spans studies of all levels of biological organization, from that of single genes, to organisms, to their population dynamics. Biological oceanography also includes studies on how organisms interact with, and contribute to, essential global processes. Students of biological oceanography are often as comfortable looking at satellite images as they are electron micrographs. This diversity of perspective begins the textbook Biological Oceanography, with cover graphics including a Coastal Zone Color Scanner image representing chlorophyll concentration, an electron micrograph of a dinoflagellate, and a photograph of a copepod. These images instantly capture the reader's attention and illustrate some of the different scales on which budding oceanographers are required to think. Having taught a core graduate course in biological oceanography for many years, Charlie Miller has used his lecture notes as the genesis for this book. The text covers the subject of biological oceanography in a manner that is targeted to introductory graduate students, but it would also be appropriate for advanced undergraduates.

  9. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi


    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  10. Foldit Biology (United States)


    Report 8/1/2013-7/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Foldit Biology NOOO 14-13-C-0221 Sb. GRANT NUMBER N/A Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Include area code) Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified (206) 616-2660 Zoran Popović Foldit Biology (Task 1, 2, 3, 4) Final Report...Period Covered by the Report August 1, 2013 – July 31, 2015 Date of Report: July 31, 2015 Project Title: Foldit Biology Contract Number: N00014-13

  11. Biological and oceanographic upwelling indicators at Cabo Frio (RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleyci A. O. Moser


    Full Text Available Phytoplankton biomass, chemical parameters and hydrology were studied in a transect 101.6 km long off Cabo Frio (RJ, Southeast Brazil, during summer (December 29 to 31, 1991 and winter (June 27 to 30, 1992. Wind induced upwelling events are frequently observed in the area during summer, becoming rare during winter. By the summer cruise a bloom of phytoplankton was observed in surface, close to the coast, with chlorophyll concentrations reaching 25.55 mg Chl-a m-3, uncoupled from the cold, nutrient rich waters of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW, found below 40 m depth. During the winter cruise, the SACW raised at the surface waters in front of Cabo Frio depicting an upwelling event. However, in spite of high surface nitrate concentrations (up to 7.7 f.1M chlorophyll-a were lower than 2 mg Chl-a m-3. The phytoplankton biomass, meteorological and hydrological data suggest a probable upwelling event immediately before the summer cruise, and an ongoing one during winter time. Cluster analyses and principal component analyses (PCA were applied to summer and winter data, pointing out multidimensional fronts in the area during both seasons.A biomassa fitoplanctônica, parâmetros químicos e hidrologia foram estudadas em um transecto de 101,6 Km ao largo de Cabo Frio, (RJ Brasil, durante o verão (Dezembro 29 a 31, 1991 e inverno (Junho 27 a 30, 1992. Nesta área, eventos de ressurgência induzidos pelo vento são comuns durante o verão, tornando-se mais raros durante o inverno. Durante o período de verão uma floração de fitoplâncton foi observada na superfície próximo ao continente, apresentando um máximo de clorofila-a igual a 25,55 mg Cl-a m'3 desacoplado das águas frias e ricas em nutrientes da Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS, presente abaixo de 40 m. Durante o inverno, a ACAS alcançou a superflcie em frente a Cabo Frio, caracterizando um evento de ressurgência. Entretanto, apesar das altas concentrações de nitrato na superfície (até 7,7 f.1M, as concentrações de clorofila-a foram menores do que 2 mg CI-a m'3. Os dados meteorológicos, hidrológicos e de biomassa fitoplanctônica sugerem um provável evento de ressurgência imediatamente anterior ao período de amostragem de verão e um evento em andamento durante o inverno. Análises de agrupamento e de componentes principais (ACP foram aplicadas às coletas de verão e inverno separadamente, mostrando frentes multidimensionais na área, durante as duas estações.

  12. Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin (GIB) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Geomagnetic Indices Bulletin is a one page sheet containing the magnetic indices Kp, Ap, Cp, An, As, Am and the provisional aa indices. The bulletin is published...

  13. Biological preconcentrator (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Huber, Dale L.


    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.


    Under the current regulations (CFR 503), Class B biosolids may be land applied with certain site restrictions. One method for achieving Class B status is to raise the pH of the sludge to >12 for a minimum of 2 hours with an alkaline material (normally lime). Alternately, a Clas...

  15. Space Biology: Patterns of Life (United States)

    Salisbury, Frank B.


    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  16. Biology Notes. (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981


    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  17. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.


    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  18. Marine Biology (United States)

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.


    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  19. Scaffolded biology. (United States)

    Minelli, Alessandro


    Descriptions and interpretations of the natural world are dominated by dichotomies such as organism vs. environment, nature vs. nurture, genetic vs. epigenetic, but in the last couple of decades strong dissatisfaction with those partitions has been repeatedly voiced and a number of alternative perspectives have been suggested, from perspectives such as Dawkins' extended phenotype, Turner's extended organism, Oyama's Developmental Systems Theory and Odling-Smee's niche construction theory. Last in time is the description of biological phenomena in terms of hybrids between an organism (scaffolded system) and a living or non-living scaffold, forming unit systems to study processes such as reproduction and development. As scaffold, eventually, we can define any resource used by the biological system, especially in development and reproduction, without incorporating it as happens in the case of resources fueling metabolism. Addressing biological systems as functionally scaffolded systems may help pointing to functional relationships that can impart temporal marking to the developmental process and thus explain its irreversibility; revisiting the boundary between development and metabolism and also regeneration phenomena, by suggesting a conceptual framework within which to investigate phenomena of regular hypermorphic regeneration such as characteristic of deer antlers; fixing a periodization of development in terms of the times at which a scaffolding relationship begins or is terminated; and promoting plant galls to legitimate study objects of developmental biology.

  20. Biology Notes. (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984


    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  1. Relations between intuitive biological thinking and biological misconceptions in biology majors and nonmajors. (United States)

    Coley, John D; Tanner, Kimberly


    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems--teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking--that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions.

  2. Altimeter Setting Indicator (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Altimeter Setting Indicator (ASI) is an aneroid system used at airports to provide an altimeter setting for aircraft altimeters. This indicator may be an analog...

  3. Geomagnetic aa Indices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The geomagnetic aa indices are the continuation of the series beginning in the year 1868. A full description of these indices is given in the International...

  4. CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Bertelsen, Niels Haldor; Haugbølle, Kim


    During the past two years the Nordic Baltic research project CREDIT (Construction and Real Estate – Developing Indicators for Transparency) has worked with the aim to improve transparency of value creation in building and real estate. One of the central deliverables of the CREDIT project...... was a framework of indicators relevant in building and real estate and applicable in the Nordic and Baltic countries as well as a proposal for a set of key indicators. The study resulting in CREDIT Performance Indicator Framework has been based on 28 case studies of evaluation practises in the building and real...... regulations in the countries participating in CREDIT. The Performance Indicator Framework encompassed 187 indicators grouped in 7 main groups of indicators and 42 sub-groups. Based on the CREDIT case studies it was concluded that there neither is link between certain indicators and specific building types...

  5. Alternative Solar Indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, L.J.


    Possible alternative Solar Indices which could either be a perturbation from the currently defined Solar Index or possible indices based on current technologies for other media markets are discussed. An overview is given of the current project, including the logic that was utilized in defining its current structure and then alternative indices and definitions are presented and finally, recommendations are made for adopting alternative indices.

  6. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar


    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  7. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.


    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  8. eHealth indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HYPPÖNEN, Hannele; AMMENWERTH, Elske; Nøhr, Christian;


    eHealth indicators are needed to measure defined aspects of national eHealth implementations. However, until now, eHealth indicators are ambiguous or unclear. Therefore, an expert workshop "Towards an International Minimum Dataset for Monitoring National Health Information System Implementations......" was organized. The objective was to develop ideas for a minimum eHealth indicator set. The proposed ideas for indicators were classified based on EUnetHTA and De-Lone & McClean, and classification was compared with health IT evaluation criteria classification by Ammenwerth & Keizer. Analysis of the workshop...... results emphasized the need for a common methodological framework for defining and classifying eHealth indicators. It also showed the importance of setting the indicators into context. The results will benefit policy makers, developers and researchers in pursuit of provision and use of evidence...

  9. Indicators for environmental sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yan; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky


    Decision making on sustainable consumption and production requires scientifically based information on sustainability. Different environmental sustainability targets exist for specific decision problems. To observe how well these targets are met, relevant environmental indicators are needed....... In this study, we reviewed indicators applied in life cycle assessment (LCA), planetary boundary framework (PB), and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) developed under United Nation. The aim is to 1) identify their applications and relevant decision context; 2) Review their indicators and categorize them...

  10. Scopus' SNIP Indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet


    Rejoinder to Moed [arXiv:1005.4906]: Our main objection is against developing new indicators which, like some of the older ones (for example, the "crown indicator" of CWTS), do not allow for indicating error because they do not provide a statistics, but are based, in our opinion, on a violation of the order of operations. The claim of validity for the SNIP indicator is hollow because the normalizations are based on field classifications which are not valid. Both problems can perhaps be solved by using fractional counting.

  11. Data Quality and Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Matute


    Full Text Available This study highlights the importance of collecting good quality data from multidisciplinary studies. Bias in data may be the result of instrument inaccuracies, imprecise data recording techniques, inaccurate data entry to computers or inappropriate statistical analysis and presentation. Recommendations for good data quality control are given. Different types of data are discussed: raw data, simple indicators and complex indicators. It is shown how measurements from the components of multidisciplinary systems can be combined to form complex indicators and a specific example is given using Z-scores and dot charts. Finally the accumulated effect of bias in the individual component measurements upon the combined indicator is shown.

  12. Climate Change Indicators (United States)

    Presents information, charts and graphs showing measured climate changes across 40 indicators related to greenhouse gases, weather and climate, oceans, snow and ice, heath and society, and ecosystems.

  13. Caracterización de indicadores biológicos y bioquímicos en alfisoles, molisoles y vertisoles de Entre Ríos Characterization of biological and biochemical indicators in alfisols, mollisols and vertisols of Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Benintende


    Full Text Available Los suelos de la provincia de Entre Ríos se han desarrollado sobre diferentes materiales originarios y en una topografía variada, lo que ha resultado en un rico mosaico de suelos. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron caracterizar y establecer relaciones de indicadores biológicos y bioquímicos de calidad de suelos en áreas de mínimo disturbio en Molisoles, Vertisoles y Alfisoles de la provincia de Entre Ríos y analizar sus similitudes y diferencias. Se tomaron muestras de suelos de áreas con un mínimo disturbio y se determinaron los indicadores biológicos y bioquímicos: C orgánico (Corg, N total (Ntot, C y N de biomasa microbiana (CBM y NBM, N mineralizado en incubaciones anaeróbicas de 7 días (N-IA y respiración. Se estimó el cociente metabólico (qCO2 y relaciones entre estas variables. Los resultados permitieron observar un amplio rango entre valores extremos de los indicadores biológicos. La diferencia encontrada entre valores extremos fue de: 16% para Corg, 16,5% para Ntot, 33% para CBM, 46% para NBM y 62% para N-IA. Las variables destacadas fueron: N-IA, CBM y CBM/Corg. En relación a las variables evaluadas, los suelos que se pudieron agrupar fueron los pertenecientes al orden Vertisol, en primer término y luego el intergrado con Molisol. Para establecer niveles críticos de indicadores de calidad de suelos será necesario contar con valores de referencia para cada subgrupo de los suelos, agrupando solamente aquellos pertenecientes a los Vertisoles.Entre Ríos soils have been developed on different materials and in a varied topography, which has resulted in a variety of soils. The objectives of this paper were to characterize and establish relationships between biological and biochemical indicators of soil quality in areas of minimum disturbance in Mollisols, Vertisols and Alfisols of Entre Ríos and to analyze their similarities and differences. Soil samples were taken in areas with minimal disturbance and biological and

  14. Indicadores de contaminación biológica asociados a la erosión hídrica en una cuenca de Pampa Ondulada Argentina Indicators of biological contamination associated with water erosion in basin belonging the rolling pampa, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I. Chagas


    í a nivel de la cuenca bajo estudio.Agriculture activities use 70% of the world water resources, partly for animal production and particularly cattle feeding. There is an outstanding risk of biological contamination associated with this kind of production because animal feces and urine containing pathogens can be transported to surface waterways through runoff. The present investigation was carried out in the Tala basin belonging to the Rolling Pampa region in which intense runoff and erosion processes are widespread. In this basin there are extensive cattle feeding farms which are located close to the natural waterways, in bottomlands with hydrohalomorphic soils. There is also an increasing surface devoted to feedlots and intensive swine and poultry productions. The main use of the surface waters from the river and tributaries is direct cattle drinking. The aim of the present work was to analyze through biological indicators, the potential contamination of runoff water and sediments accumulated in lowlands devoted to cattle production and to determinate their human or animal origin. The waters showed concentration of biological indicators belonging to faecal streptococci and enterococci which can be related to animal but no to human contamination processes. A close relationship was observed between total coliforms and erosion borne sediment concentration in the studied area. Thus, the capacity of these sediments for carrying bacteria potentially harmful for animal health like Salmonella spp. was confirmed. The runoff, erosion and biological contamination processes proved to be related in the studied basin.

  15. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran


    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  16. Indicators of coal metamorphism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, A.E.


    Important in determining metamorphism of coal is the reliability of indicators of coalification. Both the reflection of vitrinite and emission of volatile matter have been used for this purpose. To determine which indicator more accurately characterizes metamorphism of coal, their conformity to the following demands was established: 1. uniformity in direction of change of parameters with degree of metamorphism; 2. independence of the indicator of the genetic characteristics of coal (petrographic composition, reduction and oxidation of coal); 3. sensitivity of indicator. Both indicators conform to the first requirement. Emission of volatile substance decreases and reflective capacity of vitrinite increases uniformly with degree of metamorphism. However, the reflectivity of vitrinite is not influenced by petrographic composition of coals and is less dependent on the oxidation and reduction of coal than emission of volatile matter. It is also a more sensitive indicator distinguishing more degrees of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. Reflectivity of vitrinite is a more reliable indicator of metamorphism than emission of volatile matter. However, in many laboratories this indicator is not measured with sufficient accuracy. To correct this, measuring equipment must be standardized.

  17. Indicators of sustainable tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dobrica


    Full Text Available The indicators, precisely describing the linkages between tourism and the environment, social and cultural base, are not easily available. How ever, some relevant organizations (WTO, EU, OECD, etc., institutions and experts, have been hardly working to create the indicators of sustainable tourism. Whereas the economic objectives are easily defined by the use of the traditional indicators used in national and business economics, it is very difficult to identify widely applicable environmental, social and cultural indicators. In order to stimulate and alleviate the process of sustainable tourism development, EU created the list of comparative indicators of sustainable tourism. In preparing this list, special attention is paid to identification of valid indicators of real tourism impacts on the social and cultural environment (the entire set of traditions, customs, history, hospitality and culture that characterize a given area, that is a very complex task. Assuming the fact that the related indicators have been analyzed in many European countries, this paper is focused on applying the related indicators in research of tourism development in villages of the Kosjerić community. .

  18. Key performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.


    This paper addresses how organisations can use OSH performance indicators. This is an important way to mainstream OSH into business management. Key performance indicators (KPIs) should provide objective data on the OSH situation. It is often said that ‘what gets measured gets managed’. Without infor

  19. Evaluating Living Standard Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birčiaková Naďa


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evaluation of selected available indicators of living standards, divided into three groups, namely economic, environmental, and social. We have selected six countries of the European Union for analysis: Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Luxembourg, France, and Great Britain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate indicators measuring living standards and suggest the most important factors which should be included in the final measurement. We have tried to determine what factors influence each indicator and what factors affect living standards. We have chosen regression analysis as our main method. From the study of factors, we can deduce their impact on living standards, and thus the value of indicators of living standards. Indicators with a high degree of reliability include the following factors: size and density of population, health care and spending on education. Emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere also have a certain lower degree of reliability.

  20. VP Ellipsis without Indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel; Asher, Nicholas; Hunter, Julie


    This paper compares two views on the status of indices in syntactic and logical representations. On a structural view, indices are syntactic formants on a par with node labels and phrase bracketings, and are thus a part of the logical forms that are derived from syntactic representations....... On the process view, an index is not a syntactic object at all, but rather, an indication of the output of a resolution process.In this paper we argue that a recent body of data provides a clear empirical basis for distinguishing between these two views of indices. We argue that cases of sloppy VP ellipsis pose...... insurmountable problems for the structural view of indices, while these problems do not arise for the process view. Furthermore, we show that this resolution process is constrained by the semantics of various discourse relations....

  1. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)


    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  2. The radon indicator (United States)

    Samuelsson, L.


    The radon indicator is an efficient instrument for measuring the radon daughter concentrations in a house or dwelling. Physics or environmental science students could build a radon indicator as a student project. Another possibility would be to use a radon indicator in a student investigation of radon levels in different houses. Finally the radon indicator is an excellent device for producing a radioactive source, free of charge, for the study of α-, β- and γ-radiation. The half-life of the activity collected is approximately 40 min. The radon indicator makes use of an electrostatic method by which charged particles are drawn to a small aluminium plate with a high negative voltage (-5 kV), thus creating a strong electric field between the plate and a surrounding copper wire. The radioactivity on the plate is subsequently measured by a GM-counter and the result calculated in Bq m-3. The collecting time is just 5.5 min and therefore the instrument is only suitable for use in a short-time method for indicating the radon concentration. An improved diagram, ground-radon and/or wall-radon in houses, is presented on the basis of the author's measurements recorded with the radon indicator over many years. This diagram is very useful when discussing how to reduce radiation levels in homes.

  3. Indicadores biológicos associados ao ciclo do fósforo em solos de Cerrado sob plantio direto e plantio convencional Soil biological indicators associated to the phosphorus cycle in a Cerrado soil under no-till and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Guimarães Carneiro


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do plantio direto, do preparo convencional do solo e de plantas de cobertura sobre indicadores biológicos associados ao ciclo do fósforo (P. O trabalho foi realizado em três áreas adjacentes, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, distribuídas da seguinte maneira: área I, dois anos de experimentação, comparando esses sistemas de plantio; área II, seis anos de experimentação e área III, Cerrado nativo. Em julho/1998 e janeiro/1999, avaliaram-se: o P da biomassa, populações de fungos e bactérias totais e solubilizadores de fosfato e a atividade da fosfatase ácida, nas profundidades de 0-5 e de 5-20 cm. A atividade da fosfatase e a ocorrência de fungos e bactérias solubilizadoras nas áreas com plantio direto foram significativamente superiores às das áreas com plantio convencional, na profundidade de 0-5 cm. O tempo de implantação acentuou as diferenças entre plantio direto e convencional quanto aos indicadores avaliados. O P da biomassa diminuiu no tratamento plantio direto com nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus da área II. Os fungos solubilizadores aumentaram na presença de guandu (Cajanus cajan e nabo forrageiro, e as bactérias solubilizadoras aumentaram na presença de guandu. O solo sob vegetação nativa apresentou maior atividade da fosfatase em relação ao das áreas cultivadas, evidenciando a importância da mineralização do P orgânico nesse ecossistema.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of no-till, conventional tillage and cover crops on biological indicators associated to the P cycle. The work was carried out on three adjacent areas on a Red-Yellow Oxisol: area I, a two-year experiment comparing the two management systems; area II, a six-year experiment, and area III, a native Cerrado vegetation. The soil was sampled at two depths (0-5 cm and 5-20 cm in July/1998 and January/1999. The biological indicators evaluated were microbial biomass P

  4. Note on PI and Szeged indices

    CERN Document Server

    c, Aleksandar Ili\\'


    In theoretical chemistry molecular structure descriptors are used for modeling physico-chemical, pharmacological, toxicologic, biological and other properties of chemical compounds. In this paper we study distance-based graph invariants and present some improved and corrected sharp inequalities for PI, vertex PI, Szeged and edge Szeged topological indices, involving the number of vertices and edges, the diameter, the number of triangles and the Zagreb indices. In addition, we give a complete characterization of the extremal graphs.

  5. Environmental indicators for buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammann, Sven

    Environmental Indicators for Buildings are studied using two different perspectives: with a technological, environmental scientific departing point and with a social scientific departing point. Different relevant groups in the building sector are identified and analysed, using the Social...

  6. Indicators and SEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    Abstract: Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation. Indicators can be seen as part of the implementation...... process helping to understand, communicate and, integrate important environmental issues in planning and decision-making. On the other hand, use of indicators can also limit SEA effectiveness, if the ones chosen are biased or limited, if the aggregation gives incorrect interpretation...... and if the information requirement for different target groups is not addressed. Indicators are widely used in SEA to measure, communicate and monitor impacts from a proposed policy, plan or programme, and can improve the effectiveness for the SEA by simplifying the complexity of both assessment and presentation...

  7. NOHSS Adult Indicators (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999, 2002-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for 1999 and even years from 2002 through 2014. National estimates are represented...

  8. Solar Indices Bulletin (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Solar Indices Bulletin is a prompt monthly information product that is distributed within two weeks after the observation month closes. For the month just ended,...

  9. Solar Indices - Solar Corona (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  10. NOHSS Child Indicators (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Data for School year-end 1994 through year-end 2016. State oral health surveys are the data sources for these indicators. States periodically conduct independent...

  11. NOHSS Adult Indicators (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2012-2014 (even years). Data from BRFSS for indicators of adult oral health for even years from 2012 through 2014. National estimates are represented by the median...

  12. Fishery Performance Indicators (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Performance indicators for landings, effort, revenue and distribution of revenue are collected for various fisheries nation-wide. The fisheries include catch and...

  13. Solar Indices - Solar Flares (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  14. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  15. Solar Indices - Plage Regions (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  16. Solar Indices - Solar Irradiance (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  17. Solar Indices - Solar Ultraviolet (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  18. ENSO Indices and Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhiren; WU Dexing; CHEN Xue'en; QIAO Ran


    New ENSO indices were developed and the spatial variability and temporal evolution of ENSO were analyzed based on the new indices and modeling experiments,as well as multiple data resources.The new indices,after being defined,were validated with their good diagnostic characteristics and correlation with wind and SST.In the analysis after the definition and validation of the new indices,ENSO feedbacks from wind,heat fluxes,and precipitation were spatially and temporally examined in order to understand ENSO variability and evolution with some emphasized points such as the interaction among the feedbacks,the role of westerly wind bursts and the transformation between zonal and meridional circulations in an ENSO cycle,and the typical pattern of modern ENSO.

  19. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter


    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS......The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators......; the Cumulated Publication Point Indicator (CPPI), which graphically illustrates the cumulated gain of obtained vs. ideal points, both seen as vectors; and the normalized Cumulated Publication Point Index (nCPPI) that represents the cumulated gain of publication success as index values, either graphically...

  20. Structural Biology Fact Sheet (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  1. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas


    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  2. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  3. Biological Effects of Acoustic Cavitation (United States)


    rectified diffusion. 56 III. STABLE CAVITATION A. Introduction There are manv areas associated with the biological effects of ultrasound in which the...used said as cavitation indicators. Further, if clinical ultrasound systems are found to be inducing cavitation , either stable or transient, it will...O BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC CAVITATION by Lawrence A. Crum -- Physical Acoustics Research Laboratory Department of Physics and Astronomy ’ CTE

  4. Indicators for energy security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, B.; van Vuuren, D.P.; de Vries, H.J.M.; Groenenberg, H.


    The concept of energy security is widely used, yet there is no consensus on its precise interpretation. In this research, we have provided an overview of available indicators for long-term security of supply (SOS). We distinguished four dimensions of energy security that relate to the availability,

  5. "Healthy" Human Development Indices (United States)

    Engineer, Merwan; Roy, Nilanjana; Fink, Sari


    In the Human Development Index (HDI), life expectancy is the only indicator used in modeling the dimension "a long and healthy life". Whereas life expectancy is a direct measure of quantity of life, it is only an indirect measure of healthy years lived. In this paper we attempt to remedy this omission by introducing into the HDI the morbidity…

  6. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter


    with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS...

  7. Maslov indices and monodromy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullin, H.R.; Robbins, J.M.; Waalkens, H.; Creagh, S.C.; Tanner, G.


    We prove that for a Hamiltonian system on a cotangent bundle that is Liouville-integrable and has monodromy the vector of Maslov indices is an eigenvector of the monodromy matrix with eigenvalue 1. As a corollary, the resulting restrictions on the monodromy matrix are derived.

  8. Pain indicators in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Slobodan


    Full Text Available Definition of pain. The International Association for the Study of Pain has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage." The interpretation of pain is subjective. Each person forms an internal construct of pain through encountered injury. Pain and newborn. The issue of pain perception in newborns, its management and prevention has been neglected for decades. The inability of "self-report" of painful experience has contributed significantly to misunderstanding of the importance of this problem and in­adequate treatment. The main characteristic of this 'critical window of brain development' period is rapid enlargement of brain volume and its great plasticity. Harmful short-term and long-term consequences can arise as a consequence of disturbance of the sophisticated balance between newborn and its surrounding. Neonatal pain indicators. As a response to a present painful stimulus, the newborn adapts to this acute stress with changes in endocrine, vegetative, immune and behavioral area. An ideal pain indicator in neonatal period does not exist. There are several different groups o them, namely contextual and developmental indicators (gestational age, contributed illness, medication, for example, physiological (heart rate, vagal tone, breathing rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous partial pressures of oxygen and carbon-dioxide, intracranial pressure, palm sweating and behavioral ones (face expression, movements of limbs, cry, several neonatal pain scales were constructed on the basis of these indicators. .

  9. The logarithmic hypervolume indicator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Tobias; Bringmann, Karl; Voß, Thomas;


    It was recently proven that sets of points maximizing the hypervolume indicator do not give a good multiplicative approximation of the Pareto front. We introduce a new “logarithmic hypervolume indicator” and prove that it achieves a close-to-optimal multiplicative approximation ratio. This is exp...

  10. Environmental health indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Posada de la Paz


    Full Text Available This presentation gives a general overview of the project titled Environmental Health Indicators, coordinated by WHO and managed by the Research Centre on the Toxic Oil Syndrome and Rare Diseases in Spain. The presentations describes the objectives of the project, the steps taken and the results obtained during the feasibility study. The project aims to develop an environmental health information system that will allow the monitoring of public health and its health determinants and make international comparisons, develop environmental policies and facilitate communication with citizens. WHO developed a methodology for the development of these indicators within the conceptual framework of DPSEEA (Driving Force, Pressure, State, Exposure, Effect, Action and selected a total of 55 indicators (which included 168 variables in 10 environmental health areas. The feasibility study predicted the successful gathering of 89% of the indicators. However, data recollection proved difficult due to the frequent incompatibility of some variables in the Spanish information systems with the WHO defined variables. On a management level, the greatest difficulty arose from the disperse distribution of responsibilities in environmental health matters. In addition to the technical contribution of this project to Environmental Health in Spain, an added value has been to establish a close collaboration with the different Ministries involved.

  11. Simplicial Indicator Kriging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R Tolosana-Delgado; V Pawlowsky-Glahn; J J Egozcue


    Indicator kriging (IK) is a spatial interpolation technique devised for estimating a conditional cumulative distribution function at an unsampled location. The result is a discrete approximation, and its corresponding estimated probability density function can be viewed as a composition in the simplex. This fact suggested a compositional approach to IK which, by construction, avoids all its standard drawbacks (negative predictions, not-ordered or larger than one). Here, a simple algorithm to develop the procedure is presented.

  12. Indicators of Ecological Change (United States)


    Wang et al. (2003) and earlier those of Chapra and Di Toro (1991). Wang et al. (2003) termed their approach the extreme value method and used it to...Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 210 pp. Chapra , S. C., Di Toro, D. M., 1991. Delta method for estimating primary production, respiration, and...characteristics, The challenge in using ecological indicators is determining which of the numerous measures of ecological systems best characterize

  13. GRB as luminosity indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Rupal


    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are found at much higher redshifts (z>6) than Supernova Ia (z~1), and hence, they can be used to probe very primitive universe. However, radiation mechanism of GRB remains a puzzle, unlike Supernova Ia. Through comprehensive description, both empirical and physical, we shall discuss the most likely way to use the constituent pulses of a GRB to find the radiation mechanism as well as using the pulses as luminosity indicators.

  14. Indicators for Knowledge Economy



    The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  15. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology. (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille


    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In a world of globalization generating geographical concentration, relocation of activities, thus inducing territorial disparities, territorial cohesion has become a prerequisite for achieving sustainable economic growth and implementing social and economic cohesion. The ratification of Lisbon Treaty represents the moment when “Territorial Cohesion” has been added as an official policy aim of the EU to its previous aims of economic and social cohesion. Thus, the process of defining this concept of “Territorial Cohesion” has become the task of the Commission and EU Member States. Based on a literature review, the paper describes, in the first section, the polysemantic nature of territorial cohesion. The main objective of the next section is to address the main indicators, directly related to territorial objectives, that could be used to support policy makers in measuring and monitoring territorial cohesion related to European territorial development.

  17. Teriparatide - Indications beyond osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Lee Cheng


    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a condition of impaired bone strength that results in an increased risk of fracture. The current and most popular pharmacological options for the treatment of osteoporosis include antiresorptive therapy, in particular, oral bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, ibandronate. Anabolic agents like teriparatide have widened our therapeutic options. They act by directly stimulating bone formation and improving bone mass quantity and quality. Two forms of recombinant human parathyroid hormone (PTH are available : full-length PTH (PTH 1-84; approved in the EU only and the 1-34 N-terminal active fragment of PTH (teriparatide, US FDA approved. This review aims to discuss the benefits of teriparatide beyond the currently licensed indications like fracture healing, dental stability, osteonecrosis of jaw, hypoparathyroidism, and hypocalcemia.

  18. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  19. Entanglement–breaking indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lami, L. [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Giovannetti, V. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)


    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement–breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two–qubit system is exactly solved in a general case.

  20. Solar Indices Forecasting Tool (United States)

    Henney, Carl John; Shurkin, Kathleen; Arge, Charles; Hill, Frank


    Progress to forecast key space weather parameters using SIFT (Solar Indices Forecasting Tool) with the ADAPT (Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport) model is highlighted in this presentation. Using a magnetic flux transport model, ADAPT, we estimate the solar near-side field distribution that is used as input into empirical models for predicting F10.7(solar 10.7 cm, 2.8 GHz, radio flux), the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, and selected bands of solar far ultraviolet (FUV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance. Input to the ADAPT model includes the inferred photospheric magnetic field from the NISP ground-based instruments, GONG & VSM. Besides a status update regarding ADAPT and SIFT models, we will summarize the findings that: 1) the sum of the absolute value of strong magnetic fields, associated with sunspots, is shown to correlate well with the observed daily F10.7 variability (Henney et al. 2012); and 2) the sum of the absolute value of weak magnetic fields, associated with plage regions, is shown to correlate well with EUV and FUV irradiance variability (Henney et al. 2015). This work utilizes data produced collaboratively between Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Solar Observatory (NSO). The ADAPT model development is supported by AFRL. The input data utilized by ADAPT is obtained by NISP (NSO Integrated Synoptic Program). NSO is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). The 10.7 cm solar radio flux data service, utilized by the ADAPT/SIFT F10.7 forecasting model, is operated by the National Research Council of Canada and National Resources Canada, with the support of the Canadian Space Agency.

  1. Microbes as forensic indicators. (United States)

    Alan, G; Sarah, J P


    The forensic potential of microorganisms is becoming increasingly apparent as a consequence of advances in molecular sciences and genomics. This review discusses instances in which microbes, and in particular bacteria, can impact upon forensic investigations. There is increasing evidence that humans have an extremely diverse 'microbiome' that may prove useful in determining ethnicity, country of origin, and even personal identity. The human microbiome differs between regions of the body and may prove useful for determining the nature of stains such as those caused by saliva and vaginal fluid: it may even be possible to link the stains to the person responsible for them. Similarly, the composition of the microbiome present in a soil sample may prove a useful indicator of geographic origin or as a means of linking people, animals, or objects together or to a specific location. Microorganisms are important in the decay process and also influence the presence and concentration of alcohol, drugs, and other chemicals of forensic relevance. There is also a possibility that the entry of microorganisms into the body during the agonal period may prove useful for the diagnosis of drowning. The transmission of infectious diseases, and in particular sexually-transmitted diseases, can provide evidence linking a victim and a suspect. Microorganisms that cause fatal infections are not always identified at the time of death and may lead to the death being considered 'suspicious'. If a fatal infection can be linked to a hospital or medical procedure it can lead to prosecutions and therefore it is important to determine when and where an infection was acquired. Similarly, naturally acquired infections need to be distinguished from those that result from malicious transmission. Microorganisms can therefore provide evidence in many different forensic scenarios but most of the work is still at the experimental stage and there are therefore many opportunities for further research.

  2. Biological warfare agents. (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Kuca, Kamil


    Biological warfare agents are a group of pathogens and toxins of biological origin that can be potentially misused for military or criminal purposes. The present review attempts to summarize necessary knowledge about biological warfare agents. The historical aspects, examples of applications of these agents such as anthrax letters, biological weapons impact, a summary of biological warfare agents and epidemiology of infections are described. The last section tries to estimate future trends in research on biological warfare agents.

  3. Biologic Influences on Exercise Adherence. (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.


    Diagnostic profiles of 362 male participants in an exercise program were analyzed to determine the biological variables between exercise adherence and symptoms of coronary disease. Findings indicated that individuals with lower metabolic capacity tended to adhere longer, to be less fit, were leaner, and began with more symptoms related to coronary…

  4. Proposed indicators for a monitoring programme. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The report presents proposals for a set of indicators to be used in a coordinated monitoring programme for the North Sea and Skagerrak ecosystems. This report suggests reference values and action thresholds for the indicators and suitable monitoring stations and survey transects, based on existing time series where possible. The relevance of the proposed indicators is also assessed to national and international environmental policy goals. The national targets of Norway's environmental policy and indicators used in the monitoring systems for the other Norwegian open sea areas were taken into account when drawing up the proposals. In the international context, The management plan was also assessed to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES), the Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic (the OSPAR Convention) and the EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).(Author)

  5. Rotifer trophic state indices as ecosystem indicators in brackish coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gutkowska


    Full Text Available Thanks to their short life cycles, rotifers react rapidly to changes in environmental conditions and so may be useful for biological monitoring. The objective of this paper was to investigate the applicability of rotifer trophic state indices as indicators of the trophic state of brackish waters, as exemplified by the Vistula Lagoon. Carried out in summer from 2007 to 2011, this study showed no significant correlation between the Lagoon's trophic state and the rotifer structure. This confirms the limited applicability of rotifer trophic state indices for evaluating water quality in brackish water bodies.

  6. Biological conversion system (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  7. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  8. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation. (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc


    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  9. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation. (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R


    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  10. Computational Systems Chemical Biology


    Oprea, Tudor I.; Elebeoba E. May; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander


    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  11. Características biológicas do solo indicadoras de qualidade após dois anos de aplicação de biossólido industrial e cultivo de milho Biological characteristics indicators of soil quality after two years of application of an industrial biosolid and corn cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina de Barros Trannin


    cultivated plots. Organic carbon and microbial biomass were highly correlated with the other characteristics. This indicates that the changes in the amount and quality of soil organic matter, as a result of biosolid application, altered microbial dynamics and influenced the biological parameters of soil quality positively.

  12. Integrating quantitative thinking into an introductory biology course improves students' mathematical reasoning in biological contexts. (United States)

    Hester, Susan; Buxner, Sanlyn; Elfring, Lisa; Nagy, Lisa


    Recent calls for improving undergraduate biology education have emphasized the importance of students learning to apply quantitative skills to biological problems. Motivated by students' apparent inability to transfer their existing quantitative skills to biological contexts, we designed and taught an introductory molecular and cell biology course in which we integrated application of prerequisite mathematical skills with biology content and reasoning throughout all aspects of the course. In this paper, we describe the principles of our course design and present illustrative examples of course materials integrating mathematics and biology. We also designed an outcome assessment made up of items testing students' understanding of biology concepts and their ability to apply mathematical skills in biological contexts and administered it as a pre/postcourse test to students in the experimental section and other sections of the same course. Precourse results confirmed students' inability to spontaneously transfer their prerequisite mathematics skills to biological problems. Pre/postcourse outcome assessment comparisons showed that, compared with students in other sections, students in the experimental section made greater gains on integrated math/biology items. They also made comparable gains on biology items, indicating that integrating quantitative skills into an introductory biology course does not have a deleterious effect on students' biology learning.

  13. Vitalism in naive biological thinking. (United States)

    Morris, S C; Taplin, J E; Gelman, S A


    Vitalism is the belief that internal bodily organs have agency and that they transmit or exchange a vital force or energy. Three experiments investigated the use of vitalistic explanations for biological phenomena by 5- and 10-year-old English-speaking children and adults, focusing on 2 components: the notion that bodily organs have intentions and the notion that some life force or energy is transmitted. The original Japanese finding of vitalistic thinking was replicated in Experiment 1 with English-speaking 5-year-olds. Experiment 2 indicated that the more active component of vitalism for these children is a belief in the transfer of energy during biological processes, and Experiment 3 suggested an additional, albeit lesser, role for organ intentionality. A belief in vital energy may serve a causal placeholder function within a naive theory of biology until a more precisely formulated mechanism is known.

  14. Teaching biology with engineering practices (United States)

    Potter, Stephen

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) expresses a vision of science education that requires students to not only have an understanding of science concepts but be able to investigate the natural world through process of science inquiry or to solve meaningful problems though the practices of engineering design. While incorporating engineering practices into our science curriculum will soon be requirement of the new state standards, there is little research published as to how this should be implemented in a biology classroom. The goal of this study was to measure the effectiveness of incorporating engineering design into a biology curriculum on student understanding of engineering practices and science content knowledge. The results of this study indicate that the integration of engineering design in a biology curriculum has a positive effect on student's science content knowledge as well as their understanding of engineering design principles.

  15. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayduk Leslie A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators.

  16. Biological width: No violation zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Sharma


    Full Text Available Maintenance of gingival health is one of the keys for the longevity of teeth, as well as for the longevity of restorations. The concept of Biologic width has been widely described by periodontists and restorative dentists. An adequate understanding of relationship between periodontal tissues and restorative dentistry is paramount to ensure adequate form, function and esthetics, and comfort of the dentition. While most clinicians are aware of this important relationship, uncertainty remains regarding specific concepts such as biologic width and indications and applications of surgical crown lengthening. These violations lead to complications like gingival inflammation, alveolar bone loss and improper fit of the restorative component. This review gives the wide aspect of the complex question of biologic width and represents an attempt to answer some of the demands in relation to it. The article also discusses the possible methods to assess biologic width, problems that occur after improper margin placement in the periodontium and the alternative procedures for prevention of biological width violation.

  17. Values of Kp Indices, Ap Indices, Cp Indices, C9 Indices, Sunspot Number, and 10.7 cm Flux (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data file consists of Kp indices, Ap indices, Cp indices, C9 indices, sunspot number, and 10.7 cm flux. The most often requested parameter of this file are the...

  18. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    eHealth indicator and benchmarking activities are rapidly increasing nationally and internationally. The work is rarely based on a transparent methodology for indicator definition. This article describes first results of testing an indicator methodology for defining eHealth indicators, which...

  19. Biology is simple. (United States)

    Newman, Tim


    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  20. Biology of Blood (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  1. Analyzing the high school biology education in Yemen (United States)

    Saif, Abdulsalam Dael

    This study evaluated the high school biology education in Yemen based on the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Developing Biological Literacy (1993). The study used inductive analysis, a type of qualitative research, in which triangulation of six data sources was used to answer the four research questions developed for the study. Twenty-four teachers and 48 students from four high schools in Yemen responded to the questionnaires. The findings of this study indicated that 44% of the BSCS goals suggested for a biology program is included in the biology education program in Yemen. Fifty-one percent of the concepts related to the unifying principles of biology were found in the three Yemeni high school biology textbooks. The high school biology teachers used 33% of instructional strategies and 40% of the assessment methods suggested in the BSCS guide. The majority of teachers and students reported that laboratory activities in the high school biology program are insufficient. However, most of the teachers' and students' responses indicated their interest in integrating environmental issues in biological concepts. Almost all of the teachers and students reported that the high school biology education in Yemen does not allow students to investigate independently or help them develop awareness of social problems related to biology. Four strategic plans were designed to improve the goals and curriculum content of high school biology education, the preparation of biology teachers, the enhancement of content and teaching skills of in-service teachers, and administrative support for facilities, equipment, and supplies for biology classes.

  2. Designing synthetic biology. (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M


    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.




  4. Biology Myth-Killers (United States)

    Lampert, Evan


    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  5. A Catalogue of marine biodiversity indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana Teixeira


    Full Text Available A Catalogue of Marine Biodiversity Indicators was developed with the aim of providing the basis for assessing the environmental status of the marine ecosystems. Useful for the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD, this catalogue allows the navigation of a database of indicators mostly related to biological diversity, non-indigenous species, food webs, and seafloor integrity. Over 600 indicators were compiled, which were developed and used in the framework of different initiatives (e.g. EU policies, research projects and in national and international contexts (e.g. Regional Seas Conventions, and assessments in non-European seas. The catalogue reflects the current scientific capability to address environmental assessment needs by providing a broad coverage of the most relevant indicators for marine biodiversity and ecosystem integrity.The available indicators are reviewed according to their typology, data requirements, development status, geographical coverage, relevance to habitats or biodiversity components, and related human pressures. Through this comprehensive overview, we discuss the potential of the current set of indicators in a wide range of contexts, from large-scale to local environmental programs, and we also address shortcomings in light of current needs.Developed by the DEVOTES Project, the catalogue is freely available through the DEVOTool software application, which provides browsing and query options for the associated metadata. The tool allows extraction of ranked indicator lists best fulfilling selected criteria, enabling users to search for suitable indicators to address a particular biodiversity component, ecosystem feature, habitat or pressure in a marine area of interest.This tool is useful for EU Member States, Regional Sea Conventions, the European Commission, non-governmental organizations, managers, scientists and any person interested in marine environmental assessment. It allows users to

  6. Fish as ecological indicators in mediterranean streams: The catalan experience


    Benejam Vidal, Lluís; Ordeix i Rigo, Marc; Casals i Martí, Frederic; Caiola, Nuno; Sostoa Fernández, Adolfo de; Solà, Carolina; Munné, Antoni


    The Water Framework Directive includes fish fauna as one of the biological elements, jointly with aquatic flora and benthic invertebrates, to assess and monitor water and habitat quality. Successful implementation of the Directive depends in part on the development of reliable, science-based tools to directly assess biological conditions. Although fish have been used as ecological indicators for more than 30 years around the world, mainly in North America and more recently i...

  7. Indicators for Monitoring Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bispo, A.; Cluzeau, D.; Creamer, R.


    is made for a set of suitable indicators for monitoring the decline in soil biodiversity (Bispo et al. 2007). These indicators were selected both from a literature review and an inventory of national monitoring programmes. Decline in soil biodiversity was defined as the reduction of forms of life living...... indicators are actually measured.   For monitoring application it was considered in ENVASSO that only three key indicators per soil stress were practical. For indicating biodiversity decline it was difficult to arrive at a small set of indicators due to the complexity of soil biota and functions. Therefore...

  8. Heart rate variability indicators in patients with hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Moldabek


    Full Text Available This article presents results of examined patients with hypothyroidism. The examination was performed using computer diagnosis complex “Omega-M” intended for the analysis of biological rhythms. It is concluded that 85.7± 5.4% of patients with hypothyroidism were indicated with sympathetic predominance of VNS. Analysis has revealed increased tension index indicators in patients with hypothyroidism that indicates on dysfunction of the cardiovascular system

  9. [Transfusion of plasma: products-indications]. (United States)

    Djoudi, R


    The use of therapeutic plasma has increased in France by more than 40% since 2002. This growth may be explained by the improvement in transfusion safety, the diminution of the risk of transmission of pathogens and the regained confidence of the physicians in blood products. Therapeutic plasma also benefits from additional procedures to reduce infectious (securisation) or immunological risks (selection of blood donors). Its application in massive transfusions has undergone a significant evolution over the last few years. A proactive attitude favouring early and important use of plasma on the basis of pre-established protocols is advocated henceforth. The prescription of therapeutic plasma for other indications must be guided by the results of biological tests and an evaluation of the haemorrhagic risk. Despite regular updating of the guidelines for good transfusion practice, plasma is still sometimes prescribed for prophylactic purposes in situations where the biological and/or clinical criteria do not justify it. Moreover, it is not recommended to use fresh frozen plasma in cases of deficiency of coagulation factors if the specific concentrates are available as intravenous fluids. Complementary clinical studies will be necessary to evaluate, in certain indications, the real benefits of the transfusion of plasma and the interest of replacing it by concentrates of coagulant factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin complex).

  10. Edible Acid-Base Indicators. (United States)

    Mebane, Robert C.; Rybolt, Thomas R.


    Reports on the colors observed during titrations of 15 natural indicators obtained from common fruits and vegetables. These edible indicators can be used for a variety of teacher demonstrations or for simple student experiments. (JN)

  11. Computational systems chemical biology. (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander


    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  12. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B


    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  13. Identifying novel drug indications through automated reasoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Tari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the large amount of pharmacological and biological knowledge available in literature, finding novel drug indications for existing drugs using in silico approaches has become increasingly feasible. Typical literature-based approaches generate new hypotheses in the form of protein-protein interactions networks by means of linking concepts based on their cooccurrences within abstracts. However, this kind of approaches tends to generate too many hypotheses, and identifying new drug indications from large networks can be a time-consuming process. METHODOLOGY: In this work, we developed a method that acquires the necessary facts from literature and knowledge bases, and identifies new drug indications through automated reasoning. This is achieved by encoding the molecular effects caused by drug-target interactions and links to various diseases and drug mechanism as domain knowledge in AnsProlog, a declarative language that is useful for automated reasoning, including reasoning with incomplete information. Unlike other literature-based approaches, our approach is more fine-grained, especially in identifying indirect relationships for drug indications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: To evaluate the capability of our approach in inferring novel drug indications, we applied our method to 943 drugs from DrugBank and asked if any of these drugs have potential anti-cancer activities based on information on their targets and molecular interaction types alone. A total of 507 drugs were found to have the potential to be used for cancer treatments. Among the potential anti-cancer drugs, 67 out of 81 drugs (a recall of 82.7% are indeed known cancer drugs. In addition, 144 out of 289 drugs (a recall of 49.8% are non-cancer drugs that are currently tested in clinical trials for cancer treatments. These results suggest that our method is able to infer drug indications (original or alternative based on their molecular targets and interactions alone and has

  14. The SJR indicator: A new indicator of journals' scientific prestige

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Pereira, Borja; Moya-Anegon, Felix


    This paper proposes an indicator of journals' scientific prestige, the SJR indicator, for ranking scholarly journals based on citation weighting schemes and eigenvector centrality to be used in complex and heterogeneous citation networks such Scopus. Its computation methodology is described and the results after implementing the indicator over Scopus 2007 dataset are compared to an ad-hoc Journal Impact Factor both generally and inside specific scientific areas. The results showed that SJR indicator and JIF distributions fitted well to a power law distribution and that both metrics were strongly correlated, although there were also major changes in rank. There was an observable general trend that might indicate that SJR indicator values decreased certain JIF values whose citedeness was greater than would correspond to their scientific influence.

  15. Herbal indicators as a substituent to synthetic indicators


    Bhagat Vishwas; Patil Radheshyam; Channekar P; Shetty S; Akarte Atul


    In acid - base titrations, indicators are used to show sharp color change at intervals of pH. Natural pigments in plants are highly colored substances and may show color changes with variation of pH. An attempt has been made to investigate the indicator activity of methanolic extract of flower pigments and to replace synthetic indicators as they have certain disadvantages like chemical pollution, availability problems and high cost. Methanolic extract of Rosa indica (L) from family Rosaceae a...

  16. Cancer rehabilitation indicators for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baili, Paolo; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Van Hoof, Elke;


    on follow-up and treatments for samples of cases archived in cancer registries. (b) Indicators of rehabilitation success. These include: return to work, quality of life, and satisfaction of specific rehabilitation needs. Studies can be performed to estimate these indicators in individual countries......Little is known of cancer rehabilitation needs in Europe. EUROCHIP-3 organised a group of experts to propose a list of population-based indicators used for describing cancer rehabilitation across Europe. The aim of this study is to present and discuss these indicators. A EUROCHIP-3 expert panel...... reached agreement on two types of indicators. (a) Cancer prevalence indicators. These were proposed as a means of characterising the burden of cancer rehabilitation needs by time from diagnosis and patient health status. These indicators can be estimated from cancer registry data or by collecting data...

  17. Standard biological parts knowledgebase. (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Rodriguez, Cesar; Chandran, Deepak; Sauro, Herbert M; Gennari, John H


    We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb) as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology ( The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts ( SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  18. Standard biological parts knowledgebase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Galdzicki

    Full Text Available We have created the Knowledgebase of Standard Biological Parts (SBPkb as a publically accessible Semantic Web resource for synthetic biology ( The SBPkb allows researchers to query and retrieve standard biological parts for research and use in synthetic biology. Its initial version includes all of the information about parts stored in the Registry of Standard Biological Parts ( SBPkb transforms this information so that it is computable, using our semantic framework for synthetic biology parts. This framework, known as SBOL-semantic, was built as part of the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL, a project of the Synthetic Biology Data Exchange Group. SBOL-semantic represents commonly used synthetic biology entities, and its purpose is to improve the distribution and exchange of descriptions of biological parts. In this paper, we describe the data, our methods for transformation to SBPkb, and finally, we demonstrate the value of our knowledgebase with a set of sample queries. We use RDF technology and SPARQL queries to retrieve candidate "promoter" parts that are known to be both negatively and positively regulated. This method provides new web based data access to perform searches for parts that are not currently possible.

  19. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education (BAMBED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voet Donald


    Full Text Available Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education (BAMBED is a journal that is a publication of the In-ternational Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (IUBMB and is published by the AmericanSociety of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (ASBMB. BAMBED, as its name indicates, publishesarticles of interest to educators in biochemistry and molecular biology. These include invited reviewson subjects not yet in textbooks, discussions of curricular development, new laboratory exercises,and articles on educational research. BAMBED also publishes Features on Problem-Based Learning(PBL, Biotechnology Education, and Multimedia in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Educati-on. An important aspect of these articles is that their educational eectiveness must be assessed. Ishall discuss in greater detail the types of articles that BAMBED publishes and the criteria used foraccepting them for publication. Conference attendees are encouraged to submit articles to BAMBED.

  20. Suplementação com ácido linoléico conjugado: estabilidade oxidativa dos suplementos e correlações com conteúdo dos lípides totais hepáticos e indicadores da oxidação dos lípides biológicos de ratos Wistar Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation: oxidative stability of supplements and correlations with total hepatic lipid contents and biological lipid oxidation indicators in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Ferreira Santos-Zago


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO:O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa de misturas comerciais de ácido linoléico conjugado e buscar possível correlação entre a suplementação e o conteúdo total de lípides hepáticos, e também de alguns indicadores da oxidação lipídica em ratos. MÉTODOS:Um ensaio biológico com 30 ratos divididos em três grupos (n=10 caracterizando os grupos controle e suplementados com as misturas comerciais AdvantEdge® e One® foi realizado. A concentração administrada foi de 2% em relação ao consumo de dieta e os animais foram suplementados durante 42 dias. O conteúdo total de lípides do fígado foi determinado e a morfologia do órgão foi examinada por meio de microscopia ótica. Índice de peróxido e malondialdeído foram determinados para avaliar a estabilidade oxidativa dos suplementos in vitro. Índice de peróxido, malondialdeído, 8-iso-PGF2α isoprostana e catalase foram determinados como indicadores da oxidação dos lípides biológicos. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram baixa estabilidade das misturas comerciais à oxidação in vitro. As associações entre o consumo de ácido linoléico conjugado e malondialdeído (r=-0,7914, pOBJECTIVE:The claimed action of conjugated linoleic acid as an antioxidant is unexpected and unclear, in view of its chemical structure - a conjugated diene, i.e., a fatty acid in its initial stage of autoxidation. Indeed, it can be speculated that it could act as a pro-oxidant, increasing oxidative stress in biological systems, nevertheless it has carbon-carbon bonds in the trans configuration. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the oxidative stability of commercial mixtures, and to investigate a possible correlation between conjugated linoleic acid supplementation and total hepatic lipid content, as well as some lipid oxidation indicators in rats. METHODS:A biological assay was done with thirty rats divided into three groups (n=10 characterized as

  1. Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU WenYao


    Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1-2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.

  2. Uncertainty in magnetic activity indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Magnetic activity indices are widely used in theoretical studies of solar-terrestrial coupling and space weather prediction. However, the indices suffer from various uncertainties, which limit their application and even mislead to incorrect conclu-sion. In this paper we analyze three most popular indices, Kp, AE and Dst. Three categories of uncertainties in magnetic indices are discussed: "data uncertainty" originating from inadequate data processing, "station uncertainty" caused by in-complete station covering, and "physical uncertainty" stemming from unclear physical mechanism. A comparison between magnetic disturbances and related indices indicate that the residual Sq will cause an uncertainty of 1―2 in K meas-urement, the uncertainty in saturated AE is as much as 50%, and the uncertainty in Dst index caused by the partial ring currents is about a half of the partial ring cur-rent.

  3. Plant synthetic biology. (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal


    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants.

  4. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek


    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  5. Chemical Biology is.....



    Chemical Biology is a relatively new field, and as such is not yet simply or succinctly defined. It includes such a wide range of fundamental problems that this commentary could only include just a few snapshots of potential areas of interest. Overarching themes and selected recent successes and ideas in chemical biology are described to illustrate broadly the scope of the field, but should not be taken as exhaustive. The Chemical Biology Section of Chemistry Central Journal is pleased to rec...

  6. Biological detector and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M.; McDowell, Andrew F.


    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  7. Biological detector and method (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F


    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  8. Biological Individuality of Man (United States)


    RECIPIENT’S CAT * LOO NUMBER Biological Individuality of Man 5 TlrPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED Technical « PERFORMING ORO REPORT...Variability 13 A. Background , 13 B. Slatistictl Approaches to Biological Variability 13 C. Genetic Aspects of Biological Variability . 14 III...ioiological determinants of individuality. Only recently, have genetic infaienccs been investigated and the potentialities for future control of bio

  9. Biological detector and method (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F


    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  10. Herbal indicators as a substituent to synthetic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagat Vishwas


    Full Text Available In acid - base titrations, indicators are used to show sharp color change at intervals of pH. Natural pigments in plants are highly colored substances and may show color changes with variation of pH. An attempt has been made to investigate the indicator activity of methanolic extract of flower pigments and to replace synthetic indicators as they have certain disadvantages like chemical pollution, availability problems and high cost. Methanolic extract of Rosa indica (L from family Rosaceae and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (L from family Malvaceae gives sharp and intense color change as compared to phenolphthalein and methyl orange. Herbal indicators are evaluated by using strong acid - strong base, strong acid - weak base, weak acid - strong base, and weak acid - weak base. In all these titrations the extract was found to be very useful and accurate for indicating the equivalence point (neutralization point. From photochemical investigation and qualitative chemical tests for Rosa indica and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis shows presence of anthocyanins; which are the pigmented flavonoids; which may be the reason for its activity as an indicator. Apart from the above advantages the isolation of pure compounds possessing indicator′s properties help to know the mechanism by which they shows indicator′s properties and new theories of indicators could be established.

  11. Chemical space and biology. (United States)

    Dobson, Christopher M


    Chemical space--which encompasses all possible small organic molecules, including those present in biological systems--is vast. So vast, in fact, that so far only a tiny fraction of it has been explored. Nevertheless, these explorations have greatly enhanced our understanding of biology, and have led to the development of many of today's drugs. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of the nature of the regions of chemical space that are relevant to biology, will advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease.

  12. Polythiophenes in biological applications. (United States)

    Sista, Prakash; Ghosh, Koushik; Martinez, Jennifer S; Rocha, Reginaldo C


    Polythiophene and its derivatives have shown tremendous potential for interfacing electrically conducting polymers with biological applications. These semiconducting organic polymers are relatively soft, conduct electrons and ions, have low cytotoxicity, and can undergo facile chemical modifications. In addition, the reduction in electrical impedance of electrodes coated with polythiophenes may prove to be invaluable for a stable and permanent connection between devices and biological tissues. This review article focuses on the synthesis and some key applications of polythiophenes in multidisciplinary areas at the interface with biology. These polymers have shown tremendous potential in biological applications such as diagnostics, therapy, drug delivery, imaging, implant devices and artificial organs.

  13. Decisiveness indices are semiindices: addendum


    Freixas Bosch, Josep; Pons Vallès, Montserrat


    In the paper Decisiveness indices are semiindices (Freixas and Pons, 2016) it was shown that any decisiveness index obtained from an anonymous probability distribution is a semiindex, and that the converse is not true. In this note we characterize the semiindices which are indices of decisiveness. Peer Reviewed

  14. Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics (United States)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Stoyanov, Slavi; Specht, Marcus


    This article proposes a framework of quality indicators for learning analytics that aims to standardise the evaluation of learning analytics tools and to provide a mean to capture evidence for the impact of learning analytics on educational practices in a standardised manner. The criteria of the framework and its quality indicators are based on…

  15. Lexical-Grammatical Pragmatic Indicators. (United States)

    Blum-Kulka, Shoshana; Levenston, Edward A.


    A study of the interlanguage pragmatics of learners of Hebrew and English (L2s) focuses on pragmatic indicators used in requests and apologies (situations in Appendix). Deviations from native-speaker norms in the speech of non-native speakers are discussed. Results suggest L2s' misuse of pragmatic indicators can have serious interactional…

  16. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric


    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  17. Geomagnetic Kn, Ks, Km Indices (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A full description of the indices Kn, Ks, Km is given in a monography,"Indices Kn, Ks et Km, 1964-1967", edited in 1968 by the Centre National de la Recherche...

  18. The politics of SEA indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per


    The use of indicators is not only technical and science-led, but also a value-laden social process, and thus concerns public participation, political judgment and decision-making. This article approaches the Chinese SEA indicator system from a science-policy interface and aims at: 1) contributing...... to the general recognition of indicators functioning at science-policy interfaces in SEA, and 2) analysing, through a Chinese case-study, to what extent national guidelines mediate the science-policy interaction. The overall finding is a strong emphasis on technical/science aspects found in the Chinese SEA...... guidance, and a weak explicit recognition that policy plays a role in choosing and using indicators. Recent development, however, indicates a growing recognition of the politics involved and thus also leads to more involvement of stakeholders....

  19. Identifying pelagic ecosystem indicators for management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trenkel, Verena; Hintzen, Niels; Rindorf, Anna


    to pelagic fisheries to further explore the setting of management objectives. The objectives were identified through a participatory process including industry, management, scientist and NGO representatives. These objectives were used to identify appropriate driver, pressure and state indicators. The links......When exploiting fish populations under the ecosystem approach, aiming for MSY is not necessarily sufficient to ensure wider ecosystem sustainability. All of the large stocks of pelagic fish are managed through harvest control rules based on an MSY approach. Ensuring good environmental status...... will probably require further constraints to be imposed by management. Most of the current paradigm with regards to GES for fisheries has been based on demersal fish. Pelagic fisheries and fish are operationally and biologically respectively different. We use the example of applying the ecosystem approach...

  20. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik


    Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  1. Power Quality Indices Estimation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana I. Arango-Zuluaga


    Full Text Available An interactive platform for estimating the quality indices in single phase electric power systems is presented. It meets the IEEE 1459-2010 standard recommendations. The platform was developed in order to support teaching and research activities in electric power quality. The platform estimates the power quality indices from voltage and current signals using three different algorithms based on fast Fourier transform (FFT, wavelet packet transform (WPT and least squares method. The results show that the algorithms implemented are efficient for estimating the quality indices of the power and the platform can be used according to the objectives established. 

  2. Biology Library Workbook. (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    A library skills workbook provides college biology students with an introduction to biological library resources. Divided into two sections, the first contains explanations of the various steps in the library research process. The second consists of exercises keyed to the explanatory chapters of the first section. (RAA)

  3. Homosexuality, biology, and ideology. (United States)

    Haumann, G


    This paper critically examines the complex relationships and interdependencies between biological theories on homosexuality and sociosexual ideologies. It challenges the privileged status of biology as the ultimate authority on homosexuality. This status is based on the belief that biology is a value-free science. On the contrary, this essay shows how unacknowledged assumptions and culturally bound patterns of thinking about sexuality taint biological research. Sociosexual ideologies are defined as principles that organize the ways we express our sexualities and the way we theorize about them in biology. The following ideologies are identified: (1) sexuality-as-heterosexuality, (2) sexuality-as-reproduction, (3) sexual dualism (male vs. female), and (4) the view the homosexuality is a sexual inversion. The process by which these ideologies are incorporated into biology is two-fold: (1) as a projective act from society onto nature and (2) as a reflective act from nature back into society. It is further argued that biological knowledge of homosexuality resulting from that process can be used for diverse political interests. Finally, it is proposed that since biological theories on homosexuality are inseparable from the context of their paradigmatic origin, it is possible that new theories could be derived from new ideologies.

  4. Psoriasis : implications of biologics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecluse, L.L.A.


    Since the end of 2004 several specific immunomodulating therapies: ‘biologic response modifiers’ or ‘biologics’ have been registered for moderate to severe psoriasis in Europe. This thesis is considering the implications of the introduction of the biologics for psoriasis patients, focusing on safety

  5. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  6. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne


    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  7. Introduction to systems biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggeman, F.J.; Hornberg, J.J.; Boogerd, F.C.; Westerhoff, H.V.; Boogerd, F.C.; Bruggeman, F.J.; Hofmeyr, J.H.S.; Westerhoff, H.V.


    The developments in the molecular biosciences have made possible a shift to combined molecular and system-level approaches to biological research under the name of Systems Biology. It integrates many types of molecular knowledge, which can best be achieved by the synergistic use of models and experi

  8. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server


    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  9. Space biology research development (United States)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.


    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  10. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden


    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  11. Biological sample collector (United States)

    Murphy, Gloria A.


    A biological sample collector is adapted to a collect several biological samples in a plurality of filter wells. A biological sample collector may comprise a manifold plate for mounting a filter plate thereon, the filter plate having a plurality of filter wells therein; a hollow slider for engaging and positioning a tube that slides therethrough; and a slide case within which the hollow slider travels to allow the tube to be aligned with a selected filter well of the plurality of filter wells, wherein when the tube is aligned with the selected filter well, the tube is pushed through the hollow slider and into the selected filter well to sealingly engage the selected filter well and to allow the tube to deposit a biological sample onto a filter in the bottom of the selected filter well. The biological sample collector may be portable.

  12. Sound construction of risk indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Thomsen, Marianne

      In spite of the great effort in the area of environmental risk assessment of chemicals, a critical amount of uncertainty is still a reality due to high complexity of the governing risk problem. Unexpected adverse effects may thus take place event though the risk assessment predicts no-risk. Some....... The purpose is to develop a novel approach for risk indicators that can support risk minimization. Risk indicators can identify risk reduction and thus yield a time trend analysis of the progress in risk level. Another option is to evaluate the current condition in relation to a reference condition defined...... governing risk factors and the risk indicators need to reflect so many of such risk factors as possible in order to be a fine meshed safety net. A new approach is suggested where the basic concept of risk assessment are imbedded including several risk indicators. This poster sets up the paradigm...

  13. Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — n 2000, the US EPA granted authority to establish up to five Estuarine Indicator Research Programs. These Programs were designed to identify, evaluate, recommend and...

  14. Performance Indicators of Operating Reactors (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — A list of Performance Indicators (PI) that are reported to the NRC by licensees at the end of each quarter in accordance with Inspection Manual Chapters (IMC) 0608,...

  15. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2015 Public (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eight EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 8 environmental indicators. The eight EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone Traffic Proximity...

  16. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2016 Public (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  17. Investigation of Some Metallochromic Indicators. (United States)

    Jones, A. V.; Nelson, M.


    Presents some introductory experiments involving the reaction between EDTA and several metal ions using metallochromic indicators. The experiments represent familiar reactions and are followed by suggestions for extension into areas of discovery work by students. (Author/SA)

  18. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Internal (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  19. EJSCREEN Demographic Indicators 2015 Public (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EJSCREEN uses demographic factors as very general indicators of a community's potential susceptibility to the types of environmental factors included in this...

  20. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2016 Public (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are eleven EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 11 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone, NATA Diesel PM, NATA...

  1. EJSCREEN Environmental Indicators 2015 Internal (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There are 12 EJ Indexes in EJSCREEN reflecting the 12 environmental indicators. The EJ Index names are: Particulate Matter (PM2.5), Ozone, NATA Diesel PM, NATA...

  2. Solar Indices - Solar Radio Flux (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  3. River Quality Investigations, Part 1: Some Diversity and Biotic Indices. (United States)

    Hewitt, G.


    The following indices for assessing river water quality are described: Shannon-Weiner Diversity Index, Sorenson Quotient of Similarity, Czekanowski's Index of Similarity, Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score, and Biological Monitoring Working Party Score. Their advantages and disadvantages are outlined. (Author)

  4. Cognitive Value of Financial Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cristina FLOREA


    Full Text Available Economic and Financial indicators are very important tools in the assessment of the economic entity's well-being. They Provide permanent monitoring of the significance of the issues related to the economic activity's deployment. The main Objectives tracked by the process of managing the company with the help of Economic and Financial indicators is the activity's continuity, ensuring liquidity and Achieving positive results.

  5. Current Indications for Coronary Arteriography


    Dodek, Arthur


    Coronary arteriography is not necessary in all patients with angina pectoris. Angiography is indicated to define coronary anatomy in patients who have persistent angina despite full medication. It is also indicated in patients with a markedly positive stress test, unstable angina pectoris, positive stress test following myocardial infarction, variants of angina, ventricular aneurysm complications, and in the young coronary patient. Coronary arteriography may clarify the diagnosis in patients ...

  6. Indicators of Information Society Measurement :

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Elwy


    Full Text Available The indicator of information society describe the infrastructure of information and communication technology ; as well as it’s use and it’s production in different estate of society. The importance economic and social of tic is crescent in modern society. and the presentation of tendency inform above the situation of information society . in this article we want to describe the indicator of tic in Algeria according to librarian’s vision in Mentouri university

  7. Sustainable development indicators for cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Bobylev


    Full Text Available The assessment of urban population’s life quality implies an investigation of all factors defining it: economic, social and ecological. The development of the corresponding indicators of sustainable urban development is necessary. The majority of the cities in the world and this country show unsustainable development at present time. In the article, the world and Russian experience of development of indicators of sustainable urban development is considered. In the article, opportunities of adaptation of approaches to these indicators’ development on the basis of Human Development Index developed by United Nations Development Program and an index of Adjusted Net Savings of the World Bank for Russia are considered. The authors propose a new integrated index of sustainability for Russian cities. It is based on the concept and methodology of the Adjusted Net Savings index. In order to evaluate the sustainability of urban development taking into account economic, social, and ecological factors, the authors propose applying three corresponding sub-indexes: gross capital, expenses on human capital development, and damage from environmental pollution in the cities. In the article, the authors’ set of indicators for Russian cities is proposed. It reflects the most acute problems of sustainable urban development in Russia and the quality of life in cities; also it corresponds to Russian statistics. 21 key indicators reflecting important economic, social, and ecological urban priorities are proposed. Indicators are divided into nine groups: economic indicators; energy efficiency; transport; social and institutional indicators; air and climate; water resources; waste; especially protected natural territories; noise influence. Proposed indicators for cities allow more adequately assess trends of urbanized space shaping and quality of life

  8. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane


    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  9. About the stress biological indicators changes of bunker using awareness to simulate combat-taking Nanjing Forest Police College as an example%掩体利用意识模拟实战训练的应激生物学指标变化--以南京森林警察学院为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In order to make the theoretical police tactical training into practical combat from both the physiological and psychological aspects,the tactical instructors design a training scheme in which the tactical training is conducted under the real situation pressure. This design scheme tries to make the police traineesˊreceive their training with the tactical consciousness of Cover-Using. And,with the testing of the traineesˊphysiological and psychological sensitive indexes that conducted in the laboratory,it aims to explore the biological mechanism that stimulates the generation of stress.The results suggest that compared with the control group ,the saliva cortisol level of the trainees’of the experiment group has a great increase(P<0.05),the average heart rate rises significantly(P<0.01),and the subjective stress levels also elevate greatly(P<0.01). Thus,the tactical instructorsˊinnovation of the training scheme with the Cover-Using tactical consciousness has a real combat stress in physiological and psychological aspects.%从心理和生理方面设计了现实情境压力训练方案进行“掩体利用”战术意识训练,并借助实验室对应激压力下警察战术训练学员的生理心理学敏感指标进行测试,旨在探索应激压力发生的生物学机制。结果表明:实验组与对照组相比,应激压力训练后唾液中皮质醇水平相对训练前显著升高(P<0.05),平均心率显著升高(P<0.01),主观紧张程度显著提高(P<0.01)。可见战术教官创新设计的“掩体利用”战术意识压力训练模式在生理和心理反应层面达到了实战应激。

  10. Managing biological diversity (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.


    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  11. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J


    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  12. Climate indices for vulnerability assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Gunn; Baerring, Lars; Kjellstroem, Erik; Strandberg, Gustav; Rummuk ainen, Markku


    The demand is growing for practical information on climate projections and the impacts expected in different geographical regions and different sectors. It is a challenge to transform the vast amount of data produced in climate models into relevant information for climate change impact studies. Climate indices based on climate model data can be used as means to communicate climate change impact relations. In this report a vast amount of results is presented from a multitude of indices based on different regional climate scenarios. The regional climate scenarios described in this report show many similarities with previous scenarios in terms of general evolution and amplitude of future European climate change. The broad features are manifested in increases in warm and decreases in cold indices. Likewise are presented increases in wet indices in the north and dry indices in the south. Despite the extensive nature of the material presented, it does not cover the full range of possible climate change. We foresee a continued interactive process with stakeholders as well as continued efforts and updates of the results presented in the report.

  13. Toward ecologically scaled landscape indices. (United States)

    Vos, C C; Verboom, J; Opdam, P F; Ter Braak, C J


    Nature conservation is increasingly based on a landscape approach rather than a species approach. Landscape planning that includes nature conservation goals requires integrated ecological tools. However, species differ widely in their response to landscape change. We propose a framework of ecologically scaled landscape indices that takes into account this variation. Our approach is based on a combination of field studies of spatially structured populations (metapopulations) and model simulations in artificial landscapes. From these, we seek generalities in the relationship among species features, landscape indices, and metapopulation viability. The concept of ecological species profiles is used to group species according to characteristics that are important in metapopulations' response to landscape change: individual area requirements as the dominant characteristic of extinction risk in landscape patches and dispersal distance as the main determinant of the ability to colonize patches. The ecological profiles and landscape indices are then integrated into two ecologically scaled landscape indices (ESLI): average patch carrying capacity and average patch connectivity. The field data show that the fraction of occupied habitat patches is correlated with the two ESLI. To put the ESLI into a perspective of metapopulation persistence, we determine the viability for six ecological profiles at different degrees of habitat fragmentation using a metapopulation model and computer-generated landscapes. The model results show that the fraction of occupied patches is a good indicator for metapopulation viability. We discuss how ecological profiles, ESLI, and the viability threshold can be applied for landscape planning and design in nature conservation.

  14. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum


    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolуarova M. A.


    Full Text Available The article describes the innovations in the classification and measurement of biological assets according to IFRS (IAS 41 "Agriculture". The difficulties faced by agricultural producers using standard, set out in article. The classification based on the adopted amendments, according to which the fruit-bearing plants, previously accounted for as biological assets are measured at fair value are included in the category of fixed assets. The structure of biological assets and main means has been studied in trials. Changes made to the IFRS (IAS 41 "Agriculture", make similar national and international accounting rules. In this way, the fruit-bearing plants are carried at cost, taking into account accumulated depreciation. This approach is similar in both accounting systems. The method of accounting of fruit-bearing assets, which after maturation are not significant biotransformation in the value, has been simplifying accounting. According to the fruit-bearing assets, active market was absent; therefore, the estimation of fair value for them is not correct. The model of using fruit-bearing assets is similar to the use of industrial equipment. Historical cost is more appropriate and meets economic substance of the objects. Assessment of performance of fruit-bearing assets and indicators of their use is represented on an example of perennial crops

  16. [Indications and counter-indications for non-mutilating treatment of breast cancer]. (United States)

    Cosendey, B A


    Progress achieved in understanding the biology of breast cancer, as well as the desire of patients to avoid major mutilation, have resulted in ever increasing indications for breast-conserving surgery. Such indications depend on two considerations: the medical consideration which seeks to achieve the same rate of control of loco-regional disease as mutilating surgery and the aesthetic consideration, permitting a satisfactory result on a functional plane. Nevertheless, a case of breast cancer appearing unifocal under clinical examination and radiology is frequently accompanied by tumoral intramammal dissemination, the evaluation of which after histological examination varies according to the author. Should the coexistence of cancer in situ and invasive cancer radically modify the choice of therapy? It seems absurd to accept non-mutilating surgery for invasive cancer and to choose mutilating treatment for certain cases of cancer in situ. Although there appears to be only relative counter-indication for conservatory treatment in cases of advanced cancer (T3N1b and above), it is not recommended in the presence of several types of histology and in certain specific circumstances when associated with cancer in situ. A review of the literature will enable us to cover in detail other risk factors and to enumerate indications and counter-indications for non-mutilating treatment of breast cancer.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Škabar


    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to explore the influence of culture, which understood in a broader sense, as focused towards the uncertainties in modern societies. Using theory and empirical data, we will determine the logic and dynamics of changes and the attitude towards changes and uncertainties in modern societies. This article, based on a theoretical thesis, empirically tests the correlation between the index of globalization and different indicators of individualism, as well as the attitude towards uncertainty and reflectiveness. We managed to prove the correlation between the globalization index and indicators of individualism. However, when we look at the links between the indicators of uncertainty and reflexivity, the correlations prove to be complex and inconsistent.

  18. UK energy sector indicators 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of the United Kingdom's energy policy is to ensure secure, diverse and sustainable supplies of energy to UK businesses and consumers at competitive prices. The indicators in this publication are designed to throw light on the extent to which this objective is being achieved. The indicators are grouped into 12 sections covering different aspects of the energy sector, namely energy in the economy; investment and productivity; resources; primary energy supply; capacity utilisation; conversion efficiencies; energy use indicators; fuel prices; fuel poverty; competition in energy markets; international comparisons of energy production and use; energy and the environment; and standards of service. The document has been published in parallel with The energy report 1999 (ISBN 0-11-515470-1) formerly published as volume 1 of the 'Energy report'). 119 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Indicators of Difficulty in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara


    This article sets out to investigate the correlation between indicators of difficulty observable in translation product and translation process data respectively. It has been claimed that the number of alternative renditions in the target text across a group of subjects translating the same source...... and self-corrections. We found highly significant correlations between product and process data: high target text variability across subjects correlated with high fixation counts, long gaze time and long pauses. High variability in the target text was also associated with more self-corrections, but we...... text item indicates the degree of cognitive effort. We identified words with high versus low target text variability across eight subjects and related these to various indicators of difficulty observable in process data from eye-tracking and keystroke logging: number of fixations, gaze time, pauses...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The analysis of profitability indicators is an activity that should preoccupy all companies. Profitabilitydoes not mean only obtaining profit. A company is competitive if the ownership equity grows (the shareholders’money, the company has a profit that is comparable to that of other companies from the same area of activity,has a positive cash flow and the employees are satisfied with their salaries. Multiple indicators are used tomeasure performance: profit, commercial, economic, financial, investment rate of return, breakeven point,economic value added, net operating result.

  1. Design of energy management indicator.


    Ernesto Tomás Dalmau García; Carlos Requejo Bravo; Roberto Fernández Collado


    This work has as a main goal to demostrate the viability of the energy management indicator, that will be a part of the Balanced Scorecard in the organization and the own process of calculation allows to obtain a Balanced Scorecard of energy management. It describes the executive order of the actions that have to be done to reach to the mentioned indicator, based on the selection of the selected period of time; the types of power carriers, the weight of each carrier in the structure of the c...

  2. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter


    The idea that performance indicators in public management have unintended consequences is almost as old as performance measurement itself. But, is ‘unintended consequences’ an appropriate and insightful idea? The very term rests on an identification of intentions and assumptions about validity...... that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...

  3. Nordic eHealth Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyppönen, Hannele; Faxvaag, Arild; Gilstad, Heidi;

    This report describes first results of the Network: eHealth policy analysis and first common Nordic eHealth indicators. The results show similarities and also some differences in the eHealth policies, priorities and implementation. Interesting similarities and differences in availability and use...... of eHealth services in the Nordic countries were found with the first comparable eHealth indicators. The results create a basis for Evidence-based policy making as well as benchmarking and learning best practices from each other....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria POPA


    Full Text Available Abstract Developing key performance indicators (KPIs represents one step closer to the achievement of objectives and strategic vision of the organization. They are important elements of the pathway towards performance, they evaluate and indicate the level of progress, guide the organizational strategy, they can be considered even the qualitative or quantitative expression of the execution of the strategy. Building reliable and appropriate measurement systems is one of the most difficult stage in the performance evaluation process. Such systems of management will help the executives and the management teams identify and build upon the elements that create competitive advantage and opportunities for better results.

  5. Allostatic load and biological anthropology. (United States)

    Edes, Ashley N; Crews, Douglas E


    Multiple stressors affect developing and adult organisms, thereby partly structuring their phenotypes. Determining how stressors influence health, well-being, and longevity in human and nonhuman primate populations are major foci within biological anthropology. Although much effort has been devoted to examining responses to multiple environmental and sociocultural stressors, no holistic metric to measure stress-related physiological dysfunction has been widely applied within biological anthropology. Researchers from disciplines outside anthropology are using allostatic load indices (ALIs) to estimate such dysregulation and examine life-long outcomes of stressor exposures, including morbidity and mortality. Following allostasis theory, allostatic load represents accumulated physiological and somatic damage secondary to stressors and senescent processes experienced over the lifespan. ALIs estimate this wear-and-tear using a composite of biomarkers representing neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune systems. Across samples, ALIs are associated significantly with multiple individual characteristics (e.g., age, sex, education, DNA variation) of interest within biological anthropology. They also predict future outcomes, including aspects of life history variation (e.g., survival, lifespan), mental and physical health, morbidity and mortality, and likely health disparities between groups, by stressor exposures, ethnicity, occupations, and degree of departure from local indigenous life ways and integration into external and commodified ones. ALIs also may be applied to similar stress-related research areas among nonhuman primates. Given the reports from multiple research endeavors, here we propose ALIs may be useful for assessing stressors, stress responses, and stress-related dysfunction, current and long-term cognitive function, health and well-being, and risk of early mortality across many research programs within biological anthropology.

  6. Indicators of malicious SSL connections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bortolameotti, R.; Peter, A.; Everts, M.H.; Bolzoni, D.


    Internet applications use SSL to provide data confidentiality to communicating entities. The use of encryption in SSL makes it impossible to distinguish between benign and malicious connections as the content cannot be inspected. Therefore, we propose and evaluate a set of indicators for malicious S

  7. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.


    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators in f...

  8. Indicatives, concessives, and evidential support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douven, Igor; Verbrugge, Sara


    This paper discusses the issue of categorical acceptability of indicative and concessive conditionals. It presents experimental results in favour of two claims concerning the role of the evidential support relation for acceptability (or otherwise) of conditionals of both types. In particular, the re

  9. Weighted norm inequalities and indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Martín


    Full Text Available We extend and simplify several classical results on weighted norm inequalities for classical operators acting on rearrangement invariant spaces using the theory of indices. As an application we obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for generalized Hardy type operators to be bounded on ?p(w, ?p,8(w, Gp(w and Gp,8(w.

  10. Contemporary Crises and Sustainability Indicators


    Aleksander Zidansek; Marko Limbek; Ivo Slaus


    Following six decades of fastest economic and technological development in history, the current crises have been triggered by collapse of unsustainable financial systems. The extent of these contemporary interconnected crises of economic, societal, environmental, financial and other systems has also shown a need to reevaluate the measurement of sustainable development. Although the existing sustainability indicators are very complex, interdisciplinary and multidimensional, they could neither ...

  11. 5 Indicators of Decimal Understandings (United States)

    Cramer, Kathleen; Monson, Debra; Ahrendt, Sue; Colum, Karen; Wiley, Bethann; Wyberg, Terry


    The authors of this article collaborated with fourth-grade teachers from two schools to support implementation of a research-based fraction and decimal curriculum (Rational Number Project: Fraction Operations and Initial Decimal Ideas). Through this study, they identified five indicators of rich conceptual understanding of decimals, which are…

  12. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob


    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  13. Hammond Bay Biological Station (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  14. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean. Species...

  15. Chemistry and biology data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical monitoring data and biological data from field collected samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Biales , A., D. Denton , D....

  16. Laboratory of Biological Modeling (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  17. Laboratory of Biological Modeling (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to a...

  18. Precision Measurement in Biology (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  19. Biological satellite Kosmos-936 (United States)

    Vedeshin, L. A.


    A description is given of physiological experiments performed on the biological satellite Kosmos-936. Other experiments to determine the electrostatic and dielectric responses to the effects of cosmic radiation are discussed.

  20. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  1. Large Pelagics Biological Survey (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  2. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F


    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  3. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund


    or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment......The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  4. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    example of biological design. We investigated the architecture of A. simplex and found that an advanced hierarchical biomineralized structure acts as the interface between soft musculature and a stiff substrate, thus securing underwater attachment. In bone, the mechanical properties of the material......, and the nanoscale response of bone in compression. Lastly, a framework for the investigation of biological design principles has been developed. The framework combines parametric modeling, multi-material 3D-printing, and direct mechanical testing to efficiently screen large parameter spaces of biological design. We......Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...

  5. [Systems biology of cancer]. (United States)

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei


    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  6. Insecticides and Biological Control (United States)

    Furness, G. O.


    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  7. Nestedness across biological scales (United States)

    Marquitti, Flavia M. D.; Raimundo, Rafael L. G.; Sebastián-González, Esther; Coltri, Patricia P.; Perez, S. Ivan; Brandt, Débora Y. C.; Nunes, Kelly; Daura-Jorge, Fábio G.; Floeter, Sergio R.; Guimarães, Paulo R.


    Biological networks pervade nature. They describe systems throughout all levels of biological organization, from molecules regulating metabolism to species interactions that shape ecosystem dynamics. The network thinking revealed recurrent organizational patterns in complex biological systems, such as the formation of semi-independent groups of connected elements (modularity) and non-random distributions of interactions among elements. Other structural patterns, such as nestedness, have been primarily assessed in ecological networks formed by two non-overlapping sets of elements; information on its occurrence on other levels of organization is lacking. Nestedness occurs when interactions of less connected elements form proper subsets of the interactions of more connected elements. Only recently these properties began to be appreciated in one-mode networks (where all elements can interact) which describe a much wider variety of biological phenomena. Here, we compute nestedness in a diverse collection of one-mode networked systems from six different levels of biological organization depicting gene and protein interactions, complex phenotypes, animal societies, metapopulations, food webs and vertebrate metacommunities. Our findings suggest that nestedness emerge independently of interaction type or biological scale and reveal that disparate systems can share nested organization features characterized by inclusive subsets of interacting elements with decreasing connectedness. We primarily explore the implications of a nested structure for each of these studied systems, then theorize on how nested networks are assembled. We hypothesize that nestedness emerges across scales due to processes that, although system-dependent, may share a general compromise between two features: specificity (the number of interactions the elements of the system can have) and affinity (how these elements can be connected to each other). Our findings suggesting occurrence of nestedness

  8. Biological Parameters of Impact (United States)


    zone between no effect and gross injury or death . For example, the pilot who survives an aircraft crash, but who is injured or unconscious so that he...Biological effects were limited to one incidence of bradycardia (116 t36 t and three instances of premature ventricular contractions. However. subjeCtiY" I...R.F.Chandler INTRODUCTION -Investigation of the biological effects of abrupt acceleration (impact) was stimulated by the advent of technical advances

  9. Systems cell biology. (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D


    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  10. Conceptual framework for bioeconomic potential indicators in Danube Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butu M.,


    Full Text Available The regional bioeconomic potential takes into consideration many sectors of the economy that use renewable biological resources. The plants are one of the main resources for the most sectors - food, health, environment, materials and energy. The assessment of bioeconomic potential involves the modeling of the biological and economical aspects. Establishing the indicators involved in the study of this aspect requires a “what we have and what we need” analysis. We started with the development of a database of plants to facilitate an easy access to information for all interested scientist from related research fields.

  11. Produtividade biológica em sistemas consorciados de cenoura e alface avaliada através de indicadores agroeconômicos e métodos multicritério Biological productivity in carrot and lettuce intercropping systems assessed by means of agroeconomic indicators and multicriteria methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Bezerra Neto


    September 2002, at the Federal University of the Semi-Arid Tropic in Mossoró-RN, to evaluate the performance of carrot-lettuce intercropping systems by means of agronomic criteria, economic (profit margin indicators, and yield efficiency (assessed through Data Envelopment Analysis models - DEA. We also used the ordinal multicriteria methods of Borda, Condorcet, and Copeland to aggregate information to all criteria and to identify the best treatments. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, in a 3 (sole crop, three carrot rows alternate with three lettuce rows 3F, and four carrot rows alternate with four lettuce rows 4F x 4 (crisp head lettuce cultivars: Lucy Brown, Tainá, Laurel, and Mesa 659 factorial scheme, with four replications. In each block, carrot was grown as sole crop. Agroeconomic indicators, such as land equivalent ratio - LER - and profit margin, yield efficiency of intercropping systems by DEA models, were assessed. A univariate analysis of variance in a 2 x 4 + 1 factorial scheme (treatments from two intercropping systems versus four crisp head lettuce cultivars, plus carrot in sole crop was used to assess all indicators. LER of intercropping systems were significantly higher as compared to that of sole crop, with the efficiency of intercropping systems varying from 90 (Carrot + Tainá 4F to 133% (Carrot + Mesa 659 4F. There was no significant difference in the profit margin between sole crop and intercropping systems. A significant interaction was observed between cropping systems and lettuce cultivars for yield efficiency by DEA. According to the ranks of ordinal multicriteria methods, the best intercropping systems were carrot + Mesa 659 (4F, carrot + Laurel (3R and carrot + Mesa 659 (4R. The yield efficiency by DEA and the ordering of ranks based on ordinal multicriteria methods were more efficient than the agroeconomic indicators for discriminating the intercropping systems performance.

  12. FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products (United States)

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates FDA 101: Regulating Biological Products Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... field. back to top What biological products does FDA regulate? The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research ( ...

  13. New indices in scholarship assessment. (United States)

    Thompson, Dennis F; Callen, Erin C; Nahata, Milap C


    Faculty members' contributions to research and scholarship are measured by a variety of indices. Assessment also has become an integral part of the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education's accreditation process for professional programs. This review describes some of the newer indices available for faculty scholarship assessment. Recently described metrics include the h-index, m-quotient, g-index, h(2) index, a-index, m-index, r-index, ar index, and the creativity index. Of the newer scholarship metrics available, the h-index and m-quotient will likely have the most widespread application in the near future. However, there is no substitute for thoughtful peer review by experienced academicians as the primary method of research and scholarship assessment.

  14. Contemporary Crises and Sustainability Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Zidansek


    Full Text Available Following six decades of fastest economic and technological development in history, the current crises have been triggered by collapse of unsustainable financial systems. The extent of these contemporary interconnected crises of economic, societal, environmental, financial and other systems has also shown a need to reevaluate the measurement of sustainable development. Although the existing sustainability indicators are very complex, interdisciplinary and multidimensional, they could neither predict the onset of the crises nor their extent. Therefore relations between indicators of sustainability, technological development and happiness are presented and discussed also in terms of some of the current crises. Some possible solutions are also presented, which could be used for better measurement of life quality and could potentially replace the Gross Domestic Product as the prevailing measure of development.

  15. Transgenic agriculture and environmental indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Dias de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Despite the rapid diffusion of transgenic crops, there are still few environmental impact studies capable of supplying a conclusive scientific response in regard to its technical and economic advantages and disadvantages. Prospective scenarios were elaborated to assist environmental impact assessment, using techniques derived from SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis and the DPSIR (Driving Force – human activity, Pressure, State, Impact, Response model, to evaluate the environmental indicators and the relationship between them. Control and management actions were identified, searching the integration of aspects related to the biotechnology applied to transgenic processes, biodiversity, biosafety and intellectual property. It was demonstrated that the DPSIR model is, in fact, an instrument for integrated environmental assessment and the application of the proposed methodology resulted in favorable indicators to the adoption of transgenic agriculture. The elaborated scenarios are useful to develop an Environmental Management System (EMS to agriculture.

  16. Taxonomy of stock market indices (United States)

    Bonanno, Giovanni; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Mantegna, Rosario N.


    We investigate sets of financial nonredundant and nonsynchronously recorded time series. The sets are composed by a number of stock market indices located all over the world in five continents. By properly selecting the time horizon of returns and by using a reference currency we find a meaningful taxonomy. The detection of such a taxonomy proves that interpretable information can be stored in a set of nonsynchronously recorded time series.

  17. Quantitative Indicators for Defense Analysis (United States)


    Interaccions - All Issues 155 5. Japan—^-U.S. Vector Patterns, Overall Behavior ^59 6. U. ST-*-Japan Vector Patterns, Overall Behavior 17Q 7. Comparison...Each event in the data set possesses from one to three subject codes that Indicate whether behavior is concerned with political, economic, social ...subject frequency as follows: 1. Political issues 2. Economic issues 3. Political-economic issues 4. Political- social issues 5. Social issues 6

  18. Bayesian Sampling using Condition Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    . This allows for a Bayesian formulation of the indicators whereby the experience and expertise of the inspection personnel may be fully utilized and consistently updated as frequentistic information is collected. The approach is illustrated on an example considering a concrete structure subject to corrosion....... It is shown how half-cell potential measurements may be utilized to update the probability of excessive repair after 50 years....

  19. Human Resources Key Performance Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabčanová Iveta


    Full Text Available The article brings out a proposed strategy map and respective key performance indicators (KPIs in human resources (HR. The article provides an overview of how HR activities are supported in order to reach the partial goals of HR as defined in the strategic map. Overall the aim of the paper is to show the possibilities of using the modern Balanced Scorecard method in human capital.

  20. Staged urethroplasty: indications and techniques. (United States)

    Secrest, Charles L


    There is still a place for staged urethroplasty. There are some indications for staged urethral reconstruction such as strictures associated with chronic inflammation, fistula, false passage, urethral stones, urethral diverticula, abscess, failed prior repair, complicated hypospadias, severe trauma, neurologic diseases, extensive BXO strictures and long strictures. Staging a urethroplasty should not be considered a step backwards rather instead we should learn from experience and realize there are some patients who are too complex to reconstruct in a single stage.

  1. Chromospheric activity as age indicator

    CERN Document Server

    Pace, Giancarlo


    Chromospheric activity has been calibrated and widely used as age indicator. However, it has been suggested that the viability of such an age indicator is, in the best case, limited to stars younger than about 1.5 Gyr. I aim to define the age range for which chromospheric activity is a robust astrophysical clock. I collected literature measurements of the S-index in field stars, which is a measure of the strength of the H and K lines of the Ca II and a proxy for chromospheric activity, and exploited the homogeneous database of temperature and age determinations for field stars provided by the Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Field data, inclusive data previously used to calibrate chromospheric ages, confirm the result found using open cluster data, i.e. there is no decay of chromospheric activity after about 2 Gyr. The only existing indication supporting the viability of chromospheric ages larger than 2 Gyr, is the similarity of chromospheric activity levels in the components of 35 dwarf b...

  2. Performance indicators: healthcare professionals' views. (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to capture factors behind professional views of indicator usefulness as a common structure for assessing healthcare performance and their important characteristics to design limited key performance indicators (PIs) for holistic hospital management. Design/methodology/approach - Two surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires, in which hospital manager/staff respondents were asked to rate the 52 PIs' usefulness. In total, 228 manager and 894 staff responses were collected. Findings - Eight factors were elicited from manager and staff responses as performance measures with 72 percent cumulative variance accounted for. Hospital managers and staff showed similar performance measure perceptions: high-utility acknowledgment on safety, operational efficiency and patient/employee satisfaction but relatively low-employee development concerns. Manager indicator usefulness perceptions were rather homogeneous and significantly higher than staff for almost all performance measures. Practical implications - Homogeneous manager views mean that a single key PI set for hospital management may be established regardless of hospital attributes. The following aspects may be measures that should be managed in a healthcare organization based on their key PIs: patient/employee safety, operational efficiency, financial effectiveness and patient/employee satisfaction. Originality/value - This is a pilot study on hospital management PIs in Japan. The eight-dimensional factor structure and findings about healthcare provider perceptions may be useful for healthcare management.

  3. Indicators System for Poverty Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Mitrut


    Full Text Available Poverty represents a life aspect which is focusing the attention of both the macroeconomic analysis and the international comparisons. In order to measure the level being recorded by this phenomenon, there is a system of indicators which are used in order to underline, in a correlated manner, a number of aspects which are characterizing, quality and quantity wise, the evolution of the poverty in a specific country or, to a larger extent, through comparative surveys, at international level. Despite the fact that they are not the only instrument being used within the process of comparison of the stages of social and economic development at the international level, however the poverty indicators are providing a clear significance to the worked out surveys. In fact, the very purpose of the economic activity consists of increasing welfare and, as much as possible, at least reducing, if not eradicating, the poverty. The present work is broadly presenting the methodology as well as, both theoretical and practical, the way of computing the poverty, making a synthesis of the specific used indicators.

  4. Biological modulation of tectonics (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.; Bird, D. K.


    Photosynthesis has had geologic consequences over the Earth's history. In addition to modifying Earth's atmosphere and ocean chemistry, it has also modulated tectonic processes through enhanced weathering and modification of the nature and composition of sedimentary rocks within fold mountain belts and convergent margins. Molecular biological studies indicate that bacterial photosynthesis evolved just once and that most bacterial clades descend from this photosynthetic common ancestor. Iron-based photosynthesis (ideally 4FeO + CO2 + H2O = 2Fe2O3 + CH2O) was the most bountiful anoxygenic niche on land. The back reaction provided energy to heterotrophic microbes and returned FeO to the photosynthetic microbes. Bacterial land colonists evolved into ecosystems that effectively weathered FeO-bearing minerals and volcanic glass. Clays, sands, and dissolved cations from the weathering process entered the ocean and formed our familiar classes sedimentary rocks: shales, sandstones, and carbonates. Marine photosynthesis caused organic carbon to accumulate in black shales. In contrast, non-photosynthetic ecosystems do not cause organic carbon to accumulate in shale. These evolutionary events occurred before 3.8 Ga as black shales are among the oldest rock types (Rosing and Frei, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217, 237-244, 2004). Thick sedimentary sequences deformed into fold mountain belts. They remelted at depth to form granitic rocks (Rosing et al., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 99-11, 2006). Regions of outcropping low-FeO rocks including granites, quartzites, and some shales were a direct result. This dearth of FeO favored the evolution of oxic photosynthesis of cyanobacteria from photosynthetic soil bacteria. Black shales have an additional modulation effect on tectonics as they concentrate radioactive elements, particularly uranium (e.g. so that the surface heat flow varies by a factor of ca. 2). Thick sequences of black shales at continental rises of passive margins are

  5. Transferability of multi- and hyperspectral optical biocrust indices (United States)

    Rodríguez-Caballero, E.; Escribano, P.; Olehowski, C.; Chamizo, S.; Hill, J.; Cantón, Y.; Weber, B.


    Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are communities of cyanobacteria, algae, microfungi, lichens and bryophytes in varying proportions, which live within or immediately on top of the uppermost millimeters of the soil in arid and semiarid regions. As biocrusts are highly relevant for ecosystem processes like carbon, nitrogen, and water cycling, a correct characterization of their spatial distribution is required. Following this objective, considerable efforts have been devoted to the identification and mapping of biocrusts using remote sensing data, and several mapping indices have been developed. However, their transferability to different regions has only rarely been tested. In this study we investigated the transferability of two multispectral indices, i.e. the Crust Index (CI) and the Biological Soil Crust Index (BSCI), and two hyperspectral indices, i.e. the Continuum Removal Crust Identification Algorithm (CRCIA) and the Crust Development Index (CDI), in three sites dominated by biocrusts, but with differences in soil and vegetation composition. Whereas multispectral indices have been important and valuable tools for first approaches to map and classify biological soil crusts, hyperspectral data and indices developed for these allowed to classify biocrusts at much higher accuracy. While multispectral indices showed Kappa (κ) values below 0.6, hyperspectral indices obtained good classification accuracy (κ ∼ 0.8) in both the study area where they had been developed and in the newly tested region. These results highlight the capability of hyperspectral sensors to identify specific absorption features related to photosynthetic pigments as chlorophyll and carotenoids, but also the limitation of multispectral information to discriminate between areas dominated by biocrusts, vegetation or bare soil. Based on these results we conclude that remote sensing offers an important and valid tool to map biocrusts. However, the spectral similarity between the main surface

  6. Biology Education Research Trends in Turkey (United States)

    Gul, Seyda; Sozbilir, Mustafa


    This paper reports on a content analysis of 633 biology education research [BER] papers published by Turkish science educators in national and international journals. The findings indicate that more research has been undertaken in environment and ecology, the cell and animal form and functions. In addition learning, teaching and attitudes were in…

  7. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki


    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  8. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam


    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  9. Information Complexity and Biology (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco; Bignone, Franco A.; Cecconi, Fabio; Politi, Antonio

    Kolmogorov contributed directly to Biology in essentially three problems: the analysis of population dynamics (Lotka-Volterra equations), the reaction-diffusion formulation of gene spreading (FKPP equation), and some discussions about Mendel's laws. However, the widely recognized importance of his contribution arises from his work on algorithmic complexity. In fact, the limited direct intervention in Biology reflects the generally slow growth of interest of mathematicians towards biological issues. From the early work of Vito Volterra on species competition, to the slow growth of dynamical systems theory, contributions to the study of matter and the physiology of the nervous system, the first 50-60 years have witnessed important contributions, but as scattered pieces apparently uncorrelated, and in branches often far away from Biology. Up to the 40' it is hard to see the initial loose build up of a convergence, for those theories that will become mainstream research by the end of the century, and connected by the study of biological systems per-se.

  10. [Sacral block: indications and effectiveness]. (United States)

    Grob, D; Dvorak, J


    It has been shown that during injection of 17 to 20 ml local anesthetics combined with a corticosteroid via the hiatus canalis sacralis that the solution is distributed up to the level of the thoraco-lumbar junction. The indication for therapeutical peridural injection are radicular symptoms as a result of disc herniation, foraminal stenosis as well as neurogenic claudicatio. Contraindications are anticoagulation, local infection as well as suspicion of systemic inflammatory disease of the peripheral nervous system. With proper technique and adequate desinfection, complications and side effects are very rare.

  11. Optimization by visualization of indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkamp, Uwe; Kriz, Jan; Eich, Hans Theodor [University Muenster, Department of Radiotherapy, Muenster (Germany); Norkus, Darius [Vilnius University, Oncology Institute, Vilnius (Lithuania); Mueller Minai, Mariam; Prott, Franz-Josef [RNS Radiotherapy Wiesbaden, Wiesbaden (Germany)


    Physical 3D treatment planning provides a pool of parameters describing dose distributions. It is often useful to define conformal indices to enable quicker evaluation. However, the application of individual indices is controversial and not always effective. The aim of this study was to design a quick check of dose distributions based on several indices detecting underdosages within planning target volumes (PTVs) and overdosages in normal tissue. Dose distributions of 215 cancer patients were considered. Treatment modalities used were three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), radiosurgery, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) and tomotherapy. The volumes recommended in ICRU 50 and 83 were used for planning and six conformation and homogeneity indices were selected: CI, CN, C{sub ICRU}, COV, C{sub ∇}, and HI. These were based on the PTV, the partial volume covered by the prescribed isodose (PI; PTV{sub PI}), the treated volume (TV{sub PI}), near maximum D{sub 2} and near minimum D{sub 98}. Results were presented as a hexagon - the corners of which represent the values of the indices - and a modified test function F (Rosenbrock's function) was calculated. Results refer to clinical examples and mean values, in order to allow evaluation of the power of F and hexagon-based decision support procedures in detail and in general. IMAT and tomotherapy showed the best values for the indices and the lowest standard deviation followed by static IMRT. DCRT and radiosurgery (e.g. CN: IMAT 0.85 ± 0.06; tomotherapy 0.84 ± 0.06; IMRT 0.83 ± 0.07; 3DCRT 0.65 ± 0.08; radiosurgery 0.64 ± 0.11). In extreme situations, not all indices reflected the situation correctly. Over- and underdosing of PTV and normal tissue could be qualitatively assessed from the distortion of the hexagon in graphic analysis. Tomotherapy, IMRT, IMAT, 3DCRT and radiosurgery showed increasingly distorted hexagons, the type of distortion indicating

  12. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter


    Many patients with prostate cancer for whom hormonal therapy is indicated are still physically and sexually active; quality of life is therefore a vital issue when considering treatment options. Traditional castration-based therapies, although effective, have implications with respect to quality...... with castration, in terms of sexual interest and physical capacity, in patients with either M0 and M1 stage disease. Data from a small subgroup of patients with stage M0 disease suggest that bicalutamide may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis compared with castration. Long-term therapy with bicalutamide 150-mg...

  13. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology



    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules; predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes; generating hypotheses...

  14. Informing biological design by integration of systems and synthetic biology. (United States)

    Smolke, Christina D; Silver, Pamela A


    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields.

  15. Simple indicators for Lorentzian causets (United States)

    Bolognesi, Tommaso; Lamb, Alexander


    Several classes of directed acyclic graphs have been investigated in the last two decades, in the context of the causal set program, in search for good discrete models of spacetime. We introduce some statistical indicators that can be used for comparing these graphs and for assessing their closeness to the ideal Lorentzian causal sets (‘causets’)—those obtained by sprinkling points in a Lorentzian manifold. In particular, with the reversed triangular inequality of Special Relativity in mind, we introduce ‘longest/shortest path plots’, an easily implemented tool to visually detect the extent to which a generic causet matches the wide range of path lengths between events of Lorentzian causets. This tool can attribute some degree of ‘Lorentzianity’—in particular ‘non-locality’—also to causets that are not (directly) embeddable and that, due to some regularity in their structure, would not pass the key test for Lorentz invariance: the absence of preferred reference frames. We compare the discussed indicators and use them for assessing causets both of stochastic and of deterministic, algorithmic origin, finding examples of the latter that behave optimally w.r.t. our longest/shortest path plots.

  16. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warninghoff Jan-Christian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Menière's disease (MD, vestibular migraine (VM, and phobic postural vertigo (PPV. Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research.

  17. Indications for pediatric liver transplantation (United States)

    Esquivel, Carlos O.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Gordon, Robert D.; Marsh, Wallis W.; Koneru, Baburao; Makowka, Leonard; Tzakis, Andreas G.; Todo, Satoru; Starzl, Thomas E.


    Two hundred fifty pediatric (<18 years of age) patients underwent orthotopic liver transplantation because of end-stage liver disease and were given combination therapy with cyclosporine and prednisone. The most common indications for transplantation In decreasing order of frequency were biliary atresia, inborn errors of metabolism, and postnecrotic cirrhosis. The 5-year actuarial survival for the entire group was 69.2%. Age and diagnosis did not influence survival. Infections were the most common cause of death, followed by liver failure and cerebrovascular accident. The impact of retransplantation on survival depends on the indication. The survival is better when retransplantation is carried out after rejection than because of technical complications, and the latter has a better survival than does primary graft nonfunction. The difference in survival among these groups is statistically significant. The quality of life for 164 of 173 survivors is good to excellent; only nine children are currently experiencing medical problems. A persisent problem in pediatric transplantation is the scarcity of small donors. PMID:3316578

  18. Thirty-five years of Tropical biology: a quantitative history


    Monge-Nájera, Julian; Díaz, Lizeth


    Citation indices are unappropriated measures of scientific output and impact. For that reason, nonparametric statistics were preferred to analyze 35 years of publication on Tropical biology in the Revista de Biología Tropical. The most frequent subjects are animal taxonomy, human biology -including medicine- ecology and animal behavior. Botany papers are less frequent and mainly deal with morphology and taxonomy. Applied studies are not predominant. In that period, only one case of unethical ...

  19. Biological applications of nanobiotechnology. (United States)

    de Morais, Michele Greque; Martins, Vilásia Guimarães; Steffens, Daniela; Pranke, Patricia; da Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira


    Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field that covers a vast and diverse array of devices derived from engineering, physics, chemistry, and biology. Nanotechnology has opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creating new opportunities for advances in the fields of medicine, electronics, foods, and the environment. Nanoscale structures and materials (nanoparticles, nanowires, nanofibers, nanotubes) have been explored in many biological applications (biosensing, biological separation, molecular imaging, anticancer therapy) because their novel properties and functions differ drastically from their bulk counterparts. Their high volume/surface ratio, improved solubility, and multifunctionality open many new possibilities. The objective of this review is to describe the potential benefits and impacts of the nanobiotechnology in different areas.

  20. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen


    Full Text Available The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920's and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  1. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics. (United States)

    Jorgensen, Richard A


    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  2. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    sites of diet on the disease pathway. We propose a framework for interrogating the critical targets in colon cancer process and identifying plant-based dietary interventions as important modifiers using a systems chemical biology approach. The fifth chapter of the thesis is on discovering of novel anti...... number of thoroughly selected targets. Our need for fundamental understanding of the building blocks of the complex biological systems had been the main reason for the reductionist approach that was mainly applied in the past to elucidate these systems. Nowadays, it is widely recognized that systems...... components with biological systems and their connection to health and disease. The database will be enriched with predicted interactions between food components and protein targets, based on their structural and pharmacophore similarity with known small molecule ligands. Further to this, the associations...

  3. [Biologics in SLE]. (United States)

    Karonitsch, Thomas; Aringer, Martin


    Biologics have become indispensable in the last decade in the treatment of the more common rheumatic diseases. For treating systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), B-cell depletion, albeit off-label, has been a well-accepted strategy in severe and refractory disease. Unexpectedly, however, the results of the first randomized controlled rituximab trials in SLE were negative. New trials with improved study protocols are ongoing, which should resolve this issue. In 2012, with the approval of belimumab, SLE finally entered the era of approved biological therapies. The anti-Blys/BAFF antibody belimumab showed prevention of SLE flares, glucocorticoid sparing, and significant improvement in the quality of life of SLE patients, in part by drastically reducing immune complex mediated fatigue. Positive reports on further targeting approaches give hope that additional biological agents will be available for SLE therapy soon.

  4. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja


    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  5. Biological Soft Robotics. (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W


    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  6. Biological therapy and dentistry (United States)

    Radfar, Lida; Ahmadabadi, Roshanak E; Masood, Farah; Scofield, R Hal


    In recent years, a new class of drugs has revolutionized the treatment of autoimmune, allergic, infectious and many more diseases. These drugs are classified into three groups, cytokines, monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Biological drugs have less side effects compared to conventional drugs, and may target special damaged cells, but not all the cells. There may be side effects such as infection, hypersensitivity, hematological disorders, cancer, hepatotoxicity and neurological disorders, but there is not enough evidence or long term studies of the mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs. Patients on biological therapy may need some special consideration in dentistry. This paper is a review regarding the classification, mechanism of action and side effects of these drugs, and dental consideration for patients on biological therapy. PMID:26372436

  7. The biology of personality. (United States)

    Mulder, R


    Historically, models of personality have generally postulated, or assumed, a link with biology. This century has witnessed a major revision of these ideas with both behavioural and psychoanalytic theorists emphasising life experiences as being largely responsible for behaviour as adults. Challenges to this assumption of the overwhelming importance of life experiences are reviewed. An extensive body of data now exists suggesting that biology contributes significantly to individual variability. This biological contribution occurs at a relatively low level in the central nervous system, best defined as temperament. Further research has suffered from the lack of a cohesive psychobiological model. Cloninger's tridimensional theory of personality is presented as a model which attempts to bridge the gap between theoretical temperamental traits, neurotransmitter function and clinical psychiatry. It is to be hoped that new theoretical models will be formulated which will focus on the importance of temperamental variables in psychiatric disorders.

  8. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.


    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  9. A family of interaction-adjusted indices of community similarity (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas Sebastian Benedikt; Matias Rodrigues, João Frederico; von Mering, Christian


    Interactions between taxa are essential drivers of ecological community structure and dynamics, but they are not taken into account by traditional indices of β diversity. In this study, we propose a novel family of indices that quantify community similarity in the context of taxa interaction networks. Using publicly available datasets, we assessed the performance of two specific indices that are Taxa INteraction-Adjusted (TINA, based on taxa co-occurrence networks), and Phylogenetic INteraction-Adjusted (PINA, based on phylogenetic similarities). TINA and PINA outperformed traditional indices when partitioning human-associated microbial communities according to habitat, even for extremely downsampled datasets, and when organising ocean micro-eukaryotic plankton diversity according to geographical and physicochemical gradients. We argue that interaction-adjusted indices capture novel aspects of diversity outside the scope of traditional approaches, highlighting the biological significance of ecological association networks in the interpretation of community similarity. PMID:27935587

  10. [Cybernetics and biology]. (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G F


    Owing to methodical disadvantages, the theory of control still lacks the potential for the analysis of biological systems. To get the full benefit of the method in addition to the algorithmic model of control (as of today the only used model in the theory of control) a parametric model of control is offered to employ. The reasoning for it is explained. The approach suggested provides the possibility to use all potential of the modern theory of control for the analysis of biological systems. The cybernetic approach is shown taking a system of the rise of glucose concentration in blood as an example.

  11. PAC research in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chain, C. Y., E-mail: [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina); Ceolin, M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas, Dto de Quimica, Fac. Cs. Exactas, UNLP (Argentina); Pasquevich, A. F. [Universidad Nacional de La Plata, IFLP (Argentina)


    In this paper possible applications of the Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC) technique in Biology are considered. Previous PAC experiments in biology are globally analyzed. All the work that appears in the literature has been grouped in a few research lines, just to make the analysis and discussion easy. The commonly used radioactive probes are listed and the experimental difficulties are analyzed. We also report applications of {sup 181}Hf and {sup 111}In isotopes in life sciences other than their use in PAC. The possibility of extending these studies using the PAC technique is discussed.

  12. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.


    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  13. Biological effects of electric fields: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.; Phillips, R.D.


    An overview of the literature suggests tha electric-field exposure is an environmental agent/influence of relatively low potential toxicity to biological systems. Generally, many of the biological effects which have been reported are quite subtle and differences between exposed and unexposed subjects may be masked by normal biological variations. However, several recent reports indicate possibly more serious consequences from chronic exposure, emphasizing the need for more research in epidemiology and laboratory experiments. This paper presents a cursory overview of investigations on the biological consequences of exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields. Three important topics are discussed, including: 1) the general methodology of exposure experiments, including those elements which are critical for definitive studies in biological systems; 2) a brief discussion of epidemiological and clinical studies conducted to date; and 3) a somewhat more extensive examination of animal experiments representing major areas of investigation (behavior, biological rhythms, nervous and endocrine systems, bone growth and repair, cardiovascular system and blood chemistry, immunology, reproduction, growth and development mortality and pathology, cellular and membrane studies, and mutagenesis). A discussion of current concepts, possible mechanisms and future directions of research is presented. 110 references.

  14. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)


    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  15. Selected Banks Economic Efficiency Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk


    Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.

  16. Invasive procedures with questionable indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Jargin


    Full Text Available Insufficient coordination of medical research and partial isolation from the international scientific community can result in application of invasive methods without sufficient indications. Here is presented an overview of renal and pancreatic biopsy studies performed in the course of the operations of pancreatic blood shunting into the systemic blood flow in type 1 diabetic patients. Furthermore a surgical procedure of lung denervation as a treatment method of asthma as well as the use of bronchoscopy for research in asthmatics are discussed here. Today, the upturn in Russian economy enables acquisition of modern equipment; and medical research is on the increase. Under these circumstances, the purpose of this letter was to remind that, performing surgical or other invasive procedures, the risk-to-benefit ratio should be kept as low as possible.

  17. Antiandrogen monotherapy: indications and results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter


    with castration, in terms of sexual interest and physical capacity, in patients with either M0 and M1 stage disease. Data from a small subgroup of patients with stage M0 disease suggest that bicalutamide may also reduce the risk of osteoporosis compared with castration. Long-term therapy with bicalutamide 150-mg......Many patients with prostate cancer for whom hormonal therapy is indicated are still physically and sexually active; quality of life is therefore a vital issue when considering treatment options. Traditional castration-based therapies, although effective, have implications with respect to quality...... of life, causing loss of libido, impotence, fatigue, and reduced bone mineral density. Monotherapy with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen is an attractive therapeutic alternative to castration, offering effective therapy with potential quality-of-life benefits. Of the available nonsteroidal antiandrogens...

  18. Viscoelastic behavior of stock indices (United States)

    Gündüz, Güngör; Gündüz, Yalin


    The scattering diagram of a stock index results in a complex network structure, which can be used to analyze the viscoelastic properties of the index. The change along x- or y-direction of the diagram corresponds to purely elastic (or spring like) movement whereas the diagonal change at an angle of 45° corresponds to purely viscous (or dashpot like) movement. The viscous component pushes the price from its current value to any other value, while the elastic component acts like a restoring force. Four indices, namely, DJI, S&P-500, NASDAQ-100, and NASDAQ-composite were studied for the period of 2001-2009. NASDAQ-composite displayed very high elasticity while NASDAQ-100 displayed the highest fluidity in the time period considered. The fluidity of DJI and S&P-500 came out to be close to each other, and they are almost the same in the second half of the period.

  19. [Assessment indicators of soil quality in hilly Loess plateau]. (United States)

    Xu, Mingxiang; Liu, Guobin; Zhao, Yunge


    By the methods of sensitivity analysis, main component analsis and discriminant analysis, this paper screened the sensitive indicators from 32 soil attributes to assess the productivity and erosion-resistance ability of the soils in hilly Loess Plateau. The results showed that soil available phosphorus content, anti-scouring ability, infiltration coefficient, labile organic carbon content, organic matter content and urease activity were the most sensitive indicators for soil quality assessment and the main targets for soil quality management and improvement, while soil biological indicators were with high and medium sensitivity. Five soil quality factors were summed up from 29 soil chemical, physical and biological attributes, i. e., organic matter, texture, phosphorus, porosity and microstructure. Except the factor porosity, the other four factors were significantly different between different land use types. Eight indicators including soil organic matter content, infiltration coefficient, anti-scouring ability, CEC, invertase activity, mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates, available phosphorus, and MWD of microaggregate were identified as the assessment indicators of the soil quality in hilly Loess Plateau, with the organic matter content, infiltration coefficient and anti-scouring ability as the key indicators.

  20. Pollen indicators of human activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI YiYin; ZHOU LiPing; CUI HaiTing


    The study of past human activities and their environmental effect is high in the agenda of global change research. A record of pollen assemblages is one of the most common proxies employed for detecting the impact of human activities on the landscape. In this review, we provide a summary and discussion on the recent progress on the use of pollen as indicators of human activity. For most of the studies related to human impact, the following features have been focused on: (1) decline of certain tree pollen; (2) flourishing of pioneer plant pollen; (3) concomitant occurrence of cereal-type pollen and cropland weed pollen; (4) abrupt changes in pollen concentration and richness; and (5) occurrence of nitrophilous plants and pastoral weed. Pollen of anthropogenic plants (weeds and cereal-type plants) is ideal indicators of human activities. Different types of human activities will result in different pollen assem-blages. Patterns of human-impacted pollen spectra would vary between forested areas and grassland. In the study of human impact with pollen data, high resolution in both time and space must be consid-ered. High resolution in space will help to inform the complexity of the landscape. More importantly, it can help to reveal the interference of human activities on the landscape, hence avoiding the bias cre-ated by the limited data points. Fine resolution in time will make accurate recording of short-lived events possible, hence avoiding the exclusion of events related to human activities. The combination of palynology with other proxies will help to decipher more accurately landscape changes through time. Charcoal is a particularly useful proxy for recording the disturbance of humans on vegetation. Its peak values usually occur with pronounced drop of tree pollen and significant rise of anthropogenic pollen.

  1. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.


    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes an

  2. Lichens as bio indicators; Lav er veleigna som bioindikator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This publication discusses the use of lichens as biological indicators. Perennial growth, long life, efficient take-up of mineral nutrients from air and rain and small loss of nutrition are properties that make lichens suitable as biological indicators. In surveys and monitoring, species diversity and coverage by organisms that live as epiphytes on tree trunks have been the most commonly used parameters. A decline in the occurrence of this type of lichen is often related to the content of sulphur compounds in the air and it has been demonstrated that many species are sensitive to sulphur dioxide. It is also known that the growth of many types of lichens increases with a moderate increase in available nitrogen. In South Norway, pollution sensitive species such as Bryoria spp. have advanced strongly, which is probably due to less sulphur in the rain and a higher content of nutrition in the form of nitrate and ammonium.

  3. [Analogies and analogy research in technical biology and bionics]. (United States)

    Nachtigall, Werner


    The procedural approaches of Technical Biology and Bionics are characterized, and analogy research is identified as their common basis. The actual creative aspect in bionical research lies in recognizing and exploiting technically oriented analogies underlying a specific biological prototype to indicate a specific technical application.

  4. Conserving and enhancing biological control of nematodes. (United States)

    Timper, Patricia


    Conservation biological control is the modification of the environment or existing practices to protect and enhance antagonistic organisms to reduce damage from pests. This approach to biological control has received insufficient attention compared with inundative applications of microbial antagonists to control nematodes. This review provides examples of how production practices can enhance or diminish biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes and other soilborne pests. Antagonists of nematodes can be enhanced by providing supplementary food sources such as occurs when organic amendments are applied to soil. However, some organic amendments (e.g., manures and plants containing allelopathic compounds) can also be detrimental to nematode antagonists. Plant species and genotype can strongly influence the outcome of biological control. For instance, the susceptibility of the plant to the nematode can determine the effectiveness of control; good hosts will require greater levels of suppression than poor hosts. Plant genotype can also influence the degree of rhizosphere colonization and antibiotic production by antagonists, as well the expression of induced resistance by plants. Production practices such as crop rotation, fallow periods, tillage, and pesticide applications can directly disrupt populations of antagonistic organisms. These practices can also indirectly affect antagonists by reducing their primary nematode host. One of the challenges of conservation biological control is that practices intended to protect or enhance suppression of nematodes may not be effective in all field sites because they are dependent on indigenous antagonists. Ultimately, indicators will need to be identified, such as the presence of particular antagonists, which can guide decisions on where it is practical to use conservation biological control. Antagonists can also be applied to field sites in conjunction with conservation practices to improve the consistency, efficacy, and

  5. [Principles of management in biological infections]. (United States)

    Płusa, Tadeusz


    The effectiveness of the management in respiratory infection is depending on the nature of the biological pathogen and the immune status of the patient. For this reason, providing assistance to victims the organ function support, similarly as defining the pathogen and targeted antibiotic therapy should be applied. Available diagnostic tests provide rapid ability to identify the pathogen and antibiotics are able to control infection. Lack of efficacy of treatment may indicate the diversity of the pathogen than previously known and raises suspicion of biological warfare pathogen.

  6. Plant Systems Biology (editorial) (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  7. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob


    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  8. Doublethink in Biological Education (United States)

    Cox, Donald D.


    Presents the material given in a talk at the 1974 convention of the National Science Teachers Association in which the author compares practices in biology education to George Orwell's concept of "doublethink," i.e., the ability to hold two contradictory beliefs in one's mind simultaneously and to accept both of them. Developments in curriculum…

  9. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz;


    As sequencing technologies become more affordable, it is now realistic to propose studying the evolutionary history of virtually any organism on a genomic scale. However, when dealing with non-model organisms it is not always easy to choose the best approach given a specific biological question, ...

  10. Openers for Biology Classes. (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  11. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj


    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  12. Diversity in Biological Molecules (United States)

    Newbury, H. John


    One of the striking characteristics of fundamental biological processes, such as genetic inheritance, development and primary metabolism, is the limited amount of variation in the molecules involved. Natural selective pressures act strongly on these core processes and individuals carrying mutations and producing slightly sub-optimal versions of…

  13. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Goncalo Espregueira Cruz


    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  14. Bayes in biological anthropology. (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R


    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  15. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia


    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  16. Biology Curriculum Support Document. (United States)

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  17. Biological Isolation Garment (United States)


    A spinoff of astronaut's biological garment will allow hospital patients who are highly vulnerable to infection to leave their sterile habitats for several hours, carrying their germ free environment with them. Garments can be used in any of some 200 hospitals where isolation rooms are installed to treat leukemia.

  18. Commercializing Biological Control (United States)

    LeLeu, K. L.; Young, M. A.


    Describes the only commercial establishment involved in biological control in Australia. The wasp Aphitis melinus, which parasitizes the insect Red Scale, is bred in large numbers and released in the citrus groves where Red Scale is causing damage to the fruit. (JR)

  19. Indicating anthropogenic effectson urban water system - indicators and extension (United States)

    Strauch, G.; Ufz-Team


    Urban water systems are polluted by diffusive and direct contribution of anthropogenic activities. Besides industrial contaminants like aromatic and chlorinated HC and other persistent organic compounds, the urban aquatic environment is increasingly polluted by low concentrated but high eco-toxic compounds as pharmaceuticals, fragrances, plasticizers which most have disrupt endocrine functions, and trace elements carried in by surface and sub-surface waste water and seeping processes. This contamination could have a longtime impact on the urban ecosystem and on the human health. The interdisciplinary project on risk assessment of water pollution was initiated to explore new methodologies for assessing human activities on the urban water system and processes among urban watersheds. In a first assumption we used a flow model concept with in- and output and surface water transport represented by the city of Halle, Germany, and the river Saale. The river Saale acts as surface water system collecting waste water inputs along the city traverse. We investigated the anthropogenic effect on the urban water system using the indicators hydrological parameters, compound specific pattern of complex organic substances and trace elements, isotopic signatures of water (H, O) and dissolved substances (sulfate, DIC, nitrate), pathogens, and microbiota. A first balance modeling showed that main ions are not very sensitive concerning the direct urban input into the river. Depending on the discharge of the river in high and low flood stages the load of dissolved matter has no specific urban effect. However, the concentration pattern of fragrances (tonalid, galaxolid) and endocrine disrupters (t-nonylphenol) point to a different pollution along the city traverse: downstream of the sewage plant a higher load was observed in comparison to the upstream passage. Furthermore, a degradation ability of fungi and bacteria occurred in the bank sediments could be detected in lab experiments

  20. The biological function of consciousness (United States)

    Earl, Brian


    This research is an investigation of whether consciousness—one's ongoing experience—influences one's behavior and, if so, how. Analysis of the components, structure, properties, and temporal sequences of consciousness has established that, (1) contrary to one's intuitive understanding, consciousness does not have an active, executive role in determining behavior; (2) consciousness does have a biological function; and (3) consciousness is solely information in various forms. Consciousness is associated with a flexible response mechanism (FRM) for decision-making, planning, and generally responding in nonautomatic ways. The FRM generates responses by manipulating information and, to function effectively, its data input must be restricted to task-relevant information. The properties of consciousness correspond to the various input requirements of the FRM; and when important information is missing from consciousness, functions of the FRM are adversely affected; both of which indicate that consciousness is the input data to the FRM. Qualitative and quantitative information (shape, size, location, etc.) are incorporated into the input data by a qualia array of colors, sounds, and so on, which makes the input conscious. This view of the biological function of consciousness provides an explanation why we have experiences; why we have emotional and other feelings, and why their loss is associated with poor decision-making; why blindsight patients do not spontaneously initiate responses to events in their blind field; why counter-habitual actions are only possible when the intended action is in mind; and the reason for inattentional blindness. PMID:25140159

  1. An Automated Biological Dosimetry System (United States)

    Lorch, T.; Bille, J.; Frieben, M.; Stephan, G.


    The scoring of structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral human blood lymphocytes can be used in biological dosimetry to estimate the radiation dose which an individual has received. Especially the dicentric chromosome is a rather specific indicator for an exposure to ionizing radiation. For statistical reasons, in the low dose range a great number of cells must be analysed, which is a very tedious task. The resulting high cost of a biological dose estimation limits the application of this method to cases of suspected irradiation for which physical dosimetry is not possible or not sufficient. Therefore an automated system has been designed to do the major part of the routine work. It uses a standard light microscope with motorized scanning stage, a Plumbicon TV-camera, a real-time hardware preprocessor, a binary and a grey level image buffer system. All computations are performed by a very powerful multi-microprocessor-system (POLYP) based on a MIMD-architecture. The task of the automated system can be split in finding the metaphases (see Figure 1) at low microscope magnification and scoring dicentrics at high magnification. The metaphase finding part has been completed and is now in routine use giving good results. The dicentric scoring part is still under development.

  2. Biological trade and markets. (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald


    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  3. Composing biodiversity indicators for the conservation of mangrove ecosystem in Xuan Thuy National Park, Vietnam


    Haneji, Choshin; Do, Van Tu; Vu, Duc Loi; Duong, Tuan Hung


    Biodiversity indicators for the conservation of mangrove ecosystems of Xuan Thuy National Park were composed, taking into account the environmental, biotic, and anthropological factors, based on suggested indicators provided by the Convention on Biological Diversity. Relevant environmental, biotic, and anthropological factors, identified by bibliographic and field surveys, were ordered by Pressures, State, Benefits, and Responses categories following the guidance of the Biodiversity Indicator...

  4. Systems biology, emergence and antireductionism. (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan


    This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology. The second phase happened when systems molecular biology and systems mathematical biology, together, were applied for analysis of biological data. Finally, after successful application in science, medicine and biotechnology, the process of the formation of modern systems biology was completed. Systems and molecular reductionist views on organisms were completely opposed to each other. Implications of systems and molecular biology on reductionist-antireductionist debate were quite different. The analysis of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence issues, in the era of systems biology, revealed the hierarchy between methodological, epistemological and ontological antireductionism. Primarily, methodological antireductionism followed from the systems biology. Only after, epistemological and ontological antireductionism could be supported.

  5. Method for detecting biological toxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligler, F.S.; Campbell, J.R.


    Biological toxins are indirectly detected by using polymerase chain reaction to amplify unique nucleic acid sequences coding for the toxins or enzymes unique to toxin synthesis. Buffer, primers coding for the unique nucleic acid sequences and an amplifying enzyme are added to a sample suspected of containing the toxin. The mixture is then cycled thermally to exponentially amplify any of these unique nucleic acid sequences present in the sample. The amplified sequences can be detected by various means, including fluorescence. Detection of the amplified sequences is indicative of the presence of toxin in the original sample. By using more than one set of labeled primers, the method can be used to simultaneously detect several toxins in a sample.

  6. Biological Markers and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar; Harris, Anette


    This chapter focuses on salivary cortisol in relation to biological markers. Specifically, associations with conventional cardiovascular risk factors and metabolic abnormalities (body mass index, waist circumference, waist/hip ratio, lipid status, glucose, blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate...... variations and pharmacological interventions were also excluded. After meeting all exclusion criteria, 42 papers remained. In total, 273 associations between salivary cortisol and any of the markers mentioned were studied, comprising 241 associations on metabolic abnormalities, 30 on inflammation, and 2...... on stress hormones. Of the salivary cortisol measures reported for evaluations of all markers tested were 136 (49%) single time points, 100 (37%) deviations, 36 (13%) AUC, and 1 (1%) dexamethasone test. Of these, 72 (26%) were statistically significant, and 201 (74%) indicated non-significant findings...

  7. Soil quality indicators in Urban watersheds. (United States)

    Damame, D. B.; Longo, R. M.; Nardi, L. A. A.; Fengler, F. H.


    Soil quality can be defined as the ability of this function within the boundaries of an ecosystem can be assessed three different aspects: physical, biological and chemical. As no indicator alone able to quantify the quality of the soil and should relate various attributes. In this context, this study aimed to characterize soil quality in urban sub basins to the northwest of the city of Campinas / SP-Brazil. These are characterized by strong urbanization, with the presence of rural areas and fragmented native vegetation. Disturbed soil samples were collected along the area in which the parameters were analyzed: potential acidity, pH, organic matter, potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) base saturation (SB) and cation exchange capacity (CTC). Data were discussed by cluster analysis using Ward clustering strategy and using as the similarity coefficient between pairs Euclidean distance. Thus, one can divide the points collected from three different groups: Group 1 consists of 91% of the points belonging to the urban and rural use; group 2 showed about 73% of the points belonging to vegetated areas; Group 3 had 82% of points distributed between rural and vegetated areas. In terms of soil quality, it follows that on average the group 1 had the worst scores. Group 2 presented the best characteristics, except for K, higher in group 3, which can be attributed to chemical fertilizer used in agricultural areas. Knowing also that the acceptable limits for pH, in tropical soils vary between 5.5 and 6.8 is observed that the groups 2 and 3 were within this range, only the group 1 presented below this standard. In terms of soil quality indicators, group 2 stood out positively, with good quality, group 3 was between the two groups, with median values of quality, while the group 1 showed the most deterioration of the research group, It can be attributed to the fact that 54.5% of the points in this group have urban wear, indicating the need for recovery.

  8. Effect of Qigong on Biological Indicators and Psychiatric Symptoms of Schizophrenics


    村上, 千鶴子; ムラカミ, チズコ; Chizuko, Murakami



  9. Indicators of Physical and Biological Trends around the McMurdo Station, Antarctica: A Literature Review (United States)


    the waters of the Ross Sea, has also played a role in increasing the sea-ice cover. • “The Southern Ocean ecosystem was significantly disturbed by...evaluated the temporal variability of the Antarctic surface mass balance, approximated as precipitation minus evaporation , and Southern Ocean ...geospatial sciences, water resources, and environmental sciences for the Army, the Department of Defense, civilian agencies, and our nation’s public good

  10. Mycorrhizal and Saprophytic edible fungi as biological indicators for environmental radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaso, M.I.; Segovia, N.; Cervantes, M.L. [ININ, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)


    {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs specific activities were determined in soil and in 137 mushroom samples belonging to 32 edible mushroom species from a forest ecosystem located in Mexico. Among all the species investigated, 15 were mycorrhizal fungi and 15 were saprophytes. {sup 40}K specific activities lay within a range from 332 to 2070 (Bq kg{sup -1}, dry weight), with the lower value corresponding to the saprophytic fungi Clitocybe gibba and the higher value to the ectomycorrhizal Amanita cesarea. The {sup 137}Cs concentration determined in mycorrhizal fungi was also higher than in saprophytes. The contribution from mushrooms to the dietary intake of {sup 40}K was estimated to be several times higher than the corresponding component of annual intake calculated for {sup 137}Cs. (orig.)

  11. Biologic indicators of exposure to cadmium and lead palmerton, Pennsylvania. Part 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarasua, S.M.; McGeehin, M.A.; Stallings, F.L.; Terracciano, G.L.; Amler, R.W.


    In Part 2 of this study, no difference was reported in the results of medical tests of the blood, liver, kidney, and immune systems of participants living in the two study areas. No relationships was found between exposure to cadmium and lead and the immune, liver, and blood system tests. No community wide medical action is needed in Palmerton based on the results of this study. No further site-specific health studies are recommended.

  12. Foraminiferal fauna from the Cochin backwaters: Biological indicators of man-made changes in the environment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.K.

    Sixty foraminiferal species belonging to 38 genera and 23 families have been recorded from grab sediments of the Cochin backwaters. Of all the species Ammonia baccarii is the most dominant and successful form in the throes of fluctuating salinities...

  13. Soil nematode assemblages indicate the potential for biological regulation of pest species (United States)

    Steel, Hanne; Ferris, Howard


    In concept, regulation or suppression of target nematode pest species should be enhanced when an abundance of predator species is supported by ample availability of bacterial- fungal- and non-damaging plant-feeding prey species. We selected soils from natural and managed environments that represented different levels of resource availability and disturbance. In microcosm chambers of each soil, in its natural state or after heat defaunation, we introduced test prey species not already resident in the soils (Meloidogyne incognita and Steinernema feltiae). Survival of the test prey was determined after a 5-day bioassay exposure. Across the soils tested, predator abundance and biomass were greater in undisturbed soils with plentiful resources and lower in soils from agricultural sites. Suppressiveness to the two introduced species increased with both numerical abundance and metabolic footprint of the predator assemblages. The magnitude of the increase in suppressiveness was greater at low numbers of predators then dampened to an asymptotic level at greater predator abundance, possibly determined by temporal and spatial aspects of the bioassay system and/or satiation of the predators. The more resource-limited the predators were and the higher the metabolic predator footprint, the greater the suppressiveness. The applied implications of this study are that soil suppressiveness to pest species may be enhanced by increasing resources to predators, removing chemical and physical constraints to their survival and increase, and altering management practices so that predators and target prey are co-located in time and space.

  14. Verb Form Indicates Discourse Segment Type in Biological Research Papers: Experimental Evidence (United States)

    de Waard, Anita; Maat, Henk Pander


    Corpus studies suggest that verb tense is a differentiating feature between, on the one hand, text pertaining to experimental results (involving methods and results) and on the other hand, text pertaining to more abstract concepts (i.e. regarding background knowledge in a field, hypotheses, problems or claims). In this paper, we describe a user…

  15. Sheep lymph-nodes as a biological indicator of environmental exposure to fluoro-edenite. (United States)

    Ledda, Caterina; Loreto, Carla; Pomara, Cristoforo; Rapisarda, Giuseppe; Fiore, Maria; Ferrante, Margherita; Bracci, Massimo; Santarelli, Lory; Fenga, Concettina; Rapisarda, Venerando


    A significantly increased incidence of pleural mesothelioma in Biancavilla (Sicily, Italy) has been attributed to exposure to fluoro-edenite (FE), a fibrous amphibole extracted from a local stone quarry. The lymph-nodes draining the pulmonary lobes of sheep grazing around the town were examined, to gain insights into fibre diffusion. The pasture areas of six sheep flocks lying about 3km from Biancavilla were located using the global positioning system. The cranial tracheobronchial and one middle mediastinal lymph-node as well as four lung tissue samples were collected from 10 animals from each flock and from 10 control sheep for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. The lymph-nodes from exposed sheep were enlarged and exhibited signs of anthracosis. Histologically, especially at the paracortical level, they showed lymph-follicle hyperplasia with large reactive cores and several macrophages (coniophages) containing grey-brownish particulate interspersed with elements with a fibril structure, forming aggregates of varying dimensions (coniophage nodules). Similar findings were detected in some peribronchiolar areas of the lung parenchyma. SEM examination showed that FE fibres measured 8-41µm in length and 0.4-1.39µm in diameter in both lymph-nodes and lung tissue. Monitoring of FE fibres in sheep lymph-nodes using appropriate techniques can help set up environmental pollution surveillance.


    The responses of ant communities to structural change (removal of an invasive were studied in a replicated experiment in a Chihuahuan Desert grassland. The results from sampling of ant communities by pit-fall trapping were validated by mapping ant colonies on the experimental plo...

  17. Effect of Pesticides On Certain Soil Biological and Biochemical Indices of a Paddy Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Min; XIE Xiao-mei; HUANG Chang-yong


    A 21-day laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the impact of pesticides (Triazophos, Butaehlor and Jinggangmycin) on a paddy field soil health under controlled moisture (flooded soil) and temperature (25℃ ) conditions. The electron transport system (ETS)/dehydrogenase activity displayed a negative correlation with pesticides concentrations, and the activity was affected adversely as the concentration of the pesticides increased. The higher doses of pesticides,5 and 10 folds field rates, significantly inhibited ETS activity, while lower rates failed to produce any significant reducing effect against the control. The relative toxicity level of pesticides in decreasing the ETS activity was in the following order:Triazophos>Jinggangmycin>Butachlor, irrespective of their rates of application. The pesticides caused an improvement in the soil phenol content and it increased with increasing the concentration of agrochemicals. The pesticide incorporation did not produce any significant change in soil protein content. The response of biomass phospholipid content was nearly similar to ETS activity. The phospholipid content was decreased with the addition of pesticides in the given order of Triazophos>Jinggangmycin>Butachlor; and the toxicity was in the order: 10 FR (times of field rate)>5 FR>1.0 FR>0.5 FR>control.

  18. Forward versus inverse planning in oropharyngeal cancer: A comparative study using physical and biological indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Sundaram


    Full Text Available Context: Possible benefits of inverse planning. Aims: To analyze possible benefits of inverse planning intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT over field-in-field 3D conformal radiation therapy (FIF-3DCRT and to evaluate the differences if any, between low (6 Million Volts and high energy (15 Million Volts IMRT plans. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with squamous cell carcinoma of oropharynx, previously treated with 6 MV step and shoot IMRT were studied. V 100 , V 33 , V 66 , mean dose and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP were evaluated for parotid glands. Maximum dose and NTCP were the parameters for spinal cord. Statistical Analysis Used: A two-tailed t-test was applied to analyze statistical significance between the different techniques. Results: For combined parotid gland, a reduction of 4.374 Gy, 9.343 Gy and 7.883 Gy were achieved for D 100 , D 66 and D 33 , respectively in 6 MV-IMRT when compared with FIF-3DCRT. Spinal cord sparing was better in 6 MV-IMRT (40.963 ± 2.650, with an average reduction of maximum spinal cord dose by 7.355 Gy from that using the FIF-3DCRT technique. The uncomplicated tumor control probabilities values were higher in IMRT plans thus leading to a possibility of dose escalation. Conclusions: Though low-energy IMRT is the preferred choice for treatment of oropharyngeal cancers, FIF-3DCRT must be given due consideration as a second choice for its well established advantages over traditional conventioan technique.

  19. Biological indicators in relation to coastal pollution along Karnataka coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verlecar, X.N.; Desai, S.R.; Sarkar, A.; Dalal, S.G.

    A comparison has been made of sand, silt, and clay percentage of 118 samples from the Ayeyarwady continental shelf, northern Andaman Sea, measured by the sieve–laser diffraction technique and by classical sieve-pipette methods. Clay and silt...

  20. Woodlouse Porcellio scaber as a biological indicator of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkin, S.P.; Hardisty, G.N.; Martin, M.H.


    The amounts of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper were determined in the hepatopancreas and whole body of the woodlouse. Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) and soil and leaf litter collected from 89 sites in the counties of Avon and Somerset, south-west England. Maps were drawn to compare the regional distribution of concentrations of metals in the samples. The main source of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper pollution was centered on Avonmouth to the north-west of Bristol, the site of a primary zinc, lead, and cadmium smelting works. Concentrations of all four metals in the hepatopancreas, whole woodlice, soil and leaf litter were above background levels over a large area on all maps which, in the case of cadmium in the hepatopancreas, extended for 25 km to the east of the smelting works. The correlation coefficients between the concentrations of each metal in woodlice and soil, and between woodlice and leaf litter, were positive and statistically significant in all cases. At individual sites, however, particularly those associated with disused mining areas, rubbish tips or busy roads, the concentrations of zinc, cadmium, lead, and copper in woodlice could not have been predicted accurately from the levels of metals in leaf litter or soil due to the large scatter of data points along the lines of best fit.

  1. Assessment of Diverse Biological Indicators in Gulf War Illness: Are They Replicable? Are They Related? (United States)


    controls in a protocol that includes physical and neuropsychological evaluations, neuroimaging (MRI, fMRI, DTI), adrenal function tests, and diverse immune...War illness, neuroimaging, neuropsychological testing, immune function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal testing 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...fMRI, diffusion tensor imaging), neuropsychological evaluations, assessment of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, standard diagnostic laboratory

  2. Can Lucifer Yellow Indicate Correct Permeability of Biological Cell Membrane under An Electric and Magnetic Field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi


    Full Text Available The effect of external magnetic and electric fields, in the range of electroporation and magnetoporation, on Lucifer Yellow (LY fluorescence in the absence of cells is studied. Electric-field-induced quenching and magnetic field-induced increase are observed for fluorescence intensity of LY. Regard to the fact that the variation of field-induced fluorescence, even in the absence of cells, can be observed, the application of LY, as a marker, is debatable in electroporation and magnetoporation techniques.

  3. Development of an epiphyte indicator of nutrient enrichment: Threshold values for seagrass epiphyte load (United States)

    Metrics of epiphyte load on macrophytes were evaluated for use as quantitative biological indicators for nutrient impacts in estuarine waters, based on review and analysis of the literature on epiphytes and macrophytes, primarily seagrasses, but including some brackish and freshw...

  4. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques. (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N


    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan da Cunha-Melo


    Full Text Available Objective: To review of concepts and actions that aim to analyze the effects of internationalization of science and education, with emphasis in the medical field and its basement in development policies adopted by nations, exploring the potential for international interdisciplinary cooperation of each laboratory, department, university or institute. Method: Search of indicators to assess the degree of internationalization of universities and research institutes in several interconnected levels: organizational, regional, sectoral and global, and policy-making in science, technology innovation and higher education. Result: Scientific research is still carried out individually, but is now much more closely integrated with other social processes. The scientist is no longer a stranger who is allowed to surrender to his hobby to do what it wants. Internationalization of research and medical education, although it is among the topics of greatest need, as the globalized world, is difficult activity to be assessed. The leaders seem to have understood that the knowledge societies, leading to economic policy based on knowledge, can result in economic and social progress of nations. This fact has motivated increasingly the incentive to actions aimed at addressing global problems (eg health, climate change by funding research that generates new knowledge. Conclusion: The consensus is that the internationalization of science is desirable and necessary for the sustainable development of nations. However it cannot be done only by encouraging and promoting the outward students and researchers abroad. It is necessary, in addition, offer conditions to foreign researchers and students teachers to work in collaboration with Brazilian and raise the country to international scientific standards.

  6. Linking indices for biodiversity monitoring to extinction risk theory. (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael A; Moore, Alana L; Krauss, Jochen; Morgan, John W; Clements, Christopher F


    Biodiversity indices often combine data from different species when used in monitoring programs. Heuristic properties can suggest preferred indices, but we lack objective ways to discriminate between indices with similar heuristics. Biodiversity indices can be evaluated by determining how well they reflect management objectives that a monitoring program aims to support. For example, the Convention on Biological Diversity requires reporting about extinction rates, so simple indices that reflect extinction risk would be valuable. We developed 3 biodiversity indices that are based on simple models of population viability that relate extinction risk to abundance. We based the first index on the geometric mean abundance of species and the second on a more general power mean. In a third index, we integrated the geometric mean abundance and trend. These indices require the same data as previous indices, but they also relate directly to extinction risk. Field data for butterflies and woodland plants and experimental studies of protozoan communities show that the indices correlate with local extinction rates. Applying the index based on the geometric mean to global data on changes in avian abundance suggested that the average extinction probability of birds has increased approximately 1% from 1970 to 2009.

  7. Evaluation of Stony Coral Indicators for Coral Reef ... (United States)

    Colonies of reef-building stony corals at 57 stations around St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands were characterized by species, size and percentage of living tissue. Taxonomic, biological and physical indicators of coral condition were derived from these measurements and assessed for their response to gradients of human disturbance. The purpose of the study was to identify indicators that could be used for regulatory assessments under authority of the Clean Water Act--this requires that indicators distinguish anthropogenic disturbances from natural variation. Stony coral indicators were tested for correlation with human disturbance across gradients located on three different sides of the island. At the most intensely disturbed location, five of eight primary indicators were highly correlated with distance from the source of disturbance: Coral taxa richness, average colony size, the coefficient of variation of colony size (an indicator of colony size heterogeneity), total topographic coral surface area, and live coral surface area. An additional set of exploratory indicators related to rarity, reproductive and spawning mode, and taxonomic identity were also screened for association with disturbance at the same location. For the other two locations, there were no significant changes in indicator values and therefore no discernible effects of human activity. Coral indicators demonstrated sufficient precision to detect levels of change that would be applicable in a regio

  8. Spring Indices (SI): National (and Global) Indicators of Climate Impacts on Ecosystems and Society (United States)

    Betancourt, J. L.; Schwartz, M. D.; Ault, T. R.; McCabe, G. J.; Macalady, A. K.; Pederson, G. T.; Cook, B. P.; Henebry, G. M.; Moore, D. J.; Enquist, C.


    Indicators are vital in everyday life, such as tracking blood pressure to assess your health or monitoring the nation's economy using unemployment rates. Tracking the state of the environment in a uniform and integrated manner requires simple and broadly-applicable indicators of year-to-year variability and change. For example, indices such as the Start of Season (SOS) in remotely-sensed land surface phenology, Center of Mass (CM) in the hydrology of snowfed inland waters, and other biogeophysical metrics are being widely used as metrics of global change in seasonal timing. Here, we present a new, standardized spring index (SSI) that uses only daily minimum and maximum temperatures as input. This builds on an earlier version of the spring indices (SI) for lilac and honeysuckle phenology (first leaf and first flower) that required plant chilling to be satisfied over winter. The SSI tracks the transition from winter to spring by tallying phenologically relevant variables, (such as the number and intensity of warm days and total hours of sunlight) from January 1st onward, while ignoring the chilling requirement. This adjustment allows determination of first leaf and first bloom dates across the entire USA, including southernmost latitudes. Outputs from the new SSI is highly correlated with the earlier version, and both models process weather data into indices directly related to growth and development of many plants. Spatially averaged anomalies of SSI are well correlated with remotely sensed data and phenological observations from a wide variety of trees and shrubs in Europe, China, and North America. An advantage of SSI is that it only "sees" the atmosphere, meaning that it is free of local biological effects. Therefore, it can enhance the ability to identify important relationships between the large-scale climate modes of variability and the index itself, an advantage over other plant-based indices (such as SOS). If the state of these atmospheric modes can be

  9. The Year's New Drugs & Biologics - 2009. (United States)

    Graul, Ann I; Sorbera, Lisa; Pina, Patricia; Tell, Montse; Cruces, Elisabet; Rosa, Esmeralda; Stringer, Mark; Castañer, Rosa; Revel, Laura


    This annual article presents new drugs and biologics that were launched or approved for the first time during the previous year. In 2009, 51 new medicines and vaccines reached their first markets. Line extensions (new indications, new formulations and new combinations of previously marketed products) accounted for more than 30% of the new products launched in 2009. In addition to providing an overview of all drugs and biologics launched or approved for the first time ever in the previous year, this article will also review in further depth the first-in-class drugs launched for the first time last year, providing a better understanding of their novel mechanisms of action; an analysis of the discovery and development periods for the year's new products; and a comprehensive overview of drug repositioning as a strategy for extending the life spans of medicines. We also provide a brief glimpse at selected drugs and biologics which could reach their first markets in the foreseeable future.

  10. Toxicity Studies on "840 Biologic Pesticide"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    [Objective] "840 Biologic Pesticide" is a very effective biologic pesticide. It consists of Abamectin and celastrus angulatus. Toxicity study was aimed to provide scientific toxicological basis. [Methods] The acute toxicity test,Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were done. [Results] The acute toxicity of single dose of "840 Biologic Pesticide" showed that acute oral LD50 for female and male rats are 4 300 and 4 280 mg/kg,and for female and male mice are 2 330 and 5 110 mg/kg,respectively. The dermal LD50 was >2 000 mg/kg for female and male rats. The mutagenesis studies indicated that Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were negative. [Conclusion] Tested pesticidc belongs to low toticity grade.

  11. Topological Indices Study of Molecular Structure in Anticancer Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao


    Full Text Available Numerous studies indicate that there is strong inherent relationship between the chemical characteristics of chemical compounds and drugs (e.g., boiling point and melting point and their molecular structures. Topological indices defined on these chemical molecular structures can help researchers better understand the physical features, chemical reactivity, and biological activity. Thus, the study of the topological indices on chemical structure of chemical materials and drugs can make up for lack of chemical experiments and can provide a theoretical basis for the manufacturing of drugs and chemical materials. In this paper, we focus on the family of smart polymer which is widely used in anticancer drugs manufacturing. Several topological indices are determined in view of edge dividing methods, and these results remedy the lack of chemical and medicine experiments thus providing the theoretical basis for pharmaceutical engineering.

  12. Computational Tools to Assess Turbine Biological Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Serkowski, John A.; Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Strickler, Brad; Weisbeck, Molly; Dotson, Curtis L.


    Public Utility District No. 2 of Grant County (GCPUD) operates the Priest Rapids Dam (PRD), a hydroelectric facility on the Columbia River in Washington State. The dam contains 10 Kaplan-type turbine units that are now more than 50 years old. Plans are underway to refit these aging turbines with new runners. The Columbia River at PRD is a migratory pathway for several species of juvenile and adult salmonids, so passage of fish through the dam is a major consideration when upgrading the turbines. In this paper, a method for turbine biological performance assessment (BioPA) is demonstrated. Using this method, a suite of biological performance indicators is computed based on simulated data from a CFD model of a proposed turbine design. Each performance indicator is a measure of the probability of exposure to a certain dose of an injury mechanism. Using known relationships between the dose of an injury mechanism and frequency of injury (dose–response) from laboratory or field studies, the likelihood of fish injury for a turbine design can be computed from the performance indicator. By comparing the values of the indicators from proposed designs, the engineer can identify the more-promising alternatives. We present an application of the BioPA method for baseline risk assessment calculations for the existing Kaplan turbines at PRD that will be used as the minimum biological performance that a proposed new design must achieve.

  13. Quantum physics meets biology

    CERN Document Server

    Arndt, Markus; Vedral, Vlatko


    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the last decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world view of quantum coherences, entanglement and other non-classical effects, has been heading towards systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a pedestrian guide to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future quantum biology, its current status, recent experimental progress and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolat...

  14. [Cell biology and cosmetology]. (United States)

    Traniello, S; Cavalletti, T


    Cellular biology can become the natural support of research in the field of cosmetics because it is able to provide alternative experimental models which can partially replace the massive use of laboratory animals. Cultures of human skin cells could be used in tests investigating irritation of the skin. We have developed an "in vitro" experimental model that allows to evaluate the damage caused by the free radicals to the fibroblasts in culture and to test the protective action of the lipoaminoacids. Experimenting on human cell cultures presents the advantage of eliminating the extrapolation between the different species, of allowing a determination of the biological action of a substance and of evaluating its dose/response effect. This does not mean that "in vitro" experimenting could completely replace experimenting on living animals, but the "in vitro" model can be introduced in the realisation of preliminary screenings.

  15. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R P Rau


    Kleiber’s law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as -1/4 in terms of the mass of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  16. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira;


    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing......As sequencing technologies become more affordable, it is now realistic to propose studying the evolutionary history of virtually any organism on a genomic scale. However, when dealing with non-model organisms it is not always easy to choose the best approach given a specific biological question......, a limited budget, and challenging sample material. Furthermore, although recent advances in technology offer unprecedented opportunities for research in non-model organisms, they also demand unprecedented awareness from the researcher regarding the assumptions and limitations of each method. In this review...

  17. Quantum physics meets biology. (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko


    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  18. Biological scaling and physics. (United States)

    Rau, A R P


    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  19. Heritability and biological explanation. (United States)

    Turkheimer, E


    Modern neuroscientific and genetic technologies have provoked intense disagreement between scientists who envision a future in which biogenetic theories will enrich or even replace psychological theories, and others who consider biogenetic theories exaggerated, dehumanizing, and dangerous. Both sides of the debate about the role of genes and brains in the genesis of human behavior have missed an important point: All human behavior that varies among individuals is partially heritable and correlated with measurable aspects of brains, but the very ubiquity of these findings makes them a poor basis for reformulating scientists' conceptions of human behavior. Materialism requires psychological processes to be physically instantiated, but more crucial for psychology is the occasional empirical discovery of behavioral phenomena that are specific manifestations of low-level biological variables. Heritability and psychobiological association cannot be the basis for establishing whether behavior is genetic or biological, because to do so leads only to the banal tautology that all behavior is ultimately based in the genotype and brain.

  20. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych


    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  1. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K


    not support the routine recording of batch information. Expected changes in supply chain standards provide opportunities to systematically record detailed exposure information. Spontaneous reporting systems are the most vulnerable link in ensuring traceability, due to the manual nature of data transfer...... individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place...

  2. Milli-Biology (United States)


    inefficient at low RPM because power is wasted as heat in the coils, requiring gearing at low RPM, and power is required to maintain static position...soldering to join metal parts, epoxy to join the heat -sensitive permanent magnets, and screws to reversibly fasten subassemblies that might require...aerospace, and heliostat pointing for solar power. These are now transitioning to commercial development. The milli-biology workflow for coded

  3. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology



    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutati...

  4. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral


    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  5. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis


    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario


    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to tr...

  6. Quantum Effects in Biology (United States)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.


    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  7. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems


    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D.


    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  8. Biological heart valves. (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Anatol; Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Beckmann, Erik; Hilfiker, Andres; Haverich, Axel


    Cardiac valvular pathologies are often caused by rheumatic fever in young adults, atherosclerosis in elderly patients, or by congenital malformation of the heart in children, in effect affecting almost all population ages. Almost 300,000 heart valve operations are performed worldwide annually. Tissue valve prostheses have certain advantages over mechanical valves such as biocompatibility, more physiological hemodynamics, and no need for life-long systemic anticoagulation. However, the major disadvantage of biological valves is related to their durability. Nevertheless, during the last decade, the number of patients undergoing biological, rather than mechanical, valve replacement has increased from half to more than three-quarters for biological implants. Continuous improvement in valve fabrication includes development of new models and shapes, novel methods of tissue treatment, and preservation and implantation techniques. These efforts are focused not only on the improvement of morbidity and mortality of the patients but also on the improvement of their quality of life. Heart valve tissue engineering aims to provide durable, "autologous" valve prostheses. These valves demonstrate adaptive growth, which may avoid the need of repeated operations in growing patients.

  9. Absolute biological needs. (United States)

    McLeod, Stephen


    Absolute needs (as against instrumental needs) are independent of the ends, goals and purposes of personal agents. Against the view that the only needs are instrumental needs, David Wiggins and Garrett Thomson have defended absolute needs on the grounds that the verb 'need' has instrumental and absolute senses. While remaining neutral about it, this article does not adopt that approach. Instead, it suggests that there are absolute biological needs. The absolute nature of these needs is defended by appeal to: their objectivity (as against mind-dependence); the universality of the phenomenon of needing across the plant and animal kingdoms; the impossibility that biological needs depend wholly upon the exercise of the abilities characteristic of personal agency; the contention that the possession of biological needs is prior to the possession of the abilities characteristic of personal agency. Finally, three philosophical usages of 'normative' are distinguished. On two of these, to describe a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' is to describe it as value-dependent. A description of a phenomenon or claim as 'normative' in the third sense does not entail such value-dependency, though it leaves open the possibility that value depends upon the phenomenon or upon the truth of the claim. It is argued that while survival needs (or claims about them) may well be normative in this third sense, they are normative in neither of the first two. Thus, the idea of absolute need is not inherently normative in either of the first two senses.

  10. Biologics for tendon repair. (United States)

    Docheva, Denitsa; Müller, Sebastian A; Majewski, Martin; Evans, Christopher H


    Tendon injuries are common and present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgery mainly because these injuries often respond poorly to treatment and require prolonged rehabilitation. Therapeutic options used to repair ruptured tendons have consisted of suture, autografts, allografts, and synthetic prostheses. To date, none of these alternatives has provided a successful long-term solution, and often the restored tendons do not recover their complete strength and functionality. Unfortunately, our understanding of tendon biology lags far behind that of other musculoskeletal tissues, thus impeding the development of new treatment options for tendon conditions. Hence, in this review, after introducing the clinical significance of tendon diseases and the present understanding of tendon biology, we describe and critically assess the current strategies for enhancing tendon repair by biological means. These consist mainly of applying growth factors, stem cells, natural biomaterials and genes, alone or in combination, to the site of tendon damage. A deeper understanding of how tendon tissue and cells operate, combined with practical applications of modern molecular and cellular tools could provide the long awaited breakthrough in designing effective tendon-specific therapeutics and overall improvement of tendon disease management.

  11. Biological surface science (United States)

    Kasemo, Bengt


    Biological surface science (BioSS), as defined here is the broad interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments are investigated and biofunctional surfaces are fabricated. Six examples are used to introduce and discuss the subject: Medical implants in the human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnostics, tissue engineering, bioelectronics, artificial photosynthesis, and biomimetic materials. They are areas of varying maturity, together constituting a strong driving force for the current rapid development of BioSS. The second driving force is the purely scientific challenges and opportunities to explore the mutual interaction between biological components and surfaces. Model systems range from the unique water structures at solid surfaces and water shells around proteins and biomembranes, via amino and nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, phospholipid membranes, to cells and living tissue at surfaces. At one end of the spectrum the scientific challenge is to map out the structures, bonding, dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules at surfaces in a similar way as has been done for simple molecules during the past three decades in surface science. At the other end of the complexity spectrum one addresses how biofunctional surfaces participate in and can be designed to constructively participate in the total communication system of cells and tissue. Biofunctional surfaces call for advanced design and preparation in order to match the sophisticated (bio) recognition ability of biological systems. Specifically this requires combined topographic, chemical and visco-elastic patterns on surfaces to match proteins at the nm scale and cells at the micrometer scale. Essentially all methods of surface science are useful. High-resolution (e.g. scanning probe) microscopies, spatially resolved and high sensitivity, non-invasive optical spectroscopies, self-organizing monolayers, and nano- and microfabrication

  12. The Relationship between Biology Classes and Biological Reasoning and Common Heath Misconceptions (United States)

    Keselman, Alla; Hundal, Savreen; Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia; Bibi, Raquel; Edelman, Jay A.


    This study investigates the relationship among (1) college major, (2) knowledge used in reasoning about common health beliefs, and (3) judgment about the accuracy of those beliefs. Seventy-four college students, advanced biology and non-science majors, indicated their agreement or disagreement with commonly believed, but often inaccurate,…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Recent research on the process of biological phosphorus removal in lab-scale treatment systems has indicated that: (i) the development of an actively polyP-accumulating bacterial community after the introduction of an anaerobic period may take at least 4 months; (ii) up to 80% of all aerobic bacteri

  14. The why, what, and how of global biodiversity indicators beyond the 2010 target. (United States)

    Jones, Julia P G; Collen, Ben; Atkinson, Giles; Baxter, Peter W J; Bubb, Philip; Illian, Janine B; Katzner, Todd E; Keane, Aidan; Loh, Jonathan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Nicholson, Emily; Pereira, Henrique M; Possingham, Hugh P; Pullin, Andrew S; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Viviana; Sommerville, Matthew; Milner-Gulland, E J


    The 2010 biodiversity target agreed by signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity directed the attention of conservation professionals toward the development of indicators with which to measure changes in biological diversity at the global scale. We considered why global biodiversity indicators are needed, what characteristics successful global indicators have, and how existing indicators perform. Because monitoring could absorb a large proportion of funds available for conservation, we believe indicators should be linked explicitly to monitoring objectives and decisions about which monitoring schemes deserve funding should be informed by predictions of the value of such schemes to decision making. We suggest that raising awareness among the public and policy makers, auditing management actions, and informing policy choices are the most important global monitoring objectives. Using four well-developed indicators of biological diversity (extent of forests, coverage of protected areas, Living Planet Index, Red List Index) as examples, we analyzed the characteristics needed for indicators to meet these objectives. We recommend that conservation professionals improve on existing indicators by eliminating spatial biases in data availability, fill gaps in information about ecosystems other than forests, and improve understanding of the way indicators respond to policy changes. Monitoring is not an end in itself, and we believe it is vital that the ultimate objectives of global monitoring of biological diversity inform development of new indicators.

  15. Molecular Biology of Nitrogen Fixation (United States)

    Shanmugam, K. T.; Valentine, Raymond C.


    Reports that as a result of our increasing knowledge of the molecular biology of nitrogen fixation it might eventually be possible to increase the biological production of nitrogenous fertilizer from atmospheric nitrogen. (GS)

  16. Is Our Biology to Blame? (United States)

    Schneider, Scott


    Brief analyses of three recent examples of biological determinism: sex roles, overpopulation, and sociobiology, are presented in this article. Also a brief discussion of biological determinism and education is presented. (MR)

  17. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian


    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  18. Biological treatment of Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict


    Introduction of biological agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) has led to a transformation of the treatment paradigm. Several biological compounds have been approved for patients with CD refractory to conventional treatment: infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab pegol (and...

  19. Developing the Use of Quality Indicators in Sterilization Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mehrabi


    Full Text Available Background: Health-care-associated infections are a major threat to the safety of patient care. Control of such problem is a major criterion for hospital accreditation. This study was aimed to determine the developing use of chemical (class 6 products and biological indicators in Tabriz district hospitals since 1997 to 2011.Methods: We conducted this time-trend interventional study with all of the public and private hospitals, which counted to 21 in Tabriz district as a sample. The situations of indicator use were presented for each time in the base of indicator groups. Furthermore, the results were showed in the base of hospital groups.Results: All of district hospital (n=21 with 74 autoclave machine and 22 central sterilization room were studied. The result of second time study in 2008 showed a markedly improvement in the control of sterilization processes. Furthermore, we continued our intervention results 6 month later in 2009 and 2 years later in 2011. The most striking result were use of chemical indicator in 100% of hospitals. However, there are defects in the use of biological indicators (63.65%.Conclusion: The most obvious finding was significant improvement in sterilization control especially in development the use of chemical indicators. The finding of this study has a number of important implications for hospital managers and infection control practitioners such as continuous practical training of CSSD personnel in hospitals and mandating of indicator using in all sterilization process with controlling of this subject in evaluation and accreditation of hospital programs.

  20. Logical impossibilities in biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monendra Grover


    Full Text Available Biological networks are complex and involve several kinds of molecules. For proper biological function it is important for these biomolecules to act at an individual level and act at the level of interaction of these molecules. In this paper some of the logical impossibilities that may arise in the biological networks and their possible solutions are discussed. It may be important to understand these paradoxes and their possible solutions in order to develop a holistic view of biological function.

  1. Biological activities of Curcuma longa L.


    Araújo CAC; LL Leon


    There are several data in the literature indicating a great variety of pharmacological activities of Curcuma longa L. (Zingiberaceae), which exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-human immunodeficiency virus, anti-bacteria, antioxidant effects and nematocidal activities. Curcumin is a major component in Curcuma longa L., being responsible for its biological actions. Other extracts of this plant has been showing potency too. In vitro, curcumin exhibits anti-parasitic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammator...

  2. Biological Computing Fundamentals and Futures


    Akula, Balaji; Cusick, James


    The fields of computing and biology have begun to cross paths in new ways. In this paper a review of the current research in biological computing is presented. Fundamental concepts are introduced and these foundational elements are explored to discuss the possibilities of a new computing paradigm. We assume the reader to possess a basic knowledge of Biology and Computer Science

  3. Functions in Biological Kind Classification (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob


    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  4. Semiconductor nanostructures in biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexson, Dimitri [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Chen Hongfeng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Cho, Michael [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Dutta, Mitra [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Li Yang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Shi, Peng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Raichura, Amit [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Ramadurai, Dinakar [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Parikh, Shaunak [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Stroscio, Michael A [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Vasudev, Milana [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)


    Semiconductor nanostructures in biological applications are discussed. Results are presented on the use of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots both as biological tags and as structures that interact with and influence biomolecules. Results are presented on the use of semiconducting carbon nanotubes in biological applications. (topical review)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Burak


    Full Text Available The methodology for computer modeling of complex eco-biological models is presented in this paper. It is based on system approach of J. Forrester. Developed methodology is universal for complex ecological and biological systems. Modeling algorithm considers specialties of eco-biological systems and shows adequate and accurate results in practice. 

  6. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences. (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G


    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  7. NASA Biological Specimen Repository (United States)

    McMonigal, K. A.; Pietrzyk, R. A.; Sams, C. F.; Johnson, M. A.


    The NASA Biological Specimen Repository (NBSR) was established in 2006 to collect, process, preserve and distribute spaceflight-related biological specimens from long duration ISS astronauts. This repository provides unique opportunities to study longitudinal changes in human physiology spanning may missions. The NBSR collects blood and urine samples from all participating ISS crewmembers who have provided informed consent. These biological samples are collected once before flight, during flight scheduled on flight days 15, 30, 60, 120 and within 2 weeks of landing. Postflight sessions are conducted 3 and 30 days after landing. The number of in-flight sessions is dependent on the duration of the mission. Specimens are maintained under optimal storage conditions in a manner that will maximize their integrity and viability for future research The repository operates under the authority of the NASA/JSC Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects to support scientific discovery that contributes to our fundamental knowledge in the area of human physiological changes and adaptation to a microgravity environment. The NBSR will institute guidelines for the solicitation, review and sample distribution process through establishment of the NBSR Advisory Board. The Advisory Board will be composed of representatives of all participating space agencies to evaluate each request from investigators for use of the samples. This process will be consistent with ethical principles, protection of crewmember confidentiality, prevailing laws and regulations, intellectual property policies, and consent form language. Operations supporting the NBSR are scheduled to continue until the end of U.S. presence on the ISS. Sample distribution is proposed to begin with selections on investigations beginning in 2017. The availability of the NBSR will contribute to the body of knowledge about the diverse factors of spaceflight on human physiology.

  8. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun


    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  9. Illuminating Cell Biology (United States)


    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  10. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  11. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E


    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  12. Systems biology: experimental design. (United States)

    Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens


    Experimental design has a long tradition in statistics, engineering and life sciences, dating back to the beginning of the last century when optimal designs for industrial and agricultural trials were considered. In cell biology, the use of mathematical modeling approaches raises new demands on experimental planning. A maximum informative investigation of the dynamic behavior of cellular systems is achieved by an optimal combination of stimulations and observations over time. In this minireview, the existing approaches concerning this optimization for parameter estimation and model discrimination are summarized. Furthermore, the relevant classical aspects of experimental design, such as randomization, replication and confounding, are reviewed.

  13. Biology of Nanobots (United States)

    Duan, Wentao; Pavlick, Ryan; Sen, Ayusman


    One of the more interesting recent discoveries has been the ability to design nano/microbots which catalytically harness the chemical energy in their environment to move autonomously. Their potential applications include delivery of materials, self-assembly of superstructures, and roving sensors. One emergent area of research is the study of their collective behavior and how they emulate living systems. The aim of this chapter is to describe the "biology" of nanobots, summarizing the fundamentals physics behind their motion and how the bots interact with each other to initiate complex emergent behavior.

  14. Menstrual Cycle: Basic Biology (United States)

    Hawkins, Shannon M.; Matzuk, Martin M.


    The basic biology of the menstrual cycle is a complex, coordinated sequence of events involving the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, ovary, and endometrium. The menstrual cycle with all its complexities can be easily perturbed by environmental factors such as stress, extreme exercise, eating disorders, and obesity. Furthermore, genetic influences such as fragile X premutations (Chapter X), X chromosome abnormalities (Chapter X), and galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) point mutations (galactosemia) also contribute to perturbations of the menstrual cycle. Although not perfect, mouse model have helped to identify and confirm additional components and pathways in menstrual cycle function and dysfunction in humans. PMID:18574203

  15. [Tuberculosis and molecular biology]. (United States)

    Andersen, Ase Bengård; Lillebaek, Troels; Søborg, Christian; Johansen, Isik Somuncu; Thomsen, Vibeke Østergaard


    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) hunting millions worldwide, is a challenge to work with in the laboratory. Modern molecular biology has provided extremely useful tools which have changed conventional diagnostic procedures in the TB laboratories. Research in molecular epidemiology is currently expanding our knowledge of the natural history of TB. Access to the genome sequence has opened new avenues for research in drug development and new vaccines. However, we are still awaiting the impact of these efforts in the resource-poor TB endemic countries.

  16. Biology of Bilirubin Photoisomers. (United States)

    Hansen, Thor Willy Ruud


    Phototherapy is the main treatment for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. In acute treatment of extreme hyperbilirubinemia, intensive phototherapy may have a role in 'detoxifying' the bilirubin molecule to more polar photoisomers, which should be less prone to crossing the blood-brain barrier, providing a 'brain-sparing' effect. This article reviews the biology of bilirubin isomers. Although there is evidence supporting the lower toxicity of bilirubin photoisomers, there are studies showing the opposite. There are methodologic weaknesses in most studies and better-designed experiments are needed. In an infant acutely threatened by bilirubin-induced brain damage, intensified phototherapy should be used expediently and aggressively.

  17. Nanoindentation of biological composites (United States)

    Dickinson, M.


    This investigation studied the effect of storage conditions on the mechanical properties as measured by nanoindentation of mineralised tissue samples. The three storage solutions were Hanks balanced salt solution, phosphate buffered saline and deionised water and all had a significant effect on the surface properties, namely hardness and modulus of enamel, dentin and bone tested. The effect was significant with a greater than 70% reduction in surface mechanical properties after 8 days immersion in the solutions. This study highlights the importance of testing biological tissues immediately after extraction, and the possible structural and chemistry changes that may occur by artificially storing the tissues.

  18. Small RNA biology is systems biology. (United States)

    Jost, Daniel; Nowojewski, Andrzej; Levine, Erel


    During the last decade small regulatory RNA (srRNA) emerged as central players in the regulation of gene expression in all kingdoms of life. Multiple pathways for srRNA biogenesis and diverse mechanisms of gene regulation may indicate that srRNA regulation evolved independently multiple times. However, small RNA pathways share numerous properties, including the ability of a single srRNA to regulate multiple targets. Some of the mechanisms of gene regulation by srRNAs have significant effect on the abundance of free srRNAs that are ready to interact with new targets. This results in indirect interactions among seemingly unrelated genes, as well as in a crosstalk between different srRNA pathways. Here we briefly review and compare the major srRNA pathways, and argue that the impact of srRNA is always at the system level. We demonstrate how a simple mathematical model can ease the discussion of governing principles. To demonstrate these points we review a few examples from bacteria and animals.

  19. Sharp bounds and normalization of Wiener-type indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechao Tian

    Full Text Available Complex networks abound in physical, biological and social sciences. Quantifying a network's topological structure facilitates network exploration and analysis, and network comparison, clustering and classification. A number of Wiener type indices have recently been incorporated as distance-based descriptors of complex networks, such as the R package QuACN. Wiener type indices are known to depend both on the network's number of nodes and topology. To apply these indices to measure similarity of networks of different numbers of nodes, normalization of these indices is needed to correct the effect of the number of nodes in a network. This paper aims to fill this gap. Moreover, we introduce an f-Wiener index of network G, denoted by Wf(G. This notion generalizes the Wiener index to a very wide class of Wiener type indices including all known Wiener type indices. We identify the maximum and minimum of Wf(G over a set of networks with n nodes. We then introduce our normalized-version of f-Wiener index. The normalized f-Wiener indices were demonstrated, in a number of experiments, to improve significantly the hierarchical clustering over the non-normalized counterparts.

  20. M-Polynomials and Topological Indices of Titania Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobeen Munir


    Full Text Available Titania is one of the most comprehensively studied nanostructures due to their widespread applications in the production of catalytic, gas sensing, and corrosion-resistant materials. M-polynomial of nanotubes has been vastly investigated, as it produces many degree-based topological indices, which are numerical parameters capturing structural and chemical properties. These indices are used in the development of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs in which the biological activity and other properties of molecules, such as boiling point, stability, strain energy, etc., are correlated with their structure. In this report, we provide M-polynomials of single-walled titania (SW TiO2 nanotubes and recover important topological degree-based indices to theoretically judge these nanotubes. We also plot surfaces associated to single-walled titania (SW TiO2 nanotubes.

  1. Metodology for Risk-based Indicators Impementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos


    Full Text Available The article describes the principle of creating a riskbased indicators in companies operating in an air transport. The first part deals with the description of safety indicators and introduce the concept of risk-based indicators. The next section describes the procedure for creating the base of risk-based indicators and describes specific examples of developed indicators.

  2. Enzyme activities by indicator of quality in organic soil (United States)

    Raigon Jiménez, Mo; Fita, Ana Delores; Rodriguez Burruezo, Adrián


    The analytical determination of biochemical parameters, as soil enzyme activities and those related to the microbial biomass is growing importance by biological indicator in soil science studies. The metabolic activity in soil is responsible of important processes such as mineralization and humification of organic matter. These biological reactions will affect other key processes involved with elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus , and all transformations related in soil microbial biomass. The determination of biochemical parameters is useful in studies carried out on organic soil where microbial processes that are key to their conservation can be analyzed through parameters of the metabolic activity of these soils. The main objective of this work is to apply analytical methodologies of enzyme activities in soil collections of different physicochemical characteristics. There have been selective sampling of natural soils, organic farming soils, conventional farming soils and urban soils. The soils have been properly identified conserved at 4 ° C until analysis. The enzyme activities determinations have been: catalase, urease, cellulase, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, which bring together a representative group of biological transformations that occur in the soil environment. The results indicate that for natural and agronomic soil collections, the values of the enzymatic activities are within the ranges established for forestry and agricultural soils. Organic soils are generally higher level of enzymatic, regardless activity of the enzyme involved. Soil near an urban area, levels of activities have been significantly reduced. The vegetation cover applied to organic soils, results in greater enzymatic activity. So the quality of these soils, defined as the ability to maintain their biological productivity is increased with the use of cover crops, whether or spontaneous species. The practice of cover based on legumes could be used as an ideal choice

  3. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology. (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth


    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  4. [Biological activity of Spirulina]. (United States)

    Blinkova, L P; Gorobets, O B; Baturo, A P


    In this review information of Spirulina platensis (SP), a blue-green alga (photosynthesizing cyanobacterium) having diverse biological activity is presented. Due to high content of highly valuable proteins, indispensable amino acids, vitamins, beta-carotene and other pigments, mineral substances, indispensable fatty acids and polysaccharides, PS has been found suitable for use as bioactive additive. SP produces an immunostimulating effect by enhancing the resistance of humans, mammals, chickens and fish to infections, the capacity of influencing hemopoiesis, stimulating the production of antibodies and cytokines. Under the influence of SP macrophages, T and B cells are activated. SP sulfolipids have proved to be effective against HIV. Preparations obtained from SP biomass have also been found active against herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus, influenza virus, etc. SP extracts are capable in inhibiting cancerogenesis. SP preparations are regarded as functional products contributing to the preservation of the resident intestinal microflora, especially lactic acid bacilli and bifidobacteria, and to a decrease in the level of Candida albicans. The biological activity of SP with respect to microorganisms holds good promise for using these microalgae as components of culture media.

  5. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Y. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)


    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  6. Synthetic biology in plastids. (United States)

    Scharff, Lars B; Bock, Ralph


    Plastids (chloroplasts) harbor a small gene-dense genome that is amenable to genetic manipulation by transformation. During 1 billion years of evolution from the cyanobacterial endosymbiont to present-day chloroplasts, the plastid genome has undergone a dramatic size reduction, mainly as a result of gene losses and the large-scale transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. Thus the plastid genome can be regarded as a naturally evolved miniature genome, the gradual size reduction and compaction of which has provided a blueprint for the design of minimum genomes. Furthermore, because of the largely prokaryotic genome structure and gene expression machinery, the high transgene expression levels attainable in transgenic chloroplasts and the very low production costs in plant systems, the chloroplast lends itself to synthetic biology applications that are directed towards the efficient synthesis of green chemicals, biopharmaceuticals and other metabolites of commercial interest. This review describes recent progress with the engineering of plastid genomes with large constructs of foreign or synthetic DNA, and highlights the potential of the chloroplast as a model system in bottom-up and top-down synthetic biology approaches.

  7. Oscillations in Mathematical Biology

    CERN Document Server


    The papers in this volume are based on talks given at a one day conference held on the campus of Adelphi University in April 1982. The conference was organized with the title "Oscillations in Mathematical Biology;" however the speakers were allowed considerable latitutde in their choice of topics. In the event, the talks all concerned the dynamics of non-linear systems arising in biology so that the conference achieved a good measure of cohesion. Some of the speakers cho~e not to submit a manuscript for these proceedings, feeling that their material was too conjectural to be committed to print. Also the paper of Rinzel and Troy is a distillation of the two separate talks that the authors gave. Otherwise the material reproduces the conference proceedings. The conference was made possible by the generous support of the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Adelphi. The bulk of the organization of the conference was carried out by Dr. Ronald Grisell whose energy was in large measure responsib...

  8. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)


    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  9. Industrial systems biology. (United States)

    Otero, José Manuel; Nielsen, Jens


    The chemical industry is currently undergoing a dramatic change driven by demand for developing more sustainable processes for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials. In biotechnological processes different microorganisms can be exploited, and the large diversity of metabolic reactions represents a rich repository for the design of chemical conversion processes that lead to efficient production of desirable products. However, often microorganisms that produce a desirable product, either naturally or because they have been engineered through insertion of heterologous pathways, have low yields and productivities, and in order to establish an economically viable process it is necessary to improve the performance of the microorganism. Here metabolic engineering is the enabling technology. Through metabolic engineering the metabolic landscape of the microorganism is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of the raw material, typically glucose, to the product of interest. This process may involve both insertion of new enzymes activities, deletion of existing enzyme activities, but often also deregulation of existing regulatory structures operating in the cell. In order to rapidly identify the optimal metabolic engineering strategy the industry is to an increasing extent looking into the use of tools from systems biology. This involves both x-ome technologies such as transcriptome, proteome, metabolome, and fluxome analysis, and advanced mathematical modeling tools such as genome-scale metabolic modeling. Here we look into the history of these different techniques and review how they find application in industrial biotechnology, which will lead to what we here define as industrial systems biology.

  10. Prostaglandins and their receptors in insect biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eStanley


    Full Text Available We treat the biological significance of prostaglandins (PGs and their known receptors in insect biology. PGs and related eicosanoids are oxygenated derivatives of arachidonic acid (AA and two other C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. PGs are mostly appreciated in the context of biomedicine, but a growing body of literature indicates the biological significance of these compounds extends throughout the animal kingdom, and possibly beyond. PGs act in several crucial areas of insect biology. In reproduction, a specific PG, PGE2, releases oviposition behavior in most crickets and a few other insect species; PGs also mediate events in egg development in some species, which may represent all insects. PGs play major roles in modulating fluid secretion in Malpighian tubules, rectum and salivary glands, although, again, this has been studied in only a few insect species that may represent the Class. Insect immunity is a very complex defense system. PGs and other eicosanoids mediate a large number of immune reactions to infection and invasion. The actions of most PGs are mediated by specific receptors. Biomedical research has discovered a great deal of knowledge about PG receptors in mammals, including their structures, pharmacology, molecular biology and cellular locations. Studies of PG receptors in insects lag behind the biomedical background, however, recent results hold the promise of accelerated research in this area. A PG receptor has been identified in a class of lepidopteran hemocytes and experimentally linked to the release of prophenoloxidase. We conclude that research into PGs and their receptors in insects will lead to important advances in our understanding of insect biology.

  11. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner


    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  12. Protein microarrays for systems biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Yang; Shujuan Guo; Yang Li; Shumin Zhou; Shengce Tao


    Systems biology holds the key for understanding biological systems on a system level. It eventually holds the key for the treatment and cure of complex diseases such as cancer,diabetes, obesity, mental disorders, and many others. The '-omics' technologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics,proteomics, and metabonomics, are among the major driving forces of systems biology. Featured as highthroughput, miniaturized, and capable of parallel analysis,protein microarrays have already become an important technology platform for systems biology, In this review, we will focus on the system level or global analysis of biological systems using protein microarrays. Four major types of protein microarrays will be discussed: proteome microarrays, antibody microarrays, reverse-phase protein arrays,and lectin microarrays. We will also discuss the challenges and future directions of protein microarray technologies and their applications for systems biology. We strongly believe that protein microarrays will soon become an indispensable and invaluable tool for systems biology.

  13. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.


    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  14. Synthetic biology: ethical ramifications 2009. (United States)

    Rabinow, Paul; Bennett, Gaymon


    During 2007 and 2008 synthetic biology moved from the manifesto stage to research programs. As of 2009, synthetic biology is ramifying; to ramify means to produce differentiated trajectories from previous determinations. From its inception, most of the players in synthetic biology agreed on the need for (a) rationalized design and construction of new biological parts, devices, and systems as well as (b) the re-design of natural biological systems for specified purposes, and that (c) the versatility of designed biological systems makes them suitable to address such challenges as renewable energy, the production of inexpensive drugs, and environmental remediation, as well as providing a catalyst for further growth of biotechnology. What is understood by these goals, however, is diverse. Those assorted understandings are currently contributing to different ramifications of synthetic biology. The Berkeley Human Practices Lab, led by Paul Rabinow, is currently devoting its efforts to documenting and analyzing these ramifications as they emerge.

  15. Bridging the gap between systems biology and synthetic biology. (United States)

    Liu, Di; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Zhang, Fuzhong


    Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary science that studies the complex interactions and the collective behavior of a cell or an organism. Synthetic biology, as a technological subject, combines biological science and engineering, allowing the design and manipulation of a system for certain applications. Both systems and synthetic biology have played important roles in the recent development of microbial platforms for energy, materials, and environmental applications. More importantly, systems biology provides the knowledge necessary for the development of synthetic biology tools, which in turn facilitates the manipulation and understanding of complex biological systems. Thus, the combination of systems and synthetic biology has huge potential for studying and engineering microbes, especially to perform advanced tasks, such as producing biofuels. Although there have been very few studies in integrating systems and synthetic biology, existing examples have demonstrated great power in extending microbiological capabilities. This review focuses on recent efforts in microbiological genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, aiming to fill the gap between systems and synthetic biology.

  16. Environmental indicators for industrial optimization and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konneman, Bram


    Companies use standard financial indicators to determine their business success and optimize their business opportunities. However, sustainable development demands for an integrated approach to economic, environmental and social indicators. Although a lot of indicator initiatives are under developme

  17. The Connection between Personality Type and Achievement in College Biology. (United States)

    Tharp, Gerald D.


    Discusses a study where the Myers Briggs Type Indicator was given to 146 students in a general biology course at a large state university. Results indicate that the introverts were the highest achievers and the perceiving types were the lowest achievers. (PR)

  18. Molecular biology of potyviruses. (United States)

    Revers, Frédéric; García, Juan Antonio


    Potyvirus is the largest genus of plant viruses causing significant losses in a wide range of crops. Potyviruses are aphid transmitted in a nonpersistent manner and some of them are also seed transmitted. As important pathogens, potyviruses are much more studied than other plant viruses belonging to other genera and their study covers many aspects of plant virology, such as functional characterization of viral proteins, molecular interaction with hosts and vectors, structure, taxonomy, evolution, epidemiology, and diagnosis. Biotechnological applications of potyviruses are also being explored. During this last decade, substantial advances have been made in the understanding of the molecular biology of these viruses and the functions of their various proteins. After a general presentation on the family Potyviridae and the potyviral proteins, we present an update of the knowledge on potyvirus multiplication, movement, and transmission and on potyvirus/plant compatible interactions including pathogenicity and symptom determinants. We end the review providing information on biotechnological applications of potyviruses.

  19. Networks in Cell Biology (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele


    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  20. The biology of strigolactones

    KAUST Repository

    Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.


    The strigolactones are rhizosphere signaling molecules as well as a new class of plant hormones with a still increasing number of biological functions being uncovered. Here, we review a recent major breakthrough in our understanding of strigolactone biosynthesis, which has revealed the unexpected simplicity of the originally postulated complex pathway. Moreover, the discovery and localization of a strigolactone exporter sheds new light on putative strigolactone fluxes to the rhizosphere as well as within the plant. The combination of these data with information on the expression and regulation of strigolactone biosynthetic and downstream signaling genes provides new insights into how strigolactones control the many different aspects of plant development and how their rhizosphere signaling role may have evolved. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.