WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological image-adapted radiotherapy

  1. The biological basis of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.; Adams, G.E.; Horwich, A.

    1989-01-01

    The focus of this book is the biological basis of radiotherapy. The papers presented include: Temporal stages of radiation action:free radical processes; The molecular basis of radiosensitivity; and Radiation damage to early-reacting normal tissue

  2. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  3. From biology to radiotherapy: state of place and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, E.

    1997-01-01

    From about ten years, several biological parameters have been evaluated in order to determine which ones could be the tests with a predictive value regarding the radiotherapy response for human tumors. The biological studies have been made on the evaluation of tumor oxygenation, of the cell proliferation, of the number of clonogenic cells and the intrinsic radiosensitivity evaluated by the study of the cells fraction surviving to 2 Grays. (N.C.)

  4. Predicted allowable doses to normal organs for biologically targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, J.A.; Wheldon, T.E.; Western Regional Hospital Board, Glasgow

    1988-01-01

    The authors have used Dale's extension to the ''linear quadratic'' (LQ) model (Dale, 1985) to evaluate ''equivalent doses'' in cases involving exponentially decaying dose rates. This analysis indicates that the dose-rate effect will be a significant determinant of allowable doses to organs such as liver, kidney and lung. These organ tolerance doses constitute independent constraints on the therapeutic intensity of biologically targeted radiotherapy in exactly the same way as for conventional external beam radiotherapy. In the context of marrow rescue they will in all likelihood constitute the dose-limiting side-effects and thus be especially important. (author)

  5. Biology of cancer and cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, R.; Prasad, D.

    2005-01-01

    It is evident that the better understanding of cancer biology coupled with technological advances have enabled clinicians to provide better care and more cures to their patients. However, most advanced cancers are not cured with the present methods of treatment and this provides the impetus for vigorous efforts for basic, translational and clinical research, and to develop, test and disseminate novel or cost effective technology

  6. Biology-based combined-modality radiotherapy: workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Kathryn A.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.; Milas, Luka

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this workshop summary is to provide an overview of preclinical and clinical data on combined-modality radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The 8th Annual Radiation Workshop at Round Top was held April 13-16, 2000 at the International Festival Institute (Round Top, TX). Results: Presentations by 30 speakers (from Germany, Netherlands, Australia, England, and France along with U.S. participants and M. D. Anderson Cancer Center faculty) formed the framework for discussions on the current status and future perspectives of biology-based combined-modality radiotherapy. Conclusion: Cellular and molecular pathways available for radiation modification by chemical and biologic agents are numerous, providing new opportunities for translational research in radiation oncology and for more effective combined-modality treatment of cancer

  7. Evaluation of conformal radiotherapy techniques through physics and biologic criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Jonatas Carrero

    2012-01-01

    In the fight against cancer, different irradiation techniques have been developed based on technological advances and aiming to optimize the elimination of tumor cells with the lowest damage to healthy tissues. The radiotherapy planning goal is to establish irradiation technical parameters in order to achieve the prescribed dose distribution over the treatment volumes. While dose prescription is based on radiosensitivity of the irradiated tissues, the physical calculations on treatment planning take into account dosimetric parameters related to the radiation beam and the physical characteristics of the irradiated tissues. To incorporate tissue's radiosensitivity into radiotherapy planning calculations can help particularize treatments and establish criteria to compare and elect radiation techniques, contributing to the tumor control and the success of the treatment. Accordingly, biological models of cellular response to radiation have to be well established. This work aimed to study the applicability of using biological models in radiotherapy planning calculations to aid evaluating radiotherapy techniques. Tumor control probability (TCP) was studied for two formulations of the linear-quadratic model, with and without repopulation, as a function of planning parameters, as dose per fraction, and of radiobiological parameters, as the α/β ratio. Besides, the usage of biological criteria to compare radiotherapy techniques was tested using a prostate planning simulated with Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Afterwards, prostate planning for five patients from the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, using three different techniques were compared using the tumor control probability. In that order, dose matrices from the XiO treatment planning system were converted to TCP distributions and TCP-volume histograms. The studies performed allow the conclusions that radiobiological parameters can significantly influence tumor control

  8. Towards multidimensional radiotherapy (MD-CRT): biological imaging and biological conformality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling, C. Clifton; Humm, John; Larson, Steven; Amols, Howard; Fuks, Zvi; Leibel, Steven; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The goals of this study were to survey and summarize the advances in imaging that have potential applications in radiation oncology, and to explore the concept of integrating physical and biological conformality in multidimensional conformal radiotherapy (MD-CRT). Methods and Materials: The advances in three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) have greatly improved the physical conformality of treatment planning and delivery. The development of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has provided the 'dose painting' or 'dose sculpting' ability to further customize the delivered dose distribution. The improved capabilities of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy, and of positron emission tomography, are beginning to provide physiological and functional information about the tumor and its surroundings. In addition, molecular imaging promises to reveal tumor biology at the genotype and phenotype level. These developments converge to provide significant opportunities for enhancing the success of radiotherapy. Results: The ability of IMRT to deliver nonuniform dose patterns by design brings to fore the question of how to 'dose paint' and 'dose sculpt', leading to the suggestion that 'biological' images may be of assistance. In contrast to the conventional radiological images that primarily provide anatomical information, biological images reveal metabolic, functional, physiological, genotypic, and phenotypic data. Important for radiotherapy, the new and noninvasive imaging methods may yield three-dimensional radiobiological information. Studies are urgently needed to identify genotypes and phenotypes that affect radiosensitivity, and to devise methods to image them noninvasively. Incremental to the concept of gross, clinical, and planning target volumes (GTV, CTV, and PTV), we propose the concept of 'biological target volume' (BTV) and hypothesize that BTV can be derived from biological images and that their use may incrementally improve

  9. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D.; Cheze-Le-Rest, C.; Pradier, O.

    2009-01-01

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ( 18 F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  10. Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Gillin, Michael; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2011-01-01

    The development and use of sensitizing agents to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy have long been sought to improve our ability to treat cancer. In this letter, we have studied the relative biological effectiveness of proton beam radiotherapy on prostate tumor cells with and without internalized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of proton radiotherapy for the killing of prostate tumor cells was increased by approximately 15%-20% for those cells containing internalized gold nanoparticles.

  11. Enhanced relative biological effectiveness of proton radiotherapy in tumor cells with internalized gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polf, Jerimy C.; Bronk, Lawrence F.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata; Gillin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The development and use of sensitizing agents to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy have long been sought to improve our ability to treat cancer. In this letter, we have studied the relative biological effectiveness of proton beam radiotherapy on prostate tumor cells with and without internalized gold nanoparticles. The effectiveness of proton radiotherapy for the killing of prostate tumor cells was increased by approximately 15%–20% for those cells containing internalized gold nanoparticles. PMID:21915155

  12. Biologically Weighted Quantities in Radiotherapy: an EMRP Joint Research Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabus Hans

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Funded within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP [1], the joint research project “Biologically weighted quantities in radiotherapy” (BioQuaRT [2] aims to develop measurement and simulation techniques for determining the physical properties of ionising particle tracks on different length scales (about 2 nm to 10 μm, and to investigate the correlation of these track structure characteristics with the biological effects of radiation at the cellular level. Work package 1 develops micro-calorimeter prototypes for the direct measurement of lineal energy and will characterise their response for different ion beams by experiment and modelling. Work package 2 develops techniques to measure particle track structure on different length scales in the nanometre range as well as a measurement device integrating a silicon microdosimeter and a nanodosimeter. Work package 3 investigates the indirect effects of radiation based on probes for quantifying particular radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Work package 4 focuses on the biological aspects of radiation damage and will produce data on initial DNA damage and late effects for radiotherapy beams of different qualities. Work package 5 provides evaluated data sets of DNA cross-sections and develops a multi-scale model to address microscopic and nanometric track structure properties. The project consortium includes three linked researchers holding so-called Researcher Excellence Grants, who carry out ancillary investigations such as developing and benchmarking a new biophysical model for induction of early radiation damage and developing methods for the translation of quantities derived from particle track structure to clinical applications in ion beam therapy.

  13. Physical and biological basis of hadron radiotherapy. Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The Workshop was a satellite event of the 14 th International Congress of Radiation Research (ICRR-2011). It was held in Cracow, Poland, on the 2 and 3 September 2011, at the Collegium Novum of the Jagiellonian University. The Workshop organized, jointly by the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Polish Radiation Research Society, would provide its participants with an opportunity to discuss current topics in proton and carbon radiotherapy, clinical aspects of ion radiotherapy, ion beam dosimetry, unwanted patient exposure, radiobiology for ion radiotherapy and other relevant subjects. Book of Abstracts contains abstracts of 33 oral presentations and 12 posters.

  14. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosnitz, L.R.; Kapp, D.S.; Weissberg, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This review highlights developments over the past decade in radiotherapy and attempts to summarize the state of the art in the management of the major diseases in which radiotherapy has a meaningful role. The equipment, radiobiology of radiotherapy and carcinoma of the lung, breast and intestines are highlighted

  15. Biological modelling of fuzzy target volumes in 3D radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levegruen, S.; Kampen, M. van; Waschek, T.; Engenhart, R.; Schlegel, W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The outcome of each radiotherapy depends critically on the optimal choice of the target volume. The goal of the radiotherapist is to include all tumor spread at the same time as saving as much healthy tissue as possible. Even when the information of all imaging modalities is combined, the diagnostic techniques are not sensitive and specific enough to visualize all microscopic tumor cell spread. Due to this lack of information there is room for different interpretations concerning the extend of the target volume, leading to a fuzzy target volume. The aim of this work is to develop a model to score different target volume boundaries within the region of diagnostic uncertainty in terms of tumor control probability (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Materials and Methods: In order to assess the region of diagnostic uncertainty, the radiotherapist defines interactively a minimal planning target volume that absolutely must be irradiated according to the diagnostic information available and a maximal planning target volume outside which no tumor cell spread is expected. For the NTCP calculation we use the Lyman 4 parameter model to estimate the response of an organ at risk to a uniform partial volume irradiation. The TCP calculation is based on the Poisson model of cell killing. The TCP estimation depends not only on volume, dose, clonogenic cell density and the α parameter of the linear quadratic model but also on the probability to find clonogenic cells in the considered volume. Inside the minimal PTV this probability is 1, outside the maximal PTV it is 0. Therefore all voxels inside the minimal PTV are assigned the value of 1 with respect to the target volume, all voxels outside the maximal PTV the value of 0. For voxels in the region of uncertainty in between, a 3D linear interpolation is performed. Here we assume the probability to follow the interpolated values. Starting with the minimal PTV, the expected gain in TCP and

  16. Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Jyothirmayi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Conservative treatment in the form of limited surgery and post-operative radiotherapy is controversial in hand and foot sarcomas, both due to poor radiation tolerance of the palm and sole, and due to technical difficulties in achieving adequate margins.This paper describes the local control and survival of 41 patients with soft tissue sarcoma of the hand or foot treated with conservative surgery and radiotherapy. The acute and late toxicity of megavoltage radiotherapy to the hand and foot are described. The technical issues and details of treatment delivery are discussed. The factors influencing local control after radiotherapy are analysed.

  17. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kulikov, V.A.; Mardynskij, Yu.S.

    1984-01-01

    The technique for roentgenotopometric and medicamentous preparation of patients for radiotherapy has been reported in detail. The features of planning and performing of remote, intracavitary and combined therapy in urinary bladder cancer are considered. The more effective methods of radiotherapy have been proposed taking into account own experience as well as literature data. The comparative evaluation of treatment results and prognosis are given. Radiation pathomorphism of tumors and tissues of urinary bladder is considered in detail. The problems of diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of complications following radiodiagnosis and radiotherapy in patients with urinary bladder cancer are illustrated widely

  18. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannenmacher, M.; Debus, J.; Wenz, F.

    2006-01-01

    The book is focussed on the actual knowledge on the clinical radiotherapy and radio-oncology. Besides fundamental and general contributions specific organ systems are treated in detail. The book contains the following contributions: Basic principles, radiobiological fundamentals, physical background, radiation pathology, basics and technique of brachytherapy, methodology and technique of the stereotactic radiosurgery, whole-body irradiation, operative radiotherapy, hadron therapy, hpyerthermia, combined radio-chemo-therapy, biometric clinical studies, intensity modulated radiotherapy, side effects, oncological diagnostics; central nervous system and sense organs, head-neck carcinomas, breast cancer, thorax organs, esophagus carcinoma, stomach carcinoma, pancreas carcinoma, heptabiliary cancer and liver metastases, rectal carcinomas, kidney and urinary tract, prostate carcinoma, testicular carcinoma, female pelvis, lymphatic system carcinomas, soft tissue carcinoma, skin cancer, bone metastases, pediatric tumors, nonmalignant diseases, emergency in radio-oncology, supporting therapy, palliative therapy

  19. Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sonja; Debus, Jürgen; Neuhof, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Solitary plasmocytoma occurring in bone (solitary plasmocytoma of the bone, SBP) or in soft tissue (extramedullary plasmocytoma, EP) can be treated effectively and with little toxicity by local radiotherapy. Ten-year local control rates of up to 90% can be achieved. Patients with multiple myeloma often suffer from symptoms such as pain or neurological impairments that are amenable to palliative radiotherapy. In a palliative setting, short treatment schedules and lower radiation doses are used to reduce toxicity and duration of hospitalization. In future, low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) may play a role in a potentially curative regimen with nonmyeloablative conditioning followed by allogenic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

  20. Molecular PET imaging for biology-guided adaptive radiotherapy of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeben, Bianca A W; Bussink, Johan; Troost, Esther G C; Oyen, Wim J G; Kaanders, Johannes H A M

    2013-10-01

    Integration of molecular imaging PET techniques into therapy selection strategies and radiation treatment planning for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) can serve several purposes. First, pre-treatment assessments can steer decisions about radiotherapy modifications or combinations with other modalities. Second, biology-based objective functions can be introduced to the radiation treatment planning process by co-registration of molecular imaging with planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Thus, customized heterogeneous dose distributions can be generated with escalated doses to tumor areas where radiotherapy resistance mechanisms are most prevalent. Third, monitoring of temporal and spatial variations in these radiotherapy resistance mechanisms early during the course of treatment can discriminate responders from non-responders. With such information available shortly after the start of treatment, modifications can be implemented or the radiation treatment plan can be adapted tailing the biological response pattern. Currently, these strategies are in various phases of clinical testing, mostly in single-center studies. Further validation in multicenter set-up is needed. Ultimately, this should result in availability for routine clinical practice requiring stable production and accessibility of tracers, reproducibility and standardization of imaging and analysis methods, as well as general availability of knowledge and expertise. Small studies employing adaptive radiotherapy based on functional dynamics and early response mechanisms demonstrate promising results. In this context, we focus this review on the widely used PET tracer (18)F-FDG and PET tracers depicting hypoxia and proliferation; two well-known radiation resistance mechanisms.

  1. Application of biological dose concept in dose optimization for conformal radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunhai; Liao Yuan; Zhou Lijun; Pan Ziqiang; Feng Yan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: On basis of physical dose optimization, LQ model was used to investigate the difference between the curves of biological effective dose and physical isodose. The influence of applying the biological dose concept on three dimensional conformal radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma was discussed. Methods: Four treatment plannings were designed for physical dose optimization: three fields, four-box fields, five fields and six fields. Target dose uniformity and protection of the critical tissue-rectum were used as the principal standard for designing the treatment planning. Biological effective dose (BED) was calculated by LQ model. The difference between the BED curve drawn in the central layer and the physical isodose curve was studied. The difference between the adjusted physical dose (APD) and the physical dose was also studied. Results: Five field planning was the best in target dose uniformity and protection of the critical tissue-rectum. The physical dose was uniform in the target, but the biological effective doses revealed great discrepancy in the biological model. Adjusted physical dose distribution also displayed larger discrepancy than the physical dose unadjusted. Conclusions: Intensified Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) technique with inversion planning using biological dose concept may be much more advantageous to reach a high tumor control probability and low normal tissue complication probability

  2. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistenma, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    The need for radiotherapy research is exemplified by the 100,000 cancer patients who will fail treatment locally and/or regionally annually for the next several years but who would benefit from better local treatment modalities. Theoretically, all of the areas of investigation discussed in this projection paper have the potential to significantly improve local-regional treatment of cancer by radiotherapy alone or in combination with other modalities. In many of the areas of investigation discussed in this paper encouraging results have been obtained in cellular and animal tumor studies and in limited studies in humans as well. In the not too distant future the number of patients who would benefit from better local control may increase by tens of thousands if developments in chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy provide a means to eradicate disseminated microscopic foci of cancer. Thus the efforts to improve local-regional control take on even greater significance

  3. (RadioBiological Optimization of External-Beam Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E. Nahum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available “Biological optimization” (BIOP means planning treatments using (radiobiological criteria and models, that is, tumour control probability and normal-tissue complication probability. Four different levels of BIOP are identified: Level I is “isotoxic” individualization of prescription dose at fixed fraction number. is varied to keep the NTCP of the organ at risk constant. Significant improvements in local control are expected for non-small-cell lung tumours. Level II involves the determination of an individualized isotoxic combination of and fractionation scheme. This approach is appropriate for “parallel” OARs (lung, parotids. Examples are given using our BioSuite software. Hypofractionated SABR for early-stage NSCLC is effectively Level-II BIOP. Level-III BIOP uses radiobiological functions as part of the inverse planning of IMRT, for example, maximizing TCP whilst not exceeding a given NTCP. This results in non-uniform target doses. The NTCP model parameters (reflecting tissue “architecture” drive the optimizer to emphasize different regions of the DVH, for example, penalising high doses for quasi-serial OARs such as rectum. Level-IV BIOP adds functional imaging information, for example, hypoxia or clonogen location, to Level III; examples are given of our prostate “dose painting” protocol, BioProp. The limitations of and uncertainties inherent in the radiobiological models are emphasized.

  4. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of proton beams in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calugaru, V.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment planning in proton therapy uses a generic value for the Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE) of 1.1 relative to 60 Co gamma-rays throughout the Spread Out Bragg Peak (SOBP). We have studied the variation of the RBE at three positions in the SOBP of the 76 and 201 MeV proton beams used for cancer treatment at the Institut Curie Proton Therapy in Orsay (ICPO) in two human tumor cell lines using clonogenic cell death and the incidence of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) as measured by pulse-field gel electrophoresis without and with endonuclease treatment to reveal clustered lesions as endpoints.The RBE for induced cell killing by the 76 MeV beam increased with depth in the SOBP. However for the 201 MeV protons it was close to that for 137 Cs gamma-rays and did not vary significantly. The incidence of DSBs and clustered lesions was higher for protons than for 137 Cs g-rays, but did not depend on the proton energy or the position in the SOBP. In the second part of our work, we have shown using cell clones made deficient for known repair genes by stable or transient shRNA transfection, that the D-NHEJ pathway determine the response to protons. The response of DNA damages created in the distal part of the 76 MeV SOBP suggests that those damages belong to the class of DNA 'complex lesions' (LMDS). It also appears that the particle fluence is a major determinant of the outcome of treatment in the distal part of the SOBP. (author)

  5. Physical, biological and clinical basis of light ions using in radiotherapy: EULIMA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvel, P.

    1991-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of radiotherapy is a constant concern in oncology: more than half of the patients who contract cancer receive radiotherapy at some stage. Use of charged particles in radiotherapy represents indisputable progress in localization of the dose delivered to tumour masses, thereby allowing reduction of dose received by adjacent healthy tissues. Protons improve the physical selectivity of the irradiation, i.e. the dose distribution. High-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) radiations produce different biological effects, decreasing the differences in radiosensitivity, and allowing radiation therapy to control radioresistant tumours. Fast neutrons represent the most known of these high-LET particles, but they suffer of a relatively poor physical selectivity. The two approaches (physical selectivity and biological advantages) are joined in by light ions (Carbon, Oxygen, Neon). Highly selective high-LET radiation therapy can be performed for radioresistant tumours without damage to healthy tissues. Preliminary results obtained in Berkeley (USA) demonstrate an improved local control of unresectable, slowly growing tumours, confirming what could be extrapolated from proton and neutrontherapy. Furthermore, radioactive light ion beams can be used to verify the accuracy of treatment planning by checking the range of the particle with a PET camera, and in the future for the treatment itself. In the framework of its programme Europe against Cancer, the Commission of the European Communities participates in the funding of the EULIMA (European Light Ion Medical Accelerator) project feasibility study, aiming to design an hospital-based light ion therapy facility in Europe [fr

  6. Treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy: calculation and optimization of biologically effective dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.; Scholz, M.

    2000-09-01

    We describe a novel approach to treatment planning for heavy ion radiotherapy based on the local effect model (LEM) which allows to calculate the biologically effective dose not only for the target region but for the entire irradiation volume. LEM is ideally suited to be used as an integral part of treatment planning code systems for active dose shaping devices like the GSI raster scan system. Thus, it has been incorporated into our standard treatment planning system for ion therapy (TRiP). Single intensity modulated fields can be optimized with respect to homogeneous biologically effective dose. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is calculated separately for each voxel of the patient CT. Our radiobiologically oriented code system is in use since 1995 for the planning of irradiation experiments with cell cultures and animals such as rats and minipigs. Since 1997 it is in regular and successful use for patient treatment planning. (orig.)

  7. The integral biologically effective dose to predict brain stem toxicity of hypofractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Brenda G.; Souhami, Luis; Pla, Conrado; Al-Amro, Abdullah S.; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Villemure, Jean-Guy; Caron, Jean-Louis; Olivier, Andre; Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work was to develop a parameter for use during fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy treatment planning to aid in the determination of the appropriate treatment volume and fractionation regimen that will minimize risk of late damage to normal tissue. Materials and Methods: We have used the linear quadratic model to assess the biologically effective dose at the periphery of stereotactic radiotherapy treatment volumes that impinge on the brain stem. This paper reports a retrospective study of 77 patients with malignant and benign intracranial lesions, treated between 1987 and 1995, with the dynamic rotation technique in 6 fractions over a period of 2 weeks, to a total dose of 42 Gy prescribed at the 90% isodose surface. From differential dose-volume histograms, we evaluated biologically effective dose-volume histograms and obtained an integral biologically-effective dose (IBED) in each case. Results: Of the 77 patients in the study, 36 had target volumes positioned so that the brain stem received more than 1% of the prescribed dose, and 4 of these, all treated for meningioma, developed serious late damage involving the brain stem. Other than type of lesion, the only significant variable was the volume of brain stem exposed. An analysis of the IBEDs received by these 36 patients shows evidence of a threshold value for late damage to the brain stem consistent with similar thresholds that have been determined for external beam radiotherapy. Conclusions: We have introduced a new parameter, the IBED, that may be used to represent the fractional effective dose to structures such as the brain stem that are partially irradiated with stereotactic dose distributions. The IBED is easily calculated prior to treatment and may be used to determine appropriate treatment volumes and fractionation regimens minimizing possible toxicity to normal tissue

  8. Multiple daily fractionation in radiotherapy: biological rationale and preliminary clinical experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcangeli, G [Instituto Medico Scientifico, Rome (Italy). Dept. of Oncology; Mauro, F; Morelli, D; Nervi, C

    1979-09-01

    The biological bases of radiation dose fractionation are reviewed and discussed with special emphasis on reassortment. Experimental data on animal model systems are presented to clarify that reassortment has to be added to sublethal damage repair and reoxygenation in the rationale for an optimized radiotherapy course according to tumor cell kinetics. Clinical results on several human tumors treated with twice or thrice daily fractions are described. These results show that some clinically radioresistant tumors (especially if not characterized by a relatively long clinical doubling line) can be satisfactorily dealt with using multiple daily fractionation. Clinical observations indicate that a relatively high cumulative daily dose (200 + 150 + 150 rad) can be safely administered.

  9. Radiotherapy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Collier, J.M.; Lyman, J.T.; Pitluck, S.

    1982-01-01

    The Radiotherapy Physics Group works on the physical and biophysical aspects of charged particle radiotherapy. Our activities include the development of isosurvival beams (beams of uniform biological effect), computerized treatment planning development for charged particle radiotherapy, design of compensation to shape dose distributions, and development of dosimetry techniques to verify planned irradiations in both phantoms and patients

  10. Use of normalized total dose to represent the biological effect of fractionated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, J.C.; Kalend, A.

    1990-01-01

    There are currently a number of radiobiological models to account for the effects of dose fractionation and time. Normalized total dose (NTD) is not another new model but is a previously reported, clinically useful form in which to represent the biological effect, determined by any specific radiobiological dose-fractionation model, of a course of radiation using a single set of standardized, easily understood terminology. The generalized form of NTD reviewed in this paper describes the effect of a course of radiotherapy administered with nonstandard fractionation as the total dose of radiation in Gy that could be administered with a given reference fractionation such as 2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week that would produce an equivalent biological effect (probability of complications or tumor control) as predicted by a given dose-fractionation formula. The use of normalized total dose with several different exponential and linear-quadratic dose-fraction formulas is presented. (author). 51 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  11. Use of normalized total dose to represent the biological effect of fractionated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flickinger, J C; Kalend, A [Pittsburgh University School of Medicine (USA). Department of Radiation Oncology Pittsburg Cancer Institute (USA)

    1990-03-01

    There are currently a number of radiobiological models to account for the effects of dose fractionation and time. Normalized total dose (NTD) is not another new model but is a previously reported, clinically useful form in which to represent the biological effect, determined by any specific radiobiological dose-fractionation model, of a course of radiation using a single set of standardized, easily understood terminology. The generalized form of NTD reviewed in this paper describes the effect of a course of radiotherapy administered with nonstandard fractionation as the total dose of radiation in Gy that could be administered with a given reference fractionation such as 2 Gy per fraction, 5 fractions per week that would produce an equivalent biological effect (probability of complications or tumor control) as predicted by a given dose-fractionation formula. The use of normalized total dose with several different exponential and linear-quadratic dose-fraction formulas is presented. (author). 51 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab.

  12. Helium ions for radiotherapy? Physical and biological verifications of a novel treatment modality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krämer, Michael, E-mail: m.kraemer@gsi.de; Scifoni, Emanuele; Schuy, Christoph; Rovituso, Marta; Maier, Andreas; Kaderka, Robert; Kraft-Weyrather, Wilma [Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Tinganelli, Walter; Durante, Marco [Biophysics, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt, Germany and Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Application (TIFPA-INFN), 38123, via Sommarive 14, Trento (Italy); Brons, Stephan; Tessonnier, Thomas [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum (HIT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany and Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Universitätsklinikums Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Parodi, Katia [Heidelberger Ionenstrahl-Therapiezentrum (HIT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Universitätsklinikums Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 400, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (LMU Munich), Department of Medical Physics, Am Coulombwall 1, 85748 Munich (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Modern facilities for actively scanned ion beam radiotherapy allow in principle the use of helium beams, which could present specific advantages, especially for pediatric tumors. In order to assess the potential use of these beams for radiotherapy, i.e., to create realistic treatment plans, the authors set up a dedicated {sup 4}He beam model, providing base data for their treatment planning system TRiP98, and they have reported that in this work together with its physical and biological validations. Methods: A semiempirical beam model for the physical depth dose deposition and the production of nuclear fragments was developed and introduced in TRiP98. For the biological effect calculations the last version of the local effect model was used. The model predictions were experimentally verified at the HIT facility. The primary beam attenuation and the characteristics of secondary charged particles at various depth in water were investigated using {sup 4}He ion beams of 200 MeV/u. The nuclear charge of secondary fragments was identified using a ΔE/E telescope. 3D absorbed dose distributions were measured with pin point ionization chambers and the biological dosimetry experiments were realized irradiating a Chinese hamster ovary cells stack arranged in an extended target. Results: The few experimental data available on basic physical processes are reproduced by their beam model. The experimental verification of absorbed dose distributions in extended target volumes yields an overall agreement, with a slight underestimation of the lateral spread. Cell survival along a 4 cm extended target is reproduced with remarkable accuracy. Conclusions: The authors presented a simple simulation model for therapeutical {sup 4}He beams which they introduced in TRiP98, and which is validated experimentally by means of physical and biological dosimetries. Thus, it is now possible to perform detailed treatment planning studies with {sup 4}He beams, either exclusively or in

  13. Improved normal tissue sparing in head and neck radiotherapy using biological cost function based-IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N; Lawford, C; Khoo, V; Rolfo, M; Joon, D L; Wada, M

    2011-12-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has reduced the impact of acute and late toxicities associated with head and neck radiotherapy. Treatment planning system (TPS) advances in biological cost function based optimization (BBO) and improved segmentation techniques have increased organ at risk (OAR) sparing compared to conventional dose-based optimization (DBO). A planning study was undertaken to compare OAR avoidance in DBO and BBO treatment planning. Simultaneous integrated boost treatment plans were produced for 10 head and neck patients using both planning systems. Plans were compared for tar get coverage and OAR avoidance. Comparisons were made using the BBO TPS Monte Carlo dose engine to eliminate differences due to inherent algorithms. Target coverage (V95%) was maintained for both solutions. BBO produced lower OAR doses, with statistically significant improvement to left (12.3%, p = 0.005) and right parotid mean dose (16.9%, p = 0.004), larynx V50_Gy (71.0%, p = 0.005), spinal cord (21.9%, p < 0.001) and brain stem dose maximums (31.5%, p = 0.002). This study observed improved OAR avoidance with BBO planning. Further investigations will be undertaken to review any clinical benefit of this improved planned dosimetry.

  14. Preoperative radiotherapy of renal adenocarcinomas from the point of view of tumor biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kob, D; Kriester, A; Hacker, I; Kloetzer, K H [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik

    1982-05-01

    26 patients with pulmonary metastases of renal adenocarcinomas were examined under the aspect of tumor biology. Growth functions were used to calculate the time at which the metastases began to grow, in relation to the time of operation and with the aim to get information on the indication for preoperative radiotherapy. In 3 patients (11.5%) there was an indication for preoperative irradiation. For comparative clinical tests as to the value of preoperative irradiation a minimum of 871 patients are needed in each group for comparison to evaluate the 3-year survival rate and 489 patients to evaluate the 5-year survival rate in order to be certain of the positive effect of preoperative irradiation with 1% statistical probability. The investigations are to be considered a model.

  15. Hypo-fractionated treatment in radiotherapy: radio-biological models Tcp and NTCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astudillo V, A. J.; Mitsoura, E.; Paredes G, L.; Resendiz G, G.

    2014-08-01

    At the present time the breast cancer in Mexico has the first place of incidence of the malignant neoplasia s in the women, and represents 11.34% of all the cancer cases. On the other hand, the treatments for cancer by means of ionizing radiations have been dominated under the approaches of the medical radio-oncologists which have been based on test and error by many years. The radio-biological models, as the Tcp, NTCP and dosimetric variables, for their clinical application in the conventional radiotherapy with hypo-fractionation have as purpose predicting personalized treatment plans that they present most probability of tumor control and minor probability of late reactions, becoming this way support tools in the decisions taking for the patient treatments planning of Medical Physicists and Radio-oncologists. (Author)

  16. Biological Complexities in Radiation Carcinogenesis and Cancer Radiotherapy: Impact of New Biological Paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mozdarani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although radiation carcinogenesis has been shown both experimentally and epidemiologically, the use of ionizing radiation is also one of the major modalities in cancer treatment. Various known cellular and molecular events are involved in carcinogenesis. Apart from the known phenomena, there could be implications for carcinogenesis and cancer prevention due to other biological processes such as the bystander effect, the abscopal effect, intrinsic radiosensitivity and radioadaptation. Bystander effects have consequences for mutation initiated cancer paradigms of radiation carcinogenesis, which provide the mechanistic justification for low-dose risk estimates. The abscopal effect is potentially important for tumor control and is mediated through cytokines and/or the immune system (mainly cell-mediated immunity. It results from loss of growth and stimulatory and/or immunosuppressive factors from the tumor. Intrinsic radiosensitivity is a feature of some cancer prone chromosomal breakage syndromes such as ataxia telangectiasia. Radiosensitivity is manifested as higher chromosomal aberrations and DNA repair impairment is now known as a good biomarker for breast cancer screening and prediction of prognosis. However, it is not yet known whether this effect is good or bad for those receiving radiation or radiomimetic agents for treatment. Radiation hormesis is another major concern for carcinogenesis. This process which protects cells from higher doses of radiation or radio mimic chemicals, may lead to the escape of cells from mitotic death or apoptosis and put cells with a lower amount of damage into the process of cancer induction. Therefore, any of these biological phenomena could have impact on another process giving rise to genome instability of cells which are not in the field of radiation but still receiving a lower amount of radiation. For prevention of radiation induced carcinogenesis or risk assessment as well as for successful radiation

  17. Spinal cordd biological safety comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xilinbaoleri; Xu Wanlong; Chen Gang; Liu Hao; Wang Ruozheng; Bai Jingping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the spine intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and the conventional radiation therapy on the beagle spinal cord neurons, in order to prove the biological safety of IMRT of the spinal cord. Methods: Twelve selected purebred beagles were randomly divided into 2 groups. A beagle clinical model of tumor was mimiced in the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebrae. Then the beagles were irradiated by 2 different models of intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy, with the total irradiation doses of 50 and 70 Gy. The samples of spinal cord were taken out from the same position of the nine and tenth thoracic vertebrae at the third month after radiation.All the samples were observed by the electron microscope, and the Fas and HSP70 expression in spinal cord neurons were evaluated by immunohistochemistry method. Terminal deoxynucleatidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) technique was used to examine the apoptotic cells in the spinal cord. Results: The neurons in the spinal cord of IMRT group were mainly reversible injury, and those in the conventional radiation therapy were mainly apoptosis. Compared with the conventional radiation therapy group [50 Gy group, (7.3 ± 1.1)%; 70 Gy group, (11.3 ± 1.4)%], the apoptosis rate of the spinal cord neurons of the intensity modulated radiotherapy group [50 Gy group, (1.2 ± 0.7)%; 70 Gy group (2.5 ± 0.8)%] was much lower[(50 Gy group, t=0.022, P<0.05; 70 Gy group, t=0.017, P<0.05)]. The expression levels of Fas in the IMPT group (50 Gy group, 4.6 ± 0.8; 70 Gy group, 7.4 ± 1.1) were also much lowerthan those in the other group (50 Gy group, 15.1 ± 6.4; 70 Gy group, 19.3 ± 7.6. 50 Gy group, t=0.231, P<0.05; 70 Gy group, t=0.457, P<0.05), while the expression levels of HSP70 in the IMPT group (50 Gy group, 9.1 ± 0.8; 70 Gy group, 7.3 ± 1.4)were much higher than those in the conventional radiation therapy group (50 Gy group, 2.1 ± 0.9; 70 Gy group, 1.7 ± 0

  18. Effect of contrast agent administration on consequences of dosimetry and biology in radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Ching-Jung; Yang, Pei-Ying; Chao, Tsi-Chian; Tu, Shu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment planning of radiation therapy, patients may be administrated with contrast media in CT scanning to assist physicians for accurate delineation of the target or organs. However, contrast media are not used in patients during the treatment delivery. In particular, contrast media contain materials with high atomic numbers and dosimetric variations may occur between scenarios where contrast media are present in treatment planning and absent in treatment delivery. In this study we evaluate the effect of contrast media on the dosimetry and biological consequence. An analytical phantom based on AAPM TG 119 and five sets of CT images from clinical patients are included. Different techniques of treatment planning are considered, including 1-field AP, 2-field AP+PA, 4-field box, 7-field IMRT, and RapidArc. RapidArc is a recent technique of volumetric modulated arc therapy and is used in our study of contrast media in clinical scenarios. The effect of RapidArc on dosimetry and biological consequence for administration of contrast media in radiotherapy is not discussed previously in literature. It is shown that dose difference is reduced as the number of external beams is increased, suggesting RapidArc may be favored to be used in the treatment planning enhanced by contrast media. Linear trend lines are fitted for assessment of percent dose differences in the planning target volume versus concentrations of contrast media between plans where contrast media are present and absent, respectively

  19. Automatic definition of targeted biological volumes for the radiotherapy applications; Definition automatique des volumes biologiques cibles pour les applications de radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatt, M.; Visvikis, D. [LaTIM, U650 Inserm, 29 - Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C. [Service de medecine nucleaire, 29 - Brest (France); Pradier, O. [Service de radiotherapie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2009-10-15

    The proposed method: Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian (F.L.A.B.) showed its reliability and its precision on very complete collection of realistic simulated and real data. Its use in the context of radiotherapy allows to consider easily the studies implementation and scenari of dose painting or dose escalation, including in complex cases of heterogenous fixations. It is conceivable to apply F.L.A.B. on PET images with F.M.I.S.O. ({sup 18}F fluoro misonidazole) or F.L.T. (fluoro-L-thymidine) to complete the definition of the biological target volume. (N.C.)

  20. Use of artificial neural networks to predict biological outcomes for patients receiving radical radiotherapy of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliford, Sarah L.; Webb, Steve; Rowbottom, Carl G.; Corne, David W.; Dearnaley, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: This paper discusses the application of artificial neural networks (ANN) in predicting biological outcomes following prostate radiotherapy. A number of model-based methods have been developed to correlate the dose distributions calculated for a patient receiving radiotherapy and the radiobiological effect this will produce. Most widely used are the normal tissue complication probability and tumour control probability models. An alternative method for predicting specific examples of tumour control and normal tissue complications is to use an ANN. One of the advantages of this method is that there is no need for a priori information regarding the relationship between the data being correlated. Patients and methods: A set of retrospective clinical data from patients who received radical prostate radiotherapy was used to train ANNs to predict specific biological outcomes by learning the relationship between the treatment plan prescription, dose distribution and the corresponding biological effect. The dose and volume were included as a differential dose-volume histogram in order to provide a holistic description of the available data. Results: It was shown that the ANNs were able to predict biochemical control and specific bladder and rectum complications with sensitivity and specificity of above 55% when the outcomes were dichotomised. It was also possible to analyse information from the ANNs to investigate the effect of individual treatment parameters on the outcome. Conclusion: ANNs have been shown to learn something of the complex relationship between treatment parameters and outcome which, if developed further, may prove to be a useful tool in predicting biological outcomes

  1. An optimized workflow for the integration of biological information into radiotherapy planning: experiences with T1w DCE-MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T; Kiessling, F; Brix, G; Baudendistel, K; Zechmann, C; Giesel, F L; Bendl, R

    2005-01-01

    Planning of radiotherapy is often difficult due to restrictions on morphological images. New imaging techniques enable the integration of biological information into treatment planning and help to improve the detection of vital and aggressive tumour areas. This might improve clinical outcome. However, nowadays morphological data sets are still the gold standard in the planning of radiotherapy. In this paper, we introduce an in-house software platform enabling us to combine images from different imaging modalities yielding biological and morphological information in a workflow driven approach. This is demonstrated for the combination of morphological CT, MRI, functional DCE-MRI and PET data. Data of patients with a tumour of the prostate and with a meningioma were examined with DCE-MRI by applying pharmacokinetic two-compartment models for post-processing. The results were compared with the clinical plans for radiation therapy. Generated parameter maps give additional information about tumour spread, which can be incorporated in the definition of safety margins

  2. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy for Oligometastasis: Opportunities for Biology to Guide Clinical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Rohann J M; Salama, Joseph K; Milano, Michael T; Palma, David A

    2016-01-01

    Oligometastasis refers to a state of limited metastatic disease burden, in which surgical or ablative treatment to all known visible metastases holds promise to extend survival or even effect cure. Stereotactic body radiotherapy is a form of radiation treatment capable of delivering a high biologically effective dose of radiation in a highly conformal manner, with a favorable toxicity profile. Enthusiasm for oligometastasis ablation, however, should be counterbalanced against the limited supporting evidence. It remains unknown to what extent (if any) ablation influences survival or quality of life. Rising clinical equipoise necessitates the completion of randomized controlled trials to assess this, several of which are underway. However, a lack of clear identification criteria or biomarkers to define the oligometastatic state hampers optimal patient selection.This narrative review explores the evolutionary origins of oligometastasis, the steps of the metastatic process at which oligometastases may arise, and the biomolecular mediators of this state. It discusses clinical outcomes with treatment of oligometastases, ongoing trials, and areas of basic and translational research that may lead to novel biomarkers. These efforts should provide a clearer, biomolecular definition of oligometastatic disease and aid in the accurate selection of patients for ablative therapies.

  3. High biologically effective dose radiation therapy using brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisei Okamoto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the outcomes of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with biologically effective dose (BED ≥ 220 Gy of high-dose radiotherapy, using low-dose-rate (LDR brachytherapy in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT and short-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. Material and methods : From 2005 to 2013, a total of 143 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated by radiotherapy of BED ≥ 220 Gy with a combination of LDR brachytherapy, EBRT, and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. The high-risk patients in the present study included both high-risk and very high-risk prostate cancer. The number of high-risk features were: 60 patients with 1 high-risk factor (42%, 61 patients with 2 high-risk factors (43%, and 22 patients with 3 high-risk factors (15% including five N1 disease. External beam radiotherapy fields included prostate and seminal vesicles only or whole pelvis depending on the extension of the disease. Biochemical failure was defined by the Phoenix definition. Results : Six patients developed biochemical failure, thus providing a 5-year actual biochemical failure-free survival (BFFS rate of 95.2%. Biochemical failure was observed exclusively in cases with distant metastasis in the present study. All six patients with biochemical relapse had clinical failure due to bone metastasis, thus yielding a 5-year freedom from clinical failure (FFCF rate of 93.0%. None of the cases with N1 disease experienced biochemical failure. We observed four deaths, including one death from prostate cancer, therefore yielding a cause-specific survival (CSS rate of 97.2%, and an overall survival (OS rate of 95.5%. Conclusions : High-dose (BED ≥ 220 Gy radiotherapy by LDR in combination with EBRT has shown an excellent outcome on BFFS in high-risk and very high-risk cancer, although causal relationship between BED and BFFS remain to be explained further.

  4. Evaluation of conformal radiotherapy techniques through physics and biologic criteria; Avaliacao de tecnicas radioterapicas conformacionais utilizando criterios fisicos e biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, Jonatas Carrero

    2012-07-01

    In the fight against cancer, different irradiation techniques have been developed based on technological advances and aiming to optimize the elimination of tumor cells with the lowest damage to healthy tissues. The radiotherapy planning goal is to establish irradiation technical parameters in order to achieve the prescribed dose distribution over the treatment volumes. While dose prescription is based on radiosensitivity of the irradiated tissues, the physical calculations on treatment planning take into account dosimetric parameters related to the radiation beam and the physical characteristics of the irradiated tissues. To incorporate tissue's radiosensitivity into radiotherapy planning calculations can help particularize treatments and establish criteria to compare and elect radiation techniques, contributing to the tumor control and the success of the treatment. Accordingly, biological models of cellular response to radiation have to be well established. This work aimed to study the applicability of using biological models in radiotherapy planning calculations to aid evaluating radiotherapy techniques. Tumor control probability (TCP) was studied for two formulations of the linear-quadratic model, with and without repopulation, as a function of planning parameters, as dose per fraction, and of radiobiological parameters, as the α/β ratio. Besides, the usage of biological criteria to compare radiotherapy techniques was tested using a prostate planning simulated with Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Afterwards, prostate planning for five patients from the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, using three different techniques were compared using the tumor control probability. In that order, dose matrices from the XiO treatment planning system were converted to TCP distributions and TCP-volume histograms. The studies performed allow the conclusions that radiobiological parameters can significantly influence tumor control

  5. Optimization of total arc degree for stereotactic radiotherapy by using integral biologically effective dose and irradiated volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Do Hoon; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Myung Za; Chun, Ha Chung

    2001-01-01

    To find the optimal values of total arc degree to protect the normal brain tissue from high dose radiation in stereotactic radiotherapy planning. With Xknife-3 planning system and 4 MV linear accelerator, the authors planned under various values of parameters. One isocenter, 12, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mm of collimator diameters, 100 deg, 200 deg, 300 deg, 400 deg, 500 deg, 600 deg, of total arc degrees, and 30 deg or 45 deg of arc intervals were used. After the completion of planning, the plans were compared each other using V 50 (the volume of normal brain that is delivered high dose radiation) and integral biologically effective dose. At 30 deg of arc interval, the values of V 50 had the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, the values of V 50 decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. At 30 deg of arc interval, integral biologically effective dose showed the decreased pattern with the increase of total arc degree in any collimator diameter. At 45 deg arc interval with less than 40 mm collimator diameter, the integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but with 50 and 60 mm of collimator diameters, up to 400 deg of total arc degree, integral biologically effective dose decreased with the increase of total arc degree, but at 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees, the values increased. In the stereotactic radiotherapy planning for brain lesions, planning with 400 deg of total arc degree is optimal. Especially, when the larger collimator more than 50 mm diameter should be used, the uses of 500 deg and 600 deg of total arc degrees make the increase of V 50 and integral biologically effective dose, Therefore stereotactic radiotherapy planning using 400 deg of total arc degree can increase the therapeutic ratio and produce the effective outcome

  6. Pencilbeam irradiation technique for whole brain radiotherapy: technical and biological challenges in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schültke, Elisabeth; Trippel, Michael; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Renier, Michel; Bartzsch, Stefan; Requardt, Herwig; Döbrössy, Máté D; Nikkhah, Guido

    2013-01-01

    We have conducted the first in-vivo experiments in pencilbeam irradiation, a new synchrotron radiation technique based on the principle of microbeam irradiation, a concept of spatially fractionated high-dose irradiation. In an animal model of adult C57 BL/6J mice we have determined technical and physiological limitations with the present technical setup of the technique. Fifty-eight animals were distributed in eleven experimental groups, ten groups receiving whole brain radiotherapy with arrays of 50 µm wide beams. We have tested peak doses ranging between 172 Gy and 2,298 Gy at 3 mm depth. Animals in five groups received whole brain radiotherapy with a center-to-center (ctc) distance of 200 µm and a peak-to-valley ratio (PVDR) of ∼ 100, in the other five groups the ctc was 400 µm (PVDR ∼ 400). Motor and memory abilities were assessed during a six months observation period following irradiation. The lower dose limit, determined by the technical equipment, was at 172 Gy. The LD50 was about 1,164 Gy for a ctc of 200 µm and higher than 2,298 Gy for a ctc of 400 µm. Age-dependent loss in motor and memory performance was seen in all groups. Better overall performance (close to that of healthy controls) was seen in the groups irradiated with a ctc of 400 µm.

  7. Cells responsible for tumor surveillance in man: effects of radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and biologic response modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reizenstein, P.; Ogier, C.; Blomgren, H.; Petrini, B.; Wasserman, J.

    1985-01-01

    Currently, the most probable theory of tumor surveillance is neither the existence of any tumor-specific, antigen-dependent, T-cell-mediated cytotoxic effect that could eliminate spontaneous tumors in man and that could be used for some kind of vaccination against tumors, nor the complete absence of any surveillance or defense systems against tumors. What is probable is the cooperation of a number of antigen-independent, relatively weakly cytotoxic or possibly only cytostatic humoral and cellular effects, including nutritional immunity, tumor necrosis factor, certain cytokines, and the cytotoxic effects mediated by macrophages, NK cells, NK-like cells, and certain stimulated T-cells. One question remaining to be solved is why these antigen-independent effects do not attack normal cells. A number of plausible hypotheses are discussed. The hypothetical surveillance system is modulated both by traditional cancer treatment and by attempts at immunomodulation. Radiotherapy reduced the T-helper cell function for almost a decade, but not those of macrophages or NK cells. T-cell changes have no prognostic implication, supporting, perhaps, the suggestion of a major role for macrophages and NK cells. Cyclic adjuvant chemotherapy reduces the peripheral lymphocyte population and several lymphocyte functions but not NK activity. Most of the parameters were normalized some years following treatment, but NK activity remained elevated and Th/Ts cell ratio was still decreased. This might possibly be taken to support the surveillance role of NK cells. Bestatin increases the frequency of lymphocytes forming rosettes with sheep red blood cells (but not their mitogenic responses), enhances NK activity, and augments the phagocytic capacity of granulocytes and monocytes (but not their cytotoxic activity). 154 references

  8. Generalized Fokker-Planck theory for electron and photon transport in biological tissues: application to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrant, Edgar; Frank, Martin

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, we study a deterministic method for particle transport in biological tissues. The method is specifically developed for dose calculations in cancer therapy and for radiological imaging. Generalized Fokker-Planck (GFP) theory [Leakeas and Larsen, Nucl. Sci. Eng. 137 (2001), pp. 236-250] has been developed to improve the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation in cases where scattering is forward-peaked and where there is a sufficient amount of large-angle scattering. We compare grid-based numerical solutions to FP and GFP in realistic medical applications. First, electron dose calculations in heterogeneous parts of the human body are performed. Therefore, accurate electron scattering cross sections are included and their incorporation into our model is extensively described. Second, we solve GFP approximations of the radiative transport equation to investigate reflectance and transmittance of light in biological tissues. All results are compared with either Monte Carlo or discrete-ordinates transport solutions.

  9. Dose prescription complexity versus tumor control probability in biologically conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, C. P.; Evans, P. M.; Partridge, M.

    2009-01-01

    The technical feasibility and potential benefits of voxel-based nonuniform dose prescriptions for biologically heterogeneous tumors have been widely demonstrated. In some cases, an ''ideal'' dose prescription has been generated by individualizing the dose to every voxel within the target, but often this voxel-based prescription has been discretized into a small number of compartments. The number of dose levels utilized and the methods used for prescribing doses and assigning tumor voxels to different dose compartments have varied significantly. The authors present an investigation into the relationship between the complexity of the dose prescription and the tumor control probability (TCP) for a number of these methods. The linear quadratic model of cell killing was used in conjunction with a number of modeled tumors heterogeneous in clonogen density, oxygenation, or proliferation. Models based on simple mathematical functions, published biological data, and biological image data were investigated. Target voxels were assigned to dose compartments using (i) simple rules based on the initial biological distribution, (ii) iterative methods designed to maximize the achievable TCP, or (iii) methods based on an ideal dose prescription. The relative performance of the simple rules was found to depend on the form of heterogeneity of the tumor, while the iterative and ideal dose methods performed comparably for all models investigated. In all cases the maximum achievable TCP was approached within the first few (typically two to five) compartments. Results suggest that irrespective of the pattern of heterogeneity, the optimal dose prescription can be well approximated using only a few dose levels but only if both the compartment boundaries and prescribed dose levels are well chosen.

  10. Comparison of the predictions of the LQ and CRE models for normal tissue damage due to biologically targeted radiotherapy with exponentially decaying dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donoghue, J.A.; West of Schotland Health Boards, Glasgow

    1989-01-01

    For biologically targeted radiotherapy organ dose rates may be complex functions of time, related to the biodistribution kinetics of the delivery vehicle and radiolabel. The simples situation is where dose rates are exponentially decaying functions of time. Two normal tissue isoeffect models enable the effects of exponentially decaying dose rates to be addressed. These are the extension of the linear-quadratic model and the cumulative radiation effect model. This communication will compare the predictions of these models. (author). 14 refs.; 1 fig

  11. Calculation of the biological effect of fractionated radiotherapy: the importance of radiation-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    The total effect (TE) has been calculated for two different fractionation formalisms: the consecutive and repetitive fractionation mechanism, using a modified linear quadratic (LQ) model which includes the effect of apoptosis. For a given total dose, an increase in TE is seen when increasing the dose per fraction as well as the apoptotic fraction (F a ). Also, the TE increases with increasing α/β ratio (of the modified LQ model). The ratio of TE for tumour tissue and TE for late reacting tissue is calculated assuming the absence of apoptosis in late reacting tissue and a common value of α/β (of the modified LQ model). The biological effect ratio (BR) is higher for a large F a and low doses per fraction, than for large doses per fraction and a small F a . Assuming a consecutive fractionation mechanism, the TE formalism is unable to predict a log cell kill of more than 3 for β values of 0.010-0.028. It is less dependent on dose per fraction and F a than the repetitive fractionation mechanism. The biological effect ratio is only slightly higher than 1, and is less influenced by F a , dose per fraction and α/β ratio. A repetitive fractionation mechanism is also consistent with the preliminary results of published fractionation experiments. The calculations indicate that designing fractionation regimes for optimization of biological effect is a process where the role of apoptotic cell inactivation must be maximized, and where the influence of mitotic cell inactivation may be of less importance. (author)

  12. IBPRO - A Novel Short-Duration Teaching Course in Advanced Physics and Biology Underlying Cancer Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Michael C; Tracey, Monica W; Kacin, Sara E; Burmeister, Jay W

    2017-06-01

    This article provides a summary and status report of the ongoing advanced education program IBPRO - Integrated course in Biology and Physics of Radiation Oncology. IBPRO is a five-year program funded by NCI. It addresses the recognized deficiency in the number of mentors available who have the required knowledge and skill to provide the teaching and training that is required for future radiation oncologists and researchers in radiation sciences. Each year, IBPRO brings together 50 attendees typically at assistant professor level and upwards, who are already qualified/certified radiation oncologists, medical physicists or biologists. These attendees receive keynote lectures and activities based on active learning strategies, merging together the clinical, biological and physics underpinnings of radiation oncology, at the forefront of the field. This experience is aimed at increasing collaborations, raising the level and amount of basic and applied research undertaken in radiation oncology, and enabling attendees to confidently become involved in the future teaching and training of researchers and radiation oncologists.

  13. Application of biological effective dose (BED) to estimate the duration of symptomatic relief and repopulation dose equivalent in palliative radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Bleddyn; Cominos, Matilda; Dale, Roger G.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential for mathematic modeling in the assessment of symptom relief in palliative radiotherapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy. Methods: The linear quadratic model of radiation effect with the overall treatment time and the daily dose equivalent of repopulation is modified to include the regrowth time after completion of therapy. Results: The predicted times to restore the original tumor volumes after treatment are dependent on the biological effective dose (BED) delivered and the repopulation parameter (K); it is also possible to estimate K values from analysis of palliative treatment response durations. Hypofractionated radiotherapy given at a low total dose may produce long symptom relief in slow-growing tumors because of their low α/β ratios (which confer high fraction sensitivity) and their slow regrowth rates. Cancers that have high α/β ratios (which confer low fraction sensitivity), and that are expected to repopulate rapidly during therapy, are predicted to have short durations of symptom control. The BED concept can be used to estimate the equivalent dose of radiotherapy that will achieve the same duration of symptom relief as palliative chemotherapy. Conclusion: Relatively simple radiobiologic modeling can be used to guide decision-making regarding the choice of the most appropriate palliative schedules and has important implications in the design of radiotherapy or chemotherapy clinical trials. The methods described provide a rationalization for treatment selection in a wide variety of tumors

  14. Biological evaluation and molecular docking of Rhein as a multi-targeted radiotherapy sensitization agent of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhengying; Tian, Wei; Li, Jing; Wang, Chunmiao; Pan, Zhiyu; Li, Danrong; Hou, Huaxin

    2017-11-01

    Radiation resistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a joint effect caused by complex molecular mechanisms. The development of multi-target radiotherapy sensitization agents offered a promising method for the treatment of NPC. In this work, the probability of Rhein to be a multi-target radiotherapy sensitization agent was explored through computer aid virtual screening by inverse docking study. In order to validate the accuracy of the computational results, radiotherapy sensitization of Rhein to NPC cells and its effects on the expression of target proteins were evaluated separately by CCK8 assay and Western blotting analysis. Our result demonstrated that Rhein possessed strong binding affinity with RAC1 and HSP90. No cytotoxic concentration of Rhein had radiosensitization effect on nasopharyngeal carcinoma CNE1 cells. After treatment with Rhein and 2Gy radiation, the expression of RAC1 upregulated and the expression of HSP90 down-regulated in cells. Based on the above data, Rhein is likely to become an attractive lead compound for the future design of multi-target radiotherapy sensitization agents.

  15. Radiotherapy and oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sealy, R [Cape Town Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    1982-08-01

    A general review article for the non-radiotherapist. The historical, physical and biological background is briefly reviewed. Mention is made of the effects of fraction size, hyperbaric oxygen, neutron beams and radiation sensitizers. The use of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is discussed, as well as the selection of patients for radiotherapy and the treatment of neck nodes. The author suggests a therapeutic approach to the various disease sites and finally reviews some of the literature on radiation caries and jaw necrosis.

  16. Why Radiotherapy Works. Chapter 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, S.; Nishibuchi, I.; Wondergem, J.

    2017-01-01

    The history of radiotherapy began in 1895, when Röntgen discovered X rays, and in the following year, radiation was used for medical treatment. In the early days, the development of radiotherapy was based extensively on empiricism. Radiotherapists worked closely with radiation biologists in attempting to describe and understand the phenomena produced by ionizing radiation in the clinic and in biological systems. During the ensuing 120 years, radiotherapy has been improved significantly and, in addition to radiation biology, medical physics has played an important role in the design and development of equipment, quality assurance and dosimetry. Over recent decades, advances have been made in the field of molecular biology. Currently available techniques enable us to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of cellular response to ionizing irradiation, and it is anticipated that the role and contributions of radiation biology in radiotherapy will remain relevant. This chapter describes the clinically important biological points, including knowledge from current molecular biology.

  17. Hypo-fractionated treatment in radiotherapy: radio-biological models Tcp and NTCP; Tratamiento hipofraccionado en radioterapia: modelos radiobiologicos TCP y NTCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astudillo V, A. J.; Mitsoura, E. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Medicina, Paseo Tollocan s/n, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Paredes G, L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Resendiz G, G., E-mail: lydia.paredes@inin.gob.mx [Hospital Medica Sur, Departamento de Radioterapia, Puente de Piedra 150, Col. Toriello Guerra, 14050 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    At the present time the breast cancer in Mexico has the first place of incidence of the malignant neoplasia s in the women, and represents 11.34% of all the cancer cases. On the other hand, the treatments for cancer by means of ionizing radiations have been dominated under the approaches of the medical radio-oncologists which have been based on test and error by many years. The radio-biological models, as the Tcp, NTCP and dosimetric variables, for their clinical application in the conventional radiotherapy with hypo-fractionation have as purpose predicting personalized treatment plans that they present most probability of tumor control and minor probability of late reactions, becoming this way support tools in the decisions taking for the patient treatments planning of Medical Physicists and Radio-oncologists. (Author)

  18. Surveillance after prostate cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supiot, S.; Rio, E.; Clement-Colmou, K.; Bouchot, O.; Rigaud, J.

    2011-01-01

    Follow-up after prostate cancer radiotherapy aims at detecting local or metastatic relapse, as well as long-term toxicity, requiring adapted treatments. Several scientific societies have published guidelines including clinical, biological and imaging recommendations. More data suggest a role for aggressive salvage therapy in case of local failure following radiotherapy. An adequate follow-up is required for the sake of patients' safety, i.e. to a posteriori validate dose constraints and radiation technique in each radiotherapy department. (authors)

  19. Biological-effective versus conventional dose volume histograms correlated with late genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicity after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer: a matched pair analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roeske John C

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine whether the dose-volume histograms (DVH's for the rectum and bladder constructed using biological-effective dose (BED-DVH's better correlate with late gastrointestinal (GI and genitourinary (GU toxicity after treatment with external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer than conventional DVH's (C-DVH's. Methods The charts of 190 patients treated with external beam radiotherapy with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were reviewed. Six patients (3.2% were found to have RTOG grade 3 GI toxicity, and similarly 6 patients (3.2% were found to have RTOG grade 3 GU toxicity. Average late C-DVH's and BED-DVH's of the bladder and rectum were computed for these patients as well as for matched-pair control patients. For each matched pair the following measures of normalized difference in the DVH's were computed: (a δAUC = (Area Under Curve [AUC] in grade 3 patient – AUC in grade 0 patient/(AUC in grade 0 patient and (b δV60 = (Percent volume receiving = 60 Gy [V60] in grade 3 patient – V60 in grade 0 patient/(V60 in grade 0 patient. Results As expected, the grade 3 curve is to the right of and above the grade 0 curve for all four sets of average DVH's – suggesting that both the C-DVH and the BED-DVH can be used for predicting late toxicity. δAUC was higher for the BED-DVH's than for the C-DVH's – 0.27 vs 0.23 (p = 0.036 for the rectum and 0.24 vs 0.20 (p = 0.065 for the bladder. δV60 was also higher for the BED-DVH's than for the C-DVH's – 2.73 vs 1.49 for the rectum (p = 0.021 and 1.64 vs 0.71 (p = 0.021 for the bladder. Conclusions When considering well-established dosimetric endpoints used in evaluating treatment plans, BED-DVH's for the rectum and bladder correlate better with late toxicity than C-DVH's and should be considered when attempting to minimize late GI and GU toxicity after external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

  20. Fetal dose from radiotherapy photon beams: Physical basis, techniques to estimate radiation dose outside of the treatment field, biological effects and professional considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stovell, Marilyn; Blackwell, C. Robert

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: The presentation will review: 1. The physical basis of radiation dose outside of the treatment field. 2. Techniques to estimate and reduce fetal dose. 3. Clinical examples of fetal dose estimation and reduction. 4. Biological effects of fetal irradiation. 5. Professional considerations. Approximately 4000 women per year in the United States require radiotherapy during pregnancy. This report presents data and techniques that allow the medical physicist to estimate the radiation dose the fetus will receive and to reduce this dose with appropriate shielding. Out-of-beam data are presented for a variety of photon beams, including cobalt-60 gamma rays and x rays from 4 to 18 MV. Designs for simple and inexpensive to more complex and expensive types of shielding equipment are described. Clinical examples show that proper shielding can reduce the radiation dose to the fetus by 50%. In addition, a review of the biological aspects of irradiation enables estimates of the risks of lethality, growth retardation, mental retardation, malformation, sterility, cancer induction, and genetic defects to the fetus. A summary of professional considerations/recommendations is also provided as a guide for the radiation oncologist and medical physicist

  1. Whither radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W M

    1987-03-01

    The 1986 Glyn Evans Memorial Lecture, given at the Joint Provincial Meeting of the Royal College of Radiologists, Sheffield, September 1986, sketches an outline of the history of radiotherapy and discusses the future development of the art. Topics included are siting of centres, training needs, the relationship of radiotherapy to other medical specialities, and the advantages and disadvantages of radiotherapy practitioners forming a separate medical College. (U.K.)

  2. Quantification of the Relative Biological Effectiveness for Ion Beam Radiotherapy: Direct Experimental Comparison of Proton and Carbon Ion Beams and a Novel Approach for Treatment Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsaesser, Thilo; Weyrather, Wilma K.; Friedrich, Thomas; Durante, Marco; Iancu, Gheorghe; Kraemer, Michael; Kragl, Gabriele; Brons, Stephan; Winter, Marcus; Weber, Klaus-Josef; Scholz, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To present the first direct experimental in vitro comparison of the biological effectiveness of range-equivalent protons and carbon ion beams for Chinese hamster ovary cells exposed in a three-dimensional phantom using a pencil beam scanning technique and to compare the experimental data with a novel biophysical model. Methods and Materials: Cell survival was measured in the phantom after irradiation with two opposing fields, thus mimicking the typical patient treatment scenario. The novel biophysical model represents a substantial extension of the local effect model, previously used for treatment planning in carbon ion therapy for more than 400 patients, and potentially can be used to predict effectiveness of all ion species relevant for radiotherapy. A key feature of the new approach is the more sophisticated consideration of spatially correlated damage induced by ion irradiation. Results: The experimental data obtained for Chinese hamster ovary cells clearly demonstrate that higher cell killing is achieved in the target region with carbon ions as compared with protons when the effects in the entrance channel are comparable. The model predictions demonstrate agreement with these experimental data and with data obtained with helium ions under similar conditions. Good agreement is also achieved with relative biological effectiveness values reported in the literature for other cell lines for monoenergetic proton, helium, and carbon ions. Conclusion: Both the experimental data and the new modeling approach are supportive of the advantages of carbon ions as compared with protons for treatment-like field configurations. Because the model predicts the effectiveness for several ion species with similar accuracy, it represents a powerful tool for further optimization and utilization of the potential of ion beams in tumor therapy.

  3. Practical aspects and applications of the biological effective dose three-dimensional calculation for multi-phase radiotherapy treatment plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauweloa, Kevin Ikaika

    The approximate BED (BEDA) is calculated for multi-phase cases due to current treatment planning systems (TPSs) being incapable of performing BED calculations. There has been no study on the mathematical accuracy and precision of BEDA relative to the true BED (BEDT), and how that might negatively impact patient care. The purpose of the first aim was to study the mathematical accuracy and precision in both hypothetical and clinical situations, while the next two aims were to create multi-phase BED optimization ideas for both multi-target liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) cases, and gynecological cases where patients are treated with high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy along with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). MATLAB algorithms created for this work were used to mathematically analyze the accuracy and precision of BEDA relative to BEDT in both hypothetical and clinical situations on a 3D basis. The organs-at-risk (OARs) of ten head & neck and ten prostate cancer patients were studied for the clinical situations. The accuracy of BEDA was shown to vary between OARs as well as between patients. The percentage of patients with an overall BEDA percent error less than 1% were, 50% for the Optic Chiasm and Brainstem, 70% for the Left and Right Optic Nerves, as well as the Rectum and Bladder, and 80% for the Normal Brain and Spinal Cord. As seen for each OAR among different patients, there were always cases where the percent error was greater than 1%. This is a cause for concern since the goal of radiation therapy is to reduce the overall uncertainty of treatment, and calculating BEDA distributions increases the treatment uncertainty with percent errors greater than 1%. The revealed inaccuracy and imprecision of BEDA supports the argument to use BEDT. The multi-target liver study involved applying BEDT in order to reduce the number of dose limits to one rather than have one for each fractionation scheme in multi-target liver SBRT treatments. A BEDT limit

  4. Radiotherapy for MTRA/RT; Strahlentherapie fuer MTRA/RT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetter, Christiana [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik

    2012-07-01

    The radiological practice textbook covers the following issues: tumor diseases, tumor diagnostics, fundamentals of radiotherapy, DIN, irradiation planning, documentation and quality assurance, strategies of tumor therapy, basic physics of radiotherapy and dosimetry, radiation protection - regulations and guidelines, radiobiology, biological radiation effects, special organ toxicity, psychological and medical attendance of patients, special oncology of the most important organ carcinomas, palliative radiotherapy, radiotherapy of benign diseases, other indications of radiotherapy, supportive therapy.

  5. Radiotherapy of pineal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danoff, B.; Sheline, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapy has universally been used in the treatment of pineal tumors and suprasellar germinomas. Recently however, major technical advances related to the use of the operating microscope and development of microsurgical techniques have prompted a renewed interest in the direct surgical approach for biopsy and/or excision. This interest has resulted in a controversy regarding the role of surgery prior to radiotherapy. Because of the heterogeneity of tumors occurring in the pineal region (i.e., germ cell tumors, pineal parenchymal tumors, glial tumors, and cysts) and their differing biological behavior, controversy also surrounds aspects of radiotherapy such as: the optimal radiation dose, the volume to be irradiated, and indications for prophylactic spinal irradiation. A review of the available data is presented in an attempt to answer these questions

  6. Cancer research and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1978-01-01

    An actual condition of cancer, and the basis and a future view of radiotherapy were described by adding generally established biological and biochemical knowledge to the author's research. It was described that the relapse of cancer after irradiation was induced from outside of cancerous mass, and the nature of relapsed cancerous cells group was also stated. The histological structure of cancer from a view of cell movement and radioresistant cancerous cells group were described. The differentiation of cancerous cells were described, and a study of inhibition of cancer by redifferentiation was considered. It is important to grasp characteristics and a limit of radiotherapy for cancer, to systematize and materialize reasonable therapy which uses drug and immunotherapy together with surgery, and to use radiotherapy reasonably together with redifferentiation therapy of cancerous cells by extracting characteristics and a limit of radiationtherapy from an actual condition of cancer. (Serizawa, K.)

  7. Personalized precision radiotherapy by integration of multi-parametric functional and biological imaging in prostate cancer. A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorwarth, Daniela [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Section for Biomedical Physics; Notohamiprodjo, Mike [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Zips, Daniel; Mueller, Arndt-Christan [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2017-05-01

    To increase tumour control probability (TCP) in prostate cancer a method was developed integrating multi-parametric functional and biological information into a dose painting treatment plan aiming focal dose-escalation to tumour sub-volumes. A dose-escalation map was derived considering individual, multi-parametric estimated tumour aggressiveness. Multi-parametric functional imaging (MRI, Choline-/PSMA-/FMISO-PET/CT) was acquired for a high risk prostate cancer patient with a high level of tumour load (cT3b cN0 cM0) indicated by subtotal involvement of prostate including the right seminal vesicle and by PSA-level >100. Probability of tumour presence was determined by a combination of multi-parametric functional image information resulting in a voxel-based map of tumour aggressiveness. This probability map was directly integrated into dose optimization in order to plan for inhomogeneous, biological imaging based dose painting. Histograms of the multi-parametric prescription function were generated in addition to a differential histogram of the planned inhomogeneous doses. Comparison of prescribed doses with planned doses on a voxel level was realized using an effective DVH, containing the ratio of prescribed vs. planned dose for each tumour voxel. Multi-parametric imaging data of PSMA, Choline and FMISO PET/CT as well as ADC maps derived from diffusion weighted MRI were combined to an individual probability map of tumour presence. Voxel-based prescription doses ranged from 75.3 Gy up to 93.4 Gy (median: 79.6 Gy), whereas the planned dose painting doses varied only between 72.5 and 80.0 Gy with a median dose of 75.7 Gy. However, inhomogeneous voxel-based dose prescriptions can only be implemented into a treatment plan until a certain level. Multi-parametric probability based dose painting in prostate cancer is technically and clinically feasible. However, detailed calibration functions to define the necessary probability functions need to be assessed in future

  8. Radiotherapy; Strahlentherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wannenmacher, M. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Abt. fuer Klinische Radiologie; Debus, J. [Univ. Heidelberg (Germany). Abt. Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie; Wenz, F. (eds.) [Universitaetsklinikum Mannheim (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    2006-07-01

    The book is focussed on the actual knowledge on the clinical radiotherapy and radio-oncology. Besides fundamental and general contributions specific organ systems are treated in detail. The book contains the following contributions: Basic principles, radiobiological fundamentals, physical background, radiation pathology, basics and technique of brachytherapy, methodology and technique of the stereotactic radiosurgery, whole-body irradiation, operative radiotherapy, hadron therapy, hpyerthermia, combined radio-chemo-therapy, biometric clinical studies, intensity modulated radiotherapy, side effects, oncological diagnostics; central nervous system and sense organs, head-neck carcinomas, breast cancer, thorax organs, esophagus carcinoma, stomach carcinoma, pancreas carcinoma, heptabiliary cancer and liver metastases, rectal carcinomas, kidney and urinary tract, prostate carcinoma, testicular carcinoma, female pelvis, lymphatic system carcinomas, soft tissue carcinoma, skin cancer, bone metastases, pediatric tumors, nonmalignant diseases, emergency in radio-oncology, supporting therapy, palliative therapy.

  9. Radiotherapy apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.M.; Webb, H.P.J.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to apparatus for applying intracavitary radiotherapy. In previously-known systems radioactive material is conveyed to a desired location within a patient by transporting a chain of balls pneumatically to and from an appropriately inserted applicator. According to this invention a ball chain for such a purpose comprises several radioactive balls separated by non-radioactive tracer balls of radiographically transparent material of lower density and surface hardness than the radioactive balls. The invention also extends to radiotherapy treatment apparatus comprising a storage, sorting and assembly system

  10. Radiotherapy and brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This presentation first defines the radiotherapy and brachytherapy techniques, indicates the used ionizing radiations (electromagnetic and particles), describes the mechanisms and processes of action of ionizing radiations: they can be physical by photon-matter interactions (Compton effect and photoelectric effect) or due to electron-matter interactions (excitation, ionization), physical-chemical by direct or indirect action (DNA damage), cellular (mitotic or apoptotic death), tissue (sane and tumorous tissues and differential effect). It discusses the biological efficiency of these treatments which depends on different parameters: intrinsic radio-sensitivity, time (session fractioning and organisation in time), oxygen, radiation quality, cellular cycle, dose rate, temperature. It presents the different types of radiotherapy: external radiotherapy (general sequence, delineation, dosimetry, protection of critical organs, treatment session, quality control, monitoring consultation) and briefly presents some specific techniques (total body irradiation, total cutaneous electron therapy, pre-operation radiotherapy, radio-surgery, hadron-therapy). It proposes an overview of the main indications for this treatment: brain tumours, upper aero digestive tract tumours, bronchial tumours, oesophagus, stomach and pancreas tumours, breast tumours, cervix cancer, rectum tumour, and so on, and indicates the possible associated treatments. The next part addresses brachytherapy. It presents the principles and comments the differences with radiotherapy. It indicates the used radio-elements (Caesium 137, Iridium 192, Iodine 125), describes the implementation techniques (plastic tubes, use of iodine 125, intracavitary and endo-luminal radiation therapy). It proposes an overview of the different treated tumours (skin, breast, prostates, bronchial, oesophagus, ENT) and indicates possible early and late secondary effects for different organs

  11. Image-adaptive and robust digital wavelet-domain watermarking for images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Liping

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new frequency domain wavelet based watermarking technique. The key idea of our scheme is twofold: multi-tier solution representation of image and odd-even quantization embedding/extracting watermark. Because many complementary watermarks need to be hidden, the watermark image designed is image-adaptive. The meaningful and complementary watermark images was embedded into the original image (host image) by odd-even quantization modifying coefficients, which was selected from the detail wavelet coefficients of the original image, if their magnitudes are larger than their corresponding Just Noticeable Difference thresholds. The tests show good robustness against best-known attacks such as noise addition, image compression, median filtering, clipping as well as geometric transforms. Further research may improve the performance by refining JND thresholds.

  12. Interstitial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardino, P.T.; Bretas, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors now have 20 years of experience with modern techniques of brachytherapy. The large number of patients treated in medical centers around the world and the widespread use of this type of radiotherapy have provided us with substantial information about the indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, pitfalls and complications, as well as the results of these techniques. Although the focus of this review is the experience at Baylor using the combined technique of gold seed implantation plus external beam irradiation, the alternative forms of brachytherapy will be described and compared. The authors' intention is to provide the busy clinician with a succinct and informative review indicating the status of modern interstitial radiotherapy and describing day-to-day approach and results

  13. Palliative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, J.

    2003-01-01

    Palliative care does not attempt to prolong survival but to the achieve the highest quality of life both for the patient and their family covering their physical, psychological, social and spiritual needs. Radiotherapy (RT), one of the most important therapeutic modalities, has a great significance in palliative medicine for cancer since it attempts to reduce as much as possible the acute reaction associated with the treatment for the patient. (Author)

  14. Proceedings of 19. symposium on experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Michael; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Petersen, Cordula; Rodemann, H. Peter; Zips, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The proceedings include review contributions on radio-oncology, and new radiation technologies and molecular prediction; and poster sessions on the following topics: hypoxia; molecular mechanisms of radiation resistance; molecular targeting; DNA repair; biological imaging; biology of experimental radiations; normal tissue toxicity; modern radiotherapy; tumor hypoxia and metabolic micro milieu; immune system and radiotherapy.

  15. Metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arienzo, Marco; Capogni, Marco; Smyth, Vere; Cox, Maurice; Johansson, Lena; Bobin, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect from molecular radiation therapy (MRT), on both tumour and normal tissue, is determined by the radiation absorbed dose. Recent research indicates that as a consequence of biological variation across patients the absorbed dose can vary, for the same administered activity, by as much as two orders of magnitude. The international collaborative EURAMET-EMRP project Metrology for molecular radiotherapy (MetroMRT) is addressing this problem. The overall aim of the project is to develop methods of calibrating and verifying clinical dosimetry in MRT. In the present paper an overview of the metrological issues in molecular radiotherapy is provided. (authors)

  16. Higher Biologically Effective Dose of Radiotherapy Is Associated With Improved Outcomes for Locally Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Treated With Chemoradiation: An Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machtay, Mitchell; Bae, Kyounghwa; Movsas, Benjamin; Paulus, Rebecca; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Komaki, Ritsuko; Albain, Kathy; Sause, William T.; Curran, Walter J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced non–small-cell lung carcinoma (LA-NSCLC) were analyzed for local-regional failure (LRF) and overall survival (OS) with respect to radiotherapy dose intensity. Methods and Materials: This study combined data from seven Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) trials in which chemoradiotherapy was used for LA-NSCLC: RTOG 88-08 (chemoradiation arm only), 90-15, 91-06, 92-04, 93-09 (nonoperative arm only), 94-10, and 98-01. The radiotherapeutic biologically effective dose (BED) received by each individual patient was calculated, as was the overall treatment time-adjusted BED (tBED) using standard formulae. Heterogeneity testing was done with chi-squared statistics, and weighted pooled hazard ratio estimates were used. Cox and Fine and Gray’s proportional hazard models were used for OS and LRF, respectively, to test the associations between BED and tBED adjusted for other covariates. Results: A total of 1,356 patients were analyzed for BED (1,348 for tBED). The 2-year and 5-year OS rates were 38% and 15%, respectively. The 2-year and 5-year LRF rates were 46% and 52%, respectively. The BED (and tBED) were highly significantly associated with both OS and LRF, with or without adjustment for other covariates on multivariate analysis (p < 0.0001). A 1-Gy BED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 4% relative improvement in survival; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio for survival as a function of BED was 0.96. Similarly, a 1-Gy tBED increase in radiotherapy dose intensity was statistically significantly associated with approximately 3% relative improvement in local-regional control; this is another way of expressing the finding that the pool-adjusted hazard ratio as a function of tBED was 0.97. Conclusions: Higher radiotherapy dose intensity is associated with improved local-regional control

  17. Conformation radiotherapy and conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Kozo

    1999-01-01

    In order to coincide the high dose region to the target volume, the 'Conformation Radiotherapy Technique' using the multileaf collimator and the device for 'hollow-out technique' was developed by Prof. S. Takahashi in 1960. This technique can be classified a type of 2D-dynamic conformal RT techniques. By the clinical application of this technique, the late complications of the lens, the intestine and the urinary bladder after radiotherapy for the maxillary cancer and the cervical cancer decreased. Since 1980's the exact position and shape of the tumor and the surrounding normal tissues can be easily obtained by the tremendous development of the CT/MRI imaging technique. As a result, various kinds of new conformal techniques such as the 3D-CRT, the dose intensity modulation, the tomotherapy have been developed since the beginning of 1990'. Several 'dose escalation study with 2D-/3D conformal RT' is now under way to improve the treatment results. (author)

  18. Dosimetry in radiotherapy. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A series of symposia on dosimetry in medicine and biology have been held by the IAEA in co-operation with WHO. The present symposium was the first one focusing on ''Dosimetry in Radiotherapy''. The papers presented reflected the different steps in the calibration chain such as the calibration standards established by the National Standards Laboratories and the conversion of the reading of calibrated instruments to the desired quantity, i.e. absorbed dose to water at a reference point in the user's beam at the radiotherapy clinic. The programme further examined the procedures necessary for optimization of the treatment of the patient, such as treatment planning methods, dose distribution studies, new techniques of dose measurement, improvements in the physical dose distributions/conformation therapy and special problems involved in total body treatments. Results of quality assurance in radiotherapy were presented from local hospitals as well as from national and international studies. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Bystander effects and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Alicia; Martín, Margarita; Liñán, Olga; Alvarenga, Felipe; López, Mario; Fernández, Laura; Büchser, David; Cerezo, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Radiation-induced bystander effects are defined as biological effects expressed after irradiation by cells whose nuclei have not been directly irradiated. These effects include DNA damage, chromosomal instability, mutation, and apoptosis. There is considerable evidence that ionizing radiation affects cells located near the site of irradiation, which respond individually and collectively as part of a large interconnected web. These bystander signals can alter the dynamic equilibrium between proliferation, apoptosis, quiescence or differentiation. The aim of this review is to examine the most important biological effects of this phenomenon with regard to areas of major interest in radiotherapy. Such aspects include radiation-induced bystander effects during the cell cycle under hypoxic conditions when administering fractionated modalities or combined radio-chemotherapy. Other relevant aspects include individual variation and genetics in toxicity of bystander factors and normal tissue collateral damage. In advanced radiotherapy techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), the high degree of dose conformity to the target volume reduces the dose and, therefore, the risk of complications, to normal tissues. However, significant doses can accumulate out-of-field due to photon scattering and this may impact cellular response in these regions. Protons may offer a solution to reduce out-of-field doses. The bystander effect has numerous associated phenomena, including adaptive response, genomic instability, and abscopal effects. Also, the bystander effect can influence radiation protection and oxidative stress. It is essential that we understand the mechanisms underlying the bystander effect in order to more accurately assess radiation risk and to evaluate protocols for cancer radiotherapy.

  20. Postmastectomy radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shikama, Naoto; Koguchi, Masahiko; Sasaki, Shigeru; Kaneko, Tomoki; Shinoda, Atsunori; Nishikawa, Atsushi [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-10-01

    Since there have been few reports on postmastectomy radiotherapy having a high evidence level in Japan, the significance of postoperative radiotherapy and the irradiation techniques were reviewed based on reports from Western countries. Authors focused on the indications for postoperative irradiation, irradiation methods (irradiation sites, irradiation techniques; prosthetics, methods of irradiating the chest wall and lymph nodes, timing of irradiation), and complications, and discuss them. The factors thought to be adaptable to postmastectomy radiotherapy have been listed. Axillary lymph node metastasis and the size of the primary focus are thought to be important factors in locoregional recurrence. The chest wall and the supraclavicular lymph nodes are the usual sites of irradiation after mastectomy. The irradiation method consists of tangential irradiation of the chest wall and single-field irradiation of the supraclavicular lymph nodes, with 46-50 Gy in fractional doses of 1.8-2 Gy x 5/w is administered for 4.5-5.5 weeks. The timing of irradiation in the West is generally after chemotherapy. Adverse radiation effects include ischemic heart disease, pneumonitis, arm edema, rib fractures, and brachial plexus paralysis. The frequency of these complications is increased by the combined use of chemotherapy or surgery. The breast cancer cure rate in Japan is generally better than in the West. It remains to be determined whether the clinical data from Europe and America are applicable to the treatment of breast cancer in Japan. To address this issue, a clinical investigation should be performed in Japan with close cooperation between surgeons, physicians, pathologists, and radiotherapists. (K.H.)

  1. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW-School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Tryggestad, Erik, E-mail: frank.verhaegen@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21231 (United States)

    2011-06-21

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  2. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-06-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research.

  3. Small animal radiotherapy research platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaegen, Frank; Granton, Patrick; Tryggestad, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Advances in conformal radiation therapy and advancements in pre-clinical radiotherapy research have recently stimulated the development of precise micro-irradiators for small animals such as mice and rats. These devices are often kilovolt x-ray radiation sources combined with high-resolution CT imaging equipment for image guidance, as the latter allows precise and accurate beam positioning. This is similar to modern human radiotherapy practice. These devices are considered a major step forward compared to the current standard of animal experimentation in cancer radiobiology research. The availability of this novel equipment enables a wide variety of pre-clinical experiments on the synergy of radiation with other therapies, complex radiation schemes, sub-target boost studies, hypofractionated radiotherapy, contrast-enhanced radiotherapy and studies of relative biological effectiveness, to name just a few examples. In this review we discuss the required irradiation and imaging capabilities of small animal radiation research platforms. We describe the need for improved small animal radiotherapy research and highlight pioneering efforts, some of which led recently to commercially available prototypes. From this, it will be clear that much further development is still needed, on both the irradiation side and imaging side. We discuss at length the need for improved treatment planning tools for small animal platforms, and the current lack of a standard therein. Finally, we mention some recent experimental work using the early animal radiation research platforms, and the potential they offer for advancing radiobiology research. (topical review)

  4. Differential risk assessments from five hypoxia specific assays: The basis for biologically adapted individualized radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsmark, Marianne; Eriksen, Jesper Grau; Gebski, Val

    2007-01-01

    osteopontin measured by ELISA, tumour oxygenation status using pO(2) needle electrodes and tumour osteopontin, hypoxia inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and carboxyanhydrase 9 (CA9) by immunohistochemistry. The primary treatment was radiotherapy and the hypoxic radiosensitizer nimorazole. Loco......-regional tumour control was evaluated at 5 years. RESULTS: All five markers showed inter-tumour variability. Inter-marker correlations were inconsistent. Only plasma osteopontin inversely correlated with median tumour pO(2), (p=0.02, r=0.28) and CA9 correlated with HIF-1alpha (p...-Meier analysis high plasma osteopontin, high HIF-1alpha and high proportion of tumour pO(2)2.5mmHg (HP(2.5)) related significantly with poorer loco-regional control, whereas CA9 and tumour osteopontin failed to predict loco-regional control in this set dataset. When analyzing Hb, stage, and the five markers...

  5. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  6. Patterns of symptom control and palliative care-focused original research articles in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology *Biology* Physics and the Radiotherapy and Oncology Journal, 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Diana D; DiGiovanni, Julia; Skamene, Sonia; Noveroske Philbrick, Sarah; Wang, Yanbing; Barnes, Elizabeth A; Chow, Edward; Sullivan, Adam; Balboni, Tracy A

    2018-04-01

    A significant portion of radiation treatment (30-40%) is delivered with palliative intent. Given the frequency of palliative care (PC) in radiation oncology, we determined the patterns of research focusing on symptom control and palliative care (SCPC) in two prominent radiation oncology journals from 2005-2014. Original research manuscripts published from 2005-2014 in the International Journal of Radiation Oncology *Biology* Physics (Red Journal) and the Radiotherapy and Oncology Journal (Green Journal) were reviewed to categorize articles as PC and/or SCPC. Articles were categorized as PC if it pertained to any aspect of treatment of metastatic cancer, and as SCPC if symptom control in the metastatic cancer setting was the goal of the research inquiry and/or any domain of palliative clinical practice guidelines was the goal of research inquiry. From 2005-2014, 4.9% (312/6,386) of original research articles published in the Red Journal and 3.5% (84/2,406) published in the Green Journal pertained to metastatic cancer, and were categorized as PC. In the Red Journal, 1.3% (84/6,386) of original research articles were categorized as SCPC; 1.3% (32/2,406) of articles in the Green Journal were categorized as SCPC. There was no trend observed in the proportion of SCPC articles published over time in the Red Journal (P=0.76), the Green Journal (P=0.48), or both journals in aggregate (P=0.38). Despite the fact that palliative radiotherapy is a critical part of radiation oncology practice, PC and SCPC-focused original research is poorly represented in the Red Journal and the Green Journal.

  7. Audiovisual functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals multisensory integration effects in object-related sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrmann, Oliver; Weigelt, Sarah; Altmann, Christian F; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J

    2010-03-03

    Information integration across different sensory modalities contributes to object recognition, the generation of associations and long-term memory representations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation to investigate the presence of sensory integrative effects at cortical levels as early as nonprimary auditory and extrastriate visual cortices, which are implicated in intermediate stages of object processing. Stimulation consisted of an adapting audiovisual stimulus S(1) and a subsequent stimulus S(2) from the same basic-level category (e.g., cat). The stimuli were carefully balanced with respect to stimulus complexity and semantic congruency and presented in four experimental conditions: (1) the same image and vocalization for S(1) and S(2), (2) the same image and a different vocalization, (3) different images and the same vocalization, or (4) different images and vocalizations. This two-by-two factorial design allowed us to assess the contributions of auditory and visual stimulus repetitions and changes in a statistically orthogonal manner. Responses in visual regions of right fusiform gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex were reduced for repeated visual stimuli (repetition suppression). Surprisingly, left lateral occipital cortex showed stronger responses to repeated auditory stimuli (repetition enhancement). Similarly, auditory regions of interest of the right middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus exhibited repetition suppression to auditory repetitions and repetition enhancement to visual repetitions. Our findings of crossmodal repetition-related effects in cortices of the respective other sensory modality add to the emerging view that in human subjects sensory integrative mechanisms operate on earlier cortical processing levels than previously assumed.

  8. Specific aspects of radiotherapy of malignant tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek, V.; Abrahamova, J.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the experience with radiotherapy of malignant tumors in 1839 children treated at the Oncological Clinic in Prague from 1946 to 1985, the conclusion is arrived at that some specific aspects of radiotherapy of tumors in children, such as kinetics and biological features are so important that it can be considered a special sub-discipline of clinical radiotherapy. An opinion is expressed about the application of irradiation in non-malignant affections in children. (author). 2 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs

  9. Radiotherapy of bronchogenic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    Radiotherapy of branchogenic carcinoma comprises; palliative treatment, postoperative or pre-operative radiotherapy, radiotherapy as part of a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy of small cell carcinoma and curative radiotherapy of non-operable non-small cell carcinoma. Atelectasis and obstruction are indications for palliative radiotherapy. Postoperative radiotherapy is given only in cases of incomplete resection or mediastinal metastases. In the treatment of small cell carcinoma by combined irradiation and chemotherapy the mediastinum and primary tumour are irradiated, generally after chemotherapy, and the C.N.S. receives prophylactic radiotherapy. Curative radiotherapy is indicated in cases of non-operable small cell carcinoma. Irradiation with doses of 60-70 Gy produced 5-years-survival rates of 10-14% in cases classified as T 1 -T 2 N 0 M 0 . (orig.) [de

  10. The potential of radiotherapy of lymphoma infiltrations of the CNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupek, P.; Hanova, I.; Pohankova, R.

    1997-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a very important element in the complex therapy of lymphomas of the central nervous system, significantly improving the results of the aggressive system chemotherapy. Irradiation of considerable tissue volumes and the application of rather high total doses are recommended. In view of the unfavorable prognosis and biological behavior of the tumor, the total treatment (including chemotherapy and radiotherapy) should be aggressive. (author)

  11. Physical fundamentals of the application of heavy charged particles in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueche, G.

    1977-01-01

    In the chapter 'Medical Applications' A 'Radiotherapy' of the study, the following subjects are treated in detail by various authors: Physical fundamentals of the application of heavy charged particles in radiotherapy-radiation-biological fundamentals; clinical aspects of radiotherapy with protons and negative pions; patients and clinical dosimetry. (MG) [de

  12. National arrangements for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee

  13. Radiotherapy of malignant lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawska, J [Instytut Onkologii, Krakow (Poland)

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses current views on the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of patients with malignant lymphomas. Principles of radiotherapy employed in the Institute of Oncology in Cracow in case of patients with malignant lymphomas are also presented.

  14. In situ biological dose mapping estimates the radiation burden delivered to 'spared' tissue between synchrotron X-ray microbeam radiotherapy tracks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Rothkamm

    Full Text Available Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT using high doses of synchrotron X-rays can destroy tumours in animal models whilst causing little damage to normal tissues. Determining the spatial distribution of radiation doses delivered during MRT at a microscopic scale is a major challenge. Film and semiconductor dosimetry as well as Monte Carlo methods struggle to provide accurate estimates of dose profiles and peak-to-valley dose ratios at the position of the targeted and traversed tissues whose biological responses determine treatment outcome. The purpose of this study was to utilise γ-H2AX immunostaining as a biodosimetric tool that enables in situ biological dose mapping within an irradiated tissue to provide direct biological evidence for the scale of the radiation burden to 'spared' tissue regions between MRT tracks. Γ-H2AX analysis allowed microbeams to be traced and DNA damage foci to be quantified in valleys between beams following MRT treatment of fibroblast cultures and murine skin where foci yields per unit dose were approximately five-fold lower than in fibroblast cultures. Foci levels in cells located in valleys were compared with calibration curves using known broadbeam synchrotron X-ray doses to generate spatial dose profiles and calculate peak-to-valley dose ratios of 30-40 for cell cultures and approximately 60 for murine skin, consistent with the range obtained with conventional dosimetry methods. This biological dose mapping approach could find several applications both in optimising MRT or other radiotherapeutic treatments and in estimating localised doses following accidental radiation exposure using skin punch biopsies.

  15. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 20. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Michael; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Petersen, Cordula; Rodemannn, Hans-Peter; Zips, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The proceedings include contributions on the following issues: laser driven proton accelerators on the way for radiotherapy, radiobiological evaluation of new radiations; molecular factors of radiation response; biological targeting; EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor/targeting - combined internal and external irradiation, radiobiology of normal tissues; dose-volume histograms for the radiotherapy: curves without radiobiological relevance or important information for the therapy planning; HPV (human papilloma virus) and radiation sensitivity of HNSCC (head and neck squamous cell carcinomas): evidence, radiobiological mechanism, clinical consequences and perspectives; mechanisms of action and intertumoral heterogeneity of response to EGFR inhibition in radiotherapy of solid tumors; evaluation of biomarkers for radiotherapy.

  16. Hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitspatrick, C.

    1990-01-01

    Hyperthermia and radiotherapy have for long been used to assist in the control of tumours, either as separate entities, or, in a combined treatment scheme. This paper outlines why hyperthermia works, thermal dose and the considerations required in the timing when hyperthermia is combined with radiotherapy. Previously reported results for hyperthermia and radiotherapy used together are also presented. 8 refs., 8 tabs

  17. Anatomical imaging for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M

    2008-01-01

    The goal of radiation therapy is to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit expressed in terms of a high probability of local control of disease with minimal side effects. Physically this often equates to the delivery of a high dose of radiation to the tumour or target region whilst maintaining an acceptably low dose to other tissues, particularly those adjacent to the target. Techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), stereotactic radiosurgery and computer planned brachytherapy provide the means to calculate the radiation dose delivery to achieve the desired dose distribution. Imaging is an essential tool in all state of the art planning and delivery techniques: (i) to enable planning of the desired treatment, (ii) to verify the treatment is delivered as planned and (iii) to follow-up treatment outcome to monitor that the treatment has had the desired effect. Clinical imaging techniques can be loosely classified into anatomic methods which measure the basic physical characteristics of tissue such as their density and biological imaging techniques which measure functional characteristics such as metabolism. In this review we consider anatomical imaging techniques. Biological imaging is considered in another article. Anatomical imaging is generally used for goals (i) and (ii) above. Computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of anatomical treatment planning for many years, enabling some delineation of soft tissue as well as radiation attenuation estimation for dose prediction. Magnetic resonance imaging is fast becoming widespread alongside CT, enabling superior soft-tissue visualization. Traditionally scanning for treatment planning has relied on the use of a single snapshot scan. Recent years have seen the development of techniques such as 4D CT and adaptive radiotherapy (ART). In 4D CT raw data are encoded with phase information and reconstructed to yield a set of scans detailing motion through the breathing, or cardiac, cycle. In ART a set of

  18. SU-F-T-124: Radiation Biological Equivalent Presentations OfLEM-1 and MKM Approaches in the Carbon-Ion Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi, W; Jiang, G; Sheng, Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the correlations of the radiation biological equivalent doses (BED) along depth and lateral distance between LEM-1 and MKM approaches. Methods: In NIRS-MKM (Microdosimetric Kinetic Model) approach, the prescribed BED, referred as C-Eq, doses aims to present the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for different energies of carbon-ions on a fixed 10% survival value of HCG cell with respect to convention X-ray. Instead of a fixed 10% survival, the BED doses of LEM-1 (Local Effect Model) approach, referred as X-Eq, aims to present the RBE over the whole survival curve of chordoma-like cell with alpha/beta ratio of 2.0. The relationship of physical doses as a function of C-Eq and X-Eq doses were investigated along depth and lateral distance for various sizes of cubic targets in water irradiated by carbon-ions. Results: At the center of each cubic target, the trends between physical and C-Eq or X-Eq doses can be described by a linear and 2nd order polynomial functions, respectively. Using fit functions can then calculate a scaling factor between C-Eq and X-Eq doses to have similar physical doses. With equalized C-Eq and X-Eq doses at the depth of target center, over- and under-estimated X-Eq to C-Eq are seen for depths before and after the target center, respectively. Near the distal edge along depth, sharp rising of RBE value is observed for X-Eq, but sharp dropping of RBE value is observed for C-Eq. For lateral locations near and just outside 50% dose level, sharp raising of RBE value is also seen for X-Eq, while only minor increasing with fast dropping for C-Eq. Conclusion: An analytical function to model the differences between the CEq and X-Eq doses along depth and lateral distance need to further investigated to explain varied clinic outcome of specific cancers using two different approaches to calculated BED doses.

  19. Combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwich, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper investigates the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy performed over the last 15 years. The improvement of the therapeutic ratio of anti- cancer effect to normal tissue toxicity and its requirement of a thorough understanding of the biological effects of each modality and of how these effects may interact is presented. Early studies and conclusions are examined

  20. Radiation sensitizations at DNA-level by chemical and biological agents. Coordinated programme on improvement of radiotherapy of cancer using modifiers of radiosensitivity of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, H.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation sensitization by chemical agents at DNA level is discussed. Procaine, Halothan and Metronidazole showed no significant effect on unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in mouse spleen cells, investigated by autoradiography and no effect on rejoining of DNA single strand breaks after gamma or UV irradiation. Oxyphenbutazon and prednisolone reduced the replicative DNA synthesis in vitro and in vivo but there was only little effect on DNA repair in the in vivo experiments. These two substances showed also a small reduction in poly(ADP-ribose) synthesis (PAR synthesis). 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) in combination with UV irradiation showed that 5-MOP was more toxic than mutagen, but induced much less DNA crosslinks than 8-MOP. Autoradiographic studies of radiation sensitization by biological agents showed significant inhibition of UDS in Yoshida tumor cells after acute mycoplasma infection in rats. Nucleoid sedimentation studies showed only in the case of Yoshida tumor cells after mycoplasma infection a dramatic effect in the sedimentation behaviour. Sensitization of cells by changing chromatin structure was also studied. Benzamide, 3-NH 2 -benzamide, 3-Methoxybenzamide, Spermine, Theophyllin and Caffeine were tested in different concentrations on replicative DNA synthesis, UDS after UV irradiation and PAR synthesis Chinese hamster ovary cells. 5-Methoxybenzamide was the strongest sensitizer and inhibitor of the PAR synthesis, and was used in further experiments. Results of KFA Juelich on sensitization of a mamma-adenocarcinoma EO 771 on C57 B1 mice are given. Replicative DNA synthesis, DNA repair and PAR synthesis were compared in spleen cells and adenocarcinoma cells after treatment with 5-Methoxybenzamide. An inhibitory effect on UDS could be shown only in adenocarcinoma cells but not in the mice spleen cells

  1. A biologically competitive 21 days hypofractionation scheme with weekly concomitant boost in breast cancer radiotherapy feasibility acute sub-acute and short term late effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenzi, Marina; Vagge, Stefano; Azinwi, Ngwa Che; D'Alonzo, Alessia; Belgioia, Liliana; Garelli, Stefania; Gusinu, Marco; Corvò, Renzo

    2010-01-01

    Radiation therapy after lumpectomy is a standard part of breast conserving therapy for invasive breast carcinoma. The most frequently used schedule worldwide is 60 Gy in 30 fractions in 6 weeks, a time commitment that sporadically may dissuade some otherwise eligible women from undertaking treatment. The purpose and primary endpoint of this perspective study is to evaluate feasibility and short-term late toxicity in a hypofractionated whole breast irradiation schedule. Between February and October 2008 we treated 65 consecutive patients with operable invasive early-stage breast cancer with a hypofractionated schedule of external beam radiation therapy. All patients were assigned to 39 Gy in 13 fractions in 3 weeks to the whole breast plus a concomitant weekly boost dose to the lumpectomy cavity of 3 Gy in 3 fractions. All the patients had achieved a median follow up of 24 months (range 21-29 months). At the end of treatment 52% presented grade 0 acute toxicity 39% had grade 1 and 9% had grade 2. At 6 months with all the patients assessed there were 34% case of grade 1 subacute toxicity and 6% of grade 2. At 12 months 43% and 3% of patients presented with clinical grade 1 and grade 2 fibrosis respectively and 5% presented grade 1 hyperpigmentation. The remaining patients were free of side effects. At 24 months, with 56 assessed, just 2 patients (3%) showed grade 2 of late fibrosis. The clinical results observed showed a reasonably good feasibility of the accelerated hypofractionated schedule in terms of acute, subacute and short-term late toxicity. This useful 13 fractions with a concomitant boost schedule seems, in selected patients, a biologically acceptable alternative to the traditional 30 days regime

  2. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1974--1977. [Planning for use for radiotherapy and as radiation source for diagnostic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, S. (ed.)

    1977-04-01

    The Bevalac, a versatile high-energy heavy-ion accelerator complex, has been in operation for less than two years. A major purpose for which the Bevalac was constructed was to explore the possibility of heavy-ion teams for therapy for certain forms of cancer. Significant progress has been made in this direction. The National Cancer Institute has recognized the advantages that these and other accelerated particles offer, and heavy ions have been included in a long-term plan for particle therapy that will assess by means of controlled therapeutic tests the value of various modalities. Since accelerated heavy ions became available, the possibility of other contributions, not planned, became apparent. We are developig a new diagnostic method known as heavy-ion radiography that has greatly increased sensitivity for soft-tissue detail and that may become a powerful tool for localizing early tumors and metastases. We have discovered that radioactive beams are formed from fragmentation of stable deflected beams. Use of these autoradioactive beams is just beginning; however, we know that these beams will be helpful in localizing the region in the body where therapy is being delivered. In addition, it has been demonstrated that instant implantation of the radioactive beam allows direct measurements of blood perfusion rates in inaccessible parts of the body, and such a technique may become a new tool for the study of fast hot atom reactions in biochemistry, tracer biology and nuclear medicine. The Bevalac will also be useful for the continuation of previously developed methods for the control of acromegaly, Cushing's disease and, on a research basis, advanced diabetes mellitus with vascular disease. The ability to make small bloodless lesions in the brain and elsewhere with heavy-ion beams has great potential for nervous-system studies and perhaps later for radioneurosurgery.

  3. The metabolic radiotherapy. La radiotherapie metabolique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begon, F.; Gaci, M. (Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 86 - Poitiers (France))

    In this article, the authors recall the principles of the metabolic radiotherapy and present these main applications in the treatment of thyroid cancers, hyperthyroidism, polycythemia, arthritis, bone metastases, adrenergic neoplasms. They also present the radioimmunotherapy.

  4. Radiobiology of human cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The author has systematically collected and collated the scientific literature correlating the basic and clinical sciences in this field in order to produce a definitive treatise. The book thoroughly reviews the biology and biochemistry relevant to radiobiology and describes the critical locus for the extinction of cell reproductive capacity. Extensive coverage is given to oxygen effect, hyperthermia, high linear energy transfer, cell populations, and similar topics. Separate sections cover time, dose, and fractionation; radiation hematology; cancer chemotherapy; and cancer immunology. The book also contains invaluable discussions of techniques for optimizing radiotherapy alone and in combination with other therapies

  5. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 19. Proceedings; Experimentelle Strahlentherapie und Klinische Strahlenbiologie. Bd. 19. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Michael; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Petersen, Cordula; Rodemann, H Peter; Zips, Daniel [eds.

    2010-12-18

    The proceedings include review contributions on radio-oncology, and new radiation technologies and molecular prediction; and poster sessions on the following topics: hypoxia; molecular mechanisms of radiation resistance; molecular targeting; DNA repair; biological imaging; biology of experimental radiations; normal tissue toxicity; modern radiotherapy; tumor hypoxia and metabolic micro milieu; immune system and radiotherapy.

  6. Antiproton radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; DeMarco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Hajdukovic, Dragan; Hartley, Oliver; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Jakel, Oliver; Knudsen, Helge V.; Kovacevic, Sandra; Møller, Søren Pape; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B.à; Solberg, Timothy D.; Sørensen, Brita S.; Vranjes, Sanja; Wouters, Bradly G.; Holzscheiter, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Antiprotons are interesting as a possible future modality in radiation therapy for the following reasons: When fast antiprotons penetrate matter, protons and antiprotons have near identical stopping powers and exhibit equal radiobiology well before the Bragg-peak. But when the antiprotons come to rest at the Bragg-peak, they annihilate, releasing almost 2 GeV per antiproton–proton annihilation. Most of this energy is carried away by energetic pions, but the Bragg-peak of the antiprotons is still locally augmented with ∼20–30 MeV per antiproton. Apart from the gain in physical dose, an increased relative biological effect also has been observed, which can be explained by the fact that some of the secondary particles from the antiproton annihilation exhibit high-LET properties. Finally, the weakly interacting energetic pions, which are leaving the target volume, may provide a real time feedback on the exact location of the annihilation peak. We have performed dosimetry experiments and investigated the rad...

  7. Paradigm Shift in Radiation Biology/Radiation Oncology-Exploitation of the "H₂O₂ Effect" for Radiotherapy Using Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) Radiation such as X-rays and High-Energy Electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasuhiro

    2016-02-25

    Most radiation biologists/radiation oncologists have long accepted the concept that the biologic effects of radiation principally involve damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is the critical target, as described in "Radiobiology for the Radiologist", by E.J. Hall and A.J. Giaccia [1]. Although the concepts of direct and indirect effects of radiation are fully applicable to low-LET (linear energy transfer) radioresistant tumor cells/normal tissues such as osteosarcoma cells and chondrocytes, it is believed that radiation-associated damage to DNA does not play a major role in the mechanism of cell death in low-LET radiosensitive tumors/normal tissues such as malignant lymphoma cells and lymphocytes. Hall and Giaccia describe lymphocytes as very radiosensitive, based largely on apoptosis subsequent to irradiation. As described in this review, apoptosis of lymphocytes and lymphoma cells is actually induced by the "hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) effect", which I propose in this review article for the first time. The mechanism of lymphocyte death via the H₂O₂ effect represents an ideal model to develop the enhancement method of radiosensitivity for radiation therapy of malignant neoplasms. In terms of imitating the high radiosensitivity of lymphocytes, osteosarcoma cells (representative of low-LET radioresistant cells) might be the ideal model for indicating the conversion of cells from radioresistant to radiosensitive utilizing the H₂O₂ effect. External beam radiation such as X-rays and high-energy electrons for use in modern radiotherapy are generally produced using a linear accelerator. We theorized that when tumors are irradiated in the presence of H₂O₂, the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes such as peroxidases and catalase are blocked and oxygen molecules are produced at the same time via the H₂O₂ effect, resulting in oxidative damage to low-LET radioresistant tumor cells, thereby rendering them highly sensitive to irradiation. In this

  8. Paradigm Shift in Radiation Biology/Radiation Oncology—Exploitation of the “H2O2 Effect” for Radiotherapy Using Low-LET (Linear Energy Transfer Radiation such as X-rays and High-Energy Electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Ogawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most radiation biologists/radiation oncologists have long accepted the concept that the biologic effects of radiation principally involve damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, which is the critical target, as described in “Radiobiology for the Radiologist”, by E.J. Hall and A.J. Giaccia [1]. Although the concepts of direct and indirect effects of radiation are fully applicable to low-LET (linear energy transfer radioresistant tumor cells/normal tissues such as osteosarcoma cells and chondrocytes, it is believed that radiation-associated damage to DNA does not play a major role in the mechanism of cell death in low-LET radiosensitive tumors/normal tissues such as malignant lymphoma cells and lymphocytes. Hall and Giaccia describe lymphocytes as very radiosensitive, based largely on apoptosis subsequent to irradiation. As described in this review, apoptosis of lymphocytes and lymphoma cells is actually induced by the “hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 effect”, which I propose in this review article for the first time. The mechanism of lymphocyte death via the H2O2 effect represents an ideal model to develop the enhancement method of radiosensitivity for radiation therapy of malignant neoplasms. In terms of imitating the high radiosensitivity of lymphocytes, osteosarcoma cells (representative of low-LET radioresistant cells might be the ideal model for indicating the conversion of cells from radioresistant to radiosensitive utilizing the H2O2 effect. External beam radiation such as X-rays and high-energy electrons for use in modern radiotherapy are generally produced using a linear accelerator. We theorized that when tumors are irradiated in the presence of H2O2, the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes such as peroxidases and catalase are blocked and oxygen molecules are produced at the same time via the H2O2 effect, resulting in oxidative damage to low-LET radioresistant tumor cells, thereby rendering them highly sensitive to irradiation. In this

  9. Radiotherapy in small countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Michael B; Zubizarreta, Eduardo H; Polo Rubio, J Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    To examine the availability of radiotherapy in small countries. A small country was defined as a country with a population less than one million persons. The economic status of each country was defined using the World Bank Classification. The number of cancers in each country was obtained from GLOBOCAN 2012. The number of cancer cases with an indication or radiotherapy was calculated using the CCORE model. There were 41 countries with a population of under 1 million; 15 were classified as High Income, 15 Upper Middle Income, 10 Lower Middle Income and one Low Income. 28 countries were islands. Populations ranged from 799 (Holy See) to 886450 (Fiji) and the total number of cancer cases occurring in small countries was 21,043 (range by country from 4 to 2476). Overall the total number of radiotherapy cases in small countries was 10982 (range by country from 2 to 1239). Radiotherapy was available in all HIC islands with 80 or more new cases of cancer in 2012 but was not available in any LMIC island. Fiji was the only LMIC island with a large radiotherapy caseload. Similar caseloads in non-island LMIC all had radiotherapy services. Most non-island HIC did not have radiotherapy services presumably because of the easy access to radiotherapy in neighbouring countries. There are no radiotherapy services in any LMIC islands. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of radiation in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki; Fujibuchi, Toshio; Saito, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The title subject is easily explained for the deterministic effect, secondary cancer formation and case reports of accidental exposure at radiotherapy. For the deterministic effect, the dose-effect relationship is sigmoidal in normal and cancer tissues, and the more separated are their curves, the more favorable is the radiotherapy. TD 5/5 is the tolerable dose to yield <5% of irreversible radiation injury to the normal tissue within 5 years after the therapy and is generally dose-limiting. The curves are of various shapes depending on the tissue composition that its functional subunit (FSU) is parallel like lobules of the liver, or in series like neuron. Symptoms appear complicated on these factors. Recent development of CT-based therapeutic planning has made it possible to analyze the partial tissue volume to be irradiated and its absorbed dose by the relationship (dose volume histogram, DVH) between the electron density vs CT value regardless to anatomy. The normal tissue complication probability is a model composed from the physical DVH and biological factors of FSU composition and cellular radiation susceptibility, and is a measure of the irreversible late effect manifested in normal tissues. Epidemiology has shown the increased risk of secondary cancer formation by radiotherapy. Children are highly susceptible to this, and in adults undergoing the therapy of a certain cancer, it is known that the risk of radiation carcinogenesis is increased in the particular tissue. There are presented such case reports of accidental excessive exposure at radiotherapy as caused by an inappropriate use of detector, partial loss of data in a therapeutic planning device, reading of reversed MRI image, and too much repeated use of the old-type electric portal imaging device. (T.T.)

  11. Carbon-ion radiotherapy for marginal lymph node recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Nakano, Takashi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kiyohara, Hiroki; Noda, Shin-ei; Ohkubo, Yu; Ando, Ken; Wakatsuki, Masaru; Kato, Shingo; Kamada, Tadashi

    2013-01-01

    Recurrences of cervical cancer after definitive radiotherapy often occur at common iliac or para-aortic lymph nodes as marginal lymph node recurrences. Patients with these recurrences have a chance of long-term survival by optimal re-treatment with radiotherapy. However, the re-irradiation often overlaps the initial and the secondary radiotherapy fields and can result in increased normal tissue toxicities in the bowels or the stomach. Carbon-ion radiotherapy, a form of particle beam radiotherapy using accelerated carbon ions, offers more conformal and sharp dose distribution than X-ray radiotherapy. Therefore, this approach enables the delivery of high radiation doses to the target while sparing its surrounding normal tissues. Marginal lymph node recurrences in common iliac lymph nodes after radiotherapy were treated successfully by carbon-ion radiotherapy in two patients. These two patients were initially treated with a combination of external beam radiotherapy and intracavitary and interstitial brachytherapy. However, the diseases recurred in the lymph nodes near the border of the initial radiotherapy fields after 22 months and 23 months. Because re-irradiation with X-ray radiotherapy may deliver high doses to a section of the bowels, carbon-ion radiotherapy was selected to treat the lymph node recurrences. A total dose of 48 Gy (RBE) in 12 fractions over 3 weeks was given to the lymph node recurrences, and the tumors disappeared completely with no severe acute toxicities. The two patients showed no evidence of disease for 75 months and 63 months after the initial radiotherapy and for 50 months and 37 months after the carbon-ion radiotherapy, respectively. No severe late adverse effects are observed in these patients. The two presented cases suggest that the highly conformal dose distribution of carbon-ion radiotherapy may be beneficial in the treatment of marginal lymph node recurrences after radiotherapy. In addition, the higher biological effect of carbon

  12. PLANNING NATIONAL RADIOTHERAPY SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eRosenblatt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Countries, states and island nations often need forward planning of their radiotherapy services driven by different motives. Countries without radiotherapy services sponsor patients to receive radiotherapy abroad. They often engage professionals for a feasibility study in order to establish whether it would be more cost-beneficial to establish a radiotherapy facility. Countries where radiotherapy services have developed without any central planning, find themselves in situations where many of the available centres are private and thus inaccessible for a majority of patients with limited resources. Government may decide to plan ahead when a significant exodus of cancer patients travel to another country for treatment, thus exposing the failure of the country to provide this medical service for its citizens. In developed countries the trigger has been the existence of highly visible waiting lists for radiotherapy revealing a shortage of radiotherapy equipment.This paper suggests that there should be a systematic and comprehensive process of long-term planning of radiotherapy services at the national level, taking into account the regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, planning of centres, equipment, staff, education pr

  13. To understand radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with the use of radiotherapy for adults, this guide indicates when a radiotherapy is suggested, how it acts, how the treatment is chosen, which are the professionals involved. It describes how an external radiotherapy takes place and its various techniques, the different types of side effects (general, specific to the treated zone, late effects). It indicates which organs can be treated by curie-therapy, the different curie-therapy treatment modalities, how a curie-therapy takes place and which are its side effects. It outlines how to better cope with radiotherapy (how to be supported, the important role of relatives, everyday life questions, rights). It indicates and comments the different measures adopted for the safety and quality of radiotherapy

  14. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 17. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, M.; Dahm-Daphi, J.; Dikomey, E.; Petersen, C.; Rodemann, H.P.; Zips, D.

    2008-01-01

    The proceedings contain the lectures and poster sessions on the following topics: modulation of the immune system for the improvement of tumor radiotherapy; molecular factors and predictors of radiation sensitivity of tumor cells; DNA repair; molecular factors and modulation of radiation reactions of normal tissue; biological studies with differential experimental radiations; tumor stem cells: importance for the radiotherapy; DNA repair and its importance for the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells; biological modification of the radiation sensitivity of tumor cells; biological imaging and tumor microenvironment

  15. Biomarkers of Tumour Radiosensitivity and Predicting Benefit from Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forker, L J; Choudhury, A; Kiltie, A E

    2015-10-01

    Radiotherapy is an essential component of treatment for more than half of newly diagnosed cancer patients. The response to radiotherapy varies widely between individuals and although advances in technology have allowed the adaptation of radiotherapy fields to tumour anatomy, it is still not possible to tailor radiotherapy based on tumour biology. A biomarker of intrinsic radiosensitivity would be extremely valuable for individual dosing, aiding decision making between radical treatment options and avoiding toxicity of neoadjuvant or adjuvant radiotherapy in those unlikely to benefit. This systematic review summarises the current evidence for biomarkers under investigation as predictors of radiotherapy benefit. Only 10 biomarkers were identified as having been evaluated for their radiotherapy-specific predictive value in over 100 patients in a clinical setting, highlighting that despite a rich literature there were few high-quality studies for inclusion. The most extensively studied radiotherapy predictive biomarkers were the radiosensitivity index and MRE11; however, neither has been evaluated in a randomised controlled trial. Although these biomarkers show promise, there is not enough evidence to justify their use in routine practice. Further validation is needed before biomarkers can fulfil their potential and predict treatment outcomes for large numbers of patients. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of radiotherapy in the complex treatment for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, A S; Datsenko, V S [Tsentral' nyj Inst. Usovershenstvovaniya Vrachej, Moscow (USSR)

    1978-01-01

    Preoperational irradiation of a primary focus and all the areas of regional metastatic spreading turned out to be most effective in the case of mammary gland cancer complex treating. Postoperational radiotherapy is a less effective version of radiotherapy justified in the case of metastatic affection of lymph nodes and deliberate disturbance of ablastics during the operation. Time interval between the ending of preoperational radiotherapy and the operation must not exceed 3 weeks, as, otherwise, the biological potential of undamaged cancer cells is recovered and the hazard of appearing remote metastases increases. Additional courses of chemotherapy in the case of multiple of lymphogenic metastases improe prognosis for patients with mammary gland cancer.

  17. Historical review of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onai, Yoshio

    1993-01-01

    The techniques of radiotherapy have been improved by development of particle accelerators, radionuclides and computers. This paper presents a historical review of the physical and technical aspects of radiotherapy in Japan. Changes in the kinds of radiation, such as X-rays, gamma rays, electrons, neutrons and protons used for external radiotherapy, and the equipment involved are described chronologically, and historical changes in the quality of radiotherapy apparatus are outlined. Patient data acquisition equipment, such as X-ray simulator and X-ray CT, beam modifying devices, patient setup devices, and devices to verify treatment fields and patient doses are reviewed historically. Radiation sources for brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy, and remotely controlled afterloading systems are reviewed chronologically. Historical changes in methods to evaluate absorbed doses, dose monitor systems and beam data acquisition systems are outlined. Changes in methods of calculating dose distributions for external X-ray and electron therapy, brachytherapy and internal radiotherapy by unsealded radionuclides are described and calculation techniques for treatment planning system are reviewed. Annual figures in the numbers of radiotherapy equipment, such as telecobalt and telecesium units, linear accelerators, betatrons, microtrons, stereotactic gamma units, conformation radiotherapy units, remotely controlled afterloading systems, and associated equipment such as X-ray simulators and treatment planning systems are provided, as are changes in the number of accelerators by maximum X-ray energy and maximum electron energy, and in the number of licensed hospitals and clinics using small sealed sources. Changes in techniques of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy are described briefly from the point of view of dose distributions. (author)

  18. Radiological incidents in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobzova, L.; Novotny, J.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries a reporting system of radiological incidents to national regulatory body exists and providers of radiotherapy treatment are obliged to report all major and/or in some countries all incidents occurring in institution. State Office for Nuclear Safety (SONS) is providing a systematic guidance for radiotherapy departments from 1997 by requiring inclusion of radiation safety problems into Quality assurance manual, which is the basic document for obtaining a license of SONS for handling with sources of ionizing radiation. For that purpose SONS also issued the recommendation 'Introduction of QA system for important sources in radiotherapy-radiological incidents' in which the radiological incidents are defined and the basic guidance for their classification (category A, B, C, D), investigation and reporting are given. At regular periods the SONS in co-operation with radiotherapy centers is making a survey of all radiological incidents occurring in institutions and it is presenting obtained information in synoptic communication (2003 Motolske dny, 2005 Novy Jicin). This presentation is another summary report of radiological incidents that occurred in our radiotherapy institutions during last 3 years. Emphasis is given not only to survey and statistics, but also to analysis of reasons of the radiological incidents and to their detection and prevention. Analyses of incidents in radiotherapy have led to a much broader understanding of incident causation. Information about the error should be shared as early as possible during or after investigation by all radiotherapy centers. Learning from incidents, errors and near misses should be a part of improvement of the QA system in institutions. Generally, it is recommended that all radiotherapy facilities should participate in the reporting, analyzing and learning system to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge throughout the whole country to prevent errors in radiotherapy.(authors)

  19. Radiotherapy indications - rectum cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    This document is addressed to oncologists radiotherapists and to any health professional concerned by rectum cancer treatment. Rectum cancer therapy is based on various technical procedures including surgery, radiotherapy and systemic treatments defined for each patient according to his clinical situation. This document precises the specific situations where radiotherapy can be employed. However, the radiotherapy decision must be taken with respect to other therapeutic alternatives. Such a decision must be validated and must be the object of a discussion in the framework of a pluri-disciplinary consultation. (J.S.)

  20. Radiotherapy injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.; Bennet, J.; Couanet, D.; Masselot, J.

    1985-01-01

    Side effects of radiotherapy in pediatrics are reviewed including bone injuries and radio-induced bone tumors; nervous system injuries with emphasis on hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain and spinal cord; lung, digestive system and urinary tract injuries [fr

  1. The metabolic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begon, F.; Gaci, M.

    1993-01-01

    In this article, the authors recall the principles of the metabolic radiotherapy and present these main applications in the treatment of thyroid cancers, hyperthyroidism, polycythemia, arthritis, bone metastases, adrenergic neoplasms. They also present the radioimmunotherapy

  2. Foundations in radiological protection and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales M, F.

    2002-01-01

    The work is divided in three parts. The part 1 are a brief abstrac of some important concepts related with the cells. The part 2 speak in general of the biological effects of the ionizing radiations according to the recommendations of the international commission of radiological protection. The part 3 refer to radiobiological calculations applying the quadratic lineal pattern to the radiotherapy. These calculations are important in view of the fact that they are applied for the introduction of new outlines of treatments

  3. Clinical practice of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobias, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    After describing the recent advances in radiotherapy, this brief article presents in tabular form the changing indications for radiotherapy for tumours of the skin, head and neck, adult CNS, lung, thyroid, thymus, breast, female genital tract, soft tissue sarcoma, genitourinary tract, bone sarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, leukemia and paediatric malignancy. For each tumour type, information is provided for the radiosensitivity, the radiocurability, complications and five-year survival. Combined modality treatment is also briefly discussed. (UK)

  4. Nanoparticle-guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and nano-sized particles for image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) of a target tissue. More specifically, the invention relates to nano-sized particles comprising X-ray-imaging contrast agents in solid form with the ability to block x-rays, allowing for simult...... for simultaneous or integrated external beam radiotherapy and imaging, e.g., using computed tomography (CT)....

  5. Clinical practice of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Junichi; Masaki, Norie; Onoyama, Yasuto

    1987-01-01

    This chapter presents in greater detail radiotherapy used in each clinical setting. The descriptions are given under the following sections: the tongue and oral cavity; the maxilla, larynx, and pharynx; brain tumors; the eyes and orbit; pediatric tumors; lung cancer; the esophagus; breast cancer; the abdominal digestive system; the urogenital system; the uterine cervix; the ovaries and vulva; bone and soft tissues; the skin; hematopoietic tumors; lymph node metastases; and radiotherapy as palliative treatment. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Patients and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eardley, A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of interviews with thirty discharged patients who had undergone radical radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck are presented. Patients were asked whether their side-effects had got worse or had stayed the same, what effect their side effects had had on eating and drinking and whether they had felt depressed during this period. Measures which could be taken to improve patients' experiences of radiotherapy are discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Accuracy requirements in radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzdar, S. A.; Afzal, M.; Nazir, A.; Gadhi, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy attempts to deliver ionizing radiation to the tumour and can improve the survival chances and/or quality of life of patients. There are chances of errors and uncertainties in the entire process of radiotherapy that may affect the accuracy and precision of treatment management and decrease degree of conformation. All expected inaccuracies, like radiation dose determination, volume calculation, complete evaluation of the full extent of the tumour, biological behaviour of specific tumour types, organ motion during radiotherapy, imaging, biological/molecular uncertainties, sub-clinical diseases, microscopic spread of the disease, uncertainty in normal tissue responses and radiation morbidity need sound appreciation. Conformity can be increased by reduction of such inaccuracies. With the yearly increase in computing speed and advancement in other technologies the future will provide the opportunity to optimize a greater number of variables and reduce the errors in the treatment planning process. In multi-disciplined task of radiotherapy, efforts are needed to overcome the errors and uncertainty, not only by the physicists but also by radiologists, pathologists and oncologists to reduce molecular and biological uncertainties. The radiation therapy physics is advancing towards an optimal goal that is definitely to improve accuracy where necessary and to reduce uncertainty where possible. (author)

  8. Radiotherapy: an interactive learning tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenzel, T.; Kruell, A.; Schmidt, R.; Dobrucki, W.; Malys, B.

    1998-01-01

    The program is primarily intended for radiological medical technicians, student nurses, students of medicine and physics, and doctors. It is designed as a tool for vocational training and further training and gives comprehensive insight into the daily routines of a radiotherapy unit. The chapters deal with: fundamental biological aspects - fundamental physical aspects - radiation sources and irradiation systems - preparatory examinations - therapies and concepts - irradiation planning - irradiation performance - termination of irradiation treatment. For every page displayed, spoken texts and written, on-screen keywords, illustrations, animated sequences and a large number of videos have been combined in a way easy to digest. The software of the program permits handling also by learners less familiar with computer-based learning. (orig./) [de

  9. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 18. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, Michael; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Petersen, Cordula; Rodemann, H. Peter; Zips, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The proceedings on experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology contain two review articles (prediction of normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy, ?H2AX foci as a marker for DNA double-strand breaks) and 34 contributions to the following topics: Hypoxia and molecular mechanisms of radiation resistance; biological imaging of the tumor micromilieu; DNA repair, genomic instability and carcerogenesis; molecular factors of radiation resistance; actual controversial discussion on possible irradiation caused metastasis risk enhancement; EGFR inhibition and irradiation; biology of experimental radiation/ normal tissue toxicity

  10. Advice concerning radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Dutch National cancer incidence figures were calculated by using the reliable data on cancer incidence in the Eindhoven area and population forecasts and information obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics. Several radiotherapy departments suffer from under capacity (a lack of resources and understaffing). Data have also shown that 35% of cancer patients receive radiotherapy, instead of 50%. Calculations have been made by the committee on the present and future needs with regard to equipment and staff. In 1983, the number of megavoltage therapy units amounted to 38, but should have been 65. It should be 80 in 1990 and 90 in 2000. Since building and installing such equipment is a lengthy process a considerable effort is needed to make up for the arrears. The committee advocates the extension of the system of regional cooperation in cancer care (comprehensive cancer centres), in which radiotherapy departments play a crucial role. Working parties from the committee provided a comprehensive description of current radiotherapy practice with reference to physical, technical, clinical and management aspects. Another working party assessed the results of cancer treatment with regard to many different tumour sites. Recent and expected developments were analysed or indicated. The Radiotherapy Committee commissioned an external team to conduct a project to achieve a picture of future developments using methods different to those of the committee's. An interim advice has been added on this subject. (Auth.)

  11. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 20. Proceedings; Experimentelle Strahlentherapie und Klinische Strahlenbiologie. Bd. 20. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Michael; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Petersen, Cordula; Rodemannn, Hans-Peter; Zips, Daniel (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The proceedings include contributions on the following issues: laser driven proton accelerators on the way for radiotherapy, radiobiological evaluation of new radiations; molecular factors of radiation response; biological targeting; EGFR epidermal growth factor receptor/targeting - combined internal and external irradiation, radiobiology of normal tissues; dose-volume histograms for the radiotherapy: curves without radiobiological relevance or important information for the therapy planning; HPV (human papilloma virus) and radiation sensitivity of HNSCC (head and neck squamous cell carcinomas): evidence, radiobiological mechanism, clinical consequences and perspectives; mechanisms of action and intertumoral heterogeneity of response to EGFR inhibition in radiotherapy of solid tumors; evaluation of biomarkers for radiotherapy.

  12. Radiotherapy and oncology for technical assistants in the medical professions. 2. rev. and enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Essential subjects presented in this textbook are: conventional X-ray irradiation, Gamma-ray teletherapy, particle accelerators, therapy using sealed radionuclides, irradiation planning, performance of radiotherapy, physical fundamentals of radiotherapy, biological fundamentals of radiotherapy, specific radiotherapy for the treatment of malignant tumors, irradiation of non-malignant disorders. The new edition covers also information on radiation oncology aspects in the context of epidemiological studies, specific knowledge regarding tumor diagnostics and radiological protection, as well as diagnostic signs and interpretation together with indicated therapies and their efficacy. (orig.) [de

  13. Chemotherapy disruption of efficient radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nervi, C.; Friedman, M.

    1974-01-01

    Studies on the use of chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy are reviewed. Some topics discussed are: indications for the use of combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy; improvement of the therapeutic ratio following the use of methotrexate; advantages of preirradiation and postirradiation chemotherapy; side effects following simultaneous chemotherapy and radiotherapy; and effects of chemotherapy on cure rate of radiosensitive and radioresistant tumors. (U.S.)

  14. Big Data Analytics for Prostate Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, James; Souhami, Luis; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a first-line treatment option for localized prostate cancer and radiation-induced normal tissue damage are often the main limiting factor for modern radiotherapy regimens. Conversely, under-dosing of target volumes in an attempt to spare adjacent healthy tissues limits the likelihood of achieving local, long-term control. Thus, the ability to generate personalized data-driven risk profiles for radiotherapy outcomes would provide valuable prognostic information to help guide both clinicians and patients alike. Big data applied to radiation oncology promises to deliver better understanding of outcomes by harvesting and integrating heterogeneous data types, including patient-specific clinical parameters, treatment-related dose-volume metrics, and biological risk factors. When taken together, such variables make up the basis for a multi-dimensional space (the "RadoncSpace") in which the presented modeling techniques search in order to identify significant predictors. Herein, we review outcome modeling and big data-mining techniques for both tumor control and radiotherapy-induced normal tissue effects. We apply many of the presented modeling approaches onto a cohort of hypofractionated prostate cancer patients taking into account different data types and a large heterogeneous mix of physical and biological parameters. Cross-validation techniques are also reviewed for the refinement of the proposed framework architecture and checking individual model performance. We conclude by considering advanced modeling techniques that borrow concepts from big data analytics, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence, before discussing the potential future impact of systems radiobiology approaches.

  15. Spatial aspects of combined modality radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodey, Rachel K.; Evans, Phil M.; Flux, Glenn D.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: A combined modality radiotherapy (CMRT) incorporates both external beam radiotherapy (EBT) and targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) components. The spatial aspects of this combination were explored by utilising intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to provide a non-uniform EBT dose distribution. Patients and methods: Three methods of prescribing the required non-uniform distribution of EBT dose are described, based on both physical and biological criteria according to the distribution of TRT uptake. The results and consequences of these prescriptions are explored by application to three examples of patient data. Results: The planning procedure adopted allowed IMRT plans to be produced that met the prescription requirements. However, when the treatment was planned as a CMRT, compared with the use of EBT alone, more satisfactory target doses could be achieved with lower doses to normal tissues. The effects of errors in EBT delivery and in the functional data were found to cause a non-uniform prescription to tend towards the uniform case. Conclusions: The methods and results are relevant for more general biological treatment planning, in which IMRT may be used to produce dose distributions prescribed according to tumour function. The effects of delivery and dose calculation errors can have a significant impact on how such treatments should be planned

  16. Radiotherapy for the medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gose, Kyuhei; Imajo, Yoshinari; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    1983-01-01

    Eighteen patients with medulloblastoma, treated between 1972 and 1981, at Kobe University School of Medicine, were retrospectively studied. Of those completing post operative irradiation, 50% have survived for 2 years, 15% for 5 years and mean survival periods was 22.2 months. 13 out of 18 patients developed local recurrence and spinal dissemination. The mean time from the initial radiotherapy to recurrence was 8.5 months. It was suggested that posterior fossa should recieve 5,000 rad, the spine should 2,000 rad and recurrences should be treated by the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. (author)

  17. Arterial disease after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, J.M.; Mathieu, D.; Reizine, D.

    1983-01-01

    Disease of the large arterial vessels is a relatively unknown complication of radiotherapy. However, it should be considered in the same manner as the other complications of irradiation when a tumour recurrence is suspected. The experimental studies of Kirkpatrick and Konings, demonstrating the synergy between irradiation and hypercholesterolemia in the precocity and gravity of vascular complications are recalled. The different localisations reported in the litterature are discussed: coronary, pulmonary, thoracic aorta, supra aortic, renal, digestive and ilio-femoral arteries. Finally, the difficulty of diagnosis of post-radiotherapy without clinical, radiological or anatomopathological confirmation, is underlined [fr

  18. Second cancers following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    1983-01-01

    Published reports have shown that there is an increased incidence of second malignancies, particularly sarcomas, following high dose radiotherapy in cancer treatment. However, this increased risk is very small and is relatively negligeable when one considers the beneficial effects of radiotherapy in cancer treatment. This incidence of radiation induced cancer appears to be higher in certain groups of patients, such as children and patients with Hodgkin's disease. In view of scarcity of published data, controlled surveys remain necessary for the quantitative assessment of the cancer risk in various subgroups of irradited patients [fr

  19. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimi D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available David Alimi Department of Anesthesiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USAWe read with great interest the excellent review on xerostomia induced by radiotherapy, by Pinna et al.1 The authors should be congratulated for a very detailed review of the physiopathology, clinical symptoms, and therapeutic management of an extremely difficult condition. Although we agree that the use of anticholinergic medication represents treatment, it requires the patient to have residual salivary gland function. Unfortunately, it is well established that in most cases radiotherapy destroys most of the salivary gland and associated salivary secretions.     

  20. Erythropoietin and radiotherapy; Erythropoietine et radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Fur, E.; Albarghach, M.N.; Pradier, O. [CHU de Morvan, Dept. de radiotherapie, 29 - Brest (France)

    2010-01-15

    Erythropoietin (E.P.O.) is a glycoprotein hormone. This hormone is a growth factor for red blood cells precursors in the bone marrow. The decrease of oxygen partial pressure, a reduced number of erythrocytes caused by bleeding or excessive destruction, or increased tissues oxygen requirements lead to increased secretion of E.P.O.. Its action takes place on bone marrow erythroblastic cells through specific receptors. E.P.O. stimulates the proliferation of red cell precursors stem cells in the bone marrow, thus increasing their production in one to two weeks. The effectiveness of E.P.O. at increasing haemoglobin and improving patients quality of life has been demonstrated by several studies. However, its use in radiotherapy remains controversial. While tumour hypoxia caused by anaemia is a factor of radio resistance and thus a source of local failure, tumour expression of E.P.O. receptors presents a significant risk for tumour progression and neo-angiogenesis, which would be increased during the administration of E.P.O.. The purpose of this article is to answer the question: is there a place for E.P.O. in combination with radiotherapy in the management of cancer?

  1. Multileaf collimator in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeraj, M.; Robar, V.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Basic goal of radiotherapy treatment is the irradiation of a target volume while minimizing the amount of radiation absorbed in healthy tissue. Shaping the beam is an important way of minimizing the absorbed dose in healthy tissue and critical structures. Conventional collimator jaws are used for shaping a rectangular treatment field; but, as usually treatment volume is not rectangular, additional shaping is required. On a linear accelerator, lead blocks or individually made Cerroben TM blocks are attached onto the treatment head under standard collimating system. Another option is the use of multileaf collimator (MLC). Conclusions. Multileaf collimator is becoming the main tool for beam shaping on the linear accelerator. It is a simple and useful system in the preparation and performance of radiotherapy treatment. Multileaf collimators are reliable, as their manufacturers developed various mechanisms for their precision, control and reliability, together with reduction of leakage and transmission of radiation between and through the leaves. Multileaf collimator is known today as a very useful clinical system for simple field shaping, but its use is getting even more important in dynamic radiotherapy, with the leaves moving during irradiation. This enables a precise dose delivery on any part of a treated volume. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), the therapy of the future, is based on the dynamic use of MLC. (author)

  2. [Radiotherapy of oropharynx carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servagi Vernat, S; Tochet, F; Vieillevigne, L; Pointreau, Y; Maingon, P; Giraud, P

    2016-09-01

    Indication, doses, technique of radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy for oropharynx carcinoma are presented. The recommendations for delineation of the target volumes and organs at risk are detailed. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality indicators in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cionini, Luca; Gardani, Gianstefano; Gabriele, Pietro; Magri, Secondo; Morosini, Pier Luigi; Rosi, Antonella; Viti, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: There is a widespread and increasing tendency to develop hospital performance indicators in the field of accreditation/certification systems and quality benchmarking. A study has been undertaken to develop a set of performance indicators for a typical radiotherapy Centre and to evaluate their ability to provide a continuous quality improvement. Materials and methods: A working group consisting of radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation technologists under the coordination of experts in health technology assessment has elaborated a set of general indicators able to monitor performances and the quality level of a typical radiotherapy Centre. The work has been carried out through four steps: a preliminary set of indicators was selected; data on these indicators were collected in a number of Italian radiotherapy Centres and medical physics Services; problems in collection and analysis of data were discussed; a final set of indicators was developed. Results: A final set of 13 indicators is here presented. They concern general structural and/or operational features, health physics activities and accuracy and technical complexity of the treatment. Conclusions: The indicators tested in a few Italian Centres of radiotherapy and medical physics Services are now ready to be utilized by a larger community

  4. Bowel disease after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, P.F.; Holden, D.; Carr, N.D. (Christie Hospital and Holt Radium Inst., Manchester (UK))

    1983-06-01

    The clinical presentation, operative findings and outcome in 40 patients who required surgery for bowel disease after radiotherapy are presented. The type of presentation varied according to the time after radiotherapy. In the first month, many patients had a proctitis but none required surgery. Five patients were operated on within one month, 2 for radiation-induced acute ileitis and 3 for exacerbations of pre-existing disease (diverticular disease 2, ulcerative colitis 1). The commonest time of presentation was between 3 and 18 months after radiotherapy, when 20 patients needed surgery for bowel disease caused by radiation-induced local ischaemia. Twelve of these patients had chronic perforation, 6 had severe rectal bleeding and 2 had painful anorectal ulceration. Fifteen patients presented between 2 and 24 years after radiotherapy, usually with incomplete intestinal obstruction due to a fibrous stricture, but 2 patients had rectal carcinoma. Wide resection of the involved bowel was the principal method of treatment but any anastomosis was protected by a proximal defunctioning stoma. There was no operative mortality but 10 patients have died subsequently. The danger of dismissing these patients as having incurable malignancy is stressed because, although the condition is infrequent, it is usually amenable to adequate surgery.

  5. Radiotherapy of breast fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heibel, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    In a retrospective study radiotherapy of breast fibrosis in hormone-treated men with histologically confirmed prostate carcinoma was examined. 10 patients had received hormones even before irradiation, 113 obtained hormone administration only after irradiation. The objective size of the glandular body and the overall size of the breast were measured with a special method developed by the author. 46 patients indicated complaints. With hypertrophic mamma and hypertrophic mamilla in 67 examined patients, 127 different symptoms resulted in total. Four patients of the group who had obtained hormones before irradiation, suffered from subjective symptoms. It resulted that radiotherapy of breast fibrosis carried out during hormone treatment is no gynecomastia prophylaxis, that already existent mamma hypertrophies are irreversible, but that existent sensations were notably reduced within 6 months after irradiation therapy. These results indicate the necessity of a radiotherapy of the mamma fibrosis before the hormone treatment is begun. Particularly in cases of higher operative risks, also the possibility of preferring radiotherapy to mastectomy should be fully utilized, in view of adequate or even better therapeutic results. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Gamma apparatuses for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sul'kin, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific and technical achievements in development and application of gamma therapeutic apparatuses for external and intracavity irradiations are generalized. Radiation-physical parameters of apparatuses providing usability of progressive methods in radiotherapy of onclogical patients are given. Optimization of main apparatus elements, ensurance of its operation reliability, reduction of errors of irradiation plan reproduction are considered. Attention is paid to radiation safety

  7. Four R's of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, H.R.

    1975-01-01

    Radiotherapy given as multiple doses can be effective in sterilizing cancers, but the processes whereby the neoplasm is eradicated and the normal tissues are preserved are not fully understood. The differential between normal tissue and tumor response is enhanced by dose fractionation, single doses resulting in severe normal tissue injury when the dose is sufficient to control a proportion of treated tumors. Data are reviewed from radiobiological studies on laboratory animals and cultured cells that have thrown some light on four of the phenomena that influence the outcome of fractionated-dose radiotherapy, one or more of which may account for the relative sparing of normal tissues. These are repair of sublethal injury in normal and neoplastic cells, reoxygenation of the tumor, redistribution through the division cycle, and regeneration of surviving normal and malignant cells between dose fractions. These have been called the four R's of fractionated radiotherapy. Other factors are involved in the outcome of multifraction radiotherapy, including maintenance of the architectural integrity of the normal tissues, the volume of tissue irradi []ted, the tumor bed, and the immunocompetence of the host. (90 references) (CH)

  8. Quality assurance in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    Good radiotherapy results and safety of treatment require the radiation to be optimally applied to a specified target area and the correct dose. According to international recommendations, the average uncertainty in therapeutic dose should not exceed 5%. The need for high precision in therapeutic dose requires quality assurance covering the entire radiotherapy process. Besides the physical and technical characteristics of the therapy equipment, quality assurance must include all radiotherapy equipment and procedures that are significant for the correct magnitude and precision of application of the therapeutic dose. The duties and responsibilities pertaining to various stages of treatment must also be precisely defined. These requirements may be best implemented through a quality system. The general requirements for supervision and quality assurance of medical radiation apparatus are prescribed in section 40 of the Radiation Act (592/1991, amendment 1142/1998) and in sections 18 and 32 of the Decree of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health on the medical use of radiation (423/2000). Guide ST 2.2 imposes requirements on structural radiation shielding of radiotherapy equipment and the premises in which it is used, and on warning and safety arrangements. Guide ST 1.1 sets out the general safety principles for radiation practices and regulatory control procedure for the use of radiation. Guide ST 1.6 provides general requirements for operational measures in the use of radiation. This Guide sets out the duties of responsible parties (the party running a radiation practice) in respect of arranging and maintaining radiotherapy quality assurance. The principles set out in this Guide and Guide ST 6.3 may be applied to radionuclide therapy

  9. Radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, S.; Herfarth, K.

    2011-01-01

    With the development of modern radiation techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a dose escalation in the definitive radiotherapy of prostate cancer and a consecutive improvement in biochemical recurrence-free survival (BFS) could be achieved. Among others, investigators at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) saw 5-year BFS rates of up to 98%. A further gain in effectiveness and safety is expected of hypofractionation schedules, as suggested by data published by Kupelian et al., who saw a low 5-year rate of grade ≥2 rectal side-effects of 4.5%. However, randomized studies are just beginning to mature. Patients with intermediate or high-risk tumors should receive neoadjuvant (NHT) and adjuvant (AHT) androgen deprivation. Bolla et al. could show an increase in 5-year overall survival from 62-78%. The inclusion of the whole pelvis in the treatment field (WPRT) is still controversial. The RTOG 94-13 study showed a significant advantage in disease-free survival after 60 months but long-term data did not yield significant differences between WPRT and irradiation of the prostate alone. The German Society of Urology strongly recommends adjuvant radiotherapy of the prostate bed for pT3 N0 tumors with positive margins. In a pT3 N0 R0 or pT2 N0 R+ situation, adjuvant radiotherapy should at least be considered. So far, no randomized data on NHT and AHT have been published, so androgen deprivation remains an individual decision in the postoperative setting. In a retrospective analysis Spiotto et al. reported a positive effect for adjuvant WPRT and biochemical control. This article summarizes the essential publications on definitive and adjuvant radiotherapy and discusses the additional use of androgen deprivation and WPRT. (orig.) [de

  10. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geinitz, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  11. EGFR-inhibitors, radiotherapy and normal tissue toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, J. G.

    2015-01-01

    will be explained with references to the current knowledge of the biology of skin toxicity. Treatment options for acute side-effects in skin and mucosa after bio-radiotherapy is rarely causal. A few attempts have been done; some of them aiming to rephosphorylate the EGFreceptor in the skin with vitamin K3. The talk...

  12. INL Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Venhuizen

    2005-06-01

    This report summarizes the activities and major accomplishments for the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Radiotherapy Research Program for calendar year 2004. Topics covered include boron analysis in biological samples, computational dosimetry and treatment planning software development, medical neutron source development and characterization, and collaborative dosimetry studies at the RA-1 facility in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

  13. The Management of Keloids by Radiotherapy in Nigeria | Ketiku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new method of treatment of keloid was compared with an old technique in five hundred and twenty eight Nigerian patients with 617 keloid lesions seen at the Department of Radiation Biology and Radiotherapy, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, between 1969 and 1981. The etiological factors were identified. A total of ...

  14. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Eirik; Søvik, Åste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Øyvind S.; Rune Olsen, Dag

    2006-10-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO2-related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO2-related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure (fields

  15. Adapting radiotherapy to hypoxic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinen, Eirik; Soevik, Aste; Hristov, Dimitre; Bruland, Oeyvind S; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2006-01-01

    In the current work, the concepts of biologically adapted radiotherapy of hypoxic tumours in a framework encompassing functional tumour imaging, tumour control predictions, inverse treatment planning and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were presented. Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCEMRI) of a spontaneous sarcoma in the nasal region of a dog was employed. The tracer concentration in the tumour was assumed related to the oxygen tension and compared to Eppendorf histograph measurements. Based on the pO 2 -related images derived from the MR analysis, the tumour was divided into four compartments by a segmentation procedure. DICOM structure sets for IMRT planning could be derived thereof. In order to display the possible advantages of non-uniform tumour doses, dose redistribution among the four tumour compartments was introduced. The dose redistribution was constrained by keeping the average dose to the tumour equal to a conventional target dose. The compartmental doses yielding optimum tumour control probability (TCP) were used as input in an inverse planning system, where the planning basis was the pO 2 -related tumour images from the MR analysis. Uniform (conventional) and non-uniform IMRT plans were scored both physically and biologically. The consequences of random and systematic errors in the compartmental images were evaluated. The normalized frequency distributions of the tracer concentration and the pO 2 Eppendorf measurements were not significantly different. 28% of the tumour had, according to the MR analysis, pO 2 values of less than 5 mm Hg. The optimum TCP following a non-uniform dose prescription was about four times higher than that following a uniform dose prescription. The non-uniform IMRT dose distribution resulting from the inverse planning gave a three times higher TCP than that of the uniform distribution. The TCP and the dose-based plan quality depended on IMRT parameters defined in the inverse planning procedure

  16. External audit in radiotherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Western General Hospital, Edinburgh

    1996-01-01

    Quality audit forms an essential part of any comprehensive quality assurance programme. This is true in radiotherapy generally and in specific areas such as radiotherapy dosimetry. Quality audit can independently test the effectiveness of the quality system and in so doing can identify problem areas and minimize their possible consequences. Some general points concerning quality audit applied to radiotherapy are followed by specific discussion of its practical role in radiotherapy dosimetry, following its evolution from dosimetric intercomparison exercises to routine measurement-based on-going audit in the various developing audit networks both in the UK and internationally. Specific examples of methods and results are given from some of these, including the Scottish+ audit group. Quality audit in radiotherapy dosimetry is now well proven and participation by individual centres is strongly recommended. Similar audit approaches are to be encouraged in other areas of the radiotherapy process. (author)

  17. Radiotherapy of lymphogranulomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettinger, E.M.; Sack, H.

    1976-01-01

    Increased knowledge about the course of lymphogranulomatosis and technological progress in radiotherapy during the past 20 years have brought permanent recovery for a major part of patients from this disease which had been infaust before. The supplementation of the local radiotherapy by the systematic effects of chemotherapy enables us at the same time to control the infiltrations and disseminations which cannot be manifested clinically especially in malignant forms and later stages. The good healing results obtained presuppose careful clinical examination of the patient and attentive care during the therapy with regard to the potential complications of radio- and chemotherapy. As potential complications which may occur according to the method used we may name damage to the kidneys, radiopneumonia or pulmonal fibrosis, myocarditis or pericarditis, oeosophagitis, enteritis, and hepatitis. Relatively seldom we see the permanent depression of the bone marrow, induction of leucaemia, and myxoedema. All these complications can occure more frequently in the case of additional chemotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  18. Combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steel, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the clinically confirmed benefits of combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy. They have been found in a small group of diseases that respond to chemotherapy alone. According to the author, only when a drug or drug combination has the ability to eradicate occult disease or substantially to reduce the size of objectively measurable disease is there likely to be an demonstrable benefit from its use in conjunction with radiotherapy. It is the author's belief that the immediate future lies in selecting drugs and patients in which a good chemotherapeutic response can be expected, avoiding drugs that seriously enhance radiation damage to normal tissues and keeping drug and radiation treatments far enough apart in time to minimize interactions

  19. Conformal radiotherapy: a glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubray, B.; Giraud, P.; Beaudre, A.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the concepts and terms related to conformal radiotherapy were produced by English-speaking authors and eventually validated by international groups of experts, whose working language was also English. Therefore, a significant part of this literature is poorly accessible to the French-speaking radiation oncology community. The present paper gathers the 'official' definitions already published in French, along with propositions for the remaining terms which should be submitted to a more formal and representative validation process. (author)

  20. Imagination in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourrez, A.; Truc, G.; Santona, M.; Crehange, G.; Peignaux, K.; Martin, E.; Maingon, P.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a questionnaire given to the patients of a radiotherapy department and to the personnel of a centre of struggle against cancer, the study aimed at revealing imagination and representations about such an advanced medical technology, radio-physics and radioactivity. The patients and personnel were asked to answer the questionnaire with free words, images, or by expressing their own intimate or cultural visions of this environment. Implications on patients' anguish are foreseen. Short communication

  1. The pioneer of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, J.P.; Coursaget, J.

    2005-09-01

    This work narrates the history of the birth of a new field, the radiology and its application to radiotherapy for these multiform pathologies that are the cancers. Two leading figures will favour this field: Marie Curie, physicist and twice awarded by nobel price, and Claudius Regaud, histologist and become a specialist of the action of ionizing radiations on tissues. They will create the Curie Institute, in relation with the Radium Institute and the support of the Pasteur Institute in 1920. (N.C.)

  2. Quality control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalla, A.

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss the modalities and periodicities of internal quality control on radiotherapy installations. They indicate the different concerned systems and the aspects and items to be controlled (patient and personnel security, apparatus mechanical characteristics, beam quality, image quality, isodose and irradiation duration calculation, data transfer). They present the measurement instruments and tools used for the mechanical controls, dose measurement, beam homogeneity and symmetry, anatomic data acquisition systems, and dose distribution and control imagery calculation

  3. Radiotherapy of endocrine orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weischedel, U.; Wieland, C.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of the history and a discussion of recent theories about pathogenesis of endocrine ophthalmopathy the authros give a report on their radiotherapeutical treatment results with cobalt-60-γ-rays in 50 patients. Amelioration was achieved in 50% of the cases, in the other 50% no progression was seen. Radiotherapy is of antiphlogistic and functional effectivity and should be integrated in the treatment regime in early stages. (orig.) [de

  4. Radiotherapy of vertebral hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atushi; Sido, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Akiba, Hidenari; Morita, Kazuo

    1997-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1996, 14 patients (11 females, 3 males) with vertebral hemangioma received treatment with radiotherapy. Thirteen patients had a history of back pain or lumbago and 2 patients had neurological symptoms such as sensory impairment or paraplegia. The standard dose administered was 36 Gy in 18 fractions (five treatments per week). In the 13 patients with pain, this was completely or partially relieved. The condition of a man with hypesthesia of the legs deteriorated and a woman with paraplegia who was treated with decompressive laminectomy followed by radiotherapy recovered completely after irradiation. CT scan before irradiation showed thickened trabeculae as small punctate areas of sclerosis in all patients. At MR imaging before irradiation, T2-weighted MR images showed areas of high intensity in all patients and MR images demonstrated lesion enhancement. However, none of the patients who were treated successfully with radiation demonstrated any changes of the affected vertebra in the conventional radiographic films, CT scan or MR imaging, even 5 years after irradiation. Radiological imaging is indispensable for the diagnosis of vertebral hemangiomas but does not appear to be useful for evaluating the effects of radiotherapy. (orig.)

  5. Radiotherapy in Cancer Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy has been used for curative or palliative treatment of cancer, either alone or increasingly as part of a multimodality approach in conjunction with chemotherapy, immunotherapy or surgery. Radiation must be delivered in the safest and most effective way. The use of radiologic and nuclear medicine diagnostic techniques, e.g., the use of CT (Computerized Tomography) and PET/CT allow better detection and staging of diseases by displaying both morphological and functional abnormalities within the affected organs and are essential in the process of radiotherapy planning. Technical advances in radiotherapy have allowed better targeting of tumors, sparing of normal tissue and, in the case of radiosurgery, a decrease in the number of treatments. The IAEA Programme in Human Health aims to enhance the capabilities in Member States to address needs related to the treatment of diseases, including cancer, through the application of nuclear techniques. The Programme supports quality assurance in radiation medicine; DIRAC, the only radiation oncology-specific resource database world-wide; significant, innovative education and training programmes through telemedicine and e-learning accessible via the human health campus website. Technical expertise for country– and region–specific technical cooperation radiation-medicine projects is provided to establish or enhance radiation medicine worldwide. (author)

  6. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver tumors. Principles and practical guidelines of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterzing, Florian; Brunner, Thomas B.; Ernst, Iris; Greve, Burkhard; Baus, Wolfgang W.; Herfarth, Klaus; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a practical guideline for safe and effective stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of liver tumors. The literature on the clinical evidence of SBRT for both primary liver tumors and liver metastases was reviewed and analyzed focusing on both physical requirements and special biological characteristics. Recommendations were developed for patient selection, imaging, planning, treatment delivery, motion management, dose reporting, and follow-up. Radiation dose constraints to critical organs at risk are provided. SBRT is a well-established treatment option for primary and secondary liver tumors associated with low morbidity. (orig.) [de

  7. The prospect of carbon fiber implants in radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao‐bin, Tang; Chang‐ran, Geng; Da, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Because of their superior characteristics, carbonaceous materials, which are still at their early stage of development, have garnered significant interest. Because of their low atomic number, carbonaceous orthopedic implants possess radiation properties similar to biological tissues and, therefore, they are more suitable to patients in need of radiotherapy. The effects of stainless steel, titanium, and carbon plates on radiation dose distributions were investigated in this work using Monte Carlo simulations and TLD measurements for 6 MV photon beams. It is found that carbon plates will neither increase the incident surface dose, nor lead to the decrease of exit surface dose (the effect of a second build‐up). Carbon fiber orthopedic implants have a good prospect for radiotherapy patients because they have minimal perturbation effects on the radiotherapy dose distribution. PACS number: 87.55.K‐,87.55.Gh, 87.55.ne PMID:22766953

  8. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  9. Radiotherapy and pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, S; Miyata, Y; Tachiiri, H [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1975-04-01

    Clinical findings of radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis were outlined, and the relationship between occurence of these disorders and radiotherapy, clinical findings and X-ray picture were studied. Standard radiation dose as cell lethal response of carcinoma of the lung were 4,500 to 5,500 rad in 4 to 5.5 weeks in undifferentiated carcinoma, 6,000 to 7,000 rad in 6 to 7 weeks in squamous cell carcinoma, 7,000 to 9,000 rad in 7 to 9 weeks in adenocarcinoma, 4,500 to 5,000 rad in 4 to 5 weeks in the large sized cancer of the esophagus, 6,500 to 7,000 rad in 5 to 7 weeks in the small sized cancer of the esophagus, and irradiation of these amount of dose caused hazards in pulmonary function. Pathological and clinical findings of pulmonary hazards within 6 month period after irradiation, factors causing them and changes in X-ray pictures before and after irradiation were observed and discussed in clinical cases: the case of breast cancer in which 3,000 R/6 times/18 days of 5.5 MeV Liniac electron was irradiated to the chest wall, and the case of pulmonary cancer in which 5,000 rad/25 times/34 days of 6 MeV Liniac X-ray was irradiated in opposite 2 ports radiation beam treatment. The former revealed alveolar lesion and interlobular pleuritis at 4 month later, and remarkable lesion of pulmonary fibrosis was followed at 9 month after radiotherapy. The later developed radiation pneumonitis 1 month after radiotherapy, of which lesion extended to the upper part by 3 months later, and cancer recurred 6.5 month later.

  10. Radiotherapy for eyelid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saika, Kazumi

    2001-01-01

    Some studies on radiotherapy for eyelid cancer have been reported, but the optimal radiation doses for different histological types and tumor sizes have not been detailed. So I studied the optimal radiation doses in radiotherapy for eyelid cancer. The patients were fourteen and histological diagnoses were made on the basis of biopsies or surgery before radiotherapy. Surgical cut margins were positive in 10 cases. In 5 of these cases, tumors were visible. There were 9 sebaceous adenocarcinomas (SAC), 4 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), and 1 basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In 13 of 14 cases, radiation was applied to eyelids in which tumor-surgical cut margin distances were 3 mm or less. The eyeballs were covered with lead or tungsten shields, and the eyelids were irradiated with a total dose of 50 to 66.6 Gy. In 5 cases, radiation was applied prophylactically for ipsilateral pre-auricle lymph node areas. 11 of 13 cases were locally controlled. I gave greater radiation doses for SAC than for SCC or BCC. I also gave greater doses for in visible tumors than for invisible ones. In the acute phase dermatitis, inflammation of the cornea, conjunctivitis, etc. occurred but they were mild. Later reactions were decreased cilia, dry eye, inflammation of cornea, conjunctivitis, discomfort of the scar, etc. Cataracts were also seen, but they were of senile origen. Because 81.8% of the tumors were controlled, this radiation method was useful with salvage therapies to select an optimal radiation dose according to the differences among histological types and tumor sizes. 60% of visible tumors were also controlled so I think that radical therapy using radiation alone is possible. (author)

  11. Radiotherapy Dose Fractionation under Parameter Uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, Matt; Kim, Daero; Keller, Harald

    2011-01-01

    In radiotherapy, radiation is directed to damage a tumor while avoiding surrounding healthy tissue. Tradeoffs ensue because dose cannot be exactly shaped to the tumor. It is particularly important to ensure that sensitive biological structures near the tumor are not damaged more than a certain amount. Biological tissue is known to have a nonlinear response to incident radiation. The linear quadratic dose response model, which requires the specification of two clinically and experimentally observed response coefficients, is commonly used to model this effect. This model yields an optimization problem giving two different types of optimal dose sequences (fractionation schedules). Which fractionation schedule is preferred depends on the response coefficients. These coefficients are uncertainly known and may differ from patient to patient. Because of this not only the expected outcomes but also the uncertainty around these outcomes are important, and it might not be prudent to select the strategy with the best expected outcome.

  12. Esophageal perforation during or after conformal radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiyan; Ma Xiumei; Ye Ming; Hou Yanli; Xie Huaying; Bai Yongrui

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors and prognosis for patients with esophageal perforation occurring during or after radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. We retrospectively analyzed 322 patients with esophageal carcinoma. These patients received radiotherapy for unresectable esophageal tumors, residual tumors after operation, or local recurrence. Of these, 12 had radiotherapy to the esophagus before being admitted, 68 patients had concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT), and 18 patients had esophageal perforation after RT (5.8%). Covered self-expandable metallic stents were placed in 11 patients. Two patients continued RT after stenting and control of infection; one of these suffered a new perforation, and the other had a massive hemorrhage. The median overall survival was 2 months (0-3 months) compared with 17 months in the non-perforation group. In univariate analysis, the Karnofsky performance status (KPS) being ≤ 70, age younger than 60, T4 stage, a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus, extracapsular lymph nodes (LN) involving the esophagus, a total dose > 100 Gy (biologically effective dose -10 ), and CRT were risk factors for perforation. In multivariate analysis, age younger than 60, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, T4 stage, and a second course of radiotherapy to the esophagus were risk factors. In conclusion, patients with T4 stage, extracapsular LN involving the esophagus, and those receiving a second course of RT should be given particular care to avoid perforation. The prognosis after perforation was poor. (author)

  13. Radiotherapy of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, W.

    1982-01-01

    Still today radiotherapy is of decisive relevance for several benign diseases. The following ones are briefly described in this introductory article: 1. Certain inflammatory and degenerative diseases as furuncles in the face, acute thrombophlebitis, recurrent sudoriparous abscesses, degenerative skeletal diseases, cervical syndrome and others; 2. rheumatic joint diseases; 3. Bechterew's disease; 4. primary presenile osteoporosis; 5. synringomyelia; 6. endocrine ophthalmopathy; 7. hypertrophic processes of the connective tissue; 8. hemangiomas. A detailed discussion and a profit-risk analysis is provided in the individual chapters of the magazine. (MG) [de

  14. Large field radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanasek, J.; Chvojka, Z.; Zouhar, M.

    1984-01-01

    Calculations may prove that irradiation procedures, commonly used in radiotherapy and represented by large-capacity irradiation techniques, do not exceed certain limits of integral doses with favourable radiobiological action on the organism. On the other hand integral doses in supralethal whole-body irradiation, used in the therapy of acute leukemia, represent radiobiological values which without extreme and exceptional further interventions and teamwork are not compatible with life, and the radiotherapeutist cannot use such high doses without the backing of a large team. (author)

  15. Microplanar beams for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Company, F.Z.; Allen, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in synchrotron generated X-ray beams with high fluence rate permit the investigation of the application of an array of closely spaced, parallel or converging microbeams in radiotherapy. The proposed technique takes advantage of the hypothesised repair mechanism of capillary cells between alternate microbeam zones, which replaces the lethally irradiated endothelial cells. In this study using the Monte Carlo method, the lateral and depth dose of a single planar microbeam of 100 keV in a tissue/lung/tissue phantom is investigated. Poster 195. (author)

  16. The origins of radiotherapy: discovery of biological effects of X-rays by Freund in 1897, Kienböck's crucial experiments in 1900, and still it is the dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widder, Joachim

    2014-07-01

    The discovery of X-rays by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen (1845-1923) was triggered by pursuing an anomalous phenomenon: arousal of fluorescence at a distance from tubes in which cathode rays were elicited, a phenomenon which suggested the existence of a new kind of ray other than cathode rays. The discovery of biological effects of these X-rays by Leopold Freund (1868-1943) was triggered by pursuit of the purportedly useless phenomenon of epilation and dermatitis ensuing from X-ray-diagnostic experiments that others had reported. The crucial experiments performed by Robert Kienböck (1871-1953) entailed the proof that X-ray-dose, not electric phenomena, was the active agent of biological effects ensuing when illuminating the skin using Röntgen tubes. For both the discovery of X-rays and the discovery of their biological effectiveness, priority did not matter, but understanding the physical and medico-biological significance of phenomena that others had ignored as a nuisance. Present discussions about the clinical relevance of improving the dose distribution including protons and other charged particles resemble those around 1900 to a certain degree. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of bio-effect dose and overall treatment time in radiotherapy of carcinoma of cervix: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarkar, Rahul B.; Singh, Sanjay; Singh, K.K.; Shrivastava, Rajeev; Sarje, Mukund; Supe, Sanjay S.

    2008-01-01

    To study the response of tumour and early rectal complications in patients of cervical cancer who underwent radiotherapy on the basis of biological effective dose (BED) and overall treatment time (OTT)

  18. Breast cancer radiotherapy: controversies and prospectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jin-ming; WANG Yong-sheng

    2008-01-01

    @@ Despite consensus on breast cancer radiotherapy, there are still some controversies over post-mastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in patients with 1-3 positive lymph nodes, accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), appropriate sequence of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormonal treatment, and radiotherapy after preoperative systemic therapy.

  19. Radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshitani, Takashi; Kuwata, Yoichiro; Kano, Kyoko

    1988-01-01

    Esophageal carcinoma were treated by high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation using specially designed balloon application at Hyogo medical Center for Adults. 32 patients were treated from January 1982 through July 1986. According to the stage of UICC (1978), 10 patients were classified into stage I, 7 into II, 13 into III and 2 into IV. Acturial 5 year survival rate was 17.9 % in all 32 patients and that of 23 patients who received radical radiotherapy was 24 %. Local CR rate was 66 %. However, since 9 (53 %) of 17 CR patients were relapsed, local control rate for 2 years was 25 %. Mild adverse effects were experienced in 9 (47 %) of 19 CR patients. Our balloon applicator was easily fixed, could have an adequate space from esophageal mucosa and clarify the tumor site by filling with 20 % gastrografin. It is concluded that high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation with our balloon applicator is an effective boost therapy and decline a lethal adverse effect in radiotherapy for esophageal carcinoma. (author)

  20. Radiotherapy in free practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmelz, H.P.

    1974-01-01

    Relating the X-ray ordinance cases of the fourth quarter 1971 to the whole year a total surface and incident dose of 2,107,656 R was administered in 2,189 cases (1,881 patients) in the course of 16,574 sessions. During the same period, 364 patients were treated in the 14 consultation rooms by radiotherapy because of malignant diseases. The genetically significant dose of 0,6 mrem/a is composed of the GSD of 0,194 in practice and 0,407 mrem in clinics and corresponds in its proportions to the GSD calculated and estimated in recent times. Compared with GSD values from other spheres of the application of ionizing radiation in medical practice, the calculated GSD of 0,6 mrem/a in radiotherapy for benign diseases corresponds to the GSD of approximately 0,5 mrem/a for the nuclear medicine in West-Berlin as stated by Hinz and Weil. It corresponds to 1% of the GSD of approximately/a as estimated recently for X-ray diagnostic applications. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Radiotherapy of bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yoshiyuki

    1978-01-01

    Methods of treating bladder cancer include surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, as well as various combinations of these. The author investigated clinically and histopathologically the therapeutic results of preoperative irradiation in cases of bladder cancer. 1. The survival rates (crude survival rates) in forty cases of bladder cancer were 90% after one year, 62.5% after three years and 46% after five years from the treatment. 2. As the result of irradiation, urogram improved in 25%, which was comparatively remarkable in high stage cases. There were no cases of deterioration of urogram findings caused by irradiation. Cystoscopy revealed disappearance or remarkable shrinkage of the tumors in 35% of the total cases and effects of the irradiation was observed not correlated to the stage and grade. 3. With respect to the histopathological changes, the changes became greater as the dosage increased and the higher the stage and grade were the more remarkable tendency was observed. 4. From our clinical observations such as urogram, cystoscopy and histopathologically, we estimated the optimum dosage of preoperative irradiation for bladder cancer is 3000 - 4000 rad. Thus, we concluded that the radiotherapy is effective in reducing both surgical invasion and postoperative recurrence. (author)

  2. Proton minibeam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie

    2016-03-08

    The risk of developing adverse side effects in the normal tissue after radiotherapy is often limiting for the dose that can be applied to the tumor. Proton minibeam radiotherapy, a spatially fractionated radiotherapy method using sub-millimeter proton beams, similar to grid therapy or microbeam radiation radiotherapy (MRT) using X-rays, has recently been invented at the ion microprobe SNAKE in Munich. The aim of this new concept is to minimize normal tissue injuries in the entrance channel and especially in the skin by irradiating only a small percentage of the cells in the total irradiation field, while maintaining tumor control via a homogeneous dose in the tumor, just like in conventional broad beam radiotherapy. This can be achieved by optimizing minibeam sizes and distances according to the prevailing tumor size and depth such that after widening of the minibeams due to proton interactions in the tissue, the overlapping minibeams produce a homogeneous dose distribution throughout the tumor. The aim of this work was to elucidate the prospects of minibeam radiation therapy compared to conventional homogeneous broad beam radiotherapy in theory and in experimental studies at the ion microprobe SNAKE. Treatment plans for model tumors of different sizes and depths were created using the planning software LAPCERR, to elaborate suitable minibeam sizes and distances for the individual tumors. Radiotherapy-relevant inter-beam distances required to obtain a homogeneous dose in the target volume were found to be in the millimeter range. First experiments using proton minibeams of only 10 μm and 50 μm size (termed microchannels in the corresponding publication Zlobinskaya et al. 2013) and therapy-conform larger dimensions of 100 μm and 180 μm were performed in the artificial human in-vitro skin model EpiDermFT trademark (MatTek). The corresponding inter-beam distances were 500 μm, 1mm and 1.8 mm, respectively, leading to irradiation of only a few percent of the cells

  3. General principles of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easson, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The daily practice of any established branch of medicine should be based on some acceptable principles. This chapter is concerned with the general principles on which the radiotherapy of the Manchester school is based. Though many radiotherapists in other centres would doubtless accept these principles, there are sufficiently wide differences in practice throughout the world to suggest that some therapists adhere to a fundamentally different philosophy. The authors believe it is important, especially for those beginning their formal training in radiotherapy, to subscribe to an internally consistent school of thought, employing methods of treatment for each type of lesion in each anatomical site that are based on accepted principles and subjected to continuous rigorous scrutiny to test their effectiveness. Not only must each therapeutic technique be evaluated, but the underlying principles too must be questioned if and when this seems indicated. It is a feature of this hospital that similar lesions are all treated by the same technique, so long as statistical evidence justifies such a policy. All members of the staff adhere to the accepted policy until or unless reliable reasons are adduced to change this policy

  4. Fertility impairment in radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Biedka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Infertility as a result of antineoplastic therapy is becoming a very important issue due to the growing incidence of neoplastic diseases. Routinely applied antineoplastic treatments and the illness itself lead to fertility disorders. Therapeutic methods used in antineoplastic treatment may cause fertility impairment or sterilization due to permanent damage to reproductive cells. The risk of sterilization depends on the patient’s sex, age during therapy, type of neoplasm, radiation dose and treatment area. It is known that chemotherapy and radiotherapy can lead to fertility impairment and the combination of these two gives an additive effect. The aim of this article is to raise the issue of infertility in these patients. It is of growing importance due to the increase in the number of children and young adults who underwent radiotherapy in the past. The progress in antineoplastic therapy improves treatment results, but at the same time requires a deeper look at existential needs of the patient. Reproductive function is an integral element of self-esteem and should be taken into account during therapy planning.

  5. Transverse tomography and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leer, J.W.H.

    1982-01-01

    This study was intended to delineate the indications for radiotherapy treatment-planning with the help of computerized axial tomography (C.T.) and transverse analog tomography (T.A.T.). Radiotherapy localisation procedures with the conventional method (simulator), with the CT-scanner and with the transverse analog tomograph (T.A.T., Simtomix, Oldelft) were compared. As criterium for evaluation differences in reconstruction drawing based on these methods were used. A certain method was judged ''superior'' to another if the delineation of the target volume was more accurate, if a better impression was gained of the site of (for irradiation) organs at risk, or if the localisation could only be performed with that method. The selected group of patients consisted of 120 patients for whom a reconstruction drawing in the transverse plane was made according to the treatment philosophy. In this group CT-assisted localisation was judged on 68 occasions superior to the conventional method. In a number of cases it was found that a ''standard'' change in a standard target volume, on the base of augmented anatomical knowledge, made the conventional method sufficient. The use of CT-scanner for treatment planning was estimated. For ca. 270/1000 new patients a CT-scan is helpful (diagnostic scan), for 140 of them the scan is necessary (planning scan). The quality of the anatomical information obtained with the T.A.T. does not yet fall within acceptable limits, but progress has been made. (Auth.)

  6. Concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, K.K.

    1985-01-01

    The principal objective of combining chemotherapy with radiotherapy (XRT) for the treatment of advanced head and neck cancer is to improve the therapeutic ratio through the enhancement of local control and reduction of distant metastases without excessively enhancing normal tissue effects. Improved tumour control can result from sole additivity of either therapy or direct interactions between drug and radiation leading to increased tumour cell kill. Chemotherapy may sensitize the cells to radiation, interfere with repair of sublethal or potentially lethal radiation damage, induce cell synchrony, and reduce tumour mass leading to reoxygenation and decreased fraction of resistant hypoxic cells. Radiation may improve drug accessibility to tumour cells and reduce tumour volume leading to increased cell proliferation and chemosensitivity. If the enhanced effects of combined therapy are purely additive, then the two modalities can be administered either sequentially or concurrently with the same results. However, if the enhanced effects result from the direct interaction between drug and radiation, it is necessary that the two modalities be administered concurrently and in close temporal proximity. This review summarizes the results of clinical studies in which chemotherapy was administered concurrently during the course of radiotherapy for patients with previously untreated advanced squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck

  7. Erythropoietin and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Fur, E.; Albarghach, M.N.; Pradier, O.

    2010-01-01

    Erythropoietin (E.P.O.) is a glycoprotein hormone. This hormone is a growth factor for red blood cells precursors in the bone marrow. The decrease of oxygen partial pressure, a reduced number of erythrocytes caused by bleeding or excessive destruction, or increased tissues oxygen requirements lead to increased secretion of E.P.O.. Its action takes place on bone marrow erythroblastic cells through specific receptors. E.P.O. stimulates the proliferation of red cell precursors stem cells in the bone marrow, thus increasing their production in one to two weeks. The effectiveness of E.P.O. at increasing haemoglobin and improving patients quality of life has been demonstrated by several studies. However, its use in radiotherapy remains controversial. While tumour hypoxia caused by anaemia is a factor of radio resistance and thus a source of local failure, tumour expression of E.P.O. receptors presents a significant risk for tumour progression and neo-angiogenesis, which would be increased during the administration of E.P.O.. The purpose of this article is to answer the question: is there a place for E.P.O. in combination with radiotherapy in the management of cancer?

  8. Significance of Cox-2 expression in rectal cancers with or without preoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachkoria, Ketevan; Zhang Hong; Adell, Gunnar; Jarlsfelt, Ingvar; Sun Xiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy has reduced local recurrence of rectal cancers, but the result is not satisfactory. Further biologic factors are needed to identify patients for more effective radiotherapy. Our aims were to investigate the relationship of cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression to radiotherapy, and clinicopathologic/biologic variables in rectal cancers with or without radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Cox-2 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distal normal mucosa (n = 28), in adjacent normal mucosa (n = 107), in primary cancer (n = 138), lymph node metastasis (n = 30), and biopsy (n = 85). The patients participated in a rectal cancer trial of preoperative radiotherapy. Results: Cox-2 expression was increased in primary tumor compared with normal mucosa (p < 0.0001), but there was no significant change between primary tumor and metastasis. Cox-2 positivity was or tended to be related to more p53 and Ki-67 expression, and less apoptosis (p ≤ 0.05). In Cox-2-negative cases of either biopsy (p = 0.01) or surgical samples (p = 0.02), radiotherapy was related to less frequency of local recurrence, but this was not the case in Cox-2-positive cases. Conclusion: Cox-2 expression seemed to be an early event involved in rectal cancer development. Radiotherapy might reduce a rate of local recurrence in the patients with Cox-2 weakly stained tumors, but not in those with Cox-2 strongly stained tumors

  9. Advances in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, T.R.

    2005-01-01

    Radiation therapy is in the midst of a rebirth largely driven by the use of computers for treatment planning and beam delivery. The first edge of this renaissance was the advent of three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3-D CRT). This was enabled by the widespread availability and utilization of three-dimensional imaging such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance scanning, themselves products of the computer revolution. For the first time this allowed radiation oncologists to segment and visualize the tumor in association with it neighboring sensitive soft-tissue structures. Software tools to visualize the beam paths through the body enabled the beam directions and beam shapes to be manually optimized. Simultaneously, improved dose calculations utilizing the CT images of the patient anatomy produced more accurate distributions of dose. The dose was delivered with custom-shaped blocks or recently collimators with multiple leaves that allow complex shaped fields to be delivered without the need for block fabrication. In the last couple of decades new treatment delivery methodologies have emerged. The first has been stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) which is the purview of neurosurgeons (who call it SRS) as well as radiation oncologists (who usually call it SRT). SRS and SRT are premised on multiple beams focusing on one location typically with circular aperture collimators but increasingly with fields shaped by multi-leaved collimators. Often only a single treatment session (the usual for SRS) is used when the treatment volume is small, but for larger lesions several treatment sessions, or fractions, are used (most often for SRT) to allow for normal tissue repair. The new equipment market for SRS and SRT is about 10% of the total for radiation therapy. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the latest treatment methodology and its adoption has been extremely rapid, particularly in the United States. IMRT uses

  10. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 22. Proceedings; Experimentelle Strahlentherapie und Klinische Strahlenbiologie. Bd. 25. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild [Universitaetsklinikum Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radiologie; Cordes, Nils [Universitaetsklinikum Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - Nationales Zentrum fuer Strahlenforschung in der Radioonkologie; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany); Petersen, Cordula [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie; Rodemann, H. Peter [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Sektion fuer Strahlenbiologie; Rothkamm, Kai [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Lab. fuer Strahlentherapie und Experimentelle Radioonkologie; Zips, Daniel (ed.) [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Universitaetsklinik fuer Radioonkologie

    2016-05-01

    The proceedings of the 25th symposium on experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology include papers on the following issues: radiotherapy individualization based on imaging; pre-clinic imaging and new experimental methods; methods and models, micromilieu and metabolism, combined therapy; secondary tumors following radiotherapy; radiogenic effects in normal tissue; resistance mechanism of tumors and normal tissue; personalized radio-oncology - which biological data are needed; pre-clinic and personalized radio-oncology; biomarkers - pre-clinic and translational; translational examinations for personalized radio-oncology.

  11. Evolution of Carbon Ion Radiotherapy at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Osama; Makishima, Hirokazu; Kamada, Tadashi

    2018-03-06

    Charged particles can achieve better dose distribution and higher biological effectiveness compared to photon radiotherapy. Carbon ions are considered an optimal candidate for cancer treatment using particles. The National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) in Chiba, Japan was the first radiotherapy hospital dedicated for carbon ion treatments in the world. Since its establishment in 1994, the NIRS has pioneered this therapy with more than 69 clinical trials so far, and hundreds of ancillary projects in physics and radiobiology. In this review, we will discuss the evolution of carbon ion radiotherapy at the NIRS and some of the current and future projects in the field.

  12. The functional imaging in target volume delineation of radiotherapy planning for gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jingxiong; Wu Hua

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of important treatments for glioma. Functional imaging, such as PET, SPECT and MRI, may provide more valuable information not only in display of the evasion extent of glioma but also in demonstration of some biological characteristics of the tumor, such as perfusion, metabolism, hypoxia or proliferation. Thus it may play a role in making an individualized and more exact radiotherapy planning. (authors)

  13. Radiotherapy gel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldock, C.

    2002-01-01

    In radiotherapy, the primary objective is to deliver a prescribed dose of radiation to a tumour or lesion within a patient while minimising the dose delivered to the surrounding healthy tissue. Traditional radiotherapy treatments usually involve simple external or internal irradiations of a tumour. External irradiations are normally achieved in the clinic with photon or electron beams produced by high energy linear accelerators. The photon or electron beams are collimated into regular shapes as they emerge from the treatment head of the unit which is supported by a gantry that can be rotated isocentrically to any position. A discrete number of photon or electron beams with different angles of incidence that intersect at the iso-centre are used to produce a region of high dose around the tumour volume (positioned at the iso-centre). Internal irradiations are normally achieved in the clinic by implanting radioactive sources in and around the tumour or lesion. Such irradiations are characterised by very high doses local to the tumour. Radioactive sources are also used to prevent post-angioplasty restenosis by inserting sources into arteries. Usually when treating a tumour, a compromise is made between tumour control and complications arising from normal tissue damage. One measure of this compromise, the therapeutic ratio, is defined as the radiation dose producing complications in 50% of patients divided by the dose providing tumour control in 50% of the patients. The therapeutic ratio depends on the radiobiological characteristics of the cancerous tissue and surrounding healthy tissues and on the radiation dose distribution achieved by the radiotherapy treatment. It is generally believed that the therapeutic ratio can be minimised by optimising the conformation of the radiation dose distribution to the target volume. This is difficult with traditional radiotherapy techniques since they do not produce dose distributions that adequately cover tumour volumes of complex

  14. Stereotactic radiotherapy in pediatric indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier-Chastagner, V.; Supiot, S.; Carrie, C.; Helfre, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy is a very high precision procedure, which has been limited to radiosurgery for a long time. Technological improvements allowed the development of radiotherapy in stereotactic conditions, leading to a lot of innovations. Previously indicated for cerebral pathologies, this procedure is now developed for extra-cerebral locations. In paediatrics, stereotactic radiotherapy is still limited, delivered precociously, due to the possibility of long-term late effects that needs to be addressed. This review reports the different useful conditions, technical evolutions, and the current validated paediatric indications, with differences from adults, and future directions. (authors)

  15. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    External-beam radiotherapy has long been challenged by the simple fact that patients can (and do) move during the delivery of radiation. Recent advances in imaging and beam delivery technologies have made the solution--adapting delivery to natural movement--a practical reality. Adaptive Motion Compensation in Radiotherapy provides the first detailed treatment of online interventional techniques for motion compensation radiotherapy. This authoritative book discusses: Each of the contributing elements of a motion-adaptive system, including target detection and tracking, beam adaptation, and pati

  16. Development of targeted radiotherapy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Guillermina; Villarreal, Jose E.; Garcia, Laura; Tendilla, Jose I.; Paredes, Lydia; Murphy, Consuelo A.; Pedraza, Martha

    2001-01-01

    Conventional or external beam radiotherapy, has been a viable alternative for cancer treatment. Although this technique is effective, its use is limited if the patient has multiple malignant lesions (metastases). An alternative approach is based on the design of radiopharmaceuticals that, to be administered in the patient, are directed specifically toward the target cell producing a selective radiation delivery. This treatment is known as targeted radiotherapy. We have summarized and discussed some results related to our investigations on the development of targeted radiotherapy systems, including aspects of internal dosimetry

  17. The dosimetric control in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, A.

    2009-01-01

    The author first presents the thermoluminescent dosimetry method developed by the Equal-Estro Laboratory to control radiotherapy systems, according to which dosimeters are mailed by the radiotherapy centres to the laboratory, and then analyzed with respect to the level of dose bias. In a second part, he discusses the different techniques used for the dosimetric control of new radiotherapy methods (intensity-modulated radiation therapy, tomo-therapy) for which film dosimetry is applied. He also evokes the development of new phantoms and the development of a method for the dosimetric control of proton beams

  18. PET/CT and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messa, C.; CNR, Milano; S. Gerardo Hospital, Monza; Di Muzio, N.; Picchio, M.; Bettinardi, V.; Gilardi, M.C.; CNR, Milano; San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano; Fazio, F.; CNR, Milano; San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano; San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the state of the art of PET/CT applications in radiotherapy, specifically its use in disease staging, patient selection, treatment planning and treatment evaluation. Diseases for which radiotherapy with radical intent is indicated will be considered, as well as those in which PET/CT may actually change the course of disease. The methodological and technological aspects of PET/CT in radiotherapy are discussed, focusing on the problem of target volume definition with CT and PET functional imaging and the problem of tumor motion with respect to imaging and dose delivery

  19. Radiotherapy in supratentorial gliomas. A study of 821 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heesters, M.; Molenaar, W.; Go, G.K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Analysis of the results of radiotherapy in a large group of cerebral gliomas with identification of prognostic factors and the outcome with respect to different decades of treatment. Patients and Methods: Two decades (1979-1999) of radiotherapy in supratentorial astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors (n = 821) at the University Hospital Groningen were retrospectively evaluated. Prognostic factors for survival were analyzed. Two decades of radiotherapy treatment were compared with respect to radiotherapy dose and treatment-field design. Results: Glioblastoma multiforme, including gliosarcoma, was the most frequent supratentorial glioma (n = 442) with a poor survival, i.e., median survival time (MST) 7 months, especially in patients > 50 years of age and with poor performance. Patients with good performance were selected for radiotherapy with an optimum dose of 60 Gy local-field irradiation. However, in patients with poor prognosis, no radiotherapy was applied or a shorter treatment scheme was given. Anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 131) were treated in the same way as glioblastoma multiforme. Over time, a decrease in radiation dose (from 60 to 45 Gy) and from whole brain irradiation to local-field treatment was observed, following the literature. In low-grade gliomas, prognostic factors for survival were age, performance, and extent of resection. Gemistocytic astrocytoma (n = 15) had an inferior survival compared to astrocytoma (MST 46 vs. 54 months), but a superior survival compared to anaplastic astrocytoma (MST 10 months). The presence of an oligodendroglial component in a glioma implied a superior survival compared to the astrocytic gliomas. The inherent biology of the glioma is reflected by the study of recurrent tumors with progression to higher grades of malignancy in 32-40% and by the histology of recurrent oligodendroglial tumors. In comparing two decades of radiotherapy in gliomas, no differences in survival were observed despite the technological

  20. Radiotherapy in supratentorial gliomas. A study of 821 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heesters, M. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands); Molenaar, W. [Dept. of Pathology, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands); Go, G.K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Groningen Univ. Hospital (Netherlands)

    2003-09-01

    Purpose: Analysis of the results of radiotherapy in a large group of cerebral gliomas with identification of prognostic factors and the outcome with respect to different decades of treatment. Patients and Methods: Two decades (1979-1999) of radiotherapy in supratentorial astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors (n = 821) at the University Hospital Groningen were retrospectively evaluated. Prognostic factors for survival were analyzed. Two decades of radiotherapy treatment were compared with respect to radiotherapy dose and treatment-field design. Results: Glioblastoma multiforme, including gliosarcoma, was the most frequent supratentorial glioma (n = 442) with a poor survival, i.e., median survival time (MST) 7 months, especially in patients > 50 years of age and with poor performance. Patients with good performance were selected for radiotherapy with an optimum dose of 60 Gy local-field irradiation. However, in patients with poor prognosis, no radiotherapy was applied or a shorter treatment scheme was given. Anaplastic astrocytomas (n = 131) were treated in the same way as glioblastoma multiforme. Over time, a decrease in radiation dose (from 60 to 45 Gy) and from whole brain irradiation to local-field treatment was observed, following the literature. In low-grade gliomas, prognostic factors for survival were age, performance, and extent of resection. Gemistocytic astrocytoma (n = 15) had an inferior survival compared to astrocytoma (MST 46 vs. 54 months), but a superior survival compared to anaplastic astrocytoma (MST 10 months). The presence of an oligodendroglial component in a glioma implied a superior survival compared to the astrocytic gliomas. The inherent biology of the glioma is reflected by the study of recurrent tumors with progression to higher grades of malignancy in 32-40% and by the histology of recurrent oligodendroglial tumors. In comparing two decades of radiotherapy in gliomas, no differences in survival were observed despite the technological

  1. SU-F-R-01: Preclinical Radioimmunogenomics Study to Design Personalized Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdollahi, H [Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Radiogenomics is an active area of research to find clinical correlation between genomics and radiotherapy outcomes. In this era, many different biological issues should be taken into account. In this study we aimed to introduce “Radioimmunogenomics” as a new approach to study immunogetics issue regard to radiotherapy induced clinical manifestations. Methods: We studied different immunological pathways and signaling molecules which underling radiation response of normal and malignant tissues. In the other hand, we found many genes and proteins are responsible to radiation effects on biological tissues. We defined a theoretical framework to correlate these genes with radiotherapy outcomes as TCP and NTCP biological dose tools. Results: Our theoretical results showed, high-throughput immunogenomics biomarkers can be correlated with radiotherapy outcomes. Genes regarding to inflammation, apoptosis, repair molecules and many other immunological markers can be defined as radioimmune markers to predict radiotherapy response. Conclusion: Radioimmunogenomics can be used as a new personalized radiotherapy research area to enhance treatment outcome as well as quality of life.

  2. European Society for Radiation Biology 21. annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The volume contains about 100 abstracts of lectures presented to the conference covering a large variety of topics like: Radiobiology as a base for radiotherapy, radiation carcinogenesis and cellular effects, late and secondary effects of radiotherapy, radioprotection and radiosensitization, heavy ions in radiobiology and space research, microdosimetry and biological dosimetry, radiation effects on the mature and the developing central nervous system, DNA damage and repair and cellular mutations, the imact of radiation on the environment, free radicals in radiation biology

  3. Tumours following retinoblastoma radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollot, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    Radioinduced tumours in young patients irradiated in childhood for retinoblastoma take on a particularly deadly aspect. The onset of this true clinical entity characterized by a long post-irradiation latency period induced by a dose above 6000 rads is a real tragedy. The vast majority of patients then enter into a long martyrdom ending in death. The only cure is surgical, but seldom possible. Treatment is limited to palliative radiotherapy, effective for a while, and chemiotherapy as a last resort but often difficult to prescribe. Prevention alone is the answer. The quality and reliability of the radiotherapeutic treatment depend not only on the personal talent of the radiotherapist but above all on the standard of the equipment. A strong reduction in the doses employed as well as recent technological progress improving the material, its precision and reproducibility appear already to have lowered the frequency curve of these fatal radioinduced tumours [fr

  4. [Radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingon, P; Blanchard, P; Bidault, F; Calmels, L

    2016-09-01

    Nasapharyngeal carcinoma is a rare disease. Oftenly, the diagnostic is made for advanced disease. Localized tumors, T1 or T2 NO observed a good prognosis and are locally controlled in more than 90 % of the cases by radiotherapy alone. The standard treatment of locally advanced disease is combined chemoradiation. A special vigilance of fast decrease of the volume of the pathological lymph nodes, sometimes associated to loss of weight might indicate an adaptive dosimetric revision. The treatment of recurrent disease is of great importance. Surgical indications are limited but should be discussed in multidisciplinary tumor board when possible. Surgical nodal sampling has to be proposed for nodal recurrence as well as reirradiation, which could be indicated according to the technical issues. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  5. Image guided multibeam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freijo, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an outlook of the status of the first development stages for an updated design of radiotherapy conformal system based on tumor 3D images obtained as an output the last generation imaging machines as PET, CT and MR which offer a very valuable output in cancer diagnosis. Prospective evaluation of current software codes and acquisition of useful experience in surgical planning involves a multidisciplinary process as an initial and unavoidable stage to develop an expert software and user skills which assures the delivery of the radiation dose is done correctly in geometry and value in each voxel as a radiation protection basic condition. The validation of the images obtained has been done by the production of anatomical models of interest regions by rapid proto typing of the 3D segmented images and its evaluation by contrasting with the real regions during surgical procedures. (author)

  6. Device for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinta, A.

    2002-01-01

    The invention refers to medicine, in particular to radiology. Summary of the invention consists in that the device for the radiotherapy includes a base a headrest, a mechanism for head fixation, means for placement of the formation element, the mechanism for head fixation representing a semicircle situated in horizontal position and fixed to the base with the possibility of displacement, in the centre of which it is installed a fixing arm, and the means for placement of the formation elements representing at least two semicircles, mounted in vertical position and fixed into supports with the possibility of mutual swiveling of each of them, between the headrest and the base being installed the neck support

  7. Radiotherapy. 2. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Juergen; Wenz, Frederik

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this medical specialty book, besides presenting the state of the art in clinical radiotherapy and radiooncology, is to explain the basic principles of medical physics and radiobiology. Following a number of chapters on general topics and theory it provides detailed coverage of the individual organ systems, briefly addressing future aspects in the process. The authors relate their view that radiooncology as a medical specialty will continue to be under pressure to change and that it will take continuous innovation to secure its status within the interdisciplinary context around the treatment of cancer patients. The authors of this, the textbook's second edition, have dedicated much space to modern methods and techniques in order to do justice to these developments.

  8. Radiotherapy on hidradenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalya, Issam; Hadadi, Khalid; Tazi, El Mehdi; Lalya, Ilham; Bazine, Amine; Andaloussy, Khalid; Elmarjany, Mohamed; Sifat, Hassan; Hassouni, Khalid; Kebdani, Tayeb; Mansouri, Hamid; Benjaafar, Noureddine; Elgueddari, Brahim Khalil

    2011-01-01

    Clear cell Hidradenocarcinoma is a rare carcinoma arising from sweat glands. It is an aggressive tumor that most metastasizes to regional lymph nodes and distant viscera; surgery with safe margins is the mainstay of treatment. We report a case of 68-year-old woman who presented with an invasive clear cell hidradenocarcinoma situated in the left parotid area which recurred 5 months after surgery, this recurrence was managed successfully by high-dose irradiation of the tumor bed (66 Gy) and regional lymphatic chains (50 Gy), after a follow-up of more than 15 months, the patient is in good local control without significant toxicity. POST OPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY ALLOWS BETTER LOCAL CONTROL AND SHOULD BE MANDATORY WHEN HISTOLOGICAL FEATURES PREDICTIVE OF RECURRENCE ARE PRESENT: positive margins, histology poorly differentiated, perineural invasion, vascular and lymphatic invasion, lymph node involvement, and extracapsular spread.

  9. Decision logics in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauwerky, F.

    1979-01-01

    Decisions in planning procedures can generally, at least for beam therapy to deep seated tumors, be based on a self-consistent system of criteria of optimization, namely: 1. The absorbed dose to the target volume must be applied as uniformly as possible. 2. Absorbed doses to organs (volumes) at risk must be as low as possible, at least below an accepted limit. 3. Radiation effects to outside volumes must be kept as low as possible. Whereas these criteria, as being reduced to the simplest possible requirements, have to be regarded as the stable elements, the radiotherapy parameters, such as geometric arrangements, special techniques, absorbed dose contributions to reference points or systems, have to be taken as the variables within decision processes. The properties of the criteria which have widely proved to be valuable in routine clinical practice, have been investigated in relation to the theoretical system of axioms as it is e.g. offered by Karl Popper's general logics of scientific research. An axiomatic system, as it is demanded (after Popper) must be a) free of discrepancies, i.e. self-consistent (not any sentence can be derived), b) independent, that is, one axiom cannot be derived from another one within the system, c) sufficient for deduction of statements needed, d) necessary, that is complete. All these requirements are fitting also to the offered system of radiotherapy optimization criteria. It has been demonstrated, that Popper's axiomatic system can be regarded as to be the general case for all scientific fields of application, the set of optimization criteria being a special system for radiation therapy, which would have been derivable from Popper's theory. Also practical use could be demonstrated. (orig./ORU) [de

  10. Radiotherapy in the Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.C.L.C.; Moura, J.E.F.M. de; Leite, M.T.T.; Santa Casa de Misericordia de Belo Horizonte

    1983-01-01

    An up-to-date summary of Hodgkin's disease is presented taking into account its natural history, dissemination patterns, history, staging and therapeutic sugestions, with special regard to radiotherapy. (Author) [pt

  11. Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy in oncology

    CERN Document Server

    Keshtgar, Mohammed; Wenz, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy is a major advance in the management of cancer patients. With an emphasis on practical aspects, this book offers an ideal introduction to this innovative  technology for clinicians.

  12. Radiotherapy in prostate cancer. Innovative techniques and current controversies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Linz Univ. (Austria). Medical Faculty; Roach, Mack III [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Van As, Nicholas (ed.) [The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    Examines in detail the role of innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer, including IMRT, IGRT, BART, and modern brachytherapy. Explores a range of current controversies in patient treatment. Intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists. Radiation treatment is rapidly evolving owing to the coordinated research of physicists, engineers, computer and imaging specialists, and physicians. Today, the arsenal of ''high-precision'' or ''targeted'' radiotherapy includes multimodal imaging, in vivo dosimetry, Monte Carlo techniques for dose planning, patient immobilization techniques, intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT), biologically adapted radiotherapy (BART), quality assurance methods, novel methods of brachytherapy, and, at the far end of the scale, particle beam radiotherapy using protons and carbon ions. These approaches are like pieces of a puzzle that need to be put together to provide the prostate cancer patient with high-level optimized radiation treatment. This book examines in detail the role of the above-mentioned innovative radiation techniques in the management of prostate cancer. In addition, a variety of current controversies regarding treatment are carefully explored, including whether prophylactic treatment of the pelvic lymphatics is essential, the magnitude of the effect of dose escalation, whether a benefit accrues from hypofractionation, and what evidence exists for the superiority of protons or heavy ions. Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer: Innovative Techniques and Current Controversies is intended for both radiation oncologists and urologists with an interest in the up-to-date capabilities of modern radiation oncology for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  13. Radiotherapy of presenile spinal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, H.M.; Schiebusch, M.

    1982-01-01

    Painfull conditions of presenile spinal osteoporosis may no longer respond to medication or physical therapy. Analgesic radiotherapy coupled with mild physical therapy and if necessary supported by orthopedic measures frequently results in pain relief and physical stability. Fifty-two cases of osteoporosis and osteoporotic spinal fractures illustrate how better longterm results are achieved by increasing the customary dosage and speeding up radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  14. Contact radiotherapy. Report of technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortholan, Cecile; Melin, Nicole; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean; Pages, Frederique; Devaud, Christine; Noel, Georges; Biga, Julie; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Canet, Philippe; Lascols, Sylvie; Lamas, Muriel; Ramdine, Jessica; Tuil, Louise

    2008-10-01

    This report aims at assessing safety, indications, the role in therapeutic strategy, and efficiency of contact radiotherapy. It also aims at answering questions like: is the contact radiotherapy technique validated? What are the indications for contact radiotherapy? What about the efficiency and safety of contact radiotherapy? After a presentation of preliminary notions on radiotherapy (radiation types, dose, and irradiation techniques), the report presents this specific technique of contact radiotherapy: definition, devices, use recommendations, issues of radiation protection, modalities of performance of a contact radiotherapy session, and concerned pathologies. Then, based on a literature survey, this report addresses the various concerned tumours (skin, rectum, brain, breast), indicates some general information about these tumours (epidemiological data, anatomy and classification, therapeutic options, radiotherapy), and proposes an assessment of the efficiency and safety of contact radiotherapy

  15. Intraoperative radiotherapy in breast cancer: literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Hidalgo, Sabrina A.

    2013-01-01

    A literature review was performed on intraoperative radiotherapy of breast cancer. The strength and attractiveness is established of techniques of partial irradiation in the treatment of breast cancer. The benefit is originated to restrict the area immediate of radiotherapy to the tumor bed or quadrant index and identifying the benefit of being applied during the radiotherapy while surgical lumpectomy. The impact of local recurrence has been established using intraoperative radiotherapy. The advantages of intraoperative radiotherapy was compared in the management of the conservative surgery in early stages of breast cancer with external radiotherapy. Different methods of intraoperative radiotherapy have been compared and individual impact on local recurrence ranges. Intraoperative radiotherapy has had many advantages: radiobiological, technical, clinical, psychological and economical in the handling of conservative surgery in early stages of breast cancer, compared with external radiotherapy [es

  16. Bone Health and Pelvic Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, C E; Faithfull, S

    2015-11-01

    Survivors who have received pelvic radiotherapy make up many of the long-term cancer population, with therapies for gynaecological, bowel, bladder and prostate malignancies. Individuals who receive radiotherapy to the pelvis as part of their cancer treatment are at risk of insufficiency fractures. Symptoms of insufficiency fractures include pelvic and back pain and immobility, which can affect substantially quality of life. This constellation of symptoms can occur within 2 months of radiotherapy up to 63 months post-treatment, with a median incidence of 6-20 months. As a condition it is under reported and evidence is poor as to the contributing risk factors, causation and best management to improve the patient's bone health and mobility. As radiotherapy advances, chronic symptoms, such as insufficiency fractures, as a consequence of treatment need to be better understood and reviewed. This overview explores the current evidence for the effect of radiotherapy on bone health and insufficiency fractures and identifies what we know and where gaps in our knowledge lie. The overview concludes with the need to take seriously complaints of pelvic pain from patients after pelvic radiotherapy and to investigate and manage these symptoms more effectively. There is a clear need for definitive research in this field to provide the evidence-based guidance much needed in practice. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Education in physics of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, Judith; Feld, Diana B.; Portillo, Perla A.; Casal, Mariana R.; Menendez, Pablo R.

    2008-01-01

    Radiotherapy is the clinical application which requires the highest precision in dose delivery because of the very high doses administrated to patients, taking into account that new diagnostic methods and new modalities and treatment machines give greater possibilities of dose escalation. These higher doses may also produce serious side effects if not accurately administered. High qualified personnel is therefore needed for dealing with these new complex modalities, assuring that dose prescribed is correctly administered and providing adequate radiation protection to patients, public and staff. Education in Physics of Radiotherapy aims to provide students with solid theoretical and practical basis in order to be able to work with great responsibility and understanding in a Radiotherapy Department and assure that appropriate radiation protection to patients, public and staff. Since 1964 the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) gives course related to Radiotherapy and since 2002, due to a collaborative project, these courses are given at the Oncology Institute 'Angel H. Roffo' (IOAR) which belongs to the University of Buenos Aires (UBA). The IOAR is well equipped in Radiotherapy and new techniques are continuously introduced. That is why, being a University Institution and having highly specialized staff, it is the ideal hospital for teaching Radiotherapy in Buenos Aires, not only for regular courses but also for implementing workshops, seminars and updating courses as well. Continuous education helps to create and increase awareness of the importance of radiation protection in patients as well as in public and staff. (author)

  18. Biology of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.

    1987-01-01

    A working knowledge of the biologic principles underlying radiotherapy for head and neck tumors is desirable for all the disciplines involved in the management of patients with these cancers. Clinical practice is certainly possible without this basic understanding, and historically most clinical advances have been made empirically. However, an understanding of the basic concepts permits a better appreciation of the strengths and weaknesses of various treatment strategies and offers a rational approach for future modifications of techniques so as to improve the outcome of treatment

  19. Gene therapy and radiotherapy in malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaowen; Cao Yongzhen; Li Jin; Wang Qin

    2008-01-01

    Tumor treatment is one of the most important fields in medical research. Nowadays, a novel method which is combined gene therapy with radiotherapy plays an important role in the field of cancer research, and mainly includes immune gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, suicide gene therapy or tumor suppressor gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and protective gene therapy combined with radiotherapy based on the technical features. This review summarized the current status of combined therapies of gene therapy and radiotherapy and possible mechanism. (authors)

  20. Radioprotectors in Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, C.K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Parida, D.K.; Nomura, Taisei

    2001-03-01

    This review article focuses on clinically relevant radioprotectors and their mechanisms of radioprotection. Radiotherapy is the most common modality of human cancer therapy. Obtaining optimal results requires a judicious balance between the total dose of radiotherapy delivered and the threshold limit of critical surrounding normal tissues, and the normal tissues need to be protected against radiation injury to obtain better tumor control by using a higher dose. For this reason, radiation-protective agents play an important role in clinical radiotherapy. Radiation-protective agents can be classified into three groups: radioprotectors, adaptogens, and absorbents. The first group generally consists of sulfhydryl compounds and other antioxidants. They include several myelo-, entero-, and cerebro-protectors. Adaptogens act as promotors of radioresistance. They are natural protectors that offer chemical protection against low levels of ionizing radiation. Absorbents protect organs from internal radiation and chemicals. They include drugs that prevent incorporation of radioiodine by the thyroid gland and absorption of radionuclides. This article thoroughly describes the properties, mechanisms of action, and perspectives on clinical application of the following categories of radioprotectors: sulfhydryl compounds (e.g., cysteine, cysteamine, glutathione, AET, WR 2127, and other WR-compounds), antioxidants (e.g., tempace, Hoechst 33342, vitamin A, E, and C, TMG, melatonin), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (e.g., captopril, elanopril, penicillamine, pentoxifylline, L-158, 809), cytoprotective agents (mesna, dexrazoxane, and amifostin), metalloelements (e.g., manganese chloride, cadmium salts, bismuth subnitrate), immunomodulators (gamma-interferon, polysaccharides AM5, AM218, heat-killed lactobacillus cells, broncho-vaxom, trehalose dicorynomycolate, and AS101), lipopolysaccharides and prostaglandins, plant extracts and compounds isolated from plants (curcmin

  1. The problem: Tumor radioresistance in clinical radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, L.J.; Withers, H.R.; Thames, H.D.; Fletcher, G.H.; M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Inst., Houston, TX)

    1983-01-01

    Tumor radioresistance in clinical radiotherapy implies failure to achieve local-regional disease control with radiation doses producing an acceptable degree of morbidity. Such radioresistance may be due to many different causes (biological and technical) which are reviewed in terms of possible remedial actions. Dose-response relationships for human cancers suggest that, in many sites, tumors are heterogeneous with respect to their cure-limiting characteristics. The case is developed that unless the predominant cure-limiting factor can be predicted, little benefit may be seen in trials of new treatment strategies using heterogeneous tumor populations. The fundamental problem of clinical radioresistance is therefore perceived as the inability to identify predictively its cause in the individual patient

  2. Standardized precision radiotherapy in choroidal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nylen, U.; Kock, E.; Lax, I.; Lundell, G.; Trampe, E. af; Wilking, N.

    1994-01-01

    Metastases in the choroid of the eye are frequent in patients with disseminated malignancy. We here report the results using the precision radiotherapy technique described by Schipper et al. to treat 14 of 17 consecutive patients (21 eyes) with symptoms from such metastases. A beam defining collimator was used and a lateral field was given with the treated eye individually fixed. Varying fractionations and doses were used. The biologically effective dose for early effects (BED 3 ) was 47 to 90 Gy and for late effects (BED 10 ) 28 to 59 Gy. In 14 eyes (82%) the metastases regressed completely. The visual acuity was stabilized or improved in all patients and none needed local surgery. Three patients developed signs of radiation retinopathy, but only in one case the visual function was compromized. With this standardized technique no individualized dose planning was needed, the risk of radiation cataract was minimized and a dry eye avoided. (orig.)

  3. The future of personalised radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudell, Jimmy J; Torres-Roca, Javier F; Gillies, Robert J; Enderling, Heiko; Kim, Sungjune; Rishi, Anupam; Moros, Eduardo G; Harrison, Louis B

    2017-05-01

    Radiotherapy has long been the mainstay of treatment for patients with head and neck cancer and has traditionally involved a stage-dependent strategy whereby all patients with the same TNM stage receive the same therapy. We believe there is a substantial opportunity to improve radiotherapy delivery beyond just technological and anatomical precision. In this Series paper, we explore several new ideas that could improve understanding of the phenotypic and genotypic differences that exist between patients and their tumours. We discuss how exploiting these differences and taking advantage of precision medicine tools-such as genomics, radiomics, and mathematical modelling-could open new doors to personalised radiotherapy adaptation and treatment. We propose a new treatment shift that moves away from an era of empirical dosing and fractionation to an era focused on the development of evidence to guide personalisation and biological adaptation of radiotherapy. We believe these approaches offer the potential to improve outcomes and reduce toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Review of potential improvements using MRI in the radiotherapy workflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torresin, Alberto; Brambilla, Maria Grazia; Monti, Angelo F.; Moscato, Alessio; Brockmann, Marc A.; University Medical Center Mannheim; Schad, Lothar; Attenberger, Ulrike I.; Lohr, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The goal of modern radiotherapy is to deliver a lethal amount of dose to tissue volumes that contain a significant amount of tumour cells while sparing surrounding unaffected or healthy tissue. Online image guided radiotherapy with stereotactic ultrasound, fiducial-based planar X-ray imaging or helical/conebeam CT has dramatically improved the precision of radiotherapy, with moving targets still posing some methodical problems regarding positioning. Therefore, requirements for precise target delineation and identification of functional body structures to be spared by high doses become more evident. The identification of areas of relatively radioresistant cells or areas of high tumor cell density is currently under development. This review outlines the state of the art of MRI integration into treatment planning and its importance in follow up and the quantification of biological effects. Finally the current state of the art of online imaging for patient positioning will be outlined and indications will be given what the potential of integrated radiotherapy/online MRI systems is.

  5. Clinical oncology based upon radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    This paper discussed the biological effects of radiation as physical energy, especially those of X-ray as electromagnetic radiation, by associating the position of clinical oncology with classical radiation cell biology as well as recent molecular biology. First, it described the physical and biological effects of radiation, cell death due to radiation and recovery, radiation effects at tissue level, and location information and dosage information in the radiotherapy of cancer. It also described the territories unresolved through radiation biology, such as low-dose high-sensitivity, bystander effects, etc. (A.O.)

  6. Moving toward multi-dimensional radiotherapy and the role of radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oita, Masataka; Uto, Yoshihiro; Aoyama, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Recent radiotherapy for cancer treatment enable the high-precision irradiation to the target under the computed image guidance. Developments of such radiotherapy has played large role in the improved strategy of cancer treatments. In addition, the molecular mechanistic studies related to proliferations of cancer cell contribute the multidisciplinary fields of clinical radiotherapies. Therefore, the combination of the image guidance and molecular targeting of cancer cells make it possible for individualized cancer treatment. Especially, the use of particle beam or boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been spotlighted, and installations of such devices are planned widely. As the progress and collaborations of radiation biology and engineering physics, establishment of a new style of radiotherapy becomes available in post-genome era. In 2010s, the hi-tech machines controlling the spaciotemporal radiotherapy become in practice. Although, there still remains to be improved, e.g., more precise prediction of radiosensitivity or growth of individual tumors, and adverse outcomes after treatments, multi-dimensional optimizations of the individualized irradiations based on the molecular radiation biologies and medical physics are important for further development of radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Voice following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoicheff, M.L.

    1975-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide information on the voice of patients following radiotherapy for glottic cancer. Part I presents findings from questionnaires returned by 227 of 235 patients successfully irradiated for glottic cancer from 1960 through 1971. Part II presents preliminary findings on the speaking fundamental frequencies of 22 irradiated patients. Normal to near-normal voice was reported by 83 percent of the 227 patients; however, 80 percent did indicate persisting vocal difficulties such as fatiguing of voice with much usage, inability to sing, reduced loudness, hoarse voice quality and inability to shout. Amount of talking during treatments appeared to affect length of time for voice to recover following treatments in those cases where it took from nine to 26 weeks; also, with increasing years since treatment, patients rated their voices more favorably. Smoking habits following treatments improved significantly with only 27 percent smoking heavily as compared with 65 percent prior to radiation therapy. No correlation was found between smoking (during or after treatments) and vocal ratings or between smoking and length of time for voice to recover. There was no relationship found between reported vocal ratings and stage of the disease

  8. Proton radiotherapy: some perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirn, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    A news article highlighting the use of protons in radiotherapy is presented. Development of stereotaxic radiosurgery is the result of contributions from physicists, radiologists, and neurosurgeons, says Jacob Fabrikant, MD, head of the Arteriovenous Malformation Program at the University of California's Lawrence Berkeley laboratory. It also appears to have been the product of Harvard University (Boston) and University of California (Berkeley) cooperation. Robert R. Wilson, PhD, now a professor emeritus at Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, is credited with proposing the medical use of charged particles. Wilson, a physicist, says that the idea occurred to him while he was at Berkeley in the mid-1940's, designing the cyclotron to be built at Harvard. Although he was aware of their work, he does not remember discussing it with Robert Stone, MD, or John Lawrence, MD, who only a few years earlier at Berkeley had begun the initial medical experiments with neutrons. Wilson says that it simply occurred to him that in certain instances charged particles had two advantages over x-rays

  9. Automatization in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schraub, S.; Dutou, L.; Bernard, D.; Koechlin, M.; Beer-Gabel, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data-processing in external radiotherapy has to be adapted to each local situation, taking into account the patients to be treated, the irradiation equipment, the data-processing centers available locally, regionally, and nationally, and the rentability of the data-processing system required. It should be recalled that most dosimetric methods used today can be treated manually, and the question of rentability has to be kept in mind when deciding to buy a data-processing system. The radiotherapist should, therefore, prepare a list of costs for each situation, and verify the validity of each programme proposed by the supplier. It is difficult to make a definite choice between the presently available systems. The radiotherapist has to choose in relation to his activity, his availability and the systems available to him. It can sometimes be more advantageous to have a terminal linked to a large computer, rather than to readapt a series of programmes for a data-processing system available locally: many such solutions, though original, cannot be 'exported'. It should be recalled that a large number of dosimetries can be obtained manually, and on the rare occasions when the aid of a computer is essential, the assistance of better equipped neighbouring centers can be obtained. The decision as to whether a data-processing system needs to be acquired has to take all these imperatives into account [fr

  10. Erythropoietin in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttenburger, R.

    2003-01-01

    A high blood hemoglobin level is an independent factor for good prognosis as demonstrated in retrospective and prospective studies in a number of cancer sites. However, there is still debate on how hemoglobin affects outcome after radiotherapy. The issues are: 1. How about the predictive power and the magnitude of effect in various tumor entities? 2. Are all potential mechanisms for the hemoglobin effect considered? 3. Do EPO receptors found on tumor and normal cells outside the bone marrow play a role? Experimental and clinical data on anemia and its treatment have been extensively discussed. So far, the means to manipulate the hemoglobin level, their indication and administration are to be clarified. The issues are: 1. Why does transfusion not improve prognosis? 2. What have we learned from trials using EPO to stimulate endogenous Hb production? 3. What are the potential pitfalls of correcting anemia with EPO? 4. What is the optimal design of EPO-RT trials? Although there are still more questions than answers, the therapeutic potential of erythropoietin is of considerable interest to radiation oncologists. This report gives a summary reviewing the topic and ends on a note of caution: Mild anemia in cancer patients is no indication to use EPO outside clinical trials

  11. Intensity modulated conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This publication reports the assessment of intensity-modulated conformal radiotherapy (IMCR). This assessment is based on a literature survey which focussed on indications, efficiency and safety on the short term, on the risk of radio-induced cancer on the long term, on the role in the therapeutic strategy, on the conditions of execution, on the impact on morbidity-mortality and life quality, on the impact on the health system and on public health policies and program. This assessment is also based on the opinion of a group of experts regarding the technical benefit of IMCR, its indications depending on the cancer type, safety in terms of radio-induced cancers, and conditions of execution. Before this assessment, the report thus indicates indications for which the use of IMCR can be considered as sufficient or not determined. It also proposes a technical description of IMCR and helical tomo-therapy, discusses the use of this technique for various pathologies or tumours, analyses the present situation of care in France, and comments the identification of this technique in foreign classifications

  12. Hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietzel, F.

    1979-01-01

    Of decisive importance for superadditive enhancement is the close temporal correlation of hyperthermia and radiotherapy. It is recommended to first irradiate and then use heat treatment in order to ensure that dividable tumour cells are irradiated before hyperthermia. To achieve an optimal enhancing effect, temperatures of appr. 42 0 are sufficient. In order to be able to neglect temperature regulation and convection effects, hyperthermia for clinical use must be carried out in doses high enough to ensure that it can be finished within 3-4 minutes. It is necessary to make efforts to find out which forms of application can be realised in order to reach deeper tissue regions, thus making possible at least a half-depth-therapy. Up to day, only the 2 cm near to the surface can be heated in a sufficiently homogeneous way. In the FRG, there are more than 200 high-volt-therapy systems, including electron accelerators and telegamma systems. This is a dense network of radiation-therapeutical supply. An improved therapy effect of loose ionising rays which, with the help of the hypertherming, would almost be equal to irradiation with high ionisation density, is not only of scientific interest, but also of high interest for public health. (orig./MG) 891 MG/orig.- 892 RDG [de

  13. Experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology. Vol. 18. Proceedings; Experimentelle Strahlentherapie und Klinische Strahlenbiologie. Bd. 18. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Michael; Dahm-Daphi, Jochen; Dikomey, Ekkehard; Petersen, Cordula; Rodemann, H Peter; Zips, Daniel [eds.

    2009-07-15

    The proceedings on experimental radiotherapy and clinical radiobiology contain two review articles (prediction of normal tissue reactions after radiotherapy, ?H2AX foci as a marker for DNA double-strand breaks) and 34 contributions to the following topics: Hypoxia and molecular mechanisms of radiation resistance; biological imaging of the tumor micromilieu; DNA repair, genomic instability and carcerogenesis; molecular factors of radiation resistance; actual controversial discussion on possible irradiation caused metastasis risk enhancement; EGFR inhibition and irradiation; biology of experimental radiation/ normal tissue toxicity.

  14. Radiobiology: radiotherapy and radiation protection, fundamental bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.

    2008-01-01

    The radiobiology constitutes one of the most successful tools of the research in biology. It has for twenty years, as all the biology, strangely progressed with the increase of the knowledge in molecular biology and the new techniques of the genome exploration. It allows to dissect the living matter, to analyze the repair mechanisms of the damage in the molecular, cellular and tissular scale, to understand the transformation of a normal cell in cancer cell as well as the system of defence, multiple and powerful, against the carcinogenesis to mammals, notably to man. The radiobiology is the base on which the radiotherapy was built and perfected, now this one contributes largely to the cure of half of the cancers. With the increase of the number of the long-term cures, the indication of the second cancers provoked by the ionizing radiations and the cytotoxic largely increased: to reduce their frequency is an imperative, the radiobiology has to help to make it. (N.C.)

  15. Image-guided radiotherapy for effective radiotherapy delivery

    CERN Document Server

    Karlsson, Ulf Lennart

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) is a new radiotherapy technology that combines the rapid dose fall off associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and daily tumor imaging allowing for high precision tumor dose delivery and effective sparing of surrounding normal organs. The new radiation technology requires close collaboration between radiologists, nuclear medicine specialists, and radiation oncologists to avoid marginal miss. Modern diagnostic imaging such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, positron emission tomography with Computed Tomograpgy (PET-CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the radiation oncologist to target the positive tumor with high accuracy. As the tumor is well visualized during radiation treatment, the margins required to avoid geographic miss can be safely reduced , thus sparing the normal organs from excessive radiation. When the tumor is located close to critical radiosensitive structures such as the spinal cord, IGRT can deliver a high dose of radiatio...

  16. Contribution of customised dosimetry for small animal to the treatments of cancers by metabolic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutaleb, Samir

    2010-01-01

    This research thesis first reports a bibliographical study which addressed the use of ionizing radiations in cancer therapy (evolution from ionizing radiation to metabolic radiotherapy, biological and physical parameters, and absorbed dose in metabolic radiotherapy) and the role imagery has in customised dosimetry (absorbed dose calculation methods, determination of cumulative activity, dosimetric models for S factor calculation). Then, the author presents a software which has been specifically developed for the creation of dosimetric models, and reports its validation. He reports the comparison between different dosimetric models in the case of mice. He highlights two applications of the developed tool: radio-immunotherapy and metabolic radiotherapy. He finally proposes a general discussion on the impact of small animal dosimetry on metabolic radiotherapy [fr

  17. Epigenetics in radiotherapy: Where are we heading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Kim M.; Melotte, Veerle; Niessen, Hanneke E.C.; Dubois, Ludwig; Oberije, Cary; Troost, Esther G.C.; Starmans, Maud H.W.; Boutros, Paul C.; Vooijs, Marc; Engeland, Manon van; Lambin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Radiotherapy is an important component of anti-cancer treatment. However, not all cancer patients respond to radiotherapy, and with current knowledge clinicians are unable to predict which patients are at high risk of recurrence after radiotherapy. There is therefore an urgent need for biomarkers to guide clinical decision-making. Although the importance of epigenetic alterations is widely accepted, their application as biomarkers in radiotherapy has not been studied extensively. In addition, it has been suggested that radiotherapy itself introduces epigenetic alterations. As epigenetic alterations can potentially be reversed by drug treatment, they are interesting candidate targets for anticancer therapy or radiotherapy sensitizers. The application of demethylating drugs or histone deacetylase inhibitors to sensitize patients for radiotherapy has been studied in vitro, in vivo as well as in clinical trials with promising results. This review describes the current knowledge on epigenetics in radiotherapy

  18. Technological advances in radiotherapy of rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the available evidence for the use of modern radiotherapy techniques for chemoradiotherapy for rectal cancer, with specific focus on intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: The dosimetric...

  19. Protection of patient In radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiyi, P.

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to clarify some aspects about protection of patient in radiotherapy. Therefore, some basic information about how the use of ionizing radiation in medicine has brought tremendous health benefits to the population globally, the requirement of radiation protection (Justification of practices, Dose limitation and Optimization of protection), and the deterministic and stochastic effects of radiation are presented. The aim of radiotherapy is to use ionizing radiation to cure diseases or make the symptoms of a disease less severe. Also presented are layout of a radiotherapy facility (controlled areas, supervised areas, mazes, door and interlocks, patient observation and communication, and warning sign and lights), radionuclides commonly used for radiation therapy and their main emissions, equipment and devices used in radiotherapy, aspect of protection of patient in radiotherapy such as: leakage test, source on/off, emergency buttons, radiation oncology team, treatment planning, room monitoring, equipment or for protection and Cobalt-60 unit stuck source. The advantages of brachytherapy, leakage from the treatment head and radiation incidents resulting from incorrect dose calibration are discussed. The importance of minimization dose exposure, by considering the basic principles of: time, distance and shielding are also stated. These principles prevent deterministic effects and limit stochastic effects of radiation. (author)

  20. Curative radiotherapy of supraglottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ho; Chai, Gyu Young

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of curative radiotherapy in the management of supraglottic cancer. Twenty-one patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the supraglottis were treated with radiotherapy at Gyeongsang National University Hospital between 1990 and 1994. Median follow-up period was 36 months and 95% were observed for at least 2 years. Actuarial survival rate at 5 years was 39.3% for 21 patients. The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 75.0% in Stage I, 42.9% in Stage II, 33.3% in Stage III, and 28.6% in Stage IV(p=0.54). The 5-year local control rate was 52.0% for 21 patients. The 5-year local control rate was 75.0% in Stage I, 57.1% in Stage II, 66.7% in Stage III, and 28.6% in Stage IV(p=0.33). Double primary cancer was developed in 3 patients and those were all esophageal cancers. In early stage(Stage I and II) supraglottic cancer, curative radiotherapy would be a treatment of choice and surgery would be better to be reserved for salvage of radiotherapy failure. In advanced stage(Stage III and IV), radiotherapy alone is inadequate for curative therapy and combination with surgery should be done in operable patients. This report emphasizes the importance of esophagoscopy and esophagogram at the follow-up of patients with supraglottic cancer

  1. Radiotherapy and skin tumors; Radiotherapie et tumeurs curanees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calitchi, E.; KIrova, Y.; Le bourgeois, J.P. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, 94 - Creteil (France)

    1998-09-01

    Radiotherapy plays an important role in treatment of skin tumours. For skin carcinomas, external irradiation (kilo-voltage X-rays or electrons according to clinical characteristics) is more valuable than interstitial brachytherapy, which is recommended for tumours of the lip and of the nasal vestibule. In mycosis fungoides, total cutaneous electron beam radiation therapy is efficient for patients with limited superficial plaques. In the classical form of Kaposi`s sarcoma, radiotherapy can achieve local control-whereas it obtains good palliative results in the epidemic form. (author)

  2. X-ray radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: The most common form of radio therapy is X-ray therapy, where a beam of photons or their parent electrons break down hydrogen bonds within the body's cells and remove certain DNA information necessary for cell multiplication. This process can eradicate malignant cells leading to complete recovery, to the remission of some cancers, or at least to a degree of pain relief. The radiotherapy instrument is usually an electron linac, and the electrons are used either directly in 'electrotherapy' for some 10% of patients, or the electrons bombard a conversion target creating a broad beam of high energy photons or 'penetration X-rays'. The simplest machine consists of several accelerating sections at around 3 GHz, accelerating electrons to 6 MeV; a cooled tungsten target is used to produce a 4 Gray/min X-ray field which can be collimated into a rectangular shape at the patient position. This tiny linac is mounted inside a rotating isocentric gantry above the patient who must remain perfectly still. Several convergent beams can also be used to increase the delivered dose. More sophisticated accelerators operate at up to 18 MeV to increase penetration depths and decrease skin exposure. Alternatively, electrotherapy can be used with different energies for lower and variable penetration depths - approximately 0.5 cm per MeV. In this way surface tissue may be treated without affecting deeper and more critical anatomical regions. This type of linac, 1 to 2 metres long, is mounted parallel to the patient with a bending magnet to direct the beam to the radiotherapy system, which includes the target, thick movable collimator jaws, a beam field equalizer, dose rate and optical field simulation and energy controls. There are over 2000 acceleratorbased X-ray treatment units worldwide. Western countries have up to two units per million population, whereas in developing countries such as Bangladesh, the density is only one per 100 million. Several

  3. Stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzevic, Dario; Legcevic, Jelena; Splavski, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas) are common benign tumours that arise from the Schwann cells of the vestibular nerve. Management options include observation with neuroradiological follow-up, microsurgical resection and stereotactic radiotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess...... the effect of stereotactic radiotherapy compared to observation, microsurgical resection, any other treatment modality, or a combination of two or more of the above approaches for vestibular schwannoma. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL......; Web of Science; CAB Abstracts; ISRCTN and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 24 July 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy compared with observation alone, microsurgical...

  4. Computerised tomography in radiotherapy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badcock, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of computed tomography as an adjunct to radiotherapy planning. Until recently, acquisition of accurate data concerning tumour anatomy lagged behind other developments in radiotherapy. With the advent of computer-tomography (CT), these data can be displayed and transmitted to a treatment planning computer. It is concluded that the greatest inaccuracies in the radiation treatment of patients are to be found in both the inadequate delineation of the target volume within the patient and changes in body outline relative to the target volume over the length of the irradiated volume. The technique was useful in various subgroups (pelvic, intra-thoracic and chest-wall tumours) and for those patients being treated palliatively. With an estimated improvement in cure rate of 4.5% and cost-effective factors of between 3.3 and 5, CT-assisted radiotherapy planning appears to be a worthwhile procedure. (orig.)

  5. Expanding global access to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; Jaffray, David A; Barton, Michael B; Bray, Freddie; Baumann, Michael; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Hanna, Timothy P; Knaul, Felicia M; Lievens, Yolande; Lui, Tracey Y M; Milosevic, Michael; O'Sullivan, Brian; Rodin, Danielle L; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Van Dyk, Jacob; Yap, Mei Ling; Zubizarreta, Eduardo; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2015-09-01

    Radiotherapy is a critical and inseparable component of comprehensive cancer treatment and care. For many of the most common cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, radiotherapy is essential for effective treatment. In high-income countries, radiotherapy is used in more than half of all cases of cancer to cure localised disease, palliate symptoms, and control disease in incurable cancers. Yet, in planning and building treatment capacity for cancer, radiotherapy is frequently the last resource to be considered. Consequently, worldwide access to radiotherapy is unacceptably low. We present a new body of evidence that quantifies the worldwide coverage of radiotherapy services by country. We show the shortfall in access to radiotherapy by country and globally for 2015-35 based on current and projected need, and show substantial health and economic benefits to investing in radiotherapy. The cost of scaling up radiotherapy in the nominal model in 2015-35 is US$26·6 billion in low-income countries, $62·6 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $94·8 billion in upper-middle-income countries, which amounts to $184·0 billion across all low-income and middle-income countries. In the efficiency model the costs were lower: $14·1 billion in low-income, $33·3 billion in lower-middle-income, and $49·4 billion in upper-middle-income countries-a total of $96·8 billion. Scale-up of radiotherapy capacity in 2015-35 from current levels could lead to saving of 26·9 million life-years in low-income and middle-income countries over the lifetime of the patients who received treatment. The economic benefits of investment in radiotherapy are very substantial. Using the nominal cost model could produce a net benefit of $278·1 billion in 2015-35 ($265·2 million in low-income countries, $38·5 billion in lower-middle-income countries, and $239·3 billion in upper-middle-income countries). Investment in the efficiency model would produce in the same period an even

  6. Hyperthermia and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    Combined hyperthermia (HT 45 min once or twice per week) and low dose radiotherapy (LDRT 30-34.5 Gy in 2-3 weeks) have been given to 182 locally recurrent or metastatic superficial tumours in 133 patients. Tumour response was analysed in 137 tumours in 100 patients. The overall complete response (CR) was 50% with a median duration (DCR) of 13±3 months. When mammary carcinoma, representing 62% of the treated tumours, were analysed, CR was 62% with a DCR of 14±4 months. In a comparative, non-randomized study, on 34 matched tumour pairs in 24 patients, treatment was given with LDRT+HT to the larger and the same LDRT to the smaller tumour, the patients acting as their own control. A significant difference in CR was obtained in favour of the combined treatment (p=0.0013 all diagnosis and p=0.0027 mammary carcinoma). There was no significant difference in DCR between the two modalities. No significant difference in CR was seen when tumours were randomely treated with HT once (CR 56%) or twice (CR 69%) per week combined with the same LDRT. Predictive factors for CR, multivariately analysed (15 parameters), in mammary carcinoma recurring in earlier irradiated regions, were; the present LDRT absorbed dose (p=0.02) and the average minimum temperature in the best HT session (p=0.03). Significant skin toxicity was seen in 28% of all the 182 heated regions. Prognostic factors for skin damage, multivariately analysed, were; the extension of the heated region (p=0.007) and the highest average maximum temperature in any of the HT sessions (p=0.04). Pain was in some way correlated to severe toxicity but was not considered to be an optimal monitor for HT as many patients with severe and moderate pain were without any serious skin reactions, while slight or no pain sometimes were associated with severe reactions. 401 refs

  7. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Devi, P.; Satish Rao, B.S.; Nagarathnam, A.

    2000-01-01

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  8. Clinical quality standards for radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study The technological progress that is currently being witnessed in the areas of diagnostic imaging, treatment planning systems and therapeutic equipment has caused radiotherapy to become a high-tech and interdisciplinary domain involving staff of various backgrounds. This allows steady improvement in therapy results, but at the same time makes the diagnostic, imaging and therapeutic processes more complex and complicated, requiring every stage of those processes to be planned, organized, controlled and improved so as to assure high quality of services provided. The aim of this paper is to present clinical quality standards for radiotherapy as developed by the author. Material and methods In order to develop the quality standards, a comparative analysis was performed between European and Polish legal acts adopted in the period of 1980-2006 and the universal industrial ISO 9001:2008 standard, defining requirements for quality management systems, and relevant articles published in 1984-2009 were reviewed, including applicable guidelines and recommendations of American, international, European and Polish bodies, such as the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), the European Society for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) on quality assurance and management in radiotherapy. Results As a result, 352 quality standards for radiotherapy were developed and categorized into the following three groups: 1 – organizational standards; 2 – physico-technical standards and 3 – clinical standards. Conclusion Proposed clinical quality standards for radiotherapy can be used by any institution using ionizing radiation for medical purposes. However, standards are of value only if they are implemented, reviewed, audited and improved, and if there is a clear mechanism in place to monitor and address failure to meet agreed standards. PMID:23788854

  9. Costing in Radiotherapy. Chapter 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, E.; Lievens, Y.; Levin, V.C.; Van Der Merwe, D.

    2017-01-01

    The available literature on the cost of radiotherapy yields a large variation in data related to the specifics of the methodology used (the viewpoint of the analysis, time frame, health care system, etc.) and to the cost components and radiotherapy activities included. To overcome this difficulty, the reimbursement paid by medical insurance is commonly used as a proxy for the actual radiotherapy costs. Costs, however, generally bear little or no resemblance to charges, as the latter also include allowances for non-capacity use and profit margins. Accurate resource cost data are therefore more valid and should ideally be used in the context of economic evaluations and public health provisions. In addition to the theoretical problems related to obtaining accurate costs, it is difficult to interpret cost data across country borders because of differences in economics. If this is already the case for high income countries, using these cost data for low and middle income countries (LMICs) is even more problematic. Thus, there clearly is a need for calculations performed from the viewpoint of LMICs to prevent misapprehensions based on conclusions derived from data from their high income counterparts. The IAEA endeavours to assist Member States in accumulating appropriate and sufficient cost data for the initiation or expansion of radiation oncology services. Although relatively simple and easy to understand, the IAEA has found that in many countries where it has been involved in the establishment of new radiotherapy departments, the basic principles of cost calculation for radiotherapy facilities were not followed by the local planners. Radiotherapy needs careful planning, organization and a strong quality assurance (QA) programme in order to deliver safe treatments, due to the complexity of the planning and treatment process and the possibility of systematic errors. Administrators should be aware that the cost of building a radiotherapy facility and buying machines

  10. Who risk profile in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, M.; Sharfiq, J.; Nobleet, D.; Lemer, C.

    2009-01-01

    The different steps of a treatment in radiotherapy are: patient evaluation, decision to treat, prescription of the treatment protocol, positioning and immobilization, simulation, imaging and volume determination, planning and implementation of materials and software, transfer of treatment data, patient positioning, treatment realisation, treatment checking and follow-up. It exist processes of safety for any step of a radiotherapy realisation: patient identification, accreditation of equipment and processes, evaluation of the personnel competencies, quality assurance of equipment and management of the processes quality, redundancy during the data transfer, control of processes, errors reports and quality improvement, external controls, appropriateness of the workforce. (N.C.)

  11. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma treated with radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaki M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare, highly vascular, benign, locally aggressive tumor, affecting boys of adolescent age. The aggressiveness and high vascularity makes surgery and even a biopsy difficult in majority of cases. Although surgery is the treatment of choice in early cases, considerable debate exists regarding the treatment of advanced disease with intracranial extension. Radiotherapy provides a good response and also avoids surgery-associated morbidity. We are herewith reporting a case of nasopharyngeal angiofibroma who showed complete hemostasis and improvement in vision to radiotherapy

  12. Integrative radiation systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  13. How PET is changing the management of cancer with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Manus, M.

    2005-01-01

    Information from PET scanning is transforming the management of many malignancies and the impact of PET is likely to increase further as new indications are recognised. PET is of particular value in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) with curative intent. These patients rarely undergo invasive surgical staging and therefore imaging is crucial in determining the extent of disease before treatment. More accurate staging with PET means that futile aggressive RT or chcmoRT can be avoided in patients with incurable extensive disease. FDG-PET is of proven value in the staging of common metabolically-active malignancies treated with radiotherapy. These include lung cancer, head and neck cancer, lymphomas and oesophageal carcinoma. It has been shown that PET can improve the selection of patients for radical surgery or radiotherapy in lung cancer and that PET-based staging more accurately predicts survival than conventional staging. For those patients that remain eligible for definitive RT after PET. treatment can be more accurately targeted at the tumour and involved regional nodes. The value of PET for treatment planning is enhanced significantly when PET and CT scans are acquired on a combined PET/CT scanner. Fused PET-CT images can be imported into the radiotherapy planning computer and used to accurately target tumour with the best beam arrangement. After treatment, response may be hard to assess with structural imaging. PET-rcsponse to chemotherapy or radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) predicts survival in NSCLC more accurately than CT response. However, PET has much more potential than imaging with FDG alone can realise. Markers such as FLT can be used to image proliferation in tumours, misonidazole or FAZA can be used to image hypoxia and labeled metabolites of anti-cancer drugs such as 5-FU can be used to study pharmacokinetics. New combinations of radiation and drugs may emerge that can be selected based on biological characteristics of

  14. Non-Targeted effects of ionising radiation and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjostedt, Svetlana; Bezak, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Modern radiobiology is undergoing rapid change due to new discoveries contradicting the target concept which is currently used to predict dose-response relationships. Thus relatively recently discovered radiation induced bystander effects (RlBEs), that include additional death, mutation and radio-adaptation in non-irradiated cells, change our understanding of the target concept and broadens its boundaries. This can be significant from a radioprotection point of view and also has the potential to reassess radiation damage models currently used in radiotherapy. This article reviews briefly the general concepts of RlBEs such as the proposed underlying mechanisms of signal induction and propagation, experimental approaches and biological end points used to investigate these phenomena. It also summ rises several mathematical models currently proposed in an attempt to quantify RlBE. The main emphasis of this al1icle is to review and highlight the potential impact of the bystander phenomena in radiotherapy.

  15. Occupational genetic risks for nurses at radiotherapy oncology wards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srb, V; Kubzova, E

    1985-05-31

    A lymphocyte chromosome analysis of short-term cultured whole peripheral blood of 14 nurses in the radiotherapy/oncology ward of the radiological clinic (working in health risk conditions for an average of 14 years) classified them into a high risk genetic group. They were found to have 4.7% cells with chromosomal aberrations as compared with 1.5% such cells in the control group. The said difference had a high statistical significance (p<0.001). Only aberrations of the structural type were evaluated.The mitotic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in the study group was also adversely affected (MI=1.8) compared with the control group (MI=2.9). Cytogenetic peripheral lymphocyte analysis used as a collective biological exposure test is being considered for incorporation in the system of preventive medical chec-kups of nurses working in radiotherapy/oncology wards.

  16. Occupational genetic risks for nurses at radiotherapy oncology wards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srb, V.; Kubzova, E.

    1985-01-01

    A lymphocyte chromosome analysis of short-term cultured whole peripheral blood of 14 nurses in the radiotherapy/oncology ward of the radiological clinic (working in health risk conditions for an average of 14 years) classified them into a high risk genetic group. They were found to have 4.7% cells with chromosomal aberrations as compared with 1.5% such cells in the control group. The said difference had a high statistical significance (p<0.001). Only aberrations of the structural type were evaluated.The mitotic activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in the study group was also adversely affected (MI=1.8) compared with the control group (MI=2.9). Cytogenetic peripheral lymphocyte analysis used as a collective biological exposure test is being considered for incorporation in the system of preventive medical chec-kups of nurses working in radiotherapy/oncology wards. (author)

  17. Therapeutic Results of Radiotherapy in Rectal Carcinoma -Comparison of Sandwich Technique Radiotherapy with Postoperative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Gil Cha; Suh, Hyun Suk; Lee, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Re Hwe; Kim, Chul Soo; Kim, Hong Yong; Kim, Sung Rok

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the potential advantage for 'sandwich' technique radiotherapy compared to postoperative radiotherapy in respectable rectal cancer. Between January 1989 and May 1994, 60 patients with respectable rectal cancer were treated at Inje University Seoul and Sanggye Paik Hospital.Fifty one patients were available for analysis : 20 patients were treated with sandwich technique radiotherapy and 31 patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. In sandwich technique radiotherapy(RT), patients were treated with preoperative RT 1500 cGy/5fx followed by immediate curative resection. Patients staged as Astler-Coller B2, C were considered for postoperative RT with 2500-4500 cGy. In postoperative RT, total radiation dose of 4500-6120 cGy, 180 cGy daily at 4-6 weeks was delivered. Patients were followed for median period of 25 months. Results : The overall 5-year survival rates for sandwich technique RT group and postoperative RT group were 60% and 71%, respectively(p>0.05). The 5-year disease free survival rates for each group were 63%. There was no difference in local failure rate between two groups(11% versus 7%). Incidence of distant metastasis was 11%(2/20) in the sandwich technique RT group and 20%(6/31) in the postoperative RT group(p>0.05). The frequencies of acute and chronic complications were comparable in both groups. Conclusion : The sandwich technique radiotherapy group shows local recurrence and survival similar to those of postoperative RT alone group but reduced distant metastasis compared to postoperative RT group. But long term follow-up and large number of patients is needed to make an any firm conclusion regarding the value of this sandwich technique RT

  18. Biological aspects of radiation in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzerke, J.; Universitaetsklinikum Dresden; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.; Oehme, L.; Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy with unsealed radionuclides differs from external radiotherapy with regard to the radiation quality and energy range, the regional dose uniformity and the time course of irradiation regimen. External radiotherapy is planned precisely and can be applied to a target volume independently from blood flow during a course of irradiation fractions. In contrary, administered radiopharmaceuticals distribute according to their pharmacokinetic properties and generate a continuous irradiation corresponding to the effective halflife. The resulting dose rates are approximately 1 Gy/min and 1 Gy/h, respectively. The bio-kinetics of radiopharmaceuticals involves cellular accumulation and retention with highly variable affinity to specific organs that can be modulated as well. A remarkable dose gradient is found at the edge of volumes with enhanced uptake. The biological effect of an irradiation with decreasing intensity can be compared with the radiation effect caused by conventional fractionation with 2 Gy a day in external beam therapy by means of the linear-quadratic model. However, the experimental validation of this translation is still under investigation. Radionuclide therapy is usually performed in several cycles some month apart. This procedure fails to meet external radiotherapy. The vision of a combined external-internal radiotherapy requires efforts for a common dosimetry approach both in vitro and in vivo with a physical and biological verification of the results. (orig.)

  19. Inclusion of molecular biotherapies with radical radiotherapy: modeling of combined modality treatment schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Bleddyn; Dale, Roger G.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The use of molecular biology based therapies concurrently with radical radiotherapy is likely to offer potential benefits, but there is relatively little use of classical radiobiology in the rationale for such applications. The biological mechanisms that govern the outcomes of radiotherapy need to be completely understood before rational application and optimization of such adjuvant biotherapies with radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Existing biomathematical models of radiotherapy can be used to explore the possible impact of biotherapies that modify tumor proliferation rates and/or radiosensitivity parameters during radiotherapy. Equations that show how to incorporate biotherapies with the linear-quadratic model of radiation cell kill are presented. Also considered are changes in tumor physiology, such as improved blood flow with enhanced delivery of biotherapy to the tumor cells and accelerated clonogen repopulation during radiotherapy. Monte Carlo random sampling methods are used to simulate these effects in heterogenous tumor populations with variation in radiosensitivities, clonogen numbers, and doubling times, as well as variations in repopulation onset rates and in vascular perfusion rates with time. Results: The time onset and duration of exposure of each type of biotherapy during radical radiotherapy can influence the predicted tumor cure probabilities in subtle ways. In general, the efficacy of biotherapies that radiosensitize will depend upon the number of radiotherapy fractions that are sensitized and the change in blood flow with time during radiotherapy. Biotherapies that control repopulation will depend not only on the duration of exposure but also, where accelerated repopulation occurs, on the time at which biotherapy is initiated during radiotherapy. From the ranges of radiobiological parameters and biotherapy efficacies assumed for exploratory examples, large changes of tumor control probability (TCP) are encountered in individual

  20. Construction of a remote radiotherapy planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Nemoto, Kenji; Takahashi, Chiaki; Takai, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shogo; Seiji, Hiromasa; Sasaki, Kazuya

    2005-01-01

    We constructed a remote radiotherapy planning system, and we examined the usefulness of and faults in our system in this study. Two identical radiotherapy planning systems, one installed at our institution and the other installed at an affiliated hospital, were used for radiotherapy planning. The two systems were connected by a wide area network (WAN), using a leased line. Beam data for the linear accelerator at the affiliated hospital were installed in the two systems. During the period from December 2001 to December 2002, 43 remote radiotherapy plans were made using this system. Data were transmitted using a file transfer protocol (FTP) software program. The 43 radiotherapy plans examined in this study consisted of 13 ordinary radiotherapy plans, 28 radiotherapy plans sent to provide assistance for medical residents, and 2 radiotherapy plans for emergency cases. There were ten minor planning changes made in radiotherapy plans sent to provide assistance for medical residents. Our remote radiotherapy planning system based on WAN using a leased line is useful for remote radiotherapy, with advantages for both radiation oncologists and medical residents. (author)

  1. Radiotherapy of chondrosarcoma of bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, A.R.; Krajbich, J.I.; Fornasier, V.L.

    1980-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of 31 cases of chondrosarcoma of bone treated by radiotherapy is presented. In comparison with other large series, our group of patients were found to have been unfavourably selected with respect to the known prognostic factors: histology site, adequacy of operative treatment, and presenting symptoms. Twelve patients with primary chondrosarcoma were radically irradiated; 6 of these 12 have been alive and well without tumor for periods ranging from three and a half to 16 years and 3 of these are alive and well for 15 years or more following radiotherapy. The other 6 patients responded or desease stabilized following radiotherapy for periods ranging from 16 months to eight years. One poorly differentiated tumor was radically irradiated and did not respond. Eleven patients were irradiated palliatively, generally with low doses of irradiation, and only 4 responded transiently for periods ranging from three to 12 months. Seven patients with mesenchymal and dedifferentiated tumors were radically irradiated. Four responded or disease stabilized, and 1 of these patients was alive and well at 3 years; 3 did not respond. Six died with distant metastasis. It is concluded that chondrosarcoma of bone is a radioresponsive tumor and the place of radiotherapy in the treatment of this disease and the reason for its being labelled a radioresistant tumor are discussed. The problems of assessing response of chondrosarcoma to therapy are also discussed. It is suggested that chemotherapy may have a role in the management of mesenchymal and dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma

  2. Genetic Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    14. Lamberts SWJ, van der Lely A-J, de Herder WW, Hofland 30. Danielson S, Kilstrup M, Barilla K, Jochimsen B, Neuhard LJ. Octreotide. N Engl J Med...Kilstrup M, Barilla K, et al: Characteriza- Cobngcysiedans xpsin,5furytieexposure, and radiotherapy increases cytotoxicity to cholangio- tion of the

  3. Palliative radiotherapy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The International Agency for Research on Cancer predicts that cancer incidence in developing countries will increase dramatically in the first two decades of this millennium. Already some 80% of cancer patients in developing countries present with incurable disease. [n many cases pain is a severe problem and palliation is needed to improve quality of life as well as extending survival. This paper will consider the physical and clinical aspects of palliative radiotherapy (PRT), choice of radiation modality, alternative approaches to imaging and therapy and cost-benefit considerations. The potential benefits of a dedicated palliative centre include lower cost and therefore more centres, enabling more patients access to regional palliative care. Whilst there is an obvious need for palliative radiotherapy, simple curative treatments could also be managed. C060 radiotherapy has important advantages in developing countries, because of the higher initial cost of a linear accelerator, as well as the need for reliable power supply and the level of skill required by linac technicians and physicists. The beam characteristics of both C060 units and low energy linacs are compared and both are found to be acceptable for palliation. The concept of telemedicine is also discussed, using mobile phones and internet communication to allow rural clinics to receive support from specialists based in the cities, to send images for remote diagnosis and remote dose planning for radiotherapy. (author)

  4. Radiotherapy in primary cerebral lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, L.; Benezery, K.; Lagrange, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Primary cerebral lymphoma is a rare disease with an unfavorable prognosis. Whole brain radiotherapy has been the standard treatment, but neither the optimal radiation fields nor optimal dose level of the regimen are as yet firmly establisheD. From this review of the literature, it seems that the whole brain must be treated, and a boost to the area of the primary site must be discussed. With regard to dose, the radiation dose-response relationship is not clearly proven. Yet, a minimum dose of 40 Gy is necessary, and the maximum dose is set at 50 Gy because of late neurological sequelae. Because of the poor prognosis of this disease and the risk of late sequelae, other avenues have been explored. Chemotherapy has been studied, seem to have a survival advantage and combinations of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, especially with high-dose methotrexate. Because primary cerebral lymphoma is an uncommon disease, randomized clinical trials that compare radiotherapy alone to chemotherapy plus radiotherapy may not be feasible. Finally, even if chemotherapy seems to have a survival advantage, the regimen of chemotherapy is still a matter of debate. (authors)

  5. Thalassaemic osteoarthropathy treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with beta thalassaemia may develop a specific osteoarthropathy involving the feet. A number of different treatments for this condition have been tried, including rest, analgesia and hypertransfusion. We report a case of a patient with thalassaemic osteoarthropathy who responded to radiotherapy after failing conventional treatment. (author)

  6. Arterial occlusive disease after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Mazeron, J.J.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Becquemin, J.P.; Blanc, I.; Lange, F.; Melliere, D.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen cases of arterial occlusion or severe narrowing following radiotherapy are studied in order to assess the possible etiological role of such therapy in arterial lesion. Surgical results are also discussed in terms of long-term efficacy. The average time of occurrence after radiotherapy was 8 years post-radiotherapy. This series includes 7 supra-aortic trunk stenoses and 7 abdominal aorta trunk stenoses. The doses received in the volumes iradiated ranged from 47 to 70 Gy with standard fractionation. Association of atherosclerotic risk factors was present in 12 patients, but stenoses were usually confined to irradiated areas, and at imes occurred in uncommon sites. Surgical management included 11 by-passes, 2 endarterectomies and one percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. All patients experienced immediate and satisfactory functional improvements. Three patients were re-operated on because of the re-occlusion of the by-pass and graft infection. On the whole, stenoses in previously irradiated areas showed no particular difficulties for surgical treatment. It was concluded that radiotherapy seems to be a definite risk factor for arterial occlusion or narrowing, especially in association in association with atherosclerotic risk factors. (author). 45 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  7. Porphyria and radiotherapy: yet a constellation of risk?; Porphyrie und Radiotherapie: doch eine Risikokonstellation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhomberg, W. [Abt. fuer Radioonkologie, Landeskrankenhaus, Feldkirch (Austria); Offner, F.A. [Abt. fuer Pathologie, Landeskrankenhaus, Feldkirch (Austria)

    2005-06-01

    Background: little is known concerning the relation of porphyrias to radiation treatment for cancer. The recent literature does not report negative outcomes at least in single cases of breast cancer, bladder cancer or in a patient with lymphoma. Theoretically, there is a risk for radiation treatment in cases of porphyrias. Case report: two patients with porphyria are described who underwent radiotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme. Case histories, radiation treatment data and the proof of porphyria are given in detail. The patients received a concomitant radiochemotherapy with infusions of ACNU [1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)-methyl-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea] every 6 weeks. The total radiation doses at the ICRU point were 60 and 38 Gy, respectively, given in single daily fractions of 2 Gy. Results: both patients responded well as far as objective tumor regression is concerned but died early after 7 and 1.5 months following diagnosis. The first patient experienced a large brain necrosis and deterioration of her porphyria. The second patient died of cardiopulmonary insufficiency still during radiotherapy with persistent or even increased signs of porphyria. The tumor showed extensive necrosis already after 38 Gy. Conclusion: in view of annotations in the literature and this case report, caution is advised as for irradiation of brain or nervous tissues in case of porphyrias. Molecular biology data seems to support this warning to some extent. (orig.)

  8. External radiotherapy of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zierhut, Dietmar; Flentje, Michael; Adolph, Juergen; Erdmann, Johannes; Raue, Friedhelm; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate therapeutic outcome and side effects of radiotherapy in pituitary adenomas as sole or combined treatment. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 138 patients (74 male, 64 female) irradiated for pituitary adenoma from 1972 to 1991 was performed. Mean age was 49.7 years (15-80 years). Regular follow-up (in the mean 6.53 ± 3.99 years) included radiodiagnostical [computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), x-ray], endocrinological, and ophthalmological examinations. Seventy patients suffered from nonfunctional pituitary adenoma, 50 patients suffered from growth-hormone producing adenomas, 11 had prolactinomas, and 7 patients had adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) producing pituitary adenomas. In 99 patients surgery was followed by radiotherapy in case of suspected remaining tumor (invasive growth of the adenoma, assessment of the surgeon, pathologic CT after surgery, persisting hormonal overproduction). Twenty-three patients were treated for recurrence of disease after surgery and 16 patients received radiation as primary treatment. Total doses from 40-60 Gy (mean: 45.5 Gy) were given with single doses of 2 Gy 4 to five times a week. Results: Tumor control was achieved in 131 patients (94.9%). In seven patients, recurrence of disease was diagnosed in the mean 2.9 years (9-98 months) after radiotherapy and salvaged by surgery. A statistically significant dose-response relationship was found in favor of doses ≥ 45 Gy. Ninety percent of the patients with hormonally active pituitary adenomas had a benefit from radiotherapy in means of complete termination (38%) or at least reduction (52%) of hormonal overproduction. Partial or complete hypopituitarism after radiotherapy developed, depending on hormonal axis, in 12 (prolactin) to 27% (follicle-stimulating hormone FSH) of patients who had not already had hypopituitarism prior to radiation. Two out of 138 patients suffered reduction of visual acuity, which was, in part

  9. Radiotherapy treatments using Tsallis entropy statistical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Pérez D; Sotolongo-Grau O; Sotolongo-Costa O; Antoranz J C

    2014-01-01

    Several radiobiological models mimic the biologic effect of one single radiation dose on a living tissue. However, the actual fractionated radiotherapy requires accounting for a new magnitude, i.e., time. Here, we explore the biological consequences posed by the mathematical prolongation of a previous single radiation model to fractionated treatment. The survival fraction is obtained, together with the equivalent physical dose, in terms of a time dependent factor (similar to a repair coefficient) describing the tissue trend to recovering its radioresistance. The model describes how dose fractions add up to obtain the equivalent dose and how the repair coefficient poses a limit to reach an equivalent dose equal to the critical one that would completely annihilate the tumor. On the other hand, the surrounding healthy tissue is a limiting factor to treatment planning. This tissue has its own repair coefficient and thus should limit the equivalent dose of a treatment. Depending on the repair coefficient and the critical dose of each tissue, unexpected results (failure to fully remove the tumor) can be obtained. To illustrate these results and predictions, some realistic example calculations will be performed using parameter values within actual clinical ranges. In conclusion, the model warns about treatment limitations and proposes ways to overcome them

  10. Stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy: Dose prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlienger, M.; Lartigau, E.; Nataf, F.; Mornex, F.; Latorzeff, I.; Lisbona, A.; Mahe, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was the study of the successive steps permitting the prescription of dose in stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy, which includes radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy. The successive steps studied are: the choice of stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy among the therapeutic options, based on curative or palliative treatment intent, then the selection of lesions according to size/volume, pathological type and their number permitting the choice between radiosurgery or fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, which have the same methodological basis. Clinical experience has determined the level of dose to treat the lesions and limit the irradiation of healthy adjacent tissues and organs at risk structures. The last step is the optimization of the different parameters to obtain a safe compromise between the lesion dose and healthy adjacent structures. Study of dose-volume histograms, coverage indices and 3D imaging permit the optimization of irradiation. For lesions close to or included in a critical area, the prescribed dose is planned using the inverse planing method. Implementation of the successively described steps is mandatory to insure the prescription of an optimized dose. The whole procedure is based on the delineation of the lesion and adjacent healthy tissues. There are sometimes difficulties to assess the delineation and the volume of the target, however improvement of local control rates and reduction of secondary effects are the proof that the totality of the successive procedures are progressively improved. In practice, stereotactic intracranial radiotherapy is a continually improved treatment method, which constantly benefits from improvements in the choice of indications, imaging, techniques of irradiation, planing/optimization methodology and irradiation technique and from data collected from prolonged follow-up. (authors)

  11. Effect of radiotherapy on immunity function of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinli; Zhu Shentao; Xu Jiuhong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In order to observe the effect of radiotherapy on immunity function of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Methods: Cellular immunity is determined by APAAP; Humoral immunity is determined by transmission method. Results: The items of cellular immunity is lower than the control after radiotherapy. These items decrease continually. The difference between before and after radiotherapy has statistic significance. Of all Humoral immunity items, IgA, IgM decreased after radiotherapy and the difference has statistic significance. Conclusions: Radiotherapy can damage patients' immunity function

  12. Radiation for skull base meningiomas: review of the literature on the approach to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Fabio Y; Chung, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Skull base meningiomas (SBM) pose unique challenges for radiotherapy as these tumors are often in close proximity to a number of critical structures and may not be surgically addressed in many cases, leaving the question about the tumor grade and expected biological behaviour. External beam radiotherapy and radiosurgery are longstanding treatments for meningioma that are typically used as upfront primary therapy, for recurrent tumors and as adjuvant therapy following surgical resection. There is controversy regarding the optimal timing and approach for radiation therapy in various clinical settings such as the role of adjuvant radiotherapy for completely resected grade 2 tumours. Despite the use of radiotherapy for many decades, the evidence to guide optimal radiation treatment is limited largely to single institution series of EBRT, SRS and particle therapy. In this article, we review the published data to clarify the role of external beam radiotherapy, proton radiotherapy and single and multi-fraction radiosurgery for SBM. We also highlight the areas of potential research and need for clinical improvement, including the growing awareness and effort to improve cognitive function in this patient population, who typically have long life expectancy following their meningioma diagnosis.

  13. Results of radiotherapy in craniopharyngiomas analysed by the linear quadratic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerkaynak, M. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Oezyar, E. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Zorlu, F. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Akyol, F.H. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey); Lale Atahan, I. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1994-12-31

    In 23 craniopharyngioma patients treated by limited surgery and external radiotherapy, the results concerning local control were analysed by linear quadratic formula. A biologically effective dose (BED) of 55 Gy, calculated with time factor and an {alpha}/{beta} value of 10 Gy, seemed to be adequate for local control. (orig.).

  14. Preparation and quality control of Ho-166 labelled compounds for radiotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kropáček, Martin; Melichar, František; Šrank, Jiří; Ventruba, Jiří; Mirzajevová, Marcela; Kraft, O.; Křížová, V.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2006), S95-S95 ISSN 1450-1147. [Congress of World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology /9./. 22.10.2006-27.10.2006, Seoul] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS100480501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : holmium * radiotherapy Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  15. Intraoperative radiotherapy - Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunderson, Leonard L.; Willett, Christopher G.; Harrison, Louis B.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Intraoperative irradiation (IORT) in its broadest sense refers to the delivery of irradiation at the time of an operation. This refresher course will discuss the use of both electrons (IOERT) and high dose rate brachytherapy (IOHDR) in conjunction with surgical exploration and resection ± external irradiation/chemotherapy. Both IORT methods have evolved with similar philosophies as an attempt to achieve higher effective doses of irradiation while dose limiting structures are surgically displaced. The rationale for each is supported by excellent local control ± survival results achieved with brachytherapy alone or as a boost to external irradiation in organ preservation efforts in traditional sites (head and neck, breast, gynecologic) wherein a boost dose could be delivered to smaller volumes than could usually be accomplished with external irradiation alone. IOERT has been a tool in modern radiotherapy in Japan since the 1960's and in the U.S. since the mid 1970's. Results from randomized and nonrandomized trials will be presented in the refresher course with major emphasis on GI sites (gastric, pancreas, colorectal) since the data is more mature. While the largest clinical experience with IOERT (± external irradiation/chemotherapy, maximal resection) has been with gastrointestinal cancers in adults, moderate experience has also been obtained with locally advanced retroperitoneal sarcomas and recurrent genitourinary and gynecologic cancers. With primary colorectal cancers that are unresectable for cure or for locally recurrent colorectal cancers, both local control and long-term survival appear to be improved with the aggressive combinations including IOERT when compared to results achieved with conventional treatment. When residual disease exists after resection of gastric cancers, IOERT ± external radiation has achieved optimistic survival results in trials in Japan, the U.S., Spain and China. With locally unresectable pancreatic cancer, an

  16. Comparison of radioimmunotherapy and external beam radiotherapy in colon cancer xenografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, R.R.; Wong, J.F.C.; Kuhn, J.A.; Beatty, B.G.; Williams, L.E.; Beatty, J.D.; Wanek, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy and external beam radiotherapy were compared in a nude mouse human colon cancer model. Radioimmunotherapy was delivered by intraperitoneal injection of 90 Y-labeled anticarcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibody (anti-CEA MAB). Single fraction external beam radiotherapy was delivered using a 60 Co teletherapy unit. Control groups received saline, unlabeled anit-CEA monoclonal antibody and labeled nonspecific monoclonal antibody. Tumor growth suppression was expressed as delay to reach 2g compared to saline controls. Unlabeled anti-CEA monoclonal antibody and labeled nonspecific monoclonal antibody had no effect. External beam radiotherapy of 300, 600, 1000 and 2000 cGy produced growth delays of 3, 12, 17, and 22 days, respectively. Radioimmunotherapy with 120 μCi, 175 μCi, and 225 μCi resulted in growth delays of 20, 34, and 36 days. Estimated absorbed tumor dose was 1750 cGy in the 120 μCi group. Similar comparisons were done with the more radioresistant WiDr human colon carcinoma cell line. External beam radiotherapy doses of 400, 800, 1200, and 1600 cGy resulted in growth delays of 6, 21, 36 and 48 days, respectively. Radioimmunotherapy of 120 μCi and 175 μCi resulted in growth delays of 9 and 19 days, respectively. The 120 μCi dose delivered an estimated absorbed tumor dose of 1080 cGy to WiDr tumors. In summary, for the radiosensitive LS174T line, radioimmunotherapy produced biologic effects that were comparable to a similar dose of single fraction external beam radiotherapy. For the more radioresistant WiDr tumor, radioimmunotherapy produced a biologic effect which was less than a similar dose of single fraction external beam radiotherapy. These studies suggest that a tumor's response to radioimmunotherapy relative to that of external beam radiotherapy is, in part, dependent on tumor radiosensitivity and repair capacity. 23 refs., 5 figs. 4 tabs

  17. DEGRO 2009. Radiation oncology - medical physics - radiation biology. Abstracts; DEGRO 2009. Radioonkologie - Medizinische Physik - Strahlenbiologie. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    The special volume of the journal covers the abstracts of the DEGRO 2009 meeting on radiation oncology, medical physics, and radiation biology, covering the following topics: seldom diseases, gastrointestinal tumors, radiation reactions and radiation protection, medical care and science, central nervous system, medical physics, the non-parvicellular lung carcinomas, ear-nose-and throat, target-oriented radiotherapy plus ''X'', radio-oncology - young academics, lymphomas, mammary glands, modern radiotherapy, life quality and palliative radiotherapy, radiotherapy of the prostate carcinoma, imaging for planning and therapy, the digital documentation in clinics and practical experiences, NMR imaging and tomography, hadrons - actual status in Germany, urinal tract oncology, radiotoxicity.

  18. How to use PET/CT in the evaluation of response to radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decazes, Pierre; Thureau, Sébastien; Dubray, Bernard; Vera, Pierre

    2017-11-28

    Radiotherapy is a major treatment modality for many cancers. Tumor response after radiotherapy determines the subsequent steps of the patient's management (surveillance, adjuvant or salvage treatment and palliative care). Tumor response assessed during radiotherapy offers a promising opportunity to adapt the treatment plan to reduced / increased target volume, to specifically target sub-volumes with relevant biological characteristics (metabolism, hypoxia, proliferation ...) and to further spare the organs at risk. In addition to its role in the diagnosis and the initial staging, Positron Emission Tomography combined with a Computed Tomography (PET/CT) provides functional information and is therefore attractive to evaluate tumor response. To review the published data addressing PET/CT as an evaluation tool in irradiated tumors. Reports on PET/CT acquired at various times (during radiotherapy, after initial (chemo-)radiotherapy, after definitive radiotherapy and during posttreatment follow-up) in solid tumors (lung, head-and-neck, cervix, esophagus, prostate and rectum) were collected and reviewed. Various tracers and technical are also discussed. 18F-FDG PET/CT has a well-established role in clinical routine after definitive chemo-radiotherapy for locally advanced head-and-neck cancers. 18F-choline PET/CT is indicated in prostate cancer patients with biochemical failure. 18F-FDG PET/CT is optional in many others circumstances and the clinical benefits of assessing tumor response with PET/CT remain a field of very active research. The combination of PET with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PET/MRI) may prove to be valuable in irradiated rectal and cervix cancers. Tumor response can be evaluated by PET/CT with clinical consequences in multiple situations, notably in head and neck and prostate cancers, after radiotherapy. Further clinical evaluation for most cancers is still needed, possibly in association to MRI.

  19. National arrangements for radiotherapy; Mesures nationales pour la radiotherapie. Travail collectif des missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    After a presentation of several letters exchanged between the French health ministry and public agencies in charge of public health or nuclear safety after a radiotherapy accident in Epinal, this report comments the evolution of needs in cancerology care and the place given to radiotherapy. It outlines the technological and organisational evolution of radiotherapy and presents the distribution of radiotherapy equipment, of radio-therapists and other radiotherapy professionals in France. Within the context of radiotherapy accidents which occurred in 2007, it presents the regulatory arrangements which aimed at improving the safety, short term and middle term arrangements which are needed to support and structure radiotherapy practice quality. It stresses the fact that the system will deeply evolve by implementing a radiotherapy vigilance arrangement and a permanent follow-on and adaptation plan based on surveys and the creation of a national committee.

  20. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  1. Adipose derived stem cells in radiotherapy injury: a new frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipi eShukla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is increasingly used to treat numerous human malignancies. In addition to the beneficial anti-cancer effects, there are a series of undesirable effects on normal host tissues surrounding the target tumour. Whilst the early effects of radiotherapy (desquamation, erythema and hair loss typically resolve, the chronic effects persist as unpredictable and often troublesome sequelae of cancer treatment, long after oncological treatment has been completed. Plastic surgeons are often called upon to treat the problems subsequently arising in irradiated tissues, such as recurrent infection, impaired healing, fibrosis, contracture and/or lymphoedema. Recently, it was anecdotally noted - then validated in more robust animal and human studies - that fat grafting can ameliorate some of these chronic tissue effects. Despite the widespread usage of fat grafting, the mechanism of its action remains poorly understood. This review provides an overview of the current understanding of (i mechanisms of chronic radiation injury and its clinical manifestations; (ii biological properties of fat grafts and their key constituent, Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs; (iii the role of ADSCs in radiotherapy-induced soft-tissue injury.

  2. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Jonathan [Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Small, William [Loyola Univ. Chicago, Maywood, IL (United States). Stritch School of Medicine, Cardianl Bernardin Cancer Center; Woloschak, Gayle E. (ed.) [Northwestern Univ. Feinberg, Chicago, IL (United States). School of Medicine

    2015-10-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  3. Breast cancer biology for the radiation oncologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Jonathan; Small, William; Woloschak, Gayle E.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first textbook of its kind devoted to describing the biological complexities of breast cancer in a way that is relevant to the radiation oncologist. Radiation Oncology has long treated breast cancer as a single biological entity, with all treatment decisions being based on clinical and pathologic risk factors. We are now beginning to understand that biological subtypes of breast cancer may have different risks of recurrence as well as different intrinsic sensitivity to radiotherapy. Multi-gene arrays that have for years been used to predict the risk of distant recurrence and the value of systemic chemotherapy may also have utility in predicting the risk of local recurrence. Additionally, the targeted agents used to treat breast cancer may interact with radiotherapy in ways that can be beneficial or undesirable. All of these emerging issues are extensively discussed in this book, and practical evidence-based treatment recommendations are presented whenever possible.

  4. The situation of radiotherapy in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    Published within the frame of the French 2009-2013 cancer plan, this report proposes an analysis of the situation of radiotherapy in France. More particularly, it analyses the French offer in terms of radiotherapy treatments and the French position in Europe. A second part analyses equipment (accelerators and other equipment) and techniques aimed at radiotherapy treatment preparation and delivery. The following techniques are addressed: three-dimensional conformational, intensity modulation, intracranial and extracranial stereotactic, image-guided, total body irradiation, hadron-therapy, and peri-operative radiotherapy. The last parts analyse the activity of radiotherapy centres in terms of treated patients, of patient age structure, of sessions and preparations, and of treated pathologies, the medical and paramedical personnel in charge of radiotherapy, and financial and cost aspects

  5. Psychosocial effects of radiotherapy after mastectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughson, A.V.M.; Cooper, A.F.; Smith, D.C.; McArdle, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    Psychosocial morbidity was measured in 47 patients who received postoperative radiotherapy and in 38 who received no further treatment after mastectomy. Roughly one third of all patients experienced depression or anxiety. One month after operation, before radiotherapy, there were no significant differences between the two groups in any of the measures of psychosocial morbidity. Knowledge of impending treatment did not seem to influence morbidity. At three months patients who had completed radiotherapy had significantly more somatic symptoms and social dysfunction than those not so treated. At six months the radiotherapy group continued to show more somatic symptoms, but a year after operation there were no significant differences between the groups. Although several patients who received radiotherapy were upset by their treatment, the study failed to confirm that depression and anxiety were commoner among those given radiotherapy than among patients given no further treatment. (author)

  6. Effects of radiotherapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochtrop, Thomas Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Palliative irradiation of osteolytic lesions is a considerable component in the treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of irradiation in these patients. Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients with multiple myeloma who were admitted to our department between 1989 and 2013. According to the staging system of Durie and Salmon 116 patients were classified as stage III. 107/153 patients were treated with radiotherapy of at least one and up to 6 bony lesions at different times. In order to evaluate the effect of local radiotherapy on pain relief and bone recalcification a uni- and multivariate analysis was performed using a binary logistic regression model to correct for multiple measurements. Complete information on dose, fractionation and volume of radiotherapy was available from 81 patients treated in 136 target volumes for pain relief, and from 69 patients treated in 108 target volumes for recalcification. Total radiation doses varied between 8 Gy to 50 Gy (median dose 25 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions, 5 times a week). Results: Radiotherapy resulted in complete local pain relief in 31% and partial local pain relief in 54% of the patients. In the univariate analysis, higher total radiation doses (p = 0.023) and higher age (p = 0.014) at the time of radiotherapy were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of pain relief, whereas no significant association was detected for concurrent systemic treatment, type and stage of myeloma and location of bone lesions. The same variables were independent predictors for pain relief in the multivariate analysis. Recalcification was observed in 48% of irradiated bone lesions. In the uni- and multivariate analysis higher radiation doses were significantly associated (p = 0.048) with an increased likelihood of recalcification. Side effects of radiotherapy were generally mild. Conclusions: Higher total biological radiation doses were associated with better pain

  7. Gel dosimetry for conformal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambarini, G [Department of Physics of the University and INFN, Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    With the continuum development of conformal radio therapies, aimed at delivering high dose to tumor tissue and low dose to the healthy tissue around, the necessities has appeared of suitable improvement of dosimetry techniques giving the possibility of obtaining dose images to be compared with diagnostic images. Also if wide software has been developed for calculating dose distributions in the fields of various radiotherapy units, experimental verifications are necessary, in particular in the case of complex geometries in conformal radiotherapy. Gel dosimetry is a promising method for imaging the absorbed dose in tissue-equivalent phantoms, with the possibility of 3D reconstruction of the spatial dose distribution, with milli metric resolution. Optical imaging of gel dosimeters, based on visible light absorbance analysis, has shown to be a reliable technique for achieving dose distributions. (Author)

  8. Conformal radiotherapy: principles and classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenwald, J.C.; Gaboriaud, G.; Pontvert, D.

    1999-01-01

    'Conformal radiotherapy' is the name fixed by usage and given to a new form of radiotherapy resulting from the technological improvements observed during the last ten years. While this terminology is now widely used, no precise definition can be found in the literature. Conformal radiotherapy refers to an approach in which the dose distribution is more closely 'conformed' or adapted to the actual shape of the target volume. However, the achievement of a consensus on a more specific definition is hampered by various difficulties, namely in characterizing the degree of 'conformality'. We have therefore suggested a classification scheme be established on the basis of the tools and the procedures actually used for all steps of the process, i.e., from prescription to treatment completion. Our classification consists of four levels: schematically, at level 0, there is no conformation (rectangular fields); at level 1, a simple conformation takes place, on the basis of conventional 2D imaging; at level 2, a 3D reconstruction of the structures is used for a more accurate conformation; and level 3 includes research and advanced dynamic techniques. We have used our personal experience, contacts with colleagues and data from the literature to analyze all the steps of the planning process, and to define the tools and procedures relevant to a given level. The corresponding tables have been discussed and approved at the European level within the Dynarad concerted action. It is proposed that the term 'conformal radiotherapy' be restricted to procedures where all steps are at least at level 2. (author)

  9. Radiotherapy Proton Interactions in Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Gottschalk, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    A survey of physics useful to proton radiotherapy, centered on stopping, scattering and hard scatters: 1. Introduction 2. The fundamental formula dose = fluence x mass stopping power. Practical units, comments on effective stopping power. 3. Range: experimental definition, Beth-Bloch CSDA theory, range-energy tables and approximations, range straggling. 4. Multiple Coulomb Scattering: suggested reading, elements of Moliere theory, the Gaussian approximation, scattering power. 5. Hard scatters...

  10. Breast post-radiotherapy angiosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, O.; Ocampo, P.; Repetto, M.; Schulz, D.; Rompato, S.; Batagelj, E.; Spadavecchia, G.

    2007-01-01

    Breast angiosarcoma after radiotherapy represents a rare pathology that have been increasing in the recent years because of the tendency to treat breast cancer with conservative therapeutic treatments. The forecast depends on the histological degree being the majority of high degree, with frequent lymphatic and local recurrences plus distance metastasis. The selected treatment is the mastectomy and also should be considered the adjuvant chemotherapy [es

  11. Fingerprints identification of radiotherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lartigau, E.F.; Forrest, M.; Audebaud, S.; Dewitte, A.; Giscard, S.; Leclercq, B.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of patient plays a key role in the quality and safety of radiotherapy. It does impact on all professional staff and on patients. After the regulatory authority approval (Cnil), a pilot study has been performed on 1901 patients. Acceptance has been very high (> 93%) with a low risk of mis-identification (< 0.1%). The next step will be to implement and test a bimodal system in order to improve registration capacity and sensitivity. (authors)

  12. Ptanning radiotherapy of brain neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    It is emphasized that radiotherapy planing of neuro-oncologicai patients secures maximum optimization of radiation treatment. The planning involves preparation of anatomical profile diagrams of patient's head with plotted focal contrours; choise of ionizinq radiation type, directions of the working beam and dimensions and number of irradiation fields; choise of single dose vaiues and detemination of optimat distribution of integarl does in time; determination of focal projection on head surface of patients

  13. Digital linear accelerator: The advantages for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andric, S.; Maksimovic, M.; Dekic, M.; Clark, T.

    1998-01-01

    Technical performances of Digital Linear Accelerator were presented to point out its advantages for clinical radiotherapy treatment. The accelerator installation is earned out at Military Medical Academy, Radiotherapy Department, by Medes and Elekta companies. The unit offers many technical advantages with possibility of introduction new conformal treatment techniques as stereotactic radiosurgery, total body and total skin irradiation. In the paper are underlined advantages in relation to running conventional accelerator units at Yugoslav radiotherapy departments, both from technical and medical point of view. (author)

  14. Experiment on radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhut'ko, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The results of radiotherapy of postnatal mastitis in 78 women are presented. It is shown that the radiotherapy is the method of choice. Application of radiotherapy at different stages of disease promotes either complete resolution of infiltration (1-2 irradiations) or stipulates the decrease in temperature, abatement of pains and improvement of general state (at the presence of purulent fusion of mammary tissue). X-ray therapy of postnatal mastitis has does not affect the lactational function of mammary gland

  15. Natural history of intracranial meningioma after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio

    1999-01-01

    The author examined the natural history of intracranial meningioma after radiotherapy using CT or MR imaging. Twenty patients with intracranial meningioma received radiotherapy from a high-energy linear accelerator (4-10 MV X rays) from 1980 to 1996. The total doses were 50 Gy to the tumor bed in single doses of 2 Gy in 5 weekly fractions. Meningiomas in 10 of 20 patients were reduced within 1 to 38 months after radiotherapy, the average being 11 months. The tumors were controlled for a median of 60 months after radiotherapy (range 19-126 months). Four other patients have shown no change in tumor size after radiotherapy. The tumors were controlled for a median of 70 months after radiotherapy (range 37-127 months). The other six patients have shown tumor growth within 3 to 25 months after radiotherapy, after which the tumors stopped growing for a median of 71 months (range 2-181 months). Neither tumor size nor histological type was related to response. The growth of tumors was controlled by radiotherapy for a median duration of 43 months in the meningothelial type, 52 months in the fibroblastic type, and 61 months in the transitional type. The median duration for all benign tumors was 52 months. A moderate correlation was noted between tumor response and functional outcome after radiotherapy in 9 patients with neurological deficits. The natural histories of intracranial meningiomas after radiotherapy were grouped into three categories. Some tumors showed no change in size over a long period. This was a characteristic response after radiotherapy that differed from that of other brain tumors. The results of this study provide important information for the follow-up of intracranial meningiomas after radiotherapy. (author)

  16. Malignant astrocytoma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menon G

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiation induced gliomas are uncommon. Occurrence of glioma following radiotherapy for craniopharyngiomas is extremely uncommon and only eight case reports have been so far published. We present our experience with one similar case of temporal gliomas occurring twelve years following radiotherapy for a sub totally excised craniopharyngioma. Although the exact mechanism of gliomas formation is unclear, their occurrence following conventional radiotherapy is a distinct possibility and signifies a poor prognosis.

  17. Risk-adapted targeted intraoperative radiotherapy versus whole-breast radiotherapy for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaidya, Jayant S; Wenz, Frederik; Bulsara, Max

    2014-01-01

    The TARGIT-A trial compared risk-adapted radiotherapy using single-dose targeted intraoperative radiotherapy (TARGIT) versus fractionated external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for breast cancer. We report 5-year results for local recurrence and the first analysis of overall survival....

  18. Radiotherapy in digestive tumours in elderly patients; Radiotherapie dans les tumeurs digestives chez le patient age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillerme, F.; Clavier, J.B.; Nehme-Schuster, H.; Schumacher, C.; Noel, G. [Centre de lutte contre le cancer Paul-Strauss, Strasbourg (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors comment the taking into care of a digestive cancer in the case of elderly patient. These patients are treated by radiotherapy, operative radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy, or pre-operative radiotherapy, depending on the age, on the cancer type, with an adaptation of the total dose or with a hypo-fractionation of the treatment. Short communication

  19. Stereotactic radiotherapy in oligometastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Thomas A C; Corkum, Mark T; Louie, Alexander V

    2017-09-01

    Oligometastatic cancer describes a disease state somewhere between localized and metastatic cancer. Proposed definitions of oligometastatic disease have typically used a cut-off of five or fewer sites of disease. Treatment of oligometastatic disease should have the goal of long-term local control, and in selected cases, disease remission. While several retrospective cohorts argue for surgical excision of limited metastases (metastasectomy) as the preferred treatment option for several clinical indications, limited randomized data exists for treating oligometastases. Alternatively, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) is a radiotherapy technique that combines high radiation doses per fraction with precision targeting with the goal of achieving long-term local control of treated sites. Published cohort studies of SABR have demonstrated excellent local control rates of 70-90% in oligometastatic disease, with long-term survival in some series approaching 20-40%. A recent randomized phase 2 clinical trial by Gomez et al. demonstrated significantly improved progression free survival with aggressive consolidative therapy (surgery, radiotherapy ± chemotherapy or SABR) in oli-gometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). As additional randomized controlled trials are ongoing to determine the efficacy of SABR in oligometastatic disease, SABR is increasingly being used within routine clinical practice. This review article aims to sum-marize the history and current paradigm of the oligometastatic state, review recently pub-lished literature of SABR in oligometastatic cancer and discuss ongoing trials and future directions in this context.

  20. Extracranial radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Georges; Moty-Monnereau, Celine; Meyer, Aurelia; David, Pauline; Pages, Frederique; Muller, Felix; Lee-Robin, Sun Hae; David, Denis Jean

    2006-12-01

    This document reports a literature survey and the discussion of an expert group with the objective to assess the use of extracranial radiotherapy devices in stereotaxic conditions. After a brief overview of the technological context, the authors proposes a technical description of radiotherapy in stereotaxic conditions, of the CyberKnife, of others radiotherapy techniques in stereotaxic conditions for extracranial indications, and of alternate techniques. They give an overview of concerned pathologies: skeleton, hepatic, bronchopulmonary, pancreas, prostate, kidney, and paediatric tumours. They describe the present care condition in France in terms of classification of medial acts, and of patient homogeneous groups. They provide the identification of this practice in foreign nomenclature. In the next part, they report the assessment, first through a critical analysis of published data and information in terms of act feasibility, efficiency and safety, of act role in the therapeutic strategy, of conditions of execution, and of impact on public health, and secondly through a statement of opinion of the working group in terms of terminology, indications, safety, and conditions of execution

  1. [Head and neck adaptive radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, P; Huger, S; Kirby, N; Pouliot, J

    2013-10-01

    Onboard volumetric imaging systems can provide accurate data of the patient's anatomy during a course of head and neck radiotherapy making it possible to assess the actual delivered dose and to evaluate the dosimetric impact of complex daily positioning variations and gradual anatomic changes such as geometric variations of tumors and normal tissues or shrinkage of external contours. Adaptive radiotherapy is defined as the correction of a patient's treatment planning to adapt for individual variations observed during treatment. Strategies are developed to selectively identify patients that require replanning because of an intolerable dosimetric drift. Automated tools are designed to limit time consumption. Deformable image registration algorithms are the cornerstones of these strategies, but a better understanding of their limits of validity is required before adaptive radiotherapy can be safely introduced to daily practice. Moreover, strict evaluation of the clinical benefits is yet to be proven. Copyright © 2013 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegazy, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Role of Radiotherapy is treatment modalities for cancer which is generally assumed that 50 to 60% of cancer patients will benefit from radiotherapy. It constitutes a peaceful application of ionizing radiation and an essential part of cancer management. The two aims of radiation protection Prevention is of deterministic effect and Reduction of the probability of stochastic effects. The Shielding fundamentals is to limit radiation exposure of staff, patients, visitors and the public to acceptable levels it also optimize protection of patients, staff and the public. Diagnosis is important for target design and the dose required for cure or palliation while Simulator is often used twice in the radiotherapy process where Patient data acquisition - target localization, contours, outlines and Verification. The Prescription is the responsibility of individual clinicians, depending on the patient’s condition, equipment available, experience and training. An ultimate check of the actual treatment given can only be made by using in vivo dosimetry. Treatment records must be kept of all relevant aspects of the treatment – including Session and Summary Record information, Records all treatment parameters, Dose Calculations and Dose Measurements

  3. The role of radiotherapy in hospice care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tetsuo; Sugiyama, Akira; Shimizu, Teppei; Ichinohe, Kenji; Teshima, Takeshi; Kaneko, Masao; Hara, Yoshio; Chihara, Satoshi.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of palliative radiotherapy for the terminally ill is to improve the quality of the remaining span of life. From November 1982 to September 1987, 69 patients in the Seirei Hospice have been treated with such radiotherapy, and symptomatic relief was obtained in 64% of these patients. Radiotherapy also proved useful in achieving an improvement in their performance status. While the aim of hospice care is not directed towards treatment of the underlying disease, the use of radiotherapy is considered to have an important role in hospice care. (author)

  4. Guide of external radiotherapy procedures 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This work aims at participating in the permanent optimization of the returned medical service and the ratio profit-risk. This first version of the guide of external radiotherapy procedures 2007 processes only techniques of external radiotherapy, by opposition to the techniques of brachytherapy which use radioactive sources (iridium 192 , iodine 125 , cesium 137 ) placed in the contact of the tumor to be irradiated. Only, also, will be considered the irradiations of the most frequent cunning(malignant) tumors with the exception of the radiotherapy of the mild pathologies and the re-irradiations after a first radiotherapy. The first part is shared in eight chapters as follow: introduction, the steps of a treatment by radiotherapy, infrastructure, equipment and human resources, radiobiology mechanism of action of ionising radiations in radiotherapy, dose in radiotherapy, quality of treatment and radiation protection of patients in radiotherapy, prevention and risk management in radiotherapy, quality assurance and radiation protection for the pediatrics cancers and the case of pregnant women. The second part gives the tumoral localizations and the procedures; the third part is a glossary and different annexes such regulations and legislative texts. (N.C.)

  5. Otologic disorders following radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Motoyoshi, Kazumi; Yamada, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    Radiotherapy is widely accepted as the first choice for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Delayed otitis of both external and middle ears is sometimes seen as a complication after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, especially for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. They are usually hard to manage and some produces cochlear damages, finally resulting in a sensorineural hearing loss. However, these otologic disorders are tends to be overlooked, because physicians pay less attention to them than the concerning for cancer recurrence. Therefore, studies on the otologic disorders following radiotherapy are lacking. In this study, we analyzed 24 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cases retrospectively to clarify the incidence of otologic disorders induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Targeting IAP proteins in combination with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fulda, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of radiotherapy critically depends on the activation of intrinsic cell death programs in cancer cells. This implies that evasion of cell death, a hallmark of human cancers, can contribute to radioresistance. Therefore, novel strategies to reactivate cell death programs in cancer cells are required in order to overcome resistance to radiotherapy. Since Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins are expressed at high levels in multiple cancers and block cell death induction at a central point, therapeutic targeting of IAP proteins represents a promising approach to potentiate the efficacy of radiotherapy. The current review discusses the concept of targeting IAP proteins in combination with radiotherapy

  7. Adjuvant and Definitive Radiotherapy for Adrenocortical Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolch, Aaron; Feng, Mary; Griffith, Kent; Hammer, Gary; Doherty, Gerard; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of both adjuvant and definitive radiotherapy on local control of adrenocortical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed from 58 patients with 64 instances of treatment for adrenocortical carcinoma at the University of Michigan's Multidisciplinary Adrenal Cancer Clinic. Thirty-seven of these instances were for primary disease, whereas the remaining 27 were for recurrent disease. Thirty-eight of the treatment regimens involved surgery alone, 10 surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 definitive radiotherapy for unresectable disease. The effects of patient, tumor, and treatment factors were modeled simultaneously using multiple variable Cox proportional hazards regression for associations with local recurrence, distant recurrence, and overall survival. Results: Local failure occurred in 16 of the 38 instances that involved surgery alone, in 2 of the 10 that consisted of surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy, and in 1 instance of definitive radiotherapy. Lack of radiotherapy use was associated with 4.7 times the risk of local failure compared with treatment regimens that involved radiotherapy (95% confidence interval, 1.2-19.0; p = 0.030). Conclusions: Radiotherapy seems to significantly lower the risk of local recurrence/progression in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Adjuvant radiotherapy should be strongly considered after surgical resection.

  8. Every second cancer patient receives radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radiotherapy to treat cancer was given for the first time exactly one hundred years ago. Today, radiotherapy and surgery are the two main modes of treating cancer. One in two cancer patients receives radiotherapy at some point during the course of treatment for the disease. Radiotherapy is applied most commonly in cases where surgery is not possible. Moreover, these two modes of treatment are often used together to supplement each other. About half of new cancer cases detected today can be ordered. The estimate given by the EU for cancers cured is 45 per cent, which is divided between the various treatment modes as follows: surgery 22 %, radiotherapy 12 %, surgery plus radiotherapy 6 %, and drug therapy 6 %. In addition to curative treatment, radiotherapy plays a crucial role in palliative treatment, i.e. treatment that alleviates symptoms. The sensitivity of malignant tumours to radiotherapy varies over a wide range; the same is true for healthy tissues. Radiotherapy can only be used to cure a tumour that is more sensitive to radiation than the surrounding healthy tissue. The tumour must also be sufficiently small in size and limited to a relatively small area. (orig.)

  9. Patterns of Radiotherapy Practice for Patients With Cervical Cancer (1999-2001): Patterns of Care Study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toita, Takafumi; Kodaira, Takeshi; Shinoda, Atsunori; Uno, Takashi; Akino, Yuichi; Mitsumori, Michihide; Teshima, Teruki

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the patterns of definitive radiotherapy practice for patients with uterine cervical cancer from 1999 to 2001 in Japan. Methods and Materials: The Japanese Patterns of Care Study (JPCS) working group conducted a third extramural audit survey of 68 institutions and collected specific information on 324 cervical cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy. Results: Almost all patients (96%) were treated with whole pelvic radiotherapy using opposing anteroposterior fields (87%). A midline block was used in 70% of the patients. Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) was applied in 82% of cases. Most patients (89%) were treated with high-dose rate (HDR) ICBT. Calculation of doses to organs at risk (ICRU 38) was performed for rectum in 25% of cases and for bladder in 18% of cases. Only 3% of patients were given intravenous conscious sedation during ICBT applicator insertions. The median total biologically effective dose at point A (EBRT+ICBT) was 74 Gy 10 in cases treated with HDR-ICBT. There was no significant difference in total biologically effective dose between stages. The median overall treatment time was 47 days. Concurrent chemoradiation was applied in 17% of patients. Conclusions: This study describes the general patterns of radiotherapy practice for uterine cervical cancer in Japan. Although methods of external radiotherapy seemed to be appropriate, there was room for improvement in ICBT practice, such as pretreatment. A substantial difference in total radiotherapy dose between Japan and the United States was observed

  10. Treatment outcome in patients with vulvar cancer: comparison of concurrent radiotherapy to postoperative radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ja Young; Kim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Ki Won; Park, Dong Choon; Yoon, Joo Hee; Yoon, Sei Chul [St. Vincent' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mina [St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    To evaluate outcome and morbidity in patients with vulvar cancer treated with radiotherapy, concurrent chemoradiotherapy or postoperative radiotherapy. The records of 24 patients treated with radiotherapy for vulvar cancer between July 1993 and September 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients received once daily 1.8-4 Gy fractions external beam radiotherapy to median 51.2 Gy (range, 19.8 to 81.6 Gy) on pelvis and inguinal nodes. Seven patients were treated with primary concurrent chemoradiotherapy, one patient was treated with primary radiotherapy alone, four patients received palliative radiotherapy, and twelve patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. Twenty patients were eligible for response evaluation. Response rate was 55% (11/20). The 5-year disease free survival was 42.2% and 5-year overall survival was 46.2%, respectively. Fifty percent (12/24) experienced with acute skin complications of grade III or more during radiotherapy. Late complications were found in 8 patients. 50% (6/12) of patients treated with lymph node dissection experienced severe late complications. One patient died of sepsis from lymphedema. However, only 16.6% (2/12) of patients treated with primary radiotherapy developed late complications. Outcome of patients with vulvar cancer treated with radiotherapy showed relatively good local control and low recurrence. Severe late toxicities remained higher in patients treated with both node dissection and radiotherapy.

  11. An investigation of anxiety about radiotherapy deploying the radiotherapy categorical anxiety scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimotsu, Sakie; Karasawa, Kumiko; Ito, Kana; Saito, Anneyuko I.; Izawa, Hiromi; Kawase, Eri; Horikawa, Naoshi

    2010-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the major methods for treating cancer, but many patients undergoing radiotherapy have deep concerns about receiving radiation treatment. This problem is not generally appreciated and has not been adequately studied. The objective of this investigation was to empirically investigate the anxieties that cancer patients feel towards radiotherapy by using questionnaires to classify and quantitatively measure their concerns. A preliminary interview to develop a questionnaire was carried out with 48 patients receiving radiotherapy to discover their anxieties about on-going treatments. Subsequently, a main study was performed using a questionnaire with 185 patients to classify their types of anxiety and to ascertain the reliability and validity of the responses. Confirmatory factor analysis was then carried out with a 17-item Radiotherapy Categorical Anxiety Scale. Three anxiety factors were abstracted by factor analysis: adverse effects of radiotherapy, environment of radiotherapy, and treatment effects of radiotherapy. Reliability, content validity, and concurrent validity were obtained. The adequacy of the three-factor model of anxiety concerning radiotherapy was confirmed. A 17-item Radiotherapy Categorical Anxiety Scale was formulated to quantitatively measure the specific types of anxiety among cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. (author)

  12. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET in definition of target volumes and radiotherapy treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Wenli; Zhao Jinhua

    2007-01-01

    PET is a functional imaging modality, which can give some biological information of tumor. PET is more and more important in the definition of target volumes and radiotherapy treatment planning. Depending on its sensitivity and specificity, 18 F-fluorideoxyglucose 18 F-FDG PET has been shown to influence the selection of target volumes and radiotherapy treatment planning for non-small cell lung cancers, for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas or for esophageal tumors. On the other hand, for tumors such as rectal carcinomas, convincing data on the value of 18 F-FDG PET for target volume selection are still lacking. However, the application of 18 F-FDG PET in many aspects of radiotherapy is still controversy. Further researches in its clinical application are still needed to investigate whether 18 F-FDG PET for treatment planning should be routine because of the lack of prospective studies. (authors)

  13. Intra-operative radiotherapy of malignant tumors: Past, present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazeron, J.J.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Ganem, G.

    1986-01-01

    Intra-operative radiotherapy consists of electron or photon radiation which is used during the operative procedure. The treatment field is arranged very precisely after critical organs have been previously arranged out of the field. The target volume includes the remaining tumor which could not be removed surgically, and the surrounding tumor bed which is also felt to be high risk for recurrence. It is preferable to have as little tumor remaining as possible before the intra-operative treatment radiation is given. Intra-operative radiotherapy was developed less than a quarter century ago in Japon, and it was later used in U.S.A. The accumulated experience in Japan and U.S.A. is rewieved here. Intra-operative radiotherapy has only recently been introduced to France. The biology, physics and medical and technical problems of intra-operative therapy are discussed [fr

  14. Radiotherapy and Brachytherapy : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of Modern Radiotherapy & Brachytherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2009-01-01

    This volume collects a series of lectures presented at the tenth ESI School held at Archamps (FR) in November 2007 and dedicated to radiotherapy and brachytherapy. The lectures focus on the multiple facets of radiotherapy in general, including external radiotherapy (often called teletherapy) as well as internal radiotherapy (called brachytherapy). Radiotherapy strategy and dose management as well as the decisive role of digital imaging in the associated clinical practice are developed in several articles. Grouped under the discipline of Conformal Radiotherapy (CRT), numerous modern techniques, from Multi-Leaf Collimators (MLC) to Intensity Modulated RadioTherapy (IMRT), are explained in detail. The importance of treatment planning based upon patient data from digital imaging (Computed Tomography) is also underlined. Finally, despite the quasi- totality of patients being presently treated with gamma and X-rays, novel powerful tools are emerging using proton and light ions (like carbon ions) beams, bound to bec...

  15. Radiotherapy for locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as the initial treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Hachiya, Kae; Okada, Sunaho; Kitahara, Masashi; Matsuyama, Katsuya; Matsuo, Masayuki [Gifu University, Gifu (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Although the technical developments of radiotherapy have been remarkable, there are currently few reports on the treatment results of radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as initial treatment in this three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy era. Thus, we retrospectively evaluated the treatment results of radiotherapy for local recurrence of rectal cancer treated with surgery alone as the initial treatment. Thirty-two patients who underwent radiotherapy were enrolled in this study. The dose per fraction was 2.0–3.5 Gy. Because the treatment schedule was variable, the biological effective dose (BED) was calculated. Local control (LC) and overall survival (OS) rates from the completion of radiotherapy were calculated. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year LC rates were 51.5%, 24.5%, 19.6%, 19.6%, and 13.1%, respectively. LC rates were significantly higher for the high BED group (≥75 Gy10) than for the lower BED group (<75 Gy10). All patients who reported pain achieved pain relief. The duration of pain relief was significantly higher for the high BED group than for the lower BED group. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year OS rates were 82.6%, 56.5%, 45.2%, 38.7%, and 23.2%, respectively. There was a trend toward higher OS rates in with higher BED group compared to lower BED group. For patients with unresectable locally recurrent rectal cancer treated with surgery alone, radiotherapy is effective treatment. The prescribed BED should be more than 75 Gy10, if the dose to the organ at risk is within acceptable levels.

  16. Evaluation of Thyroid Disorders During Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy by Using Functional Analysis and Ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakhshandeh, Mohsen [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, Bijan, E-mail: bhashemi@modares.ac.ir [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, Seyed Rabie [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nikoofar, Alireza [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hafte-Tir Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Edraki, Hamid Reza [Department of Radiology, Panzdahe-Khordad Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan [Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate thyroid function and vascular changes during radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Fifty patients treated with primary or postoperative radiotherapy for various cancers in the head and neck region were prospectively evaluated. The serum samples (triiodothyronine [T3], thyroxine [T4], thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free triiodothyronine [FT3], and free thyroxine [FT4]), the echo level of the thyroid gland, and color Doppler ultrasonography (CDU) parameters of the right inferior thyroid artery (RITA) of the patients were measured before and at regular intervals during radiotherapy. The thyroid gland dose-volume histograms of the patients were derived from their computed tomography-based treatment plans. Results: There was a significant fall in TSH level (p < 0.0001) but an increase in FT4 (p < 0.0001) and T4 (p < 0.022) levels during the radiotherapy course. The threshold dose required to produce significant changes was 12 Gy (Biologically Effective Dose in 2-Gy fractions, BED{sub 2}). There were significant rises in the patients' pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity, blood volume flow levels, and RITA diameter (p < 0.0001), as detected by CDU during radiotherapy, compared to those parameters measured before the treatment. Hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns (p < 0.0001) were seen during radiotherapy compared to those before treatment. There was significant Pearson's correlation between the CDU parameters and T4, FT4, and TSH levels. Conclusions: Radiation-induced thyroiditis is regarded as primary damage to the thyroid gland. Thyroiditis can subsequently result in hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Our results demonstrated that changes in thyroid vessels occur during radiotherapy delivered to patients. Vessel changes also can be attributed to the late effect of radiation on the thyroid gland. The hypoechogenicity and irregular echo patterns observed in patients

  17. Three dimensional conformal postoperative radiotherapy for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Postoperative radiotherapy of the parotid gland could be achieved with various radiotherapy techniques. However they irradiate differently the surrounding organs at risk (OARs) in particular the cochlea, oral cavity & contralateral parotid causing significant increase in the risk of oral mucositis, xerostomia, and ...

  18. Radiological protection of the radiotherapy patient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waligorski, M.P.R.; Lesiak, J.

    2001-01-01

    We propose that the system and concepts of radiation protection should not be used with reference to radiotherapy patients. We justify this on conceptual grounds. The patient undergoing radiotherapy procedures, as prescribed by the medical practitioner, is protected by the quality assurance system legally required for medical exposures. (author)

  19. Radioactivity helps out in Medicine. Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douis, Michel; Olombel, Andre

    1978-01-01

    Some notions on the action of radiations on tissues are followed by a review of the different radiotherapic techniques: metabolic radiotherapy, curietherapy, transcutaneous radiotherapy. The radioelements used in these various techniques are then described, together with the way in which they are conditioned (colloids, applicators, sources) [fr

  20. Different styles of image-guided radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    To account for geometric uncertainties during radiotherapy, safety margins are applied. In many cases, these margins overlap organs at risk, thereby limiting dose escalation. The aim of image-guided radiotherapy is to improve the accuracy by imaging tumors and critical structures on the machine just

  1. Reducing radiation induced emesis in abdominal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, K.

    1994-01-01

    In patients with seminoma testes, a comparison was made between radiation induced emesis suffered by patients receiving 'dogleg' radiotherapy with those suffered by patients who received para-aortic radiotherapy. The same comparisons were made between the effects suffered by those patients who received the anti-emetic, Ondansetron, and those suffered by patients who received conventional anti-emetics. (UK)

  2. Fast neutron radiotherapy: for equal or for better

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broerse, J.J.; Battermann, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The renewed application of fast neutrons in clinical radiotherapy has been stimulated by fundamental radiobiological findings. The biological effects of high LET radiation, including fast neutrons, are different from those obtained with x rays in at least three respects: the oxygen enhancement ratio, the sensitivity of cells at different phases of the cell cycle, and the contribution of sublethal damage to cell reproductive death. Furthermore, wide variations in relative biological effectiveness (RBE) have been observed for different tumors and normal tissues. Measurements of volume changes in human pulmonary metastases indicate that the RBE for slowly growing tumors which are generally well-differentiated is higher than that for poorly differentiated lesions. Six thousand patients have now been treated with fast neutron beams. The results of the clinical applications vary according to the method of application and to the type of cancer involved: treatment of inoperable malignancies of the salivary gland is very encouraging: the therapeutic gain is rather small for bladder and rectal cancers, soft tissue sarcomas and advanced carcinomas of the cervix; the responses of brain tumors are very disappointing. Most neutron radiotherapy applications have been less than optimal because of inadequate physical and technical conditions. Despite these difficulties, some interesting clinical data have become available. Due to the technical shortcomings, the possible advantages of fast neutrons are probably underestimated for many tumor sites. Well-designed clinical trials, preferably performed with high energy cyclotrons in clinical environments, will provide a decisive answer to the question of the usefulness of the new radiation modality

  3. Approaches for improving cancer radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalia, Vijay K.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation and cancer are intricately related. Radiotherapy, either alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy, is used for treatment of 60% of cancers. It will continue to be the mainstay for multi-modality treatment protocols unit new molecular therapies can be developed and brought to the stage of clinical trials. It will continue to be relevant thereafter, to compare the efficacy and cost effectiveness of the novel drugs under development. And it could also be useful as an adjuvant therapy, to augment the effects of novel drugs, at optimum dose levels. However, radiation is a well documented carcinogenic agent. Several studies have shown a statistically significant, though small enhancement in the risk of second malignancies, particularly in long-term survivors. The above discussions suggest that it is imperative to carry out preclinical radiobiological research for increasing tumor cell damage, while reducing the effective radiation doses. Development of radiobiological research programs in our institutions of higher learning such as post graduate medical institutions, cancer centers and universities could lead to the generation of a wealth of radiobiological data with potential clinical applications. Radiobiologists could utilize the infra-structure such as expensive radiotherapy equipment as well as clinical materials. For example, tumour biopsies readily available in the medical and cancer centers. However, if these studies have clinically meaningful implications it will be important to facilitate very close interactions between the basic scientists and clinicians. Some of the approaches for improving radiotherapy of cancer will be very briefly reviewed. Our current work about the effects of radiation-drug and drug-drug interactions for increasing cellular damage and death in brain tumor cells will also be presented. (author)

  4. Radiotherapy for Oligometastatic Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek P. Bergsma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC typically presents at an advanced stage, which is often felt to be incurable, and such patients are usually treated with a palliative approach. Accumulating retrospective and prospective clinical evidence, including a recently completed randomized trial, support the existence of an oligometastatic disease state wherein select individuals with advanced NSCLC may experience historically unprecedented prolonged survival with aggressive local treatments, consisting of radiotherapy and/or surgery, to limited sites of metastatic disease. This is reflected in the most recent AJCC staging subcategorizing metastatic disease into intra-thoracic (M1a, a single extra thoracic site (M1b, and more diffuse metastases (M1c. In the field of radiation oncology, recent technological advances have allowed for the delivery of very high, potentially ablative, doses of radiotherapy to both intra- and extra-cranial disease sites, referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery and stereotactic body radiotherapy (or SABR, in much shorter time periods compared to conventional radiation and with minimal associated toxicity. At the same time, significant improvements in systemic therapy, including platinum-based doublet chemotherapy, molecular agents targeting oncogene-addicted NSCLC, and immunotherapy in the form of checkpoint inhibitors, have led to improved control of micro-metastatic disease and extended survival sparking newfound interest in combining these agents with ablative local therapies to provide additive, and in the case of radiation and immunotherapy, potentially synergistic, effects in order to further improve progression-free and overall survival. Currently, despite the tantalizing potential associated with aggressive local therapy in the setting of oligometastatic NSCLC, well-designed prospective randomized controlled trials sufficiently powered to detect and measure the possible added benefit afforded by this approach are

  5. The Confluence of Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy and Tumor Immunology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Eric Finkelstein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotactic radiation approaches are gaining more popularity for the treatment of intracranial as well as extracranial tumors in organs such as the liver and lung. Technology, rather than biology, is driving the rapid adoption of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT, also known as stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR, in the clinic due to advances in precise positioning and targeting. Dramatic improvements in tumor control have been demonstrated; however, our knowledge of normal tissue biology response mechanisms to large fraction sizes is lacking. Herein, we will discuss how SABR can induce cellular expression of MHC I, adhesion molecules, costimulatory molecules, heat shock proteins, inflammatory mediators, immunomodulatory cytokines, and death receptors to enhance antitumor immune responses.

  6. Radical radiotherapy for T3 laryngeal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, T.; Itami, J.; Kotaka, K.; Toriyama, M.

    1996-01-01

    From 1974 through 1992, 37 previously untreated patients with T3 laryngeal cancer (supraglottic 15, glottic 22) were treated with initial radical radiotherapy and surgery for salvage. Two-year local control rate with radiotherapy alone, ultimate voice preservation rate, and ultimate local control rate for T3 supraglottic cancer were 33%, 33%, and 60%, respectively. Corresponding figures for T3 glottic cancer were 32%, 23%, and 77%, respecitvely. Five-year cause-specific survival rate for T3 supraglottic cancer and glottic cancer were 47% and 77%, respectively. In T3 supraglottic cancer, none of the 4 patients with subglottic tumor extension attained local control by radiotherapy alone, and local-regional recurrence-free time were significantly shorter in patients with subglottic tumor extension or tracheostomy before radiotherapy. There were no serious late complications such as chondronecrosis, rupture of carotid artery attributed to radical radiotherapy, while 3 patients had severe laryngeal edema requiring total laryngectomy. (orig.) [de

  7. Radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaj-Levra, Niccolò; Sciascia, Savino; Fiorentino, Alba; Fersino, Sergio; Mazzola, Rosario; Ricchetti, Francesco; Roccatello, Dario; Alongi, Filippo

    2016-03-01

    The decision to offer radiotherapy in patients with connective tissue diseases continues to be challenging. Radiotherapy might trigger the onset of connective tissue diseases by increasing the expression of self-antigens, diminishing regulatory T-cell activity, and activating effectors of innate immunity (dendritic cells) through Toll-like receptor-dependent mechanisms, all of which could potentially lead to breaks of immune tolerance. This potential risk has raised some debate among radiation oncologists about whether patients with connective tissue diseases can tolerate radiation as well as people without connective tissue diseases. Because the number of patients with cancer and connective tissue diseases needing radiotherapy will probably increase due to improvements in medical treatment and longer life expectancy, the issue of interactions between radiotherapy and connective tissue diseases needs to be clearer. In this Review, we discuss available data and evidence for patients with connective tissue diseases treated with radiotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. To boost or not boost in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciejewski, B.; Suwinski, R.; Withers, H.R.; Fowler, J.; Fijuth, J.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper it to analyse and discuss standard definition of the 'boost' procedure in relation to clinical results and new forms of the boost designed on physical and radiobiological bases. Seventeen sets of clinical data including over 5000 cases cancer with different tumour stages and locations and treated with various forms of 'boost' method have been subtracted from literature. Effectiveness of boost is analyzed regarding its place in combined treatment, timing and subvolume involved. Radiobiological parameter of D10 and normalization method for biologically equivalent doses and dose intensity are used to simulated cold and not subvolumes (hills and dales) and its influence of effectiveness on the boost delivery. Sequential and concomitant boost using external irradiation, although commonly used, offers LTC benefit lower than expected. Brachytherapy, intraoperative irradiation and concurrent chemotherapy boost methods appear more effective. Conformal radiotherapy, with or without dose-intensity modulation, allows heterogeneous increase in dose intensity within the target volume and can be used to integrate the 'boost dose' into baseline treatment (Simultaneous Integrated Boost and SIB). Analysis of interrelationships between boost-dose; boost volume and its timing shows that a TCP benefit from boosting can be expected when a relatively large part of the target volume is involved. Increase in boost dose above 1.2-1.3 of baseline dose using 'standard' methods does not substantially further increase the achieved TCP benefit unless hypoxic cells are a problem. Any small uncertainties in treatment planning can ruin all potential beneficial effect of the boost. For example, a 50% dose deficit in a very small (e.g. 1%) volume of target can decrease TCP to zero. Therefore boost benefits should be carefully weighed against any risk of cold spots in the target volume. Pros and cons in discussion of the role of boost in radiotherapy lead to the important

  9. Primary lung sarcoma treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo SG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Seung-Gu Yeo Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Cheonan, Republic of Korea Abstract: Primary lung sarcoma (PLS is an extremely rare, very aggressive malignancy. Surgical removal is considered the treatment of choice, and patients who have been given conventional radiotherapy have had inferior outcomes. This study is the first describing a case of PLS treated with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR, which precisely targets a small tumor with a markedly higher biologically effective dose than conventional radiotherapy. The patient was an 82-year-old man who was diagnosed with primary lung leiomyosarcoma based on radiology, pathology, and immunohistochemical examinations. The PLS was located in the right lower lobe and measured 2.5 cm. No regional nodal or distant organ metastasis was observed. He was inoperable medically. The SABR was performed using volumetric modulated arc therapy and a dose of 56 Gy in four fractions. Follow-up computed tomography 2 months after SABR revealed a complete tumor response. The toxicity was limited to mild respiratory symptoms. The patient is alive and has had no evidence of disease for 2 years. This study suggests that SABR can be a safe and effective treatment option for PLS. Keywords: primary lung sarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy, stereotactic body radiotherapy, radiation therapy, sarcoma 

  10. Radiotherapy in the maxillofacial region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederdellmann, H.; Otten, J.E.; Lachard, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radiotherapeutic treatment of patients with tumours in the oral, perignathic, facial, and neck region can lead to considerable complications under irradiation and any time after irradiation if dental aspects are not considered. A dental treatment should therefore be planned in close cooperation with a dental-, oral-, and orthodontic centre before starting radiotherapy. In many cases, a preparing treatment is not possible for important reasons. Therefore, it is very important that patients who are being or have been treated with radiation are dealt with extremely carefully. (orig.) [de

  11. Quality and safety in radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd

    2010-01-01

    The first text to focus solely on quality and safety in radiotherapy, this work encompasses not only traditional, more technically oriented, quality assurance activities, but also general approaches of quality and safety. It includes contributions from experts both inside and outside the field to present a global view. The task of assuring quality is no longer viewed solely as a technical, equipment-dependent endeavor. Instead, it is now recognized as depending on both the processes and the people delivering the service. Divided into seven broad categories, the text covers: Quality Management

  12. Radiotherapy for breast cancer and pacemaker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.; Campana, F.; Bollet, M.A.; Dendale, R.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.; Marchand, V.; Mazal, A.; Fourquet, A.; Kirova, Y.M.; Kirov, K.M.; Esteve, M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. - Patients with permanent cardiac pacemakers occasionally require radiotherapy. Therapeutic Irradiation may cause pacemakers to malfunction due to the effects of ionizing radiation or electromagnetic interference. We studied the breast cancer patients who needed breast and/or chest wall and lymph node irradiation to assess the feasibility and tolerance in this population of patients. Patients and methods. - From November 2008 to December 2009, more than 900 patients received radiotherapy for their breast cancer in our department using megavoltage linear accelerator (X 4-6 MV and electrons). Among them, seven patients were with permanent pacemaker. All patients have been treated to the breast and chest wall and/or lymph nodes. Total dose to breast and/or chest wall was 50 Gy/25 fractions and 46 Gy/23 fractions to lymph nodes. Patients who underwent conserving surgery followed by breast irradiation were boosted when indicated to tumour bed with 16 Gy/8 fractions. All patients were monitored everyday in presence of radiation oncologist to follow the function of their pacemaker. All pacemakers were controlled before and after radiotherapy by the patients' cardiologist. Results. - Seven patients were referred in our department for postoperative breast cancer radiotherapy. Among them, only one patient was declined for radiotherapy and underwent mastectomy without radiotherapy. In four cases the pacemaker was repositioned before the beginning of radiotherapy. Six patients, aged between 48 and 84 years underwent irradiation for their breast cancer. Four patients were treated with conserving surgery followed by breast radiotherapy and two with mastectomy followed by chest wall and internal mammary chain, supra- and infra-clavicular lymph node irradiation. The dose to the pacemaker generator was kept below 2 Gy. There was no pacemaker dysfunction observed during the radiotherapy. Conclusion. - The multidisciplinary work with position change of the pacemaker before

  13. Family physicians' perspectives regarding palliative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samant, Rajiv S.; Fitzgibbon, Edward; Meng, Joanne; Graham, Ian D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To assess family physicians' views on common indications for palliative radiotherapy and to determine whether this influences patient referral. Methods and materials: A 30-item questionnaire evaluating radiotherapy knowledge and training developed at the Ottawa Regional Cancer Centre (ORCC) was mailed to a random sample of 400 family physicians in eastern Ontario, Canada. The completed surveys were collected and analyzed, and form the basis of this study. Results: A total of 172 completed surveys were received for a net response rate of 50% among practicing family physicians. Almost all of the physicians (97%) had recently seen cancer patients in their offices, with 85% regularly caring for patient with advanced cancer. Fifty-four percent had referred patients in the past for radiotherapy and 53% had contacted a radiation oncologist for advice. Physicians who were more knowledgeable about the common indications for palliative radiotherapy were significantly more likely to refer patients for radiotherapy (P<0.01). Inability to contact a radiation oncologist was correlated with not having referred patients for radiotherapy (P<0.01). Only 10% of the physicians had received radiotherapy education during their formal medical training. Conclusions: Many of the family physicians surveyed were unaware of the effectiveness of radiotherapy in a variety of common palliative situations, and radiotherapy referral was correlated with knowledge about the indications for palliative radiotherapy. This was not surprising given the limited education they received in this area and the limited contact they have had with radiation oncologists. Strategies need to be developed to improve continuing medical education opportunities for family physicians and to facilitate more interaction between these physicians and radiation oncologists

  14. Modern Biology

    OpenAIRE

    ALEKSIC, Branko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to learn the philosophy, principles, and techniques of modern biology. The course is particularly designed for those who have not learned biology previously or whose major is other than biology, and who may think that they do not need to know any biology at all. The topics are covered in a rather general, overview manner, but certain level of diligence in grasping concepts and memorizing the terminology is expected.

  15. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz-Ertner, Daniela; Frank, Claudia; Herfarth, Klaus K.; Rhein, Bernhard; Wannenmacher, Michael; Debus, Juergen

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate outcome and toxicity after fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (FSRT) in patients with craniopharyngiomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-six patients with craniopharyngiomas were treated with FSRT between May 1989 and February 2001. Median age was 33.5 years (range: 5-57 years). Nine patients received FSRT after surgery as primary treatment, and 17 patients were irradiated for recurrent tumor or progressive growth after initial surgery. Median target dose was 52.2 Gy (range: 50.0-57.6 Gy) with conventional fractionation. Follow-up included MRI and neurologic, ophthalmologic, and endocrinologic examinations. Results: The median follow-up was 43 months (range: 7-143 months). The actuarial local control rate and actuarial overall survival rates were 100% and 100%, respectively, at 5 years and 100% and 83%, respectively, at 10 years. Four patients showed complete response, 14 patients showed partial response, and 8 patients remained stable. In 5 patients, vision improved after radiation therapy. Acute toxicity was mild. One patient required cyst drainage 3 months after radiotherapy. Late toxicity after radiotherapy included impairment of hormone function in 3 out of 18 patients at risk. We did not observe any vision impairment, radionecrosis, or secondary malignancies. Conclusions: FSRT is effective and safe in the treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas. Toxicity is extremely low using this conformal technique

  16. Palliative radiotherapy for liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eble, M.J.; Gademann, G.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1993-01-01

    The role of palliative irradiation was analysed in 55 patients with liver metastases from colorectal, breast and lung cancer, treated with irradiation doses more than 10 Gy. In 47 patients irradiation alone was done. In 29 patients the disease involved not only the liver, but was disseminated. A mean dose of 23.8 Gy was delivered, with daily fractions of 1.5, 1.8 or 2 Gy. Complete and near complete pain relief was obtained in six and nine patients. Normalized and near normalized values of bilirubin serum levels were obtained in five and seven patients. Relief of pain as well as normalisation of cholestasis were significantly correlated with the irradiation doses applied. Median survival was 36.5 days for patients with lung cancer, 70.5 and 73 days for patients with breast and colorectal cancer. Irradiation doses given and the status of disease were significantly correlated to prognosis. In the majority of our patients with clinical symptoms, i.e. pain or cholestase, irradiation alone was sufficient for palliation of these symptoms. Prognosis is limited because of the disseminated state of disease in 62% of the patients. In a group of patients, suffering from colorectal cancer with good prognostic criteria, the simultaneous application of radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy was able to increase significantly the survival with minor toxicity. The use of a three-dimensional treatment planning could optimize the radiotherapy, due to the dose-volume histogram analysis. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Optimization of human cancer radiotherapy

    CERN Document Server

    Swan, George W

    1981-01-01

    The mathematical models in this book are concerned with a variety of approaches to the manner in which the clinical radiologic treatment of human neoplasms can be improved. These improvements comprise ways of delivering radiation to the malignan­ cies so as to create considerable damage to tumor cells while sparing neighboring normal tissues. There is no unique way of dealing with these improvements. Accord­ ingly, in this book a number of different presentations are given. Each presentation has as its goal some aspect of the improvement, or optimization, of radiotherapy. This book is a collection of current ideas concerned with the optimization of human cancer radiotherapy. It is hoped that readers will build on this collection and develop superior approaches for the understanding of the ways to improve therapy. The author owes a special debt of thanks to Kathy Prindle who breezed through the typing of this book with considerable dexterity. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Introduction 1...

  18. Craniospinal radiotherapy in adult medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selek, U.; Zorlu, F.; Hurmuz, P.; Cengiz, M.; Gurkaynak, M.; Turker, A.; Soylemezoglu, F.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome and prognostic factors of adult patients with medulloblastoma. Patients and Methods: 26 adult medulloblastoma patients with a median age of 27 were subjected to craniospinal radiotherapy. A dose of 30.6 Gy with 1.8 Gy/fraction/day was prescribed to M0 patients, while 36 Gy were to be applied in patients with positive cerebrospinal liquor findings. The posterior fossa was boosted to 54 Gy. While 20 patients underwent external-beam radiotherapy alone, only six received sequential adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Male/female ratio was 1.2. Preradiotherapy Karnofsky performance status was recorded as median 100%. 50% were classified as poor risk (n = 10, subtotal resection; n = 3, M+). The median follow-up time was 46.5 months. The 5-year actuarial survival rates for recurrence-free, distant metastasis-free, disease-free, and overall survival were 82.5%, 90.8%, 73.5%, and 89.7%, respectively. Patient characteristics, treatment factors and tumor characteristics failed to show any significance in univariate analysis. Grade 3 or 4 late morbidities were not observed. Conclusion: Yet, the current standard of care seems to remain craniospinal irradiation after maximal surgical resection of the primary neoplasm without clear indications for adjuvant chemotherapy. (orig.)

  19. Quality control programme for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos de Araujo, A.M.; Viegas, C.C.B.; Viamonte, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A 3 years pilot programme started in January 2000 with 33 philanthropic cancer institutions that provides medical services to 60% of the patients from the national social security system. Brazil has today 161 radiotherapy services (144 operating with megavoltage equipment). These 33 institutions are distributed over 19 Brazilian states. The aim of this programme is: To create conditions to allow the participants to apply the radiotherapy with quality and efficacy; To promote up dating courses for the physicians, physicists and technicians of these 33 Institutions. With the following objectives: To recommend dosimetric and radiological protection procedures in order to guarantee the tumor prescribed dose and safe working conditions; To help in establishing and implementing these procedures. The main activities are: local quality control evaluations, postal TLD audits in reference conditions, postal TLD audits in off axis conditions and training. The local quality control program has already evaluated 22 institutions with 43 machines (25 Co-60 and 18 linear accelerators). In these visits we perform dosimetric, electrical, mechanical and safety tests. As foreseen, we found more problems among the old Co-60 machines i.e., field flatness, size, symmetry and relative output factors; lasers positioning system alignment; optical distance indicator; radiation and light field coincidence; optical and mechanical distance indicators agreement, than among the linear accelerators i.e., field flatness and size; lasers positioning system alignment; tray interlocking and wedge filter factors

  20. ORO dental complications of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaumuri, Sunil

    2014-01-01

    Radiation and radioactivity were discovered more than 100 years ago. Since then, radiation has become important in cancer treatment. Approximately one million people will develop invasive cancer each year. Of these, 40% will receive curative benefit from surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, or a combination modality. Normal body tissues vary in their response to radiation. As with tumors, normal tissues in which cells are quickly dividing may be affected. This causes some of the side effects of radiation treatment. Since radiation is a local treatment, side effects depend on the area of the body being treated. The early effects of radiation may be seen a few days or weeks after treatments have started and may go on for several weeks after treatments have ended. Other effects may not show up until months, or even years, later. As radiotherapy is a viable treatment modality for head and neck cancer, however a wide range of potentially debilitating dental complications may accompany this treatment. The orofacial tissues of dental significance that may be affected by head and neck radiotherapy are the salivary glands, mucous membranes, taste buds, bone and teeth. (author)

  1. Unstable chromosome aberrations on peripheral blood lymphocytes from patients with cervical uterine cancer following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnata, Simey de Souza Leao Pereira

    2002-09-01

    Absorbed dose determination is an important step for risk assessment related to an exposure to ionizing radiation. However, physical dosimetry cannot be always performed, principally in the case of retrospective estimates. In this context, the use of bioindicators (biological effects) has been proposed, which defines the so-called biological dosimetry. In particular, scoring of unstable chromosomes aberrations (dicentrics, centric rings and fragments) of peripheral blood lymphocytes, while is the most reliable biological method for estimating individual exposure to ionizing radiation. In this work, blood samples from 5 patients, with cervical uterine cancer, were evaluated after partial-body radiotherapy with a source of 69 Co. For this, conventional cytogenetic method was employed, based on Giemsa coloration and fluorescence in situ hybridization, in order to correlate the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations of blood lymphocytes with absorbed dose, as a result of the radiotherapy. A good agreement was observed between the frequency of chromosome aberrations scored and the values of dose previously calculated by physical dosimetry during patient's radiotherapy. The results presented in this work point out the importance of concerning analyses of unstable chromosome aberrations as biological dosimeter in the investigation of partial-body exposure to ionizing radiation. (author)

  2. Customized mold radiotherapy with prosthetic apparatus for oral cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Tadahide; Tsuchiya, Yoshiyuki; Hayasaka, Junichi; Itoh, Hiroto; Jinbu, Yoshinori; Kusama, Mikio; Takahashi, Satoru; Nakazawa, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    Eight patients (6 males, 2 females; median age, 78 years; age range, 31-94 years) were treated by mold radiotherapy with a prosthetic apparatus for oral cancers between October 2006 and March 2013. The primary sites were the tongue in 3 cases, hard palate and buccal mucosa in 2 cases each, and oral floor in 1 case. The type of treatment consisted of radical radiotherapy and palliative radiotherapy in 2 cases each, and preoperative radiotherapy, postoperative radiotherapy, additional radiotherapy after external beam radiotherapy and systemic chemotherapy in 1 case each. Patients received 40-50 Gy in 8-10 fractions with mold radiotherapy. Two patients who received radical radiotherapy showed no signs of recurrence or metastasis. The present therapy contributed to patients' palliative, postoperative, and preoperative therapy. Mold radiotherapy with a prosthetic appliance was performed safely and was a useful treatment for several types of oral cancer. (author)

  3. Adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A; Johnson, N; Cornes, P; Simera, I; Collingwood, M; Williams, C; Kitchener, H

    2007-04-18

    The role of adjuvant radiotherapy (both pelvic external beam radiotherapy and vaginal intracavity brachytherapy) in stage I endometrial cancer following total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH and BSO) remains unclear. To assess the efficacy of adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery for stage I endometrial cancer. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, Physician Data Query (PDQ) of National Cancer Institute. Handsearching was also carried out where appropriate. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) which compared adjuvant radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy following surgery for patients with stage I endometrial cancer were included. Quality of the studies was assessed and data collected using a predefined data collection form. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints were locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence and endometrial cancer death. Data on quality of life (QOL) and morbidity were also collected. A meta-analysis on included trials was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager Software 4.2. The meta-analysis was performed on four trials (1770 patients). The addition of pelvic external beam radiotherapy to surgery reduced locoregional recurrence, a relative risk (RR) of 0.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.17 to 0.44, p ASTEC; Lukka) are awaited. External beam radiotherapy carries a risk of toxicity and should be avoided in stage 1 endometrial cancer patients with no high risk factors.

  4. The development of radiotherapy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhelj, Janez; Ravnihar, Bozena

    1996-01-01

    The historical data on the development of radiotherapy in Slovenia are presented from its first use in this county in 1902 until the present. The Institute of Oncology in Ljubljana was established in 1938 with the intention of providing a sound development of radium and roentgen cancer treatment. After World War II, the development of radiotherapy was dynamic, which is evident from the data on new radiation sources in external beam therapy (accelerators, telecobalt units), in brachytherapy (various sealed radioisotopes) as well as in the introduction of therapy with unsealed radioisotopes. In 1947, a Chair of Oncology and Radiotherapy was instituted at the Medical Faculty of the University of Ljubljana (with the seat at the Institute of Oncology). In 1955, radiotherapy and oncology were officially recognized as separate branches of medicine requiring special obligatory postgraduate residency training. Within the Medical Society of Slovenia, the Section for Radiotherapy was established in 1987. The following year, the Section for Radiotherapy of Slovenia became a member of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology. Considering the size of population of Slovenia (nearly 2 million), it was reasonable that by this time radiotherapy became almost completely concentrated in one central institution, the Institute of Oncology, whose core and cohesive activity were represented in the multidisciplinary cancer treatment approach

  5. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, Astrid N.; Leer, Jan-Willem H.; Collins, C. David; Wondergem, Jan; Hermans, Jo; Timothy, Adrian

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: The policy of the Radiotherapy Department of St. Thomas' Hospital in London for patients with invasive bladder cancer, used to be treatment with hypofractionated radiotherapy. The advantages of this fractionation scheme included reduction of the number of treatment sessions and better use of limited resources. Our results after hypofractionation were compared to series with more conventional radiotherapy. Material and methods: Between 1975 and 1985, 123 patients with a T2-T3 transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were treated by a radical course of hypofractionated radiotherapy. Local control, survival and morbidity rates were analysed retrospectively. Results: The actuarial local control rates at 5 and 10 years were 31 and 29%, respectively. The actuarial cancer-specific 5- and 10-year survival rates were 48 and 39%, respectively. Acute side effects were observed in 87% of patients. The actuarial overall and severe late complication rates at 5 years were 33 and 9%, respectively. The local control, survival and early side effect rates we found, were in the same range as those reported in literature. Late radiation side effects however, were more common after hypofractionated radiotherapy compared to conventional radiotherapy schedules. Conclusions: We conclude that the potential advantage of a reduced number of treatment sessions may be lost in the long term, because of the higher incidence of late morbidity after hypofractionated radiotherapy. Hypofractionation however, remains a valuable technique for palliation and deserves further investigation for radical treatment where access to equipment is difficult or resources are limited

  6. Cancer occurring after radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, L.E.

    1990-01-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy can effectively control cancer but can also cause new cancers to develop as long-term complications. Almost all types of cancer have been associated with radiotherapy. The breast, thyroid, and bone marrow are the organs most susceptible to radiation carcinogenesis. The bone marrow is also most frequently involved by chemotherapy and the leukemia risk is much higher than after radiotherapy. The combination of intensive radiotherapy and chemotherapy is particularly leukemogenic. The latent period between radiotherapy/chemotherapy and the appearance of a second primary cancer ranges from a few years to several decades. The risk for a second primary cancer following radiotherapy or chemotherapy emphasizes the need for life long follow-up of patients receiving such treatments. This is particularly the case in individuals with long life expectancy, for example, patients treated for childhood neoplasms. The benefits of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in oncology exceed the risks for second primary cancers. Efforts should be directed towards identifying those patients who will benefit from the treatments so that only they are exposed to the risk. 33 references

  7. Chemoradiotherapy and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Mitsuhashi, Norio; Niibe, Hideo

    2000-01-01

    The current status of chemoradiotherapy was reviewed from the standpoint of molecular biology. Chemoradiotherapy was conducted to achieve systemic tumor control, to intensify the response to irradiation, and to reduce adverse reactions. The mechanisms of the efficacy of chemoradiotherapy were: modification of dose-response relationships, inhibition of tumor cell recovery from sublethal damage or potential lethal damage, effects on cell dynamics and the cell cycle, improvement of blood flow or reoxygenation, recruitment, improvement of drug uptake, increased cell damage. Cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) and cancer-related genes were described, as the essential points, because they are involved in the response to chemoradiotherapy. Cisplatin (platinum compound), 5-fluorouracil, etoposide, and taxoid (paclitaxel, docetaxel) were the principal anticancer agents used for chemoradiotherapy, and they enhanced the effects of irradiation. However, even when good responses or synergism between anticancer drug and radiotherapy was observed in in vitro studies, there was little therapeutic advantage clinically. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies should be collected and systemized, and ''molecular biology in chemotherapy'' that can be applied clinically may become established. (K.H.)

  8. Quality Audits In Radiotherapy. Chapter 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izewska, J.

    2017-01-01

    It is widely recognized that quality audits constitute a vital component of quality management in radiotherapy [20.1–20.3]. The main reason why quality audits are considered an important activity is that they help to review the quality of radiotherapy services and improve them. Quality audits check whether radiotherapy practices are adequate, i.e. that what should be done is being done; and in case it is not, audits provide recommendations to encourage improvements to be made. Without some form of auditing, it would be difficult to determine whether radiotherapy services are safe and effective for cancer treatment. In other words, a quality audit in radiotherapy is a method of reviewing whether the quality of activities in a radiotherapy department adheres to the standards of good practices to ensure that the treatment to the cancer patient is optimal. Overall, audits lead to improvements of professional practices and the general quality of services delivered. There are many recommendations regarding quality in radiotherapy practice, both national and international. Practices vary depending on the economic level of States, including specific procedures, equipment and facilities, as well as available resources. Good practices evolve with research developments, including new clinical trial results, progress in evidence based medicine and developments in radiotherapy technology. Quality audits involve the process of fact finding and comparing the findings against criteria for good practices in radiotherapy. Various issues and gaps may be identified by the auditors in the audit process, for example insufficiencies in structure, inadequacies in technology or deviations in procedures. This way the weak points or areas of concern are documented and recommendations for the audited centre are formulated that address these areas with the purpose of improving quality.

  9. Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, B.M.; Mallik, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated

  10. Radiotherapy-induced emesis. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyer, P.; Buchali, A.; Hinkelbein, M.; Budach, V.; Zimmermann, J.S.; Titlbach, O.J.

    1998-01-01

    Background: A significant number of patients receiving radiotherapy experience the distressing side effects of emesis and nausea. These symptoms are some of the most distressing problems for the patients influencing their quality of life. Methods: International study results concerning radiotherapy-induced emesis are demonstrated. A German multicenter questionnaire examining the strategies to prevent or to treat radiotherapy-induced nausea and emesis is presented. An international analysis concerning incidence of emesis and nausea in fractionated radiotherapy patients is discussed. Finally the consensus of the consensus conference on antiemetic therapy from the Perugia International Cancer Conference V is introduced. Results: Untreated emesis can lead to complications like electrolyte disorders, dehydration, metabolic disturbances and nutrition problems with weight loss. Prophylactic antiemetics are often given to patients receiving single high-dose radiotherapy to the abdomen. A survey has revealed that antiemetic prophylaxis is not routinely offered to the patients receiving fractionated radiotherapy. However, there is a need for an effective treatment of emesis for use in this group of patients, too. In 20% of patients nausea and emesis can cause a treatment interruption because of an inadequate control of symptoms. Like in chemotherapy strategies there exist high, moderate, and low emetogenic treatment regimens in radiotherapy as well. The most emetogenic potential has the total body irradiation followed by radiotherapy to the abdomen. Radiotherapy induced emesis can be treated effectively with conventional antiemetics up to 50%. Conclusions: Studies with total body irradiation, fractionated treatment and high-dose single exposures have cleary demonstrated the value of 5-HT3-receptor antagonist antiemetics. There is a response between 60 and 97%. There is no difference in the efficacy of the different 5-HT3-antagonists. High-risk patients should be prophylactic

  11. Mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, James D

    1993-01-01

    The book is a textbook (with many exercises) giving an in-depth account of the practical use of mathematical modelling in the biomedical sciences. The mathematical level required is generally not high and the emphasis is on what is required to solve the real biological problem. The subject matter is drawn, e.g. from population biology, reaction kinetics, biological oscillators and switches, Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction, reaction-diffusion theory, biological wave phenomena, central pattern generators, neural models, spread of epidemics, mechanochemical theory of biological pattern formation and importance in evolution. Most of the models are based on real biological problems and the predictions and explanations offered as a direct result of mathematical analysis of the models are important aspects of the book. The aim is to provide a thorough training in practical mathematical biology and to show how exciting and novel mathematical challenges arise from a genuine interdisciplinary involvement with the biosci...

  12. Radiotherapy for solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaus, M.C.; Neuhof, D.

    2014-01-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma and multiple myeloma require a differentiated radiotherapy. The irradiation for plasmacytoma with an adequate total dose (medullary 40-50 Gy or extramedullary 50-60 Gy) leads to a high degree of local control with a low rate of side effects. In cases of multiple myeloma radiotherapy will achieve effective palliation, both in terms of recalcification as well as reduction of neurological symptoms and analgesia. In terms of analgesia the rule is the higher the single dose fraction the faster the reduction of pain. As part of a conditioning treatment prior to stem cell transplantation radiotherapy contributes to the establishment of a graft versus myeloma effect (GVM). (orig.) [de

  13. Carotid artery stenosis after neck radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimamura, Munehisa; Hashimoto, Yoichiro; Kasuya, Junji; Terasaki, Tadashi [Kumamoto City Hospital (Japan); Uchino, Makoto

    2000-02-01

    Carotid artery stenosis sometimes occurs after cervical radiotherapy. We report a 70-year-old woman with a history of radiotherapy for thyroid cancer at the age of 28 years. She had no signs and symptoms except the skin lesion at the irradiation site. Duplex ultrasonography revealed heterogeneous plaques showing 50% stenosis of bilateral common carotid arteries. Those lesions were observed within segment of irradiation, where atheromatous plaque usually seldom occurs. These indicated that the carotid stenosis was induced by radiotherapy. Although the efficacy of antiplatelet therapy for radiation-induced plaque is not clear, the plaques remained unchanged for 4 years in spite of aspirin administration. (author)

  14. Intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, Mitsunori; Yasui, Kenzo; Morimoto, Takeshi; Miyaishi, Seiichi; Morita, Kozo

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-six patients were given intraoperative radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the pancreas between April 1980 and March 1986. Twenty-six of those with well-advanced cancer underwent palliative intraoperative radiotherapy of their main primary lesions (1,500 to 3,000 rads). Fourteen of the 19 patients in this group who had intractable back pain before surgery achieved relief within one week after treatment. Of the remaining 10 patients who underwent pancreatectomy and received adjuvant intraoperative radiotherapy (2,000 to 3,000 rads), two remain clinically free of disease five years and six months and four years and six months after palliative distal pancreatectomy. (author)

  15. Radiological diagnostics and radiotherapy in Wilms' tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutzner, J

    1981-01-01

    The possibilities of diagnosing Wilms' tumor correctly have been greatly extended by the introduction of computerised tomography and ultrasonic examination. In view of the fact that Wilms' tumor is subjected to combined treatment involving chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy, it appears justified to reduce the dose to 20-30 Gy, depending upon the age of the child and the extension of the tumor. It is believed that preoperative radiotherapy will yield better surgical possibilities in large tumours. Radiotherapy can be omitted in infants in the stages I and II as well as in children in stage I.

  16. Imaging and concomitant dose in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negi, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Image guidance in radiotherapy now involves multiple imaging procedures for planning, simulation, set-up inter and intrafraction monitoring. Presently ALARA (i.e. as low as reasonable achievable) is the principle of management of dose to radiation workers and patients in any diagnostic imaging procedures including image guided surgery. The situation is different in repeated radiographic/fluoroscopic imaging performed for simulation, dose planning, patient positioning and set-up corrections during preparation/execution of Image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) as well as for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT). Reported imaging and concomitant doses will be highlighted and discussed for the management and optimization of imaging techniques in IMRT and IGRT

  17. Radiotherapy-induced plasticity of prostate cancer mobilizes stem-like non-adherent, Erk signaling-dependent cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyjacová, Lenka; Hubáčková, Soňa; Krejčíková, Kateřina; Strauss, R.; Hanzlíková, Hana; Dzijak, Rastislav; Imrichová, Terezie; Šímová, Jana; Reiniš, Milan; Bartek, Jiří; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 6 (2015), s. 898-911 ISSN 1350-9047 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17658S; GA MZd NT14461 EU Projects: European Commission 259893 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Radiotherapy-induced plasticity * prostate cancer * Erk signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 8.218, year: 2015

  18. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-01-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures. (orig.)

  19. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  20. Dermatologic radiotherapy and breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, H.; Gorson, R.O.; Lassen, M.

    1982-03-01

    This study was set up to provide quantitative data to evaluate unsubstantiated claims that improper dermatologic radiation techniques may cause breast cancer. A thin mylar window ionization rate meter placed at the location of the right breast of an Alderson-RANDO anthropomorphic phantom was used to measure direct and scatter radiation reaching the female breast during radiotherapy of the facial region (as given for acne). The results indicate that scatter doses are very small; they are influenced by radiation quality and the use or nonuse of a treatment cone. Quantitative risk estimates show that the very small risk of breast cancer induction can be reduced even further by the use of proper radiation protection measures.

  1. Postoperative interstitial radiotherapy of keloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavere, P.; Bonnafoux-Clavere, A.; Roullet, B.; Morzel, A.; Rhein, B.; Bonnetblanc, J.M.; Olivier, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    During an 8-year period, 21 patients with keloids (27 keloids) were treated with keloidectomy and post-operative interstitial radiotherapy by an iridium 192 wire. Only one patient had been previously treated by corticoids, without results. A dose of 12 Gy (three patients) to 15 Gy (18 patients) was delivered at a point 2.5 mm from the axis of the wire. The follow-up time was from 2 - 104 months. The success rate, at 7 months, was close to 88%. Ao recurrence occurred in three patients without relation to the method used, the lesion-age or the localization of the lesions. There were no side-effects. This method represents an effective, non-constraining and safe treatment for keloids if the contra-indications are respected

  2. Radiotherapy of malignant eyelid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.I.; Chentsova, O.B.; Korshunov, A.I.; Biryukov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Immediate, early and delayed results of short-remote and combined radiotherapy in 348 patients with malignant eyelid neoplasms were presented. A single focal dose was 1.5.-2.5 Gy, an integral dose 45-80 Gy with relation to tumor prevalence and histological strucute. The eyeball was protected with the help of a lead lens (''eye prosthesis'') and a universal tun.gsten membrane. The devices ensured nearly 100% protection of the eyelid against ionizing radiation. Direct clinical cure was noted in 342 patients, partial tumor resorption in 6 patients. Three-year recurrence-free survival was noted in 330 patients (94.8%), five-year survival in 319 (92.8%)

  3. Palliative radiotherapy for multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusawa, Mitsuhiro; Baba, Yuji; Murakami, Ryuji; Yokoyama, Toshimi; Nishimura, Ryuichi; Uozumi, Hideaki; Takada, Chitose; Takahashi, Mutsumasa

    1995-01-01

    This study reviews the experience of palliative radiotherapy to patients with multiple myeloma to define the optimal dose for pain relief. The records of 31 patients (66 sites) with multiple myeloma irradiated for palliation at Kumamoto University hospital between 1985 and 1994 were reviewed. Total dose ranged from 8 to 50 Gy, with a mean of 32.2 Gy. Symptoms included pain (78.1%), neurological abnormalities (28.1%), and palpable masses (34.3%). Symptomatic remission was obtained in 45 of 46 evaluable sites (97.8%). Complete remission of symptoms were obtained in 28.3%, and partial remission in 69.6%. According to fraction size, there was no significant difference between 3-5 Gy and 1.8-2 Gy. The incidence of complete remission increased when a total dose of more than 20 Gy was given. When the quality of life is considered, hypofractionation was recommended for the palliative radiation therapy of multiple myeloma. (author)

  4. Radiotherapy for early rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    A literature review of 10 series using electrocoagulation, fulguration, or local excision demonstrates that about 70% of all patients had tumors smaller than 3 cm and the remainder had tumors measuring between 4 cm and 7 cm. Although primary tumor size in rectal cancer has little prognostic value per se, it is obviously important when determining the appropriateness of local therapy. Selecting patients for local therapy based on tumor size alone seems reasonable, since the recurrence and survival rates for the patients are similar to those achieved with radical surgery. Since patients treated with local excision alone have predominantly T1 or T2 tumors, a comparison with the data of others illustrates the prognostic utility of the degree of bowel penetration and shows five-year survival rates of 71% to 76% for patients with limited disease. In this chapter, the author describes an additional group of patients who also did well following postoperative radiotherapy after conservative surgical treatment

  5. Tomodensitometry images: integration in radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessy, F; Hoornaert, M T [Jolimont Hospital, Haine Saint Paul (France). Cancer and Nuclear Medicine Dept.; Malchair, F [Biomed Engineering, Boncelles (France)

    1995-12-01

    With a view to utilization of CT scan images in radiotherapy, the effective energy and the linearity of four different scanners (Siemens somatom CR, HiQS, Plus and Picker PQ 2000) and two non standard scanners, simulators with CT option (Webb 1990) (Varian Ximatron and Oldelft Simulx CT) has been measured using the method described by White and Speller in 1980. When the linearity relation in presented using the density or the electron density as the abscissa, a blurred area where two different components of equal density or electron density can have two different Hounsfield`s numbers. Using the linearity relation, the density of Rando`s lung heterogeneity is determined. We calculated a treatment planning (TP) using this value and made a comparison between the TP and the real absorbed dose with was measured using diodes. The comparison between the TP and the relative Absorbed doses showed a difference of up to 4.5%.

  6. Evolution of radiotherapy at MOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passi, Kamalesh

    2016-01-01

    Mohan Dai Oswal Cancer Institute was started by Oswals, a philanthropist family of industrialists, in the memory of their mother Smt Mohan Dai Oswal, who died of cancer. This was the first of its kind charitable institute in the private sector in north providing comprehensive cancer care under one roof. The large number of patients that the hospital attracted in the very first year revealed the huge lacuna in cancer care that had been existent in the region. Since then this hospital has been catering to all of Punjab, Himachal, J and K and a large area of Haryana. It has built a reputation for high-tech, yet cost-effective, care. There are multiple dimensions to the evolution of Radiotherapy at MDOH- build-up of technical hardware, growth of skilled personnel, laying down and development of protocols and processes and the evolution of a unique work culture

  7. Intraoperative radiotherapy for pancreatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Akira; Iida, Koyo; Sato, Shigehiro; Sakata, Suo

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-eight patients with pancreatic carcinoma, 23 (82 %) of whom had Stage III or IV, received intraoperative radiotherapy (IOR) with curative or non-curative surgery. Electron beams (10 to 18 MeV) with doses of 20 to 40 Gy were delivered to the tumor. Eight of 26 patients with unresectable tumor had postoperative external irradiation of 10.5 to 50 Gy. Abdominal and back pain relief was achieved after IOR in 12 (71 %) and in 6 (60 %) of the 26 patients, respectively. Appetite was promoted in 11 patients. In the case of unresectable carcinoma, survival time tended to prolong in the 8 patients receiving both IOR and postoperative external irradiation. One patient developed perforation of the colon probably caused by IOR. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Proton radiotherapy of skin carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umebayashi, Y.; Uyeno, K.; Otsuka, F.

    1994-01-01

    At the Proton Medical Research Centre, University of Tsukuba, a pilot study of proton-beam radiotherapy was performed in 12 patients with the following types of carcinoma: Bowen's disease (4), oral verrucous carcinoma (5), and squamous cell carcinoma (3). They received total doses of 51-99.2 Gy in fractions of 2-12.5 Gy. All tumours responded well to the treatment. All four lesions of Bowen's disease, three of the five oral verrucous carcinomas, and the three squamous cell carcinomas completely regressed following irradiation. Two squamous cell carcinomas recurred during the follow-up period. One recurrent squamous cell carcinoma was successfully treated by a salvage surgical operation, and in the other case the patient refused further therapy. In two verrucous carcinomas there was 90% regression of tumour volume. No severe radiation-related complication occurred. (Author)

  9. Stereotactic radiotherapy for brain metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, G.; Daisne, J.F.; Thillays, F.

    2012-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is now well implanted in the radiotherapy treatment tools of brain metastasis. The dose can be delivered in one or multiple sessions. Results seem equivalent. CT scan and MRI imaging are required to delineate and calculate dosimetry. Doses are variable according to the size of the metastases, localization, pathology or equipment. Stabilization or reduction of tumour size is the rules after stereotactic treatment. Impact in terms of overall survival is more difficult to apprehend because of the general context of the disease. Many questions remain unresolved, such as the usefulness of whole brain irradiation, adaptation of the treatment schedule to tumour pathophysiology, role of stereotactic treatment after surgery of metastases, etc. (authors)

  10. Radiogenomics and radiotherapy response modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Naqa, Issam; Kerns, Sarah L.; Coates, James; Luo, Yi; Speers, Corey; West, Catharine M. L.; Rosenstein, Barry S.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2017-08-01

    Advances in patient-specific information and biotechnology have contributed to a new era of computational medicine. Radiogenomics has emerged as a new field that investigates the role of genetics in treatment response to radiation therapy. Radiation oncology is currently attempting to embrace these recent advances and add to its rich history by maintaining its prominent role as a quantitative leader in oncologic response modeling. Here, we provide an overview of radiogenomics starting with genotyping, data aggregation, and application of different modeling approaches based on modifying traditional radiobiological methods or application of advanced machine learning techniques. We highlight the current status and potential for this new field to reshape the landscape of outcome modeling in radiotherapy and drive future advances in computational oncology.

  11. Radiation dosimetry in radiotherapy with internal emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabin, Michael G.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. Radiation dosimetry radionuclides are currently being labeled to various biological agents used in internal emitter radiotherapy. This talk will review the various technologies and types of radiolabel in current use, with focus on the characterization of the radiation dose to the various important tissues of the body. Methods for obtaining data, developing kinetic models, and calculating radiation doses will be reviewed. Monoclonal antibodies are currently being labeled with both alpha and beta emitting radionuclides in attempts to find effective agents against cancer. Several radionuclides are also being used as bone pain palliation agents. These agents must be studied in clinical trials to determine the biokinetics and radiation dosimetry prior to approval for general use. In such studies, it is important to ensure the collection of the appropriate kinds of data and to collect the data at appropriate time intervals. The uptake and retention of activity in all significant source organs and in excreta be measured periodically (with at least 2 data points phase of uptake or clearance). Then, correct dosimetry methods must be applied - the best available methods for characterizing the radionuclide kinetic and for estimating the dosimetry in the various organs of the body especially the marrow, should be used. Attempts are also under way to develop methods for estimating true patient-specific dosimetry. Cellular and animal studies are also. Valuable in evaluating the efficacy of the agents in shrinking or eliminating tumors; some results from such studies will also be discussed. The estimation of radiation doses to patients in therapy with internal emitters involves several complex phases of analysis. Careful attention to detail and the use of the best available methods are essential to the protection of the patient and a successful outcome

  12. Postoperative radiotherapy for intracranial meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ha Chung; Lee, Myung Za

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of postoperative external radiotherapy for patients with intracranial meningiomas. The records of thirty three patients with intracranial meningiomas who were treated with postoperative external irradiation at our institution between Feb, 1988 and Nov, 1999 were retrospectively analyzed. Median age of patients at diagnosis was 53 years with range of 17 to 68 years. Sites of involvement were parasagital, cerebral convexity, sphenoid ridge, parasellar and tentorium cerebella. Of 33 evaluated patients, 15 transitional, 10 meningotheliomatous, 4 hemangiopericytic, 3 atypical and 1 malignant meningioma were identified. Four patients underwent biopsy alone and remaining 29 patients underwent total tumor resection. A dose of 50 to 60 Gy was delivered in 28-35 daily fractions over a period of 5 to 7 weeks. Follow-up period ranged from 12 months to 8 years. The actuarial survival rates at 5 and 7 years for entire group of patients were 78% and 67%, respectively. The corresponding disease free survival rates were 73% and 61 %, respectively. The overall local control rate at 5 years was 83%. One out of 25 patients in benign group developed local failure, while 4 out of 8 patients in malignant group did local failure (p <0.05), Of 4 patients who underwent biopsy alone, 2 developed local failure. There was no significant difference in 5 year actuarial survival between patients who underwent total tumor resection and those who did biopsy alone. Patients whose age is under 60 showed slightly better survival than those whose age is 60 or older, although this was not statistically significant. There was no documented late complications in any patients. Based on our study, we might conclude that postoperative external beam radiotherapy tends to improve survival of patients with intracranial meningiomas comparing with surgery alone

  13. The progress in radiotherapy techniques and it's clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinfuss, M.; Walasek, T.; Byrski, E.; Blecharz, P.

    2011-01-01

    Three modem radiotherapy techniques were introduced into clinical practice at the onset of the 21 st century - stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT), proton therapy and carbon-ion radiotherapy. Our paper summarizes the basic principles of physics, as well as the technical reqirements and clinical indications for those techniques. SRT is applied for intracranial diseases (arteriovenous malformations, acoustic nerve neuromas, brain metastases, skull base tumors) and in such cases it is referred to as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Techniques used during SRS include GammaKnife, CyberKnife and dedicated linacs. SRT can also be applied for extracranial disease (non-small cell lung cancer, lung metastases, spinal and perispinal tumors, primary liver tumors, breast cancer, pancreatic tumors, prostate cancer, head and neck tumors) and in such cases it is referred to as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Eye melanomas, skull base and cervical spine chordomas and chordosarcomas, as well as childhood neoplasms, are considered to be the classic indications for proton therapy. Clinical trials are currently conducted to investigate the usefulness of proton beam in therapy of non-small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, head and neck tumors, primary liver and oesophageal cancer Carbon-ion radiotherapy is presumed to be more advantageous than proton therapy because of its higher relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and possibility of real-time control of the irradiated volume under PET visualization. The basic indications for carbon-ion therapy are salivary glands neoplasms, selected types of soft tissue and bone sarcomas, skull base chordomas and chordosarcomas, paranasal sinus neoplasms, primary liver cancers and inoperable rectal adenocarcinoma recurrences. (authors)

  14. Feasibility of carbon-ion radiotherapy for re-irradiation of locoregionally recurrent, metastatic, or secondary lung tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Naoyoshi; Karube, Masataka; Nakajima, Mio; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Kamada, Tadashi

    2018-03-02

    Intrathoracic recurrence after carbon-ion radiotherapy for primary or metastatic lung tumors remains a major cause of cancer-related deaths. However, treatment options are limited. Herein, we report on the toxicity and efficacy of re-irradiation with carbon-ion radiotherapy for locoregionally recurrent, metastatic, or secondary lung tumors. Data of 95 patients with prior intrathoracic carbon-ion radiotherapy who were treated with re-irradiation with carbon-ion radiotherapy at our institution between 2006 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Seventy-three patients (76.8%) had primary lung tumors and 22 patients (23.2%) had metastatic lung tumors. The median dose of initial carbon-ion radiotherapy was 52.8 Gy (relative biological effectiveness) and the median dose of re-irradiation was 66.0 Gy (relative biological effectiveness). None of the patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The median follow-up period after re-irradiation was 18 months. In terms of grade ≥3 toxicities, one patient experienced each of the following: grade 5 bronchopleural fistula, grade 4 radiation pneumonitis, grade 3 chest pain, and grade 3 radiation pneumonitis. The 2-year local control and overall survival rates were 54.0% and 61.9%, respectively. In conclusion, re-irradiation with carbon-ion radiotherapy was associated with relatively low toxicity and moderate efficacy. Re-irradiation with carbon-ion radiotherapy might be an effective treatment option for patients with locoregionally recurrent, metastatic, or secondary lung tumors. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Pregnancy and radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Cancer in pregnancy is relatively uncommon but breast cancer is one of the most common malignancy occur with pregnancy. Prescribed doses of radiotherapy are significantly higher than those of diagnostic procedures. Fetal exposure and damage can occur during radiotherapy within target area. Because of those risks, radiotherapy during pregnancy is basically has to avoid. Even though, feral damage depends on fetal dose and has some threshold dose. Practically, even in stochastic effect, there are some minimal doses. A most important point is careful estimation of fetal dose before radiation. The physician has to inform the patient about risk and benefit of radiotherapy to fetus and to mother and have an ethical balance to help the mother and family to make a final decision. (author)

  16. Radiotherapy for advanced breast cancer. Immediate results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, M.V.; Silveira Filho, L.; Martorelli Filho, B.

    1976-01-01

    Seventy-four patients with advanced breast cancer were submited to local radiotherapy of the affected regions. The response of 155 metastatic lesions are recorded. Early results are good, with objective and functional clinical improvement [pt

  17. Heavy particle radiotherapy: prospects and pitfalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faju, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of heavy particles in radiotherapy of tumor volumes is examined. Particles considered are protons, helium ions, heavy ions, negative pions, and fast neutrons. Advantages and disadvantages are discussed

  18. Historical aspects of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents historical developments of heavy-ion radiotherapy including discussion of HILAC and HIMAC and discussion of cooperation between Japan and the United States, along with personal reflections

  19. Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in bilateral retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalar, Banu; Ozyar, Enis; Gunduz, Kaan; Gungor, Gorkem

    2010-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for retinoblastoma has traditionally been done with conventional radiotherapy techniques which resulted high doses to the surrounding normal tissues. A 20 month-old girl with group D bilateral retinoblastoma underwent intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to both eyes after failing chemoreduction and focal therapies including cryotherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. In this report, we discuss the use of IMRT as a method for reducing doses to adjacent normal tissues while delivering therapeutic doses to the tumour tissues compared with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). At one year follow-up, the patient remained free of any obvious radiation complications. Image guided IMRT provides better dose distribution than 3DCRT in retinoblastoma eyes, delivering the therapeutic dose to the tumours and minimizing adjacent tissue damage

  20. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author)

  1. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Surgery)

    1993-02-01

    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author).

  2. The radiotherapy affects the cognitive processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers from the medical center of the free university of Amsterdam report that the radiotherapy can hinder the cognitive functions of patients affected by cerebral tumors treated after a surgery. Even low dose radiation could contribute in their opinion, to the progressive cognitive decline of patients suffering of low grade gliomas, the most commune cerebral tumor. To get these conclusions, 65 patients, whom half of them received a radiotherapy, had a neurological and psychological evaluation twelve years after their treatment. Results: 53% of patients treated by radiotherapy present disorders of attention, memory, execution and speed of information treatment against 27% of these ones that received an only surgery. The researchers conclude to the necessity to take into account this risk in the choice of treatment, or even to avoid radiotherapy in this precise case. (N.C.)

  3. Urological sequelae following radiotherapy of gynecological tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgkhardt, M.; Jacob, J.; Burgkhardt, C.

    1983-01-01

    After radiotherapy of malign tumors of the female genitals early and late radiation effects, resp. of the urogenital system may arise. Reversible as well as irreversible radiation injuries appear and very often develop fistulae of different kinds

  4. Radiological protection and its organization in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Canizal, C.; Garcia, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    By means of a research carried out in Radiotherapy Centers in Mexico City, divided in 7 public institutions and 5 private, aspects related to the radiological safety and its organization in radiotherapy were evaluated. The population being studied was: medical and technical personnel, that works in the selected radiotherapy centers. The survey was made with 36 dichotomic variables, being obtained 90 surveys. The personnel characteristics are: 76% works for more than 3 years in radiotherapy, 93% has updated information about radiological protection, 67% knows the general radiological safety regulations, 93% knows the radiological emergency project and 95% makes use of personal dosemeter. As result of this research we found that the main problems that the radiological protection have are: lack of personnel training in radiological protection, although the 93% states to have updated information, the few number of persons that takes part in clinical meetings and professional associations. (authors). 7 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Geographic delivery models for radiotherapy services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, G.H.; Dunscombe, P.B.; Samant, R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The study described here was undertaken to quantify the societal cost of radiotherapy in idealized urban and rural populations and, hence, to generate a measure of impediment to access. The costs of centralized, distributed comprehensive and satellite radiotherapy delivery formats were examined by decomposing them into institutional, productivity and geographical components. Our results indicate that centralized radiotherapy imposes the greatest financial burden on the patient population in both urban and rural scenarios. The financial burden faced by patients who must travel for radiotherapy can be interpreted as one component of the overall impediment to access. With advances in remote-monitoring systems, it is possible to maintain technical quality while enhancing patient access. However, the maintenance of professional competence will remain a challenge with a distributed service-delivery format. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Stereotactic body radiotherapy a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Gaya, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Collecting the key information in this burgeoning field into a single volume, this handbook for clinical oncology trainees and consultants covers all of the basic aspects of stereotactic radiotherapy systems and treatment and includes plenty of case studies.

  7. Estimating the Risks of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Carolyn; Correa, Candace; Duane, Frances K

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature...... review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers...... and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality. Smoking status was unavailable. Third, the lung or heart ERRs per Gy in the trials and the 2010 to 2015 doses were combined and applied to current smoker and nonsmoker lung cancer and cardiac mortality...

  8. Radiotherapy for advanced breast cancer. Immediate results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lederman, M V; Silveira Filho, L; Martorelli Filho, B [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    1976-01-01

    Seventy-four patients with advanced breast cancer were submited to local radiotherapy of the affected regions. The response of 155 metastatic lesions are recorded. Early results are good, with objective and functional clinical improvement.

  9. Radiotherapy. Radiological oncology. Strahlentherapie. Radiologische Onkologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, E [ed.; Essen Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Radiologisches Zentrum

    1976-01-01

    This book attempts to give a survey of the present status of radiological tumour therapy with some emphasis on the clinical aspect of neoplasms. The physical and radiobiological fundamentals important for practical radiotherapy are discussed in great detail.

  10. Effects of Radiotherapy in the treatment of multiple myeloma: a retrospective analysis of a Single Institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuschek, Christiane; Ochtrop, Thomas A; Bölke, Edwin; Ganswindt, Ute; Fenk, Roland; Gripp, Stephan; Kröpil, Patric; Gerber, Peter Arne; Kammers, Kai; Hamilton, Jackson; Orth, Klaus; Budach, Wilfried

    2015-01-01

    Palliative irradiation of osteolytic lesions is a considerable component in the treatment for patients with multiple myeloma. In this study, we analyzed the efficacy of irradiation in these patients. We retrospectively analyzed 153 patients with multiple myeloma who were admitted to our department between 1989 and 2013. According to the staging system of Durie & Salmon 116 patients were classified as stage III. 107/153 patients were treated with radiotherapy of at least one and up to 6 bony lesions at different times. In order to evaluate the effect of local radiotherapy on pain relief and bone recalcification a uni- and multivariate analysis was performed using a binary logistic regression model to correct for multiple measurements. Complete information on dose, fractionation and volume of radiotherapy was available from 81 patients treated in 136 target volumes for pain relief, and from 69 patients treated in 108 target volumes for recalcification. Total radiation doses varied between 8 Gy to 50 Gy (median dose 25 Gy in 2.5 Gy fractions, 5 times a week). Radiotherapy resulted in complete local pain relief in 31% and partial local pain relief in 54% of the patients. In the univariate analysis, higher total radiation doses (p = 0.023) and higher age (p = 0.014) at the time of radiotherapy were significantly associated with a higher likelihood of pain relief, whereas no significant association was detected for concurrent systemic treatment, type and stage of myeloma and location of bone lesions. The same variables were independent predictors for pain relief in the multivariate analysis. Recalcification was observed in 48% of irradiated bone lesions. In the uni- and multivariate analysis higher radiation doses were significantly associated (p = 0.048) with an increased likelihood of recalcification. Side effects of radiotherapy were generally mild. Higher total biological radiation doses were associated with better pain relief and recalcification in this

  11. A semi-analytical radiobiological model may assist treatment planning in light ion radiotherapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kundrát, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 23 (2007), s. 6813-6830 ISSN 0031-9155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/05/2728 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : Bragg peak * light ions * hadron * hadron radiotherapy * biological effectiveness * treatment planning Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 2.528, year: 2007

  12. Biological therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenstein, Ben; Brook, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    This introductory textbook covers all the main categories of biological medicines, including vaccines, hormonal preparations, drugs for rheumatoid arthritis and other connective tissue diseases, drugs...

  13. Atomic and molecular data for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, K.

    1989-03-01

    This is the summary report of the First Research Co-ordination Meeting of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Atomic and Molecular Data for Radiotherapy, convened by the IAEA Nuclear Data Section in Vienna, from 30 January to 2 February 1989. The main objectives of the CRP are to generate, compile and evaluate the important atomic and molecular data relevant to radiotherapy. (author). 38 refs, 7 figs, 10 tabs

  14. Radiotherapy and immune reaction of oncologic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankina, V.Kh.; Sarkisyan, Yu.KH.

    1978-01-01

    Represented is a review of data accumulated in literature (1970-1976) on oppression of protection of oncologic patients and more oppression of immune reactions during radiotherapy. Underlined is the significance of studying immune homeostasis in a clinic of radiotherapy to evaluate total resistance of patients before the beginning and in the process of treatment. The prognostic significance of immunodepressive disturbances in patients with malignant tumors is elucidated

  15. The result of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. J.; Yang, K. M.; Suh, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the prognostic factors for disease-free survival and long-term results of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The study involved a retrospective review of outcome in a series of 27 patients with pituitary adenoma, between 1984 and 1995 at Paik hospital. The study included 20 patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy and 7 with radiotherapy alone. The patients were followed for 12-146 months (median: 97 months). Seventeen were men and 10 were women. The numbers of functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenoma were 22 and 5 respectively and those of microadenoma and macroadenoma were 4 and 23 respectively. The radiation doses of 5040-5580cGy(median: 5040cGy) were delivered over 5-7 weeks, using 4MV LINAC. The prognostic factors were analyzed by log-rank test. For radiation therapy alone, the 5 YSR was 100% and progression free survival rate was 85.8%. The tumor was controlled in 6/7 (85.8%). For surgery and postoperative radiotherapy , the 5YSR, progression free survival rate and local control rate were 95%, 84.8%, and 89.5% respectively. The parameters of tumor size, hormone secretion, radiation dose, radiotherapy field size were evaluated in a uni- and multivariate analysis and all the factors were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Eleven of 12 (92%) with visual field defect experienced normalization or improvement, and 5 for 7 evaluable patients with hyperprolactinoma achieved normalization in 4 and decrement in 5 patients. Only 2 patients developed mild degree of panhypopituitarism. The radiotherapy appears to be effective in controlling clinical symptoms and signs resulting from pituitary adenoma. Local control rate with radiotherapy alone or with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was comparable. There was a trend toward high recurrence rate in patients with nonfunctioning or prolactin secreting tumor and larger radiation field sizes. (author)

  16. The result of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. J.; Yang, K. M.; Suh, S. H. [Inje Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Cho, H. L.; Shon, S. C. [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    To evaluate the prognostic factors for disease-free survival and long-term results of radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The study involved a retrospective review of outcome in a series of 27 patients with pituitary adenoma, between 1984 and 1995 at Paik hospital. The study included 20 patients treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy and 7 with radiotherapy alone. The patients were followed for 12-146 months (median: 97 months). Seventeen were men and 10 were women. The numbers of functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenoma were 22 and 5 respectively and those of microadenoma and macroadenoma were 4 and 23 respectively. The radiation doses of 5040-5580cGy(median: 5040cGy) were delivered over 5-7 weeks, using 4MV LINAC. The prognostic factors were analyzed by log-rank test. For radiation therapy alone, the 5 YSR was 100% and progression free survival rate was 85.8%. The tumor was controlled in 6/7 (85.8%). For surgery and postoperative radiotherapy , the 5YSR, progression free survival rate and local control rate were 95%, 84.8%, and 89.5% respectively. The parameters of tumor size, hormone secretion, radiation dose, radiotherapy field size were evaluated in a uni- and multivariate analysis and all the factors were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Eleven of 12 (92%) with visual field defect experienced normalization or improvement, and 5 for 7 evaluable patients with hyperprolactinoma achieved normalization in 4 and decrement in 5 patients. Only 2 patients developed mild degree of panhypopituitarism. The radiotherapy appears to be effective in controlling clinical symptoms and signs resulting from pituitary adenoma. Local control rate with radiotherapy alone or with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy was comparable. There was a trend toward high recurrence rate in patients with nonfunctioning or prolactin secreting tumor and larger radiation field sizes. (author).

  17. 31-P NMR spectroscopy in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiricuta, I.C.; Schmitt, W.G.H.; Beyer, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Results suggest 31-P NMR spectroscopy to allow a discrimination between good and bad blood supply to the tumour owing to different metabolic behaviour and to furnish important information on tumour response to radiotherapy just a few hours after the application of a relatively low dose. Spectroscopy showed the radiation-sensitive tumour cells to behave relatively uniformly after radiotherapy suggesting this behaviour to be interpreted as therapeutical effectiveness. (orig./SHA) [de

  18. Implementation of patients radiation protection in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pridal, I.; Klaclova, T.; Novotny, J.; Zackova, H.

    1998-01-01

    Current status of quality assurance programmes in the Czech Republic is highlighted and the structure of quality audits is explained. The results of radiotherapy department auditing are given in a tabular form. It is shown that deviations from tolerable levels are mostly due to obsolete equipment and lack of health physicists at radiotherapy departments. The audits can help rectify the situation in part at least. (P.A.)

  19. Acute myocardial infarction after mediastinal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagliardi, Juan; Tezanos Pinto, Miguel; Avalos, Adolfo; Sarubbi, Augusto; Padilla, Lucio; Espinosa, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Mediastinal radiotherapy can affect the heart and great vessels to different degrees. It may turn up as coronary heart disease and less frequently as acute myocardial infarction. We report the case of a patient without coronary risk factors and an antecedent of mediastinal radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma. Considerations about mediastinal radiation as a risk factor for early development of coronary heart diseases are exposed. (author) [es

  20. MR-only Radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Maspero, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a local approach that involves the use of ionising radiation by exploiting its cell-killing effect to cure cancer. This effect, however, is not specific to damage only cancerous cells and spare healthy cells. Therefore, developments in radiotherapy aimed at reducing treatment uncertainties such that therapeutic radiation dose may be delivered to a malignant tumour while decreasing the dose received by healthy tissues. The recent advances in imaging techniques impacted and radi...

  1. Value of radiotherapy of gastric carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duehmke, E.

    1985-01-01

    Radiotherapy of gastric carcinoma, in contrast to malignant lymphoma, is not commonly in use, until today. Provided that there is a close cooperation between surgeons and radiooncologists, radiotherapy with sufficient, tolerable doses should be considered in any case of complete resection in order to improve the control of subclinical disease as well as cure from cancer. But also in non-resectable carcinoma of the stomach suitable radiotherapeutic approaches may give helpful palliation. (orig.) [de

  2. Cancer patients and delay in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klausen, O.G.; Olofsson, J.; Rosengren, B.

    1989-01-01

    Radiotherapeutical resources in Norway are inadequate, which was further verified in this retrospective study of 73 patients with cancer of head and neck. The average duration of symptoms before the first ear-nose-throat examination was 153 days, and it took about 10 days after the examination to get the diagnosis. An unacceptably long time (mean 30 days) elapsed between the decision on therapy until the radiotherapy was initiated. There is no doubt that radiotherapy departments in Norway need better resources

  3. Radiotherapy for Vestibular Schwannomas: A Critical Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Erin S.; Suh, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular schwannomas are slow-growing tumors of the myelin-forming cells that cover cranial nerve VIII. The treatment options for patients with vestibular schwannoma include active observation, surgical management, and radiotherapy. However, the optimal treatment choice remains controversial. We have reviewed the available data and summarized the radiotherapeutic options, including single-session stereotactic radiosurgery, fractionated conventional radiotherapy, fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy, and proton beam therapy. The comparisons of the various radiotherapy modalities have been based on single-institution experiences, which have shown excellent tumor control rates of 91-100%. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy have successfully improved cranial nerve V and VII preservation to >95%. The mixed data regarding the ideal hearing preservation therapy, inherent biases in patient selection, and differences in outcome analysis have made the comparison across radiotherapeutic modalities difficult. Early experience using proton therapy for vestibular schwannoma treatment demonstrated local control rates of 84-100% but disappointing hearing preservation rates of 33-42%. Efforts to improve radiotherapy delivery will focus on refined dosimetry with the goal of reducing the dose to the critical structures. As future randomized trials are unlikely, we suggest regimented pre- and post-treatment assessments, including validated evaluations of cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, and quality of life assessments with long-term prospective follow-up. The results from such trials will enhance the understanding of therapy outcomes and improve our ability to inform patients.

  4. Radiotherapy of adult nodal non Hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamen, G.; Thirion, P.

    1999-01-01

    The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of nodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma has been modified by the introduction of efficient chemotherapy and the development of different pathological classifications. The recommended treatment of early-stage aggressive lymphomas is primarily a combination chemotherapy. The interest of adjuvant radiotherapy remains unclear and has to be established through large prospective trials. If radiation therapy has to be delivered, the historical results of exclusive radiation therapy showed that involved-fields and a dose of 35-40 Gy (daily fraction of 1.8 Gy, 5 days a week) are the optimal schedule. The interest of radiotherapy in the treatment of advanced-stage aggressive lymphoma is yet to be proven. Further studies had to stratify localized stages according to the factors of the International Prognostic Index. For easy-stage low-grade lymphoma, radiotherapy remains the standard treatment. However, the appropriate technique to use is controversial. Involved-field irradiation at a dose of 35 Gy seems to be the optimal schedule, providing a 10 year disease-free survival rate of 50 % and no major toxicity. There is no standard indication of radiotherapy in the treatment advanced-stage low-grade lymphoma. For 'new' nodal lymphoma's types, the indication of radiotherapy cannot be established (mantle-zone lymphoma, marginal zone B-cell lymphoma) or must take into account the natural history (Burkitt's lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma) and the sensibility to others therapeutic methods. (authors)

  5. External beam radiotherapy for rectal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.E.; Kerr, G.R.; Arnott, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    A series of 243 patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum treated with radiotherapy is presented. Radiotherapy was combined with 5-fluorouracil, or given alone. Seventy-four patients were treated with radical external beam radiotherapy for recurrent or inoperable rectal adenocarcinoma. One hundred and forty-five patients with advanced pelvic tumours or metastases were treated with palliative pelvic radiotherapy. Twenty-four patients with small-volume residual pelvic tumour or who were felt to be at high risk of pelvic recurrence following radical resection received postoperative radiotherapy. Complete tumour regression was seen in 38% of radically treated patients, and 24% of palliatively treated patients. Partial regression was observed in 56% of radically treated patients, and 58% of palliatively treated patients. Long-term local tumour control was more commonly observed for small tumours (< 5 cm diameter). Fifty-eight % of patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy remained free of local recurrence. Survival was significantly better with small tumours. The addition of 5FU did not appear to improve survival or tumour control. (author)

  6. Integration of molecular imaging in treatment planning and delivery of modern radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, V.; Wilkens, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Among various imaging modalities currently available, positron emission tomography (PET) has the potential to visualize processes on a molecular level. Molecular imaging, often also referred to as functional or biological imaging, brought a new dimension to diagnostics and therapy of cancer by providing images of metabolism and other processes in the human body and in tumours. PET was first applied for diagnostics and staging of various tumours with high diagnostic precision. Modern radiotherapy asks increasingly for individualized treatment strategies, taking molecular imaging into account. Technical developments over the last years, in particular methods to register various imaging modalities within software packages for treatment planning and target delineation, facilitated the use of PET imaging in radiotherapy. In order to exploit the full potential of modern high-precision radiotherapy, exact imaging procedures are necessary, for example for precise target volume definition. In the long run, concepts employing an inhomogeneous dose prescription based on biological imaging may become routine in clinical applications, leading to individualized, biologically adaptive therapy. (orig.)

  7. Particle radiotherapy for patients with H and N malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Masao; Demizu, Yusuke; Niwa, Yasue; Terashima, Kazuki; Fujii, Osamu; Mima, Masayuki; Hashimoto, Naoki; Jin, Dongcun

    2011-01-01

    Particle beams have a characteristic called the Bragg peak, which is a peak formed at a fixed depth in the body depending on the acceleration energy. Utilizing this property, a high dose can be concentrated in the target tumor while minimizing damage to surrounding normal tissues. Proton and carbon ion beams have a higher linear energy transfer (LET) than X-rays. The relative biological effectiveness of proton and carbon ion beams compared with X-rays (=1) is estimated to be 1.1 and 3.0, respectively. Therefore, we can expect particle radiotherapy to be effective for patients with radio-resistant tumors such as malignant melanoma, adenoidcystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. As of the end of July 2011, there were 9 particle institutes operating in Japan; the Hyogo Ion Beam Medical Center was established in May 2001 as a leading project of the ''Hyogo Cancer Strategy''. One major characteristic is that the Center can generate both proton and carbon ion beams. Locally advanced nasal, paranasal or salivary gland cell tumors are good candidates for particle radiotherapy. Downsizing of the accelerator, price reduction of the machine, broad use of particle therapy in the field of clinical oncology, and intensity modulated particle therapy are future challenges. (author)

  8. Clinical investigation on RBE estimation for heavy particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Hiroshi; Kamada, Tadashi; Yanagi, Takeshi; Mizoe, Junetsu; Tsujii, Hirohiko

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of the clinical updated data of the prostate cancer patients treated with carbon-ions was performed for the purpose of investigating the clinical relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values of carbon ion beams. Most of the patients received the carbon ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) with the dose of 66.0 GyE/20 fractions. Probabilities of the late urethral morbidity and biochemical tumor control with this dose fractionation were calculated using the actual updated clinical data. The linear energy transfer (LET) values and physical carbon ion doses of urethra were obtained from treatment planning data. RBE values were calculated from the ratio of average carbon physical doses and photon doses which cause the same grade of urethra reaction with the same probabilities. Obtained RBE values were compared with the values that are being used in actual carbon ion radiotherapy in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). In addition, relative RBE of carbon ion beams for biochemical tumor control was calculated using the data from the literature. As a result, the RBE values being used for the treatment were thought to be proper enough for both the urethra reaction and tumor control. (author)

  9. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, A.

    1997-01-01

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto's disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  10. Radiobiological research for improving tumor radiotherapy - an Indian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Viney

    1990-01-01

    Radiation-induced damage to normal tissues within the non-target volume is a major limitation of tumor radiotherapy. Physical methods to obtain superior spatial dose distributions use sophisticated technology and are expensive. Large scale applications of these technologies in a developing country like India, with a large number of cancer patients, poor instrumental facilities and inadequate infrastructure face several problems. Radiobiological research aiming at developing simple, inexpensive and effective methods to increase the differential response between tumor and normal tissues should be, therefore, strengthened. Biological end-points are determined not only by the molecular lesions produced due to the absorption of the radiation energy but also by the cellular repair processes, which become operative in response to lesions in the living system. Therefore, enhancement of repair processes in the normal tissues and inhibition of the same in tumors should considerably improve the therapeutic index of radiation treatment. A combination of agents which can suitably alter the spectrum of important molecular lesions with modifiers of cellular repair could be an effective strategy. Initial experiments using halopyrimidines to increase repairable DNA lesions produced by sparsely ionizing radiations in combination with 2-deoxy-D-glucose to modulate differentially the repair and fixation processes in the tumor and normal tissues have provided promising results. Further research work is warranted since this strategy appears to have great potential for improving tumor radiotherapy. (author). 46 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  12. European Society for Radiaton Biology - 19th annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings contain 313 abstracts of papers. The topics covered include: biological radiation effects on lipids, hormones, fibroblasts, on bone healing, DNA repair, DNA synthesis, tumor cells, giant cell formation, on the lymphatic system, central nervous system and the hematopoietic system; determination of RBE; radioprotective agents; radiotherapy; dosimetry; radiation induced mutations; oxygen effects; radiosensitivity of tumor cells; hyperthermia and hypoxia effects on radiosensitivity; biological radiation effects on the growth of plants. (J.P.)

  13. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  14. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological ...

  15. Preoperative radiotherapy for bone and soft tissue sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Seiichi; Kawaguchi, Noriyoshi; Amino, Katsuhisa; Manabe, Jun; Yamashita, Takashi; Kaneta, Kouichi; Furuya, Kohtaro; Isobe, Yasushi.

    1989-01-01

    The role of preoperative radiotherapy was evaluated in 16 cases with soft tissue sarcoma and 13 cases with osteosarcoma. Nine osteosarcoma cases underwent radiotherapy of whole lesion, and 4 cases had radiotherapy only of the surgically uncurable portion. There were no local recurrences in M0 cases, but skin necrosis occurred in the whole radiation group. As for the soft tissue sarcomas, local recurrence was not seen in virgin cases, but two cases which had received previous treatment showed local recurrence. There were no cases with severe side effects. Partial radiotherapy was effective as preoperative treatment for osteosarcoma. Preoperative radiotherapy is better than postoperative radiotherapy from many standpoints. (author)

  16. Radiotherapy for pain management of bone metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezende Junior, Ismar de; Mattos, Marcos Duarte de; Nakamura, Ricardo; Lemes Junior, Joaquim; Vanzelli, Talita Lozano, E-mail: rezende.med@terra.com.br [Radioterapia do Hospital de Cancer de Barretos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Purpose: This is the first Brazilian study intended to evaluate the response of pain relief with radiotherapy in three different fractionation and the clinical differences in managing pain in patients with painful bone metastases. Methods: Prospective study of patients with painful bone metastases referred to the Radiotherapy Sector of the Hospital de Cancer de Barretos for pain-relieving radiotherapy between March and December 2010. It is known that radiotherapy seems to alter the activation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, relieving pain in cases of painful bone metastases. Patients were assessed in relation to the status of pain intensity before and after the initiation of radiotherapy. Either a single fraction of 8Gy, five fractions of 4Gy or ten fractions of 3Gy were given. A visual analog scale (VAS) was applied by doctors, nurses and nursing technicians to assess pain intensity at each session of radiotherapy, and follow-up at 8, 30 and 90 days from the end of treatment. Results: We evaluated 92 consecutive patients, 48 male and 44 female, with a median age of 58 years. We found that 14% of patients referred from the Palliative Care or Clinical Oncology sectors need better pharmacological analgesia due to severe pain, compared with 40.5% of patients from the other sectors (p = 0.004). We also found that the onset of pain relief to patients receiving 10 fractions of 300cGy analgesia without changing the pre-radiotherapy analgesia occurred with significance after the fifth fraction. Improvement in pain experienced within 90 days of follow-up was found in eighty percent of patients, independent of fractionated radiotherapy, site of metastases and the clinical condition of the patient. Discussion/Conclusion: The Palliative Care and Clinical Oncology sectors expressed greater concern in regards to analgesia for the patient with painful bone metastases. Radiotherapy is an effective pain-relieving treatment in different fractionation studied, even though the

  17. Radiotherapy for pain management of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende Junior, Ismar de; Mattos, Marcos Duarte de; Nakamura, Ricardo; Lemes Junior, Joaquim; Vanzelli, Talita Lozano

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This is the first Brazilian study intended to evaluate the response of pain relief with radiotherapy in three different fractionation and the clinical differences in managing pain in patients with painful bone metastases. Methods: Prospective study of patients with painful bone metastases referred to the Radiotherapy Sector of the Hospital de Cancer de Barretos for pain-relieving radiotherapy between March and December 2010. It is known that radiotherapy seems to alter the activation of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, relieving pain in cases of painful bone metastases. Patients were assessed in relation to the status of pain intensity before and after the initiation of radiotherapy. Either a single fraction of 8Gy, five fractions of 4Gy or ten fractions of 3Gy were given. A visual analog scale (VAS) was applied by doctors, nurses and nursing technicians to assess pain intensity at each session of radiotherapy, and follow-up at 8, 30 and 90 days from the end of treatment. Results: We evaluated 92 consecutive patients, 48 male and 44 female, with a median age of 58 years. We found that 14% of patients referred from the Palliative Care or Clinical Oncology sectors need better pharmacological analgesia due to severe pain, compared with 40.5% of patients from the other sectors (p = 0.004). We also found that the onset of pain relief to patients receiving 10 fractions of 300cGy analgesia without changing the pre-radiotherapy analgesia occurred with significance after the fifth fraction. Improvement in pain experienced within 90 days of follow-up was found in eighty percent of patients, independent of fractionated radiotherapy, site of metastases and the clinical condition of the patient. Discussion/Conclusion: The Palliative Care and Clinical Oncology sectors expressed greater concern in regards to analgesia for the patient with painful bone metastases. Radiotherapy is an effective pain-relieving treatment in different fractionation studied, even though the

  18. Treating all fields in every radiotherapy session? - Questioning the old dogma (or, pelvis radiotherapy: speculations on fractioning)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, S.L.; Ferrigno, R.; Osti, N.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty years ago Wilson and Hall published paper on the advisability of treating all fields at each radiotherapy session. That was based on the widely accepted method for calculating the biological effect of fractionated treatment in terms of a single quantity: the concept of a nominal standard dose (NSD). It was the beginning of an old dogma in radiation oncology: treating all fields every day. The basis megavoltage units of treatment in Brazil are cobalt and low energy linacs. The country is poor and it is not rare to have patients waiting lines. Due to that situation since five years ago we have been treating pelvic tumors with four fields (box technique) but irradiating only two fields per day. After treating hundreds of patients this way we have found no increased late complications, particularly subcutaneous tissue fibrosis. Previous data showed that TDE factors equal or lower than 90 were not related to any kind of fibrosis. treating pelvic tumors with the box technique but irradiating only two fields per day gives TDF values little greater than doing all four fields per day, but still lower than 90. That may explain why we have found no fibrosis. The impression is that not to treat all fields at each radiotherapy session may be possible with no increased rate of late complications. (author). 10 refs, 3 tabs, 2 figs

  19. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for liver tumors. Principles and practical guidelines of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterzing, Florian [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Klinische Kooperationseinheit Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Brunner, Thomas B. [Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Radiologische Klinik, Freiburg (Germany); Ernst, Iris; Greve, Burkhard [Universitaetsklinikum Muenster, Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Muenster (Germany); Baus, Wolfgang W. [Universitaetsklinikum Koeln, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Koeln (Germany); Herfarth, Klaus [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Abteilung fuer Radioonkologie und Strahlentherapie, Heidelberg (Germany); Guckenberger, Matthias [UniversitaetsSpital Zuerich, Klinik fuer Radio-Onkologie, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2014-10-15

    This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a practical guideline for safe and effective stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of liver tumors. The literature on the clinical evidence of SBRT for both primary liver tumors and liver metastases was reviewed and analyzed focusing on both physical requirements and special biological characteristics. Recommendations were developed for patient selection, imaging, planning, treatment delivery, motion management, dose reporting, and follow-up. Radiation dose constraints to critical organs at risk are provided. SBRT is a well-established treatment option for primary and secondary liver tumors associated with low morbidity. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeitsgruppe Stereotaxie der Deutschen Gesellschaft fuer Radioonkologie (DEGRO) legt hier eine Empfehlung zur sicheren und effektiven Durchfuehrung der SBRT von Lebertumoren vor. Eine Literaturrecherche zur Untersuchung der Evidenz der SBRT sowohl fuer primaere Lebertumore als auch fuer Lebermetastasen wurde durchgefuehrt. Auf dieser Basis werden Empfehlungen fuer technisch-physikalische Voraussetzungen wie auch fuer die taegliche Praxis der Leber-SBRT gegeben. Weiterhin werden radiobiologische Besonderheiten dieses Verfahrens dargestellt. Praktische Vorgaben werden fuer Patientenselektion, Bildgebung, Planung, Applikation, Bewegungsmanagement, Dosisdokumentation und Follow-up gegeben. Dosisempfehlungen fuer die kritischen Risikoorgane werden dargestellt. Die SBRT stellt eine etablierte Behandlungsmethode fuer primaere und sekundaere Lebertumore dar und ist mit niedriger Morbiditaet assoziiert. (orig.)

  20. Late effects of external radiotherapy on the thyroid gland; Effets tardifs de la radiotherapie externe sur la glande thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnier, A. [Centre Hospitalier general A-Boulloche, 25 - Montbeliard (France)

    1997-12-01

    The thyroid is the purest endocrine gland in the body and is likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after external radiotherapy. Functional clinical modifications after direct irradiation exceeding 30 Gy are essentially related to hypothyroidism which may be clinically overt or subclinical with normal serum free thyroxine levels and high thyrotropin concentrations; the risk of hyperthyroidism, silent thyroiditis and Hashimoto`s disease is also increased. secondary hypothyroidism related to irradiation of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland may arise with doses over 40-50 Gy following treatment for brain and nasopharyngeal tumors - Morphological glandular modifications induced by radiotherapy are responsible for the appearance of benign adenomas, more rarely cystic degenerations and specially well differentiated papillary or follicular carcinomas among children and adults. After irradiation during childhood for benign or malignant tumors, thyroid cancers are more frequent, higher for younger children, and the relative excess risk is increased from 15.6-to 53-fold; tumors can belatedly occur, more than 35 years after initial therapy. Thereby, in order to limit excess morbidity, it is evident that long term supervision with careful clinical and biological evaluations is necessary for patients who previously received neck, upper mediastinum and pituitary radiation therapy. (author)

  1. Intraoperative Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor E. R. Harris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT for early stage breast cancer is a technique for partial breast irradiation. There are several technologies in clinical use to perform breast IORT. Regardless of technique, IORT generally refers to the delivery of a single dose of radiation to the periphery of the tumor bed in the immediate intraoperative time frame, although some protocols have performed IORT as a second procedure. There are two large prospective randomized trials establishing the safety and efficacy of breast IORT in early stage breast cancer patients with sufficient follow-up time on thousands of women. The advantages of IORT for partial breast irradiation include: direct visualization of the target tissue ensuring treatment of the high-risk tissue and eliminating the risk of marginal miss; the use of a single dose coordinated with the necessary surgical excision thereby reducing omission of radiation and the selection of mastectomy for women without access to a radiotherapy facility or unable to undergo several weeks of daily radiation; favorable toxicity profiles; patient convenience and cost savings; radiobiological and tumor microenvironment conditions which lead to enhanced tumor control. The main disadvantage of IORT is the lack of final pathologic information on the tumor size, histology, margins, and nodal status. When unexpected findings on final pathology such as positive margins or positive sentinel nodes predict a higher risk of local or regional recurrence, additional whole breast radiation may be indicated, thereby reducing some of the convenience and low-toxicity advantages of sole IORT. However, IORT as a tumor bed boost has also been studied and appears to be safe with acceptable toxicity. IORT has potential efficacy advantages related to overall survival related to reduced cardiopulmonary radiation doses. It may also be very useful in specific situations, such as prior to oncoplastic reconstruction to improve accuracy of

  2. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  3. Radiotherapy for breast cancer and pacemaker; Radiotherapie pour un cancer du sein et stimulateur cardiaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menard, J.; Campana, F.; Bollet, M.A.; Dendale, R.; Fournier-Bidoz, N.; Marchand, V.; Mazal, A.; Fourquet, A.; Kirova, Y.M. [Oncologie-radiotherapie, institut Curie, 26, rue d' Ulm, 75005 Paris (France); Kirov, K.M.; Esteve, M. [Departement d' anesthesie-reanimation-douleur, institut Curie, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-06-15

    Purpose. - Patients with permanent cardiac pacemakers occasionally require radiotherapy. Therapeutic Irradiation may cause pacemakers to malfunction due to the effects of ionizing radiation or electromagnetic interference. We studied the breast cancer patients who needed breast and/or chest wall and lymph node irradiation to assess the feasibility and tolerance in this population of patients. Patients and methods. - From November 2008 to December 2009, more than 900 patients received radiotherapy for their breast cancer in our department using megavoltage linear accelerator (X 4-6 MV and electrons). Among them, seven patients were with permanent pacemaker. All patients have been treated to the breast and chest wall and/or lymph nodes. Total dose to breast and/or chest wall was 50 Gy/25 fractions and 46 Gy/23 fractions to lymph nodes. Patients who underwent conserving surgery followed by breast irradiation were boosted when indicated to tumour bed with 16 Gy/8 fractions. All patients were monitored everyday in presence of radiation oncologist to follow the function of their pacemaker. All pacemakers were controlled before and after radiotherapy by the patients' cardiologist. Results. - Seven patients were referred in our department for postoperative breast cancer radiotherapy. Among them, only one patient was declined for radiotherapy and underwent mastectomy without radiotherapy. In four cases the pacemaker was repositioned before the beginning of radiotherapy. Six patients, aged between 48 and 84 years underwent irradiation for their breast cancer. Four patients were treated with conserving surgery followed by breast radiotherapy and two with mastectomy followed by chest wall and internal mammary chain, supra- and infra-clavicular lymph node irradiation. The dose to the pacemaker generator was kept below 2 Gy. There was no pacemaker dysfunction observed during the radiotherapy. Conclusion. - The multidisciplinary work with position change of the pacemaker

  4. Status of Radiotherapy around the World: Radiotherapy in China. Chapter 25.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Ci; Yin, Wei Bo; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Chun Li; Zhang, Hong Zhi; Li, Ye Xiong

    2017-01-01

    China’s experience of using radiotherapy to treat cancer began with the installation of the first superficial X ray machine at Peking Union Medical College Hospital in early 1920, followed by the first 200 kV deep X ray machine installed at the French Hospital in Shanghai in 1923, and the first Chinese radiotherapy department established at the Affiliated Hospital of Peking University in 1932. However, the field of radiotherapy in China was still in its infancy between the 1930s and 1960s, as all operating machines were imported from foreign countries, making radiotherapy very difficult to access for cancer patients. Progress was slow until the mid-1970s, when the first batch of megavoltage machines (cobalt-60 machines and linacs) was produced by Chinese manufacturers. Owing to the efforts of radiotherapy pioneers such as Wu Huanxing, Gu Xianzhi, Liu Taifu, and Yin Weibo, who brought radiotherapy to China and shaped how Chinese patients would be treated today, radiotherapy was installed as one of the mainstream modalities of cancer treatment. In 1986, the China Society for Radiation Oncology (CSTRO) was founded, indicating that a network advancing radiation oncology practice in China was taking shape. One year later, the first issue of the Chinese Journal of Radiation Oncology was published, offering a platform for the timely exchange and sharing of laboratory and clinical research outcomes among radiation oncology professions across the country. During the past two decades, with the introduction of the gamma knife and stereotactic radiotherapy, 3-D conformal radiotherapy, IMRT, IGRT and other advanced techniques, China experienced not only a big jump in its radiotherapy equipment and facilities, but also a dramatic growth in the excellence of radiation oncology specialist staff nationwide

  5. Precision medicine for early breast cancer radiotherapy: Opening up new horizons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jacques

    2017-05-01

    So far most efforts put forth to test the value of predictive and prognostic tools in the field of breast radiotherapy remained globally disappointing, or at least below the convincing levels reached for systemic therapy. Nevertheless the addition of predictive tools to the clinical armament tends to prevail over the use of the sole prognostic factors, also in radiotherapy. A number of predictive assays, clinically validated or not, have recently elicited significant associations between molecular profiles and tumor biological aggressiveness and/or radiosensitivity levels. Will it take a long time for these radiation-specific assays to provide added value to the - already crowded - constellation of predictive tools in the breast cancer? On the one hand, optimizing radiotherapy through the integration of precision medicine into the breast cancer management still remains a challenging issue. On the other hand, recent advances in predictive assays aimed at distinguishing patients with a more radioresistant tumor that necessitates radiation dose escalation or a switch to therapeutic approaches other than radiotherapy, plea in favor of an increasing role, in a near future, for radiation-specific molecular signatures. Streamlining predictive assays platforms via concerted actions should imperatively be given high priority, also in terms of health economics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, Richard B.; Buyyounouski, Mark K.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Beard, Clair J.

    2012-01-01

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 × 1−2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior–posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior–posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  7. Radiotherapy Treatment Planning for Testicular Seminoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richardbwilder@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Beard, Clair J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Virtually all patients with Stage I testicular seminoma are cured regardless of postorchiectomy management. For patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, late toxicity is a major concern. However, toxicity may be limited by radiotherapy techniques that minimize radiation exposure of healthy normal tissues. This article is an evidence-based review that provides radiotherapy treatment planning recommendations for testicular seminoma. The minority of Stage I patients who choose adjuvant treatment over surveillance may be considered for (1) para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy in 10 fractions, or (2) carboplatin chemotherapy consisting of area under the curve, AUC = 7 Multiplication-Sign 1-2 cycles. Two-dimensional radiotherapy based on bony anatomy is a simple and effective treatment for Stage IIA or IIB testicular seminoma. Centers with expertise in vascular and nodal anatomy may consider use of anteroposterior-posteroanterior fields based on three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy instead. For modified dog-leg fields delivering 20 Gy in 10 fractions, clinical studies support placement of the inferior border at the top of the acetabulum. Clinical and nodal mapping studies support placement of the superior border of all radiotherapy fields at the top of the T12 vertebral body. For Stage IIA and IIB patients, an anteroposterior-posteroanterior boost is then delivered to the adenopathy with a 2-cm margin to the block edge. The boost dose consists of 10 Gy in 5 fractions for Stage IIA and 16 Gy in 8 fractions for Stage IIB. Alternatively, bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy for 3 cycles or etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for 4 cycles may be delivered to Stage IIA or IIB patients (e.g., if they have a horseshoe kidney, inflammatory bowel disease, or a history of radiotherapy).

  8. Biological desulfurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, B.J. [UOP LLC (United States); Benschop, A.; Janssen, A. [Paques Natural Solutions (Netherlands); Kijlstra, S. [Shell Global Solutions (Netherlands)

    2001-03-01

    This article focuses on the biological THIOPAQ process for removing hydrogen sulphide from refinery gases and recovering elemental sulphur. Details are given of the process which absorbs hydrogen sulphide-containing gas in alkaline solution prior to oxidation of the dissolved sulphur to elemental sulphur in a THIOPAQ aerobic biological reactor, with regeneration of the caustic solution. Sulphur handling options including sulphur wash, the drying of the sulphur cake, and sulphur smelting by pressure liquefaction are described. Agricultural applications of the biologically recovered sulphur, and application of the THIOPAQ process to sulphur recovery are discussed.

  9. Multileaf collimator for radiotherapy machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunan, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for radiotherapy treatment of a patient. It comprises: an electron linear accelerator means for generating x-rays at an x-ray source target; a set of four moveable jaws mounted on a jaw frame between the x-ray source target and the patient. The set of jaws defining a rectangular x-ray field; mounting means for mounting a leaf means on the jaw frame; the mounting means including a main leaf support frame; a pair of subframes, each of which is linearly movable mounted from the frame. The subframes being coplanar; a multiplicity of leaves of material substantially opaque to x-rays. The leaves provided with means to make them linearly movable relative to each subframe, each leaf being capable of extension beyond a field mid-line, the length of each leaf being shorter than half of a maximum field length capability of the jaws measured in the direction and plane of the leaves; leaf drive means; and computer control means for controlling the subframe drive means and the leaf drive means to provide a dynamically changing radiation field shape during the course of radiation treatment of the patient

  10. Systemic radiotherapy with monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sautter-Bihl, M.L.; Matzku, S.; Bihl, H.

    1993-01-01

    In this experimental study, feasibility and efficiency of systematic radiotherapy with the I-131 labelled monoclonal antibody BW575/9 (radioimmunotherapy) are investigated using human SK-N-SH neuroblastoma transplated into nude mice. Series of six nude mice were treated with intravenous application of 400 μCi (group 1), 700 μCi (group 2) of the I-131 labelled and of the unlabelled MAb (group 3). An untreated group (group 4) served as control. Tumors of group (3) and (4) showed an identical growth. In group (1), tumor growth was arrested for seven days. In group (2), the tumor showed complete regression after eight days which lasted for 55 days. Thereafter, the tumor started to regrow. This growth characteristics are correlated with the doses achieved in the tumor using a medical radiation dose (MIRD) formulation. The biodistribution data necessary for MIRD calculation were obtained by previously performed experiments with the I-125 labelled MAb. The doses assessed in the tumor turned out to be five to ten times greater than those in normal tissues (liver, bone, etc.) These results confirm feasibility, selectivity and efficiency of radioimmunotherapy in the above described model. Moreover, this in vivo model seems suitable for further investigations concerning fundamental issues of radioimunotherapy. (orig.) [de

  11. Symptomatic splenomegaly and palliative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaneva, M.; Vlaikova, M.

    2005-01-01

    We analysed the effect of irradiation of an enlarged spleen in some hematologic diseases: chronic myelaemia, osteomyelophybrosis and chronic lymphadenosis, where splenectomy had been contraindicated and where pain has been a leading symptom and also the discomfort because of an enlarged spleen. For 20 years in the Clinic of Radiotherapy have been treated 23 patients with the above mentioned diseases. We have irradiated all patients using X-ray and later- Co-60. To reach a palliative effect we have irradiated patients with single doses from 50 cGy to 100 cGy with an interval of 2-3 days between each fraction, but the total doses have been different- from 400 cGy to 1500 cGy. The enlarged spleen has reached the pelvis in 3 cm to 17 cm below the costal margin, and in some patients has crossed the median line of the body going in some centimetres on the other side. The reduction of splenic size and volume is as follows: full reduction in 6 patients (26.1%) and partial in 17 (73.9%). All patients resulted in decreases in pain and tension in abdomen and the total discomfort. No serious side haematologic effects were encountered. Our experience indicates that cautious splenic irradiation can be a safe and useful therapeutic alternative. The symptomatic palliation in patients, where splenectomy is not an option, is effective and is an additional alternative for an improvement of their general condition

  12. Post Pelvic Radiotherapy Bony Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    There has been recent interest in radiation-induced bone injury in clinical conditions, especially for pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF). A PIF is caused by the effect of normal or physiological stress on bone with demineralization and decreased elastic resistance. Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) can also contribute to the development of a PIF. A PIF has been regarded as a rare complication with the use of megavoltage equipment. However, recent studies have reported the incidence of PIFs as 8.2{approx}20% after pelvic RT in gynecological patients, an incidence that was higher than previously believed. The importance of understanding a PIF lies in the potential for misdiagnosis as a bony metastasis. If patients complain of pelvic pain after whole-pelvis radiation therapy, the presence of a PIF must be considered in the differential diagnosis. The use of multibeam arrangements and conformal RT to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture. In addition to a PIF, osteonecrosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral head can develop after radiation therapy. Osteoradionecrosis of the pelvic bone is a clinical diagnostic challenge that must be differentiated from an osseous metastasis. A post-radiation bone sarcoma can result as a long-term sequela of pelvic irradiation for uterine cervical cancer.

  13. Robotic radiotherapy for prostate cancer with CyberKnife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannoun-Levi, J.M.; Benezery, K.; Bondiau, P.Y.; Marcie, S.; Gerard, J.P.; Chamorey, E.

    2007-01-01

    After 3D conformal radiation therapy without and with modulated intensity, image-guided radiation therapy represents a new technological step. Should prostate cancer treatment using radiotherapy with the CyberKnife robotic system be considered as a new treatment and then investigated through classical clinical research procedure rather than a technical improvement of an already validated treatment? After a general presentation of the CyberKnife, the authors focused on prostate cancer treatment assuming that, according to dosimetric and biological considerations, the treatment by robotic system appears comparable to high dose rate brachytherapy. For prostate cancer treatment are discussed: biological rational for hypo fractionated treatment, high dose rate brachytherapy boost and interest of dose escalation. A comparison is presented between CyberKnife and other validated treatment for prostate cancer (radical prostatectomy, 3D conformal radiation therapy and low and high dose rate brachytherapy). In summary, CyberKnife treatment could be considered as a technical improvement of an already validated treatment in order to deliver a prostate boost after pelvic or peri-prostatic area irradiation. However, the clinical, biological and economical results must be precisely analyzed and could be assessed in the frame of a National Observatory based on shared therapeutic program. (authors)

  14. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  15. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists

  16. A neurosurgery/stereotactic radiotherapy dedicated PACS for conformal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefkopoulos, D.; Bocquiault, P.; Levrier, M.; Merienne, L.; Schlienger, M.

    1995-01-01

    To realise conformal cerebral stereotactic irradiations we use a Neurosurgery/stereotactic dedicated PACS between two distant hospitals. It connects the stereotactic neurosurgery planification imaging system NEUROAXIS (Sopelem-Sofretec/Ste Anne Hospital) with the dosimetric TPS ARTEMIS-3D/Dosigray (Tenon Hospital). NEUROAXIS is a computer aided stereotactic biopsies and stereo-electroencephalographies, used by surgeons in operating room. The system determines the precise location data for Talairach radiological equipment (X ray source at 5 meters from film) and the geometry of scanner and MRI stereotactical referentials. It provides a full set of features for lesion localization, geometrical computations, surgical planifications, picture archiving, stereotactic angiography, CT and MRI image processing and networking. It sends images through the French public digital network ISDN (NUMERIS/France Telecom : 2x64 Kbits/s) from Ste Anne to Tenon Hospital. Stereotactic angiographic and CT images are reformatted into the DOSIGRAY image processing environment where 3-D dose distributions, displays and DVHs are computed to determine the optimal treatment. ARTEMIS-3D/Dosigray is a TPS for stereotactic radiotherapy devised by the Tenon Hospital for clinical methodology and 3D dose calculations, optimization software development and the Dosigray company for multimodality imaging, (2D(3D)) computer graphics for dose and anatomical representation and data networking. Communication within the radiation oncology department is provided by local area ETHERNET network, linking heterogeneous systems (Vaxstations-3200; Decstation (5000(240))) by means of different protocols. The works in progress are to send back via the same network the 3-D dose matrix to Neurosurgery department NEUROAXIS system. Our PACS is used since six months to treat patients. It has permitted to improve the treatment quality in comparison with our first version TPS ARTEMIS-3D

  17. Value of intraoperative radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferenschild, Floris T. J.; Vermaas, Maarten; Nuyttens, Joost J. M. E.; Graveland, Wilfried J.; Marinelli, Andreas W. K. S.; van der Sijp, Joost R.; Wiggers, Theo; Verhoef, Cornelis; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; de Wilt, Johannes H. W.

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to analyze the results of a multimodality treatment using preoperative radiotherapy, followed by surgery and intraoperative radiotherapy in patients with primary locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS: Between 1987 and 2002, 123 patients with initial unresectable

  18. Surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Testori, A; Rutkowski, P; Marsden, J

    2009-01-01

    on individual circumstances. Radiotherapy is indicated as a treatment option in select patients with lentigo maligna melanoma and as an adjuvant in select patients with regional metastatic disease. Radiotherapy is also indicated for palliation, especially in bone and brain metastases....

  19. Rehabilitation in radiotherapy of osteosarcomas in children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizer, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Rehabilitation in radiotherapy of osteosarcomas in children and adolescents is manifested in rational planning of radiotherapy and in simplest orthopedic measures carried out simultaneously with irradiation and aimed at removal of contractures in limb joints

  20. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inuyama, Yukio; Fujii, Masato; Tanaka, Juichi; Takaoka, Tetsuro; Hosoda, Hyonosuke; Kawaura, Mitsuhiro; Toji, Masao

    1988-01-01

    There are 4 modalities of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy which include (1) concurrent radiotherapy and chemotherapy, (2) sequential use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy (pre-radiation chemotherapy), (3) pre-radiation chemotherapy followed by concurrent radiation and chemotherapy, and (4) alternating use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy based upon Looney's hypothesis. We studied concurrent use of radiotherapy and UFT by means of animal experimentation and clinical trials. The results obtained revealed that UFT was a most suitable agent together with 5-fluorouracil for concurrent application of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy including pre-radiation chemotherapy was also studied in cases of maxillary sinus carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. From the results, it seemed desirable to use cisplatin and bleomycin analogs sequentially in combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy should be studied successively to improve local tumor control rates and prevent distant metastases. For future perspectives, new trials of alternating radiotherapy and chemotherapy based upon Looney's hypothesis seem necessary. (author)

  1. Correlative study on anemia and radiotherapy effects in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jinsheng; Jiang Yuanshi; Cao Xibiao; Zhan Yongzhong; Yang Liye; Chen Jianxiu; Chen Chengwu; Li Yang

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of oxygen-carrying ability of blood efficacy of radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: Altogether 161 cases of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were classified according to severity of anemia, and Hb, RBC, MCH, HCT, MCV, MCHC and RDW were tested before, during and after radiotherapy. The patients were followed-up for up to 5 years, the relationship and mechanism among anemia, radiotherapy effects and survival rate was discussed. Results: The survival rate between anemia group and non-anemia group was different significantly (P<0.05). Anemia before radiotherapy, anemia appearance or anemia deterioration during radiotherapy were sensitive factors affecting radiotherapy results. The anemia more severe, the radiotherapy worse. Conclusion: Anemia-hypohemoglobinemia leads to decrease of oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, resulting in oxygen deficiency of tumor cells and their radiotherapy resistance. Therefore this method is worthy of further studies

  2. Procedures for the definitive calibration of radiotherapy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations from the Institute of Physical Sciences in Medicine are given for the definition calibration of external beam radiotherapy treatment machines and radiation dose measuring equipment used in radiotherapy. (UK)

  3. Radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Iizumi, Takashi; Shimizu, Shosei; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Tomokazu; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper explained the current state of radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer, and discussed the role of radiotherapy in curative treatment and the future development. In the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, it is important to judge the existence of pathological muscular layer invasion based on transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). In surgical results in Japan, the U.S., and Switzerland, 5-year survival rate is about 60 to 70%. Standard treatment for bladder cancer with muscle layer invasion had been surgery, and radiotherapy had been applied to the cases without resistance to surgery. Three combined therapy with TUR-BT and simultaneous chemoradiotherapy is the current standard bladder conserving therapy. The 5-year survival rate is approximately 60%, which is superior to the treatment with irradiation alone. Radiotherapy for kidney cancer is most often used as perioperative treatment for locally advanced cancer or as symptomatic treatment for metastatic lesions. However, due to recent improvement in radiotherapy technology, correspondence to respiratory movement and high dose administration associated with improvement in dose concentration have been realized, and stereotactic irradiation using a high single dose for inoperable disease cases or surgery refusal disease cases has come to be clinically applied. (A.O.)

  4. Radiotherapy of primary gastric malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Yoshio; Mutsukura, Masahide; Moriuchi, Yukiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    Fifteen patients with primary gastric malignant lymphoma who underwent radiotherapy were examined. Median age was 68 years, and male to female ratio was 1:2. All the cases were stage I including 7 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 7 cases of MALT lymphoma, and 1 case of follicular lymphoma. Therapy methods were as follows. For DLBCL, 30 Gy of radiotherapy was performed after chemotherapy. For six cases of MALT lymphomas, 30 Gy of radiotherapy was performed. For one patient diagnosed as high-grade gastric MALT lymphoma was treated in the same way as DLBCL. For one patient with follicular lymphoma, 30 Gy of radiotherapy was performed. The radiotherapy was applied with 3-dimensional fixed multi-portal irradiation, with the reduced irradiation of the liver and kidney. There was no recurrence of disease in all cases, and all patients have been alive, and no-recurrence living periods are 20 to 120 months. There was no harmful adverse event, and the tumor had disappeared with 30 Gy of radiation therapy in all cases. Considering the occurrence of secondary cancer, it was considered that a dosage of more than 30 Gy was not necessary for primary gastric malignant lymphoma. (J.P.N.)

  5. Survey on deep learning for radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philippe; Noblet, Vincent; Mazzara, Christophe; Lallement, Alex

    2018-05-17

    More than 50% of cancer patients are treated with radiotherapy, either exclusively or in combination with other methods. The planning and delivery of radiotherapy treatment is a complex process, but can now be greatly facilitated by artificial intelligence technology. Deep learning is the fastest-growing field in artificial intelligence and has been successfully used in recent years in many domains, including medicine. In this article, we first explain the concept of deep learning, addressing it in the broader context of machine learning. The most common network architectures are presented, with a more specific focus on convolutional neural networks. We then present a review of the published works on deep learning methods that can be applied to radiotherapy, which are classified into seven categories related to the patient workflow, and can provide some insights of potential future applications. We have attempted to make this paper accessible to both radiotherapy and deep learning communities, and hope that it will inspire new collaborations between these two communities to develop dedicated radiotherapy applications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiotherapy in early stage dupuytren's contracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamietz, B.; Sauer, R.; Gruenert, J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: In early stage Dupuytren's contracture radiotherapy was applied to prevent disease progression. Long-term results and late toxicity of this treatment were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. Patients and Methods: Between 1982 and 1994, 99 patients (176 hands) received orthovoltage radiotherapy, which consisted of two courses with 5 x 3 Gy (total dose: 30 Gy, daily fractionated; 120 kV, 4 mm Al), separated by a 6 to 8-week pause. The Dupuytren's contracture was staged according to the classification of Tubiana et al. The long-term outcome was analyzed at last follow-up between July and November 1999. The median follow-up was 10 years (range 7-18 years). Late toxicity was assessed using the LENT-SOMA criteria. Results: In Stage N 84% and Stage N/I 67% of cases remained stable. 65% of the cases in Stage I and 83% in Stage II showed progressive nodules and cords. In case of progression we saw no complications after a second radiotherapy or salvage operation. Conclusion: Radiotherapy effectively prevents disease progression for early stage Dupuytren's contracture (Stage N, N/I). Moreover, in case of disease progression despite radiotherapy salvage surgery is still feasible. (orig.) [de

  7. Image-guided and adaptive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvel, G.; Chajon, E.; Henry, O.; Cazoulat, G.; Le Maitre, A.; Simon, A.; Bensadoun, R.J.; Crevoisier, R. de

    2012-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) aims to take into account anatomical variations occurring during irradiation by visualization of anatomical structures. It may consist of a rigid registration of the tumour by moving the patient, in case of prostatic irradiation for example. IGRT associated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is strongly recommended when high-dose is delivered in the prostate, where it seems to reduce rectal and bladder toxicity. In case of significant anatomical deformations, as in head and neck tumours (tumour shrinking and decrease in volume of the salivary glands), re-planning appears to be necessary, corresponding to the adaptive radiotherapy. This should ideally be 'monitored' and possibly triggered based on a calculation of cumulative dose, session after session, compared to the initial planning dose, corresponding to the concept of dose-guided adaptive radiotherapy. The creation of 'planning libraries' based on predictable organ positions (as in cervical cancer) is another way of adaptive radiotherapy. All of these strategies still appear very complex and expensive and therefore require stringent validation before being routinely applied. (authors)

  8. Chemo-radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochi, Masato; Ushio, Yukitaka [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-05-01

    Malignant gliomas: Randomized clinical trials conducted in the USA showed that radiotherapy plus chemotherapy with nitrosoureas offered a long-term survival advantage to patients younger than 60 years old with malignant gliomas. Combination chemotherapy, such as procarbazine/CCNU/vincristine (PCV) must be tested further, and intra-arterial chemotherapy with nitrosoureas offered no survival advantage. Combination chemotherapy with PCV showed efficacy for patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Medulloblastoma: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy improved the survival of patients with poor risk medulloblastoma, and may reduce the required craniospinal radiation dose in patients with good risk medulloblastoma. Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL): Combination of chemotherapy with high-dose MTX and radiotherapy improved survival of patients with PCNSL; however, the neurotoxicity produced by this treatment modality is a serious problem in older patients. Intracranial germ cell tumors: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy may produce long term survival with good quality of life in patients with germinoma. Neoadjuvant therapy consisting of chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by complete surgical excision improved survival of patients with intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors. (author)

  9. Chemo-radiotherapy for malignant brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochi, Masato; Ushio, Yukitaka

    2002-01-01

    Malignant gliomas: Randomized clinical trials conducted in the USA showed that radiotherapy plus chemotherapy with nitrosoureas offered a long-term survival advantage to patients younger than 60 years old with malignant gliomas. Combination chemotherapy, such as procarbazine/CCNU/vincristine (PCV) must be tested further, and intra-arterial chemotherapy with nitrosoureas offered no survival advantage. Combination chemotherapy with PCV showed efficacy for patients with anaplastic oligodendroglioma and anaplastic oligoastrocytoma. Medulloblastoma: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy improved the survival of patients with poor risk medulloblastoma, and may reduce the required craniospinal radiation dose in patients with good risk medulloblastoma. Primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL): Combination of chemotherapy with high-dose MTX and radiotherapy improved survival of patients with PCNSL; however, the neurotoxicity produced by this treatment modality is a serious problem in older patients. Intracranial germ cell tumors: The addition of chemotherapy to radiotherapy may produce long term survival with good quality of life in patients with germinoma. Neoadjuvant therapy consisting of chemotherapy and radiotherapy followed by complete surgical excision improved survival of patients with intracranial nongerminomatous germ cell tumors. (author)

  10. Radiotherapy Results of Early Uterine Cervix Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Huh, Seung Jae

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : This study was done to analyze survivals, patterns of failure, and complications of early uterine cervix cancer after curative radiotherapy. Methods and Materials : Eighty patients with uterine cervix cancer FIGO Stage IB (48 cases) and Stage IIA (32 cases) treated with radiotherapy were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were treated from November 1985 to May 1993, and minimum follow up period was 24 months. and 6 cases were lost to follow up. All of them were treated with external radiotherapy and different fractions of high dose rate intracavitary radiotherapy. Survival rates, failure patterns, complication rates and degrees of severity were analyzed according to several factors. Results : Overall 5 year survival rate and relapse free survival rate were 72.3%, and 72.8% respectively. Prognostic factors were stage, size, pathology, RT response and there was no significant survival difference among the reasons of radiotherapy choice. There were 19 cases of treatment failure, another 3 cases were not tumor related death, and most of treatment related failure occurred within 24 months. Late complication rate of bladder and rectum were 8.8%, 15% respectively, frequency and severity of complication were correlated with ICR fractionation dose and total dose. Conclusion : These results showed that survival rates of early stage radiation treated cervix cancer patients were comparable to surgical series, but more aggressive treatment methods needed for stage IIA poor prognostic patients, To decrease late complication, choice of proper ICR dose and meticulous vaginal packing is needed

  11. "SABER": A new software tool for radiotherapy treatment plan evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Joiner, Michael C; Orton, Colin G; Burmeister, Jay

    2010-11-01

    Both spatial and biological information are necessary in order to perform true optimization of a treatment plan and for predicting clinical outcome. The goal of this work is to develop an enhanced treatment plan evaluation tool which incorporates biological parameters and retains spatial dose information. A software system is developed which provides biological plan evaluation with a novel combination of features. It incorporates hyper-radiosensitivity using the induced-repair model and applies the new concept of dose convolution filter (DCF) to simulate dose wash-out effects due to cell migration, bystander effect, and/or tissue motion during treatment. Further, the concept of spatial DVH (sDVH) is introduced to evaluate and potentially optimize the spatial dose distribution in the target volume. Finally, generalized equivalent uniform dose is derived from both the physical dose distribution (gEUD) and the distribution of equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions (gEUD2) and the software provides three separate models for calculation of tumor control probability (TCP), normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), and probability of uncomplicated tumor control (P+). TCP, NTCP, and P+ are provided as a function of prescribed dose and multivariable TCP, NTCP, and P+ plots are provided to illustrate the dependence on individual parameters used to calculate these quantities. Ten plans from two clinical treatment sites are selected to test the three calculation models provided by this software. By retaining both spatial and biological information about the dose distribution, the software is able to distinguish features of radiotherapy treatment plans not discernible using commercial systems. Plans that have similar DVHs may have different spatial and biological characteristics and the application of novel tools such as sDVH and DCF within the software may substantially change the apparent plan quality or predicted plan metrics such as TCP and NTCP. For the cases examined

  12. Four and five dimensional radiotherapy with reference to prostate cancer - definitions, state of the art and further directions - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennernaes, Bo (Dept. of Oncology, Sahlgrenska Hospital and Academy, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)), e-mail: bo.lennernas@telia.com; Castellanos, Enrique; Nilsson, Sten; Levitt, Seymour (Dept. of Oncology/Pathology, Karolinska Univ. Hospital and Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    Radiotherapy (RT) always requires a compromise between tumor control and normal tissue side-effects. Technical innovation in radiation therapy (RT), such as three dimensional RT, is now established. Concerning prostate cancer (PC), it is reasonable to assume that RT of PC will increase in the future. The combination of small margins, a movable target (prostate), few fractions and high doses will probably demand dynamically positioning systems and in real time. This is called four dimensional radiotherapy (4DRT). Moreover, biological factors must be included in new treatments such as hypofractionation schedules. This new era is called five dimensional radiotherapy, 5DRT. In this paper we discuss new concepts in RT in respect to PC

  13. Success Stories in Radiotherapy Development Projects: Lessons Learned from Radiotherapy Development Projects. Chapter 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubizarreta, E.; Van Der Merwe, D.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems found to be common in the process of setting up, running or expanding radiotherapy facilities. The establishment of radiotherapy services is essential to consolidate any national cancer control plan. In other words, such a plan cannot exist without radiotherapy. The IAEA guidance on setting up a radiotherapy programme covering the clinical, medical physics, radiation protection and safety aspects gives an estimate of one teletherapy machine needed per million population]. The IAEA’s Directory of Radiotherapy Centres (DIRAC) shows that the number of megavoltage (MV) machines per million population varies from 8.2 in the United States of America to 5.5 in western Europe. There are still many countries without a single radiotherapy department, especially in Africa, and many others have very low coverage, e.g. up to one external beam radiotherapy machine to cover a population of 35 million, which is close to having no coverage. There are many possible reasons for this situation. In many low income countries, the combination of lower life expectancy, low income taxes, a small budget for public health, and unmet basic needs such as housing, prevention and/or treatment of infectious diseases (malaria, tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), diarrhoea), drinkable water and sewerage makes the cancer control problem a lower priority. The indicators shown illustrate these points. Establishing a radiotherapy programme requires careful planning, including the requirement for successive phases. Resources should be available for designing, building, purchasing, maintaining and replacing equipment, and for providing training in its use. In the case of a first radiotherapy facility with basic staffing levels, there is not likely to be enough expertise to guide and oversee the process in many or all of these areas.

  14. Postoperative radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Morbidity of local-only or local-plus-pelvic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldstein, Cora; Poetter, Richard; Widder, Joachim; Goldner, Gregor; Doerr, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterise actuarial incidence and prevalence of early and late side effects of local versus pelvic three-dimensional conformal postoperative radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Based on a risk-adapted protocol, 575 patients received either local (n = 447) or local-plus-pelvic (n = 128) radiotherapy. Gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) side effects (≥grade 2 RTOG/EORTC criteria) were prospectively assessed. Maximum morbidity, actuarial incidence rate, and prevalence rates were compared between the two groups. For local radiotherapy, median follow-up was 68 months, and the mean dose was 66.7 Gy. In pelvic radiotherapy, the median follow-up was 49 months, and the mean local and pelvic doses were 66.9 and 48.3 Gy respectively. Early GI side effects ≥ G2 were detected in 26% and 42% of patients respectively (p < 0.001). Late GI adverse events were detected in 14% in both groups (p = 0.77). The 5-year actuarial incidence rates were 14% and 14%, while the prevalence rates were 2% and 0% respectively. Early GU ≥ G2 side effects were detected in 15% and 16% (p = 0.96), while late GU morbidity was detected in 18% and 24% (p = 0.001). The 5-year actuarial incidence rates were 16% and 35% (p = 0.001), while the respective prevalence rates were 6% and 8%. Despite the low prevalence of side effects, postoperative pelvic radiotherapy results in significant increases in the actuarial incidence of early GI and late GU morbidity using a conventional 4-field box radiotherapy technique. Advanced treatment techniques like intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy (VMAT) should therefore be considered in pelvic radiotherapy to potentially reduce these side effects. (orig.) [de

  15. Prevention and treatment of the orofacial complications of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, B.R.

    1987-01-01

    Radiotherapy of malignant head and neck tumors often causes extensive, permanent changes in salivary glands, peridental alveolar bone, and mucosal structures. Dental neglect and inappropriate dental management can cause complications. The potential orofacial side effects of radiotherapy are reviewed, as are preventive strategies for the dental treatment of patients scheduled to undergo radiotherapy

  16. Combined effects of radiotherapy and non-specific immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Hayakawa, Yukiko; Mochizuki, Yukio

    1985-01-01

    Local and systemic effects of the combined use of radiotherapy and administration of OK-432 were examined using tumor-bearing mice. Tumor regrowth was inhibited by local administration of OK-432 following radiotherapy. Systemic inhibitory effects of OK-432 on tumors were not seen. When radiotherapy is performed in combination with administration of OK-432, synergistic effects will be observed. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Minimal requirements for quality controls in radiotherapy with external beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Physical dosimetric guidelines have been developed by the Italian National Institute of Health study group on quality assurance in radiotherapy to define protocols for quality controls in external beam radiotherapy. While the document does not determine strict rules or firm recommendations, it suggests minimal requirements for quality controls necessary to guarantee an adequate degree of accuracy in external beam radiotherapy [it

  18. Proliferation studies for different radiotherapy fractionation regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: This study was undertaken to investigate extended treatment schedules and compare the differences between schedules for highly proliferative tumours. Treatment schedules can be extended for various reasons e.g. public holidays, early side effects. For highly proliferative tumours this can dramatically reduce the effective dose delivered to the tumour. To deduce the most effective schedule fractionation regimes are compared to a common schedule so that the effects can be understood. Thus an equation to allow this to be done for the proliferative case has been derived. (i) The linear quadratic model with proliferation has been used to investigate the effect on biological effective dose (BED) when treatment schedules are extended. (ii) An equation was derived for comparison with a standard effective dose (SED) of 2Gy/fraction given daily 5 days per week, this is a common schedule in most radiotherapy centres. The SED equation derived for the proliferative case is where n 1 and n 2 are the number of fractions for the initial and equivalent schedules respectively, d 1 is the dose delivered per fraction for the initial schedules. T 1 is the time taken for the initial schedule (in days) and T p is the proliferation half life for the tumour involved. SEDs were calculated for the CHART regime of 36 fractions at 1.5 Gy in 12 days (Saunders et al. 1988, cited in Fowler J F, Brit. J. Radiol. 62: 679-694, 1989) and various other schedules. Late effects of these schedules and their standard equivalents were compared. The dose required to achieve the same BED when a treatment schedule is extended has been found to be quite large in some circumstances. For breast tumours a loss of 2Gy 10 BED to tumour occurs after ten days extension of treatment time (T p =12 days,T k =12 days). For head and neck tumours a loss of 2Gy 10 BED occurs after only three and a half days (T p =3 days). From these results it seems that an accelerated fractionation schedule would be advantageous

  19. Anemia and radiotherapy: a radiobiologist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Anaemia is a factor associated with poor prognosis for cancer patients regardless of the treatment modality. A major component of this effect is the increased extent and severity of hypoxia leading to radio- and chemo- resistance and enhanced malignant progression, though it is also possible that the more aggressive tumours are more likely to induce anaemia in the host. There is, however, a clear consensus that the sensitization or elimination of hypoxic cells is an important goal in oncology. There is also a compelling case for correction of haemoglobin levels to within the normal range prior to and during therapy, as this has been shown to enhance quality of life as well as improve tumour response to radiotherapy. Attempts to explain the relationship between anaemia (and its correction) and radiobiological hypoxic fraction on the basis of the underlying tumour biology encounter several difficulties. The hypoxic cells in a given tumour are not a static population, but exist in a dynamic equilibrium. The oxygen supply at a given time and location dictates the balance between the proliferation-generated displacement of cells into the radiobiologically hypoxic compartment and cell death from lack of metabolic substrates (principally oxygen). The size of this compartment is also dictated by the ability of a given tumour's cells to utilise anaerobic glycolysis for survival in a hypoxic environment. An abrupt reduction in blood oxygen availability, such as following acute induction of anaemia or breathing a reduced oxygen tension, induces a rapid fall in tumour oxygen concentration and an increase in the radiobiologically hypoxic fraction, however, this reduced oxygen delivery is able to support the survival of fewer tumour cells; the most severely hypoxic cells die and are no longer of radiobiological significance. Similarly, the abrupt correction of anaemia results in a rapid oxygenation of hypoxic cells, but this environment can now support more proliferation and

  20. Radiation biology: a century of hopes and disappointments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.B.

    1998-01-01

    In the history of science, radiation biology will rank perhaps as the most popular subject to have attracted researchers from many disciplines of basic as well as applied sciences. Apart from the excitement arising in clinics relating to radiation treatment of cancers the tragedies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki brought numerous scientists together to investigate the harmful biological effects of ionizing radiation. It is then radiation biology picked up a great momentum. It started developing in two different directions what may be called basic radiation biology and radiation biology applied to radiotherapy of cancer. While great strides were being made in basic radiation biology trying to understand the biological effects of radiation and mechanisms thereof, clinical aspect remained confined mainly to the medical fraternity where empiricalism became the rule

  1. Radiotherapy of patients with germ cell tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inomata, Taisuke; Maeda, Tomoho; Yoshida, Shoji; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Hamada, Fumio; Imajo, Yoshinari; Gose, Kyuhei; Fujiwara, Kiyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty-one patients with germ cell tumor who received radiotherapy were discussed. There were eight patients with germinoma, two patients with malignant teratoma, three patients with pineocytoma (out of category of germ cell tumor today) and eight unverified patients. Irradiated dose was mostly from 50 Gy to 60 Gy and local irradiation was performed after whole brain irradiation in many cases. The effect of radiotherapy was not so good in patients with malignant teratoma. On the contrary, it was relatively good in patients with germinoma and five out of eight patients are alive with no symptoms of recurrence. Six out of eight unverified patients are also alive. Among them, several patients with germinoma are considered to be included. Germinoma occupies many cases of germ cell tumor and has a good response to radiotherapy. Against spinal cord metastasis and late recurrence, additional therapy, such as chemotherapy, seems to be useful to improve cure ratio. (author)

  2. Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for Advanced Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cronholm, Rickard

    This Ph.d. project describes the development of a workflow for Monte Carlo Treatment Planning for clinical radiotherapy plans. The workflow may be utilized to perform an independent dose verification of treatment plans. Modern radiotherapy treatment delivery is often conducted by dynamically...... modulating the intensity of the field during the irradiation. The workflow described has the potential to fully model the dynamic delivery, including gantry rotation during irradiation, of modern radiotherapy. Three corner stones of Monte Carlo Treatment Planning are identified: Building, commissioning...... and validation of a Monte Carlo model of a medical linear accelerator (i), converting a CT scan of a patient to a Monte Carlo compliant phantom (ii) and translating the treatment plan parameters (including beam energy, angles of incidence, collimator settings etc) to a Monte Carlo input file (iii). A protocol...

  3. Experience with carbon ion radiotherapy at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaekel, O. [Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy (E040), German Cancer Research Center, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: o.jaekel@dkfz.de; Schulz-Ertner, D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Karger, C.P. [Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy (E040), German Cancer Research Center, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Heeg, P. [Division of Medical Physics in Radiation Therapy (E040), German Cancer Research Center, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2005-12-15

    At GSI, a radiotherapy facility was established using beam scanning and active energy variation. Between December 1997 and April 2004, 220 patients have been treated at this facility with carbon ions. Most patients are treated for chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the base of skull, using a dose of 60 Gye (Gray equivalent) in 20 fractions. Carbon ion therapy is also offered in a combination with conventional radiotherapy for a number of other tumors (adenoidcystic carcinoma, chordoma of the cervical spine and sacrum, atypical menningeoma). The patients treated for skull base tumors showed an overall local control rate after two years of 90%. The overall treatment toxicity was mild. This shows that carbon ion radiotherapy can safely be applied using a scanned beam and encouraged the Heidelberg university hospital to build a hospital based facility for ion therapy.

  4. Radiotherapy care experience: an anthropological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoarau, H.; Hubert, A.; Kantor, G.; Dilhuydy, J.M.; Germain, C.; Barreau, C.; Dilhuydy, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    An anthropological study has been carried out in order to evaluate the need expressed by patients undergoing radiotherapy treatment. The study was mostly qualitative and based on the radiotherapy experiences of 13 women with breast cancer and six men with head and neck cancer. A 24-year-old female anthropologist spent one year in the department of radiotherapy at the Bergonie Institute in Bordeaux. She collected data on patients' needs through the observation of their experience of treatment and personal interviews. These were put in context, analyzed both by qualitative and quantitative methods. The results pointed out the need for more information on the different steps of treatment and the patient's need 'for a smile'front the medical team; in other words, emphatic support. (author)

  5. Differences in breast tissue oxygenation following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornfeld, Ken; Gessert, Charles E.; Renier, Colleen M.; McNaney, David D.; Urias, Rodolfo E.; Knowles, Denise M.; Beauduy, Jean L.; Widell, Sherry L.; McDonald, Bonita L.

    2011-01-01

    Tissue perfusion and oxygenation changes following radiotherapy may result from and/or contribute to the toxicity of treatment. Breast tissue oxygenation levels were determined in the treated and non-treated breast 1 year after radiotherapy for breast conserving treatment. Transcutaneous oxygenation varied between subjects in both treated and non-treated breast. Subjects without diabetes mellitus (n = 16) had an average oxygenation level of 64.8 ± 19.9 mmHg in the irradiated breast and an average of 72.3 ± 18.1 mmHg (p = 0.018) at the corresponding location in the control breast. Patients with diabetes (n = 4) showed a different oxygenation pattern, with lower oxygenation levels in control tissue and no decrease in the irradiated breast. This study suggests oxygenation levels in normal tissues vary between patients and may respond differently after radiotherapy.

  6. External radiotherapy in a pleural mesothelioma tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.C.; Garcia, J.L.; Gomez, A.; Simon, J.L.; Maillo, M.; Jimenez Torres, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Pleural mesothelioma is an uncommon tumor compared with other thoracic malignancies and a 80% of the cases have asbestos exposure. From 1983 to 1992 we have examined patients suffering from malignant pleural mesothelioma treated with external radiotherapy. We treated 11 patients of which 9 were males and 2 were females. The most frequent symptom was the chest pain and all these patients underwent a torascoscopy followed by a pleasured. Of the 11 cases: 10 were malignant epithelial mesothelioma and 1 was a mixed pleural case. Afterwards, they were treated with external radiotherapy between 30 and 55 Gy, with few complications. At the moment, 5 patients are still alive and there is a survival rate of 50% at 24 and 60 months and of 25% at 120 months. We think that external radiotherapy is a good palliative treatment with few complications. (Author) 28 refs

  7. Oral verrucous carcinoma. Treatment with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, M.K.; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Padmanabhan, T.K.; Madhu, C.S.

    1988-01-01

    Fifty-two cases of oral verrucous carcinoma treated with radiotherapy at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, Kerala, India in 1982 were evaluated to determine the distribution within the oral cavity, clinical extent, and effectiveness of radiotherapy in controlling the disease. The most common site was the buccal mucosa. Fifty percent of the patients had clinically negative regional lymph nodes and 33% were in earlier stages (T1, T2, N0, and M0). The overall 3-year no evidence of disease (NED) survival rate was 44%. The 3-year NED survival rate with radium implant was 86%. We cannot comment on anaplastic transformation after radiotherapy because our treatment failures have not been subjected for biopsy concerning this matter. Because the results are comparable with those of well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, we think that the treatment policies advocated for oral squamous cell carcinoma are also applicable to oral verrucous carcinoma

  8. Quality control guarantees the safety of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaltonen, P.

    1994-01-01

    While radiotherapy equipment has seen some decisive improvements in the last few decades, the technology has also become more complicated. The advanced equipment produces increasingly good treatment results, but the condition of the equipment must be controlled efficiently so as to eliminate any defects that might jeopardise patient safety. The quality assurance measures that are taken to show that certain equipment functions as required are known as quality control. The advanced equipment and stricter requirements set for the precision of radiotherapy have meant that more attention must be paid to quality control. The present radiation legislation stipulates that radiotherapy equipment must undergo regular quality control. The implementation of the quality control is supervised by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). Hospitals carry out quality control in accordance with a programme approved by STUK, and STUK inspectors periodically visit hospitals to check the results of quality control. (orig.)

  9. Radiotherapy-induced hypopituitarism: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Dixit, Sanjay

    2012-05-01

    Hypopituitarism is a disorder caused by impaired hormonal secretions from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Radiotherapy is the most common cause of iatrogenic hypopituitarism. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis inadvertently gets irradiated in patients receiving prophylactic cranial radiotherapy for leukemia, total body irradiation and radiotherapy for intracranial, base skull, sinonasal and nasopharyngeal tumors. Radiation-induced hypopituitarism (RIH) is insidious, progressive and largely nonreversible. Mostly, RIH involves one hypothalamic-pituitary axis; however, multiple hormonal axes deficiency starts developing at higher doses. Although the clinical effects of the hypopituitarism are more profound in children and young adults, its implications in older adults are being increasingly recognized. The risk continues to persist or increase up to 10 years following radiation exposure. The clinical management of hypopituitarism is challenging both for the patients and healthcare providers. Here we have reviewed the scale of the problem, the risk factors and the management of RIH.

  10. Radiation caries - an evil eye of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshman, Anusha Rangare

    2013-01-01

    Although radiotherapy plays an important role in the management of patients with head and neck cancer, it is also associated with several undesired side effects such as radiation caries which is a common, yet serious, complication. The radiotherapy field of exposure frequently includes the salivary glands, oral mucosa, and jaws, thus, leading to various side effects including hyposalivation, mucositis, and taste loss. Irradiated patients are also at increased risk for the development of a rapid, rampant carious process known as radiation caries. Lesions tend to develop four weeks after completion of radiotherapy and affect atypical areas of teeth, such as the lingual surface, incisal edges, and cusp tips. The aim of this paper is to review the clinical features, prevention and management of radiation caries. (author)

  11. Palliative radiotherapy of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koswig, S.; Buchali, A.; Boehmer, D.; Schlenger, L.; Budach, V.

    1999-01-01

    Background: The effect of the palliative irradiation of bone metastases was explored in this retrospective analysis. The spectrum of primary tumor sites, the localization of the bone metastases and the fractionation schedules were analyzed with regard to palliation discriminating total, partial and complete pain response. Patients and Methods: One hundred seventy-six patients are included in this retrospective quantitative study from April 1992 to November 1993. Two hundred fifty-eight localizations of painful bone metastases were irradiated. The percentage of bone metastases of the total irradiated localizations in our department of radiotherapy in the Carite-Hospital, the primary tumor sites, the localizations and the different fractionation schedules were explored. The total, partial and complete pain response was analyzed in the most often used fractionation schedules and by primary tumor sites. Results: Eight per cent of all irradiated localizations in the observation period were bone metastases. There were irradiated bone metastases of 21 different tumor sites. Most of the primary tumor sites were breast cancer (49%), lung cancer (6%) and kidney cancer (6%). The most frequent site of metastases was the vertebral column (52%). The most often used fractionation schedules were: 4x5 Gy (32%), 10x3 Gy (18%), 6x5 Gy (9%), 7x3 Gy (7%), 10x2 Gy (5%) and 2x8 Gy. The total response rates in this fractionation schedules were 72%, 79%, 74%, 76%, 75% and 72%, the complete response rates were 35%, 32%, 30%, 35%, 33% and 33%. There were no significant differences between the most often irradiated primary tumor sites, the most frequent localizations and the palliation with regard to total, partial and complete pain response. (orig.) [de

  12. Endocavitary radiotherapy of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, Steven E.; Martenson, James A.; Gunderson, Leonard L.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: This analysis was performed to evaluate the results of endocavitary radiotherapy (RT) administered for early rectal cancer at our institution. Methods and Materials: Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed to determine the results of endocavitary RT regarding survival, local control, and complications. Between 1987 and 1994, 25 patients were treated with endocavitary RT for early rectal cancer. Twenty had early, low grade tumors and met the criteria for treatment with curative intent. Five had more advanced, high grade, or multiple recurrent tumors and were treated with palliative intent. The tumors were treated to between 20 and 155 Gy in one to four fractions with 50 KV x-rays given through a specialized proctoscope. Patients were followed for 5 to 84 months (median = 55 months) after therapy. Local control and survival were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Local control was achieved in 18 of the 20 patients treated with curative intent and 4 of 5 treated with palliative intent. For those patients treated with curative intent, the 5-year local control rate was 89% and the 5-year survival rate was 76%. The most significant toxicity was ulceration that occurred in 5 of the 25 patients. The ulcers were asymptomatic in three cases and associated with bleeding in one case. The fifth patient had pain. One ulcer was biopsied, resulting in perforation that was treated with an abdominal perineal resection (APR). There was no tumor found upon pathologic evaluation. Conclusions: Endocavitary RT can be used to treat patients with early, low-grade rectal cancers and will yield a high level of disease control and a low risk of serious complications. Major advantages of this treatment technique are that it requires neither general anesthesia nor hospitalization

  13. Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jae Won

    1993-01-01

    Eighty five patients of oral cavity cancer, treated with radiation at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, during the period from March 1985 to September 1990 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 85 patients, 37 patients were treated with radiation only and 48 patients were treated with radiation following surgery And 70 patients received external irradiation only by 60 Co with or without electron, the others were 7 patients for external irradiation plus interstitial implantation and 8 patients for external irradiation plus oral cone electron therapy. Primary sites were mobile tongue for 40 patients, mouth floor for 17 patients, palate for 12 patients, gingiva including retromolar trigone for 10 patients, buccal mucosa for 5 patients, and lip for 1 patient. According to pathologic classification, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common (77 patients). According to AJC TNM stage, stage I + II were 28 patients and stage III + IV were 57 patients. Acturial overall survival rate at 3 years was 43.9%, 3 year survival rates were 60.9% for stage I + II, and 23.1% for stage III + IV, respectively. As a prognostic factor, primary T stage was a significant factor (p<0.01). The others, age, location, lymph node metastasis, surgery, radiation dose, and cell differentiation were not statistically significant. Among those factors, radiation plus surgery was more effective than radiation only in T3 + T4 or in any N stage although it was not statistically sufficient(p<0.1). From those results, it was conclusive that definitive radiotherapy was more effective than surgery especially in the view of pertaining of anatomical integrity and function in early stage, and radiation plus surgery was considered to be better therapeutic tool in advanced stage

  14. Hypofractionated radiotherapy for Graves' orbitopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyd, R.; Herkstroeter, M.; Martin, T.; Zamboglou, N.; Strassmann, G.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy (RT) has been proven effective in the management of Graves' orbitopathy in numerous studies. Most commonly is the use of conventional fractionated RT and the value of hypofractionated irradiation has not been investigated. Materials and methods: The results in 33 euthyroid cases who underwent RT with a total dose of 21.0 Gy given in three weekly fractions of 3.0 Gy are retrospectively analyzed. The duration of symptoms ranged from 1-84 months and all of the cases had treatment failure after previous administration of corticosteroids. After a mean follow-up period of 33.6 months the overall results were assessed according to the criteria by Donaldson et al. and for evaluation of the clinical outcome a classification with the main criteria being eye-lid changes, exophthalmos, myopathy and eye nerve involvement was used. Results: At follow-up, the overall response to RT was 84.8% (28/33 cases). The analysis with the clinical classification demonstrated that in 19/33 (57.6%) cases occurred a decrease of eye lid changes and exophthalmos and 12/33 (36.4%) had a relief of myopathy. 2/33 cases (6.0%) developed an eye nerve compression causing the necessity of surgical decompression. 3/33 cases (9.0%) had a progression of at least of one of the single criteria of the score and therefore they were classified as non-responders. Conclusions: Hypofractionated RT has been proven effective for treatment of severe cases of Graves' orbitopathy in cases with a prolongated duration of symptoms. The comparison with literature data demonstrate that the results after hypofractionated RT are comparable to those obtained after conventional fractionated RT. (orig.)

  15. Usefulness of a guide book for patients to self-help during radiotherapy for anxiety before radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Naoko; Yamada, Nami; Morita, Kozo.

    1995-01-01

    From May through August 1993, 'a guide book for patients to self-help during radiotherapy' prepared at our department was given 80 patients before radiotherapy and the usefulness of this book for understanding of radiotherapy and reduction of anxiety for radiotherapy was investigated. In 83% of patients could read it through, and in 67% of these patients anxiety for treatment reduced. It is necessary that medical staffs make it clear more often, to let them understand this book more correctly. (author)

  16. Present and future of the Image Guided Radiotherapy (I.G.R.T.) and its applications in lung cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefkopoulos, D.; Ferreira, I.; Isambert, A.; Le Pechoux, C.; Mornex, F.

    2007-01-01

    These last years, the new irradiation techniques as the conformal 3D radiotherapy and the IMRT are strongly correlated with the technological developments in radiotherapy. The rigorous definition of the target volume and the organs at risk required by these irradiation techniques, imposed the development of various image guided patient positioning and target tracking techniques. The availability of these imaging systems inside the treatment room has lead to the exploration of performing real-time adaptive radiation therapy. In this paper we present the different image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) techniques and the adaptive radiotherapy (ART) approaches. IGRT developments are focused in the following areas: 1) biological imaging for better definition of tumor volume; 2) 4D imaging for modeling the intra-fraction organ motion; 3) on-board imaging system or imaging devices registered to the treatment machines for inter-fraction patient localization; and 4) treatment planning and delivery schemes incorporating the information derived from the new imaging techniques. As this paper is included in the 'Cancer Radiotherapie' special volume dedicated to the lung cancers, in the description of the different IGRT techniques we try to present the lung tumors applications when this is possible. (author)

  17. Radiotherapy in the treatment of solitary plasmacytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothirmayi, R; Gangadharan, V P; Nair, M K; Rajan, B

    1997-05-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma of bone (SPB) and extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) are rare. High local control rates are reported with radiotherapy, although the optimal dose and extent of radiotherapy portals remains controversial. Between 1983 and 1993, 30 patients with solitary plasmacytoma were seen at the Regional Cancer Centre, Trivandrum, India. 23 patients had SPB and seven EMP. The mean age was 52 years and the male to female ratio 3.2:1. Diagnosis of SPB was confirmed by biopsy in 16 patients and tumour excision in seven. 20 patients received megavoltage radiotherapy to the bone lesion with limited margins, and one received chemotherapy. Two patients who underwent complete tumour excision received no further treatment. All seven patients with EMP received megavoltage radiotherapy, four following biopsy and three after tumour excision. Local control was achieved in all patients with SPB. Nine progressed to multiple myeloma and one developed a solitary plasmacytoma in another bone. Six patients with EMP achieved local control. Three later progressed to multiple myeloma and one had local relapse. Median time to relapse was 28 months in SPB and 30 months in EMP. 5-year overall survival rates were 82% and 57% for patients with SPB and EMP, respectively. The corresponding progression free survival rates were 55% and 50%, respectively. Age, sex, site of tumour, serum M protein and haemoglobin levels did not significantly influence progression free survival. The extent of surgery, radiotherapy dose or time to relapse were not significant prognostic factors. Radiotherapy appears to be an effective modality of treatment of solitary plasmacytoma. No dose-response relationship is observed, and high local control rates are achieved with limited portals. Progression to multiple myeloma is the commonest pattern of failure, although no prognostic factors for progression are identified. The role of chemotherapy in preventing disease progression needs further evaluation.

  18. [Radiotherapy in node-positive prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, D; Bartkowiak, D; Bolenz, C; Wiegel, T

    2016-03-01

    There are numerous randomized trials to guide the management of patients with localized (and metastatic) prostate cancer, but only a few (mostly retrospective) studies have specifically addressed node-positive patients. Therefore, there is uncertainty regarding optimal treatment in this situation. Current guidelines recommend long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone or radiotherapy plus long-term ADT as treatment options. This overview summarizes the existing literature on the use of radiotherapy for node-positive prostate cancer as definitive treatment and as adjuvant or salvage therapy after radical prostatectomy. In this context, we also discuss several PET tracers in the imaging evaluation of patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. As for definitive treatment, retrospective studies suggest that ADT plus radiotherapy improves overall survival compared with ADT alone. These studies also consistently demonstrated that many patients with node-positive prostate cancer can achieve long-term survival - and are likely curable - with aggressive therapy. The beneficial impact of adjuvant radiotherapy on survival in patients with pN1 prostate cancer seems to be highly influenced by tumor characteristics. Men with ≤ 2 positive lymph nodes in the presence of intermediate- to high-grade disease, or positive margins, and those with 3 or 4 positive lymph nodes are the ideal candidates for adjuvant radiotherapy (plus long-term ADT) after surgery. There is a need for randomized trials to further examine the potential role of radiotherapy as either definitive or adjuvant treatment, for patients with node-positive prostate cancer.

  19. Radiotherapy in the management of Graves' ophthalmopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Koh-ichi; Hareyama, Masato; Oouchi, Atsushi; Shidou, Mitsuo; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Morita, Kazuo; Osanai, Hajime; Ohtsuka, Kenji; Hinoda, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    To report the results of radiotherapy for patients with failure, adverse reactions or relative contraindications to the use of steroids or immunosuppressants, by using newly developed quantitative indexes. Fourteen female and six male patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy were treated with radiotherapy between 1989 and 1996. Prior to radiotherapy, eight patients received treatment with prednisone, four received immunosuppressants and four received a combination of both. Four patients with contraindications to steroids were initially managed with radiotherapy. Most of the patients received a dose of 24-28 Gy in 2 Gy fractions. We used the newly developed motility limitation index to assess extraocular motility. Treatment was well tolerated. There have been no late complications. All 12 patients with soft tissue signs such as edema, irritation, tearing and pain were improved. Proptosis did not improve or improved only slightly, 3 mm at best. However, proptosis in all but two has been stabilized and has not deteriorated in the follow-up period. Most of the patients have experienced an improvement of eye-muscle motility. Extraocular muscles that work for elevation were impaired more severely than the other muscles and this tended to remain. Of the 16 patients using steroids before or when radiotherapy was initiated, 15 were tapered off and only one patient required additional steroids, thus sparing the majority from steroid adverse reactions. Radiotherapy was effective in preventing exacerbations of active inflammatory ophthalmopathy in patients with Graves' disease with minimal morbidity and thus eliminated the adverse reactions associated with protracted corticosteroid use. The newly developed motility limitation index was useful in detecting delicate changes in motility of individual extraocular muscles. (author)

  20. Transition from 2-D radiotherapy to 3-D conformal and intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death globally and radiotherapy is currently an essential component in the management of cancer patients, either alone or in combination with surgery or chemotherapy, both for cure or palliation. It is now recognized that safe and effective radiotherapy service needs not only substantial capital investment in radiotherapy equipment and specially designed facilities but also continuous investment in maintenance and upgrading of the equipment to comply with the technical progress, but also in training the staff. The recent IAEA-TECDOC publication 'Setting up a Radiotherapy Programme: Clinical, Medical Physics, Radiation Protection and Safety Aspects' provides general guidelines for designing and implementing radiotherapy services in Member States. Advances in computer technology have enabled the possibility of transitioning from basic 2- dimensional treatment planning and delivery (2-D radiotherapy) to a more sophisticated approach with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3-D CRT). Whereas 2-D radiotherapy can be applied with simple equipment, infrastructure and training, transfer to 3-D conformal treatments requires more resources in technology, equipment, staff and training. A novel radiation treatment approach using Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) that optimizes the delivery of radiation to irregularly shaped tumour volumes demands even more sophisticated equipment and seamless teamwork, and consequentially more resources, advanced training and more time for treatment planning and verification of dose delivery than 3-D CRT. Whereas 3-D CRT can be considered as a standard, IMRT is still evolving. Due to the increased interest of Member States to the modern application of radiotherapy the IAEA has received a number of requests for guidance coming from radiotherapy departments that wish to upgrade their facilities to 3-D CRT and IMRT through Technical Cooperation programme. These requests are expected to increase

  1. The Use of Creams in Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, May-Lin; Frost, Else; Bergmansen, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: At the Danish wards for radiotherapy there are different rules regarding the intervals that have to pass from the moment the patients applies moisturizer until they can be treated. This is due to the fact that it is unclear whether the cream can cause bolus effect, thereby...... causing the dose to move towards the skin. This would increase the damages to the patient’s skin during the radiotherapy. There is no evidence on the use of moisturizers. Materials and Methods: We have carried out an experimental trial testing whether creams cause bolus effect. We used two pieces of pork...

  2. Electronic database of patients in radiotherapy: Amedatos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Guevara, Adrian; Rodriguez Zayas, Michael; Gonzalez Perez, Yelina; Sola Rodriguez, Yeline; Reyes Gonzalez, Tommy; Caballero, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Registration and monitoring of patients in the departments of radiotherapy in our country are taken manually, which is difficult when very large number of patients and treatment units in service. Due to these problems in the Department of Radiotherapy 'Hospital Hermanos Ameijeiras' AMEDATOS program was designed in Microsoft Excel. The main program relates different books, macros are used to improve visualization and facilitate the management of data on different sheets (dosimetry, Team, Daily Record, Record monitoring, patient data, dosimetry data, not treated and four sheets of Report). (Author)

  3. Second Study of Hyper-Fractionated Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jacob

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Method. Hyper-fractionated radiotherapy for treatment of soft tissue sarcomas is designed to deliver a higher total dose of radiation without an increase in late normal tissue damage. In a previous study at the Royal Marsden Hospital, a total dose of 75 Gy using twice daily 1.25 Gy fractions resulted in a higher incidence of late damage than conventional radiotherapy using 2 Gy daily fractions treating to a total of 60 Gy. The current trial therefore used a lower dose per fraction of 1.2 Gy and lower total dose of 72 Gy, with 60 fractions given over a period of 6 weeks.

  4. Fatigue and radiotherapy. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilhuydy, J.M.; Ouhtatou, F.; Laporte, C.; Nguyen, T.V.F.; Vendrely, V.; Dilhuydy, J.M.; Dilhuydy, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint for the cancer patient during and after radiotherapy, according to the published studies. Fatigue is a subjective symptom mostly underestimated by oncologists and other care givers. Etiology is complex, poorly understood in spite of obvious causes like insomnia, nausea, pain, depression, psychological distress, anemia, hypothyroidism, menopause disturbances, treatment adverse effects. Fatigue presents multi-factorial and multidimensional aspects. To evaluate it, many tools can be used as single-item, unidimensional and multidimensional instruments. Practically, the open discussion with the patient throughout radiotherapy is essential to define it. Taking charge fatigue requires its acknowledgement by radiotherapist, treatment of associated symptoms with a multidisciplinary approach. (authors)

  5. Care of patients undergoing external radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, C.

    1977-01-01

    The anxiety and associated depression suffered by most patients undergoing radiotherapy is discussed and the possibilities open to the nurse to encourage and reassure patients thus facilitating physical care are considered. The general symptoms of anorexia, nausea, tiredness, skin problems, alopecia, bonemarrow depresssion and rapid tumour destruction are described and nursing care prescribed. The side-effects which may occur following radiation of the brain, head and neck region, eyes, oesophagus, lung, abdomen, pelvis, bones, skin, spine, and spinal cord are considered from the nursing standpoint. The specialised subject of radiotherapy in children is discussed briefly. (U.K.)

  6. Guide for External Beam Radiotherapy. Procedures 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardiet, Jean-Michel; Bourhis, Jean; Eschwege, Francois; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Mazeron, Jean-Jacques; Barillot, Isabelle; Bey, Pierre; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Thomas, Olivier; Bolla, Michel; Bourguignon, Michel; Godet, Jean-Luc; Krembel, David; Valero, Marc; Bara, Christine; Beauvais-March, Helene; Derreumaux, Sylvie; Vidal, Jean-Pierre; Drouard, Jean; Sarrazin, Thierry; Lindecker-Cournil, Valerie; Robin, Sun Hee Lee; Thevenet, Nicolas; Depenweiller, Christian; Le Tallec, Philippe; Ortholan, Cecile; Aimone, Nicole; Baldeschi, Carine; Cantelli, Andree; Estivalet, Stephane; Le Prince, Cyrille; QUERO, Laurent; Costa, Andre; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Ardiet, Jean-Michel; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Bourhis, Jean; Calais, Gilles; Lartigau, Eric; Ginot, Aurelie; Girard, Nicolas; Mornex, Francoise; Bolla, Michel; Chauvet, Bruno; Maingon, Philippe; Martin, Etienne; Azria, David; Gerard, Jean-Pierre; Grehange, Gilles; Hennequin, Christophe; Peiffert, Didier; Toledano, Alain; Belkacemi, Yazid; Courdi, Adel; Belliere, Aurelie; Peignaux, Karine; Mahe, Marc; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Kantor, Guy; Lepechoux, Cecile; Carrie, Christian; Claude, Line

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimize quality and security in the delivery of radiation treatment, the French SFRO (Societe francaise de radiotherapie oncologique) is publishing a Guide for Radiotherapy. This guide is realized according to the HAS (Haute Autorite de sante) methodology of 'structured experts consensus'. This document is made of two parts: a general description of external beam radiation therapy and chapters describing the technical procedures of the main tumors to be irradiated (24). For each procedure, a special attention is given to dose constraints in the organs at risk. This guide will be regularly updated

  7. Radioprotection and radiotherapy: new regulatory texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews about radiation protection of the workers in the radiotherapy centers. The different texts are explained. These texts (international and european ones) have to aim to reinforce the protection of personnel working in radiotherapy services, to reduce as it is possible the determinists an stochastic effects to organs out of the irradiated volumes, to avoid severe accidents. The radiotherapists have to keep in their mind that treatments must be justified in a clear way and optimized as reasonably achievable. (N.C.)

  8. Radiotherapy for carcinoma of the larynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhaard, C.H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Data of patients treated for laryngeal cancer with radiotherapy are analyzed by uni- and multivariate methods. Patients are subdivided into the various T-categories, obtaining more homogeneous groups of laryngeal cancer. Prognostic factors are defined for survival, local and regional control after radiotherapy, and for ultimate locoregional control after salvage surgery (partial or total laryngectomy and/or neck dissection). An attempt is made to set up a refined treatment recommendation, based on these prognostic factors, and to define an optimal fractionation schedule for advanced laryngeal cancer. Future prospects to improve the therapeutic ratio on advanced laryngeal cancer are discussed. (H.W.). 360 refs.; 28 figs.; 35 tabs

  9. Radiotherapy in the management of aggressive fibromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atahan, I.L.; Akyol, F.; Zorlu, F.; Guerkaynak, M.

    1989-01-01

    Four case reports are summarised concerning the management of aggressive fibromatosis in children and adolescents up to the age of 15. It was concluded that radiotherapy should be reserved for recurrences or inoperable cases. A dose of 5000-6000 cGy in 25-30 fractions depending on age of patient, site, and size of tumour is necessary, since most surgical recurrences appear in 12 months, all cases with positive surgical margins should receive doses in the range 4000-4500 cGy for microscopic disease. Radiotherapy-chemotherapy combinations can also be used. (UK)

  10. Postoperative radiotherapy for merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuya; Asakawa, Isao; Katayama, Emiko; Kajitani, Chikae; Tamamoto, Tetsuro; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Fukumoto, Takaya; Asada, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Seven patients with Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) who visited our department of radiation oncology from February 2005 to July 2011 received postoperative radiotherapy (50-60 Gy). All patients were alive without recurrence (median follow-up period: 47.6 (14.7-88.4) months). All of them had grade 2 dermatitis, and one grade 2 oral mucositis and three grade 2 lymphedema were observed. No adverse event grade 3 (CTCAE v4.0) or over was observed. In our hospital, clinical results of postoperative radiotherapy for MCC were fairly good, and adverse events were acceptable during the follow-up period. (author)

  11. Cardiac dose estimates from Danish and Swedish breast cancer radiotherapy during 1977-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Carolyn W.; Bronnum, Dorthe; Darby, Sarah C.; Gagliardi, Giovanna; Hall, Per; Jensen, Maj-Britt; McGale, Paul; Nisbet, Andrew; Ewertz, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To estimate target and cardiac doses from breast cancer radiotherapy in Denmark and in the Stockholm and Umea areas of Sweden during 1977-2001. Methods: Representative samples of irradiated women were identified from the databases of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group and the Swedish Nationwide Cancer Registry. Virtual simulation, computed tomography planning and manual planning were used to reconstruct radiotherapy regimens on a typical woman. Estimates of target dose and various measures of cardiac dose were derived from individual radiotherapy charts. Results: Doses were estimated in 681 Danish and 130 Swedish women. Mean heart dose for individual women varied from 1.6 to 14.9 Gray in Denmark and from 1.2 to 22.1 Gray in Sweden. In Denmark, mean target doses averaged across women increased from 40.6 to 53.8 Gray during 1977-2001 but, despite this, mean heart dose averaged across women remained around 6 Gy for left-sided and 2-3 Gray for right-sided radiotherapy. In Sweden mean target dose averaged across women increased from 38.7 to 46.6 Gray during 1977-2001, while mean heart dose averaged across women decreased from 12.0 to 7.3 Gray for left-sided and from 3.6 to 3.2 Gray for right-sided radiotherapy. Temporal trends for mean biologically effective dose [BED] to the heart, mean dose to the left anterior descending coronary artery, the right coronary artery and the circumflex coronary artery were broadly similar. Conclusions: Cardiac doses in Denmark were low relative to those in Sweden. In both countries, target dose increased during 1977-2001. Despite this, cardiac doses remained constant in Denmark and decreased in Sweden.

  12. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  13. Biological preconcentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Bunker, Bruce C [Albuquerque, NM; Huber, Dale L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-09-09

    A biological preconcentrator comprises a stimulus-responsive active film on a stimulus-producing microfabricated platform. The active film can comprise a thermally switchable polymer film that can be used to selectively absorb and desorb proteins from a protein mixture. The biological microfabricated platform can comprise a thin membrane suspended on a substrate with an integral resistive heater and/or thermoelectric cooler for thermal switching of the active polymer film disposed on the membrane. The active polymer film can comprise hydrogel-like polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) or poly(n-isopropylacrylamide), that are tethered to the membrane. The biological preconcentrator can be fabricated with semiconductor materials and technologies.

  14. Predictive factors for the response of pulmonary tumours treated by robotic stereotactic radiotherapy; Facteurs predictifs pour la reponse des tumeurs pulmonaires traitees par radiotherapie stereotaxique robotisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyen, J.; Benezery, K.; Thariat, J.; Angellier, G.; Poudenx, M.; Bondiau, P.Y. [Centre Antoine-Lacassagne, 06 - Nice (France); Beckendorf, V. [Centre Alexis-Vautrin, 54 - Nancy (France); Venissac, N. [Centre hospitalo-universitaire Pasteur, 06 - Nice (France)

    2010-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at identifying factors influencing the response to radiotherapy performed in robotic stereotactic conditions with CyberKnife within the frame of treatment of primitive or secondary pulmonary tumours. Thirty eight stage I cancers, 22 metastases including 17 epidermoid carcinomas, and 43 adenocarcinomas have been treated this way. The analysis of data and results reveals that feminine gender, a biological dose greater than 140 Gy, and an age greater than 65 year old are associated with a better tumour response. Short communication

  15. [1896: How nascent radiotherapy gathered Roentgen, Pasteur and the Lumière brothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foray, N

    2016-12-01

    On the 4th July, 1896, in his medical office of Les Échelles (Savoie, France), Victor Despeignes performed the very first radiotherapy against cancer, documented by indisputable proofs. However, the intellectual and practical approach that leads to this first radiotherapy may appear unexpected to date. Indeed, it is likely that the treatment that Despeignes applied to his neighbour, who did not suffer from stomach cancer, was born with the indirect support of the Lumière brothers, on the basis of a biological theory (the parasitory theory of cancer) that is irrelevant today, with an experimental protocol based on experiments performed on tuberculosis et in a bifractionated model linked by the constraints of a district medical doctor. Copyright © 2016 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden; Technische Univ. Dresden; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden

    2014-01-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  17. Radiotherapy applied to tumours of the intracranial central nervous systems in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortereau, Antonin

    2009-01-01

    As domestic animals such as dogs are living older because of a better life quality and better cares, they may more frequently develop tumours in their intracranial central nervous system. In this research thesis, the author addresses this specific topic. He first recalls fundamental physical and biological aspects for the understanding of radiotherapy action mechanisms, and the modalities of such a treatment. He addresses the general study of intracranial central nervous system tumours in dogs: brief recall on anatomic and histological aspects, presentation of their classification and their prevalence, and precise descriptions of their characteristics. In the third part, the author reports clinical and para-clinical data which allow the diagnosis of an intracranial nervous tissue tumour. The last part presents different available therapeutic modalities, more particularly addresses the interest of radiotherapy in neuro-oncology, and compares published results [fr

  18. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology--a bidirectional translational approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Bütof, Rebecca; Krause, Mechthild; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  19. Water versus DNA: new insights into proton track-structure modelling in radiobiology and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, C; Quinto, M A; Monti, J M; Galassi, M E; Weck, P F; Fojón, O A; Hanssen, J; Rivarola, R D

    2015-10-21

    Water is a common surrogate of DNA for modelling the charged particle-induced ionizing processes in living tissue exposed to radiations. The present study aims at scrutinizing the validity of this approximation and then revealing new insights into proton-induced energy transfers by a comparative analysis between water and realistic biological medium. In this context, a self-consistent quantum mechanical modelling of the ionization and electron capture processes is reported within the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state framework for both isolated water molecules and DNA components impacted by proton beams. Their respective probability of occurrence-expressed in terms of total cross sections-as well as their energetic signature (potential and kinetic) are assessed in order to clearly emphasize the differences existing between realistic building blocks of living matter and the controverted water-medium surrogate. Consequences in radiobiology and radiotherapy will be discussed in particular in view of treatment planning refinement aiming at better radiotherapy strategies.

  20. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Thute, Prasad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krause, Mechthild [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Enghardt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Radiooncology

    2014-07-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.