WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological imaging-based prescription

  1. On the sensitivity of IMRT dose optimization to the mathematical form of a biological imaging-based prescription function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, Stephen R; Bentzen, Soeren M; Jeraj, Robert; Flynn, Ryan T

    2009-01-01

    Voxel-based prescriptions of deliberately non-uniform dose distributions based on molecular imaging, so-called dose painting or theragnostic radiation therapy, require specification of a transformation that maps the image data intensities to prescribed doses. However, the functional form of this transformation is currently unknown. An investigation into the sensitivity of optimized dose distributions resulting from several possible prescription functions was conducted. Transformations between the radiotracer activity concentrations from Cu-ATSM PET images, as a surrogate of tumour hypoxia, and dose prescriptions were implemented to yield weighted distributions of prescribed dose boosts in high uptake regions. Dose escalation was constrained to reflect clinically realistic whole tumour doses and constant normal tissue doses. Optimized heterogeneous dose distributions were found by minimizing a voxel-by-voxel quadratic objective function in which all tumour voxels were given equal weight. Prescriptions based on a polynomial mapping function were found to be least constraining on their optimized plans, while prescriptions based on a sigmoid mapping function were the most demanding to deliver. A prescription formalism that fixed integral dose was less sensitive to errors in the choice of the mapping function than one that boosted integral dose. Integral doses to normal tissue and critical structures were insensitive to the shape of the prescription function. Planned target dose conformity improved with smaller beamlet dimensions until the inherent spatial resolution of the functional image was matched. Clinical implementation of dose painting depends on advances in absolute quantification of functional images and improvements in delivery techniques over smaller spatial scales.

  2. 75 FR 33312 - Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...] Indexing Structured Product Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products; Request for... Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) are indexing certain categories of information in product labeling for use as terms to search repositories of approved prescription medical product structured product...

  3. Dose prescription complexity versus tumor control probability in biologically conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, C. P.; Evans, P. M.; Partridge, M.

    2009-01-01

    The technical feasibility and potential benefits of voxel-based nonuniform dose prescriptions for biologically heterogeneous tumors have been widely demonstrated. In some cases, an ''ideal'' dose prescription has been generated by individualizing the dose to every voxel within the target, but often this voxel-based prescription has been discretized into a small number of compartments. The number of dose levels utilized and the methods used for prescribing doses and assigning tumor voxels to different dose compartments have varied significantly. The authors present an investigation into the relationship between the complexity of the dose prescription and the tumor control probability (TCP) for a number of these methods. The linear quadratic model of cell killing was used in conjunction with a number of modeled tumors heterogeneous in clonogen density, oxygenation, or proliferation. Models based on simple mathematical functions, published biological data, and biological image data were investigated. Target voxels were assigned to dose compartments using (i) simple rules based on the initial biological distribution, (ii) iterative methods designed to maximize the achievable TCP, or (iii) methods based on an ideal dose prescription. The relative performance of the simple rules was found to depend on the form of heterogeneity of the tumor, while the iterative and ideal dose methods performed comparably for all models investigated. In all cases the maximum achievable TCP was approached within the first few (typically two to five) compartments. Results suggest that irrespective of the pattern of heterogeneity, the optimal dose prescription can be well approximated using only a few dose levels but only if both the compartment boundaries and prescribed dose levels are well chosen.

  4. 78 FR 12760 - Guidance for Industry on Labeling for Human Prescription Drug and Biological Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ...--Implementing the Physician Labeling Rule Content and Format Requirements; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...--Implementing the PLR Content and Format Requirements.'' This guidance is intended to assist applicants in complying with the content and format requirements of labeling for human prescription drug and biological...

  5. The Danish National Prescription Registry in studies of a biological pharmaceutical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haerskjold, Ann; Henriksen, Lonny; Way, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: National prescription databases are important tools in pharmacoepidemiological studies investigating potential long-term adverse events after drug use. Palivizumab is a biological pharmaceutical used as passive prophylaxis against severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus...... of palivizumab exposure in the DNPR between 1999 and 2010 was compared to two external data sources: registration of palivizumab exposure in medical records, and palivizumab reimbursement data. RESULTS: During the study period, 182 children with palivizumab exposure were registered in the DNPR. A total of 207...... slightly increased the sensitivity of palivizumab registration in the DNPR. Our findings underline the need to improve DNPR information concerning drugs administered in hospitals....

  6. Epithelial invasion outcompetes hypha development during Candida albicans infection as revealed by an image-based systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, Franziska; Wilson, Duncan; Lehnert, Teresa; Hube, Bernhard; Thilo Figge, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Candida albicans is the most common opportunistic fungal pathogen of the human mucosal flora, frequently causing infections. The fungus is responsible for invasive infections in immunocompromised patients that can lead to sepsis. The yeast to hypha transition and invasion of host-tissue represent major determinants in the switch from benign colonizer to invasive pathogen. A comprehensive understanding of the infection process requires analyses at the quantitative level. Utilizing fluorescence microscopy with differential staining, we obtained images of C. albicans undergoing epithelial invasion during a time course of 6 h. An image-based systems biology approach, combining image analysis and mathematical modeling, was applied to quantify the kinetics of hyphae development, hyphal elongation, and epithelial invasion. The automated image analysis facilitates high-throughput screening and provided quantities that allow for the time-resolved characterization of the morphological and invasive state of fungal cells. The interpretation of these data was supported by two mathematical models, a kinetic growth model and a kinetic transition model, that were developed using differential equations. The kinetic growth model describes the increase in hyphal length and revealed that hyphae undergo mass invasion of epithelial cells following primary hypha formation. We also provide evidence that epithelial cells stimulate the production of secondary hyphae by C. albicans. Based on the kinetic transition model, the route of invasion was quantified in the state space of non-invasive and invasive fungal cells depending on their number of hyphae. This analysis revealed that the initiation of hyphae formation represents an ultimate commitment to invasive growth and suggests that in vivo, the yeast to hypha transition must be under exquisitely tight negative regulation to avoid the transition from commensal to pathogen invading the epithelium. © 2013 International Society for

  7. Behavioural screening of zebrafish using neuroactive traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions and biological targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Nan; Hou, Yuan-Yuan; Sun, Ming-Zhu; Zhang, Chun-Yang; Bai, Gang; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xi-Zeng

    2014-06-01

    The mechanism of the therapeutic action of antidepressants remains uncertain in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In this study, we selected 7 classical TCM prescriptions and utilised an automatic video-tracking system to monitor the rest/wake behaviour of larval zebrafish at 4 days post-fertilisation (dpf) for 48 hours. We found that the curative effects of the prescriptions were dose-dependent. K-means clustering was performed according to the shared behavioural phenotypes of the zebrafish. The results revealed that the rest/wake behavioural profiles induced by the same class of prescriptions were similar. A correlation analysis was conducted between the TCM prescriptions and the known compounds. The results showed that the TCM prescriptions correlated well with some well-known compounds. Therefore, we predicted that they may share a similar mechanism of action. This paper describes the first study to combine TCM research with zebrafish rest/wake behaviour in vivo and presents a powerful approach for the discovery of the mechanism of action of TCM prescriptions.

  8. Writing toward a Scientific Identity: Shifting from Prescriptive to Reflective Writing in Undergraduate Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otfinowski, Rafael; Silva-Opps, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Analytical writing enhances retention of science learning and is integral to student-centered classrooms. Despite this, scientific writing in undergraduate programs is often presented as a series of sentence-level conventions of grammar, syntax, and citation formats, reinforcing students' perceptions of its highly prescriptive nature. The authors…

  9. [French Society for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology task force: Formal Consensus for the prescription of depot antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samalin, L; Abbar, M; Courtet, P; Guillaume, S; Lancrenon, S; Llorca, P-M

    2013-12-01

    Compliance is often partial with oral antipsychotics and underestimated for patients with serious mental illness. Despite their demonstrated advantages in terms of relapse prevention, depot formulations are still poorly used in routine. As part of a process to improve the quality of care, French Association for Biological Psychiatry and Neuropsychopharmacology (AFPBN) Task Force elaborated a Formal Consensus for the prescription of depot antipsychotics in clinical practice. The Task Force recommends as first-line choice, the use of long-acting injectable (LAI) second-generation antipsychotics in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and delusional disorder. They can be considered as a second-line option as a monotherapy to prevent manic recurrence or in combination with mood stabilizer to prevent depressive recurrence in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. LAI second-generation antipsychotics can also be used after a first episode of schizophrenia. Depot neuroleptics are not recommended during the early course of schizophrenia and are not appropriate in bipolar disorder. They are considered as a second-line option for maintenance treatment in schizophrenia. LAI formulations should be systematically proposed to any patients for whom maintenance antipsychotic treatment is indicated. LAI antipsychotics can be used preferentially for non-compliant patients with frequent relapses or aggressive behaviors. A specific information concerning the advantages and inconveniences of the LAI formulations, in the framework of shared-decision making must be delivered to each patient. Recommendations for switching from one oral/LAI form to another LAI and for using LAI antipsychotics in specific populations (pregnant women, elderly patients, subjects in a precarious situation, and subjects having to be treated in a prison establishment) are also proposed. Copyright © 2013 L’Encéphale. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  10. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  11. Verification of biological activity of irradiated Sopoongsan, an oriental medicinal prescription, for industrial application of functional cosmetic material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae-Soon; Ho Son, Jun [Department of Cosmeceutical Science, Daegu Haany University, Kyungsan 712-715 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Woo Byun, Myung [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jeun An, Bong [Department of Cosmeceutical Science, Daegu Haany University, Kyungsan 712-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: anbj@dhu.ac.kr

    2007-11-15

    Sopoongsan is an oriental medicinal prescription including 12 medicinal herbs. Sopoongsan is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects on human skin. To use Sopoongsan extract for functional cosmetic composition, its dark color should be brighter for seeking consumer demand, clear products, without any adverse change in its function. Irradiation with doses 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy was applied to improve color of ethanol- or water-extracted Sopoongsan and also superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), melanoma cell growth inhibition, and anti-microbial activity was investigated. Generally, ethanol extract was better than water extract in function and irradiation up to 20 kGy did not change any functional effect. Especially, the inhibition of melanin deposition on skin measured by inhibition of B16F10 (melanoma) cell growth was as high as arbutin, commercially available product, when the ethanol-extracted Sopoongsan was irradiated for 20 kGy. Results showed that when irradiation technology is used, the limitation of addition amount of natural materials for food or cosmetic composition caused by color problem can be decreased significantly with time saving and cost benefit compared to conventional color removal process. Therefore, irradiation would be one of the good methods to pose an additional value for related industry.

  12. Verification of biological activity of irradiated Sopoongsan, an oriental medicinal prescription, for industrial application of functional cosmetic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-Young; Park, Tae-Soon; Ho Son, Jun; Jo, Cheorun; Woo Byun, Myung; Jeun An, Bong

    2007-01-01

    Sopoongsan is an oriental medicinal prescription including 12 medicinal herbs. Sopoongsan is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects on human skin. To use Sopoongsan extract for functional cosmetic composition, its dark color should be brighter for seeking consumer demand, clear products, without any adverse change in its function. Irradiation with doses 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy was applied to improve color of ethanol- or water-extracted Sopoongsan and also superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XO), melanoma cell growth inhibition, and anti-microbial activity was investigated. Generally, ethanol extract was better than water extract in function and irradiation up to 20 kGy did not change any functional effect. Especially, the inhibition of melanin deposition on skin measured by inhibition of B16F10 (melanoma) cell growth was as high as arbutin, commercially available product, when the ethanol-extracted Sopoongsan was irradiated for 20 kGy. Results showed that when irradiation technology is used, the limitation of addition amount of natural materials for food or cosmetic composition caused by color problem can be decreased significantly with time saving and cost benefit compared to conventional color removal process. Therefore, irradiation would be one of the good methods to pose an additional value for related industry

  13. PET imaging for the quantification of biologically heterogeneous tumours: measuring the effect of relative position on image-based quantification of dose-painting targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, Keisha C; Barbee, David L; Kissick, Michael W; Jeraj, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative imaging of tumours represents the foundation of customized therapies and adaptive patient care. As such, we have investigated the effect of patient positioning errors on the reproducibility of images of biologically heterogeneous tumours generated by a clinical PET/CT system. A commercial multi-slice PET/CT system was used to acquire 2D and 3D PET images of a phantom containing multiple spheres of known volumes and known radioactivity concentrations and suspended in an aqueous medium. The spheres served as surrogates for sub-tumour regions of biological heterogeneities with dimensions of 5-15 mm. Between image acquisitions, a motorized-arm was used to reposition the spheres in 1 mm intervals along either the radial or the axial direction. Images of the phantom were reconstructed using typical diagnostic reconstruction techniques, and these images were analysed to characterize and model the position-dependent changes in contrast recovery. A simulation study was also conducted to investigate the effect of patient position on the reproducibility of PET imaging of biologically heterogeneous head and neck (HN) tumours. For this simulation study, we calculated the changes in image intensity values that would occur with changes in the relative position of the patients at the time of imaging. PET images of two HN patients were used to simulate an imaging study that incorporated set-up errors that are typical for HN patients. One thousand randomized positioning errors were investigated for each patient. As a result of the phantom study, a position-dependent trend was identified for measurements of contrast recovery of small objects. The peak contrast recovery occurred at radial and axial positions that coincide with the centre of the image voxel. Conversely, the minimum contrast recovery occurred when the object was positioned at the edges of the image voxel. Changing the position of high contrast spheres by one-half the voxel dimension lead to errors in the

  14. Discovery of innovative therapies for rare immune-mediated inflammatory diseases via off-label prescription of biologics: the case of IL-6 receptor blockade in Castleman’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eMusters

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biologics have revolutionized the field of clinical immunology and proven to be both effective and safe in common immune-mediated inflammatory diseases (IMIDs such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, and various haematological disorders. However, in patients with rare, severe IMIDs failing on standard therapies it is virtually impossible to conduct randomized controlled trials. Therefore, biologics are usually prescribed off-label in these often severely ill patients. Unfortunately, off-label prescription is sometimes hampered in these diseases due to a lack of reimbursement that is often based on a presumed lack of evidence for effectiveness. In the present article will discuss that off-label prescription of biologics can be a good way to discover new treatments for rare diseases. This will be ilustrated using a case of multicentric Castleman’s disease, an immune-mediated lymphoproliferative disorder, in which off-label tocilizumab (humanized anti-IL-6 receptor blocking antibody treatment resulted in remarkable clinical improvement. Furthermore, we will give recommendations for monitoring efficacy and safety of biologic treatment in rare IMIDs, including the use of registries. In conclusion, we put forward that innovative treatments for rare IMIDs can be discovered via off-label prescription of biologicals, provided that this is based on rational arguments including knowledge of the pathophysiology of the disease.

  15. Partnership for Prescription Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may use our name without our permission. The Partnership for Prescription Assistance will help you find the ... Events Blog Facebook Twitter Start living better. The Partnership for Prescription Assistance helps qualifying patients without prescription ...

  16. Prescription Drug Profiles PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Prescription Drug Profiles Public Use Files (PUFs) drawn from Medicare prescription drug claims for the year of the date on which the...

  17. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include opioids, sedatives, ...

  18. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug abuse. And it's illegal, just like taking street drugs. Why Do People Abuse Prescription Drugs? Some people abuse prescription drugs ... common risk of prescription drug abuse is addiction . People who abuse ... as if they were taking street drugs. That's one reason most doctors won't ...

  19. Image-based occupancy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polese, Luigi Gentile; Brackney, Larry

    2015-05-19

    An image-based occupancy sensor includes a motion detection module that receives and processes an image signal to generate a motion detection signal, a people detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a people detection signal, a face detection module that receives the image signal and processes the image signal to generate a face detection signal, and a sensor integration module that receives the motion detection signal from the motion detection module, receives the people detection signal from the people detection module, receives the face detection signal from the face detection module, and generates an occupancy signal using the motion detection signal, the people detection signal, and the face detection signal, with the occupancy signal indicating vacancy or occupancy, with an occupancy indication specifying that one or more people are detected within the monitored volume.

  20. Prescription for herbal healing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, Phyllis A; Bell, Stacey J

    2012-01-01

    .... From the most trusted name in natural healing, Phyllis A. Balch's new edition of Prescription for Herbal Healing provides the most current research and comprehensive facts in an easy-to-read A- to-Z format, including...

  1. Image Based Rendering and Virtual Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livatino, Salvatore

    The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation.......The Presentation concerns with an overview of Image Based Rendering approaches and their use on Virtual Reality, including Virtual Photography and Cinematography, and Mobile Robot Navigation....

  2. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  3. Getting a prescription filled

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get a prescription from your provider, you may buy the medicine in different ways. LOCAL PHARMACIES The most common ... long-term medicines you use for chronic problems. Buy short-term medicines and drugs that need to be stored at ...

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... were prescribed to someone else or if your child is already taking other prescription medications. Set rules. Let your teen know that it's not OK to share medications with others — or to take drugs prescribed for others. Emphasize the importance of taking the prescribed dose and talking with ...

  5. Visualization of medicine prescription behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corput, van der P.N.A.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Wijk, van J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Medicine prescriptions play an important role in medical treatments. More insight in medicine prescription behavior can lead to more efficient and effective treatments, as well as reflection on prescription behavior for specific physicians, types of medicines, or classes of patients. Most current

  6. [Prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Welfare Pharmacy contains medical formulas documented by the government and official prescriptions used by the official pharmacy in the pharmaceutical process. In the last years of Southern Song Dynasty, anonyms gave a lot of prescription annotations, made textual researches for the name, source, composition and origin of the prescriptions, and supplemented important historical data of medical cases and researched historical facts. The annotations of Welfare Pharmacy gathered the essence of medical theory, and can be used as precious materials to correctly understand the syndrome differentiation, compatibility regularity and clinical application of prescriptions. This article deeply investigated the style and form of the prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy, the name of prescriptions and the evolution of terminology, the major functions of the prescriptions, processing methods, instructions for taking medicine and taboos of prescriptions, the medical cases and clinical efficacy of prescriptions, the backgrounds, sources, composition and cultural meanings of prescriptions, proposed that the prescription annotations played an active role in the textual dissemination, patent medicine production and clinical diagnosis and treatment of Welfare Pharmacy. This not only helps understand the changes in the names and terms of traditional Chinese medicines in Welfare Pharmacy, but also provides the basis for understanding the knowledge sources, compatibility regularity, important drug innovations and clinical medications of prescriptions in Welfare Pharmacy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  7. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disable...

  8. Strategies for Biologic Image-Guided Dose Escalation: A Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovik, Aste; Malinen, Eirik; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing interest in how to incorporate functional and molecular information obtained by noninvasive, three-dimensional tumor imaging into radiotherapy. The key issues are to identify radioresistant regions that can be targeted for dose escalation, and to develop radiation dose prescription and delivery strategies providing optimal treatment for the individual patient. In the present work, we review the proposed strategies for biologic image-guided dose escalation with intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Biologic imaging modalities and the derived images are discussed, as are methods for target volume delineation. Different dose escalation strategies and techniques for treatment delivery and treatment plan evaluation are also addressed. Furthermore, we consider the need for response monitoring during treatment. We conclude with a summary of the current status of biologic image-based dose escalation and of areas where further work is needed for this strategy to become incorporated into clinical practice

  9. A prescription fraud detection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Karca Duru; Güvenir, Halil Altay; Sabuncuoğlu, Ihsan; Akar, Ahmet Ruchan

    2012-04-01

    Prescription fraud is a main problem that causes substantial monetary loss in health care systems. We aimed to develop a model for detecting cases of prescription fraud and test it on real world data from a large multi-center medical prescription database. Conventionally, prescription fraud detection is conducted on random samples by human experts. However, the samples might be misleading and manual detection is costly. We propose a novel distance based on data-mining approach for assessing the fraudulent risk of prescriptions regarding cross-features. Final tests have been conducted on adult cardiac surgery database. The results obtained from experiments reveal that the proposed model works considerably well with a true positive rate of 77.4% and a false positive rate of 6% for the fraudulent medical prescriptions. The proposed model has the potential advantages including on-line risk prediction for prescription fraud, off-line analysis of high-risk prescriptions by human experts, and self-learning ability by regular updates of the integrative data sets. We conclude that incorporating such a system in health authorities, social security agencies and insurance companies would improve efficiency of internal review to ensure compliance with the law, and radically decrease human-expert auditing costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biologic Medications for Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... open('/content/cro/en/health/prescription-drugs/best-buy-drugs/Biologics_For_Psoriasis.print.html','win2','status=no, ... we recommend the following as Consumer Reports Best Buy Drugs . Adalimumab (Humira) Etanercept (Enbrel) Studies show that for ...

  11. Developing stereo image based robot control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suprijadi,; Pambudi, I. R.; Woran, M.; Naa, C. F; Srigutomo, W. [Department of Physics, FMIPA, InstitutTeknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha No. 10. Bandung 40132, Indonesia supri@fi.itb.ac.id (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Application of image processing is developed in various field and purposes. In the last decade, image based system increase rapidly with the increasing of hardware and microprocessor performance. Many fields of science and technology were used this methods especially in medicine and instrumentation. New technique on stereovision to give a 3-dimension image or movie is very interesting, but not many applications in control system. Stereo image has pixel disparity information that is not existed in single image. In this research, we proposed a new method in wheel robot control system using stereovision. The result shows robot automatically moves based on stereovision captures.

  12. Influence of pharmacists expertise on physicians prescription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the prescribing behaviour of physicians. ... Keywords: Physician prescription behaviour, Pharmacist factor, Collaboration, Trustworthiness ... provide information relating to drug prescription, ... processing [22], which takes into consideration.

  13. The Danish National Prescription Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Toft Sørensen, Henrik; Hallas, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Individual-level data on all prescription drugs sold in Danish community pharmacies has since 1994 been recorded in the Register of Medicinal Products Statistics of the Danish Medicines Agency. Content: The register subset, termed the Danish National Prescription Registry (DNPR......), contains information on dispensed prescriptions, including variables at the level of the drug user, the prescriber, and the pharmacy. Validity and coverage: Reimbursement-driven record keeping, with automated bar-code-based data entry provides data of high quality, including detailed information...

  14. Image based SAR product simulation for analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domik, G.; Leberl, F.

    1987-01-01

    SAR product simulation serves to predict SAR image gray values for various flight paths. Input typically consists of a digital elevation model and backscatter curves. A new method is described of product simulation that employs also a real SAR input image for image simulation. This can be denoted as 'image-based simulation'. Different methods to perform this SAR prediction are presented and advantages and disadvantages discussed. Ascending and descending orbit images from NASA's SIR-B experiment were used for verification of the concept: input images from ascending orbits were converted into images from a descending orbit; the results are compared to the available real imagery to verify that the prediction technique produces meaningful image data.

  15. Image-Based Models Using Crowdsourcing Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Spanò

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation and valorization of Cultural Heritage require an extensive documentation, both in properly historic-artistic terms and regarding the physical characteristics of position, shape, color, and geometry. With the use of digital photogrammetry that make acquisition of overlapping images for 3D photo modeling and with the development of dense and accurate 3D point models, it is possible to obtain high-resolution orthoprojections of surfaces.Recent years have seen a growing interest in crowdsourcing that holds in the field of the protection and dissemination of cultural heritage, in parallel there is an increasing awareness for contributing the generation of digital models with the immense wealth of images available on the web which are useful for documentation heritage.In this way, the availability and ease the automation of SfM (Structure from Motion algorithm enables the generation of digital models of the built heritage, which can be inserted positively in crowdsourcing processes. In fact, non-expert users can handle the technology in the process of acquisition, which today is one of the fundamental points to involve the wider public to the cultural heritage protection. To present the image based models and their derivatives that can be made from a great digital resource; the current approach is useful for the little-known heritage or not easily accessible buildings as an emblematic case study that was selected. It is the Vank Cathedral in Isfahan in Iran: the availability of accurate point clouds and reliable orthophotos are very convenient since the building of the Safavid epoch (cent. XVII-XVIII completely frescoed with the internal surfaces, which the architecture and especially the architectural decoration reach their peak.The experimental part of the paper explores also some aspects of usability of the digital output from the image based modeling methods. The availability of orthophotos allows and facilitates the iconographic

  16. [Drug interactions in chronic prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comet, D; Casajuana, J; Bordas, J M; Fuentes, M A; Arnáiz, J A; Núñez, B; Pou, R

    1997-06-30

    Application of computerized program for detection of potential drug interactions (PDI) in chronic prescriptions in four primary care centers. To evaluate the clinical significance of PDI identified according to clinical criterions. An observational crossover study. Clutat Vella health district (City of Barcelona). Using information of Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Farmaceuticos databases and the chronic prescriptions database of the primary care centers, computerized drug-interaction system have been developed for detection of PDI in patients. A panel of primary care physicians and clinical pharmacists developed criteria that were used to evaluate the clinical significance of PDI. 9840 Cards of Authorized Prescription (CAP) were analyzed, 36108 medicaments and 42877 drugs. A total of 2140 patients were involved for a total of 3406 PDI, 21.75% of patients with CAP. Clinical signification for the panel was found in 40.07% of these 3406 PIF; 3.78% were suggest to avoid the association drugs. The incidence of PDI with clinical signification are lower than other studies of the literature; it suggest a appropriate knowledge of drug prescription. The application of computerized program make much more easy the detection of adverse drug interactions in chronic prescription.

  17. Image-based spectroscopy for environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmakov, Eduard; Molina, Carolyn; Wynne, Rosalind

    2014-03-01

    An image-processing algorithm for use with a nano-featured spectrometer chemical agent detection configuration is presented. The spectrometer chip acquired from Nano-Optic DevicesTM can reduce the size of the spectrometer down to a coin. The nanospectrometer chip was aligned with a 635nm laser source, objective lenses, and a CCD camera. The images from a nanospectrometer chip were collected and compared to reference spectra. Random background noise contributions were isolated and removed from the diffraction pattern image analysis via a threshold filter. Results are provided for the image-based detection of the diffraction pattern produced by the nanospectrometer. The featured PCF spectrometer has the potential to measure optical absorption spectra in order to detect trace amounts of contaminants. MATLAB tools allow for implementation of intelligent, automatic detection of the relevant sub-patterns in the diffraction patterns and subsequent extraction of the parameters using region-detection algorithms such as the generalized Hough transform, which detects specific shapes within the image. This transform is a method for detecting curves by exploiting the duality between points on a curve and parameters of that curve. By employing this imageprocessing technique, future sensor systems will benefit from new applications such as unsupervised environmental monitoring of air or water quality.

  18. Image based radiotherapy, where we stand?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangacharyulu, Chary

    2016-01-01

    Since the invention of X-ray tube, image based therapy has evolved in many ways. The latest tool is the MR-Linac, where MRI guided Linac Bremsstrahlung radiation therapy is being promoted to cure cancers. Studies are underway to combine proton radiation therapy with positron emission tomography. Also, there are ideas for Bremsstrahlung beam therapy using a few MeV photons to combine with real-time positron emission tomography. While these technologies offer promises to revolutionize radiation oncology, one should be concerned about the potential excessive doses and their consequences to the patient. Also, one should be wary about the instantaneous real-time responses from oncologist or, even a bit scarier, automated decisions based on algorithm dictated protocols, which may result in life and death or even worse, those which may adversely affect the well being of a patient. In essence, treatment protocols which incorporate a thorough, careful assessments are warranted. Further concerns are economics of these developments weighed against the quality of life to the patients and their beloved's. This talk will present the current status and speculate on the possible developments with a few cautionary remarks. (author)

  19. Image-based compound profiling reveals a dual inhibitor of tyrosine kinase and microtubule polymerization

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule compounds are widely used as biological research tools and therapeutic drugs. Therefore, uncovering novel targets of these compounds should provide insights that are valuable in both basic and clinical studies. I developed a method for image-based compound profiling by quantitating the effects of compounds on signal transduction and vesicle trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Using six signal transduction molecules and two markers of vesicle trafficking, 570...

  20. Prescription Painkiller Overdoses PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Prescription painkiller overdoses are an under-recognized and growing problem among women. This program includes things that women and health care providers can do to reduce the risk of overdose.

  1. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  2. A Prescription Survey from Sri Lanka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adherence to standard guidelines on the layout and content of prescriptions. Method: A ... Conclusion: Prescription errors are common in outpatient settings of Aluthgama and Kandy areas in .... qualification of the prescriber was present, it was.

  3. Image-based reflectance conversion of ASTER and IKONOS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spectral signatures derived from different image-based models for ASTER and IKONOS were inspected visually as first departure. This was followed by comparison of the total accuracy and Kappa index computed from supervised classification of images that were derived from different image-based atmospheric correction ...

  4. Prescription Drug Abuse and Youth. Information Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.

    Prescription drugs, a category of psychotherapeutics that comprises prescription-type pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives, are among the substances most commonly abused by young people in the United States. Prescription drugs are readily available and can easily be obtained by teenagers who abuse these drugs to experience a…

  5. A new prescription for soft gluon resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbate, Riccardo; Forte, Stefano; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    We present a new prescription for the resummation of the divergent series of perturbative corrections, due to soft gluon emission, to hard processes near threshold in perturbative QCD (threshold resummation). This prescription is based on Borel resummation, and contrary to the commonly used minimal prescription, it does not introduce a dependence of resummed physical observables on the kinematically unaccessible x→0 region of parton distributions. We compare results for resummed deep-inelastic scattering obtained using the Borel prescription and the minimal prescription and exploit the comparison to discuss the ambiguities related to the resummation procedure

  6. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, J.D.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Nunez, C.; Schaposnik, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical in the sense that it maintains the form of the interactions between particles thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space. (author). 12 refs

  7. Prescription Painkiller Overdoses PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Prescription painkiller overdoses are an under-recognized and growing problem among women. This program includes things that women and health care providers can do to reduce the risk of overdose.  Created: 7/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/2/2013.

  8. Nutrition and the dialysis prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertow, G M; Bullard, A; Lazarus, J M

    1996-01-01

    Malnutrition is common among patients with acute and chronic renal failure. The efficiency of modern dialytic techniques has allowed for more liberal administration of nutrients to patients with renal failure, particularly with regard to protein and amino acids. Protein restriction is not indicated for patients on dialysis, and should be employed cautiously, if at all, in patients with renal insufficiency. The 'nutrition prescription' should be considered a vital part of the comprehensive medical, surgical, and dialytic care provided to patients with renal disease.

  9. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  10. Prescriptions, Nonmedical Use, and Emergency Department Visits Involving Prescription Stimulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lian-Yu; Crum, Rosa M.; Strain, Eric C.; CalebAlexander, G.; Kaufmann, Christopher; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2018-01-01

    Objective Little is known regarding the temporal trends in prescription, nonmedical use and emergency department (ED) visits involving prescription stimulants in the United States. We aimed to examine the three national trends involving dextroamphetamine-amphetamin (Adderall) and methylphenidate in adults and adolescents. Method Three national surveys conducted between 2006-2011 were used: National Disease and Therapeutic Index (NDTI), a survey of office-based practices, National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a population survey of substance use, and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), a survey of ED visits. Ordinary least square regression was used to examine temporal changes over time and the associations between these three trends. Results In adolescents, treatment visits involving dextroamphetamine-amphetamine and methylphenidate decreased over time; nonmedical dextroamphetamine-amphetamine use remained stable while nonmedical methylphenidate use declined by 54.4% in 6 years. ED visits involving either medication remained stable. In adults, treatment visits involving dextroamphetamine-amphetamine remained unchanged while nonmedical use went up by 67% and ED visits went up by 156%. These three trends involving methylphenidate remained unchanged. The major source for both medications was a friend or relative across age groups; two-thirds of these friends/relatives had obtained the medication from a physician. Conclusions Trends of prescriptions for stimulants do not correspond to trends in reports of nonmedical use and ED visits. Increased nonmedical stimulant use may not be simply attributed to increased prescribing trends. Future studies should focus on deeper understanding of the proportion, risk factors and motivations for drug diversions. PMID:26890573

  11. Improving Docking Performance Using Negative Image-Based Rescoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkinen, Sami T; Niinivehmas, Sanna; Ahinko, Mira; Lätti, Sakari; Pentikäinen, Olli T; Postila, Pekka A

    2018-01-01

    Despite the large computational costs of molecular docking, the default scoring functions are often unable to recognize the active hits from the inactive molecules in large-scale virtual screening experiments. Thus, even though a correct binding pose might be sampled during the docking, the active compound or its biologically relevant pose is not necessarily given high enough score to arouse the attention. Various rescoring and post-processing approaches have emerged for improving the docking performance. Here, it is shown that the very early enrichment (number of actives scored higher than 1% of the highest ranked decoys) can be improved on average 2.5-fold or even 8.7-fold by comparing the docking-based ligand conformers directly against the target protein's cavity shape and electrostatics. The similarity comparison of the conformers is performed without geometry optimization against the negative image of the target protein's ligand-binding cavity using the negative image-based (NIB) screening protocol. The viability of the NIB rescoring or the R-NiB, pioneered in this study, was tested with 11 target proteins using benchmark libraries. By focusing on the shape/electrostatics complementarity of the ligand-receptor association, the R-NiB is able to improve the early enrichment of docking essentially without adding to the computing cost. By implementing consensus scoring, in which the R-NiB and the original docking scoring are weighted for optimal outcome, the early enrichment is improved to a level that facilitates effective drug discovery. Moreover, the use of equal weight from the original docking scoring and the R-NiB scoring improves the yield in most cases.

  12. E-prescription across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    . There are varying interpretations and implementations of data protection and confidentiality laws in the 27 member states. Infrastructures are not in place to support the system and stakeholders in some jurisdictions are reluctant to embrace e-health due to the high cost and the lack of security of the systems....... The study concludes that member states have varying degrees of health care policy, privacy enforcement and laws concerning data protection, telecommunication services and digital signature with regards to e-Prescription. Interoperability of different systems is only a partial solution. Security...

  13. Exercise: A vitally important prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechanova, Rachel L; Wegler, Jennifer L; Forest, Christopher P

    2017-04-01

    Sedentary lifestyles and low physical activity have led to rising health concerns and increasing mortality risks. With the growing concern of the inactivity of adult Americans, it is important that physical activity be promoted to prevent disease and reduce health risks. This article reviews the benefits of physical activity and the steps that primary care providers should take to evaluate physical activity as the fifth vital sign in every patient encounter. The 5A's (assess, advise, agree, assist, and arrange) should be applied in order to implement an exercise prescription into the practice of medicine.

  14. Radiopharmaceutical prescription in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biechlin-Chassel, M.L.; Lao, S.; Bolot, C.; Francois-Joubert, A.

    2010-01-01

    In France, radiopharmaceutical prescription is often discussed depending to which juridical structure the nuclear medicine department is belonging. According to current regulation, this prescription is an obligation in a department linked to hospital with a pharmacy department inside. But situation remains unclear for independent nuclear medicine departments where physicians are not constrained to prescribe radiopharmaceuticals. However, as radiographers and nurses are only authorized to realize theirs acts in front of a medical prescription, one prescription must be realized. Nowadays, computerized prescription tools have been developed but only for radiopharmaceutical drugs and not for medical acts. In the aim to achieve a safer patient care, the prescription regulation may be applied whatever differences between nuclear medicines departments. (authors)

  15. iScreen: Image-Based High-Content RNAi Screening Analysis Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Dong, Xiaonan; Levine, Beth; Xie, Yang; Xiao, Guanghua

    2015-09-01

    High-throughput RNA interference (RNAi) screening has opened up a path to investigating functional genomics in a genome-wide pattern. However, such studies are often restricted to assays that have a single readout format. Recently, advanced image technologies have been coupled with high-throughput RNAi screening to develop high-content screening, in which one or more cell image(s), instead of a single readout, were generated from each well. This image-based high-content screening technology has led to genome-wide functional annotation in a wider spectrum of biological research studies, as well as in drug and target discovery, so that complex cellular phenotypes can be measured in a multiparametric format. Despite these advances, data analysis and visualization tools are still largely lacking for these types of experiments. Therefore, we developed iScreen (image-Based High-content RNAi Screening Analysis Tool), an R package for the statistical modeling and visualization of image-based high-content RNAi screening. Two case studies were used to demonstrate the capability and efficiency of the iScreen package. iScreen is available for download on CRAN (http://cran.cnr.berkeley.edu/web/packages/iScreen/index.html). The user manual is also available as a supplementary document. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  16. Stability in Effects of gamma-Irradiated Chinese Medicinal Prescriptions on Protection of Mice from Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jung-Ah; Kim Sung-Ho

    2000-01-01

    The radioprotective effects of irradiated medicinal plants on biological system were studied to apply the irradiation technology for hygienic purpose that is usually performed by chemical preservatives. We previously reported that the three Chinese medicinal prescriptions, Si-Wu-Tang, Bu-Zhong-Yi-Qi-Tang and San-Ling-Bai-Shu-San, showed radioprotective effects in mice. In these experiments, to investigate the difference in radioprotective effects between irradiated (10 kGy) and non-irradiated medicinal plants, mice were administered with the irradiated or non-irradiated prescriptions and then the mice were exposed to gamma-rays with low and high dosage. Non-exposed mice were also prepared as a control. The effects of prescriptions on the jejunal crypt survival, endogenous spleen colony formation, and apoptosis of jejunal crypt cells in mice were investigated after exposure. All of the prescriptions showed the protective effects of the jejunal crypt (p0.05) and the adminstration of the prescriptions increased the formation of endogenous spleen colony (p0.05) and reduced the frequency of radiation-induced apoptosis (p0.05). No significant difference in effects between irradiated and non-irradiated prescreption on the parameters was found in mice administered with each prescription before exposure to gamma-rays. In non-exposed mice, there were no different findings in the parameters between irradiated and non-irradiated prescription

  17. Diagnosis-Prescription in the Context of Instructional Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besel, Ronald

    The usage of the terms "diagnosis" and "prescription" in the fields of medicine and electronic troubleshooting is reviewed, and a common structure for diagnosis-prescription is proposed. The diagnosis-prescription decision sequence is outlined. Prescription-without-diagnosis and diagnosis-without-prescription in education is discussed. The…

  18. Image-based corrosion recognition for ship steel structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yucong; Yang, Yang; Yao, Yuan; Li, Shengyuan; Zhao, Xuefeng

    2018-03-01

    Ship structures are subjected to corrosion inevitably in service. Existed image-based methods are influenced by the noises in images because they recognize corrosion by extracting features. In this paper, a novel method of image-based corrosion recognition for ship steel structures is proposed. The method utilizes convolutional neural networks (CNN) and will not be affected by noises in images. A CNN used to recognize corrosion was designed through fine-turning an existing CNN architecture and trained by datasets built using lots of images. Combining the trained CNN classifier with a sliding window technique, the corrosion zone in an image can be recognized.

  19. Stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy: Dose prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlienger, M.; Lartigau, E.; Nataf, F.; Mornex, F.; Latorzeff, I.; Lisbona, A.; Mahe, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was the study of the successive steps permitting the prescription of dose in stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy, which includes radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The successive steps studied are: the choice of stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy among the therapeutic options, based on curative or palliative treatment intent, then the selection of lesions according to size/volume, pathological type and their number permitting the choice between radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, which have the same methodological basis. Clinical experience has determined the level of dose to treat the lesions and limit the irradiation of healthy adjacent tissues and organs at risk structures. The last step is the optimization of the different parameters to obtain a safe compromise between the lesion dose and healthy adjacent structures. Study of dose-volume histograms, coverage indices and 3D imaging permit the optimization of irradiation. For lesions close to or included in a critical area, the prescribed dose is planned using the inverse planing method. Implementation of the successively described steps is mandatory to insure the prescription of an optimized dose. The whole procedure is based on the delineation of the lesion and adjacent healthy tissues. There are sometimes difficulties to assess the delineation and the volume of the target, however improvement of local control rates and reduction of secondary effects are the proof that the totality of the successive procedures are progressively improved. In practice, stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy is a continually improved treatment method, which constantly benefits from improvements in the choice of indications, imaging, techniques of irradiation, planing/optimization methodology and irradiation technique and from data collected from prolonged follow-up. (authors)

  20. Influence of pharmacists expertise on physicians prescription ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the influence of pharmacist factors on prescription decisions of physicians. Methods: A survey of literature was carried out across online databases and 12 relevant articles were identified. The influence of pharmacist factors on physician prescription decisions was identified in the articles. A conceptual ...

  1. 76 FR 51310 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Branded Prescription Drug Fee AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of proposed... issue of the Federal Register, the IRS is issuing temporary regulations relating to the branded... business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary...

  2. Simple and robust image-based autofocusing for digital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Kenny, Kevin B; Tasimi, Krenar; Corwin, Alex D; Dixon, Elizabeth L; Filkins, Robert J

    2008-06-09

    A simple image-based autofocusing scheme for digital microscopy is demonstrated that uses as few as two intermediate images to bring the sample into focus. The algorithm is adapted to a commercial inverted microscope and used to automate brightfield and fluorescence imaging of histopathology tissue sections.

  3. Image-based navigation for a robotized flexible endoscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stap, N.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Luo, Xiongbiao; Reichl, Tobias; Mirota, Daniel; Soper, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Robotizing flexible endoscopy enables image-based control of endoscopes. Especially during high-throughput procedures, such as a colonoscopy, navigation support algorithms could improve procedure turnaround and ergonomics for the endoscopist. In this study, we have developed and implemented a

  4. Investigating Image-Based Perception and Reasoning in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stephen R.; Handscomb, Kerry; Zaparyniuk, Nicholas E.; Sha, Li; Cimen, O. Arda; Shipulina, Olga V.

    2009-01-01

    Geometry is required for many secondary school students, and is often learned, taught, and assessed more in a heuristic image-based manner, than as a formal axiomatic deductive system. Students are required to prove general theorems, but diagrams are usually used. It follows that understanding how students engage in perceiving and reasoning about…

  5. Image-based fingerprint verification system using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Singla

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Biometric-based identification/verification systems provide a solution to the security concerns in the modern world where machine is replacing human in every aspect of life. Fingerprints, because of their uniqueness, are the most widely used and highly accepted biometrics. Fingerprint biometric systems are either minutiae-based or pattern learning (image based. The minutiae-based algorithm depends upon the local discontinuities in the ridge flow pattern and are used when template size is important while image-based matching algorithm uses both the micro and macro feature of a fingerprint and is used if fast response is required. In the present paper an image-based fingerprint verification system is discussed. The proposed method uses a learning phase, which is not present in conventional image-based systems. The learning phase uses pseudo random sub-sampling, which reduces the number of comparisons needed in the matching stage. This system has been developed using LabVIEW (Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench toolbox version 6i. The availability of datalog files in LabVIEW makes it one of the most promising candidates for its usage as a database. Datalog files can access and manipulate data and complex data structures quickly and easily. It makes writing and reading much faster. After extensive experimentation involving a large number of samples and different learning sizes, high accuracy with learning image size of 100 100 and a threshold value of 700 (1000 being the perfect match has been achieved.

  6. Image based brachytherapy planning with special reference to gynaecological cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirisits, C.

    2008-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer among women in India and one of the most frequent malignancies in Europe and in North America. In addition endometrium, vagina and vulva cancer are treated with brachytherapy. Especially for locally advanced cervix cancer the integration of image based brachytherapy planning into clinical routine is becoming a new standard for the future

  7. Reconfigurable pipelined sensing for image-based control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina, R.; Stuijk, S.; Goswami, D.; Basten, T.

    2016-01-01

    Image-based control systems are becoming common in domains such as robotics, healthcare and industrial automation. Coping with a long sample period because of the latency of the image processing algorithm is an open challenge. Modern multi-core platforms allow to address this challenge by pipelining

  8. Abuse of prescription medicines in southwestern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumevieille, M; Haramburu, F; Bégaud, B

    1997-01-01

    Few quantitative data are available concerning abuse of medicine in the general population, although dependence on prescription medicines involves a significant proportion of the population. Falsified prescription forms can be used as an indicator of abuse. Community pharmacists in a representative network were asked to report any falsified prescription form presented over a 1-year period. Sales data were used to express results as abuse rate and abuse rate ratio. Two-thirds of the 130 pharmacies in the network reported at least 1 falsified prescription. The reported incidence of falsified prescriptions was 2.3 per 10 000 inhabitants. A total of 392 falsified prescription forms was collected. The abuse rate ratios were 171 (95% CI 140 to 210) for dextroamphetamine-phenobarbital in combination, 168 (95% CI 131 to 216) for fenozolone, 67 (95% CI 53 to 84) for buprenorphine, and 40.5 (95% CI 33 to 50) for clobenzorex. These results show the efficiency of a method for detecting falsified prescriptions forms using community pharmacists. The abuse of medicines already known for their addictive potential can be estimated and alerts can also be detected.

  9. [Hospital fluoroquinolone prescription habits in northern France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, T; Cabaret, P

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the good use organization and fluoroquinolone prescription habits in cases of bone and joint, urinary, pulmonary, and digestive infections. A declarative survey was made (questionnaire for the hospital and for the prescriber). Thirty percent (44/145) of hospitals participated with 274 prescribers. Eighty percent had prescription protocols, 71 % of clinicians had access to epidemiologic data. A percentage of 30.7 (853/2,771) of prescriptions included a fluoroquinolone, 44.5 % (380/853) among these had not been recommended. The excessive prescription reached 24.4 % (116/474) in case of bone and joint infection, 14.6 % (107/731), and 20 % (157/779) in cases of digestive and respiratory infection respectively. Prescriptions for urinary infection were adequate in 47.6 % (375/787) of cases. Inadequate prescriptions were made because of bad knowledge of bacteria resistance epidemiology and pharmacology (insufficient dose, monotherapy at risk of selection), and non-application of good practice recommendations. This study justifies the rationalization of antibiotic prescription. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Prescription Opioid Usage and Abuse Relationships: An Evaluation of State Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Reisman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context The dramatic rise in the use of prescription opioids to treat non-cancer pain has been paralleled by increasing prescription opioid abuse. However, detailed analyses of these trends and programs to address them are lacking. Objective To study the association between state shipments of prescription opioids for medical use and prescription opioid abuse admissions and to assess the effects of state prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs on prescription opioid abuse admissions. Design and Setting A retrospective ecological cohort study comparing state prescription opioid shipments (source: Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders Systems database and inpatient admissions for prescription opioid abuse (source: Treatment Episode Data Set in 14 states with PDMPs (intervention group and 36 states without PDMPs (control group for the period 1997–2003. Results From 1997 to 2003, oxycodone, morphine, and hydrocodone shipments increased by 479%, 100%, and 148% respectively. Increasing prescription oxycodone shipments were significantly associated with increasing prescription opioid admission rates (p < 0.001. PDMP states had significantly lower oxycodone shipments than the control group. PDMP states had less increase in prescription opioid admissions per year (p = 0.063. A patient admitted to an inpatient drug abuse rehabilitation program in a PDMP state was less likely to be admitted for prescription opioid drug abuse (Odds ratio = 0.775, 95% Confidence Interval 0.764–0.785. Conclusions PDMPs appear to decrease the quantity of oxycodone shipments and the prescription opioid admission rate for states with these programs. Overall, opioid shipments rose significantly in PDMP states during the study period indicating a negligible “chilling effect” on physician prescribing.

  11. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available 3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth’s surface and it’s related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India. This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can’t do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good

  12. Assessment of legibility and completeness of handwritten and electronic prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarrak, Ahmed I; Al Rashidi, Eman Abdulrahman; Fatani, Rwaa Kamil; Al Ageel, Shoog Ibrahim; Mohammed, Rafiuddin

    2014-12-01

    To assess the legibility and completeness of handwritten prescriptions and compare with electronic prescription system for medication errors. Prospective study. King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Handwritten prescriptions were received from clinical units of Medicine Outpatient Department (MOPD), Primary Care Clinic (PCC) and Surgery Outpatient Department (SOPD) whereas electronic prescriptions were collected from the pediatric ward. The handwritten prescription was assessed for completeness by the checklist designed according to the hospital prescription and evaluated for legibility by two pharmacists. The comparison between handwritten and electronic prescription errors was evaluated based on the validated checklist adopted from previous studies. Legibility and completeness of prescriptions. 398 prescriptions (199 handwritten and 199 e-prescriptions) were assessed. About 71 (35.7%) of handwritten and 5 (2.5%) of electronic prescription errors were identified. A significant statistical difference (P prescriptions in omitted dose and omitted route of administration category of error distribution. The rate of completeness in patient identification in handwritten prescriptions was 80.97% in MOPD, 76.36% in PCC and 85.93% in SOPD clinic units. Assessment of medication prescription completeness was 91.48% in MOPD, 88.48% in PCC, and 89.28% in SOPD. This study revealed a high incidence of prescribing errors in handwritten prescriptions. The use of e-prescription system showed a significant decline in the incidence of errors. The legibility of handwritten prescriptions was relatively good whereas the level of completeness was very low.

  13. Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  14. Prescription Pain Medicines - An Addictive Path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the brain affected by heroin, morphine, and prescription painkillers. The tablets relieve drug cravings without prompting the same intense high or dangerous side effects. When combined with naloxone, buprenorphine's abuse potential is ...

  15. Canadians' access to insurance for prescription medicines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...-economic circumstances and drug needs. Volume two presents an analysis of the un-insured and under-insured by measuring the extent to which Canadians have access to insurance for prescription drug expenses and the quality of that coverage...

  16. Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage - General Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The MMA legislation provides seniors and people with disabilities with the first comprehensive prescription drug benefit ever offered under the Medicare program, the...

  17. Assessment of prescription sales in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Teterich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the state of the national health system (health is characterized by a low level of funding for medical and pharmaceutical care and the lack of effective methods of free and preferential dispensing of medicines (drugs and compensation of their value. Thus the most urgent problem arises is unregulated drugs prescription, which is one of the main negative factors behind the rapid spread of self-medication and polypragmasy. Thus, improving drugs prescription dispensing is one of the current challenges of medicine and pharmacy management which should be solved to provide a safe, rational and effective drug therapy. The results of the questionnaire survey of doctors and pharmaceutical workers identified and explored key factors that contribute to a violation of drugs prescription. The authors analyzed the literature on the current state of drugs prescription in Ukraine, which resulted in selected priority issues that need resolution as soon as possible. Established that the main disadvantages of the national health care system is unreasonable approach to state regulation of the relevant system and the low level of funding. This situation prevents rational regulation of free and preferential delivery of drugs, the introduction of obligatory medical insurance and the reimbursement cost of drugs and other modern approaches that are effective in developed countries. Тhe main motive of view of legislative acts to implement strict drugs prescription in Ukraine is a link to international experience, guided by the standards of European and international practices that do not comply with the Law of Ukraine issued on 18.03.2004 № 1629-IV «On the National Program for Adaptation of Ukraine to the European Union, "and points to the disparity modern domestic rule-making European practice. The fundamental problem here is the comparison of the legal, social, financial and economic status of the counter in Ukraine with the countries in which the system

  18. Imaged-Based Visual Servo Control for a VTOL Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel control strategy to force a vertical take-off and landing (VTOL aircraft to accomplish the pinpoint landing task. The control development is based on the image-based visual servoing method and the back-stepping technique; its design differs from the existing methods because the controller maps the image errors onto the actuator space via a visual model which does not contain the depth information of the feature point. The novelty of the proposed method is to extend the image-based visual servoing technique to the VTOL aircraft control. In addition, the Lyapunov theory is used to prove the asymptotic stability of the VTOL aircraft visual servoing system, while the image error can converge to zero. Furthermore, simulations have been also conducted to demonstrate the performances of the proposed method.

  19. Prescription medicine sharing experience among pharmacy students

    OpenAIRE

    Šliogerytė, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    K.Šliogeryte`s master thesis. Master thesis supervisor associate professor Jonas Grincevičius (2015/2016), lecturer J. Daukšienė(2016/2017); Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical technology and Social pharmacy department. – Kaunas. Master thesis: prescription medicine sharing experience among pharmacy students. The aim: to evaluate LUHS Pharmacy faculty students` experience in prescription drugs` sharing. Methods: empirical qualitative method...

  20. Cervical cancer: intracavitary dose specification and prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potish, R.A.; Gerbi, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Dose and volume specifications for reporting intracavitary therapy were analyzed according to criteria recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). Ninety Fletcher-Suit radium applications were studied to examine the validity of the assumptions of the ICRU and the merit of their routine reporting. It was demonstrated that the reporting recommendations were inconsistent with clinical prescription systems and added little to dose specification. The distinction between dose specification and dose prescription was stressed

  1. PRESCRIPTION AND ADEQUACY OF HEMODIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gde Raka Widiana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Physiologically, uremic syndrome is a pollutional phenomenone of body fluid caused by uremic substance retention due to failing kidney. Hemodialysis (HD is a substitution therapy to replace native kidney to filter out the toxic substances. The clearance capacity can be measured using urea kinetic modeling, where urea is used as a marker. Prescription of HD will produced prescribed KT/V, namely the amount of HD doses given. On the other hand delivered KT/V is real clearance effect occurred in the body. Each component of dialysis machine can be adjusted to produce adequate delivered KT/V. This KT/V has also to be adjusted with weekly frequency of HD and residual function of the native kidney. Value of KT/V in each HD session according the consensus has to be attained in order the patient live a better life longer /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Deformation Measurements of Gabion Walls Using Image Based Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Fraštia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The image based modeling finds use in applications where it is necessary to reconstructthe 3D surface of the observed object with a high level of detail. Previous experiments showrelatively high variability of the results depending on the camera type used, the processingsoftware, or the process evaluation. The authors tested the method of SFM (Structure fromMotion to determine the stability of gabion walls. The results of photogrammetricmeasurements were compared to precise geodetic point measurements.

  3. Experimental consideration for realizing image based visual servo control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, N.; Suzuki, K.; Fujii, Y.; Usui, H.

    1995-01-01

    In this study, we consider the experimental aspect of image based visual servo control system. The items considered are the following; 1) Inertial parameter estimation, 2) Focal point estimation, 3) Controller performance for the system with delay. From the experimental result of visual control, it is found that the system is very sensitive to the controller gain because of the computational delay of vision. In order to establish a satisfactory delay compensation, more investigations on controller design are required. (author)

  4. A data grid for imaging-based clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zheng; Chao, Sander S.; Lee, Jasper; Liu, Brent; Documet, Jorge; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    Clinical trials play a crucial role in testing new drugs or devices in modern medicine. Medical imaging has also become an important tool in clinical trials because images provide a unique and fast diagnosis with visual observation and quantitative assessment. A typical imaging-based clinical trial consists of: 1) A well-defined rigorous clinical trial protocol, 2) a radiology core that has a quality control mechanism, a biostatistics component, and a server for storing and distributing data and analysis results; and 3) many field sites that generate and send image studies to the radiology core. As the number of clinical trials increases, it becomes a challenge for a radiology core servicing multiple trials to have a server robust enough to administrate and quickly distribute information to participating radiologists/clinicians worldwide. The Data Grid can satisfy the aforementioned requirements of imaging based clinical trials. In this paper, we present a Data Grid architecture for imaging-based clinical trials. A Data Grid prototype has been implemented in the Image Processing and Informatics (IPI) Laboratory at the University of Southern California to test and evaluate performance in storing trial images and analysis results for a clinical trial. The implementation methodology and evaluation protocol of the Data Grid are presented.

  5. 75 FR 16235 - Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... mature standard for the formatting of prescription data, most electronic prescriptions are routed from... prescriptions prior to granting access to sign such prescriptions, two-factor authentication including a hard... practitioner can retain control of a biometric or hard token. Authentication based only on knowledge factors is...

  6. Measurable realistic image-based 3D mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. J.; Ding, W.; Almagbile, A.

    2011-12-01

    Maps with 3D visual models are becoming a remarkable feature of 3D map services. High-resolution image data is obtained for the construction of 3D visualized models.The3D map not only provides the capabilities of 3D measurements and knowledge mining, but also provides the virtual experienceof places of interest, such as demonstrated in the Google Earth. Applications of 3D maps are expanding into the areas of architecture, property management, and urban environment monitoring. However, the reconstruction of high quality 3D models is time consuming, and requires robust hardware and powerful software to handle the enormous amount of data. This is especially for automatic implementation of 3D models and the representation of complicated surfacesthat still need improvements with in the visualisation techniques. The shortcoming of 3D model-based maps is the limitation of detailed coverage since a user can only view and measure objects that are already modelled in the virtual environment. This paper proposes and demonstrates a 3D map concept that is realistic and image-based, that enables geometric measurements and geo-location services. Additionally, image-based 3D maps provide more detailed information of the real world than 3D model-based maps. The image-based 3D maps use geo-referenced stereo images or panoramic images. The geometric relationships between objects in the images can be resolved from the geometric model of stereo images. The panoramic function makes 3D maps more interactive with users but also creates an interesting immersive circumstance. Actually, unmeasurable image-based 3D maps already exist, such as Google street view, but only provide virtual experiences in terms of photos. The topographic and terrain attributes, such as shapes and heights though are omitted. This paper also discusses the potential for using a low cost land Mobile Mapping System (MMS) to implement realistic image 3D mapping, and evaluates the positioning accuracy that a measureable

  7. Prescriptions for schedule II opioids and benzodiazepines increase after the introduction of computer-generated prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGerald, Genevieve; Dvorkin, Ronald; Levy, David; Lovell-Rose, Stephanie; Sharma, Adhi

    2009-06-01

    Prescriptions for controlled substances decrease when regulatory barriers are put in place. The converse has not been studied. The objective was to determine whether a less complicated prescription writing process is associated with a change in the prescribing patterns of controlled substances in the emergency department (ED). The authors conducted a retrospective nonconcurrent cohort study of all patients seen in an adult ED between April 19, 2005, and April 18, 2007, who were discharged with a prescription. Prior to April 19, 2006, a specialized prescription form stored in a locked cabinet was obtained from the nursing staff to write a prescription for benzodiazepines or Schedule II opioids. After April 19, 2006, New York State mandated that all prescriptions, regardless of schedule classification, be generated on a specialized bar-coded prescription form. The main outcome of the study was to compare the proportion of Schedule III-V opioids to Schedule II opioids and benzodiazepines prescribed in the ED before and after the introduction of a less cumbersome prescription writing process. Of the 26,638 charts reviewed, 2.1% of the total number of prescriptions generated were for a Schedule II controlled opioid before the new system was implemented compared to 13.6% after (odds ratio [OR] = 7.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 6.4 to 8.4). The corresponding percentages for Schedule III-V opioids were 29.9% to 18.1% (OR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.55) and for benzodiazepines 1.4% to 3.9% (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 2.4 to 3.4). Patients were more likely to receive a prescription for a Schedule II opioid or a benzodiazepine after a more streamlined computer-generated prescription writing process was introduced in this ED. (c) 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  8. Image-based compound profiling reveals a dual inhibitor of tyrosine kinase and microtubule polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Kenji

    2016-04-27

    Small-molecule compounds are widely used as biological research tools and therapeutic drugs. Therefore, uncovering novel targets of these compounds should provide insights that are valuable in both basic and clinical studies. I developed a method for image-based compound profiling by quantitating the effects of compounds on signal transduction and vesicle trafficking of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Using six signal transduction molecules and two markers of vesicle trafficking, 570 image features were obtained and subjected to multivariate analysis. Fourteen compounds that affected EGFR or its pathways were classified into four clusters, based on their phenotypic features. Surprisingly, one EGFR inhibitor (CAS 879127-07-8) was classified into the same cluster as nocodazole, a microtubule depolymerizer. In fact, this compound directly depolymerized microtubules. These results indicate that CAS 879127-07-8 could be used as a chemical probe to investigate both the EGFR pathway and microtubule dynamics. The image-based multivariate analysis developed herein has potential as a powerful tool for discovering unexpected drug properties.

  9. Increasing Direct Care Staff Compliance to Individualized Physical Therapy Body Positioning Prescriptions: Prescriptive Checklists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Jennifer; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The study confirmed previous research indicating that workshop training by itself is an ineffective method of increasing direct care staff compliance to treatment prescriptions, and that providing direct staff supervisors with a training and management tool (prescriptive checklists) may be an effective alternative for serving multihandicapped…

  10. Using prescription registries to define continuous drug use: how to fill gaps between prescriptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacoepidemiological studies often use prescription registries to assess patients' drug episodes. The databases usually provide information on the date of the redemption of the prescription as well as on the dispensed amount, and this allows us to define episodes of drug use. However, when...... that the retrospective exposure definition introduces an artificially protective effect of HT....

  11. Prescription Stimulants Are "A Okay": Applying Neutralization Theory to College Students' Nonmedical Prescription Stimulant Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Kristin A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National college health data indicate that prescription stimulants are the most widely misused prescription drugs among college students, with 9% admitting to nonmedical use within the past year. Although motivations for the nonmedical use of these drugs have been explored, scant attention has been paid to justifications for nonmedical…

  12. Errors and omissions in hospital prescriptions: a survey of prescription writing in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Laura; Panzera, Angela; Arnoldo, Luca; Londero, Carla; Quattrin, Rosanna; Troncon, Maria G; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2009-05-13

    The frequency of drug prescription errors is high. Excluding errors in decision making, the remaining are mainly due to order ambiguity, non standard nomenclature and writing illegibility. The aim of this study is to analyse, as a part of a continuous quality improvement program, the quality of prescriptions writing for antibiotics, in an Italian University Hospital as a risk factor for prescription errors. The point prevalence survey, carried out in May 26-30 2008, involved 41 inpatient Units. Every parenteral or oral antibiotic prescription was analysed for legibility (generic or brand drug name, dose, frequency of administration) and completeness (generic or brand name, dose, frequency of administration, route of administration, date of prescription and signature of the prescriber). Eight doctors (residents in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine) and two pharmacists performed the survey by reviewing the clinical records of medical, surgical or intensive care section inpatients. The antibiotics drug category was chosen because its use is widespread in the setting considered. Out of 756 inpatients included in the study, 408 antibiotic prescriptions were found in 298 patients (mean prescriptions per patient 1.4; SD +/- 0.6). Overall 92.7% (38/41) of the Units had at least one patient with antibiotic prescription. Legibility was in compliance with 78.9% of generic or brand names, 69.4% of doses, 80.1% of frequency of administration, whereas completeness was fulfilled for 95.6% of generic or brand names, 76.7% of doses, 83.6% of frequency of administration, 87% of routes of administration, 43.9% of dates of prescription and 33.3% of physician's signature. Overall 23.9% of prescriptions were illegible and 29.9% of prescriptions were incomplete. Legibility and completeness are higher in unusual drugs prescriptions. The Intensive Care Section performed best as far as quality of prescription writing was concerned when compared with the Medical and Surgical Sections

  13. Subtypes of nonmedical prescription drug misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.; Teter, Christian J.

    2010-01-01

    This study used three characteristics (i.e., motive, route of administration, and co-ingestion with alcohol) of nonmedical prescription drug misuse across four separate classes (i.e., pain, sedative/anxiety, sleeping and stimulant medications) to examine subtypes and drug related problems. A Web survey was self-administered by a randomly selected sample of 3,639 undergraduate students attending a large Midwestern 4-year U.S. university. Self-treatment subtypes were characterized by motives consistent with the prescription drug's pharmaceutical main indication, oral only routes of administration, and no co-ingestion with alcohol. Recreational subtypes were characterized by recreational motives, oral or non-oral routes, and co-ingestion. Mixed subtypes consisted of other combinations of motives, routes, and co-ingestion. Among those who reported nonmedical prescription drug misuse, approximately 13% were classified into the recreational subtype, while 39% were in the self-treatment subtype, and 48% were in the mixed subtype. There were significant differences in the subtypes in terms of gender, race and prescription drug class. Approximately 50% of those in subtypes other than self-treatment screened positive for drug abuse. The odds of substance use and abuse were generally lower among self-treatment subtypes than other subtypes. The findings indicate subtypes should be considered when examining nonmedical prescription drug misuse, especially for pain medication. PMID:19278795

  14. Image based Monte Carlo modeling for computational phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, M.; Wang, W.; Zhao, K.; Fan, Y.; Long, P.; Wu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full text of the publication follows. The evaluation on the effects of ionizing radiation and the risk of radiation exposure on human body has been becoming one of the most important issues for radiation protection and radiotherapy fields, which is helpful to avoid unnecessary radiation and decrease harm to human body. In order to accurately evaluate the dose on human body, it is necessary to construct more realistic computational phantom. However, manual description and verification of the models for Monte Carlo (MC) simulation are very tedious, error-prone and time-consuming. In addition, it is difficult to locate and fix the geometry error, and difficult to describe material information and assign it to cells. MCAM (CAD/Image-based Automatic Modeling Program for Neutronics and Radiation Transport Simulation) was developed as an interface program to achieve both CAD- and image-based automatic modeling. The advanced version (Version 6) of MCAM can achieve automatic conversion from CT/segmented sectioned images to computational phantoms such as MCNP models. Imaged-based automatic modeling program(MCAM6.0) has been tested by several medical images and sectioned images. And it has been applied in the construction of Rad-HUMAN. Following manual segmentation and 3D reconstruction, a whole-body computational phantom of Chinese adult female called Rad-HUMAN was created by using MCAM6.0 from sectioned images of a Chinese visible human dataset. Rad-HUMAN contains 46 organs/tissues, which faithfully represented the average anatomical characteristics of the Chinese female. The dose conversion coefficients (Dt/Ka) from kerma free-in-air to absorbed dose of Rad-HUMAN were calculated. Rad-HUMAN can be applied to predict and evaluate dose distributions in the Treatment Plan System (TPS), as well as radiation exposure for human body in radiation protection. (authors)

  15. Image based Monument Recognition using Graph based Visual Saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an image-based application aiming at simple image classification of well-known monuments in the area of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. This classification takes place by utilizing Graph Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) and employing Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) or Speeded......, the images have been previously processed according to the Graph Based Visual Saliency model in order to keep either SIFT or SURF features corresponding to the actual monuments while the background “noise” is minimized. The application is then able to classify these images, helping the user to better...

  16. Prescription Monitoring Program Trends Among Individuals Arrested in Maine for Trafficking Prescription Drugs in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Kenneth; Nichols, Stephanie D; Holt, Christina; Ochs, Leslie; Cattabriga, Gary; Tu, Chunhao

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate controlled substance prescribing trends available in the Maine Prescription Monitoring Program (PMP) among individuals arrested for prescription drug "trafficking." The demographic characteristics of the individuals who had matching prescription records in the PMP within 90 days of the arrest were identified. A population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the Maine Diversion Alert Program (DAP) and the Maine PMP. The study population consisted of persons arrested for trafficking prescription drugs in Maine during the 2014 calendar year from January 1 to December 31. There were 594 trafficking arrests reported by the Maine DAP in 2014. The study population consisted of the 235 persons (40%) with arrests involving controlled prescription medications. The mean age of these persons was 33 years (range 18-77 yrs), and 156 (66%) were male. Arrests involved 154 prescription opioids (65%), seven stimulants (3%), seven benzodiazepines (3%), and 77 unspecified controlled prescription drugs (33%). A minority of individuals (n=57, 24%) had a prescription record in the PMP that matched the substance involved in the arrest. Only one person with matching PMP and arrest records utilized ≥ 5 prescribers, while none used ≥ 5 pharmacies within 90 days before the arrest. Payment methods for matching prescriptions were commercial insurance (n=28, 49%), Medicaid (n=19, 33%), Medicare (n=5, 9%), and cash (n=5, 9%). The majority (76%) of persons arrested for prescription drug trafficking did not have PMP records and did not directly obtain the diverted medication from a licensed pharmacy. Traditional red flags, like cash payment and using multiple prescribers or pharmacies, were uncommon. Therefore, arrest records for diversion and PMPs are distinct and complementary tools for identifying individuals at risk for substance misuse. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  17. Looking at prescription quality in Ayurveda: Developing, validating and pilot testing a prescription quality index for Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Sanjeev

    2017-11-06

    Prescription quality can be a direct predictor of the net outcome of a health care delivery effort. Quality of prescription may be considered as a cumulative matrix of multiple components of a prescription on the basis of their relative importance. Prescription quality index is a recognized tool in clinical medicine for multiple purposes including the prediction of health care intervention outcome. Considering the importance of prescription quality among every system of medicine, an attempt was made to design a prescription quality index for Ayurveda. The Prescription Quality Index for Ayurveda was designed through item selection following a thorough literature search and was validated through multiple peer group discussions. Final draft of index containing 38 individual items carrying different scores as per their importance in the prescription was subjected to a pilot test upon 1576 indoor prescriptions generated in 2015 at State Ayurvedic College Hospital, Lucknow. The study revealed large information gaps in the components of the prescription where it was supposed to be noted by the prescribers. These gaps in the Ayurvedic prescriptions were most significant in the areas pertaining to Ayurvedic fundamentals of clinical examination, disease diagnosis and Ayurvedic drug intake methods. Prescription Quality Index for Ayurveda was found useful in underlining the gaps between the ideal and generated prescriptions. This can be utilized as a useful tool to evaluate the quality of Ayurvedic prescriptions by seeing their adherence to the standard prescription template. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibiotic Prescription in Danish General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sydenham, Rikke Vognbjerg; Plejdrup Hansen, Malene; Pedersen, Line Bjørnskov

    2016-01-01

    1. Background & Aim The overall aim of the project is to describe antibiotic consumption in Danish general practice with emphasis on specific types of antibiotics. The project will shed light on the impact of microbiological diagnostic methods (MDM) on the choice of antibiotic and the project...... will explore how the GPs prescription behaviour is influenced by selected factors. Antibiotics are essential when treating potentially lethal infections. An increasing development of resistant bacteria is considered one of the primary threats to public health. The majority of antibiotics (90%) are prescribed...... from general practice. The prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics can cause unnecessary side effects for the individual and increases the risk of development of bacteria resistant to antibiotic treatment. Both the prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics and the level of resistant bacteria...

  19. AUGUSTO'S Sundial: Image-Based Modeling for Reverse Engeneering Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, V.; Barbarella, M.; Del Pizzo, S.; Giannone, F.; Troisi, S.; Piccaro, C.; Marcantonio, D.

    2017-02-01

    A photogrammetric survey of a unique archaeological site is reported in this paper. The survey was performed using both a panoramic image-based solution and by classical procedure. The panoramic image-based solution was carried out employing a commercial solution: the Trimble V10 Imaging Rover (IR). Such instrument is an integrated cameras system that captures 360 degrees digital panoramas, composed of 12 images, with a single push. The direct comparison of the point clouds obtained with traditional photogrammetric procedure and V10 stations, using the same GCP coordinates has been carried out in Cloud Compare, open source software that can provide the comparison between two point clouds supplied by all the main statistical data. The site is a portion of the dial plate of the "Horologium Augusti" inaugurated in 9 B.C.E. in the area of Campo Marzio and still present intact in the same position, in a cellar of a building in Rome, around 7 meter below the present ground level.

  20. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-05-27

    While real-time applications are nowadays routinely used in visualizing large nu- merical simulations and volumes, handling these large-scale datasets requires high-end graphics clusters or supercomputers to process and visualize them. However, not all users have access to powerful clusters. Therefore, it is challenging to come up with a visualization approach that provides insight to large-scale datasets on a single com- puter. Explorable images (EI) is one of the methods that allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, it combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. In this thesis, we propose a novel image-based method that applies the concept of EI in visualizing large flow-field pathlines data. The goal of our work is to provide an optimized image-based method, which scales well with the dataset size. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  1. Recent Advance of Biological Molecular Imaging Based on Lanthanide-Doped Upconversion-Luminescent Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzeng Min

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Lanthanide-doped upconversion-luminescent nanoparticles (UCNPs, which can be excited by near-infrared (NIR laser irradiation to emit multiplex light, have been proven to be very useful for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging studies. In comparison with the conventionally used down-conversion fluorescence imaging strategies, the NIR light excited luminescence of UCNPs displays high photostability, low cytotoxicity, little background auto-fluorescence, which allows for deep tissue penetration, making them attractive as contrast agents for biomedical imaging applications. In this review, we will mainly focus on the latest development of a new type of lanthanide-doped UCNP material and its main applications for in vitro and in vivo molecular imaging and we will also discuss the challenges and future perspectives.

  2. Exercise Dosing and Prescription-Playing It Safe: Dangers and Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Ai, Dongmei; Zhang, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation is a comprehensive and multidisciplinary program, and exercise training is extremely crucial in the whole program. In the past decades, many researches have shown the beneficial effects of exercise for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is indisputable Nevertheless, only a well-designed exercise prescription may achieve the ideal benefits. In this chapter, we will have a discussion of what is exercise prescription and how to establish a scientific and appropriate exercise prescription for CVD patients depending on the current scientific evidence and recommendations.

  3. Using spatial information about recurrence risk for robust optimization of dose-painting prescription functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, Edward T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a robust method for deriving dose-painting prescription functions using spatial information about the risk for disease recurrence. Methods: Spatial distributions of radiobiological model parameters are derived from distributions of recurrence risk after uniform irradiation. These model parameters are then used to derive optimal dose-painting prescription functions given a constant mean biologically effective dose. Results: An estimate for the optimal dose distribution can be derived based on spatial information about recurrence risk. Dose painting based on imaging markers that are moderately or poorly correlated with recurrence risk are predicted to potentially result in inferior disease control when compared the same mean biologically effective dose delivered uniformly. A robust optimization approach may partially mitigate this issue. Conclusions: The methods described here can be used to derive an estimate for a robust, patient-specific prescription function for use in dose painting. Two approximate scaling relationships were observed: First, the optimal choice for the maximum dose differential when using either a linear or two-compartment prescription function is proportional to R, where R is the Pearson correlation coefficient between a given imaging marker and recurrence risk after uniform irradiation. Second, the predicted maximum possible gain in tumor control probability for any robust optimization technique is nearly proportional to the square of R.

  4. Preparing for a Hurricane: Prescription Medications

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    What you should do to protect yourself and your family from a hurricane. As you evacuate, remember to take your prescription medicines with you.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/17/2008.

  5. The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, R B

    1988-10-01

    The Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 is described, and its implications for hospitals and other health-care entities are discussed. The act, which became effective on July 21, 1988, is intended to reduce public health risks from adulterated, misbranded, and counterfeit drug products that enter the marketplace through drug diversion. The law provides that prescription drug products manufactured in the United States and exported can no longer be reimported, except by the product's manufacturer. It also establishes restrictions on sales of prescription drug products and samples. Samples of prescription drug products may be distributed only if a licensed prescriber requests them. Other distribution channels for samples specified in the law are permissible, provided records are maintained. Under the law, wholesale distributors must be licensed by the state and meet uniform standards. Penalties for violations of the law are also identified. According to FDA's advisory guidelines on the statute, the law will permit hospitals to return drug products, provided the return is made to the manufacturer or wholesaler and provided written notice is secured that the goods were received (for manufacturers) or the goods were destroyed or returned to the manufacturer (for wholesalers). The final chapter on drug diversion must await issuance of final FDA regulations.

  6. Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.

  7. Vital Signs-Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.

  8. The Prescription Opioid Pain Medication Overdose Epidemic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-04-19

    Overdose related to prescription opioids has become an epidemic. This podcast discusses the risks of this type of drug sometimes used to treat pain, and how to protect yourself. .  Created: 4/19/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/19/2016.

  9. An Expert System for Designing Fire Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth Reinhardt

    1987-01-01

    Managers use prescribed fire to accomplish a variety of resource objectives. The knowledge needed to design successful prescriptions is both quantitative and qualitative. Some of it is available through publications and computer programs, but much of the knowledge of expert practitioners has never been collected or published. An expert system being developed at the,...

  10. [Prescription drug abuse in elderly psychiatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, Tilman; Schneider, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    Due to demographic changes there will be a fraction of elderly patients with substance use disorders. However, only a few data have been published about elderly abusers of prescription drugs. Since substance abuse is frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders, treatment in a psychiatric hospital is often needed. In this explorative study elderly people with prescription drug abuse who required psychiatric inpatient treatment should be characterized. This study was part of the gerontopsychiatry study Berlin (Gepsy-B), an investigation of the data of all older inpatients (≥ 65 years) admitted to a psychiatric hospital within a period of 3 years. Among 1266 documented admissions in 110 cases (8.7 %) (mean age: 75.7 ± 7.1 years) prescription drug abuse, mostly of benzodiazepines was diagnosed. Females showed benzodiazepine abuse more often than males. In only a small proportion of the cases the reason for admission was withdrawal of prescribed drugs. 85.5 % suffered from psychiatric comorbidity, mostly depression. As risk factors for abuse depressive symptoms (OR: 3.32) as well as concurrent nicotine (OR: 2.69) or alcohol abuse (OR: 2.14) were calculated. Psychiatric inpatient treatment was primarily not necessary because of prescription drug abuse but because of other psychopathological symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Linguistic Prescription: Familiar Practices and New Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegan, Edward

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a question by a law student of whether a correction of "sneaked" to "snuck" suggests misinformation and misguided rigidity in the context of better information about current legal usage and a perennial tendency to linguistic prescription. Explores attitudes to current borrowings from English into Japanese and French…

  12. Medical Prescription Pitfalls of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this evaluation was to identify pitfalls in medical prescriptions of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in government healthcare facilities in Zambia. Design: This was a cross sectional and government healthcare facilities were conveniently sampled. Main outcome measures: Rate of compliance to ...

  13. Original Research Prescription pattern of antihypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017 The College of Medicine and the Medical Association of Malawi. This work is licensed ... This study assessed the prescription pattern of antihypertensive medications and BP .... Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social. Sciences ... chi-square test was used to determine the significance of observed ...

  14. A prescription for n-dimensional Vierbeins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, A.H.; Qadir, A.

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments in supergravity have brought the n-dimensional Vierbein formalism into prominence. Here we provide a prescription for writing down a Vierbein given an arbitrary (in general non-diagonal) metric tensor in a Riemannian or pseudo-Riemannian space. (author)

  15. Medication errors: prescribing faults and prescription errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velo, Giampaolo P; Minuz, Pietro

    2009-06-01

    1. Medication errors are common in general practice and in hospitals. Both errors in the act of writing (prescription errors) and prescribing faults due to erroneous medical decisions can result in harm to patients. 2. Any step in the prescribing process can generate errors. Slips, lapses, or mistakes are sources of errors, as in unintended omissions in the transcription of drugs. Faults in dose selection, omitted transcription, and poor handwriting are common. 3. Inadequate knowledge or competence and incomplete information about clinical characteristics and previous treatment of individual patients can result in prescribing faults, including the use of potentially inappropriate medications. 4. An unsafe working environment, complex or undefined procedures, and inadequate communication among health-care personnel, particularly between doctors and nurses, have been identified as important underlying factors that contribute to prescription errors and prescribing faults. 5. Active interventions aimed at reducing prescription errors and prescribing faults are strongly recommended. These should be focused on the education and training of prescribers and the use of on-line aids. The complexity of the prescribing procedure should be reduced by introducing automated systems or uniform prescribing charts, in order to avoid transcription and omission errors. Feedback control systems and immediate review of prescriptions, which can be performed with the assistance of a hospital pharmacist, are also helpful. Audits should be performed periodically.

  16. PRESCRIPTION OF PHYSICAL EXERCISES FOR ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla Tribess

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study has as objective investigates the prescription of exercises for elderly, constant in the literature in portuguese language, under form of books, newspapers, annals and publications electronics. For so much, it tried to collect data with relationship to the following aspects: a Impact of the aging in the human organism; b evaluation of the components of the functional aptitude; and, c composition of a program of physical exercise. The aging process evidences changes in the levels antropométrics, neuromuscular, cardiovascular, lung, neural, besides the decrease of the agility, coordination, balance, flexibility, mobility to articulate and increase in the cartilage rigidity, tendons and ligaments. Those changes associated to the low level of physical activity in the elderly take to the decline of the functional capacity. The evaluation of the level of functional dependence becomes important to the elderly, because it will provide a prescription of physical exercises more addressed your needs, increasing the effectiveness of the program and reducing the risks. The general beginnings for the prescription of physical exercises for elderly are based in the modalities appropriate, intensity, duration, frequency and progression of the physical activity, with the objective of improving the life quality, to minimize the physiologic alterations, to improve the motive capacity and to provide benefits social, psychological and physical. Therefore, in the prescription of physical exercises for older people is necessary the training of the capacity aerobics, of the force, of the balance, of the time of reaction and movement and of the agility.

  17. Recreational Prescription Drug Use among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolek, Ethan A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore recreational prescription drug use among undergraduate students. Although anecdotal accounts on this subject abound, empirical research is extremely limited. Data from a survey of a random sample of 734 students at a large public research university in the Northeast were examined. Results indicate that a…

  18. Image-Based Geometric Modeling and Mesh Generation

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    As a new interdisciplinary research area, “image-based geometric modeling and mesh generation” integrates image processing, geometric modeling and mesh generation with finite element method (FEM) to solve problems in computational biomedicine, materials sciences and engineering. It is well known that FEM is currently well-developed and efficient, but mesh generation for complex geometries (e.g., the human body) still takes about 80% of the total analysis time and is the major obstacle to reduce the total computation time. It is mainly because none of the traditional approaches is sufficient to effectively construct finite element meshes for arbitrarily complicated domains, and generally a great deal of manual interaction is involved in mesh generation. This contributed volume, the first for such an interdisciplinary topic, collects the latest research by experts in this area. These papers cover a broad range of topics, including medical imaging, image alignment and segmentation, image-to-mesh conversion,...

  19. Mobile cosmetics advisor: an imaging based mobile service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Nina; Baker, Harlyn; Chao, Hui; Clearwater, Scott; Harville, Mike; Jain, Jhilmil; Lyons, Nic; Marguier, Joanna; Schettino, John; Süsstrunk, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Selecting cosmetics requires visual information and often benefits from the assessments of a cosmetics expert. In this paper we present a unique mobile imaging application that enables women to use their cell phones to get immediate expert advice when selecting personal cosmetic products. We derive the visual information from analysis of camera phone images, and provide the judgment of the cosmetics specialist through use of an expert system. The result is a new paradigm for mobile interactions-image-based information services exploiting the ubiquity of camera phones. The application is designed to work with any handset over any cellular carrier using commonly available MMS and SMS features. Targeted at the unsophisticated consumer, it must be quick and easy to use, not requiring download capabilities or preplanning. Thus, all application processing occurs in the back-end system and not on the handset itself. We present the imaging pipeline technology and a comparison of the services' accuracy with respect to human experts.

  20. Development of a virtual speaking simulator using Image Based Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J M; Kim, H; Oh, M J; Ku, J H; Jang, D P; Kim, I Y; Kim, S I

    2002-01-01

    The fear of speaking is often cited as the world's most common social phobia. The rapid growth of computer technology has enabled the use of virtual reality (VR) for the treatment of the fear of public speaking. There are two techniques for building virtual environments for the treatment of this fear: a model-based and a movie-based method. Both methods have the weakness that they are unrealistic and not controllable individually. To understand these disadvantages, this paper presents a virtual environment produced with Image Based Rendering (IBR) and a chroma-key simultaneously. IBR enables the creation of realistic virtual environments where the images are stitched panoramically with the photos taken from a digital camera. And the use of chroma-keys puts virtual audience members under individual control in the environment. In addition, real time capture technique is used in constructing the virtual environments enabling spoken interaction between the subject and a therapist or another subject.

  1. Image based method for aberration measurement of lithographic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Bo; Guo, Yongxing; Li, Gongfa

    2018-01-01

    Information of lens aberration of lithographic tools is important as it directly affects the intensity distribution in the image plane. Zernike polynomials are commonly used for a mathematical description of lens aberrations. Due to the advantage of lower cost and easier implementation of tools, image based measurement techniques have been widely used. Lithographic tools are typically partially coherent systems that can be described by a bilinear model, which entails time consuming calculations and does not lend a simple and intuitive relationship between lens aberrations and the resulted images. Previous methods for retrieving lens aberrations in such partially coherent systems involve through-focus image measurements and time-consuming iterative algorithms. In this work, we propose a method for aberration measurement in lithographic tools, which only requires measuring two images of intensity distribution. Two linear formulations are derived in matrix forms that directly relate the measured images to the unknown Zernike coefficients. Consequently, an efficient non-iterative solution is obtained.

  2. Image Based Solution to Occlusion Problem for Multiple Robots Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taj Mohammad Khan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In machine vision, occlusions problem is always a challenging issue in image based mapping and navigation tasks. This paper presents a multiple view vision based algorithm for the development of occlusion-free map of the indoor environment. The map is assumed to be utilized by the mobile robots within the workspace. It has wide range of applications, including mobile robot path planning and navigation, access control in restricted areas, and surveillance systems. We used wall mounted fixed camera system. After intensity adjustment and background subtraction of the synchronously captured images, the image registration was performed. We applied our algorithm on the registered images to resolve the occlusion problem. This technique works well even in the existence of total occlusion for a longer period.

  3. Optimization of an Image-Based Talking Head System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Liu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image-based talking head system, which includes two parts: analysis and synthesis. The audiovisual analysis part creates a face model of a recorded human subject, which is composed of a personalized 3D mask as well as a large database of mouth images and their related information. The synthesis part generates natural looking facial animations from phonetic transcripts of text. A critical issue of the synthesis is the unit selection which selects and concatenates these appropriate mouth images from the database such that they match the spoken words of the talking head. Selection is based on lip synchronization and the similarity of consecutive images. The unit selection is refined in this paper, and Pareto optimization is used to train the unit selection. Experimental results of subjective tests show that most people cannot distinguish our facial animations from real videos.

  4. Wear Detection of Drill Bit by Image-based Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeri, Maziyah; Zulhilmi Paiz Ismadi, Mohd; Rahim Othman, Abdul; Kamaruddin, Shahrul

    2018-03-01

    Image processing for computer vision function plays an essential aspect in the manufacturing industries for the tool condition monitoring. This study proposes a dependable direct measurement method to measure the tool wear using image-based analysis. Segmentation and thresholding technique were used as the means to filter and convert the colour image to binary datasets. Then, the edge detection method was applied to characterize the edge of the drill bit. By using cross-correlation method, the edges of original and worn drill bits were correlated to each other. Cross-correlation graphs were able to detect the difference of the worn edge despite small difference between the graphs. Future development will focus on quantifying the worn profile as well as enhancing the sensitivity of the technique.

  5. Prescription, dispensation and marketing patterns of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Perini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the patterns and legal requirements of methylphenidate consumption. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study of the data from prescription notification forms and balance lists of drugs sales – psychoactive and others – subject to special control in the fifth largest city of Brazil, in 2006. We determined the defined and prescribed daily doses, the average prescription and dispensation periods, and the regional sales distribution in the municipality. In addition, we estimated the costs of drug acquisition and analyzed the individual drug consumption profile using the Lorenz curve. RESULTS The balance lists data covered all notified sales of the drug while data from prescription notification forms covered 50.6% of the pharmacies that sold it, including those with the highest sales volumes. Total methylphenidate consumption was 0.37 DDD/1,000 inhabitants/day. Sales were concentrated in more developed areas, and regular-release tablets were the most commonly prescribed pharmaceutical formulation. In some regions of the city, approximately 20.0% of the prescriptions and dispensation exceeded 30 mg/day and 30 days of treatment. CONCLUSIONS Methylphenidate was widely consumed in the municipality and mainly in the most developed areas. Of note, the consumption of formulations with the higher abuse risk was the most predominant. Both its prescription and dispensation contrasted with current pharmacotherapeutic recommendations and legal requirements. Therefore, the commercialization of methylphenidate should be monitored more closely, and its use in the treatment of behavioral changes of psychological disorders needs to be discussed in detail, in line with the concepts of the quality use of medicines.

  6. Empiric antibiotic prescription among febrile under-five Children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limiting viral infection and therefore, would not require antibiotics. Over prescription of antibiotics increases antibiotics exposure and development of resistance among patients. There is need to evaluate empiric antibiotic prescription in order to limit ...

  7. Prescription Drug Plan Formulary, Pharmacy Network, and P...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These public use files contain formulary, pharmacy network, and pricing data for Medicare Prescription Drug Plans and Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plans...

  8. Antihypertensive use, prescription patterns, and cost of medications ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antihypertensive use, prescription patterns, and cost of medications in a Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Conclusions: Antihypertensive prescription pattern was in accordance with the seventh report of Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of high blood pressure.

  9. Drug prescriptions in Danish out-of-hours primary care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten Bondo; Nørøxe, Karen Busk; Moth, Grete

    2016-01-01

    of prescriptions per 100 contacts. RESULTS: Of 644,777 contacts, 154,668 (24.0%) involved medication prescriptions; 21.9% of telephone consultations, 32.9% of clinic consultations and 14.3% of home visits. Around 53% of all drug prescriptions were made in telephone consultations. Anti-infective medications...... for systemic use accounted for 45.5% of all prescriptions and were the most frequently prescribed drug group for all contact types, although accounting for less than 1/3 of telephone prescriptions. Other frequently prescribed drugs were ophthalmological anti-infectives (10.5%), NSAIDs (6.4%), opioids (3......) primary care services cover more than 75% of all hours during a normal week, insight into the extent and type of OOH drug prescription is important. General practitioners (GPs) are responsible for more than 80% of all drug prescriptions in Denmark. Of all contacts 24.0% involved medication prescriptions...

  10. Prevalence and pattern of prescription errors in a Nigerian kidney ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Setting: Kidney Care Centre is a public Specialist hospital. ... Main outcome measures: Prevalence of prescription errors, pattern of prescription errors, pharmacist's intervention. ... A medication quality assurance unit is needed in our hospitals.

  11. Lessons learned from health and fitness prescription: a Malaysian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalib A. Latiff

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Proportion of chronic diseases sufferers are increased by age. The usual control measures are therapeutic prescription and clinical counseling. However, its low compliance rate has interfered this effort. Therefore, community intervention can be a suitable prescriptive option to provide a long lasting effect. For that, a package of community intervention has been established in one sub-urban area in Malaysia to observe its acceptability, thus it can be acted as a social instrumentation to bring both biological and social benefits to this group of community. This study used quasi-experimental design on a cohort of elderly citizen aged 45 and above. Respondents are exposed to a mixed and planned prescribed fitness activity using participatory approach. Process involved in program implementation is closely observed both quantitatively and qualitatively. Community participation occurred in a positive and fast mode, with 78% being the elderly people aged above 45 years old. Initial observation revealed that about 47.6% suffering hypertension, while 38.4% hypercholesterolemia, 16.8% obese and 7.1% diabetes mellitus. Physically active members were moderate - about 31.0%. In term of process, participatory approach seems to be very effective to mobilize community towards health and fitness. A planned community fitness program is a form of social instrumentation to bring biological and social benefits to chronic diseases sufferers. It has also useful to promote favorable lifestyle and quality of life of this group of people. (Med J Indones 2007; 16:39-46 Keywords: community intervention, community participation, fitness program, disease burden

  12. [Analysis on composition principles of prescriptions for stranguria in dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-Chang; Wang, Miao-Miao

    2014-03-01

    By using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system to analyze the dominant experience and recessive principles of the prescriptions for stranguria in the dictionary of traditional Chinese medicine prescription (DCMP), we aim to define the medication pattern and rule and to acquire new prescriptions. In dominant experience analysis, we were able to find 22 drugs used over 50 times, including drugs of clearing heat, diuresis and relieving stranguria which are the most used and drugs of clearing heat, cooling blood, benefiting Qi and nourishing Yin. In addition, drugs of activating Qi and Xue, eliminating phlegm and removing toxic are often used, including 34 herb pairs and 5 combinations of three-taste drugs are used more than 35 times. These results fully reflect the composition principles and compatibility characteristic of prescriptions for treating stranguria in DCMP. Thirteen new prescriptions by way of recessive principle excavating were acquired. These new prescriptions might be suitable to clinical treatments of variable syndromes. This article provides an useful clue to research and produce new drugs.

  13. Deep machine learning provides state-of-the-art performance in image-based plant phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pound, Michael P; Atkinson, Jonathan A; Townsend, Alexandra J; Wilson, Michael H; Griffiths, Marcus; Jackson, Aaron S; Bulat, Adrian; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Wells, Darren M; Murchie, Erik H; Pridmore, Tony P; French, Andrew P

    2017-10-01

    In plant phenotyping, it has become important to be able to measure many features on large image sets in order to aid genetic discovery. The size of the datasets, now often captured robotically, often precludes manual inspection, hence the motivation for finding a fully automated approach. Deep learning is an emerging field that promises unparalleled results on many data analysis problems. Building on artificial neural networks, deep approaches have many more hidden layers in the network, and hence have greater discriminative and predictive power. We demonstrate the use of such approaches as part of a plant phenotyping pipeline. We show the success offered by such techniques when applied to the challenging problem of image-based plant phenotyping and demonstrate state-of-the-art results (>97% accuracy) for root and shoot feature identification and localization. We use fully automated trait identification using deep learning to identify quantitative trait loci in root architecture datasets. The majority (12 out of 14) of manually identified quantitative trait loci were also discovered using our automated approach based on deep learning detection to locate plant features. We have shown deep learning-based phenotyping to have very good detection and localization accuracy in validation and testing image sets. We have shown that such features can be used to derive meaningful biological traits, which in turn can be used in quantitative trait loci discovery pipelines. This process can be completely automated. We predict a paradigm shift in image-based phenotyping bought about by such deep learning approaches, given sufficient training sets. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. 21 CFR 202.1 - Prescription-drug advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription-drug advertisements. 202.1 Section 202.1 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG ADVERTISING § 202.1 Prescription-drug advertisements. (e) * * * (6) * * * (ii) Represents or suggests that a...

  15. 21 CFR 886.5844 - Prescription spectacle lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription spectacle lens. 886.5844 Section 886...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5844 Prescription spectacle lens. (a) Identification. A prescription spectacle lens is a glass or plastic device that is a lens intended to be worn by...

  16. 75 FR 12555 - Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ...] Prescription Drug User Fee Act; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of... Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA). The legislative authority for PDUFA expires in September 2012. At that time, new legislation will be required for FDA to continue collecting user fees for the prescription...

  17. Do Motives Matter?: Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medications among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Boyd, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' motives for engaging in nonmedical prescription drug use is somewhat different than their reasons for using other drugs, such as marijuana. For some youth, nonmedical prescription drug use is an attempt to self-treat a medical condition, for others it is an effort to get high, and some youth misuse prescription drugs for both reasons.…

  18. Information prescriptions: A tool for veterinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Kogan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become a major source of health information and has the potential to offer many benefits for both human and animal health. In order for impact to be positive, however, it is critical that users be able to access reliable, trustworthy information. Although more pet owners are using the Internet to research animal health information than ever before, there remains limited research surrounding their online activities or the ability to influence owners’ online search behaviors. The current study was designed to assess the online behaviors and perceptions of pet owners after receiving either general or topic-specific information prescriptions as part of their veterinary appointment. Results indicate that nearly 60% of clients accessed the suggested websites and nearly all of these clients reported positive feelings about this addition to their veterinary services. These results suggest that offering information prescriptions to clients can facilitate better online searches by clients and positively impact both animal health and client satisfaction.

  19. Women who doctor shop for prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie; Thomas, Sandra P

    2014-04-01

    Doctor shopping is a term used to describe a form of diversion of prescription drugs when patients visit numerous prescribers to obtain controlled drugs for illicit use. Gender differences exist in regard to prescription drug abuse and methods of diversion. The purpose of this phenomenological study guided by the existential philosophy of Merleau-Ponty was to understand the lived experience of female doctor shoppers. Interviews were conducted with 14 women, which were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Included in the findings are figural aspects of the participants' experience of doctor shopping related to the existential grounds of world, time, body, and others. Four themes emerged from the data: (a) feeding the addiction, (b) networking with addicts, (c) playing the system, and (d) baiting the doctors. The findings suggest several measures that nurses can take to reduce the incidence of doctor shopping and to provide better care for female doctor shoppers.

  20. Determination of prescription dose for Cs-131 permanent implants using the BED formalism including resensitization correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wei, E-mail: wei.luo@uky.edu; Molloy, Janelle; Aryal, Prakash; Feddock, Jonathan; Randall, Marcus [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: The current widely used biological equivalent dose (BED) formalism for permanent implants is based on the linear-quadratic model that includes cell repair and repopulation but not resensitization (redistribution and reoxygenation). The authors propose a BED formalism that includes all the four biological effects (4Rs), and the authors propose how it can be used to calculate appropriate prescription doses for permanent implants with Cs-131. Methods: A resensitization correction was added to the BED calculation for permanent implants to account for 4Rs. Using the same BED, the prescription doses with Au-198, I-125, and Pd-103 were converted to the isoeffective Cs-131 prescription doses. The conversion factor F, ratio of the Cs-131 dose to the equivalent dose with the other reference isotope (F{sub r}: with resensitization, F{sub n}: without resensitization), was thus derived and used for actual prescription. Different values of biological parameters such as α, β, and relative biological effectiveness for different types of tumors were used for the calculation. Results: Prescription doses with I-125, Pd-103, and Au-198 ranging from 10 to 160 Gy were converted into prescription doses with Cs-131. The difference in dose conversion factors with (F{sub r}) and without (F{sub n}) resensitization was significant but varied with different isotopes and different types of tumors. The conversion factors also varied with different doses. For I-125, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 0.51/0.46, for fast growing tumors, and 0.88/0.77 for slow growing tumors. For Pd-103, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.25/1.15 for fast growing tumors, and 1.28/1.22 for slow growing tumors. For Au-198, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.08/1.25 for fast growing tumors, and 1.00/1.06 for slow growing tumors. Using the biological parameters for the HeLa/C4-I cells, the averaged value of F{sub r} was 1.07/1.11 (rounded to 1.1), and the averaged value of F

  1. Determination of prescription dose for Cs-131 permanent implants using the BED formalism including resensitization correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wei; Molloy, Janelle; Aryal, Prakash; Feddock, Jonathan; Randall, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The current widely used biological equivalent dose (BED) formalism for permanent implants is based on the linear-quadratic model that includes cell repair and repopulation but not resensitization (redistribution and reoxygenation). The authors propose a BED formalism that includes all the four biological effects (4Rs), and the authors propose how it can be used to calculate appropriate prescription doses for permanent implants with Cs-131. Methods: A resensitization correction was added to the BED calculation for permanent implants to account for 4Rs. Using the same BED, the prescription doses with Au-198, I-125, and Pd-103 were converted to the isoeffective Cs-131 prescription doses. The conversion factor F, ratio of the Cs-131 dose to the equivalent dose with the other reference isotope (F r : with resensitization, F n : without resensitization), was thus derived and used for actual prescription. Different values of biological parameters such as α, β, and relative biological effectiveness for different types of tumors were used for the calculation. Results: Prescription doses with I-125, Pd-103, and Au-198 ranging from 10 to 160 Gy were converted into prescription doses with Cs-131. The difference in dose conversion factors with (F r ) and without (F n ) resensitization was significant but varied with different isotopes and different types of tumors. The conversion factors also varied with different doses. For I-125, the average values of F r /F n were 0.51/0.46, for fast growing tumors, and 0.88/0.77 for slow growing tumors. For Pd-103, the average values of F r /F n were 1.25/1.15 for fast growing tumors, and 1.28/1.22 for slow growing tumors. For Au-198, the average values of F r /F n were 1.08/1.25 for fast growing tumors, and 1.00/1.06 for slow growing tumors. Using the biological parameters for the HeLa/C4-I cells, the averaged value of F r was 1.07/1.11 (rounded to 1.1), and the averaged value of F n was 1.75/1.18. F r of 1.1 has been applied to

  2. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars; Skipper, Niels

    2016-01-01

    We investigate price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs, using drug purchase records for the entire Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression kink design. The results suggest some...... price responsiveness with corresponding price elasticities ranging from −0.2 to −0.7. Individuals with chronic disease and especially individuals above the age of 65 respond less to the price of drugs....

  3. Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-01

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  4. Vital Signs-Preventing Prescription Drug Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-01

    This podcast is based on the July 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every day, 46 people in the U.S. die from an overdose of prescription opioid painkillers. Learn what can be done to make painkiller prescribing safer and help prevent overdoses.  Created: 7/1/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/1/2014.

  5. Arts on prescription: a qualitative outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Eades, M

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, participatory community-based arts activities have become a recognized and regarded method for promoting mental health. In the UK, Arts on Prescription services have emerged as a prominent form of such social prescribing. This follow-up study reports on the findings from interviews conducted with participants in an Arts on Prescription programme two years after previous interviews to assess levels of 'distance travelled'. This follow-up study used a qualitative interview method amongst participants of an Arts on Prescription programme of work. Ten qualitative one-to-one interviews were conducted in community-based arts venues. Each participant was currently using or had used mental health services, and had been interviewed two years earlier. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed. For each of the 10 participants, a lengthy attendance of Arts on Prescription had acted as a catalyst for positive change. Participants reported increased self-confidence, improved social and communication skills, and increased motivation and aspiration. An analysis of each of the claims made by participants enabled them to be grouped according to emerging themes: education: practical and aspirational achievements; broadened horizons: accessing new worlds; assuming and sustaining new identities; and social and relational perceptions. Both hard and soft outcomes were identifiable, but most were soft outcomes. Follow-up data indicating progress varied between respondents. Whilst hard outcomes could be identified in individual cases, the unifying factors across the sample were found predominately in the realm of soft outcomes. These soft outcomes, such as raised confidence and self-esteem, facilitated the hard outcomes such as educational achievement and voluntary work. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Price Sensitivity of Demand for Prescription Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skipper, Lars; Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Niels

    This paper investigates price sensitivity of demand for prescription drugs using drug purchase records for at 20% random sample of the Danish population. We identify price responsiveness by exploiting exogenous variation in prices caused by kinked reimbursement schemes and implement a regression ...... education and income are, however, more responsive to the price. Also, essential drugs that prevent deterioration in health and prolong life have lower associated average price sensitivity....

  7. [Summary of Hui prescriptions for treating cough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-jin; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-02-01

    In this study, by using the method of literature research, 35 prescriptions related to asthma therapy has been screened out from Hui medicine through collecting the ancient and modern literature. A comparison of fragrant medicine between the name in Arab and Chinese herbal medicine is done. The countif function in Microsoft Excel 2007 is used to get the prescriptions of the drug on the frequency statistics, summarizing the common drugs of Hui medicine for asthma are Pinellia, almond, white sugar, walnut. According to the commonly used drugs, the pathogeny and treatment principle about Hui medicine for asthma is preliminarily inferred combining literature research and the related Hui medical theory. In this study, those prescriptions have been classified into 21 cases which are effective and can be used in medical therapy according to the relevant literatures with the development of the Hui people in their long process of formation of the unique diet culture, 14 useful and convenient Halal diet therapies are made up according to the indications, therapies, party name and composition. Halal diet and "medicine and food" herbs are preliminarily analyzed and summarized, which can be convenient for the people to reduce pains through the diet and improve health awareness.

  8. Antibiotics prescription in Nigerian dental healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, C C; Ojehanon, P I

    2014-09-01

    Inappropriate antibiotics prescription in dental healthcare delivery that may result in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, is a worldwide concern. The objective of the study was to determine the antibiotics knowledge and prescription patterns among dentists in Nigeria. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed to dentists attending continuing education courses organized by two organizations in Southern and Northern parts of Nigeria. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. A total of 146 questionnaires were returned, properly filled, out of 160 questionnaires, giving an overall response rate 91.3%. The clinical factors predominantly influenced the choice of therapeutic antibiotics among the respondents. In this study, the most commonly prescribed antibiotics among the respondents was a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. Of the respondents, 136 (93.2%) of them considered antibiotic resistance as a major problem in Nigeria and 102 (69.9%) have experienced antibiotics resistance in dental practice. The major reported conditions for prophylactic antibiotics among the respondents were diabetic mellitus, HIV/AIDS, history of rheumatic fever, other heart anomalies presenting with heart murmur and presence of prosthetic hip. The knowledge of adverse effects of antibiotics was greatest for tooth discoloration which is related to tetracycline. Data from this study revealed the most commonly prescribed antibiotics as a combination of amoxicillin and metronidazole. There existed gaps in prophylactic antibiotic prescription, consideration in the choice of therapeutic antibiotics and knowledge of adverse effects of antibiotics among the studied dentists.

  9. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.

  10. Development of a neutron imager based on superconducting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki, E-mail: miyajima@nict.go.jp [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shishido, Hiroaki [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Fujimaki, Akira [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University (Japan); Hidaka, Mutsuo [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan); Harada, Masahide; Oikawa, Kenichi; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Ishida, Takekazu [Department of Physics and Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan); Institute for Nanofabrication Research, Osaka Prefecture University (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • A neutron detector based on superconducting meander line is demonstrated. • Fast response time of a few tens ns is obtained. • Spatial resolution is 1 μm and can be improved to sub-μm scale. • The proposed neutron detector can operate under the γ-ray fields. - Abstract: We succeeded in demonstrating a neutron detector based on a Nb superconducting meander line with a {sup 10}B conversion layer for a neutron imager based on superconductor devices. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meander line, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response time. The thickness of Nb meander lines is 40 nm and the line width is narrower than 3 mu m. The area of 8 mm × 8 mm is covered by CB-KIDs, which are assembled at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm. The Nb CB-KIDs with a {sup 10}B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons. We have investigated γ/n discrimination of a Nb-based CB-KID with {sup 10}B conversion layer using a Cd plate, which indicates that a CB-KID can operate as a neutron detector under the strong γ-ray fields.

  11. Image-based path planning for automated virtual colonoscopy navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    2008-03-01

    Virtual colonoscopy (VC) is a noninvasive method for colonic polyp screening, by reconstructing three-dimensional models of the colon using computerized tomography (CT). In virtual colonoscopy fly-through navigation, it is crucial to generate an optimal camera path for efficient clinical examination. In conventional methods, the centerline of the colon lumen is usually used as the camera path. In order to extract colon centerline, some time consuming pre-processing algorithms must be performed before the fly-through navigation, such as colon segmentation, distance transformation, or topological thinning. In this paper, we present an efficient image-based path planning algorithm for automated virtual colonoscopy fly-through navigation without the requirement of any pre-processing. Our algorithm only needs the physician to provide a seed point as the starting camera position using 2D axial CT images. A wide angle fisheye camera model is used to generate a depth image from the current camera position. Two types of navigational landmarks, safe regions and target regions are extracted from the depth images. Camera position and its corresponding view direction are then determined using these landmarks. The experimental results show that the generated paths are accurate and increase the user comfort during the fly-through navigation. Moreover, because of the efficiency of our path planning algorithm and rendering algorithm, our VC fly-through navigation system can still guarantee 30 FPS.

  12. Image-Based Delineation and Classification of Built Heritage Masonry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Oses

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundación Zain is developing new built heritage assessment protocols. The goal is to objectivize and standardize the analysis and decision process that leads to determining the degree of protection of built heritage in the Basque Country. The ultimate step in this objectivization and standardization effort will be the development of an information and communication technology (ICT tool for the assessment of built heritage. This paper presents the ground work carried out to make this tool possible: the automatic, image-based delineation of stone masonry. This is a necessary first step in the development of the tool, as the built heritage that will be assessed consists of stone masonry construction, and many of the features analyzed can be characterized according to the geometry and arrangement of the stones. Much of the assessment is carried out through visual inspection. Thus, this process will be automated by applying image processing on digital images of the elements under inspection. The principal contribution of this paper is the automatic delineation the framework proposed. The other contribution is the performance evaluation of this delineation as the input to a classifier for a geometrically characterized feature of a built heritage object. The element chosen to perform this evaluation is the stone arrangement of masonry walls. The validity of the proposed framework is assessed on real images of masonry walls.

  13. Image-based characterization of foamed polymeric tissue scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, Melissa L; Morgan, Stephen P; Crowe, John A; White, Lisa J; Shakesheff, Kevin M; Tai, Hongyun; Howdle, Steven M; Kockenberger, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Tissue scaffolds are integral to many regenerative medicine therapies, providing suitable environments for tissue regeneration. In order to assess their suitability, methods to routinely and reproducibly characterize scaffolds are needed. Scaffold structures are typically complex, and thus their characterization is far from trivial. The work presented in this paper is centred on the application of the principles of scaffold characterization outlined in guidelines developed by ASTM International. Specifically, this work demonstrates the capabilities of different imaging modalities and analysis techniques used to characterize scaffolds fabricated from poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) using supercritical carbon dioxide. Three structurally different scaffolds were used. The scaffolds were imaged using: scanning electron microscopy, micro x-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and terahertz pulsed imaging. In each case two-dimensional images were obtained from which scaffold properties were determined using image processing. The findings of this work highlight how the chosen imaging modality and image-processing technique can influence the results of scaffold characterization. It is concluded that in order to obtain useful results from image-based scaffold characterization, an imaging methodology providing sufficient contrast and resolution must be used along with robust image segmentation methods to allow intercomparison of results

  14. Image-Based 3d Reconstruction and Analysis for Orthodontia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, V. A.

    2012-08-01

    Among the main tasks of orthodontia are analysis of teeth arches and treatment planning for providing correct position for every tooth. The treatment plan is based on measurement of teeth parameters and designing perfect teeth arch curve which teeth are to create after treatment. The most common technique for teeth moving uses standard brackets which put on teeth and a wire of given shape which is clamped by these brackets for producing necessary forces to every tooth for moving it in given direction. The disadvantages of standard bracket technique are low accuracy of tooth dimensions measurements and problems with applying standard approach for wide variety of complex orthodontic cases. The image-based technique for orthodontic planning, treatment and documenting aimed at overcoming these disadvantages is proposed. The proposed approach provides performing accurate measurements of teeth parameters needed for adequate planning, designing correct teeth position and monitoring treatment process. The developed technique applies photogrammetric means for teeth arch 3D model generation, brackets position determination and teeth shifting analysis.

  15. Reducing uncertainties in volumetric image based deformable organ registration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Yan, D.

    2003-01-01

    Applying volumetric image feedback in radiotherapy requires image based deformable organ registration. The foundation of this registration is the ability of tracking subvolume displacement in organs of interest. Subvolume displacement can be calculated by applying biomechanics model and the finite element method to human organs manifested on the multiple volumetric images. The calculation accuracy, however, is highly dependent on the determination of the corresponding organ boundary points. Lacking sufficient information for such determination, uncertainties are inevitable--thus diminishing the registration accuracy. In this paper, a method of consuming energy minimization was developed to reduce these uncertainties. Starting from an initial selection of organ boundary point correspondence on volumetric image sets, the subvolume displacement and stress distribution of the whole organ are calculated and the consumed energy due to the subvolume displacements is computed accordingly. The corresponding positions of the initially selected boundary points are then iteratively optimized to minimize the consuming energy under geometry and stress constraints. In this study, a rectal wall delineated from patient CT image was artificially deformed using a computer simulation and utilized to test the optimization. Subvolume displacements calculated based on the optimized boundary point correspondence were compared to the true displacements, and the calculation accuracy was thereby evaluated. Results demonstrate that a significant improvement on the accuracy of the deformable organ registration can be achieved by applying the consuming energy minimization in the organ deformation calculation

  16. POTENTIALS OF IMAGE BASED ACTIVE RANGING TO CAPTURE DYNAMIC SCENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jutzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining a 3D description of man-made and natural environments is a basic task in Computer Vision and Remote Sensing. To this end, laser scanning is currently one of the dominating techniques to gather reliable 3D information. The scanning principle inherently needs a certain time interval to acquire the 3D point cloud. On the other hand, new active sensors provide the possibility of capturing range information by images with a single measurement. With this new technique image-based active ranging is possible which allows capturing dynamic scenes, e.g. like walking pedestrians in a yard or moving vehicles. Unfortunately most of these range imaging sensors have strong technical limitations and are not yet sufficient for airborne data acquisition. It can be seen from the recent development of highly specialized (far-range imaging sensors – so called flash-light lasers – that most of the limitations could be alleviated soon, so that future systems will be equipped with improved image size and potentially expanded operating range. The presented work is a first step towards the development of methods capable for application of range images in outdoor environments. To this end, an experimental setup was set up for investigating these proposed possibilities. With the experimental setup a measurement campaign was carried out and first results will be presented within this paper.

  17. Development of a neutron imager based on superconducting detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Shigeyuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakayama, Hirotaka; Shishido, Hiroaki; Fujimaki, Akira; Hidaka, Mutsuo; Harada, Masahide; Oikawa, Kenichi; Oku, Takayuki; Arai, Masatoshi; Ishida, Takekazu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A neutron detector based on superconducting meander line is demonstrated. • Fast response time of a few tens ns is obtained. • Spatial resolution is 1 μm and can be improved to sub-μm scale. • The proposed neutron detector can operate under the γ-ray fields. - Abstract: We succeeded in demonstrating a neutron detector based on a Nb superconducting meander line with a "1"0B conversion layer for a neutron imager based on superconductor devices. We use a current-biased kinetic inductance detector (CB-KID), which is composed of a meander line, for detection of a neutron with high spatial resolution and fast response time. The thickness of Nb meander lines is 40 nm and the line width is narrower than 3 mu m. The area of 8 mm × 8 mm is covered by CB-KIDs, which are assembled at the center of the Si chip of the size 22 mm × 22 mm. The Nb CB-KIDs with a "1"0B conversion layer output the voltage by irradiating pulsed neutrons. We have investigated γ/n discrimination of a Nb-based CB-KID with "1"0B conversion layer using a Cd plate, which indicates that a CB-KID can operate as a neutron detector under the strong γ-ray fields.

  18. Increasing access to emergency contraception through online prescription requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averbach, Sarah; Wendt, Jacqueline Moro; Levine, Deborah K; Philip, Susan S; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    To describe a pilot program, Plan B Online Prescription Access, to provide easy access to prescriptions for emergency contraception via the Internet. We measured electronic prescriptions for Plan B (Duramed Pharmaceuticals, Cincinnati, Ohio) by month over time. Pharmacists faxed patient-generated prescriptions back to the Department of Public Health for confirmation. Despite no marketing, within the first 18 months of the program, 152 electronic prescriptions for Plan B were requested by 128 female San Francisco residents. Seventy-eight prescriptions were filled (51%) by pharmacists. If correctly marketed, online prescriptions for Plan B have the potential to be an effective means of increasing emergency contraception access in both urban and rural settings across the United States. Further user-acceptability studies are warranted.

  19. [Targeted pharmacist-led medication order review in hospital: Assessment of a selection method for drug prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarre, C; Bouchet, J; Hellot-Guersing, M; Leromain, A-S; Derharoutunian, C; Gadot, A; Roubille, R

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a selection method for drug prescriptions developed at the hospital level that allows to target pharmacist-led medication order review for at-risk patients and drugs. A one-month study has been conducted on all targeted medication orders in 19 care units. Selection criteria have been identified: biological criteria, alert medications and drug interactions. Pharmacists' interventions proposed during medication order review were listed and the possible links to the selection criteria were determined. A total of 1612 prescriptions were analysed and 236 pharmacists' interventions were performed (14.6 interventions per 100 prescriptions). Physicians' acceptance rate was 60.6%. The percentage of pharmacists' interventions linked to the selection criteria was 35.6%. The relevance of the biological criteria was identified, particularly the one identifying patients with creatinine clearance below 30ml/min. Six alert medications were also relevant selection criteria: dabigatran, morphine, gentamicin, methotrexate, potassium chloride and trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole. Drug interactions criteria was irrelevant. This study allowed a first assessment of the selection criteria used. A largest study seems necessary to continue the analysis of this selection method for prescriptions, especially the assessment of the alert medications list, in order to refine the prescriptions targeting. Copyright © 2017 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Prescription of hazardous drugs during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malm, Heli; Martikainen, Jaana; Klaukka, Timo; Neuvonen, Pertti J

    2004-01-01

    Prescribing drugs to pregnant women requires the balancing of benefits and risks. Only a small proportion of drugs are known to be harmful to the fetus, but for the vast majority of drugs little evidence of fetal safety exists. To determine the prescription pattern of potentially and clearly harmful prescription drugs during pregnancy with reference to drug safety categorisation, and to define the drug groups primarily responsible for multiple drug use during pregnancy. A retrospective, register-based cohort study. Linkage of three nationwide registers in Finland. Data collection included prescription drugs purchased during the preconception period and each trimester in the pregnant cohort, and the corresponding time periods in the non-pregnant controls. The pregnancy safety categorisation was determined for each drug (Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical [ATC] code) by using the Swedish classification of approved medicinal products (Farmaceutiska Specialiteter i Sverige [FASS]) and if not available, the corresponding Australian (Australian Drug Evaluation Committee [ADEC]) or US categorisation (FDA). GROUPS STUDIED: Women applying for maternity support (maternal grants) during the year 1999 (n = 43 470) plus non-pregnant control women matched by age and hospital district (n = 43 470). In the pregnant cohort, 20.4% of women purchased at least one drug classified as potentially harmful during pregnancy, and 3.4% purchased at least one drug classified as clearly harmful. A significant decline occurred in the number of pregnant women purchasing potentially and clearly harmful drugs during the first trimester when compared with the preconception period, and the decline continued from the first to the second trimester. In the pregnant cohort, 107 (0.2%) women purchased at least ten different drugs during pregnancy. The drugs most commonly purchased in this group were topical corticosteroids and nasal preparations. The use of hazardous prescription drugs declines during

  1. Women who abuse prescription opioids: findings from the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version Connect prescription opioid database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Traci C; Grimes Serrano, Jill M; Licari, Andrea; Budman, Simon H; Butler, Stephen F

    2009-07-01

    Evidence suggests gender differences in abuse of prescription opioids. This study aimed to describe characteristics of women who abuse prescription opioids in a treatment-seeking sample and to contrast gender differences among prescription opioid abusers. Data collected November 2005 to April 2008 derived from the Addiction Severity Index Multimedia Version Connect (ASI-MV Connect) database. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression examined correlates of prescription opioid abuse stratified by gender. 29,906 assessments from 220 treatment centers were included, of which 12.8% (N=3821) reported past month prescription opioid abuse. Women were more likely than men to report use of any prescription opioid (29.8% females vs. 21.1% males, phistory of drug overdose. Men-specific correlates were age screen and identify those at highest risk of prescription opioid abuse. Prevention and intervention efforts with a gender-specific approach are warranted.

  2. [Standardization of names in prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Feng; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Fan, Dong-He; Zhang, Meng-Jie; Bai, Xue; Yang, Wen-Hua; Qi, Shu-Ya; Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Xue, Chun-Miao; Mao, Liu-Ying; Cao, Jun-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Chinese medicine prescriptions are a type of medical documents written by doctors after they understand the patients' conditions for syndrome differentiation. Chinese medicine prescriptions are also the basis for pharmacy personnel to dispense medicines and guide patients to use drugs. It has the legal, technical and economic significances. Chinese medicine prescriptions contain such information of names, quantity and usage. Whether the names of drugs in Chinese medicine prescriptions are standardized or not is directly related to the safety and efficacy of the drugs. At present, nonstandard clinical prescriptions are frequently seen. With "Chinese medicine prescription", "names of drug in Chinese medicine prescription" and "standards of Chinese medicine prescription" as key words, the author searched CNKI, Wanfang and other databases, and consulted nearly 100 literatures, so as to summarize current names of drugs in traditional Chinese medicine prescription, analyze the reasons, and give suggestions, in the expectation of standardizing the names of drugs used in traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Assessment of parental understanding of paediatric medical prescriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiqua Anjum, Nasir Mohiuddin M, Narayan Reddy U, Narsing Rao J, Sana Afreen, Mir S Adil, Javeedullah M

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical prescriptions are bound to be misinterpreted by patients and pharmacists if not properly conveyed. Pediatric prescriptions differ from adult prescriptions having wide variation in doses and formulations. There is a need to evaluate the lacunae in the parental understanding of pediatric prescriptions. Aims and objective: To evaluate the parental understanding of pediatric prescription and to evaluate the adequacy of communication with the physician and pharmacist regarding the same. Material and methods: 550 parents were enrolled and their literacy level was noted. They were subjected to modify MUSE questionnaire. Physician’s prescription was analyzed in terms of ease of understanding by parents. These parents were followed up till the pharmacies and the pharmacist understanding of prescription was analyzed and their communication with parents regarding drug usage was noted. Finally, ease of usage of drugs by parents was noted. Results: MUSE scale was modified to suit pediatric prescription understanding by parents and also additional questions were asked to include complete parental understanding of doctor’s prescription. Majority of parents failed to completely understand the written prescription. Though around 80% of pharmacist could understand the prescription, their communication with parents was poor resulting in difficulty for parents to even enquire about medicines from them. Parental overall understanding of prescription increased with their literacy levels. Conclusion: Not all prescriptions are completely understood by parents as well as a pharmacist. This can lead to misuse of drugs. Efforts to explain the drug usage are not adequate enough from the doctor or the pharmacist. While communicating literacy levels of parents is not being considered which may further worsen the understanding ability

  4. Prescription History of Emergency Department Patients Prescribed Opioids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason A Hoppe

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To use Colorado’s prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP to describe the recent opioid prescription history of patients discharged from our emergency department (ED with a prescription for opioid pain medications.Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 300 adult ED patients who received an opioid prescription. We abstracted prescription histories for the six months prior to the ED visit from the PDMP, and abstracted clinical and demographic variables from the chart.Results: There were 5,379 ED visits during the study month, 3,732 of which were discharged. Providers wrote 1,165 prescriptions for opioid analgesics to 1,124/3,732 (30% of the patients. Median age was 36 years. Thirty-nine percent were male. Patients were 46% Caucasian, 26% African American, 22% Hispanic, 2% Asian and 4% other. These were similar to our overall ED population. There was substantial variability in the number of prescriptions, prescribers and total number of pills. A majority (205/296 of patients had zero or one prescription. The 90th percentile for number of prescriptions was seven, while the 10th percentile was zero. Patients in the highest decile tended to be older, with a higher proportion of Caucasians and females. Patients in the lowest decile resembled the general ED population. The most common diagnoses associated with opioid prescriptions were abdominal pain (11.5%, cold/flu symptoms (9.5%, back pain (5.4%, flank pain (5.0% and motor vehicle crash (4.7%.Conclusion: Substantial variability exists in the opioid prescription histories of ED patients, but a majority received zero or one prescription in the preceding six months. The top decile of patients averaged more than two prescriptions per month over the six months prior to ED visit, written by more than 6 different prescribers. There was a trend toward these patients being older, Caucasian and female. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(3:247–252.

  5. Knowledge of drug prescription in dentistry students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzmán-Álvarez R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available R Guzmán-Álvarezv,1 M Medeiros,2,3 LI Reyes Lagunes,4 AE Campos-Sepúlveda11Pharmacology Department, UNAM School of Medicine and Dentistry, Mexico City, 2Pharmacology Clinical Seminar, UNAM School of Medicine, Mexico City, 3Medical Sciences Department, Mexico Federico Gómez Children's Hospital, Mexico City, 4Measuring and Evaluation Unit, UNAM School of Psychology, Mexico City, MexicoBackground: Students in schools of dentistry attend to patients with illnesses, and often prescribe medication. Because students are still learning, they are influenced by a variety of factors: the different teaching approaches of the professors at the clinics and in the pharmacology course, fellow students, and even the information provided by the pharmaceutical industry.Objectives: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the prescription knowledge and common mistakes in fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.Methods: In March 2010, a survey was conducted among 66 fourth-year students at the School of Dentistry, applying a previously validated questionnaire consisting of six open-ended questions The following factors were assessed: the most frequent illness requiring dental prescription; the most prescribed nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics; the most frequent errors; sources of information used for prescribing drugs; and whether the students knew and followed the World Health Organization Guide to Good Prescribing.Results: The most frequent response for each question was considered the most significant. The most common reason for prescribing medication was infection (n = 37, 56%, followed by pain (n = 24, 38%; the most used painkillers were ibuprofen and acetaminophen at equal levels (n = 25, 37.8%, followed by ketorolac (n = 7, 10.6%, naproxen (n = 6, 9.1%, diclofenac (n = 2, 3%, and aspirin (n = 1, 1.5%; the most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (n = 52, 78

  6. Dose prescription in boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.M.S.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Blue, T.E.; Wambersie, A.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some aspects of the many considerations that need to go into a dose prescription in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for brain tumors; and to describe some methods to incorporate knowledge from animal studies and other experiments into the process of dose prescription. Previously, an algorithm to estimate the normal tissue tolerance to mixed high and low linear energy transfer radiations in BNCT was proposed. The authors have developed mathematical formulations and computational methods to represent this algorithm. Generalized models to fit the central axis dose rate components for an epithermal neutron field were also developed. These formulations and beam fitting models were programmed into spreadsheets to simulate two treatment techniques which are expected to be used in BNCT: a two-field bilateral scheme and a single-field treatment scheme. Parameters in these spreadsheets can be varied to represent the fractionation scheme used, the 10 B microdistribution in normal tissue, and the ratio of 10 B in tumor to normal tissue. Most of these factors have to be determined for a given neutron field and 10 B compound combination from large animal studies. The spreadsheets have been programmed to integrate all of the treatment-related information and calculate the location along the central axis where the normal tissue tolerance is exceeded first. This information is then used to compute the maximum treatment time allowable and the maximum tumor dose that may be delivered for a given BNCT treatment. The effect of different treatment variables on the treatment time and tumor dose has been shown to be very significant. It has also been shown that the location of D max shifts significantly, depending on some of the treatment variables-mainly the fractionation scheme used. These results further emphasize the fact that dose prescription in BNCT is very complicated and nonintuitive. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  7. [Changes in prescription patterns for peripheral and cerebral vasoactive drugs before and after establishing prescription standards in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuittenez, F; Guignard, E; Comte, S

    1999-01-23

    Assess changes in the number of prescriptions for peripheral and cerebral vasoactive drugs for the treatment of lower limb arteritis and cerebrovascular disease since the promulgation in 1995 of prescription standards for the treatment of lower limb arteritis. Assess compliance to prescription standards with a detailed analysis of patient features, prescriptions written for lower limb arteritis, cerebrovascular disease and concomitant diseases and evaluate changes in treatment costs for lower limb arteritis and cerebrovascular disease as well as cost of the full prescription, including treatments for associated diseases. This study was based on data recorded during the Permanent Study of Medical Prescriptions conducted from March 1994 to February 1995 and from March 1995 to February 1996 by the IMS. Prescription costs were established from the National Description Files of the IMS. Treatment costs were expressed as public price (FF) tax included. Prescriptions meeting the following criteria were selected for each period: prescriptions written by general practitioners for drugs with peripheral and cerebral vasoactivity (excepting calcium antagonists with a cerebral target) belonging to the Anatomic Therapeutic Classes C4A1 of the European Pharmaceutical Marketing Research Association, Bromly 1996; prescriptions for diagnoses 447.6 (arteritis) and 437.9 (cerebrovascular disease) according to the 9th WHO classification. A random sample of 500 prescriptions was selected to calculate costs. Since the advent of the prescription standards in 1995, prescriptions have dropped off by 6.3% for lower limb arteritis and by 14.8% for cerebrovascular disease. There was a 3.7 point decline in the percentage of multiple prescriptions of vasoactive drugs for lower limb arteritis (21.7% prior to March 1995 versus 18% after promulgation of the prescription standards, p > 0.1) and a 1.8 increase in the percentage of multiple prescriptions for cerebrovascular disease (14% prior to March

  8. Image-based environmental monitoring sensor application using an embedded wireless sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Jeongyeup; Hicks, John; Coe, Sharon; Govindan, Ramesh

    2014-08-28

    This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet's built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Cannot Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions.

  9. Image-Based Environmental Monitoring Sensor Application Using an Embedded Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongyeup Paek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the experiences from the development and deployment of two image-based environmental monitoring sensor applications using an embedded wireless sensor network. Our system uses low-power image sensors and the Tenet general purpose sensing system for tiered embedded wireless sensor networks. It leverages Tenet’s built-in support for reliable delivery of high rate sensing data, scalability and its flexible scripting language, which enables mote-side image compression and the ease of deployment. Our first deployment of a pitfall trap monitoring application at the James San Jacinto Mountain Reserve provided us with insights and lessons learned into the deployment of and compression schemes for these embedded wireless imaging systems. Our three month-long deployment of a bird nest monitoring application resulted in over 100,000 images collected from a 19-camera node network deployed over an area of 0.05 square miles, despite highly variable environmental conditions. Our biologists found the on-line, near-real-time access to images to be useful for obtaining data on answering their biological questions.

  10. Prospective regularization design in prior-image-based reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, Hao; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H; Stayman, J Webster

    2015-01-01

    Prior-image-based reconstruction (PIBR) methods leveraging patient-specific anatomical information from previous imaging studies and/or sequences have demonstrated dramatic improvements in dose utilization and image quality for low-fidelity data. However, a proper balance of information from the prior images and information from the measurements is required (e.g. through careful tuning of regularization parameters). Inappropriate selection of reconstruction parameters can lead to detrimental effects including false structures and failure to improve image quality. Traditional methods based on heuristics are subject to error and sub-optimal solutions, while exhaustive searches require a large number of computationally intensive image reconstructions. In this work, we propose a novel method that prospectively estimates the optimal amount of prior image information for accurate admission of specific anatomical changes in PIBR without performing full image reconstructions. This method leverages an analytical approximation to the implicitly defined PIBR estimator, and introduces a predictive performance metric leveraging this analytical form and knowledge of a particular presumed anatomical change whose accurate reconstruction is sought. Additionally, since model-based PIBR approaches tend to be space-variant, a spatially varying prior image strength map is proposed to optimally admit changes everywhere in the image (eliminating the need to know change locations a priori). Studies were conducted in both an ellipse phantom and a realistic thorax phantom emulating a lung nodule surveillance scenario. The proposed method demonstrated accurate estimation of the optimal prior image strength while achieving a substantial computational speedup (about a factor of 20) compared to traditional exhaustive search. Moreover, the use of the proposed prior strength map in PIBR demonstrated accurate reconstruction of anatomical changes without foreknowledge of change locations in

  11. Method and apparatus of a portable imaging-based measurement with self calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh [Ann Arbor, MI; Huang, Hsun-Hau [Ann Arbor, MI

    2012-07-31

    A portable imaging-based measurement device is developed to perform 2D projection based measurements on an object that is difficult or dangerous to access. This device is equipped with self calibration capability and built-in operating procedures to ensure proper imaging based measurement.

  12. Prescription Drug Abuse: From Epidemiology to Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Nielsen, Suzanne; Weiss, Roger D.

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse has reached an epidemic level in the United States. The prevalence of prescription drug abuse escalated rapidly beginning in the late 1990s, requiring a significant increase in research to better understand the nature and treatment of this problem. Since this time, a research literature has begun to develop and has provided important information about how prescription drug abuse is similar to, and different from the abuse of other substances. This introduction to a spe...

  13. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Camera; Bryan Engelhardt

    2014-01-01

    The illicit nonmedical use of prescription drugs is studied in a model where individuals with imperfectly observable health conditions seek prescription drugs for either medical or nonmedical reasons. The equilibrium number of medical and nonmedical users is endogenous and depends on economic and non-economic barriers to drugs consumption, such as pricing, health care costs, refill policies, monitoring programs, and the medical community’s prescription standards. The results show policies cen...

  14. Automated Prescription of Oblique Brain 3D MRSI

    OpenAIRE

    Ozhinsky, Eugene; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Two major difficulties encountered in implementing Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) in a clinical setting are limited coverage and difficulty in prescription. The goal of this project was to completely automate the process of 3D PRESS MRSI prescription, including placement of the selection box, saturation bands and shim volume, while maximizing the coverage of the brain. The automated prescription technique included acquisition of an anatomical MRI image, optimization of the ob...

  15. Effect of EHR user interface changes on internal prescription discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, A; Sawarkar, A; Dementieva, Y A; Breydo, E; Ramelson, H

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of "as directed" option to the dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195 / month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145 / month (p = 0.03). Addition of a "Renew / Sign" button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes.

  16. Effect of EHR User Interface Changes on Internal Prescription Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawarkar, A.; Dementieva, Y.A.; Breydo, E.; Ramelson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Results Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of „as directed“ option to the dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195 / month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145 / month (p = 0.03). Addition of a „Renew / Sign“ button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Conclusions Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes. PMID:25298811

  17. Prescription Writing Errors of Midwifery Students in Common Gynecological problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serveh Parang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Giving improper prescriptions is common among medical practitioners, mostly graduates, in most communities even developed countries. So far, to our knowledge, no study has been conducted on prescription writing of graduate midwifery students. Therefore, this study aimed to detect prescription writing errors of midwifery students in common gynecological problems. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 56 bachelor midwifery students, who had passed the theoretical and clinical courses of gynecology, were evaluated by Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE. A demographic questionnaire and a standard checklist for writing the prescriptions and medications were used for data collection. SPSS Version 16 was used to carry out descriptive statistics. Findings: Most of the students were single, with the mean age of 23.0±1.7 years. Most errors were related to not recording the patients’ age and sex, diagnosis, chief complaint, and the prescriber’s name (observed in less than 10% of the prescriptions. The complete dosage schedule and drug name were stated only in 1.8±4.8 and 14±18.6 of prescriptions, respectively. In more than 93% of the cases, route of use and treatment duration were not recorded. Conclusion: According to the results, the number of prescription errors of midwifery students was high. Therefore, it is recommended to run educational courses on prescription writing skills (e.g. writing prescriptions based on World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for the midwifery students.

  18. Prescription analysis of pediatric outpatient practice in Nagpur city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Anuja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication errors are probably one of the most common types of medical errors, as medication is the most common health-care intervention. Knowing where and when errors are most likely to occur is generally felt to be the first step in trying to prevent these errors. Objective: To study prescribing patterns and errors in pediatric OPD prescriptions presenting to four community pharmacies across Nagpur city and to compare the prescription error rates across prescriber profiles. Materials and Methods: The study sample included 1376 valid pediatric OPD prescriptions presenting to four randomly selected community pharmacies in Nagpur, collected over a period of 2 months. Confirmed errors in the prescriptions were reviewed and analyzed. The core indicators for drug utilization studies, mentioned by WHO, were used to define errors. Results: The 1376 prescriptions included in the study were for a total of 3435 drugs, prescribed by 41 doctors. Fixed dose formulations dominated the prescribing pattern, many of which were irrational. Prescribing by market name was almost universal and generic prescriptions were for merely 254 (7.4% drugs. The prescribing pattern also indicated polypharmacy with the average number of drugs per encounter of 2.5. Antibiotics were included in 1087 (79% prescriptions, while injectable drugs were prescribed in 22 (1.6% prescriptions. The prescription error score varied significantly across prescriber profiles. Conclusion: The findings of our study highlight the continuing crisis of the irrational drug prescribing in the country.

  19. Micro-Structure Measurement and Imaging Based on Digital Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Suk; Jung, Hyun Chul; Chang, Ho Seob; Akhter, Naseem [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kee, Chang Doo [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Advancements in the imaging and computing technology have opened the path to digital holography for non-destructive investigations of technical samples, material property measurement, vibration analysis, flow visualization and stress analysis in aerospace industry which has widened the application of digital holography in the above fields. In this paper, we demonstrate the non-destructive investigation and micro-structure measurement application of digital holography to the small particles and a biological sample. This paper gives a brief description of the digital holograms recorded with this system and illustratively demonstrated

  20. Micro-Structure Measurement and Imaging Based on Digital Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Suk; Jung, Hyun Chul; Chang, Ho Seob; Akhter, Naseem; Kee, Chang Doo

    2010-01-01

    Advancements in the imaging and computing technology have opened the path to digital holography for non-destructive investigations of technical samples, material property measurement, vibration analysis, flow visualization and stress analysis in aerospace industry which has widened the application of digital holography in the above fields. In this paper, we demonstrate the non-destructive investigation and micro-structure measurement application of digital holography to the small particles and a biological sample. This paper gives a brief description of the digital holograms recorded with this system and illustratively demonstrated

  1. An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, cons and tensions

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M Mofizul; McRae, Ian S

    2014-01-01

    Background In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriat...

  2. Alcohol and prescription drug safety in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanjani F

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faika Zanjani,1,2 Aasha I Hoogland,1 Brian G Downer11Department of Gerontology, 2Building Interdisciplinary Research Careers in Women's Health University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USABackground: The objectives of this study were to investigate older adults' knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, and to identify pharmacists' willingness to disseminate prescription drug safety information to older adults.Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 48 older adults aged 54–89 years who were recruited from a local pharmacy and who completed surveys addressing their alcohol consumption, understanding of alcohol and prescription drug interactions, and willingness to change habits regarding alcohol consumption and prescription drugs. To address pharmacist willingness, 90 pharmacists from local pharmacies volunteered and answered questions regarding their willingness to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults.Results: Older adults reported low knowledge of alcohol and prescription drug safety, with women tending to be slightly more knowledgeable. More importantly, those who drank in the previous few months were less willing to talk to family and friends about how alcohol can have harmful interactions with prescription drugs, or to be an advocate for safe alcohol and prescription drug use than those who had not had a drink recently. Pharmacists reported that they were willing to convey prescription drug safety information to older adults via a variety of formats, including displaying or distributing a flyer, and directly administering a brief intervention.Conclusion: In this study, older adults were found to have inadequate knowledge of prescription drug safety and interactions with alcohol, but pharmacists who regularly come in contact with older adults indicated that they were ready and willing to talk to older adults about prescription drug safety. Future research should focus on interventions

  3. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs among DUI suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Haukka, Jari; Lintonen, Tomi; Joukamaa, Matti; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2015-10-01

    The study seeks to increase understanding of the use of psychoactive prescription drugs among persons suspected of driving under the influence (DUI). We studied whether the use of prescribed psychoactive medication was associated with DUI, and examined the difference in the use of prescription drugs between DUI recidivists and those arrested only once. In this register-based study, persons suspected of DUI (n=29470) were drawn from the Register of DUI suspects, and an age- and gender-matched reference population (n=30043) was drawn from the Finnish general population. Data on prescription drug use was obtained by linkage to the National Prescription Register. The associations of DUI arrest and use of psychoactive prescription drugs in different DUI groups (findings for alcohol only, prescription drugs, prescription drugs and alcohol, illicit drugs) were estimated by using mixed-effect logistic regression. The use of psychoactive prescription drugs and DUI appeared to be strongly associated, with DUI suspects significantly more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to the reference population. Gender differences existed, with the use of benzodiazepines being more common among female DUI suspects. Moreover, DUI recidivists were more likely to use psychoactive prescription drugs compared to those arrested only once. In addition to alcohol and/or illicit drug use, a significant proportion of DUI suspects were using psychoactive prescription drugs. When prescribing psychoactive medication, especially benzodiazepines, physicians are challenged to screen for possible substance use problems and also to monitor for patients' alcohol or illicit drug use while being medicated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Opioid Prescriptions by Specialty in Ohio, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Scott G; Baker, Olesya; Rodgers, Ann F; Garner, Chad; Nelson, Lewis S; Kreiner, Peter W; Schuur, Jeremiah D

    2018-05-01

    The current US opioid epidemic is attributed to the large volume of prescribed opioids. This study analyzed the contribution of different medical specialties to overall opioids by evaluating the pill counts and morphine milligram equivalents (MMEs) of opioid prescriptions, stratified by provider specialty, and determined temporal trends. This was an analysis of the Ohio prescription drug monitoring program database, which captures scheduled medication prescriptions filled in the state as well as prescriber specialty. We extracted prescriptions for pill versions of opioids written in the calendar years 2010 to 2014. The main outcomes were the number of filled prescriptions, pill counts, MMEs, and extended-released opioids written by physicians in each specialty, and annual prescribing trends. There were 56,873,719 prescriptions for the studied opioids dispensed, for which 41,959,581 (73.8%) had prescriber specialty type available. Mean number of pills per prescription and MMEs were highest for physical medicine/rehabilitation (PM&R; 91.2 pills, 1,532 mg, N = 1,680,579), anesthesiology/pain (89.3 pills, 1,484 mg, N = 3,261,449), hematology/oncology (88.2 pills, 1,534 mg, N = 516,596), and neurology (84.4 pills, 1,230 mg, N = 573,389). Family medicine (21.8%) and internal medicine (17.6%) wrote the most opioid prescriptions overall. Time trends in the average number of pills and MMEs per prescription also varied depending on specialty. The numbers of pills and MMEs per opioid prescription vary markedly by prescriber specialty, as do trends in prescribing characteristics. Pill count and MME values define each specialty's contribution to overall opioid prescribing more accurately than the number of prescriptions alone.

  5. Re: Pregabalin prescriptions in the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, A; Tjäderborn, M; Schjerning, O

    2016-01-01

    Aim In Europe, pregabalin is approved for treatment of neuropathic pain, general anxiety disorder (GAD) and as adjunctive therapy for epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess utilisation of pregabalin in the UK, including patients with a recorded history of substance abuse, from a large...... general practice database. Methods This observational drug utilisation study (DUS) analysed pregabalin prescription data from the UK Health Improvement Network primary care database between September 2004 and July 2009. Patient demographics, diagnoses (by READ codes) and pregabalin dosing data were...... collected. Diagnosis codes were used as proxy for approved indication for pregabalin. Result A cohort of 18,951 patients was prescribed pregabalin; dosing information was available for 13,480 (71.1%). Median age of patients was 58 years, and majority were female (60.1%). Median (interquartile range...

  6. 21 CFR 1306.05 - Manner of issuance of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manner of issuance of prescriptions. 1306.05 Section 1306.05 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS... revised, effective June 1, 2010. For the convenience of the user, therevised text is set forth as follows...

  7. 21 CFR 1306.13 - Partial filling of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial filling of prescriptions. 1306.13 Section 1306.13 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled... by revising paragraph (a), effective June 1, 2010. For the convenience of the user, the revised text...

  8. 21 CFR 1306.22 - Refilling of prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refilling of prescriptions. 1306.22 Section 1306.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRESCRIPTIONS Controlled... 75 FR 16308, Mar. 31, 2010, § 1306.22 was revised, effective June 1, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  9. Parental contribution to over prescription of antibiotics for sore throat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Antibiotics are often prescribed by physicians for sore throat in children because of the danger of post streptococcal complications. The role of the parents in over prescription of antibiotics is less well known. Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practice of parents to antibiotic prescription for ...

  10. 42 CFR 423.159 - Electronic prescription drug program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electronic prescription drug program. 423.159 Section 423.159 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality...

  11. The light-cone gauge and the principal value prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, B.M.; Suzuki, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    The principal value prescription is used to treat the unphysical pole (K.n) -1 in the basic one-loop light-cone integral. It is shown that the prescription is well suited to such a task, contrary to what has been previously thought till now. (author) [pt

  12. Drug prescription pattern in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital | Sodipo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is an increasing incidence of irrational drug use worldwide. The drug prescription pattern in Nigeria is characterised by inappropriate drug use which has led to increasing expenditure and loss of patient confidence in the health sector. This has led to calls to improve prescription patterns in Nigerian ...

  13. Nonmedical Prescription Drug Use among Midwestern Rural Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nicholas K.; Melander, Lisa; Sanchez, Shanell

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug misuse has been an increasing problem in the United States, yet few studies have examined the protective factors that reduce risk of prescription drug abuse among rural adolescents. Using social control theory as a theoretical framework, we test whether parent, school, and community attachment reduce the likelihood of lifetime…

  14. 76 FR 59898 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... Register on Thursday, August 18, 2011. The proposed regulation provides guidance relating to the branded... as follows: 1. On Page 51311, column 2, under the part heading PART 51--BRANDED PRESCRIPTION DRUGS...

  15. 77 FR 48111 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 [REG-112805-10] RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice..., August 6, 2012 (77 FR 46653) relating to the branded prescription drug fee imposed by the Affordable Care...

  16. 76 FR 59897 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 [TD 9544] RIN 1545-BK34 Branded... branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable...: This correction is effective on September 28, 2011 and applies to any fee on branded prescription drug...

  17. 77 FR 46653 - Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 51 [REG-112805-10] RIN 1545-BJ39 Branded Prescription Drug Fee; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... document provides notice of public hearing on proposed regulations relating to the branded prescription...

  18. Dispensing of drugs with and without a prescription from private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little literature available on dispensing patterns and unsupervised sale of medicines from pharmacies in Tanzania. The present study assessed the patterns of drug acquisition from pharmacies by customers: whether by prescription, recommended by pharmacist, or requested by a customer without a prescription.

  19. [Failure mode and effects analysis on computerized drug prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Atenciano, J A; Roldán-Aviña, J P; González-García, Mercedes; Blanco-Sánchez, M C; Pinto-Melero, M A; Pérez-Ramírez, C; Calvo Rubio-Burgos, Miguel; Osuna-Navarro, F J; Jurado-Carmona, A M

    2015-01-01

    To identify and analyze errors in drug prescriptions of patients treated in a "high resolution" hospital by applying a Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).Material and methods A multidisciplinary group of medical specialties and nursing analyzed medical records where drug prescriptions were held in free text format. An FMEA was developed in which the risk priority index (RPI) was obtained from a cross-sectional observational study using an audit of the medical records, carried out in 2 phases: 1) Pre-intervention testing, and (2) evaluation of improvement actions after the first analysis. An audit sample size of 679 medical records from a total of 2,096 patients was calculated using stratified sampling and random selection of clinical events. Prescription errors decreased by 22.2% in the second phase. FMEA showed a greater RPI in "unspecified route of administration" and "dosage unspecified", with no significant decreases observed in the second phase, although it did detect, "incorrect dosing time", "contraindication due to drug allergy", "wrong patient" or "duplicate prescription", which resulted in the improvement of prescriptions. Drug prescription errors have been identified and analyzed by FMEA methodology, improving the clinical safety of these prescriptions. This tool allows updates of electronic prescribing to be monitored. To avoid such errors would require the mandatory completion of all sections of a prescription. Copyright © 2014 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Preventing Prescription Drug Abuse in Adolescence: A Collaborative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Beth A.; Fullwood, Harry; Hawthorn, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    With the growing awareness of adolescent prescription drug abuse, communities and schools are beginning to explore prevention and intervention strategies which are appropriate for their youth. This article provides a framework for developing a collaborative approach to prescription drug abuse prevention--called the Prevention Awareness Team--that…

  1. Asthma prescription patterns for children: can GPs do better?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uijen, J.H.J.M.; Wouden, J.C. van der; Schellevis, F.G.; Willemsen, S.P.; Suijlekom-Smit, L.W.A. van; Bindels, P.J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessing prescription patterns of asthma medication for children is helpful to optimize prescribing by general practitioners (GPs). The aim was to explore prescription patterns in children with physician-diagnosed asthma and its determinants in general practice. Methods: We used the

  2. Pharmaceutical interventions on prescription problems in a Danish pharmacy setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper; Søndergaard, Jens

    2011-01-01

    International studies regarding pharmacists' interventions towards prescription problems produce highly variable results. The only peer-reviewed study in a Danish setting estimated an intervention rate of 2.3 per 1,000 prescriptions. With the introduction of a new tool for registration, we...

  3. Prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands : an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, H; Geertzen, JHB; Hofstad, CJ; Postema, K; Van Limbeek, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Prosthetic prescription for lower limb amputees and the methodology used are primarily based on empirical knowledge. Clinical expertise plays an important role that can lead to an adequate prescription; however, a clear evidence based motivation for the choices made cannot be given. This can lead to

  4. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Other Interventions to Combat Prescription Opioid Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath Chakravarthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has published significant data and trendsrelated to opioid prescription pain relievers (OPR. In 2008, 20,044 deaths were attributedto prescription drug overdose of which 14,800 (73.8% were due to OPR, an amount greaterthan the number of overdose deaths from heroin and cocaine combined. The majority of thesedeaths were unintentional. Between 1999-2008, overdose deaths from OPR increased almostfour-fold. Correspondingly, sales of OPR were four times greater in 2010 than in 1999. Mostsignificant to emergency physicians is the estimate that 39% of all opioids prescribed, administeredor continued come from the emergency department (ED. We present findings from theCDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR with commentary on current recommendationsand policies for curtailing the OPR epidemic.1

  5. The appropriateness of a proton pump inhibitor prescription.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, N

    2014-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most commonly prescribed groups of drug in Ireland, at great expense to the Irish healthcare executive. This study aims to evaluate the appropriateness of PPI prescriptions on admission and discharge in a tertiary referral hospital. All non-elective admissions in the Emergency Department in one week were included in the study. 102 patients in total were included, with 36 (35.4%) treated with a PPI on admission. Of these, only 3 (8.3%) had a clear indication noted as per current NICE guidelines. 18 new in-hospital PPI prescriptions were documented. 11 (61%) of which were present on discharge prescriptions. Continuing PPI prescription on discharge into the community may be inappropriate, costly and potentially harmful. Brief interventions aimed at reducing inappropriate PPI prescriptions have been shown to be effective at reducing the cost and potential harm of unnecessary treatment.

  6. An audit of dental prescriptions between clinics and dental laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C A

    2011-08-12

    To discover the quality of written instructions from dentists to dental technicians and the nature of non-compliant prescriptions. An audit of laboratory prescription compliance was conducted within an NHS Trust Dental Teaching Hospital to determine the level of communication between dentists and dental technicians. One hundred and fifty prescriptions were audited from dental undergraduates and qualified dentists throughout the different departments. A total of two-thirds of prescriptions were considered non-compliant and failed to meet relevant ethical and legal guidelines. This problem was seen throughout all departments and at all professional levels. A breakdown in communication between dentists and technicians through the use of prescriptions is evident even within a close working environment.

  7. Influence of errors in prescriptions on the security of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puke K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All types of medication errors including missed doses, incorrect dosage forms, time intervals, and routes are essential encumbrances for qualitative pharmaceutical care and security of medicine [1]. Problems related to prescription errors are common in the healthcare profession, and are responsible for significant increase in costs, cases of morbidity and mortality [2]. The aim of the study was to analyze the common errors in prescriptions which were received in pharmacies and their effect on the security of medicine. Retrospective study was conducted between December 2013 and January 2014 in the pharmacy of Riga, Latvia. Prescriptions were analyzed to identify errors in Inscriptio, Praescriptio and the Signatura part. Of 200 prescriptions, only 14 (7% were filled correctly according to the legislative requirements in Latvia. The most common drug therapeutic class in the prescriptions was non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID and other analgesics (21.1%. Unclear handwriting was observed in more than one third of all studied prescriptions (n=72; 36.0%. Mean age values of physicians were higher, but not significantly different, in the unclear compared to clear prescriptions, 59.5 ± 8.5 vs. 57.8 ± 10.6, respectively (p=0.253. Omission of the quantity of drug in the prescription part was the most frequent type of the error (n=112, 56.0%. High level of incorrect prescriptions was found during the period of study in the pharmacy. Overall, approximately 27% of prescriptions had significant failures, which could negatively affect therapeutic effect and safety of drug use.

  8. Overdosed prescription of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in a teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpiat, B; Henry, A; Leboucher, G; Tod, M; Allenet, B

    2012-07-01

    Paracetamol is the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic. Reviews of hospital use of paracetamol are scarce. Little is known about the appropriateness of the dose of paracetamol prescribed for hospitalized adults. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and the frequency of the overdosed prescription of paracetamol observed in adult patients over a 4.5-year period in a teaching hospital. Prescription analysis by pharmacists was performed once a week in six medical and three surgical departments and daily in a post-emergency unit. In cases of prescription error, the pharmacist notified the physician through an electronic alert when a computerized prescription order entry system was available or otherwise by face-to-face discussion. For each drug-related problem detected, the pharmacists recorded relevant details in a database. From October 2006 to April 2011, 44,404 prescriptions were reviewed and 480 alerts related to the overdosed prescription of paracetamol were made (1% of analyzed prescriptions). The extent of errors of dosage was within the intervals [90-120 mg/kg/d] and greater than 120 mg/kg/d for 87 and 11 patients respectively, who were prescribed a single non-combination paracetamol containing product. Sixty alerts concerned co-prescription of at least two paracetamol containing products with similar frequency for computerized (1.4/1000) or handwritten (1.2/1000) prescriptions. Prescriptions of paracetamol for hospitalized adults frequently exceed the recommended dosage. These results highlight the need for increased awareness of unintentional paracetamol overdose and support the initiation of an educational program aimed at physicians and nurses. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Research of second harmonic generation images based on texture analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yan; Gong, Haiming; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan

    2014-09-01

    Texture analysis plays a crucial role in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image. It has been applied to a variety of medical image processing, ranging from the detection of disease and the segmentation of specific anatomical structures, to differentiation between healthy and pathological tissues. Second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy as a potential noninvasive tool for imaging biological tissues has been widely used in medicine, with reduced phototoxicity and photobleaching. In this paper, we clarified the principles of texture analysis including statistical, transform, structural and model-based methods and gave examples of its applications, reviewing studies of the technique. Moreover, we tried to apply texture analysis to the SHG images for the differentiation of human skin scar tissues. Texture analysis method based on local binary pattern (LBP) and wavelet transform was used to extract texture features of SHG images from collagen in normal and abnormal scars, and then the scar SHG images were classified into normal or abnormal ones. Compared with other texture analysis methods with respect to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, LBP combined with wavelet transform was demonstrated to achieve higher accuracy. It can provide a new way for clinical diagnosis of scar types. At last, future development of texture analysis in SHG images were discussed.

  10. Image-based computational fluid dynamics in the lung: virtual reality or new clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrowes, Kelly S; De Backer, Jan; Kumar, Haribalan

    2017-11-01

    The development and implementation of personalized medicine is paramount to improving the efficiency and efficacy of patient care. In the respiratory system, function is largely dictated by the choreographed movement of air and blood to the gas exchange surface. The passage of air begins in the upper airways, either via the mouth or nose, and terminates at the alveolar interface, while blood flows from the heart to the alveoli and back again. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a well-established tool for predicting fluid flows and pressure distributions within complex systems. Traditionally CFD has been used to aid in the effective or improved design of a system or device; however, it has become increasingly exploited in biological and medical-based applications further broadening the scope of this computational technique. In this review, we discuss the advancement in application of CFD to the respiratory system and the contributions CFD is currently making toward improving precision medicine. The key areas CFD has been applied to in the pulmonary system are in predicting fluid transport and aerosol distribution within the airways. Here we focus our discussion on fluid flows and in particular on image-based clinically focused CFD in the ventilatory system. We discuss studies spanning from the paranasal sinuses through the conducting airways down to the level of the alveolar airways. The combination of imaging and CFD is enabling improved device design in aerosol transport, improved biomarkers of lung function in clinical trials, and improved predictions and assessment of surgical interventions in the nasal sinuses. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1392. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1392 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prosthesis Prescription Protocol of the Arm (PPP-Arm) : The implementation of a national prosthesis prescription protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijdenes, Paula; Brouwers, Michael; van der Sluis, Corry K

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: In order to create more uniformity in the prescription of upper limb prostheses by Dutch rehabilitation teams, the development and implementation of a Prosthesis Prescription Protocol of the upper limb (PPP-Arm) was initiated. The aim was to create a national digital protocol to

  12. Are Prescription Stimulants "Smart Pills"? The Epidemiology and Cognitive Neuroscience of Prescription Stimulant Use by Normal Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2011-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience…

  13. Relative Panoramic Camera Position Estimation for Image-Based Virtual Reality Networks in Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, M.; Akano, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Sekiguchi, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Image-based virtual reality (VR) is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  14. Do Basic Psychomotor Skills Transfer Between Different Image-based Procedures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzink, S.N.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Schoon, E.J.; De Ridder, H.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Surgical techniques that draw from multiple types of image-based procedures (IBP) are increasing, such as Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery, fusing laparoscopy and flexible endoscopy. However, little is known about the relation between psychomotor skills for performing

  15. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, C

    1999-04-01

    This Issue Brief closely examines expenditures on prescription drugs, and discusses their potential to substitute for other types of health care services. In addition, it describes employer coverage of prescription drugs, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and potential legislation affecting the prescription drug market. Prescription drug expenditures grew at double-digit rates during almost every year since 1980, accelerating to 14.1 percent in 1997. In contrast, total national health expenditures, hospital service expenditures, and physician service expenditures growth rates decreased from approximately 13 percent in 1980 to less than 5 percent in 1997. Private insurance payments for prescription drugs increased 17.7 percent in 1997, after growing 22.1 percent in 1995 and 18.3 percent in 1996. This growth in prescription drug payments compares with 4 percent or less overall annual growth in private insurance payments for each of those three years. From 1993 to 1997, the overwhelming majority of the increases in expenditures on prescription drugs were attributable to increased volume, mix, and availability of pharmaceutical products. In 1997, these factors accounted for more than 80 percent of the growth in prescription drug expenditures. A leading explanation for the sharp growth in drug expenditures is that prescription drugs are a substitute for other forms of health care. While it is difficult to determine the extent to which this substitution occurs, various studies have associated cost savings with the use of pharmaceutical products in treating specific diseases. Evidence suggests that more appropriate utilization of prescription drugs has the potential to lower total expenditures and improve the quality of care. Also, some studies indicate the U.S. health care system needs to improve the way patients use and physicians prescribe current medications. Prescription drug plans offered by employers are likely to undergo changes to ensure that

  16. Validation of a Smartphone Image-Based Dietary Assessment Method for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Ashman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Image-based dietary records could lower participant burden associated with traditional prospective methods of dietary assessment. They have been used in children, adolescents and adults, but have not been evaluated in pregnant women. The current study evaluated relative validity of the DietBytes image-based dietary assessment method for assessing energy and nutrient intakes. Pregnant women collected image-based dietary records (via a smartphone application of all food, drinks and supplements consumed over three non-consecutive days. Intakes from the image-based method were compared to intakes collected from three 24-h recalls, taken on random days; once per week, in the weeks following the image-based record. Data were analyzed using nutrient analysis software. Agreement between methods was ascertained using Pearson correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Twenty-five women (27 recruited, one withdrew, one incomplete, median age 29 years, 15 primiparas, eight Aboriginal Australians, completed image-based records for analysis. Significant correlations between the two methods were observed for energy, macronutrients and fiber (r = 0.58–0.84, all p < 0.05, and for micronutrients both including (r = 0.47–0.94, all p < 0.05 and excluding (r = 0.40–0.85, all p < 0.05 supplements in the analysis. Bland-Altman plots confirmed acceptable agreement with no systematic bias. The DietBytes method demonstrated acceptable relative validity for assessment of nutrient intakes of pregnant women.

  17. [Inappropriate prescription in older patients: the STOPP/START criteria].

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Delgado Silveira, Eva

    2009-09-01

    Older people are a heterogeneous group of patients, often with multiple comorbidities for which they are prescribed a large number of drugs, leading to an increased risk of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and drug interactions. This risk is compounded by physiological age-related changes in physiology, changes in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as well as by disease-related, functional and social issues. Inappropriate prescription of drugs is common in the older individuals and contributes to the increased risk of ADR. Several tools have been developed to detect potentially inappropriate prescription, the most frequently used in Spain being Beers\\' criteria. However, the value of these criteria is limited, especially as they were developed in a different healthcare system. In this article, the Spanish version of a new tool to detect potentially inappropriate prescriptions-STOPP (Screening Tool of Older Person\\'s Prescriptions) and START (Screening Tool to Alert doctors to Right i.e. appropriate, indicated Treatment) criteria-is presented. The creation, development, reliability, and use of these criteria in routine practice is described and discussed. These criteria have shown better sensitivity than Beers\\' criteria in detecting prescription problems and have the added value of being able to detect not only inappropriate prescription of some drugs, but also the omission of well indicated drugs. The STOPP\\/START criteria could become a useful screening tool to improve prescription in older people.

  18. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data.

  19. Prescription-induced jump distributions in multiplicative Poisson processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suweis, Samir; Porporato, Amilcare; Rinaldo, Andrea; Maritan, Amos

    2011-06-01

    Generalized Langevin equations (GLE) with multiplicative white Poisson noise pose the usual prescription dilemma leading to different evolution equations (master equations) for the probability distribution. Contrary to the case of multiplicative Gaussian white noise, the Stratonovich prescription does not correspond to the well-known midpoint (or any other intermediate) prescription. By introducing an inertial term in the GLE, we show that the Itô and Stratonovich prescriptions naturally arise depending on two time scales, one induced by the inertial term and the other determined by the jump event. We also show that, when the multiplicative noise is linear in the random variable, one prescription can be made equivalent to the other by a suitable transformation in the jump probability distribution. We apply these results to a recently proposed stochastic model describing the dynamics of primary soil salinization, in which the salt mass balance within the soil root zone requires the analysis of different prescriptions arising from the resulting stochastic differential equation forced by multiplicative white Poisson noise, the features of which are tailored to the characters of the daily precipitation. A method is finally suggested to infer the most appropriate prescription from the data.

  20. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  1. The feasibility of QR-code prescription in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C-H; Tsai, F-Y; Tsai, W-L; Wen, H-W; Hu, M-L

    2012-12-01

    An ideal Health Care Service is a service system that focuses on patients. Patients in Taiwan have the freedom to fill their prescriptions at any pharmacies contracted with National Health Insurance. Each of these pharmacies uses its own computer system. So far, there are at least ten different systems on the market in Taiwan. To transmit the prescription information from the hospital to the pharmacy accurately and efficiently presents a great issue. This study consisted of two-dimensional applications using a QR-code to capture Patient's identification and prescription information from the hospitals as well as using a webcam to read the QR-code and transfer all data to the pharmacy computer system. Two hospitals and 85 community pharmacies participated in the study. During the trial, all participant pharmacies appraised highly of the accurate transmission of the prescription information. The contents in QR-code prescriptions from Taipei area were picked up efficiently and accurately in pharmacies at Taichung area (middle Taiwan) without software system limit and area limitation. The QR-code device received a patent (No. M376844, March 2010) from Intellectual Property Office Ministry of Economic Affair, China. Our trial has proven that QR-code prescription can provide community pharmacists an efficient, accurate and inexpensive device to digitalize the prescription contents. Consequently, pharmacists can offer better quality of pharmacy service to patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Influence of pharmaceutical marketing on prescription practices of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Roshni; Narendranathan, M

    2013-01-01

    In India same drug molecules are sold under different brand names by different pharmaceuticals. To persuade the physicians to prescribe their brands pharmaceuticals engage in marketing techniques like giving samples, gifts, sponsoring travel etc. Many countries are striving to reduce the impact of incentives on prescription behaviour. This study explores the influence of pharmaceutical marketing on the prescription practices of doctors in India. There were 103 study subjects - 50 doctors and 53 sales personnel. Data collection was done by a self administered questionnaire. Data were collected on 36 variables which were supposed to influence prescription. The effectiveness of the promotional strategies on prescription behaviour was marked in a seven point Likert scale ranging from "not at all effective" (score=1) to "extremely effective" (score=7). Open ended questions were used to collect qualitative data. Good rapport with the doctor, launch meetings, reputation of the company, quality of the drug and brand names significantly influenced prescription behaviour, while direct mailers, advertisements in journals and giving letter pads and other brand reminders were less effective. Commonly used method of giving samples was not among the twenty most effective methods influencing prescription. Product quality and good company are still factors that influence prescription. Pharmaceutical marketing influences the choice of brands by a physician. The more expensive strategies involved in public relations are more effective. Sending mails and journal advertisements are less effective strategies. How expensive marketing strategies affect cost of the medicines has to be explored further.

  3. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  4. Direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L; Grande, David

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the pharmaceutical industry spent more than $4.9 billion on direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the U.S. Controversy over DTCA has grown since the Food and Drug Administration liberalized its regulations in 1997. Proponents claim that such advertising educates consumers, promotes patient participation in clinical decisions, and improves patient adherence to medication instructions. Opponents argue that such advertising is meant to persuade, not educate, and that it promotes inappropriate use of prescription drugs, or diverts consumers from better alternatives. This Issue Brief summarizes the evidence about the effects of DTCA, and proposes guidelines for improving the utility of prescription drug advertising.

  5. Geographical and temporal variations in clozapine prescription for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Røge, Rasmus; Schjerning, Ole

    2012-01-01

    Despite its unsurpassed efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine remains underutilized. Trends in the prescription of clozapine in patients with ICD-10 F20.x schizophrenia were assessed using data from Danish national registers. Three substudies were carried out: (i) an assessment...... of differences in national prescription patterns between 1996 and 2007 using a cross-sectional design; (ii) a comparison of time from first schizophrenia diagnosis to first prescription of clozapine in a five-year cohort study, using the Cox regression model, of two patient groups who were first diagnosed...

  6. Prescription opioid abuse: pharmacists’ perspective and response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochran G

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gerald Cochran,1,2 Valerie Hruschak,2 Brooke DeFosse,3 Kenneth C Hohmeier3 1Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, 2School of Social Work, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN, USA Abstract: Opioid medication abuse and overdose are major concerns for public health, and a number of responses to address these issues have taken place across the US. Pharmacists and the pharmacy profession have made important contributions as a part of the response to this national crisis. This article provides a brief review of the antecedents, driving forces, and health status of patients involved in the opioid medication and overdose epidemic. This review further discusses pharmacy-based actions that have been undertaken to address this issue, including prescription drug monitoring, take-back, and naloxone training/distribution programs. This review likewise examines current efforts underway in the field to educate practitioners and needed future steps that must be taken by pharmacists in order to continue the profession’s pivotal role in working toward resolving this national public health problem. In particular, evidence and arguments are presented for proactively identifying and intervening with patients who abuse and/or are at risk for overdose. Continued and active engagement by pharmacists in these efforts has the potential to result in important reductions in opioid medication abuse and overdose and improvements for patient’s health. Keywords: opioid pain medication, addiction, pharmacy practice

  7. Prescriptions and proscriptions: moralising sleep medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabe, Jonathan; Coveney, Catherine M; Williams, Simon J

    2016-05-01

    The pharmaceuticalisation of sleep is a contentious issue. Sleep medicines get a 'bad press' due to their potential for dependence and other side effects, including studies reporting increased mortality risks for long-term users. Yet relatively little qualitative social science research has been conducted into how people understand and negotiate their use/non-use of sleep medicines in the context of their everyday lives. This paper draws on focus group data collected in the UK to elicit collective views on and experiences of prescription hypnotics across different social contexts. Respondents, we show, drew on a range of moral repertoires which allowed them to present themselves and their relationships with hypnotics in different ways. Six distinct repertoires about hypnotic use are identified in this regard: the 'deserving' patient, the 'responsible' user, the 'compliant' patient, the 'addict', the 'sinful' user and the 'noble' non user. These users and non-users are constructed drawing on cross-cutting themes of addiction and control, ambivalence and reflexivity. Such issues are in turn discussed in relation to recent sociological debates on the pharmaceuticalisation/de-pharmaceuticalisation of everyday life and the consumption of medicines in the UK today. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  8. A new strategy for antidepressant prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Lavergne

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available From our research and literature search we propose an understanding of the mechanism of action of antidepressants (ADs that should lead to increase efficacy and tolerance.We understand that ADs promote synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. This promotion is linked with dopamine (DA stimulation. Literature shows that all ADs (chemical, electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, sleep deprivation increase at least one neuromodulator (serotonin, noradrenaline or DA; this article focuses on DA release or turn-over in the frontal cortex. DA increase promotes synaptic plasticity with an inverted U shape dose-response curve. Specific interaction between DA and glutamate relies on DA (D1 receptors and Glutamate (NMDA receptors and/or on neurotrophic factors activation. With the understanding that all ADs have a common, final, DArgic stimulation that promotes synaptic plasticity we can predict that:1AD efficiency is related to the compound strength for inducing DArgic stimulation.2AD efficiency presents a therapeutic window that coincides with the inverted U shape DA response curve.3AD delay of action is related to a synaptogenesis and neurogenesis delay of action.4The minimum efficient dose can be found by starting at a low dosage and increasing up to the patient response. 5An increased tolerance requires a concomitant prescription of a few ADs, with different or opposite adverse effects, at a very low dose.6ADs could improve all diseases with cognitive impairments and synaptic depression by increasing synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis.

  9. Usefulness of traditionally defined herbal properties for distinguishing prescriptions of traditional Chinese medicine from non-prescription recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, C Y; Li, H; Kong, C Y; Wang, J F; Chen, Y Z

    2007-01-03

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been widely practiced and is considered as an attractive to conventional medicine. Multi-herb recipes have been routinely used in TCM. These have been formulated by using TCM-defined herbal properties (TCM-HPs), the scientific basis of which is unclear. The usefulness of TCM-HPs was evaluated by analyzing the distribution pattern of TCM-HPs of the constituent herbs in 1161 classical TCM prescriptions, which shows patterns of multi-herb correlation. Two artificial intelligence (AI) methods were used to examine whether TCM-HPs are capable of distinguishing TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes. Two AI systems were trained and tested by using 1161 TCM prescriptions, 11,202 non-TCM recipes, and two separate evaluation methods. These systems correctly classified 83.1-97.3% of the TCM prescriptions, 90.8-92.3% of the non-TCM recipes. These results suggest that TCM-HPs are capable of separating TCM prescriptions from non-TCM recipes, which are useful for formulating TCM prescriptions and consistent with the expected correlation between TCM-HPs and the physicochemical properties of herbal ingredients responsible for producing the collective pharmacological and other effects of specific TCM prescriptions.

  10. Expanded pharmacy technician roles: Accepting verbal prescriptions and communicating prescription transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Timothy P; Adams, Alex J

    2017-11-01

    As the role of the clinical pharmacist continues to develop and advance, it is critical to ensure pharmacists can operate in a practice environment and workflow that supports the full deployment of their clinical skills. When pharmacy technician roles are optimized, patient safety can be enhanced and pharmacists may dedicate more time to advanced clinical services. Currently, 17 states allow technicians to accept verbal prescriptions called in by a prescriber or prescriber's agent, or transfer a prescription order from one pharmacy to another. States that allow these activities generally put few legal limitations on them, and instead defer to the professional judgment of the supervising pharmacist whether to delegate these tasks or not. These activities were more likely to be seen in states that require technicians to be registered and certified, and in states that have accountability mechanisms (e.g., discipline authority) in place for technicians. There is little evidence to suggest these tasks cannot be performed safely and accurately by appropriately trained technicians, and the track record of success with these tasks spans four decades in some states. Pharmacists can adopt strong practice policies and procedures to mitigate the risk of harm from verbal orders, such as instituting read-back/spell-back techniques, or requiring the indication for each phoned-in medication, among other strategies. Pharmacists may also exercise discretion in deciding to whom to delegate these tasks. As the legal environment becomes more permissive, we foresee investment in more robust education and training of technicians to cover these activities. Thus, with the adoption of robust practice policies and procedures, delegation of verbal orders and prescription transfers can be safe and effective, remove undue stress on pharmacists, and potentially free up pharmacist time for higher-order clinical care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Elaboration and Validation of the Medication Prescription Safety Checklist 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Aline de Oliveira Meireles; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Guimarães; do Nascimento, Kleiton Gonçalves; Felix, Márcia Marques dos Santos; Pires, Patrícia da Silva; Barbosa, Maria Helena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to elaborate and validate a checklist to identify compliance with the recommendations for the structure of medication prescriptions, based on the Protocol of the Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency. Method: methodological research, conducted through the validation and reliability analysis process, using a sample of 27 electronic prescriptions. Results: the analyses confirmed the content validity and reliability of the tool. The content validity, obtained by expert assessment, was considered satisfactory as it covered items that represent the compliance with the recommendations regarding the structure of the medication prescriptions. The reliability, assessed through interrater agreement, was excellent (ICC=1.00) and showed perfect agreement (K=1.00). Conclusion: the Medication Prescription Safety Checklist showed to be a valid and reliable tool for the group studied. We hope that this study can contribute to the prevention of adverse events, as well as to the improvement of care quality and safety in medication use. PMID:28793128

  12. Opioid prescriptions before and after high-energy trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwisler, Stine T; Hallas, Jesper; Larsen, Morten S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the legal use of opioids in adult patients before and after high-energy trauma. DESIGN: The study was a retrospective database study. SETTING: Clinical care outside hospitals. PATIENTS: All patients who suffered high-energy trauma and were brought to Odense University...... Hospital (OUH), Denmark, in 2007 and 2008 were retrieved from the trauma database. These patients were linked with data on opioid use from the regional prescription database. In all, 938 patients were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Redemption of opioid prescription during the 6 months prior...... to a multitrauma or redemption of two or more prescriptions for opioids 6 months or later after a multitrauma. RESULTS: Of the 938 patients brought to OUH with severe trauma within the study period, 61 patients died (7 percent) and six of these had redeemed prescriptions for opioids within 6 months prior...

  13. Which Classes of Prescription Drugs Are Commonly Misused?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  14. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  15. Get the Facts: Prescription Drug Abuse on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... say it all comes down to intention and motivation (FDA, 2010). Someone is misusing a prescription medication ... advisors, coaches and health care providers ask the right questions and intervene early. • Ease nervousness in social ...

  16. Basic Stand Alone Medicare Prescription Drug Events PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is a Public Use File for Prescription Drug Events drawn from the 2008 Beneficiary Summary File of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled during the calendar year 2008,...

  17. Strategies Used by Adults to Reduce Their Prescription Drug Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Keywords: National Health Interview Survey, alternative therapies, medication ... to cost ( 9 ) that are not measured in NHIS. Definitions Strategies for reducing prescription drug costs : Based ...

  18. The influence of prescription monitoring programs on chronic pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Christo, Paul J

    2009-01-01

    Abuse of prescribed controlled substance has become a serious social as well as health care issue over the past decade. A particularly alarming trend exists among patients aged 12 to 17. Common abuse behaviors include doctor shopping, drug theft, feigned pain symptoms to gain health care access, drug sharing, prescription forgery, and improper prescription practices. In response to this epidemic of abuse, many states have adopted prescription monitoring programs (PMPs). Such programs first originated in the early twentieth century. As of 2006, 38 states had such programs, many of which are supported by federal grants. As PMPs become more widespread, they have also increased in sophistication. By keeping a record of the prescription and dispensing of narcotics, these programs are able to build a comprehensive data network for tracking prescription medications. These databases aid law enforcement agencies in investigations of narcotic trafficking; they also help state regulatory boards to monitor improper prescription practices. This manuscript examines the basic structure of a PMP, including the way the data are collected and the way these data are stored and used. It also looks at the organizational differences amongst state programs. NASPER and Harold Rogers are two federal programs that provide funding to the state PMPs, and the current study examines the differences as well as similarities between these 2 programs. This study also compares the results of 2 reports: the U.S. General Accounting Office Study and the Twillman study.& Both studies have evaluated the efficiency of the PMPs. The U.S. General Accounting Office Study showed that while considerable differences exist among the state PMPs, these programs not only reduce the time and effort for law enforcement agencies to conduct investigations, but also cut the supply of prescription medications. However, the Twillman report suggests that prescription programs caused a shift in prescription practice, while

  19. Illegal "no prescription" internet access to narrow therapeutic index drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K; Lovett, Kimberly M

    2013-05-01

    Narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drugs, because of proximity of therapeutic amounts to toxic amounts, require close professional oversight, particularly when switching formulations. However, safe use may be compromised by unsupervised switching through access to online "no prescription" Web sites. We assessed no prescription online availability of NTI drugs, using an academically published list (core NTI drugs). Using the Google search term "buy DRUG no prescription," we reviewed the first 5 search result pages for marketing of no prescription NTI drugs. We further assessed if National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Not Recommended vendors were marketing NTI drugs. Searches were conducted from November 3, 2012 to January 3, 2013. For core NTI drugs, we found 13 of 14 NTI drugs (92%) marketed as available without prescription, all from NABP Not Recommended vendors. On the basis of these initial findings, we expanded our core list to 12 additional NTI drugs; 11 of 12 of these drugs (92%) were available from no prescription Web sites. Overall, 24 of 26 NTI drugs (92%) were illegally marketed as available online without the need for a prescription. Suspect online NTI drug access from no prescription vendors represents a significant patient safety risk because of potential patient drug switching and risk of counterfeit versions. Further, state health care exchanges with coverage limitations may drive patients to seek formulations online. Food and Drug Administration harmonization with tighter international NTI drug standards should be considered, and aggressive action against suspect online marketers should be a regulatory and public health priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of antibiotics based on prescriptions dispenced in pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Vadapalaitė-Mašalienė, Vilma

    2017-01-01

    The Use of Antibiotics Based on Prescriptions Dispenced in Pharmacies SUMMARY Baronienė J., Vadapalaitė-Mašalienė V. The use of antibiotics based on prescriptions dispenced in pharmacies: pharmacy master's thesis. Vilnius University, faculty of medicine – Vilnius, 2017. – 43 p. Antibiotics are not a cure-all. There are many diseases that are insurmountable without antibiotics: these diseases are caused by bacteria. Antibacterial therapy prevents from complications and sometimes saves lives. H...

  1. Rationality of Antimicrobial Prescriptions in Community Pharmacy Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I V C Lima

    Full Text Available Although there is a conflict between the treatment benefits for a single individual and society, restrictions on antibiotic use are needed to reduce the prevalence of resistance to these drugs, which is the main result of irrational use. Brazil, cataloged as a pharmemerging market, has implemented restrictive measures for the consumption of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to investigate the quality of antimicrobial prescriptions and user knowledge of their treatment with these drugs.A two-stage cross-sectional, combined and stratified survey of pharmacy users holding an antimicrobial prescription was conducted in the community between May and November 2014. A pharmacist analyzed each prescription for legibility and completeness, and applied a structured questionnaire to the users or their caregivers on their knowledge regarding treatment and user sociodemographic data. An estimated 29.3% of prescriptions had one or more illegible items, 91.3% had one or more missing items, and 29.0% had both illegible and missing items. Dosing schedule and patient identification were the most commonly unreadable items in prescriptions, 18.81% and 12.14%, respectively. The lack of complete patient identification occurred in 90.53% of the prescriptions. It is estimated that 40.3% of users have used antimicrobials without prescription and that 46.49% did not receive any guidance on the administration of the drug.Despite the measures taken by health authorities to restrict the misuse of antimicrobials, it was observed that prescribers still do not follow the criteria of current legislation, particularly relating to items needed for completion of the prescription. Moreover, users receive little information about their antimicrobial treatment.

  2. [Antibiotic prescription usage and assessment in geriatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Aurélien; Davido, Benjamin; Salomon, Jérôme; Le Quintrec, Jean-Laurent; Teillet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Due to the high risk of infection, the geriatric population is regularly subjected to antibiotics. Faced with bacterial resistance, particularly among elderly dependent patients, it is essential to promote proper use and correct prescription of antibiotics. A study evaluated antibiotic prescription in a geriatric hospital with 598 beds and highlighted the importance of collaboration between geriatricians and infectious disease specialists. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Audit of carbapenem prescriptions comparing 2 assessment periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefébure, A; Papy, E; Rioux, C; Diamantis, S; Armand-Lefèvre, L; Longuet, P; Lescure, F X; Wolff, M; Arnaud, P; Lucet, J C

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae has resulted in the increase of carbapenem prescriptions. The objective of our study was to determine the appropriateness of carbapenem prescriptions from initiation to reassessment of treatment, between 2009 and 2011. A questionnaire drafted by infectious diseases specialists (IDS) and microbiologists was used to collect clinical and microbiological data concerning carbapenem prescriptions in 2009 and 2011. An IDS then compared the results to assess carbapenem prescription compliance with our hospital's local recommendations. Seventy-one prescriptions were included in 2009 and 32 in 2011. The carbapenem treatment had been most frequently probabilistic to treat nosocomial infections. The microbiological data revealed that the number of multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections had increased between 2009 and 2011, especially infections involving ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae. At treatment reassessment, in 2009 and 2011, 15 (21%) and 12 (38%) carbapenem prescriptions were appropriate and continued. Overall, when comparing the 2 periods, prescriptions complied with local guidelines from initiation to reassessment of treatment without any statistically significant difference (68% in 2009 and 75% in 2011). Our study results showed that MDR infections had increased and especially infections due to ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae; this was consistent with epidemiological data. We also proved that most carbapenem prescriptions were compliant with recommendations. The increased mobile IDS interventions in medical and surgical departments helped reach this rate of compliance. Carbapenem stewardship may be promoted even in a difficult epidemiological context, especially with IDS interventions for the duration of treatment or at treatment reassessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Lessons learned from health and fitness prescription: a Malaysian experience

    OpenAIRE

    Khalib A. Latiff; Syed A. Junid; Muhammad A. Razak; Osman Ali; Rahmah M. Amin; Khairul Hazli; Rizam A. Rahman

    2007-01-01

    Proportion of chronic diseases sufferers are increased by age. The usual control measures are therapeutic prescription and clinical counseling. However, its low compliance rate has interfered this effort. Therefore, community intervention can be a suitable prescriptive option to provide a long lasting effect. For that, a package of community intervention has been established in one sub-urban area in Malaysia to observe its acceptability, thus it can be acted as a social instrumentation to bri...

  5. Prescription Stimulant Use is Associated with Earlier Onset of Psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Lauren V.; Masters, Grace A.; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M.; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R.P.; Ongur, Dost

    2015-01-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals...

  6. Controversy in Purchasing Prescription Drugs Online in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Qi, Lin; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    China's government is considering legalization of online prescription drugs to increase the pharmaceutical market and enhance access to necessary medicines. However, challenges such as a shortage of licensed pharmacists and drug quality issues have raised concerns and delayed consensus on the proposal. China's government must address the most pressing issues so it can render a decision on online prescription sales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A multileaf collimator field prescription preparation system for conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, M.N.; Yu, C. X.; Symons, M.; Yan, D.; Taylor, R.; Matter, R.C.; Gustafson, G.; Martinez, A.; Wong, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a prescription preparation system for efficient field shaping using a multileaf collimator that can be used in community settings as well as research institutions. The efficiency advantage of the computer-controlled multileaf collimator, over cerrobend blocks, to shape radiation fields has been shown in conformal treatments, which typically require complete volumetric computerized tomographic data for three-dimensional radiation treatment planning--a utility not readily available to the general community. As a result, most patients today are treated with conventional radiation therapy. Therefore, we believe that it is very important to fully use the same efficiency advantage of multileaf collimator as a block replacement in conventional practice. Methods and Material: The multileaf collimator prescription preparation system developed by us acquires prescription images from different sources, including film scanner and radiation treatment planning systems. The multileaf collimator angle and leaf positions are set from the desired field contour defined on the prescription image, by minimizing the area discrepancies. Interactive graphical tools include manual adjustment of collimator angle and leaf positions, and definition of portions of the field edges that require maximal conformation. Data files of the final leaf positions are transferred to the multileaf collimator controller via a dedicated communication link. Results: We have implemented the field prescription preparation system and a network model for integrating the multileaf collimator and other radiotherapy modalities for routine treatments. For routine plan evaluation, isodose contours measured with film in solid water phantom at prescription depth are overlaid on the prescription image. Preliminary study indicates that the efficiency advantage of the MLC over cerrobend blocks in conformal therapy also holds true for conventional treatments. Conclusion: Our

  8. Emergency department discharge prescription interventions by emergency medicine pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Joseph L; Steffenhagen, Aaron L; Svenson, James; Hamedani, Azita G

    2013-02-01

    We determine the rate and details of interventions associated with emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for patients discharged from the emergency department (ED). Additionally, we evaluate care providers' satisfaction with such services provided by emergency medicine pharmacists. This was a prospective observational study in the ED of an academic medical center that serves both adult and pediatric patients. Details of emergency medicine pharmacist interventions on discharge prescriptions were compiled with a standardized form. Interventions were categorized as error prevention or optimization of therapy. The staff of the ED was surveyed related to the influence and satisfaction of this new emergency medicine pharmacist-provided service. The 674 discharge prescriptions reviewed by emergency medicine pharmacists during the study period included 602 (89.3%) for adult patients and 72 (10.7%) for pediatric patients. Emergency medicine pharmacists intervened on 68 prescriptions, resulting in an intervention rate of 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.0% to 12.7%). The intervention rate was 8.5% (95% CI 6.4% to 11.1%) for adult prescriptions and 23.6% for pediatric prescriptions (95% CI 14.7% to 35.3%) (difference 15.1%; 95% CI 5.1% to 25.2%). There were a similar number of interventions categorized as error prevention and optimization of medication therapy, 37 (54%) and 31 (46%), respectively. More than 95% of survey respondents believed that the new pharmacist services improved patient safety, optimized medication regimens, and improved patient satisfaction. Emergency medicine pharmacist review of discharge prescriptions for discharged ED patients has the potential to significantly improve patient care associated with suboptimal prescriptions and is highly valued by ED care providers. Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  9. Personalized precision radiotherapy by integration of multi-parametric functional and biological imaging in prostate cancer. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorwarth, Daniela [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Section for Biomedical Physics; Notohamiprodjo, Mike [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Zips, Daniel; Mueller, Arndt-Christan [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2017-05-01

    To increase tumour control probability (TCP) in prostate cancer a method was developed integrating multi-parametric functional and biological information into a dose painting treatment plan aiming focal dose-escalation to tumour sub-volumes. A dose-escalation map was derived considering individual, multi-parametric estimated tumour aggressiveness. Multi-parametric functional imaging (MRI, Choline-/PSMA-/FMISO-PET/CT) was acquired for a high risk prostate cancer patient with a high level of tumour load (cT3b cN0 cM0) indicated by subtotal involvement of prostate including the right seminal vesicle and by PSA-level >100. Probability of tumour presence was determined by a combination of multi-parametric functional image information resulting in a voxel-based map of tumour aggressiveness. This probability map was directly integrated into dose optimization in order to plan for inhomogeneous, biological imaging based dose painting. Histograms of the multi-parametric prescription function were generated in addition to a differential histogram of the planned inhomogeneous doses. Comparison of prescribed doses with planned doses on a voxel level was realized using an effective DVH, containing the ratio of prescribed vs. planned dose for each tumour voxel. Multi-parametric imaging data of PSMA, Choline and FMISO PET/CT as well as ADC maps derived from diffusion weighted MRI were combined to an individual probability map of tumour presence. Voxel-based prescription doses ranged from 75.3 Gy up to 93.4 Gy (median: 79.6 Gy), whereas the planned dose painting doses varied only between 72.5 and 80.0 Gy with a median dose of 75.7 Gy. However, inhomogeneous voxel-based dose prescriptions can only be implemented into a treatment plan until a certain level. Multi-parametric probability based dose painting in prostate cancer is technically and clinically feasible. However, detailed calibration functions to define the necessary probability functions need to be assessed in future

  10. Prescriptive Training Courseware: IS-Design Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elspeth McKay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (IS research is found in many diverse communities. This paper explores the human-dimension of human-computer interaction (HCI to present IS-design practice in the light of courseware development. Assumptions are made that online courseware provides the perfect solution for maintaining a knowledgeable, well skilled workforce. However, empirical investigations into the effectiveness of information technology (IT-induced training solutions are scarce. Contemporary research concentrates on information communications technology (ICT training tools without considering their effectiveness. This paper offers a prescriptive IS-design methodology for managing the requirements for efficient and effective courseware development. To develop the methodology, we examined the main instructional design (ID factors that affect the design of IT-induced training programs. We also examined the tension between maintaining a well-skilled workforce and effective instructional systems design (ISD practice by probing the current ID models used by courseware developers since 1990. An empirical research project, which utilized this IS-design methodology investigated the effectiveness of using IT to train government employees in introductory ethics; this was a study that operationalized the interactive effect of cognitive preference and instructional format on training performance outcomes. The data was analysed using Rasch item response theory (IRT that models the discrimination of people’s performance relative to each other’s performance and the test-items’ difficulty relative to each test-item on the same logit scale. The findings revealed that IS training solutions developed using this IS-design methodology can be adapted to provide trainees with their preferred instructional mode and facilitate cost effective eTraining outcomes.

  11. Description, prescription and the choice of discount rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    The choice of discount rates is a key issue in the analysis of long-term societal issues, in particular environmental issues such as climate change. Approaches to choosing discount rates are generally placed into two categories: the descriptive approach and the prescriptive approach. The descriptive approach is often justified on grounds that it uses a description of how society discounts instead of having analysts impose their own discounting views on society. This paper analyzes the common forms of the descriptive and prescriptive approaches and finds that, in contrast with customary thinking, both forms are equally descriptive and prescriptive. The prescriptions concern who has standing (i.e. who is included) in society, how the views of these individuals are measured, and how the measurements are aggregated. Such prescriptions are necessary to choose from among the many possible descriptions of how society discounts. The descriptions are the measurements made given a choice of measurement technique. Thus, the labels 'descriptive approach' and 'prescriptive approach' are deeply misleading, as analysts cannot avoid imposing their own views on society. (author)

  12. Doctor Shopping Behavior and the Diversion of Prescription Opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeone, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    "Doctor shopping" as a means of prescription opioid diversion is examined. The number and percentage of prescriptions and morphine-equivalent milligrams diverted in this manner are estimated by state and molecule for the period 2008-2012. Eleven billion prescriptions with unique patient, doctor, and pharmacy identifiers were used to construct diversion "events" that involved between 1 and 6 unique doctors and between 1 and 6 unique pharmacies. Diversion thresholds were established based on the probability of each contingency. A geographically widespread decline occurred between 2008 and 2012. The number of prescriptions diverted fell from approximately 4.30 million (1.75% of all prescriptions) in 2008 to approximately 3.37 million (1.27% of all prescriptions) in 2012, and the number of morphine-equivalent milligrams fell from approximately 6.55 metric tons (2.95% of total metric tons) in 2008 to approximately 4.87 metric tons (2.19% of total metric tons) in 2012. Diversion control efforts have likely been effective. But given increases in opioid-related deaths, opioid-related drug treatment admissions, and the more specific resurgence of heroin-related events, it is clear that additional public health measures are required.

  13. Dancing Styles of Collective Cell Migration: Image-Based Computational Analysis of JRAB/MICAL-L2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Ayuko; Yoshizawa, Shin; Yokota, Hideo; Sasaki, Takuya

    2018-01-01

    Collective cell migration is observed during morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing, and this type of cell migration also contributes to efficient metastasis in some kinds of cancers. Because collectively migrating cells are much better organized than a random assemblage of individual cells, there seems to be a kind of order in migrating clusters. Extensive research has identified a large number of molecules involved in collective cell migration, and these factors have been analyzed using dramatic advances in imaging technology. To date, however, it remains unclear how myriad cells are integrated as a single unit. Recently, we observed unbalanced collective cell migrations that can be likened to either precision dancing or awa-odori , Japanese traditional dancing similar to the style at Rio Carnival, caused by the impairment of the conformational change of JRAB/MICAL-L2. This review begins with a brief history of image-based computational analyses on cell migration, explains why quantitative analysis of the stylization of collective cell behavior is difficult, and finally introduces our recent work on JRAB/MICAL-L2 as a successful example of the multidisciplinary approach combining cell biology, live imaging, and computational biology. In combination, these methods have enabled quantitative evaluations of the "dancing style" of collective cell migration.

  14. A Dose-Volume Analysis of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Aided High-Dose-Rate Image-Based Interstitial Brachytherapy for Uterine Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Takenaka, Tadashi; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshida, Mineo; Furuya, Seiichi; Tanaka, Eiichi; Uegaki, Tadaaki; Kuriyama, Keiko; Matsumoto, Hisanobu; Yamada, Shigetoshi; Ban, Chiaki

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of our novel image-based high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for uterine cervical cancer, we evaluated the dose-volume histogram (DVH) according to the recommendations of the Gynecological GEC-ESTRO Working Group for image-based intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). Methods and Materials: Between June 2005 and June 2007, 18 previously untreated cervical cancer patients were enrolled. We implanted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-available plastic applicators by our unique ambulatory technique. Total treatment doses were 30-36 Gy (6 Gy per fraction) combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Treatment plans were created based on planning computed tomography with MRI as a reference. DVHs of the high-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV), intermediate-risk CTV (IR CTV), and the bladder and rectum were calculated. Dose values were biologically normalized to equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ). Results: The median D90 (HR CTV) and D90 (IR CTV) per fraction were 6.8 Gy (range, 5.5-7.5) and 5.4 Gy (range, 4.2-6.3), respectively. The median V100 (HR CTV) and V100 (IR CTV) were 98.4% (range, 83-100) and 81.8% (range, 64-93.8), respectively. When the dose of EBRT was added, the median D90 and D100 of HR CTV were 80.6 Gy (range, 65.5-96.6) and 62.4 Gy (range, 49-83.2). The D 2cc of the bladder was 62 Gy (range, 51.4-89) and of the rectum was 65.9 Gy (range, 48.9-76). Conclusions: Although the targets were advanced and difficult to treat effectively by ICBT, MRI-aided image-based ISBT showed favorable results for CTV and organs at risk compared with previously reported image-based ICBT results.

  15. A dose-volume analysis of magnetic resonance imaging-aided high-dose-rate image-based interstitial brachytherapy for uterine cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ken; Yamazaki, Hideya; Takenaka, Tadashi; Kotsuma, Tadayuki; Yoshida, Mineo; Furuya, Seiichi; Tanaka, Eiichi; Uegaki, Tadaaki; Kuriyama, Keiko; Matsumoto, Hisanobu; Yamada, Shigetoshi; Ban, Chiaki

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of our novel image-based high-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapy (HDR-ISBT) for uterine cervical cancer, we evaluated the dose-volume histogram (DVH) according to the recommendations of the Gynecological GEC-ESTRO Working Group for image-based intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). Between June 2005 and June 2007, 18 previously untreated cervical cancer patients were enrolled. We implanted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-available plastic applicators by our unique ambulatory technique. Total treatment doses were 30-36 Gy (6 Gy per fraction) combined with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Treatment plans were created based on planning computed tomography with MRI as a reference. DVHs of the high-risk clinical target volume (HR CTV), intermediate-risk CTV (IR CTV), and the bladder and rectum were calculated. Dose values were biologically normalized to equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD(2)). The median D90 (HR CTV) and D90 (IR CTV) per fraction were 6.8 Gy (range, 5.5-7.5) and 5.4 Gy (range, 4.2-6.3), respectively. The median V100 (HR CTV) and V100 (IR CTV) were 98.4% (range, 83-100) and 81.8% (range, 64-93.8), respectively. When the dose of EBRT was added, the median D90 and D100 of HR CTV were 80.6 Gy (range, 65.5-96.6) and 62.4 Gy (range, 49-83.2). The D(2cc) of the bladder was 62 Gy (range, 51.4-89) and of the rectum was 65.9 Gy (range, 48.9-76). Although the targets were advanced and difficult to treat effectively by ICBT, MRI-aided image-based ISBT showed favorable results for CTV and organs at risk compared with previously reported image-based ICBT results. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Image-based electronic patient records for secured collaborative medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Sun, Jianyong; Yang, Yuanyuan; Liang, Chenwen; Yao, Yihong; Cai, Weihua; Jin, Jin; Zhang, Guozhen; Sun, Kun

    2005-01-01

    We developed a Web-based system to interactively display image-based electronic patient records (EPR) for secured intranet and Internet collaborative medical applications. The system consists of four major components: EPR DICOM gateway (EPR-GW), Image-based EPR repository server (EPR-Server), Web Server and EPR DICOM viewer (EPR-Viewer). In the EPR-GW and EPR-Viewer, the security modules of Digital Signature and Authentication are integrated to perform the security processing on the EPR data with integrity and authenticity. The privacy of EPR in data communication and exchanging is provided by SSL/TLS-based secure communication. This presentation gave a new approach to create and manage image-based EPR from actual patient records, and also presented a way to use Web technology and DICOM standard to build an open architecture for collaborative medical applications.

  17. Using stationary image based data collection method for evaluation of traffic sign condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Khalilikhah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transportation asset management helps monitor the transportation systems and optimize the construction, operation, and maintenance of assets. Many state Department of Transportations (DOTs have already established asset management systems for high cost and low quantity assets, e.g., bridge and tunnel assets. However, due to the sheer number of traffic signs deployed by DOTs, statewide sign inventory and condition information are not well developed. Currently, using handheld devices is the most selected method by agencies to measure signs. To address safety challenge and high cost of data collection, an innovative stationary image based method has recently been proposed. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of such image based method over using handheld devices in terms of the accuracy, possibility and consistency of data, speed, safety, maintenance, and cost. At its completion, this study provides suggestions to tackle the issues associated with image based method.

  18. Bodily differences between Cold- and Heat-prescription groups in Sasang medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Joo Park

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: In the SY-type men, the chest circumference was significantly greater in the Heat-prescription group compared to the Cold-prescription group. In the TE-type men, the rib-to-pelvic circumference ratio was significantly higher in the Heat-prescription group than in the Cold-prescription group.

  19. Developing students’ ideas about lens imaging: teaching experiments with an image-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grusche, Sascha

    2017-07-01

    Lens imaging is a classic topic in physics education. To guide students from their holistic viewpoint to the scientists’ analytic viewpoint, an image-based approach to lens imaging has recently been proposed. To study the effect of the image-based approach on undergraduate students’ ideas, teaching experiments are performed and evaluated using qualitative content analysis. Some of the students’ ideas have not been reported before, namely those related to blurry lens images, and those developed by the proposed teaching approach. To describe learning pathways systematically, a conception-versus-time coordinate system is introduced, specifying how teaching actions help students advance toward a scientific understanding.

  20. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  1. Drug interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Wesley T; Stewart, David; Childress, Darrell

    2012-07-01

    The aim was to summarize the clinical literature on interactions between common illicit drugs and prescription therapies. Medline, Iowa Drug Information Service, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, EBSCO Academic Search Premier, and Google Scholar were searched from date of origin of database to March 2011. Search terms were cocaine, marijuana, cannabis, methamphetamine, amphetamine, ecstasy, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, sodium oxybate, and combined with interactions, drug interactions, and drug-drug interactions. This review focuses on established clinical evidence. All applicable full-text English language articles and abstracts found were evaluated and included in the review as appropriate. The interactions of illicit drugs with prescription therapies have the ability to potentiate or attenuate the effects of both the illicit agent and/or the prescription therapeutic agent, which can lead to toxic effects or a reduction in the prescription agent's therapeutic activity. Most texts and databases focus on theoretical or probable interactions due to the kinetic properties of the drugs and do not fully explore the pharmacodynamic and clinical implications of these interactions. Clinical trials with coadministration of illicit drugs and prescription drugs are discussed along with case reports that demonstrate a potential interaction between agents. The illicit drugs discussed are cocaine, marijuana, amphetamines, methylenedioxymethamphetamine, heroin, and sodium oxybate. Although the use of illicit drugs is widespread, there are little experimental or clinical data regarding the effects of these agents on common prescription therapies. Potential drug interactions between illicit drugs and prescription drugs are described and evaluated on the Drug Interaction Probability Scale by Horn and Hansten.

  2. Psychotropic medicine prescriptions in Italian youths: a multiregional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piovani, Daniele; Clavenna, Antonio; Cartabia, Massimo; Bonati, Maurizio

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trend of paediatric psychotropic drug prescriptions in Italy. Data sources were regional, outpatient prescription databases. Seven Italian regions, covering 50 % of the Italian population, provided data from 2006 to 2011. Prevalence and incidence of prescriptions by age and gender were evaluated for psychotropic, antidepressant, antipsychotic, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) medications. The hospital admission rate for psychiatric conditions was calculated, also at the local health unit (LHU) level. The presence of trends in prescription prevalence and incidence during the 6 year period was assessed. Finally, the correlation between prevalence, prescription, hospital admission rates, latitude, longitude, and average annual income at the LHU level was also investigated. In 2011, 8834 youths received at least one psychotropic drug prescription, with a prevalence of 1.76 ‰ (95 % CI 1.72-1.80). The incidence of new psychotropic drug users was 1.03 ‰ (1.00-1.06). The prevalence of antidepressants was 1.02 ‰ (0.99-1.04), while that of antipsychotics was 0.70 ‰ (0.68-0.72), and that of ADHD medications 0.19 ‰ (0.18-0.21). The psychotropic drug prevalence increased with increasing age. Males were more exposed to psychotropic drugs than females (AUC0-17 male/female = 1.23). Antipsychotics were the most prescribed psychotropic drugs in males, while antidepressants were in females. Between-region prevalence ranged from 1.56 to 2.17 ‰. The overall prevalence of psychotropic drug from 2006 to 2011 was stable (χ(t)2 ≤ 0.001, p = 0.97). No correlation was found between prevalence and the variables investigated. Psychotropic drug prescription was very limited and stable. No geographical patterns were found.

  3. On Feature Relevance in Image-Based Prediction Models: An Empirical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konukoglu, E.; Ganz, Melanie; Van Leemput, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Determining disease-related variations of the anatomy and function is an important step in better understanding diseases and developing early diagnostic systems. In particular, image-based multivariate prediction models and the “relevant features” they produce are attracting attention from the co...

  4. RELATIVE PANORAMIC CAMERA POSITION ESTIMATION FOR IMAGE-BASED VIRTUAL REALITY NETWORKS IN INDOOR ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakagawa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Image-based virtual reality (VR is a virtual space generated with panoramic images projected onto a primitive model. In imagebased VR, realistic VR scenes can be generated with lower rendering cost, and network data can be described as relationships among VR scenes. The camera network data are generated manually or by an automated procedure using camera position and rotation data. When panoramic images are acquired in indoor environments, network data should be generated without Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS positioning data. Thus, we focused on image-based VR generation using a panoramic camera in indoor environments. We propose a methodology to automate network data generation using panoramic images for an image-based VR space. We verified and evaluated our methodology through five experiments in indoor environments, including a corridor, elevator hall, room, and stairs. We confirmed that our methodology can automatically reconstruct network data using panoramic images for image-based VR in indoor environments without GNSS position data.

  5. Image-based change estimation for land cover and land use monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremy Webb; C. Kenneth Brewer; Nicholas Daniels; Chris Maderia; Randy Hamilton; Mark Finco; Kevin A. Megown; Andrew J. Lister

    2012-01-01

    The Image-based Change Estimation (ICE) project resulted from the need to provide estimates and information for land cover and land use change over large areas. The procedure uses Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plot locations interpreted using two different dates of imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). In order to determine a suitable...

  6. Comparing Four Touch-Based Interaction Techniques for an Image-Based Audience Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, Wiard; Prins, Jonatan T.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the most appropriate touch-based interaction technique for I2Vote, an image-based audience response system for radiology education in which users need to accurately mark a target on a medical image. Four plausible techniques were identified: land-on, take-off,

  7. Image-based rendering of intersecting surfaces for dynamic comparative visualization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busking, S.; Botha, C.P.; Ferrarini, L.; Milles, J.; Post, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Nested or intersecting surfaces are proven techniques for visualizing shape differences between static 3D objects (Weigle and Taylor II, IEEE Visualization, Proceedings, pp. 503–510, 2005). In this paper we present an image-based formulation for these techniques that extends their use to dynamic

  8. Image-based visual servo control using the port-Hamiltonian Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz Arias, Mauricio; El Hawwary, Mohamed; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2015-01-01

    This work is devoted to an image-based visual servo control strategy for standard mechanical systems in the port-Hamiltonian framework. We utilize a change of variables that transforms the port-Hamiltonian system into one with constant mass-inertia matrix, and we use an interaction matrix that

  9. A port-Hamiltonian approach to image-based visual servo control for dynamic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahony, R.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a port-Hamiltonian framework for the design of image-based visual servo control for dynamic mechanical systems. The approach taken introduces the concept of an image effort and provides an interpretation of energy exchange between the dynamics of the physical system and virtual

  10. Extended feature-fusion guidelines to improve image-based multi-modal biometrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, Dane

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The feature-level, unlike the match score-level, lacks multi-modal fusion guidelines. This work demonstrates a practical approach for improved image-based biometric feature-fusion. The approach extracts and combines the face, fingerprint...

  11. A model of the prescription-pharmaceutical sales process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stros

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors in marketing most relevant to achieving pharmaceutical sales success and their interrelations, as well as providing a prescription-pharmaceuticals sales process model. This will enable scholars to obtain a better understanding of the marketing process for prescription pharmaceuticals, as well as enabling marketers to apply more efficient marketing approaches. The study uses a unique data set, combining primary data and secondary data from the Swiss prescription-pharmaceuticals market. The data is analysed using a multiple-regression based model. A multi-level data structure is found, suggesting that factors concerning the specific brand and also the pharmaceutical substance itself are relevant to sales success. It is revealed that the factors most relevant to sales success are: order of market entry, perceived product-quality, average price, and marketing expenditures, leading to practical recommendations for scholars and marketing professionals. The study focuses only on the Swiss prescription-pharmaceuticals market, investigating five medical drug classes. The assumption is made that these results can be generalised to similar markets and drug classes. The study develops a conceptual prescription-pharmaceuticals sales-process model; offers practical guidelines and a good basis for further scholarly research are provided; and identifies several research gaps by giving proposals for future research.

  12. Manipulation of prescriptions by patients - what must a doctor do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSousa, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Over-the-counter use of medication via chemists, including the use of psychiatric medication, has always been a cause of worry in the Indian subcontinent. Over the last two years, the rules on dispensing psychiatric medication have become stringent and chemists have to dispense the exact amount of medicine written on the prescription for the time duration mentioned. The chemist also stamps the prescription with the amount of medicine dispensed so that the patient does not use the prescription at another chemist's or counter to obtain more than the amount prescribed. This means that patients must follow up with the psychiatrist regularly, have themselves evaluated, and get a fresh prescription that must be signed by the doctor and also carry his seal. There are many patients who do not adhere to this rule. Many a time, chemists who have known a patient over the years tend to continue dispensing medication to the patient for durations which far exceed that prescribed by the doctor. This is rather dangerous as the patient may end up taking antidepressants, antipsychotics and sedatives for months or at times, years, without a valid prescription. They may also develop side-effects that could ensue under unsupervised consumption.

  13. An Evidence-Based Approach To Exercise Prescriptions on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.

  14. Automated Prescription of Oblique Brain 3D MRSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhinsky, Eugene; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    Two major difficulties encountered in implementing Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) in a clinical setting are limited coverage and difficulty in prescription. The goal of this project was to completely automate the process of 3D PRESS MRSI prescription, including placement of the selection box, saturation bands and shim volume, while maximizing the coverage of the brain. The automated prescription technique included acquisition of an anatomical MRI image, optimization of the oblique selection box parameters, optimization of the placement of OVS saturation bands, and loading of the calculated parameters into a customized 3D MRSI pulse sequence. To validate the technique and compare its performance with existing protocols, 3D MRSI data were acquired from 6 exams from 3 healthy volunteers. To assess the performance of the automated 3D MRSI prescription for patients with brain tumors, the data were collected from 16 exams from 8 subjects with gliomas. This technique demonstrated robust coverage of the tumor, high consistency of prescription and very good data quality within the T2 lesion. PMID:22692829

  15. Use of a generic protocol in documentation of prescription errors in Estonia, Norway and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haavik S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacists have an important role in detecting, preventing, and solving prescription problems, which if left unresolved, may pose a risk of harming the patient.Objective: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of a generic study instrument for documentation of prescription problems requiring contact with prescriber before dispensing. The study was organized: 1 by countries: Estonia, Norway and Sweden; 2 by type of prescriptions: handwritten prescriptions, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies; and 3 by recording method - self-completion by pharmacists and independent observers.Methods: Observational study with independent observers at community pharmacies in Estonia (n=4 and Sweden (n=7 and self-completed protocols in Norway (n=9.Results: Pharmacists’ in Estonia contacted the prescriber for 1.47% of the prescriptions, about 3 times as often as in Norway (0.45% and Sweden (0.38%. Handwritten prescriptions dominated among the problem prescriptions in Estonia (73.2%, printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record (89.1% in Norway and electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies (55.9% in Sweden.More administrative errors were identified on handwritten prescriptions and printouts of prescriptions in the electronic medical record in Estonia and in Norway compared with electronically transmitted prescriptions to pharmacies in Sweden (p<0.05 for prescription types and p<0.01 for countries. However, clinically important errors and delivery problems appeared equally often on the different types of prescriptions. In all three countries, only few cases of drug interactions and adverse drug reactions were identified.Conclusion: Despite the different patterns of prescription problems in three countries, the instrument was feasible and can be regarded appropriate to document and classify prescription problems necessitating contact

  16. Study on the algorithm of computational ghost imaging based on discrete fourier transform measurement matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leihong; Liang, Dong; Li, Bei; Kang, Yi; Pan, Zilan; Zhang, Dawei; Gao, Xiumin; Ma, Xiuhua

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of analyzing the cosine light field with determined analytic expression and the pseudo-inverse method, the object is illuminated by a presetting light field with a determined discrete Fourier transform measurement matrix, and the object image is reconstructed by the pseudo-inverse method. The analytic expression of the algorithm of computational ghost imaging based on discrete Fourier transform measurement matrix is deduced theoretically, and compared with the algorithm of compressive computational ghost imaging based on random measurement matrix. The reconstruction process and the reconstruction error are analyzed. On this basis, the simulation is done to verify the theoretical analysis. When the sampling measurement number is similar to the number of object pixel, the rank of discrete Fourier transform matrix is the same as the one of the random measurement matrix, the PSNR of the reconstruction image of FGI algorithm and PGI algorithm are similar, the reconstruction error of the traditional CGI algorithm is lower than that of reconstruction image based on FGI algorithm and PGI algorithm. As the decreasing of the number of sampling measurement, the PSNR of reconstruction image based on FGI algorithm decreases slowly, and the PSNR of reconstruction image based on PGI algorithm and CGI algorithm decreases sharply. The reconstruction time of FGI algorithm is lower than that of other algorithms and is not affected by the number of sampling measurement. The FGI algorithm can effectively filter out the random white noise through a low-pass filter and realize the reconstruction denoising which has a higher denoising capability than that of the CGI algorithm. The FGI algorithm can improve the reconstruction accuracy and the reconstruction speed of computational ghost imaging.

  17. SU-F-T-335: Piecewise Uniform Dose Prescription and Optimization Based On PET/CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G; Liu, J [Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the tumor target volume is given a uniform dose prescription, which does not consider the heterogeneous characteristics of tumor such as hypoxia, clonogen density, radiosensitivity, tumor proliferation rate and so on. Our goal is to develop a nonuniform target dose prescription method which can spare organs at risk (OARs) better and does not decrease the tumor control probability (TCP). Methods: We propose a piecewise uniform dose prescription (PUDP) based on PET/CT images of tumor. First, we propose to delineate biological target volumes (BTV) and sub-biological target volumes (sub-BTVs) by our Hierarchical Mumford-Shah Vector Model based on PET/CT images of tumor. Then, in order to spare OARs better, we make the BTV mean dose minimized while restrict the TCP to a constant. So, we can get a general formula for determining an optimal dose prescription based on a linearquadratic model (LQ). However, this dose prescription is high heterogeneous, it is very difficult to deliver by IMRT. Therefore we propose to use the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) in each sub-BTV as its final dose prescription, which makes a PUDP for the BTV. Results: We have evaluated the IMRT planning of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma respectively using PUDP and UDP. The results show that the highest and mean doses inside brain stem are 48.425Gy and 19.151Gy respectively when the PUDP is used for IMRT planning, while they are 52.975Gy and 20.0776Gy respectively when the UDP is used. Both of the resulting TCPs(0.9245, 0.9674) are higher than the theoretical TCP(0.8739), when 70Gy is delivered to the BTV. Conclusion: Comparing with the UDP, the PUDP can spare the OARs better while the resulting TCP by PUDP is not significantly lower than by UDP. This work was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China undergrant no.61271382 and by the foundation for construction of scientific project platform forthe cancer

  18. SU-F-T-335: Piecewise Uniform Dose Prescription and Optimization Based On PET/CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, G; Liu, J

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the tumor target volume is given a uniform dose prescription, which does not consider the heterogeneous characteristics of tumor such as hypoxia, clonogen density, radiosensitivity, tumor proliferation rate and so on. Our goal is to develop a nonuniform target dose prescription method which can spare organs at risk (OARs) better and does not decrease the tumor control probability (TCP). Methods: We propose a piecewise uniform dose prescription (PUDP) based on PET/CT images of tumor. First, we propose to delineate biological target volumes (BTV) and sub-biological target volumes (sub-BTVs) by our Hierarchical Mumford-Shah Vector Model based on PET/CT images of tumor. Then, in order to spare OARs better, we make the BTV mean dose minimized while restrict the TCP to a constant. So, we can get a general formula for determining an optimal dose prescription based on a linearquadratic model (LQ). However, this dose prescription is high heterogeneous, it is very difficult to deliver by IMRT. Therefore we propose to use the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) in each sub-BTV as its final dose prescription, which makes a PUDP for the BTV. Results: We have evaluated the IMRT planning of a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma respectively using PUDP and UDP. The results show that the highest and mean doses inside brain stem are 48.425Gy and 19.151Gy respectively when the PUDP is used for IMRT planning, while they are 52.975Gy and 20.0776Gy respectively when the UDP is used. Both of the resulting TCPs(0.9245, 0.9674) are higher than the theoretical TCP(0.8739), when 70Gy is delivered to the BTV. Conclusion: Comparing with the UDP, the PUDP can spare the OARs better while the resulting TCP by PUDP is not significantly lower than by UDP. This work was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China undergrant no.61271382 and by the foundation for construction of scientific project platform forthe cancer

  19. Prescription patterns of enzyme-containing products in South Africa over a 2-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Truter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes are traded in five categories, namely medical (intervention, diagnostic (detection and quantification, molecular biology, biofuel and industrial. Therapeutic enzymes have been investigated for different uses, for example, for the treatment of genetic disorders, blood clotting disorders, cancer and infectious diseases and for burn debridement. No studies on the prescription of enzyme-containing products in South Africa could be found. Enzymes are classified in the Monthly Index of Medical Specialities under digestants, enzymes and fibrinolytics. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the prescription patterns and cost of enzyme-containing products in South Africa. A private health-care medicines claims database for 2010 and 2011 of approximately 4.5 million records was analysed retrospectively. Enzyme-containing products constituted a small percentage of medical insurance claims (only 0.02% of approximately 4.5 million claims for products and procedures, yet they were relatively expensive. A total of 906 products was prescribed at a cost of almost ZAR2 million over the 2 years. Hyaluronidase was the most frequently prescribed (60.04%, followed by pancreatin-containing products (34.66%. Pancreatin (lipase/ protease/amylase is primarily used in the management of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The average cost per hyaluronidase prescription paid by the medical insurance schemes was ZAR280. Other enzyme-containing products prescribed were imiglucerase, alteplase and tenecteplase. Imiglucerase was overall the most expensive. Alteplase, tenecteplase and streptokinase are antithrombotic enzymes that are used in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke. Streptokinase, regarded as the most affordable antithrombotic enzyme, was not prescribed during the period under study. With the growing opportunities for enzymes for therapeutics, the use of enzyme-containing products which are comparatively expensive require

  20. Reducing Prescriptions of Long-acting Benzodiazepine Drugs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Sophie Isabel; Bjerrum, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged consumption of benzodiazepine drugs (BZD) and benzodiazepine receptor agonists (zolpidem, zaleplon, zopiclone; altogether Z drugs) is related to potential physiological and psychological dependence along with other adverse effects. This study aimed to analyse the prescribing of long...... to the prescription. The observed reduction in BZD use was correlated to the introduction of new national guidelines on prescription of addictive drugs, but this study was not designed to detect a causal relationship. The prescribing of long-acting BZD decreased considerably more than the prescribing of short......-acting BZD (half-life >10 hr), compared to short-acting BZD in Denmark during a 10-year period. Descriptive analysis of total sales data from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics, to individuals in the primary healthcare sector, of all BZD and Z-drugs in the period of 2003-2013. Prescription...

  1. Prescription pain medications and chronic headache in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Glümer, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    , tramadol, ibuprofen and codeine. CH was associated with osteoarthritis, back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis. Among those with MOH, 32.4 % were dispensed an opioid at least once within 1 year. Only 5.1 % of people with CH were dispensed triptans. CONCLUSIONS: High prevalence of opioid use among people......PURPOSE: The aim of the present paper is to study which prescription pain medications are most commonly dispensed to people with chronic headache (CH), particularly those with medication-overuse headache (MOH). METHODS: This cross-sectional study analysed prescription pain medications dispensed...... within 1 year to 68,518 respondents of a national health survey. Participants with headache ≥15 days per month for 3 months were classified as having CH. Those with CH and over-the-counter analgesic use ≥15 days per month or purchase of ≥20 or ≥30 defined daily doses (DDDs) of prescription pain...

  2. Towards Prescriptive Analytics in Cyber-Physical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siksnys, Laurynas

    solving capability allowing to formulate optimization problems using SQL-like queries and to solve them “inside a database”, (4) a real-time data management architecture for processing instances of flexibility and prescription models under (soft or hard) timing constraints, and (5) a graphical user...... of (1) a unified multi-dimensional schema for storing flexibility and prescription models (and related data), (2) techniques to incrementally aggregate flexibility model instances and disaggregate prescription model instances, (3) a database management system (DBMS) with built-in optimization problem...... the introduced concepts are applicable in the real world. We believe that all this contribution makes a significant step towards developing planning-capable CPSs in the future....

  3. Determining prescription durations based on the parametric waiting time distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Henrik; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    two-component mixture model for the waiting time distribution (WTD). The distribution component for prevalent users estimates the forward recurrence density (FRD), which is related to the distribution of time between subsequent prescription redemptions, the inter-arrival density (IAD), for users...... in continued treatment. We exploited this to estimate percentiles of the IAD by inversion of the estimated FRD and defined the duration of a prescription as the time within which 80% of current users will have presented themselves again. Statistical properties were examined in simulation studies......-Normal). When the IAD consisted of a mixture of two Log-Normal distributions, but was analyzed with a single Log-Normal distribution, relative bias did not exceed 9%. Using a Log-Normal FRD, we estimated prescription durations of 117, 91, 137, and 118 days for NSAIDs, warfarin, bendroflumethiazide...

  4. Patterns of dose variability in radiation prescription of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Indra J.; Chee-Wai, Cheng; Fein, Douglas A.; Fowble, Barbara

    1995-01-01

    Objective: Radiation dose distribution varies with breast size, beam energy, beam modifiers (wedge, bolus), and beam weights. A dose variation as low as ± 5% has been observed to change outcome of the radiation treatment. Various reports suggest that radiation dose >50 Gy and dose inhomogeneity >10% have unfavorable cosmesis. It is difficult to estimate treatment outcome and compare data in various protocols due to the variability of dose prescriptions. A retrospective analysis of the pattern of dose prescription and intercomparison of various protocols is presented for the treatment of breast cancer. Materials and Methods: In this study, five prescription points were chosen to represent the commonly used protocols for breast irradiation. All these points lie on a line of height, h, of the breast apex from the posterior non-divergent beam edge at half the chest-wall separation,s . The points are located at a distance 1.5 cm, chest wall-lung interface (2-3 cm), (h(3)), (h(2)), and at isocenter. One hundred consecutive patients treated with intact breast irradiation following excisional biopsy were selected. For analysis, treatment planning was carried out without lung correction with a 6 MV beam for all patients, even though some of the patients were treated with high energy beams. Dose distributions were optimized with proper wedges and beam weights to provide a symmetrical dose distribution on the central axis plane. A multivariate analysis of the different parameters, s,h , dose at the hot spot, and doses at various prescription points were carried out. The patients were divided into three groups based on the chest-wall separations: small ( 22.0 cm). The dose distributions related to various prescription points used in different protocols were analyzed for three groups of the patients. Results: The magnitudes of the hot spots varied from +5% to +27% among the patient population, were directly related to s, and appeared to be independent of h. The hot spots

  5. Medical and nonmedical users of prescription drugs among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G

    2011-01-01

    To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response rate of 94%. Nonmedical users obtained prescription drugs from friends and took them with friends. More nonmedical users than medical users took combinations of drugs. Nonmedical users did not show strong preferences for particular drugs. Nonmedical users compared to medical users who took only 1 drug were more likely to take stimulants and less likely to take opioids. The nonmedical use of prescription drugs by college students is a social activity that involves sharing drugs and taking combinations of drugs with friends. Discouraging nonmedical use must focus on the dangers of combining drugs, sharing drugs, and using social gatherings to consume drugs.

  6. A smart medication recommendation model for the electronic prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Nguyen, Alex; Huang, Frank; Jian, Wen-Shan; Iqbal, Usman; Yang, Vivian; Hsu, Min-Huei; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2014-11-01

    The report from the Institute of Medicine, To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System in 1999 drew a special attention towards preventable medical errors and patient safety. The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009 and federal criteria of 'Meaningful use' stage 1 mandated e-prescribing to be used by eligible providers in order to access Medicaid and Medicare incentive payments. Inappropriate prescribing has been identified as a preventable cause of at least 20% of drug-related adverse events. A few studies reported system-related errors and have offered targeted recommendations on improving and enhancing e-prescribing system. This study aims to enhance efficiency of the e-prescribing system by shortening the medication list, reducing the risk of inappropriate selection of medication, as well as in reducing the prescribing time of physicians. 103.48 million prescriptions from Taiwan's national health insurance claim data were used to compute Diagnosis-Medication association. Furthermore, 100,000 prescriptions were randomly selected to develop a smart medication recommendation model by using association rules of data mining. The important contribution of this model is to introduce a new concept called Mean Prescription Rank (MPR) of prescriptions and Coverage Rate (CR) of prescriptions. A proactive medication list (PML) was computed using MPR and CR. With this model the medication drop-down menu is significantly shortened, thereby reducing medication selection errors and prescription times. The physicians will still select relevant medications even in the case of inappropriate (unintentional) selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Electronic prescription as contributing factor for hospitalized patients' safety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimenes FRE

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The following study was performed to identify factors related to medication errors in the computerized physician order entry and their advantages and disadvantages according to doctors, nursing team and administrative officers. It is a survey descriptive study carried out at three units of a Brazilian academic hospital in the southeast area. The study was divided in two phases. In the first phase, we analyzed a total of 1,349 prescriptions from general medical unit, surgical and orthopaedic wards during 30 days consecutively. A semi-structured instrument, elaborated by a group of researchers for the study proposals, was used. In the second phase, a semi-structured questionnaire was applied to the health professionals containing closed and open items approaching their opinion about the composition of electronic prescription, the advantages and disadvantages of them, and their suggestions for its improvement. Out of 1,349 prescriptions observed, 17.5% presented deletions, 25.0% medicines written manually and 17.0% of them were incomplete. Some of the advantages pointed by health professionals were its legibility (37.5%, little time spent when elaborating and emitting them (20.5% and the way they are a practical and organized (8%. The disadvantages pointed were repetition of previous prescriptions (34%, typing mistakes (17%, dependence on computers (11% and alterations made manually (7%. We conclude, this way, that the computerized prescription order entry represents a great progress among the strategies used to minimize medication errors caused by prescriptions badly formulated. However, it doesn't eradicate the possibility of medication error occurrences, needing some system modifications.

  8. Trends in direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min H; Bartz, Deborah; Avorn, Jerry; Seeger, John D

    2016-05-01

    Despite much speculation about the role of direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) in increasing demand for prescription contraceptives in the United States, there is little published research on this topic. We sought to quantify the prevalence and magnitude of DTCA for prescription contraceptives over the last decade. Using cross-sectional data from January 2005 through December 2014, we performed descriptive analyses on trends in DTCA expenditure for prescription contraceptives. We also quantified the amount of DTCA according to contraceptive method category and individual brand. During the study period, pharmaceutical companies spent a total of US$1.57 billion in the United States on DTCA of prescription contraceptives. Annual expenditure for contraceptive DTCA reached a peak value of US$260 million in 2008, with a progressive decline to a nadir of US$69 million by 2013. Of the contraceptive methods, oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been the most heavily promoted, with Yaz (drospirenone/ethinyl estradiol) - the most advertised brand - accounting for US$347 million of cumulative DTCA expenditure. However, DTCA spending on OCPs peaked in 2007 and was overtaken in 2012 by the DTCA of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs), the contraceptive method now receiving the largest amount of DTCA promotion. DTCA is a major form of promotion for prescription contraceptives. Recent trends in DTCA expenditure indicate a shift from promotion of the OCPs to the LARCs. DTCA's effect on provider and patient utilization of various contraceptive methods has yet to be determined. This study provides the first quantitative evaluation of DTCA of prescription contraceptive methods and reveals DTCA's importance as a form of promotion. Recent DTCA trends indicate increased promotion of LARCs, coinciding with greater uptake of LARC methods by patients and prescribers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-01-01

    SETTING: National Tuberculosis Program, Viet Nam, 2008. OBJECTIVES: To determine drug prescription adherence to national guidelines, to examine factors associated with an erroneous dosage of rifampin (RMP) and to evaluate the impact of an insufficient RMP dosage on treatment outcome. METHODS......: A representative sample of 30 treatment units was randomly selected. All patient treatment cards enrolled in these units were obtained, and data were double-entered and validated before calculating the adequacy of the individual drug prescriptions. RESULTS: Of 3412 tuberculosis treatment cards, 3225 (94.5%) had...

  10. Nationwide and population-based prescription patterns in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe prescription patterns and changes in these patterns over the last decade for patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder in mental healthcare, using population-based and nationwide data, and to relate the findings to recommendations from...... international guidelines. METHODS: A population-based, nationwide study was carried out. It included register-based longitudinal data on all patients with a first-ever contact with mental healthcare with a diagnosis of mania/bipolar disorder from the entire Danish population, and all prescription data...

  11. Dietary Advice on Prescription: A novel approach to dietary counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Johansson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a novel approach to giving dietary advice, which is called “Dietary Advice on Prescription” (DAP; Matordning på Recept [MoR] in Swedish. It is the same principle as prescription on medicine and “Physical Activity on Prescription” (PAP; Fysisk aktivitet på Recept [FaR] in Swedish. The main idea is that a written prescription will strengthen the oral advice and emphasize certain aspects of the dietary recommendation. The DAP is on the brink of being tested in a planned study.

  12. Towards biologically conformal radiation therapy (BCRT): Selective IMRT dose escalation under the guidance of spatial biology distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yong; Xing Lei

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that the spatial biology distribution (e.g., clonogen density, radiosensitivity, tumor proliferation rate, functional importance) in most tumors and sensitive structures is heterogeneous. Recent progress in biological imaging is making the mapping of this distribution increasingly possible. The purpose of this work is to establish a theoretical framework to quantitatively incorporate the spatial biology data into intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) inverse planning. In order to implement this, we first derive a general formula for determining the desired dose to each tumor voxel for a known biology distribution of the tumor based on a linear-quadratic model. The desired target dose distribution is then used as the prescription for inverse planning. An objective function with the voxel-dependent prescription is constructed with incorporation of the nonuniform dose prescription. The functional unit density distribution in a sensitive structure is also considered phenomenologically when constructing the objective function. Two cases with different hypothetical biology distributions are used to illustrate the new inverse planning formalism. For comparison, treatments with a few uniform dose prescriptions and a simultaneous integrated boost are also planned. The biological indices, tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), are calculated for both types of plans and the superiority of the proposed technique over the conventional dose escalation scheme is demonstrated. Our calculations revealed that it is technically feasible to produce deliberately nonuniform dose distributions with consideration of biological information. Compared with the conventional dose escalation schemes, the new technique is capable of generating biologically conformal IMRT plans that significantly improve the TCP while reducing or keeping the NTCPs at their current levels. Biologically conformal radiation therapy (BCRT

  13. Genetic and Computational Approaches for Studying Plant Development and Abiotic Stress Responses Using Image-Based Phenotyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, M. T.; Walia, H.; Grondin, A.; Knecht, A.

    2017-12-01

    The development of abiotic stress tolerant crops (i.e. drought, salinity, or heat stress) requires the discovery of DNA sequence variants associated with stress tolerance-related traits. However, many traits underlying adaptation to abiotic stress involve a suite of physiological pathways that may be induced at different times throughout the duration of stress. Conventional single-point phenotyping approaches fail to fully capture these temporal responses, and thus downstream genetic analysis may only identify a subset of the genetic variants that are important for adaptation to sub-optimal environments. Although genomic resources for crops have advanced tremendously, the collection of phenotypic data for morphological and physiological traits is laborious and remains a significant bottleneck in bridging the phenotype-genotype gap. In recent years, the availability of automated, image-based phenotyping platforms has provided researchers with an opportunity to collect morphological and physiological traits non-destructively in a highly controlled environment. Moreover, these platforms allow abiotic stress responses to be recorded throughout the duration of the experiment, and have facilitated the use of function-valued traits for genetic analyses in major crops. We will present our approaches for addressing abiotic stress tolerance in cereals. This talk will focus on novel open-source software to process and extract biological meaningful data from images generated from these phenomics platforms. In addition, we will discuss the statistical approaches to model longitudinal phenotypes and dissect the genetic basis of dynamic responses to these abiotic stresses throughout development.

  14. A Control System and Streaming DAQ Platform with Image-Based Trigger for X-ray Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanovic, Uros; Caselle, Michele; Cecilia, Angelica; Chilingaryan, Suren; Farago, Tomas; Gasilov, Sergey; Herth, Armin; Kopmann, Andreas; Vogelgesang, Matthias; Balzer, Matthias; Baumbach, Tilo; Weber, Marc

    2015-06-01

    High-speed X-ray imaging applications play a crucial role for non-destructive investigations of the dynamics in material science and biology. On-line data analysis is necessary for quality assurance and data-driven feedback, leading to a more efficient use of a beam time and increased data quality. In this article we present a smart camera platform with embedded Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) processing that is able to stream and process data continuously in real-time. The setup consists of a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) sensor, an FPGA readout card, and a readout computer. It is seamlessly integrated in a new custom experiment control system called Concert that provides a more efficient way of operating a beamline by integrating device control, experiment process control, and data analysis. The potential of the embedded processing is demonstrated by implementing an image-based trigger. It records the temporal evolution of physical events with increased speed while maintaining the full field of view. The complete data acquisition system, with Concert and the smart camera platform was successfully integrated and used for fast X-ray imaging experiments at KIT's synchrotron radiation facility ANKA.

  15. Using prescription monitoring program data to characterize out-of-pocket payments for opioid prescriptions in a state Medicaid program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Daniel M; Ahmed, Sharia M; Middleton, Luke; Van Otterloo, Joshua; Zhang, Kun; Keast, Shellie; Kim, Hyunjee; Johnston, Kirbee; Deyo, Richard A

    2017-09-01

    Out-of-pocket payment for prescription opioids is believed to be an indicator of abuse or diversion, but few studies describe its epidemiology. Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) collect controlled substance prescription fill data regardless of payment source and thus can be used to study this phenomenon. To estimate the frequency and characteristics of prescription fills for opioids that are likely paid out-of-pocket by individuals in the Oregon Medicaid program. Cross-sectional analysis using Oregon Medicaid administrative claims and PDMP data (2012 to 2013). Continuously enrolled nondually eligible Medicaid beneficiaries who could be linked to the PDMP with two opioid fills covered by Oregon Medicaid. Patient characteristics and fill characteristics for opioid fills that lacked a Medicaid pharmacy claim. Fill characteristics included opioid name, type, and association with indicators of high-risk opioid use. A total of 33 592 Medicaid beneficiaries filled a total of 555 103 opioid prescriptions. Of these opioid fills, 74 953 (13.5%) could not be matched to a Medicaid claim. Hydromorphone (30%), fentanyl (18%), and methadone (15%) were the most likely to lack a matching claim. The 3 largest predictors for missing claims were opioid fills that overlapped with other opioids (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-1.4), long-acting opioids (aOR 1.52; 95% CI, 1.47-1.57), and fills at multiple pharmacies (aOR 1.45; 95% CI, 1.39-1.52). Prescription opioid fills that were likely paid out-of-pocket were common and associated with several known indicators of high-risk opioid use. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Advanced image based methods for structural integrity monitoring: Review and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Behzad V.; Sousa, Pedro José; Barros, Francisco; Tavares, Paulo J.; Moreira, Pedro M. G. P.

    2018-02-01

    There is a growing trend in engineering to develop methods for structural integrity monitoring and characterization of in-service mechanical behaviour of components. The fast growth in recent years of image processing techniques and image-based sensing for experimental mechanics, brought about a paradigm change in phenomena sensing. Hence, several widely applicable optical approaches are playing a significant role in support of experiment. The current review manuscript describes advanced image based methods for structural integrity monitoring, and focuses on methods such as Digital Image Correlation (DIC), Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA), Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) and Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry (Shearography). These non-contact full-field techniques rely on intensive image processing methods to measure mechanical behaviour, and evolve even as reviews such as this are being written, which justifies a special effort to keep abreast of this progress.

  17. Heterogeneity, histological features and DNA ploidy in oral carcinoma by image-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwakar, N; Sperandio, M; Sherriff, M; Brown, A; Odell, E W

    2005-04-01

    Oral squamous carcinomas appear heterogeneous on DNA ploidy analysis. However, this may be partly a result of sample dilution or the detection limit of techniques. The aim of this study was to determine whether oral squamous carcinomas are heterogeneous for ploidy status using image-based ploidy analysis and to determine whether ploidy status correlates with histological parameters. Multiple samples from 42 oral squamous carcinomas were analysed for DNA ploidy using an image-based system and scored for histological parameters. 22 were uniformly aneuploid, 1 uniformly tetraploid and 3 uniformly diploid. 16 appeared heterogeneous but only 8 appeared to be genuinely heterogeneous when minor ploidy histogram peaks were taken into account. Ploidy was closely related to nuclear pleomorphism but not differentiation. Sample variation, detection limits and diagnostic criteria account for much of the ploidy heterogeneity observed. Confident diagnosis of diploid status in an oral squamous cell carcinoma requires a minimum of 5 samples.

  18. An image-based method to measure all-terrain vehicle dimensions for engineering safety purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennissen, Charles A; Miller, Nathan S; Tang, Kaiyang; Denning, Gerene M

    2014-04-01

    All-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes are a serious public health and safety concern. Engineering approaches that address ATV injury prevention are critically needed. Avenues to pursue include evidence-based seat design that decreases risky behaviours, such as carrying passengers and operation of adult-size vehicles by children. The goal of this study was to create and validate an image-based method to measure ATV seat length and placement. Publicly available ATV images were downloaded. Adobe Photoshop was then used to generate a vertical grid through the centre of the vehicle, to define the grid scale using the manufacturer's reported wheelbase, and to determine seat length and placement relative to the front and rear axles using this scale. Images that yielded a difference greater than 5% between the calculated and the manufacturer's reported ATV lengths were excluded from further analysis. For the 77 images that met inclusion criteria, the mean±SD for the difference in calculated versus reported vehicle length was 1.8%±1.2%. The Pearson correlation coefficient for comparing image-based seat lengths determined by two independent measurers (20 models) and image-based lengths versus lengths measured at dealerships (12 models) were 0.95 and 0.96, respectively. The image-based method provides accurate and reproducible results for determining ATV measurements, including seat length and placement. This method greatly expands the number of ATV models that can be studied, and may be generalisable to other motor vehicle types. These measurements can be used to guide engineering approaches that improve ATV safety design.

  19. Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: Analysis of Risk Disparity Among Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    cluster locations. In the undirected strategy, the PDF is uniform within the entire volume of the breast , while in...stereoscopic breast biopsy images (13, 14). Each cluster in the database is stored as a 3D binary volume, with a voxel value of ‘1’ representing...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0062 TITLE: Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer

  20. Non-prescription medications: considerations for the dental practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingon, Angus

    2012-04-01

    The widespread availability of non-prescription medications has a significant potential impact on dental practice. Dentists are trained to provide scientifically-based advice on the appropriate use of medications, but it is not uncommon for patients to take matters into their own hands, especially if it is felt that the treatment provided is not solving a specific problem, or is insufficient. Well-meaning but often ill-informed family and friends frequently have an opinion as to what should be done. Not only may the suggested treatment not be effective, it may also be harmful. Over-the-counter medications can easily be obtained, and there is nothing to stop individuals exceeding recommended doses, and if this occurs, there could be adverse medical sequelae. Patient compliance in taking prescription medications is known to be problematic, and when combined with the ready availability of complementary medications, probiotics and illicit drugs, the risk of self-harm can be seen to be a distinct possibility. To compound the position, sometimes there seems to be, in a practical sense, little regulation on the advertising and marketing of non-prescription medications, which can leave consumers not only confused but potentially vulnerable. While complementary medicines may not have a significant role in dental practice in 2012, that may not always be the case as research continues, and reference is made to some aspects of ongoing work. Non-prescription medications are discussed, and some effects on oral health are considered.

  1. Pattern of Prescription of Antibiotics among Dental Practitioners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons ... engaged in treatment of pediatric dental patients in different public and ..... carious lesion on tooth number 85 (mandibular right ... complicated crown fractures, severe tooth displacement, ... Why we must reduce dental prescription of.

  2. A Pox on Pithy Prescriptions. CDC Technical Report No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Erwin R.

    Intended for writing teachers, this paper shows how "pithy prescriptions" for writing, such as "use definite, specific, concrete language," can be misleading or wrong. To support this thesis, the paper examines a technical writing book advocating short sentences and finds that it has sentences averaging 27.8 words in one section and 30.18 in…

  3. Overview of four prescription monitoring/review programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Andrea D; MacDougall, Peter; Pellerin, Denise; Shaw, Karen; Spitzig, Doug; Wilson, Galt; Wright, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Prescription monitoring or review programs collect information about prescription and dispensing of controlled substances for the purposes of monitoring, analysis and education. In Canada, it is the responsibility of the provincial institutions to organize, maintain and run such programs. To describe the characteristics of four provincial programs that have been in place for >6 years. The managers of the prescription monitoring⁄review programs of four provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia) were invited to present at a symposium at the Canadian Pain Society in May 2012. In preparation for the symposium, one author collected and summarized the information. Three provinces have a mix of review and monitoring programs; the program in British Columbia is purely for review and education. All programs include controlled substances (narcotics, barbiturates and psychostimulants); however, other substances are differentially included among the programs: anabolic steroids are included in Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia; and cannabinoids are included in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Access to the database is available to pharmacists in all provinces. Physicians need consent from patients in British Columbia, and only professionals registered with the program can access the database in Alberta. The definition of inappropriate prescribing and dispensing is not uniform. Double doctoring, double pharmacy and high-volume dispensing are considered to be red flags in all programs. There is variability among Canadian provinces in managing prescription monitoring⁄review programs.

  4. Retapamulin prescriptions and monitored off-label use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Linda M; Sampson, Tim; Logie, John W

    2014-08-01

    Retapamulin, a topical pleuromutilin that selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis, is approved for treatment of impetigo and secondarily infected traumatic lesions in adults and in children older than 9 months of age. A 5-year study was conducted to monitor prescription use in children younger than 9 months of age. Annual prescription events were monitored in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and the Clinformatics™ DataMart Multiplan (IMPACT), a product of OptumInsight Life Sciences, Inc. (Eden Prairie, MN, USA), from the USA. In the CPRD, of 148 prescriptions, three (2 %) were identified in children aged less than 9 months between years 2008 and 2011. In IMPACT, of 59,210 claims for retapamulin in children, 1,951 (3.3 %) were categorized as definitive, or uncertain for, less than 9 months of age between 2007 and 2011. Retapamulin prescription events in children aged less than 9 months were relatively low compared with other recent estimations of off-label pediatric medicines. Our report provides a framework for future investigations and discussions that may facilitate off-label reporting schemes and promote pediatric drug safety.

  5. The Adequacy of Phosphorus Binder Prescriptions Among American Hemodialysis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huml, Anne M.; Sullivan, Catherine M.; Leon, Janeen B.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.

    2013-01-01

    Because hemodialysis treatment has a limited ability to remove phosphorus, dialysis patients must restrict dietary phosphorus intake and use phosphorus binding medication. Among patients with restricted dietary phosphorus intake (1000 mg/d), phosphorus binders must bind about 250 mg of excess phosphorus per day and among patients with more typical phosphorus intake (1500 mg/d), binders must bind about 750 mg per day. To determine the phosphorus binding capacity of binder prescriptions among American hemodialysis patients, we undertook a cross-sectional study of a random sample of in-center chronic hemodialysis patients. We obtained data for one randomly selected patient from 244 facilities nationwide. About one-third of patients had hyperphosphatemia (serum phosphorus level > 5.5 mg/dL). Among the 224 patients prescribed binders, the mean phosphorus binding capacity was 256 mg/d (SD 143). 59% of prescriptions had insufficient binding capacity for restricted dietary phosphorus intake, and 100% had insufficient binding capacity for typical dietary phosphorus intake. Patients using two binders had a higher binding capacity than patients using one binder (451 vs. 236 mg/d, p phosphorus balance. Use of two binders results in higher binder capacity. Further work is needed to understand the impact of binder prescriptions on mineral balance and metabolism and to determine the value of substantially increasing binder prescriptions. PMID:23013171

  6. The Misuse of Prescription Opioids: A Threat for Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, Jan; van den Brink, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In the the past two decades the medical use of prescription opioids (POs), in particular oxycodone, increased up to 14-fold in the U.S. and Canada. The high consumption of these pain relievers also led to non-medical use and abuse of these substances which in turn resulted in a dramatic increase in

  7. Medical and Nonmedical Users of Prescription Drugs among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbroek, Katelyn; Rothstein, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine medical and nonmedical users of prescription opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants taken individually and in combination. Participants: Undergraduates at an urban mid-Atlantic university with 12,000 students. Methods: A questionnaire administered in classes provided 413 responses, with a usable response…

  8. Vital Signs – Prescription Painkiller Overdoses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the July 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Prescription painkiller overdoses are an under-recognized and growing problem among women. This program includes things that women and health care providers can do to reduce the risk of overdose.

  9. 31 CFR 900.1 - Prescription of standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prescription of standards. 900.1 Section 900.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL... policies regarding the classification of debt for accounting purposes (for example, write off of...

  10. Evaluation of prescription pattern and patients' opinion on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Primary healthcare attendees were satisfied with medication costs affordability and accessibility of PHC to abode but expressed dissatisfaction with follow-up of care and courtesy of workers. Also, inappropriate prescriptions characterized by polypharmacy and overuse of antibiotics were common underscoring ...

  11. Pattern of prescription of antibiotics among dental practitioners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Inappropriate use of antibiotics by clinicians leads to antibiotic resistance, and is a serious global health concern. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine antibiotic prescription practices of dental practitioners and their adherence to professional guidelines while treating oral health problems among children.

  12. Drugs prescription pattern in dogs diagnosed with parvovirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Canine parvovirus enteritis affects predominantly puppies with a high prevalence rate in Nigeria and is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, anorexia and leucopenia. Treatment is non-specific; hence array of medications are usually prescribed to manage the condition symptomatically. Irrational drugs prescription has been ...

  13. Assessment of linezolid prescriptions in three French hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentan, C; Forestier, E; Roustit, M; Boisset, S; Chanoine, S; Epaulard, O; Pavese, P

    2017-07-01

    The use of linezolid to treat gram-positive cocci infections is increasing in France. Linezolid is approved in pneumonia and complicated skin and soft tissue infections. Overuse and misuse of linezolid can favor the emergence and spreading of linezolid-resistant strains. We aimed to assess the appropriateness of linezolid use in French hospitals. This is a multicenter, retrospective study conducted in three tertiary care hospitals. Appropriateness of linezolid indications and adequacy (composite score concerning dosage, route of administration and blood monitoring) were assessed. Over a three-month period, all prescriptions of linezolid were extracted and analyzed by two independent infectious disease experts. Among the 81 initial prescriptions that were evaluated, indication was appropriate in 48% of cases. Among those, 51% complied with international guidelines. Fifty-seven percent of the prescriptions were adequate regarding dosage, route of administration and blood monitoring. Overall, 23% of prescriptions combined both appropriateness and adequacy. The most frequent reasons for inappropriateness were the possibility of choosing narrower-spectrum antibiotics and the empirical use of linezolid in severe sepsis or septic shock. Initial treatment was the most frequently appropriate in bone and joint infection cases (p = 0.001). Our study shows that even if modalities of use were mostly correct, appropriateness of linezolid indications is low. Educational programs are mandatory to improve practices, as well as clinical studies to better assess the efficacy and safety of linezolid in clinical situations other than pneumonia or complicated skin and soft tissue infections.

  14. Outpatient antibiotic prescriptions from 1992 to 2001 in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, MM; van Balen, FAM; Verheij, TJM

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Although Dutch outpatient antibiotic prescription rates are low compared with other European countries, continuing to scrutinize trends in outpatient antibiotic use is important in order to identify possible increases in antibiotic use or inappropriate increases in the use of particular

  15. Dispensing patterns of prescription-only antiobesity preparations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ilse Truter

    Outcome measures: Number of patients by age and gender, prescribing frequency and cost of antiobesity prescriptions, ... Lifestyle modifications are the first-line of treatment for obesity, .... received, but it was a neutral code and not an identity or medical ..... disorders and migraines.1 The FDA had approved the combination.

  16. English Grammar Comparison:Descriptive Grammar vs. Prescriptive Grammar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-wen; LI Yi-an

    2015-01-01

    English grammar is thought as one of the most important parts in both language learning and teaching. While few peo⁃ple know there is more than one kind of English grammar. This essay provides the features and comparison between two com⁃monly used English grammar, namely descriptive grammar and prescriptive grammar, and assist English teachers to explore further in grammar teaching.

  17. The application characteristics of Zhongjing external prescription medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the application characteristics of Zhongjing prescription topical Chinese medicine. Methods: in this paper, according to the dosage form, Zhongjing topical agent will be divided into suppository, smoked lotion, apply is scattered, plug nasal powder four categories. Through an analysis on its books, records, and clinical applications, we are able to sum up the application characteristics of the zhongjing agent for external use. Results: in the clinical medicine, topical Zhongjing prescription cure of the disease has a long history of the role, through the analysis of Zhongjing topical prescription whole thinking, dialectical thinking, and thinking and characteristics of treatment technology that has the characteristics of topical drugs, dosage form differentiation flexible, external treatment for internal diseases, both inside and outside. Conclusion: topical medicine not only in the clinical treatment effect is good, and to inherit and develop Zhang Zhongjing thought of medicine, medical practice, law, strengthen Zhong Jing prescription and medicine, to enrich TCM clinical diagnosis and treatment methods to improve the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine, Chinese medicine clinics provide high standards of service for patients.

  18. Increasing Wearing of Prescription Glasses in Individuals with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLeon, Iser G.; Hagopian, Louis P.; Rodriguez-Catter, Vanessa; Bowman, Lynn G.; Long, Ethan S.; Boelter, Eric W.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated an intervention for promoting wearing of prescription glasses in 4 individuals with mental retardation who had refused to wear their glasses previously. Distraction through noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) increased independent glasses wearing for 1 of the 4 participants. An intervention consisting of NCR, response cost, and…

  19. Proscriptive versus prescriptive morality: two faces of moral regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Sheikh, Sana; Hepp, Sebastian

    2009-03-01

    A distinction is made between two forms of morality on the basis of approach-avoidance differences in self-regulation. Prescriptive morality is sensitive to positive outcomes, activation-based, and focused on what we should do. Proscriptive morality is sensitive to negative outcomes, inhibition-based, and focused on what we should not do. Seven studies profile these two faces of morality, support their distinct motivational underpinnings, and provide evidence of moral asymmetry. Both are well-represented in individuals' moral repertoire and equivalent in terms of moral weight, but proscriptive morality is condemnatory and strict, whereas prescriptive morality is commendatory and not strict. More specifically, in these studies proscriptive morality was perceived as concrete, mandatory, and duty-based, whereas prescriptive morality was perceived as more abstract, discretionary, and based in duty or desire; proscriptive immorality resulted in greater blame, whereas prescriptive morality resulted in greater moral credit. Implications for broader social regulation, including cross-cultural differences and political orientation, are discussed.

  20. Socioeconomic Variations in Use of Prescription Medicines for COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Ekholm, Ola; Rasmussen, Niels K.

    2016-01-01

    or personal wealth. CONCLUSIONS: There were no systematic socioeconomic differences in the use of relevant prescription medicines in elderly subjects diagnosed with COPD in hospital settings in Copenhagen. However, our findings indicate a gap between guideline recommendations and observed use of long...

  1. Anti‑malaria prescription in pregnancy among general practitioners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the pattern of anti‑malaria prescription in pregnancy among GPs in Enugu state, and access the level of conformity with the national policy on malaria control. Materials and Methods: Questionnaires were administered to a cross‑section of 147 GPs that attended the 2010 Enugu state branch of the ...

  2. Medical prescription pitfalls of uncomplicated urinary tract infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1Michael Chilufya Sata School of Medicine, Copperbelt University, Ndola, Zambia. C. S. ABSTRACT. Objectives: The aim of this evaluation was to identify pitfalls in medical prescriptions of uncomplicated urinary ... competences such as principles of clinical pharmacology, knowledge, skill and critical. 1 judgement, among ...

  3. 21 CFR 1311.120 - Electronic prescription application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic prescription application requirements. 1311.120 Section 1311.120 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... application must clear the plain text password from the application memory to prevent the unauthorized access...

  4. 'Virtual Water' - Real People: Useful Concept or Prescriptive Tool?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.; Johnson, C.L.

    2007-01-01

    The 'virtual water' thesis is beginning to take centre stage in the water security global discourse. From its origins as a conceptual tool for countering the gloomy Malthusian ('water scarcity leads to water wars') argument, it is now increasingly seen as a serious prescriptive tool for the

  5. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of antibiotic prescription in paediatric patients: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... differences (p>0.05) in the prescription rates of the hospitals. The most commonly used antibiotics were beta-lactams (57.3%), aminoglycosides (28.3%) and co-trimoxazole (9.4%). Antibiotics were prescribed in all cases of bronchopneumonia, fever, sepsis and acute gastroenteritis. For malaria and undefined diagnoses, ...

  7. The Nordic prescription databases as a resource for pharmacoepidemiological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wettermark, B; Zoëga, H; Furu, K

    2013-01-01

    All five Nordic countries have nationwide prescription databases covering all dispensed drugs, with potential for linkage to outcomes. The aim of this review is to present an overview of therapeutic areas studied and methods applied in pharmacoepidemiologic studies using data from these databases....

  8. 77 FR 8174 - EPAAR Prescription for Work Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... because it does not affect the level of protection provided to human health or the environment. This rulemaking does not involve human health or environmental affects. K. Congressional Review Act The... Prescription for Work Assignments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  9. Prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands: An interview with clinical experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Linde, H.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Hofstad, C.J.; Van Limbeek, Jacques; Postema, K.

    2004-01-01

    In the process of guideline development for prosthetic prescription in the Netherlands the authors made a study of the daily clinical practice of lower limb prosthetics. Besides the evidence-based knowledge from literature the more implicit knowledge from clinical experts is of importance for

  10. Prescription patterns and utilisation of antihypertensive drugs in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to investigate the prescribing pattern and drug use in the management of essential hypertension in a specialist hospital and its conformity to the JNC VII and WHO/ISH management guidelines. A total of 1572 prescriptions from 490 case files of hypertensive patients (> 18 years) attending the ...

  11. Prescription pattern and cost analysis of antipsychotics in a tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study revealed that the prescription patterns at the hospital studied were not in conformity with the WHO guidelines. Atypicals, are very expensive and unaffordable to the majority of patients in the study setting. This indicates the need for measures to reduce cost of newer psychotropic drugs, to increase their availability ...

  12. Stories of Compliance and Subversion in a Prescriptive Policy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacBeath, John

    2008-01-01

    In their commitment to raising standards successive Conservative and Labour governments have moved progressively to tighter prescription of school policy and more far reaching proscription of practices deemed unacceptable. This article examines how 12 headteachers construct the policy environment and how they respond to it in the schools they…

  13. An integrated drug prescription and distribution system: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanssiers, R; Everaert, E; De Win, M; Van De Velde, R; De Clercq, H

    2002-01-01

    Using the hospital's drug prescription and distribution system as a guide, benefits and drawbacks of a medical activity management system that is tightly integrated with the supply chain management of a hospital will be discussed from the point of view of various participating healthcare actors.

  14. Our prescription drugs kill us in large numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    Our prescription drugs are the third leading cause of death after heart disease and cancer in the United States and Europe. Around half of those who die have taken their drugs correctly; the other half die because of errors, such as too high a dose or use of a drug despite contraindications. Our...

  15. Association of prescription abandonment with cost share for high-cost specialty pharmacy medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Patrick P; Starner, Catherine I; Gunderson, Brent W; Schafer, Jeremy A; Sarran, H Scott

    2009-10-01

    In 2008, specialty medications accounted for 15.1% of total pharmacy benefit medication spending, and per member expenditures have increased by 11.1% annually from 2004 to 2008 within a commercially insured population of 8 million members. Insurers face increasing pressure to control specialty medication expenditures and to rely on increasing member cost share through creation of a fourth copayment tier within the incentive-based formulary pharmacy benefit system. Data are needed on the influence that member out-of-pocket (OOP) expense may have on prescription abandonment (defined as the patient never actually taking possession of the medication despite evidence of a written prescription generated by a prescriber). To explore the relationship between prescription abandonment and OOP expense among individuals newly initiating high-cost medication therapy with a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocker or multiple sclerosis (MS) biologic agent. This observational cross-sectional study queried a midwestern and southern U.S. database of 13,172,480 commercially insured individuals to find members with a pharmacy benefit-adjudicated claim for a TNF blocker or MS specialty medication during the period from July 2006 through June 2008. Prescription abandonment was assessed among continuously enrolled members newly initiating TNF blocker or MS therapy. Prescription abandonment was defined as reversal of the adjudicated claim with no evidence of a subsequent additional adjudicated paid claim in the ensuing 90 days. Separate analyses for MS and TNF blocker therapy were performed to assess the association between member OOP expense and abandonment rate using the Cochran-Armitage test for trend and multivariate logistic regression. Members were placed into 1 of the 7 following OOP expense groups per claim: $0-$100, $101-$150, $151-$200, $201-$250, $251-$350, $351-$500, or more than $500. The association of MS or TNF blocker abandonment rate with OOP expense was tested with logistic

  16. Qualification of a Null Lens Using Image-Based Phase Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolcar, Matthew R.; Aronstein, David L.; Hill, Peter C.; Smith, J. Scott; Zielinski, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    In measuring the figure error of an aspheric optic using a null lens, the wavefront contribution from the null lens must be independently and accurately characterized in order to isolate the optical performance of the aspheric optic alone. Various techniques can be used to characterize such a null lens, including interferometry, profilometry and image-based methods. Only image-based methods, such as phase retrieval, can measure the null-lens wavefront in situ - in single-pass, and at the same conjugates and in the same alignment state in which the null lens will ultimately be used - with no additional optical components. Due to the intended purpose of a Dull lens (e.g., to null a large aspheric wavefront with a near-equal-but-opposite spherical wavefront), characterizing a null-lens wavefront presents several challenges to image-based phase retrieval: Large wavefront slopes and high-dynamic-range data decrease the capture range of phase-retrieval algorithms, increase the requirements on the fidelity of the forward model of the optical system, and make it difficult to extract diagnostic information (e.g., the system F/#) from the image data. In this paper, we present a study of these effects on phase-retrieval algorithms in the context of a null lens used in component development for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission. Approaches for mitigation are also discussed.

  17. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering Architectures, Techniques and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Yin; Yu, Lu; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Riding on the success of 3D cinema blockbusters and advances in stereoscopic display technology, 3D video applications have gathered momentum in recent years. 3D-TV System with Depth-Image-Based Rendering: Architectures, Techniques and Challenges surveys depth-image-based 3D-TV systems, which are expected to be put into applications in the near future. Depth-image-based rendering (DIBR) significantly enhances the 3D visual experience compared to stereoscopic systems currently in use. DIBR techniques make it possible to generate additional viewpoints using 3D warping techniques to adjust the perceived depth of stereoscopic videos and provide for auto-stereoscopic displays that do not require glasses for viewing the 3D image.   The material includes a technical review and literature survey of components and complete systems, solutions for technical issues, and implementation of prototypes. The book is organized into four sections: System Overview, Content Generation, Data Compression and Transmission, and 3D V...

  18. Range and Image Based Modelling: a way for Frescoed Vault Texturing Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroti, G.; Martínez-Espejo Zaragoza, I.; Piemonte, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the restoration of the frescoed vaults it is not only important to know the geometric shape of the painted surface, but it is essential to document its chromatic characterization and conservation status. The new techniques of range-based and image-based modelling, each with its limitations and advantages, offer a wide range of methods to obtain the geometric shape. In fact, several studies widely document that laser scanning enable obtaining three-dimensional models with high morphological precision. However, the quality level of the colour obtained with built-in laser scanner cameras is not comparable to that obtained for the shape. It is possible to improve the texture quality by means of a dedicated photographic campaign. This procedure, however, requires to calculate the external orientation of each image identifying the control points on it and on the model through a costly step of post processing. With image-based modelling techniques it is possible to obtain models that maintain the colour quality of the original images, but with variable geometric precision, locally lower than the laser scanning model. This paper presents a methodology that uses the camera external orientation parameters calculated by image based modelling techniques to project the same image on the model obtained from the laser scan. This methodology is tested on an Italian mirror (a schifo) frescoed vault. In the paper the different models, the analysis of precision and the efficiency evaluation of proposed methodology are presented.

  19. Diffraction based overlay and image based overlay on production flow for advanced technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancquaert, Yoann; Dezauzier, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    One of the main challenges for lithography step is the overlay control. For the advanced technology node like 28nm and 14nm, the overlay budget becomes very tight. Two overlay techniques compete in our advanced semiconductor manufacturing: the Diffraction based Overlay (DBO) with the YieldStar S200 (ASML) and the Image Based Overlay (IBO) with ARCHER (KLA). In this paper we will compare these two methods through 3 critical production layers: Poly Gate, Contact and first metal layer. We will show the overlay results of the 2 techniques, explore the accuracy and compare the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) for the standard overlay targets of both techniques. We will see also the response and impact for the Image Based Overlay and Diffraction Based Overlay techniques through a process change like an additional Hardmask TEOS layer on the front-end stack. The importance of the target design is approached; we will propose more adapted design for image based targets. Finally we will present embedded targets in the 14 FDSOI with first results.

  20. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  1. Availability of prescription drugs for bipolar disorder at online pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Bauer, Michael

    2016-03-15

    There is increasing use of online pharmacies to purchase prescription drugs. While some online pharmacies are legitimate and safe, there are many unsafe and illegal so-called "rogue" online pharmacies. This study investigated the availability of psychotropic drugs online to consumers in the US, using 5 commonly prescribed drugs for bipolar disorder. Using the search term "buy [drug name]" in the Google, Yahoo and Bing search engines, the characteristics of the online pharmacies found on the first two pages of search results were investigated. The availability of the requested dosage and formulations of two brand (Seroquel XR, Abilify) and three generic drugs (lamotrigine, lithium carbonate and bupropion SR) were determined. Of 30 online pharmacies found, 17 (57%) were rated as rogue by LegitScript. Of the 30 pharmacies, 15 (50%) require a prescription, 21 (70%) claim to be from Canada, with 20 of these having a Canadian International Pharmacy association (CIPA) seal on the website. Only 13 of the 20 sites with a CIPA seal were active CIPA members. There were about the same number of trust verification seals on the rogue and legitimate pharmacy sites. Some rogue pharmacies are professional in appearance, and may be difficult for consumers to recognize as rogue. All five brand and generic drugs were offered for sale online, with or without a prescription. However, many substitutions were presented such as different strengths and formulations including products not approved by the FDA. No evaluation of product quality, packaging or purchasing. Psychotropic medications are available online with or without a prescription. The majority of online pharmacy websites were rogue. Physicians should ask about the use of online pharmacies. For those who choose to use online pharmacies, two measures to detect rogue pharmacies are recommended: (1) only purchase drugs from pharmacies that require a prescription, and (2) check all pharmacy verification seals directly on the website

  2. Guideline concordance of new statin prescriptions: who got a statin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascino, Thomas; Vali, Marzieh; Redberg, Rita; Bravata, Dawn M; Boscardin, John; Eilkhani, Elnaz; Keyhani, Salomeh

    2017-09-01

    Statins are recommended to reduce serum cholesterol in patients at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Despite the prevalence of statin use, little is known about the indications for new prescriptions. We assessed the concordance of new statin prescriptions in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) compared with the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III, or ATP III) guidelines (the guidelines in force in 2012) and the American College of Cardiology (ACC)-American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 guidelines. Cross-sectional study. We identified every patient who received a new prescription (no statin use in the prior year) in the VHA in 2012. Patients were excluded if they had incomplete data, triglycerides greater than 400 mg/dL, or fewer than 2 primary care visits to ensure adequate baseline data to calculate Framingham and ACC-AHA 2013 risk scores. We identified 250,243 new statin prescriptions in 2012 in the VHA, with 121,081 meeting inclusion criteria. Among new prescriptions, 68% were prescribed for primary prevention and 32% were prescribed for secondary prevention. Among patients receiving new statins for primary prevention, 48% did not have an indication supported by the ATP III guideline and 20% did not have an indication supported by the ACC/AHA guideline. Overall, approximately 19% of patients may have received a statin for an indication not supported by either guideline. Veterans are commonly prescribed statins for indications not supported by professional society guidelines. The finding of common use of statins outside established guidelines represents an opportunity to improve the quality and value of the healthcare delivery.

  3. [Analysis on traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions treating cancer-related anorexia syndrome based on grey system theory combined with multivariate analysis method and discovery of new prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song-Lin; Chen, Cong; Zhu, Hui; Li, Jing; Pang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related anorexia syndrome (CACS) is one of the main causes for death at present as well as a syndrome seriously harming patients' quality of life, treatment effect and survival time. In current clinical researches, there are fewer reports about empirical traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) prescriptions and patent prescriptions treating CACS, and prescription rules are rarely analyzed in a systematic manner. As the hidden rules are not excavated, it is hard to have an innovative discovery and knowledge of clinical medication. In this paper, the grey screening method combined with the multivariate statistical method was used to build the ″CACS prescriptions database″. Based on the database, totally 359 prescriptions were selected, the frequency of herbs in prescription was determined, and commonly combined drugs were evolved into 4 new prescriptions for different syndromes. Prescriptions of TCM in treatment of CACS gave priority to benefiting qi for strengthening spleen, also laid emphasis on replenishing kidney essence, dispersing stagnated liver-qi and dispersing lung-qi. Moreover, interdependence and mutual promotion of yin and yang should be taken into account to reflect TCM's holism and theory for treatment based on syndrome differentiation. The grey screening method, as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine research-supporting method, can be used to subjectively and objectively analyze prescription rules; and the new prescriptions can provide reference for the clinical use of TCM for treating CACS and the drug development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  4. CDC Vital Signs: Prescription Painkiller Overdoses (Opioids): A Growing Epidemic, Especially Among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health care providers and the public about prescription drug misuse, abuse, suicide, and overdose, and the risks for women. Developing and evaluating programs and policies that prevent and treat prescription drug abuse and overdose, while making sure patients have access ...

  5. [Consideration about chemistry, manufacture and control (CMC) key problems in simplified registration of classical traditional Chinese medicine excellent prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Ju-Yan; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Wang, De-Qin; Yan, Li-Hua; Zhu, Jin-Jin; Gao, Hui-Min; Li, Chun; Wang, Jin-Yu; Li, Chu-Yuan; Ni, Qing-Chun; Huang, Ji-Sheng; Lin, Juan

    2017-05-01

    As an outstanding representative of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) prescriptions accumulated from famous TCM doctors' clinical experiences in past dynasties, classical TCM excellent prescriptions (cTCMeP) are the most valuable part of TCM system. To support the research and development of cTCMeP, a series of regulations and measures were issued to encourage its simplified registration. There is still a long-way to go because many key problems and puzzles about technology, registration and administration in cTCMeP R&D process are not resolved. Based on the analysis of registration and management regulations of botanical drug products in FDA of USA and Japan, and EMA of Europe, the possible key problems and countermeasures in chemistry, manufacture and control (CMC) of simplified registration of cTCMeP were analyzed on the consideration of its actual situation. The method of "reference decoction extract by traditional prescription" (RDETP) was firstly proposed as standard to evaluate the quality and preparation uniformity between the new developing product under simplified registration and traditional original usages of cTCMeP, instead of Standard Decoction method in Japan. "Totality of the evidence" approach, mass balance and bioassay/biological assay of cTCMeP were emphatically suggested to introduce to the quality uniformity evaluation system in the raw drug material, drug substance and final product between the modern product and traditional decoction. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  6. Prescription Opioid Abuse, Prescription Opioid Addiction, and Heroin Abuse among Adolescents in a Recovery High School: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Eaton, Thomas A.; Sokolowska, Marta; Osgood, Eric D.; Ashworth, Judy B.; Trudeau, Jeremiah J.; Muffett-Lipinski, Michelle; Katz, Nathaniel P.

    2016-01-01

    The progression from prescription opioid (RXO) abuse to RXO addiction is not well understood in adolescents, nor is the progression from RXO addiction to heroin abuse. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the development of RXO drug abuse, RXO drug addiction, and heroin abuse in a small cohort of adolescents recovering from opioid…

  7. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  8. An inevitable wave of prescription drug monitoring programs in the context of prescription opioids: pros, cons and tensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mofizul; McRae, Ian S

    2014-08-16

    In an effort to control non-medical use and/or medical abuse of prescription drugs, particularly prescription opioids, electronic prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMP) have been introduced in North-American countries, Australia and some parts of Europe. Paradoxically, there are simultaneous pressures to increase opioid prescribing for the benefit of individual patients and to reduce it for the sake of public health, and this pressure warrants a delicate balance of appropriate therapeutic uses of these drugs with the risk of developing dependence. This article discusses pros and cons of PDMP in reducing diversion of prescription opioids, without hampering access to those medications for those with genuine needs, and highlights tensions around PDMP implementation. PDMPs may help alleviate diversion, over-prescription and fraudulent prescribing/dispensing; prompt drug treatment referrals; avoid awkward drug urine test; and inform spatial changes in prescribing practices and help designing tailored interventions. Fear of legal retribution, privacy and data security, potential confusion about addiction and pseudo-addiction, and potential undue pressure of detecting misuse/diversion - are the major problems. There are tensions about unintended consequence of excessive regulatory enforcements, corresponding collateral damages particularly about inadequate prescribing for patients with genuine needs, and mandatory consultation requirements of PDMP. In this era of information technology PDMP is likely to flourish and remain with us for a long time. A clear standard of practice against which physicians' care will be judged may expedite the utilisation of PDMP. In addition, adequate training on addiction and pain management along with public awareness, point-of-supply data entry from pharmacy, point-of-care real-time access to data, increasing access to addiction treatment and appropriate regulatory enforcement preferably through healthcare administration, together

  9. Teens and Prescription Drugs: An Analysis of Recent Trends on the Emerging Drug Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report synthesizes a number of national studies that show the intentional abuse of prescription drugs to get high is a growing concern, particularly among teens. The analysis shows that teens are turning away from street drugs and using prescription drugs to get high. New users of prescription drugs have caught up with new users of marijuana.…

  10. Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising: history, regulation, and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Jisu; DeLorme, Denise E; Reid, Leonard N; An, Soontae

    2010-03-01

    Direct-to-consumer advertising has changed the way prescription drugs are marketed in the United States. This article traces the history of direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription and over-the-counter medications and describes how drug advertising is regulated and by whom. It also discusses the controversies that surround direct-to-consumer marketing of prescription drugs.

  11. 77 FR 74827 - Working Group on Access to Information on Prescription Drug Container Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... on Prescription Drug Container Labels AGENCY: Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance... information on prescription drug container labels accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired. The... stakeholder working group to develop best practices for making information on prescription drug container...

  12. A Theoretical Approach to Electronic Prescription System: Lesson Learned from Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Ahmadi, Maryam; Hosseini Asanjan, Seyed Masoud

    2013-01-01

    Context The tendency to use advanced technology in healthcare and the governmental policies have put forward electronic prescription. Electronic prescription is considered as the main solution to overcome the major drawbacks of the paper-based medication prescription, such as transcription errors. This study aims to provide practical information concerning electronic prescription system to a variety of stakeholders. Evidence Acquisition In this review study, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE databases, Iranian National Library Of Medicine (INLM) portal, Google Scholar, Google and Yahoo were searched for relevant English publications concerning the problems of paper-based prescription, and concept, features, levels, benefits, stakeholders and standards of electronic prescription system. Results There are many problems with the paper prescription system which, according to studies have jeopardized patients’ safety and negatively affected the outcomes of medication therapy. All of these problems are remedied through the implementation of e-prescriptions. Conclusions The sophistication of electronic prescription and integration with EHR will become a reality, if all its stakeholders collaborate in developing fast and secure electronic prescription systems. It is plausible that the required infrastructure should be provided for implementation of the national integrated electronic prescription systems in countries without the system. Given the barriers to the implementation and use, policymakers should consider multiple strategies and offer incentives to encourage e-prescription initiatives. This will result in widespread adoption of the system. PMID:24693376

  13. Radiopharmaceutical prescription in nuclear medicine departments; La prescription medicale des radiopharmaceutiques au sein d'un service de medecine nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biechlin-Chassel, M.L. [Radiopharmacie, service de pharmacie, Centre hospitalier de Chambery, 73 - Chambery (France); Lao, S. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU-Hopital de l' Archet, 06 - Nice (France); Bolot, C. [Service de pharmacie, hospices civiles de Lyon, groupement hospitalier Est, 69 - Bron (France); Francois-Joubert, A. [Service de medecine nucleaire, centre hospitalier de Chambery, 73 - Chambery (France)

    2010-11-15

    In France, radiopharmaceutical prescription is often discussed depending to which juridical structure the nuclear medicine department is belonging. According to current regulation, this prescription is an obligation in a department linked to hospital with a pharmacy department inside. But situation remains unclear for independent nuclear medicine departments where physicians are not constrained to prescribe radiopharmaceuticals. However, as radiographers and nurses are only authorized to realize theirs acts in front of a medical prescription, one prescription must be realized. Nowadays, computerized prescription tools have been developed but only for radiopharmaceutical drugs and not for medical acts. In the aim to achieve a safer patient care, the prescription regulation may be applied whatever differences between nuclear medicines departments. (authors)

  14. Prescription drug overdose: between patients and their doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 Li-Tzy Wu21Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Science, Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAPrescription drug overdoses, mainly involving prescription opioids, have reached epidemic proportions in the United States over the past 20 years.1,2 Since 2003, prescription opioids have been involved in more drug-related overdose deaths than heroin and cocaine combined. Among patients who were prescribed opioids, an estimated 20% were prescribed high doses of opioids by either single or multiple physicians, and these patients appeared to account for the majority of prescription opioid-related overdoses.1,3,4 The increase in prescription overdose deaths has coincided with a major increase in prescription opioid sales.2 The prescribing practices of some physicians are often believed to have contributed in part to the increase in these overdose deaths. In a recently published perspective, Anna Lembke speculated on why doctors prescribe opioids to known prescription opioid abusers.5 Her article raises a timely and troubling issue for all of us interested in this area of medicine. Lembke identifies the root of the problem to lie in the changing societal attitude towards pain and suffering, the ever-growing availability of opioid medications, the regulatory requirements promulgated, and the perceived shift in the role of the medical professional in this context. Central to her argument is that physicians must now practice according to a set of externally imposed expectations of patients, payers, and regulators, putting the prescriber in the position of being "damned if you do and damned if you don’t". If Lembke is right, the physician now prescribes not according to what he or she wants to do, but according to what he or she must do. The result, at one extreme, is the patient acting as their

  15. [Analysis on traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions treating cancer based on traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system and discovery of new prescriptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ming; Cao, Qi-chen; Su, Yu-xi; Sui, Xin; Yang, Hong-jun; Huang, Lu-qi; Wang, Wen-ping

    2015-08-01

    Malignant tumor is one of the main causes for death in the world at present as well as a major disease seriously harming human health and life and restricting the social and economic development. There are many kinds of reports about traditional Chinese medicine patent prescriptions, empirical prescriptions and self-made prescriptions treating cancer, and prescription rules were often analyzed based on medication frequency. Such methods were applicable for discovering dominant experience but hard to have an innovative discovery and knowledge. In this paper, based on the traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, the software integration of mutual information improvement method, complex system entropy clustering and unsupervised entropy-level clustering data mining methods was adopted to analyze the rules of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions for cancer. Totally 114 prescriptions were selected, the frequency of herbs in prescription was determined, and 85 core combinations and 13 new prescriptions were indentified. The traditional Chinese medicine inheritance assistance system, as a valuable traditional Chinese medicine research-supporting tool, can be used to record, manage, inquire and analyze prescription data.

  16. Robust and Accurate Image-Based Georeferencing Exploiting Relative Orientation Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavegn, S.; Blaser, S.; Nebiker, S.; Haala, N.

    2018-05-01

    Urban environments with extended areas of poor GNSS coverage as well as indoor spaces that often rely on real-time SLAM algorithms for camera pose estimation require sophisticated georeferencing in order to fulfill our high requirements of a few centimeters for absolute 3D point measurement accuracies. Since we focus on image-based mobile mapping, we extended the structure-from-motion pipeline COLMAP with georeferencing capabilities by integrating exterior orientation parameters from direct sensor orientation or SLAM as well as ground control points into bundle adjustment. Furthermore, we exploit constraints for relative orientation parameters among all cameras in bundle adjustment, which leads to a significant robustness and accuracy increase especially by incorporating highly redundant multi-view image sequences. We evaluated our integrated georeferencing approach on two data sets, one captured outdoors by a vehicle-based multi-stereo mobile mapping system and the other captured indoors by a portable panoramic mobile mapping system. We obtained mean RMSE values for check point residuals between image-based georeferencing and tachymetry of 2 cm in an indoor area, and 3 cm in an urban environment where the measurement distances are a multiple compared to indoors. Moreover, in comparison to a solely image-based procedure, our integrated georeferencing approach showed a consistent accuracy increase by a factor of 2-3 at our outdoor test site. Due to pre-calibrated relative orientation parameters, images of all camera heads were oriented correctly in our challenging indoor environment. By performing self-calibration of relative orientation parameters among respective cameras of our vehicle-based mobile mapping system, remaining inaccuracies from suboptimal test field calibration were successfully compensated.

  17. ROBUST AND ACCURATE IMAGE-BASED GEOREFERENCING EXPLOITING RELATIVE ORIENTATION CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cavegn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban environments with extended areas of poor GNSS coverage as well as indoor spaces that often rely on real-time SLAM algorithms for camera pose estimation require sophisticated georeferencing in order to fulfill our high requirements of a few centimeters for absolute 3D point measurement accuracies. Since we focus on image-based mobile mapping, we extended the structure-from-motion pipeline COLMAP with georeferencing capabilities by integrating exterior orientation parameters from direct sensor orientation or SLAM as well as ground control points into bundle adjustment. Furthermore, we exploit constraints for relative orientation parameters among all cameras in bundle adjustment, which leads to a significant robustness and accuracy increase especially by incorporating highly redundant multi-view image sequences. We evaluated our integrated georeferencing approach on two data sets, one captured outdoors by a vehicle-based multi-stereo mobile mapping system and the other captured indoors by a portable panoramic mobile mapping system. We obtained mean RMSE values for check point residuals between image-based georeferencing and tachymetry of 2 cm in an indoor area, and 3 cm in an urban environment where the measurement distances are a multiple compared to indoors. Moreover, in comparison to a solely image-based procedure, our integrated georeferencing approach showed a consistent accuracy increase by a factor of 2–3 at our outdoor test site. Due to pre-calibrated relative orientation parameters, images of all camera heads were oriented correctly in our challenging indoor environment. By performing self-calibration of relative orientation parameters among respective cameras of our vehicle-based mobile mapping system, remaining inaccuracies from suboptimal test field calibration were successfully compensated.

  18. First experience with THE AUTOLAP™ SYSTEM: an image-based robotic camera steering device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijsman, Paul J M; Broeders, Ivo A M J; Brenkman, Hylke J; Szold, Amir; Forgione, Antonello; Schreuder, Henk W R; Consten, Esther C J; Draaisma, Werner A; Verheijen, Paul M; Ruurda, Jelle P; Kaufman, Yuval

    2018-05-01

    Robotic camera holders for endoscopic surgery have been available for 20 years but market penetration is low. The current camera holders are controlled by voice, joystick, eyeball tracking, or head movements, and this type of steering has proven to be successful but excessive disturbance of surgical workflow has blocked widespread introduction. The Autolap™ system (MST, Israel) uses a radically different steering concept based on image analysis. This may improve acceptance by smooth, interactive, and fast steering. These two studies were conducted to prove safe and efficient performance of the core technology. A total of 66 various laparoscopic procedures were performed with the AutoLap™ by nine experienced surgeons, in two multi-center studies; 41 cholecystectomies, 13 fundoplications including hiatal hernia repair, 4 endometriosis surgeries, 2 inguinal hernia repairs, and 6 (bilateral) salpingo-oophorectomies. The use of the AutoLap™ system was evaluated in terms of safety, image stability, setup and procedural time, accuracy of imaged-based movements, and user satisfaction. Surgical procedures were completed with the AutoLap™ system in 64 cases (97%). The mean overall setup time of the AutoLap™ system was 4 min (04:08 ± 0.10). Procedure times were not prolonged due to the use of the system when compared to literature average. The reported user satisfaction was 3.85 and 3.96 on a scale of 1 to 5 in two studies. More than 90% of the image-based movements were accurate. No system-related adverse events were recorded while using the system. Safe and efficient use of the core technology of the AutoLap™ system was demonstrated with high image stability and good surgeon satisfaction. The results support further clinical studies that will focus on usability, improved ergonomics and additional image-based features.

  19. Pharmacists correcting schedule II prescriptions: DEA flip-flops continue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abood, Richard R

    2010-12-01

    The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) has in recent years engaged in flip-flopping over important policy decisions. The most recent example involved whether a pharmacist can correct a written schedule II prescription upon verification with the prescriber. For several years the DEA's policy permitted this practice. Then the DEA issued a conflicting policy statement in 2007 in the preamble to the multiple schedule II prescription regulation, causing a series of subsequent contradictory statements ending with the policy that pharmacists should follow state law or policy until the Agency issues a regulation. It is doubtful that the DEA's opinion in the preamble would in itself constitute legal authority, or that the Agency would try to enforce the opinion. Nonetheless, these flip-flop opinions have confused pharmacists, caused some pharmacies to have claims rejected by third party payors, and most likely have inconvenienced patients.

  20. Beneficiary price sensitivity in the Medicare prescription drug plan market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D

    2010-01-01

    The Medicare stand-alone prescription drug plan (PDP) came into existence in 2006 as part of the Medicare prescription drug benefit. It is the most popular plan type among Medicare drug plans and large numbers of plans are available to all beneficiaries. In this article we present the first analysis of beneficiary price sensitivity in the PDP market. Our estimate of elasticity of enrollment with respect to premium, -1.45, is larger in magnitude than has been found in the Medicare HMO market. This high degree of beneficiary price sensitivity for PDPs is consistent with relatively low product differentiation, low fixed costs of entry in the PDP market, and the fact that, in contrast to changing HMOs, beneficiaries can select a PDP without disrupting doctor-patient relationships.

  1. Concurrent new drug prescriptions and prognosis of early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre; Lash, Timothy L; Ahern, Thomas P

    2018-01-01

    Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) clinical database provides high-quality prospectively collected data on breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and routine follow-up for breast cancer recurrence. Individual-level linkage of DBCG data to other population-based and medical registries in Denmark, including......BACKGROUND: Myriad reports suggest that frequently used prescription drugs alter the viability of breast cancer cells in pre-clinical studies. Routine use of these drugs, therefore, may impact breast cancer prognosis, and could have important implications for public health. METHODS: The Danish...... the Danish National Prescription Registry, has facilitated large population-based pharmacoepidemiology studies. A unique advantage of using DBCG data for such studies is the ability to investigate the association of drugs with breast cancer recurrence rather than breast cancer mortality - which may...

  2. Abusive prescription of psychostimulants: a study of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélissier-Alicot, Anne-Laure; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Bartoli, Christophe; Kuhlmann, Erika; Coiffait, Philippe-Emmanuel; Sanvoisin, Alain; Giocanti, Dominique; Léonetti, Georges

    2006-03-01

    Because psychostimulants have serious possible side effects and particular potential for abuse, their therapeutic indications are today exclusively limited to disorders such as obesity, narcolepsy, or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We report two cases of abusive prescription of these drugs. The first concerns a woman who was treated for a 3 kg weight gain with fenproporex for 5 years and presented a withdrawal syndrome when this drug was no longer marketed in France. In the second case, a woman who complained of atypical sleep problems was prescribed modafinil, methylphenidate, clobazam, lormetazepam, meprobamate, and aceprometazine, and was found dead in her home a few weeks later in unexplained circumstances. For these two patients, neither the indications, nor the contraindications, nor the prescribing rules for these restricted drugs had been complied with. This case report highlights the extreme danger of these substances and stresses the importance of adhering to the rules of prescription.

  3. Prematurity and prescription asthma medication from childhood to young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anne Louise; Hansen, Bo Moelholm; Mathiasen, Rene

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preterm birth is associated with increased risk of asthma-like symptoms and purchase of prescription asthma medication in childhood. We investigated whether this association persists into adulthood and whether it is affected by accounting for neonatal respiratory morbidity (acute...... both in childhood and adolescence. CONCLUSION: There was a strong dose-response association between gestational age and the purchase of prescription asthma medication in infancy and childhood. This association weakened during adolescence and was mostly non-significant in young adulthood. The increased...... respiratory disease and bronchopulmonary dysplasia). METHODS: A national cohort of all infants born in Denmark in the period 1980-2009 was included in this register study. Data on purchase of asthma medication (combination of inhaled β-2 agonists and other drugs for obstructive airway disease) in 2010...

  4. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  5. Text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li-juan; Zhang, Xi-qun; Ma, Long-long; Wu, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Text extraction is an important initial step in digitizing the historical documents. In this paper, we present a text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections. The task of text extraction is considered as text area detection and location problem. The images are divided equally into blocks and the blocks are filtered by the information of the categories of connected components and corner point density. By analyzing the filtered blocks' projections, the approximate text areas can be located, and the text regions are extracted. Experiments on the dataset of historical Tibetan documents demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Information Extraction of High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Image Based on Multiresolution Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The principle of multiresolution segmentation was represented in detail in this study, and the canny algorithm was applied for edge-detection of a remotely sensed image based on this principle. The target image was divided into regions based on object-oriented multiresolution segmentation and edge-detection. Furthermore, object hierarchy was created, and a series of features (water bodies, vegetation, roads, residential areas, bare land and other information were extracted by the spectral and geometrical features. The results indicate that the edge-detection has a positive effect on multiresolution segmentation, and overall accuracy of information extraction reaches to 94.6% by the confusion matrix.

  7. Image-based Fuzzy Parking Control of a Car-like Mobile Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Yin Aye; Keigo Watanabe; Shoichi Maeyama; Isaku Nagai

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a novel automatic parking system using an image-based fuzzy controller, where in the reasoning the slope and intercept of the desired target line are used for the inputs, and the steering angle of the robot is generated for the output. The objective of this study is that a robot equipped with a camera detects a rectangular parking frame, which is drawn on the floor, based on image processing. The desired target line to be followed by the robot is generated by using Hough t...

  8. An image based information system - Architecture for correlating satellite and topological data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, N. A.; Zobrist, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an image based information system and its use to process a Landsat thematic map showing land use or land cover in conjunction with a census tract polygon file to produce a tabulation of land use acreages per census tract. The system permits the efficient cross-tabulation of two or more geo-coded data sets, thereby setting the stage for the practical implementation of models of diffusion processes or cellular transformation. Characteristics of geographic information systems are considered, and functional requirements, such as data management, geocoding, image data management, and data analysis are discussed. The system is described, and the potentialities of its use are examined.

  9. Multimodal Image-Based Virtual Reality Presurgical Simulation and Evaluation for Trigeminal Neuralgia and Hemifacial Spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shujing; Zhang, Jiashu; Zhao, Yining; Hou, Yuanzheng; Xu, Xinghua; Zhang, Zhizhong; Kikinis, Ron; Chen, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    To address the feasibility and predictive value of multimodal image-based virtual reality in detecting and assessing features of neurovascular confliction (NVC), particularly regarding the detection of offending vessels, degree of compression exerted on the nerve root, in patients who underwent microvascular decompression for nonlesional trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm (HFS). This prospective study includes 42 consecutive patients who underwent microvascular decompression for classic primary trigeminal neuralgia or HFS. All patients underwent preoperative 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with T2-weighted three-dimensional (3D) sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions, 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography, and 3D T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced sequences in combination, whereas 2 patients underwent extra experimental preoperative 7.0-T MRI scans with the same imaging protocol. Multimodal MRIs were then coregistered with open-source software 3D Slicer, followed by 3D image reconstruction to generate virtual reality (VR) images for detection of possible NVC in the cerebellopontine angle. Evaluations were performed by 2 reviewers and compared with the intraoperative findings. For detection of NVC, multimodal image-based VR sensitivity was 97.6% (40/41) and specificity was 100% (1/1). Compared with the intraoperative findings, the κ coefficients for predicting the offending vessel and the degree of compression were >0.75 (P < 0.001). The 7.0-T scans have a clearer view of vessels in the cerebellopontine angle, which may have significant impact on detection of small-caliber offending vessels with relatively slow flow speed in cases of HFS. Multimodal image-based VR using 3D sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions in combination with 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography sequences proved to be reliable in detecting NVC

  10. Deep Learning MR Imaging-based Attenuation Correction for PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Jang, Hyungseok; Kijowski, Richard; Bradshaw, Tyler; McMillan, Alan B

    2018-02-01

    Purpose To develop and evaluate the feasibility of deep learning approaches for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based attenuation correction (AC) (termed deep MRAC) in brain positron emission tomography (PET)/MR imaging. Materials and Methods A PET/MR imaging AC pipeline was built by using a deep learning approach to generate pseudo computed tomographic (CT) scans from MR images. A deep convolutional auto-encoder network was trained to identify air, bone, and soft tissue in volumetric head MR images coregistered to CT data for training. A set of 30 retrospective three-dimensional T1-weighted head images was used to train the model, which was then evaluated in 10 patients by comparing the generated pseudo CT scan to an acquired CT scan. A prospective study was carried out for utilizing simultaneous PET/MR imaging for five subjects by using the proposed approach. Analysis of covariance and paired-sample t tests were used for statistical analysis to compare PET reconstruction error with deep MRAC and two existing MR imaging-based AC approaches with CT-based AC. Results Deep MRAC provides an accurate pseudo CT scan with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.971 ± 0.005 for air, 0.936 ± 0.011 for soft tissue, and 0.803 ± 0.021 for bone. Furthermore, deep MRAC provides good PET results, with average errors of less than 1% in most brain regions. Significantly lower PET reconstruction errors were realized with deep MRAC (-0.7% ± 1.1) compared with Dixon-based soft-tissue and air segmentation (-5.8% ± 3.1) and anatomic CT-based template registration (-4.8% ± 2.2). Conclusion The authors developed an automated approach that allows generation of discrete-valued pseudo CT scans (soft tissue, bone, and air) from a single high-spatial-resolution diagnostic-quality three-dimensional MR image and evaluated it in brain PET/MR imaging. This deep learning approach for MR imaging-based AC provided reduced PET reconstruction error relative to a CT-based standard within the brain compared

  11. An image-based automatic recognition method for the flowering stage of maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenghong; Zhou, Huabing; Li, Cuina

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed an image-based approach for automatic recognizing the flowering stage of maize. A modified HOG/SVM detection framework is first adopted to detect the ears of maize. Then, we use low-rank matrix recovery technology to precisely extract the ears at pixel level. At last, a new feature called color gradient histogram, as an indicator, is proposed to determine the flowering stage. Comparing experiment has been carried out to testify the validity of our method and the results indicate that our method can meet the demand for practical observation.

  12. Concurrent image-based visual servoing with adaptive zooming for non-cooperative rendezvous maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomares, Jorge; Felicetti, Leonard; Pérez, Javier; Emami, M. Reza

    2018-02-01

    An image-based servo controller for the guidance of a spacecraft during non-cooperative rendezvous is presented in this paper. The controller directly utilizes the visual features from image frames of a target spacecraft for computing both attitude and orbital maneuvers concurrently. The utilization of adaptive optics, such as zooming cameras, is also addressed through developing an invariant-image servo controller. The controller allows for performing rendezvous maneuvers independently from the adjustments of the camera focal length, improving the performance and versatility of maneuvers. The stability of the proposed control scheme is proven analytically in the invariant space, and its viability is explored through numerical simulations.

  13. Documenting Bronze Age Akrotiri on Thera Using Laser Scanning, Image-Based Modelling and Geophysical Prospection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, I.; Wallner, M.; Kucera, M.; Verhoeven, G.; Torrejón Valdelomar, J.; Löcker, K.; Nau, E.; Sevara, C.; Aldrian, L.; Neubauer, E.; Klein, M.

    2017-02-01

    The excavated architecture of the exceptional prehistoric site of Akrotiri on the Greek island of Thera/Santorini is endangered by gradual decay, damage due to accidents, and seismic shocks, being located on an active volcano in an earthquake-prone area. Therefore, in 2013 and 2014 a digital documentation project has been conducted with support of the National Geographic Society in order to generate a detailed digital model of Akrotiri's architecture using terrestrial laser scanning and image-based modeling. Additionally, non-invasive geophysical prospection has been tested in order to investigate its potential to explore and map yet buried archaeological remains. This article describes the project and the generated results.

  14. Angle-independent measure of motion for image-based gating in 3D coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, Glen C.; Holdsworth, David W.; Drangova, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The role of three-dimensional (3D) image guidance for interventional procedures and minimally invasive surgeries is increasing for the treatment of vascular disease. Currently, most interventional procedures are guided by two-dimensional x-ray angiography, but computed rotational angiography has the potential to provide 3D geometric information about the coronary arteries. The creation of 3D angiographic images of the coronary arteries requires synchronization of data acquisition with respect to the cardiac cycle, in order to minimize motion artifacts. This can be achieved by inferring the extent of motion from a patient's electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. However, a direct measurement of motion (from the 2D angiograms) has the potential to improve the 3D angiographic images by ensuring that only projections acquired during periods of minimal motion are included in the reconstruction. This paper presents an image-based metric for measuring the extent of motion in 2D x-ray angiographic images. Adaptive histogram equalization was applied to projection images to increase the sharpness of coronary arteries and the superior-inferior component of the weighted centroid (SIC) was measured. The SIC constitutes an image-based metric that can be used to track vessel motion, independent of apparent motion induced by the rotational acquisition. To evaluate the technique, six consecutive patients scheduled for routine coronary angiography procedures were studied. We compared the end of the SIC rest period (ρ) to R-waves (R) detected in the patient's ECG and found a mean difference of 14±80 ms. Two simultaneous angular positions were acquired and ρ was detected for each position. There was no statistically significant difference (P=0.79) between ρ in the two simultaneously acquired angular positions. Thus we have shown the SIC to be independent of view angle, which is critical for rotational angiography. A preliminary image-based gating strategy that employed the SIC was

  15. Are Prescription Opioids Driving the Opioid Crisis? Assumptions vs Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mark Edmund

    2018-04-01

    Sharp increases in opioid prescriptions, and associated increases in overdose deaths in the 2000s, evoked widespread calls to change perceptions of opioid analgesics. Medical literature discussions of opioid analgesics began emphasizing patient and public health hazards. Repetitive exposure to this information may influence physician assumptions. While highly consequential to patients with pain whose function and quality of life may benefit from opioid analgesics, current assumptions about prescription opioid analgesics, including their role in the ongoing opioid overdose epidemic, have not been scrutinized. Information was obtained by searching PubMed, governmental agency websites, and conference proceedings. Opioid analgesic prescribing and associated overdose deaths both peaked around 2011 and are in long-term decline; the sharp overdose increase recorded in 2014 was driven by illicit fentanyl and heroin. Nonmethadone prescription opioid analgesic deaths, in the absence of co-ingested benzodiazepines, alcohol, or other central nervous system/respiratory depressants, are infrequent. Within five years of initial prescription opioid misuse, 3.6% initiate heroin use. The United States consumes 80% of the world opioid supply, but opioid access is nonexistent for 80% and severely restricted for 4.1% of the global population. Many current assumptions about opioid analgesics are ill-founded. Illicit fentanyl and heroin, not opioid prescribing, now fuel the current opioid overdose epidemic. National discussion has often neglected the potentially devastating effects of uncontrolled chronic pain. Opioid analgesic prescribing and related overdoses are in decline, at great cost to patients with pain who have benefited or may benefit from, but cannot access, opioid analgesic therapy.

  16. Prescription opioid abuse, pain and addiction: clinical issues and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Walter; Mooney, Larissa; Hillhouse, Maureen

    2011-05-01

    Prescription opioid misuse in the USA has increased over threefold since 1990 to epidemic proportions, with substantial increases in prescription opioid use also reported in other countries, such as Australia and New Zealand. The broad availability of prescription pain medications, coupled with public misconceptions about their safety and addictive potential, have contributed to the recent surge in non-medical use of prescription opioids and corresponding increases in treatment admissions for problems related to opioid misuse. Given competing pressures faced by physicians to both diagnose and treat pain syndromes and identify individuals at risk for addictive disorders, the use of opioids in the treatment of pain poses a significant clinical challenge. This paper reviews the interaction between pain and opioid addiction with a focus on clinical management issues, including risk factors for opioid dependence in patients with chronic pain and the use of assessment tools to identify and monitor at-risk individuals. Treatment options for opioid dependence and pain are reviewed, including the use of the partial µ agonist buprenorphine in the management of concurrent pain and opioid addiction. Physicians should strive to find a reasonable balance between minimising potential adverse effects of opioid medications without diminishing legitimate access to opioids for analgesia. The article discusses the need to identify methods for minimising risks and negative consequences associated with opioid analgesics and poses research directions, including the development of abuse-deterrent opioid formulations, genetic risk factors for opioid dependence and opioid-induced hyperalgesia as a potential target for medication therapy. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Vision Assessment and Prescription of Low Vision Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Keeffe, Jill

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of vision and prescription of low vision devices are part of a comprehensive low vision service. Other components of the service include training the person affected by low vision in use of vision and other senses, mobility, activities of daily living, and support for education, employment or leisure activities. Specialist vision rehabilitation agencies have services to provide access to information (libraries) and activity centres for groups of people with impaired vision.

  18. User-oriented Understanding of Descriptive, Proscriptive and Prescriptive Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning

    2003-01-01

    There is much uncertainty and confusion as to the real differences between prescrip-tive and descriptive dictionaries. In general, the majority of existing accounts can be summarised as follows: Descriptive relates to the empirical basis; accordance between the empirical data and the dictionary...... consistent terminology is suggested which allows for both the function of the dictionary and the relation of the dictionary to the empirical basis....

  19. Analysis and Application of Antagonism Compound Prescription Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyan; Wang, Can; Bai, Ming; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Deer horn glue is deer family animals deer or red deer horn made of solid plastic animal medicine, according to Chinese medicine “seven emotions together” theory, the antler and other Chinese herbal medicines compatibility can be better play its Medicinal value. In this paper, the chemical composition, pharmacological effects, compatibility analysis, clinical application and classic ancient prescriptions of antler are reviewed in recent years.

  20. Potentially inappropriate prescriptions in patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soerensen, Ann Lykkegaard; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Poulsen, Birgitte Klindt

    2016-01-01

    university hospital during a 3-month period (September 2013–November 2013). Patients medication lists (n = 207) were reviewed at the time of admission and all identified PIPs were assessed for potential consequences by clinical pharmacologists. Results There were 349 PIP identified in 1291 prescriptions...... with the probability of PIP. Improving the quality of prescribing might benefit from an interprofessional approach and thus better training of physicians and nurses is needed in order to minimize PIP....

  1. Intravenous fluid prescription practices among pediatric residents in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jiwon M.; Jung, Younghwa; Lee, Se Eun; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Kee Hyuck; Koo, Ja Wook; Park, Young Seo; Cheong, Hae Il; Ha, Il-Soo; Choi, Yong; Kang, Hee Gyung

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have established the association between hypotonic fluids administration and hospital-acquired hyponatremia in children, and have contended that hypotonic fluids be removed from routine practice. To assess current intravenous fluid prescription practices among Korean pediatric residents and to call for updated clinical-practice education Methods: A survey-based analysis was carried out. Pediatric residents at six university hospitals in Korea completed a survey consist...

  2. General sale of non-prescription medicinal products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Johanna Lena Maria; Schafheutle, Ellen; Hägg, Annika Nordén

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of non-prescription medicines (NPMs) available for self-medication is increasing within the European Union (EU). This can enhance the autonomy of individuals but is also connected with risks. Under an existing EU Directive, Sweden has only recently deregulated and made NPMs...... market. There is a difference in the balance between confidence and control, as well as availability and safety when it comes to NPMs in non-pharmacy settings that needs to be further discussed....

  3. Residents' numeric inputting error in computerized physician order entry prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Wu, Changxu; Zhang, Kan; Wei, Dong

    2016-04-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system with embedded clinical decision support (CDS) can significantly reduce certain types of prescription error. However, prescription errors still occur. Various factors such as the numeric inputting methods in human computer interaction (HCI) produce different error rates and types, but has received relatively little attention. This study aimed to examine the effects of numeric inputting methods and urgency levels on numeric inputting errors of prescription, as well as categorize the types of errors. Thirty residents participated in four prescribing tasks in which two factors were manipulated: numeric inputting methods (numeric row in the main keyboard vs. numeric keypad) and urgency levels (urgent situation vs. non-urgent situation). Multiple aspects of participants' prescribing behavior were measured in sober prescribing situations. The results revealed that in urgent situations, participants were prone to make mistakes when using the numeric row in the main keyboard. With control of performance in the sober prescribing situation, the effects of the input methods disappeared, and urgency was found to play a significant role in the generalized linear model. Most errors were either omission or substitution types, but the proportion of transposition and intrusion error types were significantly higher than that of the previous research. Among numbers 3, 8, and 9, which were the less common digits used in prescription, the error rate was higher, which was a great risk to patient safety. Urgency played a more important role in CPOE numeric typing error-making than typing skills and typing habits. It was recommended that inputting with the numeric keypad had lower error rates in urgent situation. An alternative design could consider increasing the sensitivity of the keys with lower frequency of occurrence and decimals. To improve the usability of CPOE, numeric keyboard design and error detection could benefit from spatial

  4. Vital Signs – Prescription Painkiller Overdoses

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-07-02

    This podcast is based on the July 2013 CDC Vital Signs report. Prescription painkiller overdoses are an under-recognized and growing problem among women. This program includes things that women and health care providers can do to reduce the risk of overdose.  Created: 7/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/2/2013.

  5. Prescription Pattern at a Secondary Health Care Facility in Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    anxiolytics (7.4%). Sixty-seven (30.9%) of these other drugs were prescribed in generic names. Out of a total of 1219 drugs prescribed. (Table 1), 511 (46.2%) were prescribed in generic names. Out of the 303 prescriptions 124 (40.9%) had all the drugs prescribed available, 178 (59.1%) had at least one drug not available, ...

  6. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students' Poor Performance in Prescription Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Henry; Al Khaja, Khalid A J; Tayem, Yasin I; Veeramuthu, Sindhan; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE) and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU) in Manama, Bahrain. This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%). The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%), treatment duration (69.4%), drug quantity (69.4%) and drug formulation (68.2%). Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%). During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%), lack of interest (50.3%), reliance on peers for information (48.4%) and optional attendance policies (47.1%). Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  7. Understanding Preclerkship Medical Students’ Poor Performance in Prescription Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry James

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to explore reasons for poor performance in prescription writing stations of the objective structured practical examination (OSPE and absenteeism in prescription writing sessions among preclerkship medical students at the Arabian Gulf University (AGU in Manama, Bahrain. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out between September 2014 and June 2015 among 157 preclerkship medical students at AGU. Data were collected using focus group discussions and a questionnaire with closed- and open-ended items. Results: All 157 students participated in the study (response rate: 100.0%. The most frequently cited reasons for poor performance in OSPE stations were an inability to select the correct drugs (79.6%, treatment duration (69.4%, drug quantity (69.4% and drug formulation (68.2%. Additionally, students reported inadequate time for completing the stations (68.8%. During focus group discussions, students reported other reasons for poor performance, including examination stress and the difficulty of the stations. Absenteeism was attributed to the length of each session (55.4%, lack of interest (50.3%, reliance on peers for information (48.4% and optional attendance policies (47.1%. Repetitive material, large group sessions, unmet student expectations and the proximity of the sessions to summative examinations were also indicated to contribute to absenteeism according to open-ended responses or focus group discussions. Conclusion: This study suggests that AGU medical students perform poorly in prescription writing OSPE stations because of inadequate clinical pharmacology knowledge. Participation in prescription writing sessions needs to be enhanced by addressing the concerns identified in this study. Strategies to improve attendance and performance should take into account the learner-teacher relationship.

  8. Trends in Non-prescription Drug Recalls in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Chikoto; Ishida, Takuya; Osawa, Takashi; Naito, Takafumi; Kawakami, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    Recalls of non-prescription drugs can contribute to preventing harm to human health, however, they also interrupt the supply of medicines to the market. The aim of the present study was to investigate the trends in non-prescription drug recalls in Japan. Class I, II, and III recalls reported from April 2009 to March 2014 were obtained from the websites of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare and the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency. Each drug recall was classified according to year, dosage form, therapeutic category, and reasons for the recall. The trends over the 5 year period were assessed for each class. A total of 220 recalls were reported in the 5-year study period. The numbers of drug recalls were 21, 16, 80, 58, and 45 in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. The drugs recalled consisted of 177 internal medications, 35 topical agents, and 8 others. Drug recalls were observed in 12 therapeutic categories of drug effects. The largest number of recalls was for Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs. Of all the drug recalls in 2011, Chinese herbal medicines and crude drugs produced by one manufacturer accounted for 84%. Slightly more than half (54%) of drug recalls were due to a violation of the regulations. One manufacturer recalled many drugs because of non-compliance with the standard regulations for manufacturing drugs after 2011. In conclusion, non-prescription drug recalls can occur for any drug regardless of the dosage form and therapeutic category.

  9. [Prevalence of potentially inappropriate drug prescription in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajreldines, A; Insua, J; Schnitzler, E

    2016-01-01

    One of the causes of preventable adverse drug events (ADES) in older patients constitutes inappropriate prescription of drugs (PIM). The PIM is where risks exceed the clinical benefit. Several instruments can be use to measure this problem, the most used are: a) Beers criteria; b) Screening tool to Older People Potentially inappropriate Prescription (STOPP); c) Screening tool to Alert Doctors to Right Appropriate indicated Treatments (START); d) The Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI). This study aims to assess the prevalence of PIM, in a population of older adults in three clinical scopes of university hospital. cross sectional study of 300 cases from a random sample of fields: hospitalization (n=100), ambulatory (n=100) and emergency (n=100), all patients over 65 years old or more who where treated at our hospital. 1355 prescription drugs were analized, finding patients hospitalized (PIM) of 57.7%, 55%, 26%, and 80% according to Beers, in ambulatory 36%, 36.5%, 5% and 52% with the same tools and in emergency 35%, 35%, 6% y 52% with the same tools. Was found significant association the PIM with polipharmacy with Beers, STOPP and MAI. results can be compare to world literature (26-80% vs 11-73.1%). The STOPP-START used in an integrated manner would be best estimating the problem of PIM. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Therapeutic efficacy of different Hemodialysis prescriptions in canine azotemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Atul Thakkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to determine therapeutic efficacy of different Hemodialysis prescriptions in canine azotemia. Materials and Methods: Patients (n=9 with acute onset of renal dysfunction or chronic patients with superimposed acute factor (component or patients with known chronic nature of the disease were dialyzed with Fresenius 4008S hemodialysis machine after jugular catheterization. Patients were randomly divided into two groups, one group (n=3 was dialyzed every day and second (n=4 was dialyzed on alternate days. The patients were evaluated for following parameters to compare the efficacy of the dialysis prescription: Urea reduction ratio (URR, creatinine reduction ratio (CRR, Kt/V, time averaged concentration of urea (TAC urea. Result and Discussion: Increasing both dialysis frequency and duration is the superior dialysis schedule. Patient dialyzed every day with total processed blood volume 1.79 L/Kg for 4 h 26 min/session had the lowest TAC of 36.82 mg/dl, thereby was considered it as a better prescription.

  11. Antipsychotic Prescriptions for Children Aged 5 Years or Younger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lòpez-De Fede

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotics in very young children is of concern given the lack of empirical evidence in their efficacy and long-term impact on children’s health. This study examined the prescription of antipsychotics among children aged ≤5 years enrolled in a state Medicaid program. Secondary data analysis was conducted using the Medicaid administrative data of a southeastern state. Using SAS 9.3, descriptive statistics were performed to examine socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric diagnoses, off-label use, receipt of medications from multiple psychotropic drug classes, and receipt of non-pharmacologic psychiatric services among children aged ≤5 years who received antipsychotic prescriptions in calendar year (CY 2011. A total of 112 children in the target age group received antipsychotics in CY 2011, the most common prescription being risperidone. The most common listed psychiatric diagnosis was attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Two in five children received antipsychotics for off-label use. Three in four children also received medications from at least one other psychotropic drug class. More than half did not receive adjunct psychiatric services. State-level policies offering specific guidance and recommendations for antipsychotic use among very young children are urgently needed. Future research is warranted to examine long-term impact of such practices on children’s growth and development.

  12. Nurses' reported influence on the prescription and use of medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutel, A; Menkes, D B

    2010-03-01

    To identify the activities senior nurses report undertaking that may influence the prescription and use of medicines. While much attention has focused on the role of nurse prescribing, little is known about the extent to which non-prescribing nurses influence medication decision making. The pharmaceutical industry recognizes this influence in its marketing strategies, and courts nurses by provision of promotional material and sponsorship of nursing professional development. We undertook parallel web- and paper-based surveys of 100 senior registered nurses employed by government-funded health boards in two distinct New Zealand regions. Only 2/96 (2%) of nurses had prescribing rights, yet 74/94 (79%) reported recommending treatments to the prescribing doctor, 74/95 (79%) stated they provided advice to patients about over-the-counter medications and 71/92 (77%) participated in the development of guidelines or policies that include the use of medications. All nurses in this sample reported influencing the prescription of medicines in one way or another. From actually writing prescriptions to providing feedback on treatment outcomes, there are many opportunities for nurses to influence the decision making of medical and other prescribers, which open nurses to exploitation from commercial forces. Policy and education regarding prescriber relationships with the pharmaceutical industry should also recognize the role of non-prescribing nurses.

  13. State-of-the-Art Prescriptive Criteria Weight Elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Riabacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparatively few of the vast amounts of decision analytical methods suggested have been widely spread in actual practice. Some approaches have nevertheless been more successful in this respect than others. Quantitative decision making has moved from the study of decision theory founded on a single criterion towards decision support for more realistic decision-making situations with multiple, often conflicting, criteria. Furthermore, the identified gap between normative and descriptive theories seems to suggest a shift to more prescriptive approaches. However, when decision analysis applications are used to aid prescriptive decision-making processes, additional demands are put on these applications to adapt to the users and the context. In particular, the issue of weight elicitation is crucial. There are several techniques for deriving criteria weights from preference statements. This is a cognitively demanding task, subject to different biases, and the elicited values can be heavily dependent on the method of assessment. There have been a number of methods suggested for assessing criteria weights, but these methods have properties which impact their applicability in practice. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art weight elicitation methods in a prescriptive setting.

  14. Medical prescription adherence among patient visiting gynecology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, M.; Arshad, H.; Tabassum, H.; Khan, N. U. S.; Qamar, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the level of Medical prescription adherence among gynecological patients of Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Punjab province and data were collected from June 2015 to April 2016. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in main cities of Punjab province of Pakistan; Lahore, Gujranwala, Faisalabad and Sheikhupura. The survey data was collected from different location of cities. Patients visiting the gynecological and going to chemists for getting the prescribed medicine were selected through probability based random sampling for this study. The questionnaire consisted on the extent to which they adhere to time, dose, frequency and procedure prescribed from their doctors. The questions were asked in native language (Urdu). The data analysis was performed by using SPSS software (Ver.21). Results: Results of this study, based on sample from four big cities of Punjab province of Pakistan, showed that the level of medical prescription was associated with the age, qualification and background of the patients. Adherence level of patients reporting with rural background was observed higher than the adherence level of patients from urban areas. Conclusion: Over all the patient require counseling regarding adherence to medical prescription irrespective of the nature of the disease. (author)

  15. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-03-21

    National Tuberculosis Program, Viet Nam, 2008. To determine drug prescription adherence to national guidelines, to examine factors associated with an erroneous dosage of rifampin (RMP) and to evaluate the impact of an insufficient RMP dosage on treatment outcome. A representative sample of 30 treatment units was randomly selected. All patient treatment cards enrolled in these units were obtained, and data were double-entered and validated before calculating the adequacy of the individual drug prescriptions. Of 3412 tuberculosis treatment cards, 3225 (94.5%) had information on treatment regimen and the patient's weight. Treatment was successful in 89.4%. Prescriptions of tablets/vials conforming to recommendations were found for respectively 91.2%, 89.9%, 92.3% and 94.6% of the patients for RMP/isoniazid, pyrazinamide, ethambutol and streptomycin. Patients in the 25-39 kg weight bracket received insufficient dosages. This was almost entirely attributable to patients at the end of the weight bracket. Nevertheless, no significant association was found between treatment failure and death, body weight and insufficient RMP dosage. Adherence to national recommendations was high. RMP was given in insufficient dosage for patients at the end of a weight range bracket, but the under-dosage was small and did not measurably affect treatment outcome.

  16. Are prescription drug insurance choices consistent with expected utility theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundorf, M Kate; Mata, Rui; Schoenbaum, Michael; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2013-09-01

    To determine the extent to which people make choices inconsistent with expected utility theory when choosing among prescription drug insurance plans and whether tabular or graphical presentation format influences the consistency of their choices. Members of an Internet-enabled panel chose between two Medicare prescription drug plans. The "low variance" plan required higher out-of-pocket payments for the drugs respondents usually took but lower out-of-pocket payments for the drugs they might need if they developed a new health condition than the "high variance" plan. The probability of a change in health varied within subjects and the presentation format (text vs. graphical) and the affective salience of the clinical condition (abstract vs. risk related to specific clinical condition) varied between subjects. Respondents were classified based on whether they consistently chose either the low or high variance plan. Logistic regression models were estimated to examine the relationship between decision outcomes and task characteristics. The majority of respondents consistently chose either the low or high variance plan, consistent with expected utility theory. Half of respondents consistently chose the low variance plan. Respondents were less likely to make discrepant choices when information was presented in graphical format. Many people, although not all, make choices consistent with expected utility theory when they have information on differences among plans in the variance of out-of-pocket spending. Medicare beneficiaries would benefit from information on the extent to which prescription drug plans provide risk protection. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Deeply discounted medications: Implications of generic prescription drug wars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Jessica L; Tjia, Jennifer; Triller, Darren M

    2010-01-01

    To describe the history of generic prescription pricing programs at major pharmacy chains and their potential implications on prescribing, quality of care, and patient safety. Publicly available generic prescription discount program drug lists as of May 1, 2009. Fierce competition among major pharmacy chains such as Walgreens, CVS, and Walmart has led to a generic prescription pricing war with unclear public health implications. Introduced in 2006, currently 7 of the 10 largest pharmacy chains advertise a version of a deeply discounted medication (DDM) program, accounting for more than 25,000 locations nationally. By early 2008, almost 70 million Americans had used these programs. Although DDM programs lower drug costs for many patients, DDM formularies include potentially ineffective or harmful medications, have the potential to influence physician prescribing behavior, and may impair pharmacists' ability to review complete drug-dispensing records. DDMs are widespread but have the potential for unintended consequences on patients, providers, and the health care system. A systematic review of DDMs needs to evaluate the clinical, economic, and system-level implications of such programs.

  18. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Harris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Methods: Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study (N = 846 of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. Results: While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Conclusion: Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  19. Prescription Drug Diversion: Predictors of Illicit Acquisition and Redistribution in Three U.S. Metropolitan Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shana; Nikulina, Valentina; Gelpí-Acosta, Camila; Morton, Cory; Newsome, Valerie; Gunn, Alana; Hoefinger, Heidi; Aikins, Ross; Smith, Vivian; Barry, Victoria; Downing, Martin J

    2015-12-02

    Prescription drug diversion, the transfer of prescription drugs from lawful to unlawful channels for distribution or use, is a problem in the United States. Despite the pervasiveness of diversion, there are gaps in the literature regarding characteristics of individuals who participate in the illicit trade of prescription drugs. This study examines a range of predictors (e.g., demographics, prescription insurance coverage, perceived risk associated with prescription drug diversion) of membership in three distinct diverter groups: individuals who illicitly acquire prescription drugs, those who redistribute them, and those who engage in both behaviors. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional Internet study ( N = 846) of prescription drug use and diversion patterns in New York City, South Florida, and Washington, D.C.. Participants were classified into diversion categories based on their self-reported involvement in the trade of prescription drugs. Group differences in background characteristics of diverter groups were assessed by Chi-Square tests and followed up with multivariate logistic regressions. While individuals in all diversion groups were more likely to be younger and have a licit prescription for any of the assessed drugs in the past year than those who did not divert, individuals who both acquire and redistribute are more likely to live in New York City, not have prescription insurance coverage, and perceive fewer legal risks of prescription drug diversion. Findings suggest that predictive characteristics vary according to diverter group.

  20. Social network analysis of duplicative prescriptions: One-month analysis of medical facilities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Nakayama, Takeo; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    Duplicative prescriptions refer to situations in which patients receive medications for the same condition from two or more sources. Health officials in Japan have expressed concern about medical "waste" resulting from this practices. We sought to conduct descriptive analysis of duplicative prescriptions using social network analysis and to report their prevalence across ages. We analyzed a health insurance claims database including 1.24 million people from December 2012. Through social network analysis, we examined the duplicative prescription networks, representing each medical facility as nodes, and individual prescriptions for patients as edges. The prevalence of duplicative prescription for any drug class was strongly correlated with its frequency of prescription (r=0.90). Among patients aged 0-19, cough and colds drugs showed the highest prevalence of duplicative prescriptions (10.8%). Among people aged 65 and over, antihypertensive drugs had the highest frequency of prescriptions, but the prevalence of duplicative prescriptions was low (0.2-0.3%). Social network analysis revealed clusters of facilities connected via duplicative prescriptions, e.g., psychotropic drugs showed clustering due to a few patients receiving drugs from 10 or more facilities. Overall, the prevalence of duplicative prescriptions was quite low - less than 10% - although the extent of the problem varied by drug class and age group. Our approach illustrates the potential utility of using a social network approach to understand these practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  2. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  3. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  4. Imaging based agglutination measurement of magnetic micro-particles on a lab-on-a-disk platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wantiya, P.; Burger, Robert; Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a magnetic micro beads based agglutination assay on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. An imaging based method is used to quantify bead agglutination and measure the concentration of antibodies or C-reactive protein in solution.......In this work we present a magnetic micro beads based agglutination assay on a centrifugal microfluidic platform. An imaging based method is used to quantify bead agglutination and measure the concentration of antibodies or C-reactive protein in solution....

  5. Impact of Internally Developed Electronic Prescription on Prescribing Errors at Discharge from the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Eveline; Tamim, Hani; Bakhti, Rinad; Zebian, Dina; Mufarrij, Afif

    2017-08-01

    Medication errors are common, with studies reporting at least one error per patient encounter. At hospital discharge, medication errors vary from 15%-38%. However, studies assessing the effect of an internally developed electronic (E)-prescription system at discharge from an emergency department (ED) are comparatively minimal. Additionally, commercially available electronic solutions are cost-prohibitive in many resource-limited settings. We assessed the impact of introducing an internally developed, low-cost E-prescription system, with a list of commonly prescribed medications, on prescription error rates at discharge from the ED, compared to handwritten prescriptions. We conducted a pre- and post-intervention study comparing error rates in a randomly selected sample of discharge prescriptions (handwritten versus electronic) five months pre and four months post the introduction of the E-prescription. The internally developed, E-prescription system included a list of 166 commonly prescribed medications with the generic name, strength, dose, frequency and duration. We included a total of 2,883 prescriptions in this study: 1,475 in the pre-intervention phase were handwritten (HW) and 1,408 in the post-intervention phase were electronic. We calculated rates of 14 different errors and compared them between the pre- and post-intervention period. Overall, E-prescriptions included fewer prescription errors as compared to HW-prescriptions. Specifically, E-prescriptions reduced missing dose (11.3% to 4.3%, p prescriptions, however, were associated with a significant increase in duplication errors, specifically with home medication (1.7% to 3%, p=0.02). A basic, internally developed E-prescription system, featuring commonly used medications, effectively reduced medication errors in a low-resource setting where the costs of sophisticated commercial electronic solutions are prohibitive.

  6. An Open Source Low-Cost Automatic System for Image-Based 3d Digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menna, F.; Nocerino, E.; Morabito, D.; Farella, E. M.; Perini, M.; Remondino, F.

    2017-11-01

    3D digitization of heritage artefacts, reverse engineering of industrial components or rapid prototyping-driven design are key topics today. Indeed, millions of archaeological finds all over the world need to be surveyed in 3D either to allow convenient investigations by researchers or because they are inaccessible to visitors and scientists or, unfortunately, because they are seriously endangered by wars and terrorist attacks. On the other hand, in case of industrial and design components there is often the need of deformation analyses or physical replicas starting from reality-based 3D digitisations. The paper is aligned with these needs and presents the realization of the ORION (arduinO Raspberry pI rOtating table for image based 3D recostructioN) prototype system, with its hardware and software components, providing critical insights about its modular design. ORION is an image-based 3D reconstruction system based on automated photogrammetric acquisitions and processing. The system is being developed under a collaborative educational project between FBK Trento, the University of Trento and internship programs with high school in the Trentino province (Italy).

  7. Imaging-based surrogate markers of transcriptome subclasses and signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taouli, Bachir; Hoshida, Yujin; Chen, Xintong; Sun, Xiaochen; Kojima, Kensuke; Toffanin, Sara; Hirschfield, Hadassa; Kakite, Suguru; Tan, Poh Seng; Kihira, Shingo; Fiel, M.I.; Wagner, Mathilde; Llovet, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, we examined whether imaging-based phenotypes are associated with reported predictive gene signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-eight patients (M/F 30/8, mean age 61 years) who underwent pre-operative CT or MR imaging before surgery as well as transcriptome profiling were included in this IRB-approved single-centre retrospective study. Eleven qualitative and four quantitative imaging traits (size, enhancement ratios, wash-out ratio, tumour-to-liver contrast ratios) were assessed by three observers and were correlated with 13 previously reported HCC gene signatures using logistic regression analysis. Thirty-nine HCC tumours (mean size 5.7 ± 3.2 cm) were assessed. Significant positive associations were observed between certain imaging traits and gene signatures of aggressive HCC phenotype (G3-Boyault, Proliferation-Chiang profiles, CK19-Villanueva, S1/S2-Hoshida) with odds ratios ranging from 4.44-12.73 (P <0.045). Infiltrative pattern at imaging was significantly associated with signatures of microvascular invasion and aggressive phenotype. Significant but weak associations were also observed between each enhancement ratio and tumour-to-liver contrast ratios and certain gene expression profiles. This preliminary study demonstrates a correlation between phenotypic imaging traits with gene signatures of aggressive HCC, which warrants further prospective validation to establish imaging-based surrogate markers of molecular phenotypes in HCC. (orig.)

  8. Efficacy of a brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werch, Chudley E; Moore, Michele J; Bian, Hui; DiClemente, Carlo C; Ames, Steven C; Weiler, Robert M; Thombs, Dennis; Pokorny, Steven B; Huang, I-Chan

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologic data indicate most adolescents and adults experience multiple, simultaneous risk behaviors. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of a brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention (MBI) for college students. A total of 303 college students were randomly assigned to: (1) a brief MBI or (2) a standard care control, with a 3-month postintervention follow-up. Omnibus treatment by time multivariate analysis of variance interactions were significant for three of six behavior groupings, with improvements for college students receiving the brief MBI on alcohol consumption behaviors, F(6, 261) = 2.73, p = 0.01, marijuana-use behaviors, F(4, 278) = 3.18, p = 0.01, and health-related quality of life, F(5, 277) = 2.80, p = 0.02, but not cigarette use, exercise, and nutrition behaviors. Participants receiving the brief MBI also got more sleep, F(1, 281) = 9.49, p = 0.00, than those in the standard care control. A brief image-based multiple-behavior intervention may be useful in influencing a number of critical health habits and health-related quality-of-life indicators of college students.

  9. Imaging-based surrogate markers of transcriptome subclasses and signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma. Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taouli, Bachir [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Hoshida, Yujin; Chen, Xintong; Sun, Xiaochen; Kojima, Kensuke; Toffanin, Sara; Hirschfield, Hadassa [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Kakite, Suguru [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago City (Japan); Tan, Poh Seng [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); National University Health System, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medicine Cluster, Singapore (Singapore); Kihira, Shingo [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fiel, M.I. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Department of Pathology, New York, NY (United States); Wagner, Mathilde [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, New York, NY (United States); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC, Department of Radiology, Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Llovet, Josep M. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Liver Cancer Program, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY (United States); Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Division of Liver Diseases, Department of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Universitat de Barcelona, HCC Translational Research Laboratory, Barcelona-Clinic Liver Cancer Group Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-11-15

    In this preliminary study, we examined whether imaging-based phenotypes are associated with reported predictive gene signatures in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Thirty-eight patients (M/F 30/8, mean age 61 years) who underwent pre-operative CT or MR imaging before surgery as well as transcriptome profiling were included in this IRB-approved single-centre retrospective study. Eleven qualitative and four quantitative imaging traits (size, enhancement ratios, wash-out ratio, tumour-to-liver contrast ratios) were assessed by three observers and were correlated with 13 previously reported HCC gene signatures using logistic regression analysis. Thirty-nine HCC tumours (mean size 5.7 ± 3.2 cm) were assessed. Significant positive associations were observed between certain imaging traits and gene signatures of aggressive HCC phenotype (G3-Boyault, Proliferation-Chiang profiles, CK19-Villanueva, S1/S2-Hoshida) with odds ratios ranging from 4.44-12.73 (P <0.045). Infiltrative pattern at imaging was significantly associated with signatures of microvascular invasion and aggressive phenotype. Significant but weak associations were also observed between each enhancement ratio and tumour-to-liver contrast ratios and certain gene expression profiles. This preliminary study demonstrates a correlation between phenotypic imaging traits with gene signatures of aggressive HCC, which warrants further prospective validation to establish imaging-based surrogate markers of molecular phenotypes in HCC. (orig.)

  10. Three-dimensional digital imaging based on shifted point-array encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jindong; Peng, Xiang

    2005-09-10

    An approach to three-dimensional (3D) imaging based on shifted point-array encoding is presented. A kind of point-array structure light is projected sequentially onto the reference plane and onto the object surface to be tested and thus forms a pair of point-array images. A mathematical model is established to formulize the imaging process with the pair of point arrays. This formulation allows for a description of the relationship between the range image of the object surface and the lateral displacement of each point in the point-array image. Based on this model, one can reconstruct each 3D range image point by computing the lateral displacement of the corresponding point on the two point-array images. The encoded point array can be shifted digitally along both the lateral and the longitudinal directions step by step to achieve high spatial resolution. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. This method is applicable for implementing 3D imaging of object surfaces with complex topology or large height discontinuities.

  11. An Image-Based Finite Element Approach for Simulating Viscoelastic Response of Asphalt Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an image-based micromechanical modeling approach to predict the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture. An improved image analysis technique based on the OTSU thresholding operation was employed to reduce the beam hardening effect in X-ray CT images. We developed a voxel-based 3D digital reconstruction model of asphalt mixture with the CT images after being processed. In this 3D model, the aggregate phase and air void were considered as elastic materials while the asphalt mastic phase was considered as linear viscoelastic material. The viscoelastic constitutive model of asphalt mastic was implemented in a finite element code using the ABAQUS user material subroutine (UMAT. An experimental procedure for determining the parameters of the viscoelastic constitutive model at a given temperature was proposed. To examine the capability of the model and the accuracy of the parameter, comparisons between the numerical predictions and the observed laboratory results of bending and compression tests were conducted. Finally, the verified digital sample of asphalt mixture was used to predict the asphalt mixture viscoelastic behavior under dynamic loading and creep-recovery loading. Simulation results showed that the presented image-based digital sample may be appropriate for predicting the mechanical behavior of asphalt mixture when all the mechanical properties for different phases became available.

  12. Development and Performance Evaluation of Image-Based Robotic Waxing System for Detailing Automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Hsu, Bing-Cheng

    2018-05-14

    Waxing is an important aspect of automobile detailing, aimed at protecting the finish of the car and preventing rust. At present, this delicate work is conducted manually due to the need for iterative adjustments to achieve acceptable quality. This paper presents a robotic waxing system in which surface images are used to evaluate the quality of the finish. An RGB-D camera is used to build a point cloud that details the sheet metal components to enable path planning for a robot manipulator. The robot is equipped with a multi-axis force sensor to measure and control the forces involved in the application and buffing of wax. Images of sheet metal components that were waxed by experienced car detailers were analyzed using image processing algorithms. A Gaussian distribution function and its parameterized values were obtained from the images for use as a performance criterion in evaluating the quality of surfaces prepared by the robotic waxing system. Waxing force and dwell time were optimized using a mathematical model based on the image-based criterion used to measure waxing performance. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed robotic waxing system and image-based performance evaluation scheme.

  13. Robust stereo matching with trinary cross color census and triple image-based refinements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ting-An; Lu, Xiao; Yang, Jar-Ferr

    2017-12-01

    For future 3D TV broadcasting systems and navigation applications, it is necessary to have accurate stereo matching which could precisely estimate depth map from two distanced cameras. In this paper, we first suggest a trinary cross color (TCC) census transform, which can help to achieve accurate disparity raw matching cost with low computational cost. The two-pass cost aggregation (TPCA) is formed to compute the aggregation cost, then the disparity map can be obtained by a range winner-take-all (RWTA) process and a white hole filling procedure. To further enhance the accuracy performance, a range left-right checking (RLRC) method is proposed to classify the results as correct, mismatched, or occluded pixels. Then, the image-based refinements for the mismatched and occluded pixels are proposed to refine the classified errors. Finally, the image-based cross voting and a median filter are employed to complete the fine depth estimation. Experimental results show that the proposed semi-global stereo matching system achieves considerably accurate disparity maps with reasonable computation cost.

  14. Time Series UAV Image-Based Point Clouds for Landslide Progression Evaluation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawabdeh, Abdulla; Moussa, Adel; Foroutan, Marzieh; El-Sheimy, Naser; Habib, Ayman

    2017-10-18

    Landslides are major and constantly changing threats to urban landscapes and infrastructure. It is essential to detect and capture landslide changes regularly. Traditional methods for monitoring landslides are time-consuming, costly, dangerous, and the quality and quantity of the data is sometimes unable to meet the necessary requirements of geotechnical projects. This motivates the development of more automatic and efficient remote sensing approaches for landslide progression evaluation. Automatic change detection involving low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle image-based point clouds, although proven, is relatively unexplored, and little research has been done in terms of accounting for volumetric changes. In this study, a methodology for automatically deriving change displacement rates, in a horizontal direction based on comparisons between extracted landslide scarps from multiple time periods, has been developed. Compared with the iterative closest projected point (ICPP) registration method, the developed method takes full advantage of automated geometric measuring, leading to fast processing. The proposed approach easily processes a large number of images from different epochs and enables the creation of registered image-based point clouds without the use of extensive ground control point information or further processing such as interpretation and image correlation. The produced results are promising for use in the field of landslide research.

  15. Phase Retrieval Using a Genetic Algorithm on the Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jaime R.

    2003-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center s Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment (SIBOA) Testbed was developed to test phase retrieval algorithms and hardware techniques. Individuals working with the facility developed the idea of implementing phase retrieval by breaking the determination of the tip/tilt of each mirror apart from the piston motion (or translation) of each mirror. Presented in this report is an algorithm that determines the optimal phase correction associated only with the piston motion of the mirrors. A description of the Phase Retrieval problem is first presented. The Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment (SIBOA) Testbeb is then described. A Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is necessary to transfer the incoming wavefront (or estimate of phase error) into the spatial frequency domain to compare it with the image. A method for reducing the DFT to seven scalar/matrix multiplications is presented. A genetic algorithm is then used to search for the phase error. The results of this new algorithm on a test problem are presented.

  16. Image-Based Method for Determining Better Walking Strategies for Hexapods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Mostafa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent walking strategy is vital for multi-legged robots possessing no a priori information of an environment when traversing across discontinuous terrain. Six-legged robots outperform other multi-legged robots in static and dynamic stability. However, hexapods require careful planning to traverse across discontinuous terrain. A hexapod walking strategy can be accomplished using a vision-based navigation system to identify the surrounding environment. This paper presents an image-based technique to achieve better walking strategies for a hexapod walking on a special terrain containing irregular, restricted regions. The properties of the restricted regions were acquired beforehand by using reliable surveillance means. Moreover, simplified forward gaits, better rotational gaits, and adaptive gait selection strategies for walking on discontinuous terrain were proposed. The hexapod can effectively switch the gait sequences and types according to the environment involved. The boundary of standing zones can be successfully labelled by applying the greyscale erosion comprising a structuring element similar in shape and size to the foot tip of the hexapod. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed image-based technique significantly improved the walking strategies of hexapods traversing on discontinuous terrain.

  17. IDIOS: An innovative index for evaluating dental imaging-based osteoporosis screening indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barngkgei, Imad; Al Haffar, Iyad; Khattab, Razan [Faculty of Dentistry, Damascus University, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Halboub, Esam; Almashraqi, Abeer Abdulkareem [Dept. of Maxillofacial Surgery and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jazan University, Jazan (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-15

    The goal of this study was to develop a new index as an objective reference for evaluating current and newly developed indices used for osteoporosis screening based on dental images. Its name; IDIOS, stands for Index of Dental-imaging Indices of Osteoporosis Screening. A comprehensive PubMed search was conducted to retrieve studies on dental imaging-based indices for osteoporosis screening. The results of the eligible studies, along with other relevant criteria, were used to develop IDIOS, which has scores ranging from 0 (0%) to 15 (100%). The indices presented in the studies we included were then evaluated using IDIOS. The 104 studies that were included utilized 24, 4, and 9 indices derived from panoramic, periapical, and computed tomographic/cone-beam computed tomographic techniques, respectively. The IDIOS scores for these indices ranged from 0 (0%) to 11.75 (78.32%). IDIOS is a valuable reference index that facilitates the evaluation of other dental imaging-based osteoporosis screening indices. Furthermore, IDIOS can be utilized to evaluate the accuracy of newly developed indices.

  18. Residual stress distribution analysis of heat treated APS TBC using image based modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Zhang, Xun; Chen, Ying; Carr, James; Jacques, Simon; Behnsen, Julia; di Michiel, Marco; Xiao, Ping; Cernik, Robert

    2017-08-01

    We carried out a residual stress distribution analysis in a APS TBC throughout the depth of the coatings. The samples were heat treated at 1150 °C for 190 h and the data analysis used image based modelling based on the real 3D images measured by Computed Tomography (CT). The stress distribution in several 2D slices from the 3D model is included in this paper as well as the stress distribution along several paths shown on the slices. Our analysis can explain the occurrence of the "jump" features near the interface between the top coat and the bond coat. These features in the residual stress distribution trend were measured (as a function of depth) by high-energy synchrotron XRD (as shown in our related research article entitled 'Understanding the Residual Stress Distribution through the Thickness of Atmosphere Plasma Sprayed (APS) Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBCs) by high energy Synchrotron XRD; Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Image Based Modelling') (Li et al., 2017) [1].

  19. Squeezeposenet: Image Based Pose Regression with Small Convolutional Neural Networks for Real Time Uas Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M. S.; Urban, S.; Jutzi, B.

    2017-08-01

    The number of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is increasing since low-cost airborne systems are available for a wide range of users. The outdoor navigation of such vehicles is mostly based on global navigation satellite system (GNSS) methods to gain the vehicles trajectory. The drawback of satellite-based navigation are failures caused by occlusions and multi-path interferences. Beside this, local image-based solutions like Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) and Visual Odometry (VO) can e.g. be used to support the GNSS solution by closing trajectory gaps but are computationally expensive. However, if the trajectory estimation is interrupted or not available a re-localization is mandatory. In this paper we will provide a novel method for a GNSS-free and fast image-based pose regression in a known area by utilizing a small convolutional neural network (CNN). With on-board processing in mind, we employ a lightweight CNN called SqueezeNet and use transfer learning to adapt the network to pose regression. Our experiments show promising results for GNSS-free and fast localization.

  20. IDIOS: An innovative index for evaluating dental imaging-based osteoporosis screening indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barngkgei, Imad; Halboub, Esam; Almashraqi, Abeer Abdulkareem; Khattab, Razan; Al Haffar, Iyad

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a new index as an objective reference for evaluating current and newly developed indices used for osteoporosis screening based on dental images. Its name; IDIOS, stands for Index of Dental-imaging Indices of Osteoporosis Screening. A comprehensive PubMed search was conducted to retrieve studies on dental imaging-based indices for osteoporosis screening. The results of the eligible studies, along with other relevant criteria, were used to develop IDIOS, which has scores ranging from 0 (0%) to 15 (100%). The indices presented in the studies we included were then evaluated using IDIOS. The 104 studies that were included utilized 24, 4, and 9 indices derived from panoramic, periapical, and computed tomographic/cone-beam computed tomographic techniques, respectively. The IDIOS scores for these indices ranged from 0 (0%) to 11.75 (78.32%). IDIOS is a valuable reference index that facilitates the evaluation of other dental imaging-based osteoporosis screening indices. Furthermore, IDIOS can be utilized to evaluate the accuracy of newly developed indices.

  1. IDIOS: An innovative index for evaluating dental imaging-based osteoporosis screening indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barngkgei, Imad; Al Haffar, Iyad; Khattab, Razan; Halboub, Esam; Almashraqi, Abeer Abdulkareem

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a new index as an objective reference for evaluating current and newly developed indices used for osteoporosis screening based on dental images. Its name; IDIOS, stands for Index of Dental-imaging Indices of Osteoporosis Screening. A comprehensive PubMed search was conducted to retrieve studies on dental imaging-based indices for osteoporosis screening. The results of the eligible studies, along with other relevant criteria, were used to develop IDIOS, which has scores ranging from 0 (0%) to 15 (100%). The indices presented in the studies we included were then evaluated using IDIOS. The 104 studies that were included utilized 24, 4, and 9 indices derived from panoramic, periapical, and computed tomographic/cone-beam computed tomographic techniques, respectively. The IDIOS scores for these indices ranged from 0 (0%) to 11.75 (78.32%). IDIOS is a valuable reference index that facilitates the evaluation of other dental imaging-based osteoporosis screening indices. Furthermore, IDIOS can be utilized to evaluate the accuracy of newly developed indices

  2. PROMO – Real-time Prospective Motion Correction in MRI using Image-based Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nathan; Roddey, Cooper; Shankaranarayanan, Ajit; Han, Eric; Rettmann, Dan; Santos, Juan; Kuperman, Josh; Dale, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Artifacts caused by patient motion during scanning remain a serious problem in most MRI applications. The prospective motion correction technique attempts to address this problem at its source by keeping the measurement coordinate system fixed with respect to the patient throughout the entire scan process. In this study, a new image-based approach for prospective motion correction is described, which utilizes three orthogonal 2D spiral navigator acquisitions (SP-Navs) along with a flexible image-based tracking method based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm for online motion measurement. The SP-Nav/EKF framework offers the advantages of image-domain tracking within patient-specific regions-of-interest and reduced sensitivity to off-resonance-induced corruption of rigid-body motion estimates. The performance of the method was tested using offline computer simulations and online in vivo head motion experiments. In vivo validation results covering a broad range of staged head motions indicate a steady-state error of the SP-Nav/EKF motion estimates of less than 10 % of the motion magnitude, even for large compound motions that included rotations over 15 degrees. A preliminary in vivo application in 3D inversion recovery spoiled gradient echo (IR-SPGR) and 3D fast spin echo (FSE) sequences demonstrates the effectiveness of the SP-Nav/EKF framework for correcting 3D rigid-body head motion artifacts prospectively in high-resolution 3D MRI scans. PMID:20027635

  3. A New Approach to Image-Based Estimation of Food Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hassannejad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A balanced diet is the key to a healthy lifestyle and is crucial for preventing or dealing with many chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. Therefore, monitoring diet can be an effective way of improving people’s health. However, manual reporting of food intake has been shown to be inaccurate and often impractical. This paper presents a new approach to food intake quantity estimation using image-based modeling. The modeling method consists of three steps: firstly, a short video of the food is taken by the user’s smartphone. From such a video, six frames are selected based on the pictures’ viewpoints as determined by the smartphone’s orientation sensors. Secondly, the user marks one of the frames to seed an interactive segmentation algorithm. Segmentation is based on a Gaussian Mixture Model alongside the graph-cut algorithm. Finally, a customized image-based modeling algorithm generates a point-cloud to model the food. At the same time, a stochastic object-detection method locates a checkerboard used as size/ground reference. The modeling algorithm is optimized such that the use of six input images still results in an acceptable computation cost. In our evaluation procedure, we achieved an average accuracy of 92 % on a test set that includes images of different kinds of pasta and bread, with an average processing time of about 23 s.

  4. AN OPEN SOURCE LOW-COST AUTOMATIC SYSTEM FOR IMAGE-BASED 3D DIGITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Menna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available 3D digitization of heritage artefacts, reverse engineering of industrial components or rapid prototyping-driven design are key topics today. Indeed, millions of archaeological finds all over the world need to be surveyed in 3D either to allow convenient investigations by researchers or because they are inaccessible to visitors and scientists or, unfortunately, because they are seriously endangered by wars and terrorist attacks. On the other hand, in case of industrial and design components there is often the need of deformation analyses or physical replicas starting from reality-based 3D digitisations. The paper is aligned with these needs and presents the realization of the ORION (arduinO Raspberry pI rOtating table for image based 3D recostructioN prototype system, with its hardware and software components, providing critical insights about its modular design. ORION is an image-based 3D reconstruction system based on automated photogrammetric acquisitions and processing. The system is being developed under a collaborative educational project between FBK Trento, the University of Trento and internship programs with high school in the Trentino province (Italy.

  5. Care management: agreement between nursing prescriptions and patients' care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeda, Marília Silveira; Perroca, Márcia Galan

    2016-08-08

    analyze agreement between nursing prescriptions recorded in medical files and patients' care needs; investigate the correlation between the nurses' professional background and agreement of prescriptions. descriptive study with quantitative and documentary approach conducted in the medical clinic, surgical, and specialized units of a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo, Brazil. The new validated version of a Patient Classification Instrument was used and 380 nursing prescriptions written at the times of hospital admission and discharge were assessed. 75% of the nursing prescriptions items were compatible with the patients' care needs. Only low correlation between nursing prescription agreement and professional background was found. the nursing prescriptions did not fully meet the care needs of patients. The care context and work process should be analyzed to enable more effective prescriptions, while strategies to assess the care needs of patients are recommended. analisar a concordância entre prescrições de enfermagem, registradas nos prontuários, e as necessidades de cuidados dos pacientes; investigar a correlação entre o perfil profissional dos enfermeiros e a concordância das prescrições. estudo descritivo com abordagem quantitativa e documental, realizado em unidades de clínica médica, cirúrgica e especializada de um hospital de ensino, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. Foi aplicada a nova versão validada do Instrumento de Classificação de Pacientes e, posteriormente, investigadas 380 prescrições de enfermagem no momento da admissão e alta hospitalar. foi identificado que 75% dos itens das prescrições de enfermagem estavam compatíveis com as necessidades cuidativas dos pacientes. Encontrou-se baixa correlação entre a concordância da prescrição de enfermagem e o perfil profissional. as prescrições de enfermagem não estão sendo realizadas, em sua totalidade, em consonância com as necessidades dos pacientes. Para

  6. Image-based modeling of flow and reactive transport in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chao-Zhong; Hoang, Tuong; Verhoosel, Clemens V.; Harald van Brummelen, E.; Wijshoff, Herman M. A.

    2017-04-01

    Due to the availability of powerful computational resources and high-resolution acquisition of material structures, image-based modeling has become an important tool in studying pore-scale flow and transport processes in porous media [Scheibe et al., 2015]. It is also playing an important role in the upscaling study for developing macroscale porous media models. Usually, the pore structure of a porous medium is directly discretized by the voxels obtained from visualization techniques (e.g. micro CT scanning), which can avoid the complex generation of computational mesh. However, this discretization may considerably overestimate the interfacial areas between solid walls and pore spaces. As a result, it could impact the numerical predictions of reactive transport and immiscible two-phase flow. In this work, two types of image-based models are used to study single-phase flow and reactive transport in a porous medium of sintered glass beads. One model is from a well-established voxel-based simulation tool. The other is based on the mixed isogeometric finite cell method [Hoang et al., 2016], which has been implemented in the open source Nutils (http://www.nutils.org). The finite cell method can be used in combination with isogeometric analysis to enable the higher-order discretization of problems on complex volumetric domains. A particularly interesting application of this immersed simulation technique is image-based analysis, where the geometry is smoothly approximated by segmentation of a B-spline level set approximation of scan data [Verhoosel et al., 2015]. Through a number of case studies by the two models, we will show the advantages and disadvantages of each model in modeling single-phase flow and reactive transport in porous media. Particularly, we will highlight the importance of preserving high-resolution interfaces between solid walls and pore spaces in image-based modeling of porous media. References Hoang, T., C. V. Verhoosel, F. Auricchio, E. H. van

  7. Widening consumer access to medicines: a comparison of prescription to non-prescription medicine switch in Australia and New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J Gauld

    Full Text Available Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in 'switching' (reclassifying medicines from prescription to non-prescription.To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia.We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000-2013. Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher's knowledge and experience.The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ ('third-party switch', unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches.Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch.

  8. Widening consumer access to medicines: a comparison of prescription to non-prescription medicine switch in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauld, Natalie J; Kelly, Fiona S; Emmerton, Lynne M; Buetow, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Despite similarities in health systems and Trans-Tasman Harmonization of medicines scheduling, New Zealand is more active than Australia in 'switching' (reclassifying) medicines from prescription to non-prescription. To identify and compare enablers and barriers to switch in New Zealand and Australia. We conducted and analyzed 27 in-depth personal interviews with key participants in NZ and Australia and international participants previously located in Australia, and analyzed records of meetings considering switches (2000-2013). Analysis of both sets of data entailed a heuristic qualitative approach that embraced the lead researcher's knowledge and experience. The key themes identified were conservatism and political influences in Australia, and an open attitude, proactivity and flexibility in NZ. Pharmacist-only medicine schedules and individuals holding a progressive attitude were proposed to facilitate switch in both countries. A pharmacy retail group drove many switches in NZ ('third-party switch'), unlike Australia. Barriers to switch in both countries included small market sizes, funding of prescription medicines and cost of doctor visits, and lack of market exclusivity. In Australia, advertising limitations for pharmacist-only medicines reportedly discouraged industry from submitting switch applications. Perceptions of pharmacy performance could help or hinder switches. Committee and regulator openness to switch, and confidence in pharmacy appear to influence consumer access to medicines. The pharmacist-only medicine schedule in Australasia and the rise of third-party switch and flexibility in switch in NZ could be considered elsewhere to enable switch.

  9. The prescription talk – an approach to teach patient-physician conversation about drug prescription to medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser, Katarina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication communication from physicians to patients often is poor, by this among others enhancing the risk of non-adherence. In this context, a neglect regarding the prescription talk has been complained.Aim of the project: In a newly developed elective medical students work on physician-patient conversations dealing with drug prescription. Essential aspects related to an effective and safe drug treatment are combined with steps of shared decision-making. Together with a tutor, students develop a (model conversation guide that might be tailored according to individual needs and views.Description/Methods: In a one-week course 3rd-5th year medical students treat a paper case according to problem-based learning. This is accompanied by a one-hour lecture and literature provided on an online learning platform (ILIAS. During a workshop, aspects of drug treatment and patient participation are integrated into a guide for a prescription talk. At the end of the week the students are invited to apply the (if need be individualized guide in a simulated physician-patient communication with an actor. The conversation is evaluated using a checklist based upon the (model conversation guide.Results: Informal and formalized feedback indicate high acceptance and satisfaction of participants with this elective. The checklist turned out to be of acceptable to good reliability with mostly selective items. Portfolio entries and written evaluation suggest that participants’ positions and attitudes are influenced.

  10. Volatility and change in chronic pain severity predict outcomes of treatment for prescription opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Matthew J; Heinzerling, Keith G; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter

    2017-07-01

    Buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NLX) can be used to manage prescription opioid addiction among persons with chronic pain, but post-treatment relapse is common and difficult to predict. This study estimated whether changes in pain over time and pain volatility during BUP-NLX maintenance would predict opioid use during the taper BUP-NLX taper. Secondary analysis of a multi-site clinical trial for prescription opioid addiction, using data obtained during a 12-week BUP-NLX stabilization and 4-week BUP-NLX taper. Community clinics affiliated with a national clinical trials network in 10 US cities. Subjects with chronic pain who entered the BUP-NLX taper phase (n = 125) with enrollment occurring from June 2006 to July 2009 (52% male, 88% Caucasian, 31% married). Outcomes were weekly biologically verified and self-reported opioid use from the 4-week taper phase. Predictors were estimates of baseline severity, rate of change and volatility in pain from weekly self-reports during the 12-week maintenance phase. Controlling for baseline pain and treatment condition, increased pain [odds ratio (OR) = 2.38, P = 0.02] and greater pain volatility (OR = 2.43, P = 0.04) predicted greater odds of positive opioid urine screen during BUP-NLX taper. Increased pain (IRR = 1.40, P = 0.04) and greater pain volatility [incidence-rate ratio (IRR) = 1.66, P = 0.009] also predicted greater frequency of self-reported opioid use. Adults with chronic pain receiving out-patient treatment with buprenorphine-naloxone (BUP-NLX) for prescription opioid addiction have an elevated risk for opioid use when tapering off maintenance treatment. Those with relative persistence in pain over time and greater volatility in pain during treatment are less likely to sustain abstinence during BUP-NLX taper. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Prescriptive Oriented Drug Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis Disease by LC-UV in Whole Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneetha, A; Rajeswari, Raja K

    2016-02-01

    As a polytherapy treatment, multiple sclerosis disease demands prescriptions with more than one drug. Polytherapy is sometimes rational for drug combinations chosen to minimize adverse effects. Estimation of drugs that are concomitantly administered in polytherapy is acceptable as it shortens the analytical timepoints and also the usage of biological matrices. In clinical phase trials, the withdrawal of biofluids is a critical issue for each analysis. Estimating all the coadminsitered drugs in a single shot will be more effective and economical for pharmaceuticals. A single, simple, rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography assay method has been developed with UV detection and fully validated for the quantification of 14 drugs (at random combinations) used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis disease. The set of combinations was based on prescriptions to patients. Separations were achieved on an X-Terra MS C18 (100 × 3.9 mm, 5 µm) column. The analytes were extracted from 50 µL aliquots of whole human blood with protein precipitation using acetonitrile. All the drugs were sufficiently stable during storage for 24 h at room temperature and for 23 days at 2-8°C. The percentage recoveries of all drugs were between 90 and 115%, with RSD values <10.6%. This method has been shown to be reproducible and sensitive and can be applied to clinical samples from pharmacokinetic studies and also a useful tool in studying the drug interaction studies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Onofrio David J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called Prescriptive Information (PI. PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms.

  13. Dichotomy in the definition of prescriptive information suggests both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms: biosemiotics applications in genomic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onofrio, David J; Abel, David L; Johnson, Donald E

    2012-03-14

    The fields of molecular biology and computer science have cooperated over recent years to create a synergy between the cybernetic and biosemiotic relationship found in cellular genomics to that of information and language found in computational systems. Biological information frequently manifests its "meaning" through instruction or actual production of formal bio-function. Such information is called prescriptive information (PI). PI programs organize and execute a prescribed set of choices. Closer examination of this term in cellular systems has led to a dichotomy in its definition suggesting both prescribed data and prescribed algorithms are constituents of PI. This paper looks at this dichotomy as expressed in both the genetic code and in the central dogma of protein synthesis. An example of a genetic algorithm is modeled after the ribosome, and an examination of the protein synthesis process is used to differentiate PI data from PI algorithms.

  14. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  15. Analysis of Potential Drug-Drug Interactions and Its Clinical Manifestation of Pediatric Prescription on 2 Pharmacies in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa I. Barliana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of Drug-Drug Interactions (DDI in prescription have high incidence around the world, including Indonesia. However, scientific evidence regarding DDI in Indonesia is not available. Therefore, in this study we have conducted survey in 2 pharmacies in Bandung against pediatric prescription given by pediatrician. These prescriptions then analyzed the potential for DDI contained in the prescription and clinical manifestation. The analysis showed that in pharmacy A, there are 33 prescriptions (from a total of 155 prescriptions that have potential DDI, or approximately 21.19% (2 prescriptions have the potential DDI major categories, 23 prescriptions categorized as moderate, and 8 prescriptions as minor. In Pharmacy B, there are 6 prescriptions (from a total of 40 prescriptions or 15% of potential DDI (4 prescriptions categorized as moderate and 2 prescriptions as minor. This result showed that potential DDI happened less than 50% in pediatric prescription from both pharmacies. However, this should get attention because DDI should not happen in a prescription considering its clinical manifestations caused by DDI. Moreover, current pharmaceutical care refers to patient oriented than product oriented. In addition, further study for the pediatric prescription on DDI incidence in large scale need to be investigated.

  16. Multiple prescriptions of antibiotics for children aged 0 to 5 years in relation to type of antibiotic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Nana; Olesen, Charlotte; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    1999-01-01

    The risk of receiving more than one prescription within an antibiotic course was examined for all children aged 0 to 5 years in a Danish county during 1997. We identified 29,307 prescriptions of systemic antibiotics for 16,245 children in a prescription database. Ten per cent of the prescriptions...

  17. Biological desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, B.J. [UOP LLC (United States); Benschop, A.; Janssen, A. [Paques Natural Solutions (Netherlands); Kijlstra, S. [Shell Global Solutions (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on the biological THIOPAQ process for removing hydrogen sulphide from refinery gases and recovering elemental sulphur. Details are given of the process which absorbs hydrogen sulphide-containing gas in alkaline solution prior to oxidation of the dissolved sulphur to elemental sulphur in a THIOPAQ aerobic biological reactor, with regeneration of the caustic solution. Sulphur handling options including sulphur wash, the drying of the sulphur cake, and sulphur smelting by pressure liquefaction are described. Agricultural applications of the biologically recovered sulphur, and application of the THIOPAQ process to sulphur recovery are discussed.

  18. Impact of the Hydrocodone Schedule Change on Opioid Prescription Patterns in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschel, Lauren M; Mort, Jane M

    2017-10-01

    Prescription opioid use is becoming increasingly common; consequently, opioid overdose deaths are increasing at an alarming rate. Hydrocodone, one of the most commonly abused opioids, was changed from a schedule III controlled substance to the more stringent schedule II to decrease abuse and diversion, effective Oct. 6, 2014. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the hydrocodone schedule change on opioid prescribing in South Dakota. Opioid prescription patterns were examined in the following six-month phases: the baseline phase before the change, the transition phase when existing hydrocodone prescriptions could still be refilled, and the final phase. The South Dakota Board of Pharmacy Prescription Drug Monitoring Program provided aggregate monthly data for South Dakota opioid prescriptions (i.e., total number of prescriptions and days supplied), including urban and rural stratification. T-tests were performed on the monthly values for each phase to determine the significance of differences in prescription features between phases. The number of hydrocodone prescriptions significantly decreased 14 percent from baseline to final phase, while the days supplied per prescription significantly increased 7.4 percent. These changes were greater in rural areas than in urban areas. Conversely, the number of other opioid prescriptions significantly increased by 6.5 percent over this timeframe. The number of hydrocodone prescriptions decreased, while the days supplied per prescription increased. These changes were greater in rural areas than in urban areas. In addition, the number of other opioid prescriptions increased. These trends may reflect some unintended effects of the schedule change.

  19. Tamper-resistant prescription forms for narcotics in France:should we generalise them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daveluy, Amélie; Sauvaget, Lucie; Bastien, Angela; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Collin, Cédric; Richard, Nathalie; Haramburu, Françoise

    2018-03-27

    In France, prescription of narcotics must be written on a tamper-resistant prescription form with specific technical particularities. Dosage and daily dose of medicines shall be written out entirely in letters. These prescription forms are also mandatory for buprenorphine, clorazepate, clonazepam, tianeptine, buccal midazolam and zolpidem owing to traffic, abuse or diversion. In 2012, to assess the use of standard and tamper-resistant prescription forms and the acceptability of the generalization of the latter to all medicines, a national opinion survey was performed, with a postal questionnaire, within 3 randomized samples of 1,500 prescribers (physicians, dentists and midwives). Of the 403 participating prescribers (participation rate of 26.8%), 373 were physicians, 14 dentists and 16 midwives. Tamper-resistant prescription forms were used by 76.2% of prescribers, but only by 5.1% in a computerised version, whereas, for standard prescription forms, 61% used computer assisted prescription software. The main reason was the inability of the prescription software to print these forms or to respect the mandatory prescription rules for narcotics. Theft and falsification of prescriptions had ever occurred (working life). Most prescribers (62.5%) were against the generalization of tamper-resistant prescription forms. Those in favour were for a generalization to all medicines (65%) and not only to psychotropic agents. Generalization of tamper-resistant prescription forms is not a consensual solution to prevent medicines' diversion. Some prescribers alluded to the possibility of dematerialisation and electronic transmission of prescription forms, which could avoid theft, forgery or falsification. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection and correction of prescription errors by an emergency department pharmacy service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Philip; Afilalo, Marc; Castelino, Tanya; Xue, Xiaoqing; Colacone, Antoinette; Soucy, Nathalie; Dankoff, Jerrald

    2014-05-01

    Emergency departments (EDs) are recognized as a high-risk setting for prescription errors. Pharmacist involvement may be important in reviewing prescriptions to identify and correct errors. The objectives of this study were to describe the frequency and type of prescription errors detected by pharmacists in EDs, determine the proportion of errors that could be corrected, and identify factors associated with prescription errors. This prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching ED on 25 consecutive weekdays. Pharmacists reviewed all documented prescriptions and flagged and corrected errors for patients in the ED. We collected information on patient demographics, details on prescription errors, and the pharmacists' recommendations. A total of 3,136 ED prescriptions were reviewed. The proportion of prescriptions in which a pharmacist identified an error was 3.2% (99 of 3,136; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.5-3.8). The types of identified errors were wrong dose (28 of 99, 28.3%), incomplete prescription (27 of 99, 27.3%), wrong frequency (15 of 99, 15.2%), wrong drug (11 of 99, 11.1%), wrong route (1 of 99, 1.0%), and other (17 of 99, 17.2%). The pharmacy service intervened and corrected 78 (78 of 99, 78.8%) errors. Factors associated with prescription errors were patient age over 65 (odds ratio [OR] 2.34; 95% CI 1.32-4.13), prescriptions with more than one medication (OR 5.03; 95% CI 2.54-9.96), and those written by emergency medicine residents compared to attending emergency physicians (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.18-4.14). Pharmacists in a tertiary ED are able to correct the majority of prescriptions in which they find errors. Errors are more likely to be identified in prescriptions written for older patients, those containing multiple medication orders, and those prescribed by emergency residents.

  1. Past-year Prescription Drug Monitoring Program Opioid Prescriptions and Self-reported Opioid Use in an Emergency Department Population With Opioid Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Kathryn; D'Onofrio, Gail; Fiellin, David A; Chawarski, Marek C; O'Connor, Patrick G; Owens, Patricia H; Pantalon, Michael V; Bernstein, Steven L

    2017-11-22

    Despite increasing reliance on prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) as a response to the opioid epidemic, the relationship between aberrant drug-related behaviors captured by the PDMP and opioid use disorder is incompletely understood. How PDMP data should guide emergency department (ED) assessment has not been studied. The objective was to evaluate a relationship between PDMP opioid prescription records and self-reported nonmedical opioid use of prescription opioids in a cohort of opioid-dependent ED patients enrolled in a treatment trial. PDMP opioid prescription records during 1 year prior to study enrollment on 329 adults meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV criteria for opioid dependence entering a randomized clinical trial in a large, urban ED were cross-tabulated with data on 30-day nonmedical prescription opioid use self-report. The association among these two types of data was assessed by the Goodman and Kruskal's gamma; a logistic regression was used to explore characteristics of participants who had PDMP record of opioid prescriptions. During 1 year prior to study enrollment, 118 of 329 (36%) patients had at least one opioid prescription (range = 1-51) in our states' PDMP. Patients who reported ≥15 of 30 days of nonmedical prescription opioid use were more likely to have at least four PDMP opioid prescriptions (20/38; 53%) than patients reporting 1 to 14 days (14/38, 37%) or zero days of nonmedical prescription opioid use (4/38, 11%; p = 0.002). Female sex and having health insurance were significantly more represented in the PDMP (p Medicine.

  2. A new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-05-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing day to day for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally three main image based approaches are using for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling and third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete solution available to create complete 3D city model by using images. These image based methods also have limitations This paper gives a new approach towards image based virtual 3D city modeling by using close range photogrammetry. This approach is divided into three sections. First, data acquisition process, second is 3D data processing, and third is data combination process. In data acquisition process, a multi-camera setup developed and used for video recording of an area. Image frames created from video data. Minimum required and suitable video image frame selected for 3D processing. In second section, based on close range photogrammetric principles and computer vision techniques, 3D model of area created. In third section, this 3D model exported to adding and merging of other pieces of large area. Scaling and alignment of 3D model was done. After applying the texturing and rendering on this model, a final photo-realistic textured 3D model created. This 3D model transferred into walk-through model or in movie form. Most of the processing steps are automatic. So this method is cost effective and less laborious. Accuracy of this model is good. For this research work, study area is the campus of department of civil engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. This campus acts as a prototype for city. Aerial photography is restricted in many country

  3. Image-based phenotyping for non-destructive screening of different salinity tolerance traits in rice

    KAUST Repository

    Hairmansis, Aris

    2014-08-14

    Background Soil salinity is an abiotic stress wide spread in rice producing areas, limiting both plant growth and yield. The development of salt-tolerant rice requires efficient and high-throughput screening techniques to identify promising lines for salt affected areas. Advances made in image-based phenotyping techniques provide an opportunity to use non-destructive imaging to screen for salinity tolerance traits in a wide range of germplasm in a reliable, quantitative and efficient way. However, the application of image-based phenotyping in the development of salt-tolerant rice remains limited. Results A non-destructive image-based phenotyping protocol to assess salinity tolerance traits of two rice cultivars (IR64 and Fatmawati) has been established in this study. The response of rice to different levels of salt stress was quantified over time based on total shoot area and senescent shoot area, calculated from visible red-green-blue (RGB) and fluorescence images. The response of rice to salt stress (50, 75 and 100 mM NaCl) could be clearly distinguished from the control as indicated by the reduced increase of shoot area. The salt concentrations used had only a small effect on the growth of rice during the initial phase of stress, the shoot Na+ accumulation independent phase termed the ‘osmotic stress’ phase. However, after 20 d of treatment, the shoot area of salt stressed plants was reduced compared with non-stressed plants. This was accompanied by a significant increase in the concentration of Na+ in the shoot. Variation in the senescent area of the cultivars IR64 and Fatmawati in response to a high concentration of Na+ in the shoot indicates variation in tissue tolerance mechanisms between the cultivars. Conclusions Image analysis has the potential to be used for high-throughput screening procedures in the development of salt-tolerant rice. The ability of image analysis to discriminate between the different aspects of salt stress (shoot ion

  4. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  5. The Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study: What have we learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Roger D; Rao, Vinod

    2017-04-01

    The multi-site Prescription Opioid Addiction Treatment Study (POATS), conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, was the largest clinical trial yet conducted with patients dependent upon prescription opioids (N=653). In addition to main trial results, the study yielded numerous secondary analyses, and included a 3.5-year follow-up study, the first of its kind with this population. This paper reviews key findings from POATS and its follow-up study. The paper summarizes the POATS design, main outcomes, predictors of outcome, subgroup analyses, the predictive power of early treatment response, and the long-term follow-up study. POATS examined combinations of buprenorphine-naloxone of varying duration and counseling of varying intensity. The primary outcome analysis showed no overall benefit to adding drug counseling to buprenorphine-naloxone and weekly medical management. Only 7% of patients achieved a successful outcome (abstinence or near-abstinence from opioids) during a 4-week taper and 8-week follow-up; by comparison, 49% of patients achieved success while subsequently stabilized on buprenorphine-naloxone. Long-term follow-up results were more encouraging, with higher abstinence rates than in the main trial. Patients receiving opioid agonist treatment at the time of follow-up were more likely to have better outcomes, though a sizeable number of patients succeeded without agonist treatment. Some patients initiated risky use patterns, including heroin use and drug injection. A limitation of the long-term follow-up study was the low follow-up rate. POATS was the first large-scale study of the treatment of prescription opioid dependence; its findings can influence both treatment guidelines and future studies. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Adolescents' future orientation and nonmedical use of prescription drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Rena M; Stoddard, Sarah A; Pierce, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    How adolescents think about their future (i.e., future orientation) impacts their risk-taking behavior. The purpose of the present analysis was to explore whether future orientation (future planning, perceived risk to future goals, and positive future expectations) was associated with nonmedical use of stimulants and analgesics in a sample of high school students. Information on future orientation and nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) were collected using a paper-and-pencil survey from a sample of 9th-12th grade students in a Midwestern school. Higher perceived risk to future goals and positive future expectations were associated with a lower likelihood of self-reported nonmedical use of stimulants (n=250; OR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.26, 0.83; OR=0.15, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.47, respectively). Only higher perceived risk to future goals was associated with a lower likelihood of self-reported nonmedical use of analgesics (n=250; OR=0.40, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.68). In a follow-up analysis limited to students who endorsed alcohol or marijuana use, perceived risk to future goals remained associated with a lower likelihood of nonmedical use of stimulants and analgesics. Results suggest that risk perception might be a salient protective factor against both nonmedical use of stimulants and analgesics. Overall, the differential impact of conceptualizations of future orientation might depend on the class of prescription drug used, demonstrating a need to consider prescription drugs individually in the development of future studies and interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug plan design incentives among Medicare prescription drug plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskamp, Haiden A; Keating, Nancy L; Dalton, Jesse B; Chernew, Michael E; Newhouse, Joseph P

    2014-07-01

    Medicare Advantage prescription drug plans (MA-PDs) and standalone prescription drug plans (PDPs) face different incentives for plan design resulting from the scope of covered benefits (only outpatient drugs for PDPs versus all drug and nondrug services for Medicare Advantage [MA]/MA-PDs). The objective is to begin to explore how MA-PDs and PDPs may be responding to their different incentives related to benefit design. We compared 2012 PDP and MA-PD average formulary coverage, prior authorization (PA) or step therapy use, and copayment requirements for drugs in 6 classes used commonly among Medicare beneficiaries. We primarily used 2012 Prescription Drug Plan Formulary and Pharmacy Network Files and MA enrollment data. 2011 Truven Health MarketScan claims were used to estimate drug prices and to compute drug market share. Average coverage and PA/step rates, and average copayment requirements, were weighted by plan enrollment and drug market share. MA-PDs are generally more likely to cover and less likely to require PA/step for brand name drugs with generic alternatives than PDPs, and MA-PDs often have lower copayment requirements for these drugs. For brands without generics, we generally found no differences in average rates of coverage or PA/step, but MA-PDs were more likely to cover all brands without generics in a class. We found modest, confirmatory evidence suggesting that PDPs and MA-PDs respond to different incentives for plan design. Future research is needed to understand the factors that influence Medicare drug plan design decisions.

  8. Assessment of parenteral nutrition prescription in Canadian acute care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjemian, Daniela; Arendt, Bianca M; Allard, Johane P

    2018-05-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) prescription can be challenging in patients with complex conditions and has potential complications. To assess PN prescription, monitoring, and PN-related complications in a Canadian acute care setting. This was a prospective cohort study in which patients receiving PN were assessed by an auditor for nutritional status, PN-related prescription, monitoring, and complications. In addition, length of stay and mortality were recorded. 147 patients (mean ± SD 56.1 ± 16.4 y) with complex diseases (Charlson comorbidity index, median [p25-p75] 2 [1-4]) were enrolled. Before starting PN, 18.6%, 63.9%, and 17.5% of patients were classified as subjective global assessment A, B, and C, respectively. Body mass index remained unchanged during the period on PN. On average, 89% and 73% of patients received <90% of their energy and protein requirements, respectively, but 65% received oral or enteral nutrition at some point during PN. The average daily energy provided by PN increased and stabilized on day 10, reaching 87.2 ± 20.1% of the requirements. Line sepsis (6.8% of patients) and hyperglycemia (6.9%) were the most common complications. The overall mortality was 15.6%. For those alive, length of stay was 30 (range: 4-268) d. PN was discontinued because of transitioning to an oral diet (56.6%), enteral nutrition (17.6%), home PN (14.7%), palliative care (5.1%), death (4.4%), or other (1.5%). Most patients were malnourished at the start of PN. Energy and protein provided from PN were less than requirements, and the goals were reached with delay. Mortality was high, possibly as a result of complex diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Image-Based Multi-Target Tracking through Multi-Bernoulli Filtering with Interactive Likelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hoak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop an interactive likelihood (ILH for sequential Monte Carlo (SMC methods for image-based multiple target tracking applications. The purpose of the ILH is to improve tracking accuracy by reducing the need for data association. In addition, we integrate a recently developed deep neural network for pedestrian detection along with the ILH with a multi-Bernoulli filter. We evaluate the performance of the multi-Bernoulli filter with the ILH and the pedestrian detector in a number of publicly available datasets (2003 PETS INMOVE, Australian Rules Football League (AFL and TUD-Stadtmitte using standard, well-known multi-target tracking metrics (optimal sub-pattern assignment (OSPA and classification of events, activities and relationships for multi-object trackers (CLEAR MOT. In all datasets, the ILH term increases the tracking accuracy of the multi-Bernoulli filter.

  10. Development of a Mobile User Interface for Image-based Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungye; Schap, Tusarebecca; Bosch, Marc; Maciejewski, Ross; Delp, Edward J; Ebert, David S; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-12-31

    In this paper, we present a mobile user interface for image-based dietary assessment. The mobile user interface provides a front end to a client-server image recognition and portion estimation software. In the client-server configuration, the user interactively records a series of food images using a built-in camera on the mobile device. Images are sent from the mobile device to the server, and the calorie content of the meal is estimated. In this paper, we describe and discuss the design and development of our mobile user interface features. We discuss the design concepts, through initial ideas and implementations. For each concept, we discuss qualitative user feedback from participants using the mobile client application. We then discuss future designs, including work on design considerations for the mobile application to allow the user to interactively correct errors in the automatic processing while reducing the user burden associated with classical pen-and-paper dietary records.

  11. Use of Image Based Modelling for Documentation of Intricately Shaped Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marčiš, M.; Barták, P.; Valaška, D.; Fraštia, M.; Trhan, O.

    2016-06-01

    In the documentation of cultural heritage, we can encounter three dimensional shapes and structures which are complicated to measure. Such objects are for example spiral staircases, timber roof trusses, historical furniture or folk costume where it is nearly impossible to effectively use the traditional surveying or the terrestrial laser scanning due to the shape of the object, its dimensions and the crowded environment. The actual methods of digital photogrammetry can be very helpful in such cases with the emphasis on the automated processing of the extensive image data. The created high resolution 3D models and 2D orthophotos are very important for the documentation of architectural elements and they can serve as an ideal base for the vectorization and 2D drawing documentation. This contribution wants to describe the various usage of image based modelling in specific interior spaces and specific objects. The advantages and disadvantages of the photogrammetric measurement of such objects in comparison to other surveying methods are reviewed.

  12. First Steps Toward Incorporating Image Based Diagnostics Into Particle Accelerator Control Systems Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelen, A. L.; Biedron, S. G.; Milton, S. V.; Edelen, J. P.

    2016-12-16

    At present, a variety of image-based diagnostics are used in particle accelerator systems. Often times, these are viewed by a human operator who then makes appropriate adjustments to the machine. Given recent advances in using convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for image processing, it should be possible to use image diagnostics directly in control routines (NN-based or otherwise). This is especially appealing for non-intercepting diagnostics that could run continuously during beam operation. Here, we show results of a first step toward implementing such a controller: our trained CNN can predict multiple simulated downstream beam parameters at the Fermilab Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility's low energy beamline using simulated virtual cathode laser images, gun phases, and solenoid strengths.

  13. Automatic image-based analyses using a coupled quadtree-SBFEM/SCM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravenkamp, Hauke; Duczek, Sascha

    2017-10-01

    Quadtree-based domain decomposition algorithms offer an efficient option to create meshes for automatic image-based analyses. Without introducing hanging nodes the scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) can directly operate on such meshes by only discretizing the edges of each subdomain. However, the convergence of a numerical method that relies on a quadtree-based geometry approximation is often suboptimal due to the inaccurate representation of the boundary. To overcome this problem a combination of the SBFEM with the spectral cell method (SCM) is proposed. The basic idea is to treat each uncut quadtree cell as an SBFEM polygon, while all cut quadtree cells are computed employing the SCM. This methodology not only reduces the required number of degrees of freedom but also avoids a two-dimensional quadrature in all uncut quadtree cells. Numerical examples including static, harmonic, modal and transient analyses of complex geometries are studied, highlighting the performance of this novel approach.

  14. A prototype distributed object-oriented architecture for image-based automatic laser alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, E.A.; Kamm, V.J.M.; Spann, J.M.; Van Arsdall, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Designing a computer control system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a complex undertaking because of the system's large size and its distributed nature. The controls team is addressing that complexity by adopting the object-oriented programming paradigm, designing reusable software frameworks, and using the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for distribution. A prototype system for image-based automatic laser alignment has been developed to evaluate and gain experience with CORBA and OOP in a small distributed system. The prototype is also important in evaluating alignment concepts, image processing techniques, speed and accuracy of automatic alignment objectives for the NIF, and control hardware for aligment devices. The prototype system has met its inital objectives and provides a basis for continued development

  15. Comparison on Integer Wavelet Transforms in Spherical Wavelet Based Image Based Relighting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZe; LEEYin; LEUNGChising; WONGTientsin; ZHUYisheng

    2003-01-01

    To provide a good quality rendering in the Image based relighting (IBL) system, tremendous reference images under various illumination conditions are needed. Therefore data compression is essential to enable interactive action. And the rendering speed is another crucial consideration for real applications. Based on Spherical wavelet transform (SWT), this paper presents a quick representation method with Integer wavelet transform (IWT) for the IBL system. It focuses on comparison on different IWTs with the Embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) used in the IBL system. The whole compression procedure contains two major compression steps. Firstly, SWT is applied to consider the correlation among different reference images. Secondly, the SW transformed images are compressed with IWT based image compression approach. Two IWTs are used and good results are showed in the simulations.

  16. The value of precision for image-based decision support in weed management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Papaharalampos, Haris

    2017-01-01

    Decision support methodologies in precision agriculture should integrate the different dimensions composing the added complexity of operational decision problems. Special attention has to be given to the adequate knowledge extraction techniques for making sense of the collected data, processing...... the information for assessing decision makers and farmers in the efficient and sustainable management of the field. Focusing on weed management, the integration of operational aspects for weed spraying is an open challenge for modeling the farmers’ decision problem, identifying satisfactory solutions...... for the implementation of automatic weed recognition procedures. The objective of this paper is to develop a decision support methodology for detecting the undesired weed from aerial images, building an image-based viewpoint consisting in relevant operational knowledge for applying precision spraying. In this way...

  17. Genetic Algorithm Phase Retrieval for the Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jaime; Rakoczy, John; Steincamp, James

    2003-01-01

    Phase retrieval requires calculation of the real-valued phase of the pupil fimction from the image intensity distribution and characteristics of an optical system. Genetic 'algorithms were used to solve two one-dimensional phase retrieval problem. A GA successfully estimated the coefficients of a polynomial expansion of the phase when the number of coefficients was correctly specified. A GA also successfully estimated the multiple p h e s of a segmented optical system analogous to the seven-mirror Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment (SIBOA) testbed located at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center. The SIBOA testbed was developed to investigate phase retrieval techniques. Tiphilt and piston motions of the mirrors accomplish phase corrections. A constant phase over each mirror can be achieved by an independent tip/tilt correction: the phase Conection term can then be factored out of the Discrete Fourier Tranform (DFT), greatly reducing computations.

  18. Image based EFIT simulation for nondestructive ultrasonic testing of austenitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahata, Kazuyuki; Hirose, Sohichi; Schubert, Frank; Koehler, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The ultrasonic testing (UT) of an austenitic steel with welds is difficult due to the acoustic anisotropy and local heterogeneity. The ultrasonic wave in the austenitic steel is skewed along crystallographic directions and scattered by weld boundaries. For reliable UT, a straightforward simulation tool to predict the wave propagation is desired. Here a combined method of elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) and digital image processing is developed as a wave simulation tool for UT. The EFIT is a grid-based explicit numerical method and easily treats different boundary conditions which are essential to model wave propagation in heterogeneous materials. In this study, the EFIT formulation in anisotropic and heterogeneous materials is briefly described and an example of a two dimensional simulation of a phased array UT in an austenitic steel bar is demonstrated. In our simulation, a picture of the surface of the steel bar with a V-groove weld is scanned and fed into the image based EFIT modeling. (author)

  19. Image-based computational quantification and visualization of genetic alterations and tumour heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qing; Rüschoff, Jan H; Guo, Tiannan; Gabrani, Maria; Schüffler, Peter J; Rechsteiner, Markus; Liu, Yansheng; Fuchs, Thomas J; Rupp, Niels J; Fankhauser, Christian; Buhmann, Joachim M; Perner, Sven; Poyet, Cédric; Blattner, Miriam; Soldini, Davide; Moch, Holger; Rubin, Mark A; Noske, Aurelia; Rüschoff, Josef; Haffner, Michael C; Jochum, Wolfram; Wild, Peter J

    2016-04-07

    Recent large-scale genome analyses of human tissue samples have uncovered a high degree of genetic alterations and tumour heterogeneity in most tumour entities, independent of morphological phenotypes and histopathological characteristics. Assessment of genetic copy-number variation (CNV) and tumour heterogeneity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (ISH) provides additional tissue morphology at single-cell resolution, but it is labour intensive with limited throughput and high inter-observer variability. We present an integrative method combining bright-field dual-colour chromogenic and silver ISH assays with an image-based computational workflow (ISHProfiler), for accurate detection of molecular signals, high-throughput evaluation of CNV, expressive visualization of multi-level heterogeneity (cellular, inter- and intra-tumour heterogeneity), and objective quantification of heterogeneous genetic deletions (PTEN) and amplifications (19q12, HER2) in diverse human tumours (prostate, endometrial, ovarian and gastric), using various tissue sizes and different scanners, with unprecedented throughput and reproducibility.

  20. Image-Based Multi-Target Tracking through Multi-Bernoulli Filtering with Interactive Likelihoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoak, Anthony; Medeiros, Henry; Povinelli, Richard J

    2017-03-03

    We develop an interactive likelihood (ILH) for sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) methods for image-based multiple target tracking applications. The purpose of the ILH is to improve tracking accuracy by reducing the need for data association. In addition, we integrate a recently developed deep neural network for pedestrian detection along with the ILH with a multi-Bernoulli filter. We evaluate the performance of the multi-Bernoulli filter with the ILH and the pedestrian detector in a number of publicly available datasets (2003 PETS INMOVE, Australian Rules Football League (AFL) and TUD-Stadtmitte) using standard, well-known multi-target tracking metrics (optimal sub-pattern assignment (OSPA) and classification of events, activities and relationships for multi-object trackers (CLEAR MOT)). In all datasets, the ILH term increases the tracking accuracy of the multi-Bernoulli filter.

  1. Image-Based Visual Servoing for Manipulation Via Predictive Control – A Survey of Some Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Lazăr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a review of predictive control algorithms developed by the authors for visual servoing of robots in manipulation applications is presented. Using these algorithms, a control predictive framework was created for image-based visual servoing (IBVS systems. Firstly, considering the point features, in the year 2008 we introduced an internal model predictor based on the interaction matrix. Secondly, distinctly from the set-point trajectory, we introduced in 2011 the reference trajectory using the concept from predictive control. Finally, minimizing a sum of squares of predicted errors, the optimal input trajectory was obtained. The new concept of predictive control for IBVS systems was employed to develop a cascade structure for motion control of robot arms. Simulation results obtained with a simulator for predictive IBVS systems are also presented.

  2. Image-based Fuzzy Parking Control of a Car-like Mobile Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Yin Aye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel automatic parking system using an image-based fuzzy controller, where in the reasoning the slope and intercept of the desired target line are used for the inputs, and the steering angle of the robot is generated for the output. The objective of this study is that a robot equipped with a camera detects a rectangular parking frame, which is drawn on the floor, based on image processing. The desired target line to be followed by the robot is generated by using Hough transform from a captured image. The fuzzy controller is designed according to experiments of skilled driver, and the fuzzy rules are tuned and the fuzzy membership functions are optimized by experimentally for output. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through some experimental results with an actual mobile robot

  3. PathlinesExplorer — Image-based exploration of large-scale pathline fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2015-10-25

    PathlinesExplorer is a novel image-based tool, which has been designed to visualize large scale pathline fields on a single computer [7]. PathlinesExplorer integrates explorable images (EI) technique [4] with order-independent transparency (OIT) method [2]. What makes this method different is that it allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, PathlinesExplorer combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathline segments. With this view-dependent method, it is possible to filter, color-code, and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  4. Digital image based numerical micromechanics of geocomposites with application to chemical grouting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaheta, Radim; Kohut, Roman; Kolcun, Alexej; Souček, Kamil; Staš, Lubomír; Vavro, Leona

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 77, July 2015 (2015), s. 77-88 ISSN 1365-1609 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA105/09/1830; GA MŠk ED1.1.00/02.0070 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : geocomposites * upscaling * digital CT image based FEM * identification of material parameters Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.010, year: 2015 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1365160915000623/1-s2.0-S1365160915000623-main.pdf?_tid=dbf3fe52-038b-11e5-95ad-00000aacb362&acdnat=1432633673_93d2764901fe77ac271ced952119f1aa

  5. Dugong: a Docker image, based on Ubuntu Linux, focused on reproducibility and replicability for bioinformatics analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegidio, Fabiano B; Jabes, Daniela L; Costa de Oliveira, Regina; Nunes, Luiz R

    2018-02-01

    This manuscript introduces and describes Dugong, a Docker image based on Ubuntu 16.04, which automates installation of more than 3500 bioinformatics tools (along with their respective libraries and dependencies), in alternative computational environments. The software operates through a user-friendly XFCE4 graphic interface that allows software management and installation by users not fully familiarized with the Linux command line and provides the Jupyter Notebook to assist in the delivery and exchange of consistent and reproducible protocols and results across laboratories, assisting in the development of open science projects. Source code and instructions for local installation are available at https://github.com/DugongBioinformatics, under the MIT open source license. Luiz.nunes@ufabc.edu.br. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Historical Single Image-Based Modeling: The Case of Gobierna Tower, Zamora (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Garcia-Gago

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical perspective images have been proved to be very useful to properly provide a dimensional analysis of buildings façades or even to generate a pseudo-3D reconstruction based on rectified images of the whole structure. In this paper, the case of Gobierna Tower (Zamora, Spain is analyzed from a historical single image-based modeling approach. In particular, a bottom-up approach, which takes advantage from the perspective of the image, the existence of the three vanishing points and the usual geometric constraints (i.e., planarity, orthogonality, and parallelism is applied for the dimensional analysis of a destroyed historical building. Results were compared with ground truth measurements existing in a historical topographical surveying obtaining deviations of about 1%.

  7. Fusion of remote sensing images based on pyramid decomposition with Baldwinian Clonal Selection Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haiyan; Xing, Bei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Yanyan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we put forward a novel fusion method for remote sensing images based on the contrast pyramid (CP) using the Baldwinian Clonal Selection Algorithm (BCSA), referred to as CPBCSA. Compared with classical methods based on the transform domain, the method proposed in this paper adopts an improved heuristic evolutionary algorithm, wherein the clonal selection algorithm includes Baldwinian learning. In the process of image fusion, BCSA automatically adjusts the fusion coefficients of different sub-bands decomposed by CP according to the value of the fitness function. BCSA also adaptively controls the optimal search direction of the coefficients and accelerates the convergence rate of the algorithm. Finally, the fusion images are obtained via weighted integration of the optimal fusion coefficients and CP reconstruction. Our experiments show that the proposed method outperforms existing methods in terms of both visual effect and objective evaluation criteria, and the fused images are more suitable for human visual or machine perception.

  8. An automated approach for segmentation of intravascular ultrasound images based on parametric active contour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vard, Alireza; Jamshidi, Kamal; Movahhedinia, Naser

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fully automated approach to detect the intima and media-adventitia borders in intravascular ultrasound images based on parametric active contour models. To detect the intima border, we compute a new image feature applying a combination of short-term autocorrelations calculated for the contour pixels. These feature values are employed to define an energy function of the active contour called normalized cumulative short-term autocorrelation. Exploiting this energy function, the intima border is separated accurately from the blood region contaminated by high speckle noise. To extract media-adventitia boundary, we define a new form of energy function based on edge, texture and spring forces for the active contour. Utilizing this active contour, the media-adventitia border is identified correctly even in presence of branch openings and calcifications. Experimental results indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. In addition, statistical analysis demonstrates high conformity between manual tracing and the results obtained by the proposed approaches.

  9. Low-Complexity Compression Algorithm for Hyperspectral Images Based on Distributed Source Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Nian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A low-complexity compression algorithm for hyperspectral images based on distributed source coding (DSC is proposed in this paper. The proposed distributed compression algorithm can realize both lossless and lossy compression, which is implemented by performing scalar quantization strategy on the original hyperspectral images followed by distributed lossless compression. Multilinear regression model is introduced for distributed lossless compression in order to improve the quality of side information. Optimal quantized step is determined according to the restriction of the correct DSC decoding, which makes the proposed algorithm achieve near lossless compression. Moreover, an effective rate distortion algorithm is introduced for the proposed algorithm to achieve low bit rate. Experimental results show that the compression performance of the proposed algorithm is competitive with that of the state-of-the-art compression algorithms for hyperspectral images.

  10. AUTOMATIC GLOBAL REGISTRATION BETWEEN AIRBORNE LIDAR DATA AND REMOTE SENSING IMAGE BASED ON STRAIGHT LINE FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Q. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An automatic global registration approach for point clouds and remote sensing image based on straight line features is proposed which is insensitive to rotational and scale transformation. First, the building ridge lines and contour lines in point clouds are automatically detected as registration primitives by integrating region growth and topology identification. Second, the collinear condition equation is selected as registration transformation function which is based on rotation matrix described by unit quaternion. The similarity measure is established according to the distance between the corresponding straight line features from point clouds and the image in the same reference coordinate system. Finally, an iterative Hough transform is adopted to simultaneously estimate the parameters and obtain correspondence between registration primitives. Experimental results prove the proposed method is valid and the spectral information is useful for the following classification processing.

  11. Transfer and conversion of images based on EIT in atom vapor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Mingtao; Zhang, Liyun; Yu, Ya; Ye, Fengjuan; Wei, Dong; Guo, Wenge; Zhang, Shougang; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli

    2014-05-01

    Transfer and conversion of images between different wavelengths or polarization has significant applications in optical communication and quantum information processing. We demonstrated the transfer of images based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a rubidium vapor cell. In experiments, a 2D image generated by a spatial light modulator is used as a coupling field, and a plane wave served as a signal field. We found that the image carried by coupling field could be transferred to that carried by signal field, and the spatial patterns of transferred image are much better than that of the initial image. It also could be much smaller than that determined by the diffraction limit of the optical system. We also studied the subdiffraction propagation for the transferred image. Our results may have applications in quantum interference lithography and coherent Raman spectroscopy.

  12. Studies in the renormalization-prescription dependence of perturbative calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celmaster, W.; Sivers, D.

    1981-01-01

    Now that the quantitative testing of perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD) has become a major experimental and theoretical effort, it is important to understand the renormalization-prescription dependence of perturbative calculations. We stress the phenomenological importance of finding a definition of the QCD expansion parameter which reduces the magnitude of high-order corrections. We give explicit arguments suggesting that a choice of coupling based on momentum-space subtraction can be phenomenologically useful. Examples from QCD and QED are used to illustrate these arguments, and we also discuss possibilities for refining them

  13. Changing Infliximab Prescription Patterns in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Broberg, Marie Christine Hede

    2018-01-01

    Background: Long-term data on real life use of infliximab (IFX) for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are lacking. We studied prescription patterns during the first 16 years following marketing authorization. Methods: In a population-based cohort from the North Denmark Region, all IBD patients...... exposed to IFX during 1999 to 2014 were identified. Results: A total of 623 patients (210 with ulcerative colitis [UC] and 413 with Crohn's disease [CD]) were exposed to IFX. In patients with UC, age at first exposure decreased by 10 months per calendar year (P ... with CD, disease duration at time of first IFX exposure decreased by 7 months per calendar year (P

  14. A user-friendly tool for incremental haemodialysis prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casino, Francesco Gaetano; Basile, Carlo

    2018-01-05

    There is a recently heightened interest in incremental haemodialysis (IHD), the main advantage of which could likely be a better preservation of the residual kidney function of the patients. The implementation of IHD, however, is hindered by many factors, among them, the mathematical complexity of its prescription. The aim of our study was to design a user-friendly tool for IHD prescription, consisting of only a few rows of a common spreadsheet. The keystone of our spreadsheet was the following fundamental concept: the dialysis dose to be prescribed in IHD depends only on the normalized urea clearance provided by the native kidneys (KRUn) of the patient for each frequency of treatment, according to the variable target model recently proposed by Casino and Basile (The variable target model: a paradigm shift in the incremental haemodialysis prescription. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2017; 32: 182-190). The first step was to put in sequence a series of equations in order to calculate, firstly, KRUn and, then, the key parameters to be prescribed for an adequate IHD; the second step was to compare KRUn values obtained with our spreadsheet with KRUn values obtainable with the gold standard Solute-solver (Daugirdas JT et al., Solute-solver: a web-based tool for modeling urea kinetics for a broad range of hemodialysis schedules in multiple patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 54: 798-809) in a sample of 40 incident haemodialysis patients. Our spreadsheet provided excellent results. The differences with Solute-solver were clinically negligible. This was confirmed by the Bland-Altman plot built to analyse the agreement between KRUn values obtained with the two methods: the difference was 0.07 ± 0.05 mL/min/35 L. Our spreadsheet is a user-friendly tool able to provide clinically acceptable results in IHD prescription. Two immediate consequences could derive: (i) a larger dissemination of IHD might occur; and (ii) our spreadsheet could represent a useful tool for an ineludibly

  15. Image-based modeling of tumor shrinkage in head and neck radiation therapy1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ming; Xie, Yaoqin; Moros, Eduardo G.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Xing, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Understanding the kinetics of tumor growth∕shrinkage represents a critical step in quantitative assessment of therapeutics and realization of adaptive radiation therapy. This article presents a novel framework for image-based modeling of tumor change and demonstrates its performance with synthetic images and clinical cases. Methods: Due to significant tumor tissue content changes, similarity-based models are not suitable for describing the process of tumor volume changes. Under the hypothesis that tissue features in a tumor volume or at the boundary region are partially preserved, the kinetic change was modeled in two steps: (1) Autodetection of homologous tissue features shared by two input images using the scale invariance feature transformation (SIFT) method; and (2) establishment of a voxel-to-voxel correspondence between the images for the remaining spatial points by interpolation. The correctness of the tissue feature correspondence was assured by a bidirectional association procedure, where SIFT features were mapped from template to target images and reversely. A series of digital phantom experiments and five head and neck clinical cases were used to assess the performance of the proposed technique. Results: The proposed technique can faithfully identify the known changes introduced when constructing the digital phantoms. The subsequent feature-guided thin plate spline calculation reproduced the “ground truth” with accuracy better than 1.5 mm. For the clinical cases, the new algorithm worked reliably for a volume change as large as 30%. Conclusions: An image-based tumor kinetic algorithm was developed to model the tumor response to radiation therapy. The technique provides a practical framework for future application in adaptive radiation therapy. PMID:20527569

  16. Image-based modeling of tumor shrinkage in head and neck radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Ming; Xie Yaoqin; Moros, Eduardo G.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Xing Lei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Understanding the kinetics of tumor growth/shrinkage represents a critical step in quantitative assessment of therapeutics and realization of adaptive radiation therapy. This article presents a novel framework for image-based modeling of tumor change and demonstrates its performance with synthetic images and clinical cases. Methods: Due to significant tumor tissue content changes, similarity-based models are not suitable for describing the process of tumor volume changes. Under the hypothesis that tissue features in a tumor volume or at the boundary region are partially preserved, the kinetic change was modeled in two steps: (1) Autodetection of homologous tissue features shared by two input images using the scale invariance feature transformation (SIFT) method; and (2) establishment of a voxel-to-voxel correspondence between the images for the remaining spatial points by interpolation. The correctness of the tissue feature correspondence was assured by a bidirectional association procedure, where SIFT features were mapped from template to target images and reversely. A series of digital phantom experiments and five head and neck clinical cases were used to assess the performance of the proposed technique. Results: The proposed technique can faithfully identify the known changes introduced when constructing the digital phantoms. The subsequent feature-guided thin plate spline calculation reproduced the ''ground truth'' with accuracy better than 1.5 mm. For the clinical cases, the new algorithm worked reliably for a volume change as large as 30%. Conclusions: An image-based tumor kinetic algorithm was developed to model the tumor response to radiation therapy. The technique provides a practical framework for future application in adaptive radiation therapy.

  17. Ultrasound image based visual servoing for moving target ablation by high intensity focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joonho; Koizumi, Norihiro; Mitsuishi, Mamoru; Sugita, Naohiko

    2017-12-01

    Although high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a promising technology for tumor treatment, a moving abdominal target is still a challenge in current HIFU systems. In particular, respiratory-induced organ motion can reduce the treatment efficiency and negatively influence the treatment result. In this research, we present: (1) a methodology for integration of ultrasound (US) image based visual servoing in a HIFU system; and (2) the experimental results obtained using the developed system. In the visual servoing system, target motion is monitored by biplane US imaging and tracked in real time (40 Hz) by registration with a preoperative 3D model. The distance between the target and the current HIFU focal position is calculated in every US frame and a three-axis robot physically compensates for differences. Because simultaneous HIFU irradiation disturbs US target imaging, a sophisticated interlacing strategy was constructed. In the experiments, respiratory-induced organ motion was simulated in a water tank with a linear actuator and kidney-shaped phantom model. Motion compensation with HIFU irradiation was applied to the moving phantom model. Based on the experimental results, visual servoing exhibited a motion compensation accuracy of 1.7 mm (RMS) on average. Moreover, the integrated system could make a spherical HIFU-ablated lesion in the desired position of the respiratory-moving phantom model. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our US image based visual servoing technique in a HIFU system for moving target treatment. © 2016 The Authors The International Journal of Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Image-based modeling of tumor shrinkage in head and neck radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao Ming; Xie Yaoqin; Moros, Eduardo G.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Xing Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Stanford, California 94305-5847 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham Street, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205-1799 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 W. Markham Street, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205-1799 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 875 Blake Wilbur Drive, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: Understanding the kinetics of tumor growth/shrinkage represents a critical step in quantitative assessment of therapeutics and realization of adaptive radiation therapy. This article presents a novel framework for image-based modeling of tumor change and demonstrates its performance with synthetic images and clinical cases. Methods: Due to significant tumor tissue content changes, similarity-based models are not suitable for describing the process of tumor volume changes. Under the hypothesis that tissue features in a tumor volume or at the boundary region are partially preserved, the kinetic change was modeled in two steps: (1) Autodetection of homologous tissue features shared by two input images using the scale invariance feature transformation (SIFT) method; and (2) establishment of a voxel-to-voxel correspondence between the images for the remaining spatial points by interpolation. The correctness of the tissue feature correspondence was assured by a bidirectional association procedure, where SIFT features were mapped from template to target images and reversely. A series of digital phantom experiments and five head and neck clinical cases were used to assess the performance of the proposed technique. Results: The proposed technique can faithfully identify the known changes introduced when constructing the digital phantoms. The subsequent feature-guided thin plate spline calculation reproduced the ''ground truth'' with accuracy better than 1.5 mm. For the clinical cases, the new algorithm worked reliably for a volume change as large as 30%. Conclusions: An image-based tumor kinetic algorithm was developed to model the tumor response to radiation therapy. The technique provides a practical framework for future application in adaptive radiation therapy.

  19. Differences in prevalence of prescription opiate misuse among rural and urban probationers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Jennifer R; Oser, Carrie B; Leukefeld, Carl G; Webster, J Matthew; Martin, Steven S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Surratt, Hilary L; Inciardi, James A

    2007-01-01

    We compared the prevalence of prescription opiate misuse among 2 cohorts of felony probationers (N = 1525). Multiple logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent correlates of prescription opiate misuse among rural (n = 782) and urban (n = 743) probationers participating in an HIV-intervention study. After adjustment for differences in demographic and drug use characteristics, rural participants were almost five times more likely than their urban counterparts to have misused prescription opiates. The prevalence of prescription opiate misuse was significantly higher among the rural probationers; however, given the paucity of illicit opiates and relatively recent emergence of prescription opiates in rural areas, rural substance abuse treatment may be ill-prepared to treat prescription opiate misuse.

  20. Compliance with the guidelines of prescription writing in a central hospital in the West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayem, Y I; Ibrahim, M A; Qubaja, M M; Shraim, R K; Taha, O B; Abu Shkhedem, E

    2013-09-01

    This retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the quality of 2208 outpatient prescriptions in a central hospital in the West Bank, Palestine. The physicians' handwriting was poorly readable or illegible in one-third of the prescriptions. The prescriber's name and signature and patient's name were mentioned in almost all orders whereas the patient's age was stated in 54.9%. The vast majority of physicians (95.5%) prescribed drugs using their trade (brand) names. Drug strength, quantity and dose/frequency were stated in 61.1%, 76% and 73.8% of prescriptions respectively. Only 33 prescriptions (1.5%) contained full directions for use for all drugs. Correlation analysis revealed that the presence of certain prescription elements was statistically significantly associated with the clinic of origin and the number of drugs prescribed. The overall poor legibility and incompleteness of the prescriptions is of concern.

  1. Analysis of prescription database extracted from standard textbooks of traditional Dai medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chuang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Dai Medicine (TDM is one of the four major ethnomedicine of China. In 2007 a group of experts produced a set of seven Dai medical textbooks on this subject. The first two were selected as the main data source to analyse well recognized prescriptions. Objective To quantify patterns of prescriptions, common ingredients, indications and usages of TDM. Methods A relational database linking the prescriptions, ingredients, herb names, indications, and usages was set up. Frequency of pattern of combination and common ingredients were tabulated. Results A total of 200 prescriptions and 402 herbs were compiled. Prescriptions based on "wind" disorders, a detoxification theory that most commonly deals with symptoms of digestive system diseases, accounted for over one third of all prescriptions. The major methods of preparations mostly used roots and whole herbs. Conclusion The information extracted from the relational database may be useful for understanding symptomatic treatments. Antidote and detoxification theory deserves further research.

  2. Analysis of prescription database extracted from standard textbooks of traditional Dai medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chuang; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Keawpradub, Niwat; Lin, Yanfang

    2012-08-29

    Traditional Dai Medicine (TDM) is one of the four major ethnomedicine of China. In 2007 a group of experts produced a set of seven Dai medical textbooks on this subject. The first two were selected as the main data source to analyse well recognized prescriptions. To quantify patterns of prescriptions, common ingredients, indications and usages of TDM. A relational database linking the prescriptions, ingredients, herb names, indications, and usages was set up. Frequency of pattern of combination and common ingredients were tabulated. A total of 200 prescriptions and 402 herbs were compiled. Prescriptions based on "wind" disorders, a detoxification theory that most commonly deals with symptoms of digestive system diseases, accounted for over one third of all prescriptions. The major methods of preparations mostly used roots and whole herbs. The information extracted from the relational database may be useful for understanding symptomatic treatments. Antidote and detoxification theory deserves further research.

  3. Study on drug costs associated with COPD prescription medicine in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M; Anker, N; Dollerup, J

    2013-01-01

    that the costs associated with COPD in Denmark are significant, but costs of prescription medicine for COPD were not analysed. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the societal costs associated with prescription medicine for COPD in Denmark. METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide retrospective register study...... in 2010 with total costs of DKK 685 million (EUR 92 million). The average lifetime costs associated with COPD prescription medicine were estimated to be DKK 70,000-75,000 (EUR 9,416-10,089) per patient (2010 prices). CONCLUSION: The costs associated with prescription medicine for COPD in Denmark...... of the drug costs (ATC group R03) associated with COPD in the period 2001-2010. Data were retrieved from the Prescription Database, the National Patient Register and the Centralised Civil Register. The population comprised individuals (40+ years) who had at least one prescription of selected R03 drugs and who...

  4. STUDY ON DRUG COSTS ASSOCIATED WITH COPD PRESCRIPTION MEDICINE IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Iris Marie; Anker, Niels; Dolleru, Jens

    2012-01-01

    that the costs associated with COPD in Denmark are significant, but costs of prescription medicine for COPD were not analysed. OBJECTIVES: To analyse the societal costs associated with prescription medicine for COPD in Denmark. METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide retrospective register study...... in 2010 with total costs of DKK 685 million (EUR 92 million). The average lifetime costs associated with COPD prescription medicine were estimated to be DKK 70,000-75,000 (EUR 9,416-10,089) per patient (2010 prices). CONCLUSION: The costs associated with prescription medicine for COPD in Denmark...... of the drug costs (ATC group R03) associated with COPD in the period 2001-2010. Data were retrieved from the Prescription Database, the National Patient Register and the Centralised Civil Register. The population comprised individuals (40+ years) who had at least one prescription of selected R03 drugs and who...

  5. Recommendations from gynaecological (GYN) GEC ESTRO working group (II): Concepts and terms in 3D image-based treatment planning in cervix cancer brachytherapy-3D dose volume parameters and aspects of 3D image-based anatomy, radiation physics, radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter, Richard; Haie-Meder, Christine; Limbergen, Erik van; Barillot, Isabelle; Brabandere, Marisol De; Dimopoulos, Johannes; Dumas, Isabelle; Erickson, Beth; Lang, Stefan; Nulens, An; Petrow, Peter; Rownd, Jason; Kirisits, Christian

    2006-01-01

    The second part of the GYN GEC ESTRO working group recommendations is focused on 3D dose-volume parameters for brachytherapy of cervical carcinoma. Methods and parameters have been developed and validated from dosimetric, imaging and clinical experience from different institutions (University of Vienna, IGR Paris, University of Leuven). Cumulative dose volume histograms (DVH) are recommended for evaluation of the complex dose heterogeneity. DVH parameters for GTV, HR CTV and IR CTV are the minimum dose delivered to 90 and 100% of the respective volume: D90, D100. The volume, which is enclosed by 150 or 200% of the prescribed dose (V150, V200), is recommended for overall assessment of high dose volumes. V100 is recommended for quality assessment only within a given treatment schedule. For Organs at Risk (OAR) the minimum dose in the most irradiated tissue volume is recommended for reporting: 0.1, 1, and 2 cm 3 ; optional 5 and 10 cm 3 . Underlying assumptions are: full dose of external beam therapy in the volume of interest, identical location during fractionated brachytherapy, contiguous volumes and contouring of organ walls for >2 cm 3 . Dose values are reported as absorbed dose and also taking into account different dose rates. The linear-quadratic radiobiological model-equivalent dose (EQD 2 )-is applied for brachytherapy and is also used for calculating dose from external beam therapy. This formalism allows systematic assessment within one patient, one centre and comparison between different centres with analysis of dose volume relations for GTV, CTV, and OAR. Recommendations for the transition period from traditional to 3D image-based cervix cancer brachytherapy are formulated. Supplementary data (available in the electronic version of this paper) deals with aspects of 3D imaging, radiation physics, radiation biology, dose at reference points and dimensions and volumes for the GTV and CTV (adding to [Haie-Meder C, Poetter R, Van Limbergen E et al

  6. A functional overview of conservation biological control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begg, Graham S; Cook, Samantha M; Dye, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is a sustainable approach to pest management that can contribute to a reduction in pesticide use as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy. CBC is based on the premise that countering habitat loss and environmental disturbance associated...... CBC prescriptions have proved elusive. To tackle this, we consolidate existing knowledge of CBC using a simple conceptual model that organises the functional elements of CBC into a common, unifying framework. We identify and integrate the key biological processes affecting natural enemies...... and their biological control function across local and regional scales, and consider the interactions, interdependencies and constraints that determine the outcome of CBC strategies. Conservation measures are often effective in supporting natural enemy populations but their success cannot be guaranteed; the greatest...

  7. The Effects of Bairesi Complex Prescription (a Uyghur Medicine Prescription and Its Five Crude Herbal Extracts on Melanogenesis in G-361 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuedan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo is considered a preimmune stage of a disease that is not well clarified. This condition is difficult to treat because there is no definite cure. Uyghur medicine is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. There are many types of prescriptions that are used for the treatment of vitiligo. Bairesi complex prescription is one of the active prescriptions for vitiligo that is used in the clinic. However, the intensities of melanogenesis due to uses of Bairesi complex prescription and its five constituent crude herbs have not been reported yet. In the present study, we found that the hot water extracts of Bairesi complex prescription and the crude herbs were more effective in eliciting melanin production in G-361 cells than the EtOH extracts. Furthermore, the Bairesi complex prescription exhibited less cytotoxicity and was more effective in melanin formation than the five crude herbal extracts. In the present study, we also discuss the mechanisms of melanogenesis due to the use of the Bairesi complex prescription and its single crude herbal extracts.

  8. Towards Non-prescriptive Issues: a Teaching Framework for Selecting Marketing Dissertation Topics

    OpenAIRE

    Horan, Conor

    2006-01-01

    There is a significant absence in academic literature, textbooks and practical teaching tools for advising or guiding student learning, in a practical non-prescriptive manner, toward topic selection and development. Prescriptive or rational approaches, taken by many research methods textbooks, are not adequate or sufficient when teaching this important first stage in the research process. Non-prescriptive approaches describing manageable steps should be researched more to fill this pedagogic ...

  9. A smart-card-enabled privacy preserving E-prescription system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanjiang; Han, Xiaoxi; Bao, Feng; Deng, Robert H

    2004-03-01

    Within the overall context of protection of health care information, privacy of prescription data needs special treatment. First, the involvement of diverse parties, especially nonmedical parties in the process of drug prescription complicates the protection of prescription data. Second, both patients and doctors have privacy stakes in prescription, and their privacy should be equally protected. Third, the following facts determine that prescription should not be processed in a truly anonymous manner: certain involved parties conduct useful research on the basis of aggregation of prescription data that are linkable with respect to either the patients or the doctors; prescription data has to be identifiable in some extreme circumstances, e.g., under the court order for inspection and assign liability. In this paper, we propose an e-prescription system to address issues pertaining to the privacy protection in the process of drug prescription. In our system, patients' smart cards play an important role. For one thing, the smart cards are implemented to be portable repositories carrying up-to-date personal medical records and insurance information, providing doctors instant data access crucial to the process of diagnosis and prescription. For the other, with the secret signing key being stored inside, the smart card enables the patient to sign electronically the prescription pad, declaring his acceptance of the prescription. To make the system more realistic, we identify the needs for a patient to delegate his signing capability to other people so as to protect the privacy of information housed on his card. A strong proxy signature scheme achieving technologically mutual agreements on the delegation is proposed to implement the delegation functionality.

  10. Prescription Pattern Analysis of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in the Northeastern Iranian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinali, Majid; Tabeshpour, Jamshid; Maziar, Seyed Vahid; Taherzadeh, Zhila; Zirak, Mohammad Reza; Sent, Danielle; Azarkhiavi, Kamal Razavi; Eslami, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Inappropriate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) therapy is a common cause of actual and potential adverse effects, such as bleeding and gastrointestinal ulceration, which exacerbates the patient's medical condition and might even be life threatening. We aimed to evaluate and analyze the prescription pattern of NSAIDs in Northeastern Iranian population and also provide suggestions for a more rational prescription behavior for such drugs. In this cross-sectional retrospective study, pattern of 1-year prescriptions was inspected based on 9.3 million prescriptions from two insurance companies. Type of NSAIDs, all dispensed doses and the number of NSAIDs ordered per prescription, and the route of administration for each patient were extracted from the databases. The prescription pattern of NSAIDs was analyzed seasonally. Out of 9,303,585 prescriptions, 19.3% contained at least one NSAID. Diclofenac was the most commonly prescribed NSAID (49.21%). At least two NSAIDs were simultaneously prescribed in 7% of prescriptions. General practitioners prescribed NSAIDs more frequently (67%) than specialists. Orthopedic surgeons and internists more frequently prescribed NSAIDs in comparison with other physicians (6% and 4%, respectively). Gastroprotective agents (GPAs) were coprescribed to only 7.62% of prescriptions. The frequency of NSAIDs prescription was relatively high in Northeast of Iran. A significant number of prescriptions were associated with irrational prescribing in both coadministration of NSAIDs and GPAs and NSAIDs combination. A strategy must be developed and implemented for prescribing and rational use of medications, e.g., continuing medical education regarding the potential risks of NSAIDs, importance of their appropriate and rational use, and necessity of appropriate prescription writing regarding both content and indication.

  11. The mental health consequences of nonmedical prescription drug use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mir M; Dean, David; Lipari, Rachel; Dowd, William N; Aldridge, Arnie P; Novak, Scott P

    2015-03-01

    Nonmedical prescription drug use is estimated to be the second most abused category of drugs after marijuana among adolescents. Prescription drugs can be highly addictive and prolonged use can produce neurological changes and physiological dependence and could result in adverse mental health outcomes. This topic is largely unexplored, as current knowledge of possible mechanisms of the linkage between adverse mental health consequences and prescription drug misuse is limited. This study explores the relationship between nonmedical use of prescription drugs and depression outcomes among adolescents. Given their complex and confounded relationship, our purpose is to better understand the extent to which nonmedical use of prescription drugs is an antecedent of depressive episodes. Using data from the 2008-2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the study employs a propensity score matching methodology to ascertain whether nonmedical use of prescription drugs is linked to major depressive episodes among adolescents. The results document a positive relationship between nonmedical prescription drug use and major depressive episodes among adolescents. Specifically, the results indicate that adolescents who used prescription drugs non-medically are 33% to 35% more likely to experience major depressive episodes compared to their non-abusing counterparts. This provides additional evidence about the potential public health consequences of misuse of prescription drugs on adverse mental health outcomes. Given the significant increased risk of major depressive episode among adolescents who use prescription drugs nonmedically, it seems that the prevention of nonmedical prescription drug use warrants the utilization of both educational and public health resources. An important area for future research is to understand how any policy initiatives in this area must strike a balance between the need to minimize the misuse of prescription drugs and the need to ensure access for

  12. Correlates of Prescription Opioid Legitimacy Judgments Among Community Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Alamian, Arsham; Murawski, Matthew M; Flippin, Heather; Hagy, Elizabeth J; Pack, Robert P

    2016-05-11

    Community pharmacists are legally required to evaluate and confirm the legitimacy of prescription opioids (POs) prior to dispensing. Yet, previous research has indicated community pharmacists perceive nearly 50% of dispensed POs to be issued lacking a legitimate medical purpose. To analyze correlates of PO legitimacy judgments across pharmacist and pharmacy setting characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 2000 Tennessee pharmacists was conducted during October and November of 2012. Community pharmacists' self-reported attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors specific to PO legitimacy were elicited. Step-wise multinomial logistic regression techniques were used to model correlates of PO legitimacy across low, moderate and high PO legitimacy estimations. Being female, practicing in a chain or independent practice setting, fear of employer disciplinary action if PO legitimacy is questioned, and self-confidence in one's ability to detect PO abuse increased the odds of low (vs. high) PO legitimacy estimation (p legitimacy estimation (p legitimacy judgments. Distinct correlates were noted across low and moderate as compared to high estimations of PO legitimacy. Legitimacy judgments can inform theoretical exploration of PO dispensing behaviors and inform intervention development targeted at reducing and preventing prescription drug abuse.

  13. Intravenous fluid prescription practices among pediatric residents in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwon M. Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Recent studies have established the association between hypotonic fluids administration and hospital-acquired hyponatremia in children, and have contended that hypotonic fluids be removed from routine practice. To assess current intravenous fluid prescription practices among Korean pediatric residents and to call for updated clinical-practice education Methods: A survey-based analysis was carried out. Pediatric residents at six university hospitals in Korea completed a survey consisting of four questions. Each question supposed a unique scenario in which the respondents were to prescribe either a hypotonic or an isotonic fluid for the patient. Results: Ninety-one responses were collected and analyzed. In three of the four scenarios, a significant majority prescribed the hypotonic fluids (98.9%, 85.7%, and 69.2%, respectively. Notably, 69.2% of the respondents selected the hypotonic fluids for postoperative management. Almost all (96.7% selected the isotonic fluids for hydration therapy. Conclusion: In the given scenarios, the majority of Korean pediatric residents would prescribe a hypotonic fluid, except for initial hydration. The current state of pediatric fluid management, notably, heightens the risk of hospital-acquired hyponatremia. Updated clinical practice education on intravenous fluid prescription, therefore, is urgently required.

  14. Intravenous fluid prescription practices among pediatric residents in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiwon M; Jung, Younghwa; Lee, Se Eun; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Kee Hyuck; Koo, Ja Wook; Park, Young Seo; Cheong, Hae Il; Ha, Il-Soo; Choi, Yong; Kang, Hee Gyung

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have established the association between hypotonic fluids administration and hospital-acquired hyponatremia in children. The present paper investigated the pattern of current practice in intravenous fluid prescription among Korean pediatric residents, to underscore the need for updated education. A survey-based analysis was carried out. Pediatric residents at six university hospitals in Korea completed a survey consisting of four questions. Each question proposed a unique scenario in which the respondents had to prescribe either a hypotonic or an isotonic fluid for the patient. Ninety-one responses were collected and analyzed. In three of the four scenarios, a significant majority prescribed the hypotonic fluids (98.9%, 85.7%, and 69.2%, respectively). Notably, 69.2% of the respondents selected the hypotonic fluids for postoperative management. Almost all (96.7%) selected the isotonic fluids for hydration therapy. In the given scenarios, the majority of Korean pediatric residents would prescribe a hypotonic fluid, except for initial hydration. The current state of pediatric fluid management, notably, heightens the risk of hospital-acquired hyponatremia. Updated clinical practice education on intravenous fluid prescription, therefore, is urgently required.

  15. Environmental impact assessment of pharmaceutical prescriptions: Does location matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenkamp, Rik; Huijbregts, Mark A J; Hollander, Anne; Ragas, Ad M J

    2014-11-01

    A methodology was developed for the assessment and comparison of the environmental impact of two alternative pharmaceutical prescriptions. This methodology provides physicians with the opportunity to include environmental considerations in their choice of prescription. A case study with the two antibiotics ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin at three locations throughout Europe showed that the preference for a pharmaceutical might show spatial variation, i.e. comparison of two pharmaceuticals might yield different results when prescribed at different locations. This holds when the comparison is based on both the impact on the aquatic environment and the impact on human health. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on human health were largely determined by the local handling of secondary sludge, agricultural disposal practices, the extent of secondary sewage treatment, and local food consumption patterns. The relative impacts of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin on the aquatic environment were mostly explained by the presence of specific sewage treatment techniques, as effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) are the most relevant emission pathway for the aquatic environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising and the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A; Kravitz, Richard L; Wilkes, Michael S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Drug manufacturers are intensely promoting their products directly to consumers, but the impact has not been widely studied. Consumers' awareness and understanding of, attitudes toward, and susceptibility to direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising were examined. DESIGN Random-digit dialing telephone survey with a random household member selection procedure (completion and response rates, 58% and 69%, respectively). SETTING Respondents were interviewed while they were at their residences. PARTICIPANTS Complete data were obtained from 329 adults in Sacramento County, California. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Outcome measures included awareness of advertisements for 10 selected drugs, misconceptions about DTC advertising, attitudes toward DTC ads, and behavioral responses to such promotions. The influence of demographic characteristics, health status, attitudes, beliefs, and media exposure on awareness and behaviors was examined. On average, respondents were aware of advertisements for 3.7 of the 10 drugs; awareness varied from 8% for Buspar (buspirone) to 72% for Claritin (loratadine). Awareness was associated with prescription drug use, media exposure, positive attitudes toward DTC advertising, poorer health, and insurance status. Substantial misconceptions were revealed; e.g., 43% thought that only “completely safe” drugs could be advertised. Direct-to-consumer advertisements had led one third of respondents to ask their physicians for drug information and one fifth to request a prescription. CONCLUSIONS Direct-to-consumer advertisements are reaching the public, but selectively so, and affecting their behaviors. Implications for public policy are examined. PMID:10571712

  17. IMRT treatment planning based on prioritizing prescription goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkens, Jan J; Alaly, James R; Zakarian, Konstantin; Thorstad, Wade L; Deasy, Joseph O

    2007-01-01

    Determining the 'best' optimization parameters in IMRT planning is typically a time-consuming trial-and-error process with no unambiguous termination point. Recently we and others proposed a goal-programming approach which better captures the desired prioritization of dosimetric goals. Here, individual prescription goals are addressed stepwise in their order of priority. In the first step, only the highest order goals are considered (target coverage and dose-limiting normal structures). In subsequent steps, the achievements of the previous steps are turned into hard constraints and lower priority goals are optimized, in turn, subject to higher priority constraints. So-called 'slip' factors were introduced to allow for slight, clinically acceptable violations of the constraints. Focusing on head and neck cases, we present several examples for this planning technique. The main advantages of the new optimization method are (i) its ability to generate plans that meet the clinical goals, as well as possible, without tuning any weighting factors or dose-volume constraints, and (ii) the ability to conveniently include more terms such as fluence map smoothness. Lower level goals can be optimized to the achievable limit without compromising higher order goals. The prioritized prescription-goal planning method allows for a more intuitive and human-time-efficient way of dealing with conflicting goals compared to the conventional trial-and-error method of varying weighting factors and dose-volume constraints

  18. Direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R A; Kravitz, R L; Wilkes, M S

    1999-11-01

    Drug manufacturers are intensely promoting their products directly to consumers, but the impact has not been widely studied. Consumers' awareness and understanding of, attitudes toward, and susceptibility to direct-to-consumer (DTC) drug advertising were examined. Random-digit dialing telephone survey with a random household member selection procedure (completion and response rates, 58% and 69%, respectively). Respondents were interviewed while they were at their residences. Complete data were obtained from 329 adults in Sacramento County, California. Outcome measures included awareness of advertisements for 10 selected drugs, misconceptions about DTC advertising, attitudes toward DTC ads, and behavioral responses to such promotions. The influence of demographic characteristics, health status, attitudes, beliefs, and media exposure on awareness and behaviors was examined. On average, respondents were aware of advertisements for 3.7 of the 10 drugs; awareness varied from 8% for Buspar (buspirone) to 72% for Claritin (loratadine). Awareness was associated with prescription drug use, media exposure, positive attitudes toward DTC advertising, poorer health, and insurance status. Substantial misconceptions were revealed; e.g., 43% thought that only "completely safe" drugs could be advertised. Direct-to-consumer advertisements had led one third of respondents to ask their physicians for drug information and one fifth to request a prescription. Direct-to-consumer advertisements are reaching the public, but selectively so, and affecting their behaviors. Implications for public policy are examined.

  19. Prescription-event monitoring in Japan (J-PEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    In prescription-event monitoring in Japan (J-PEM), patients are identified by prescriptions in individual pharmacies where drugs are dispensed. The methodology is somewhat different to that used by the Drug Safety Research Unit in the UK, in that two questionnaires, one to the pharmacist and the other to the doctor are sent for each patient and the method of concurrent control is employed in J-PEM. In the data analysis, the list of events reported as a suspected reaction or a reason for stopping the drug is made to generate a signal. In addition, a signal may be generated for some events with the statistically significant difference of crude rates followed by the regression analysis or a follow-up study. In J-PEM, Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) terminology is used for data entry and data analysis. Lowest level terms (LLTs) in MedDRA are used in data entry while a signal is generated using preferred terms (PTs). However, to generate a signal effectively, some PTs may be grouped as one term. In addition, if two terms are so similar, it may be instructed that one of those two terms is normally selected in data entry to avoid confusion. Many more PEM studies could be undertaken to determine if MedDRA can be used for effective signal generation, but the usefulness of MedDRA in J-PEM is still to be determined.

  20. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.