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Sample records for biological half-life

  1. Estimation of the Biological Half-Life of Methylmercury Using a Population Toxicokinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongil Jo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury is well known for causing adverse health effects in the brain and nervous system. Estimating the elimination constant derived from the biological half-life of methylmercury in the blood or hair is an important part of calculating guidelines for methylmercury intake. Thus, this study was conducted to estimate the biological half-life of methylmercury in Korean adults. We used a one-compartment model with a direct relationship between methylmercury concentrations in the blood and daily dietary intake of methylmercury. We quantified the between-person variability of the methylmercury half-life in the population, and informative priors were used to estimate the parameters in the model. The population half-life of methylmercury was estimated to be 80.2 ± 8.6 days. The population mean of the methylmercury half-life was 81.6 ± 8.4 days for men and 78.9 ± 8.6 days for women. The standard deviation of the half-life was estimated at 25.0 ± 8.6 days. Using the direct relationship between methylmercury concentrations in blood and methylmercury intake, the biological half-life in this study was estimated to be longer than indicated by the earlier studies that have been used to set guideline values.

  2. A new simplified allometric approach for predicting the biological half-life of radionuclides in reptiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major source of uncertainty in the estimation of radiation dose to wildlife is the prediction of internal radionuclide activity concentrations. Allometric (mass-dependent) relationships describing biological half-life (T1/2b) of radionuclides in organisms can be used to predict organism activity concentrations. The establishment of allometric expressions requires experimental data which are often lacking. An approach to predict the T1/2b in homeothermic vertebrates has recently been proposed. In this paper we have adapted this to be applicable to reptiles. For Cs, Ra and Sr, over a mass range of 0.02–1.5 kg, resultant predictions were generally within a factor of 6 of reported values demonstrating that the approach can be used when measured T1/2b data are lacking. However, the effect of mass on reptilian radionuclide T1/2b is minimal. If sufficient measured data are available for a given radionuclide then it is likely that these would give a reasonable estimate of T1/2b in any reptile species. - Highlights: • An allometric approach to predict radionuclide T1/2b values in reptiles is derived. • Predictions are generally within a factor of six of measured values. • Radionuclide biological half-life is in-effect mass independent

  3. Biological half-life of iodine in adults with intact thyroid function and in athyreotic persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, G.H.; Hauck, B.M.; Chamberlain, M.J

    2002-07-01

    A joint project between the Human Monitoring Laboratory (HML) and the Ottawa Hospital has measured the retention of {sup 131}I in patients who have received the radioiodine diagnostically. Thirty-nine subjects with intact thyroid glands and nine athyreotic subjects were measured in the HML's whole-body/thyroid counter to determine the retention of {sup 131}I following its medical administration. The average biological half-life of {sup 131}I in 26 euthyroid subjects was found to be 66.1{+-}6.3 days which may be statistically significantly lower than the ICRP recommended value of 80 days. Nine hyperthyroid patients had a mean biological half-life of 38.2{+-}8.6 days and in three hypothyroid patients the corresponding value was 29.3{+-}8.8 days. Thyroid {sup 131}I uptake was measured in a conventional clinical fashion at the Ottawa Hospital Civic campus 24 h after oral administration of the radioiodine using a collimated thick sodium iodide detector placed over the neck arteriorly. Measured values were 0.144{+-}0.009, 0.314{+-}0.035 and 0.045{+-}0.010 of the administered dose in euthyroid, hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients respectively. The euthyroid range at the hospital is 0.06-0.22. Uptake was significantly lower for the euthyroid group than the ICRP value of 0.3. The radioiodine retention in athyreotic subjects followed a two compartment model with biological half-lives of 1.0{+-}0.2 days and 18.4{+-}1.1. days. (author)

  4. Absorption and biological half-life in humans of intrinsic and extrinsic 54Mn tracers from foods of plant origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Absorption and biological half-life of 54Mn were measured in adult men and women fed foods labeled intrinsically or extrinsically with 54Mn. Each subject consumed a series of three test meals consisting of a food labeled intrinsically, a food labeled extrinsically or MnCl2 (control) served in random order. The foods tested were lettuce, spinach, wheat and sunflower seeds. Lettuce meals and their controls contained 9.65 mumol Mn; other meals contained 22.50 mumol Mn. In addition to the test food or MnCl2, each meal consisted of vegetable oil (5 g), salt (NaCl, 0.15 g) and crackers (10 g), which provided 0.55 mumol Mn. There were no differences in percentage of Mn absorption or biological half-life of 54Mn for any of the intrinsically/extrinsically labeled food pairs. Absorption of 54Mn from MnCl2 (8.90%) was greater than from lettuce (5.20%), spinach (3.81%), wheat (2.16%) or sunflower seeds (1.71%), but the biological half-life did not vary with the source of Mn. Absorption of 54Mn from lettuce was significantly (P less than 0.05) greater than from wheat or sunflower seeds. Although the Mn dose in the test meal was less for lettuce than for the other foods, there was no difference in Mn absorption from MnCl2 between the subjects fed lettuce and subjects fed other foods. There was no correlation of either 54Mn absorption or biological half-life with whole blood or plasma Mn

  5. The biological half life and distribution of 125Iodide and radioiodinated protein in the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope 125Iodide, a gamma emittor, was used in two different forms, as 125I mixed with egg yolk and as 125I covalently attached to egg albumin and mixed with egg yolk, to study food flow in the imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren. The biological half life of 125I-albumin in egg yolk powder was determined to be 96 hr in isolated workers, 108 hr in individuals held with small groups of unlabelled workers, and 1,008 hr in workers held in colonies exposed to labelled food for 48 hr. In contrast, the biological half life of free 125I mixed with egg yolk powder was 22 hr, 20 hr, and 40 hr, respectively. The internal distribution of radioactivity was checked after 24, 48, and 380 hr. There was a significant difference in distribution of 125I in ants fed either free 125I or 125I-albumin. Most of the free 125I was rapidly excreted. A high percentage of 125I-albumin was assimilated, apparently through protein digestion pathways with eventual storage in or below the cuticle. There was no evidence of gland involvement in food flow to either larvae or queens with the radio-iodinated protein. (orig.)

  6. PASylation: a biological alternative to PEGylation for extending the plasma half-life of pharmaceutically active proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapschy, Martin; Binder, Uli; Börger, Claudia; Theobald, Ina; Wachinger, Klaus; Kisling, Sigrid; Haller, Dirk; Skerra, Arne

    2013-01-01

    A major limitation of biopharmaceutical proteins is their fast clearance from circulation via kidney filtration, which strongly hampers efficacy both in animal studies and in human therapy. We have developed conformationally disordered polypeptide chains with expanded hydrodynamic volume comprising the small residues Pro, Ala and Ser (PAS). PAS sequences are hydrophilic, uncharged biological polymers with biophysical properties very similar to poly-ethylene glycol (PEG), whose chemical conjugation to drugs is an established method for plasma half-life extension. In contrast, PAS polypeptides offer fusion to a therapeutic protein on the genetic level, permitting Escherichia coli production of fully active proteins and obviating in vitro coupling or modification steps. Furthermore, they are biodegradable, thus avoiding organ accumulation, while showing stability in serum and lacking toxicity or immunogenicity in mice. We demonstrate that PASylation bestows typical biologics, such as interferon, growth hormone or Fab fragments, with considerably prolonged circulation and boosts bioactivity in vivo. PMID:23754528

  7. Dietary pectin shortens the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 in rats by increasing fecal and urinary losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As little as 5% of pectin added to a fiber-free diet elevates urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) severalfold in vitamin B-12--deprived rats. The present study examines whether increased urinary MMA reflects lower vitamin B-12 status or occurs only because of fermentation of pectin by intestinal bacteria and increased production of propionate, a precursor of MMA. By monitoring urinary and fecal excretion of 57Co after a tracer dose of [57Co]vitamin B-12, we found the biologic half-life of vitamin B-12 to be 59 d for rats fed a fiber-free diet and only 19 d for rats fed a 5% pectin diet. Also, pectin-fed rats oxidized only 12% of a 1-mmol dose of [14C]propionate to 14CO2 in 2 h, whereas rats fed the fiber-free diet expired 33% of the dose. Finally, high urinary MMA persisted even after the removal of pectin from the diet. We conclude that dietary pectin accelerates vitamin B-12 depletion in rats, possibly by interfering with enterohepatic recycling of vitamin B-12. By stimulating microbial propionate production, pectin and other fermentable fibers may also contribute to increased urinary MMA in vitamin B-12 deficiency, but a larger propionate pool does not account for the other effects of pectin on vitamin B-12 status

  8. PASylation: a biological alternative to PEGylation for extending the plasma half-life of pharmaceutically active proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Schlapschy, Martin; Binder, Uli; Börger, Claudia; Theobald, Ina; Wachinger, Klaus; Kisling, Sigrid; Haller, Dirk; Skerra, Arne

    2013-01-01

    A major limitation of biopharmaceutical proteins is their fast clearance from circulation via kidney filtration, which strongly hampers efficacy both in animal studies and in human therapy. We have developed conformationally disordered polypeptide chains with expanded hydrodynamic volume comprising the small residues Pro, Ala and Ser (PAS). PAS sequences are hydrophilic, uncharged biological polymers with biophysical properties very similar to poly-ethylene glycol (PEG), whose chemical conjug...

  9. Half-life of {sup 44}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Kutschera, W.; Castagnoli, G. [Instituto di Cosmogeofisica, Torino (Italy); Paul, M. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)

    1995-08-01

    The measurement of the {sup 44}Ti half-life, started 3 years ago, is still continuing. The goal of this measurement is to determine the half-life of {sup 44}Ti, which is {approximately}52 y, to a precision of {approximately}5%. An accurate value of this half-life is of interest to cosmologists who need it to determine the production of heavy elements in supernova. Three sets of samples - a pure 200-nCi {sup 44}Ti sample, a pure 300-nCi {sup 60}Co source, and a mixed {sup 44}Ti-{sup 60}Co source of similar strength - were prepared and their spectra are being measured with Ge spectrometers at Argonne, Torino and Jerusalem. Each sample is counted for a period of 2 days, at approximate intervals of 4 months. The room background is also measured for the same length of time. We hope to start data analysis at the end of summer and obtain a value for the {sup 44}Ti half-life.

  10. Cosmic ray half life of 56Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for the β+ decay of 56Ni has established an upper limit on the branching ratio of 7.2 x 10-7 for the most likely such transition. This provides a lower limit of 2.3 x 104 years for the cosmic ray half life of 56Ni. 2 refs., 2 figs

  11. Remeasurement of (234)U Half-Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsolt; Nicholl, Adrian; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of (234)U has been measured using a novel approach. In this method, a uranium material was chemically purified from its thorium decay product at a well-known time. The ingrowth of the (230)Th daughter product in the material was followed by measuring the accumulated (230)Th daughter product relative to its parent (234)U nuclide using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Then, the (234)U decay constant and the respective half-life could be calculated using the radioactive decay equations based on the n((230)Th)/n((234)U) amount ratio. The obtained (234)U half-life is 244 900 ± 670 years (k = 1), which is in good agreement with the previously reported results in the literature with comparable uncertainty. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it does not require the assumption of secular equilibrium between (234)U and (238)U. Moreover, the calculation is independent from the (238)U half-life value and its uncertainty. The suggested methodology can also be applied for the remeasurement of the half-lives of several other long-lived radionuclides. PMID:26823129

  12. Prolonged midazolam elimination half-life.

    OpenAIRE

    Dundee, J W; Collier, P S; Carlisle, R J; Harper, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a fixed dose of midazolam (0.3 mg kg-1 i.v.) were studied in detail in 115 healthy patients or volunteers and nine were found with a prolonged elimination half-life. A further 102 patients had an abbreviated pharmacokinetic study, of whom five showed a similar abnormality. Defective hepatic metabolism of midazolam may be a factor in the aetiology of what appears to be a true phenomenon, occurring in 6% of over 200 fit subjects given a standard dose of the drug.

  13. Cosmic ray half life of 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search for the β+ decay of 54Mn has established an upper limit of 4.4 x 10-8 for this branching ratio, and a lower limit of 13.3 for the log ft value for this second forbidden unique transition. Assuming that the β- decay branch has the same log ft value, then its partial half life must be greater than 4 x 104 years. Experiments to directly measure the β- decay rate of 54Mn are now in progress. 6 refs., 2 figs

  14. Immunological half-life of porcine proinsulin C-peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunological half-lifes of injected porcine C-peptide and insulin with RIA were studied and calculated as 9.8 and 8.0 minutes. Higher circulating levels of C-peptide as compared to insulin in normal young swines lead to speculation about a longer half-life of C-peptide. This hypothesis was verified in this study. Immunological half-lifes of porcine proinsulin and insulin in the pig were 20 and 6 minutes, respectively. (GSE)

  15. Calculation of half-life for 79Se decay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The half-life for 79Se decay is calculated by using the Logf1ut systematics method. Based on the data analysis and comparison with experimental data the 79Se half-life is recommended. The scheme for 79Se decay is also shown and the radiation data are calculated in the text.

  16. Development of measurement equipment of ozone half life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present research, a new measurement method and the mechanism of ozone decay half life τ is proposed. Ozone is generated by such electric discharge as silent or surface discharge and has a strong oxidisation power and is widely used for air or water purification. But to determine the dosage of ozone, it is necessary to know the ozone decay time (half-life τ) in air or water. Ozone decay is found to change in a natural logarithmic way. Through measurement the time duration τ and the concentration x (g/m3) at t, ozone decay half life τ is calculated. (author)

  17. Beta Decay Half-Life of 84Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, J. B.; Mantica, P. F.; Bazin, D.; Bickley, A.; Becerril, A.; Crawford, H.; Cruse, K.; Estrade, A.; Mosby, M.; Guess, C. J.; Hitt, G. W.; Lorusso, G.; Matos, M.; Meharchand, R.; Minamisono, K.; Montes, F.; Pereira, J.; Perdikakis, G.; Pinter, J. S.; Schatz, H.; Vredevoogd, J.; Zegers, R. G. T.

    2008-10-01

    The β-decay half-life ^84Mo governs leakage out of the Zr-Nb cycle, a high temperature rp-process endpoint in x-ray binaries [1]. Treatment of the background and the poor statistics accumulated during the previous half-life measurement leave questions about statistical and systematic errors. We have remeasured the half-life of ^84Mo using a concerted setup of the NSCL β-Counting System [3] and 16 detectors from the Segmented Germanium Array [4]. We will report the half-life for ^84Mo, deduced using 40 times the previous sample size. The application of the NSCL RF Fragment Separator to remove unwanted isotopes, and hence reduce background for the half-life measurement, will also be discussed. [1] H. Schatz et al., Phys. Rep. 294, 167 1998 [2] P. Kienle et al., Prog. Part. Nuc. Phys. 46, 73 2001 [3] J. Prisciandaro et al., NIM A 505, 140 2003 [4] W. Mueller et al., NIM A 466, 492 2001 [5] D. Gorelov et al. PAC 2005, Knoxville, TN, May 16-20

  18. Free-Neutron Beta-Decay Half-Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Carl Jørgen; Nielsen, A.; Bahnsen, A.;

    1972-01-01

    The β-decay half-life of the free neutron was measured. Greater accuracy was obtained through the development of a special 4πβ spectrometer with a well-defined source volume and through the use of a new density calibration method with a 3He proportional counter. A clean thermal-neutron beam was...

  19. Determination of the ^229Th isomer half-life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jason; Beck, Bret; Becker, John; Haydell, Michael; Norman, Rick; Scielzo, Nicholas; Sheets, Steven; Swanberg, Erik

    2009-10-01

    Recently there has been renewed interest in studying the nuclear properties of the ^229Th isomer. ^229Th has the lowest known isomer at 7.6 eV [1]. Direct laser manipulation of the ground and first excited states could lead to the realization of the world's first nuclear clock. To understand the linewidth of the isomeric state we are conducting experiments to directly observe the half-life of the isomer decay. We use a novel ``hot-atom'' technique in which we catch the recoiling ^229Th nuclei following the alpha decay of ^233U -> ^229Th + α. On average 2% of the ^229Th populate the isomeric 3/2+ state compared to the 5/2+ ground state. Recoils are collected on various catcher plate materials, rotated in vacuum in front of an einzel lense and multi-channel plate detector. The internal conversion electrons are counted as a function of time to determine the half-life. Varying the catcher plate material we can investigate the effect that the materials have on the half-life. Determination of the half-life we will provide valuable guidance to Th trapping research [2]. 1) Beck et al., PRL 98, 142501 (2007) 2) Campbell et al., PRL 102, 233004 (2009) This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  1. Half-life of naled under three test scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietze, N S; Shaffer, K R; Hester, P G

    1996-06-01

    Decline of naled residue on filter paper was studied after exposure to ultra-low volume droplets in a settling chamber. Naled-treated filter papers were stored under 3 treatment scenarios: 1) in a dark environmental chamber at an average relative humidity (RH) of 46.9% and temperature of 24 degrees C, 2) in a dark environmental chamber at an average RH of 87.7% and temperature of 24 degrees C, and, 3) in direct sunlight in the field. Decline of naled followed first order kinetics in all cases; consequently, half-life of naled under each treatment was determined from the slope of each line. Half-life (+/- 1 SD) of naled was 8.17 +/- 1.24, 4.81 +/- 1.18, and 1.37 +/- 0.24 h, for treatment scenarios 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In each test, a significant (P naled residue occurred between initial assessment and 4 h postapplication. The half-life of each treatment scenario was significantly (P naled degradation rates. PMID:8827601

  2. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Nicole [Division of Molecular Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Roentgenring 11, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany); Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus [Institute of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Wajant, Harald, E-mail: harald.wajant@mail.uni-wuerzburg.de [Division of Molecular Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Roentgenring 11, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2010-06-11

    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  3. sFlt Multivalent Conjugates Inhibit Angiogenesis and Improve Half-Life In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiok, Eda I.; Browne, Shane; Khuc, Emily; Moran, Elizabeth P.; Qiu, Fangfang; Zhou, Kelu; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L.; Ma, Jian-xing; Chan, Matilda F.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2016-01-01

    Current anti-VEGF drugs for patients with diabetic retinopathy suffer from short residence time in the vitreous of the eye. In order to maintain biologically effective doses of drug for inhibiting retinal neovascularization, patients are required to receive regular monthly injections of drug, which often results in low patient compliance and progression of the disease. To improve the intravitreal residence time of anti-VEGF drugs, we have synthesized multivalent bioconjugates of an anti-VEGF protein, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt) that is covalently grafted to chains of hyaluronic acid (HyA), conjugates that are termed mvsFlt. Using a mouse corneal angiogenesis assay, we demonstrate that covalent conjugation to HyA chains does not decrease the bioactivity of sFlt and that mvsFlt is equivalent to sFlt at inhibiting corneal angiogenesis. In a rat vitreous model, we observed that mvsFlt had significantly increased intravitreal residence time compared to the unconjugated sFlt after 2 days. The calculated intravitreal half-lives for sFlt and mvsFlt were 3.3 and 35 hours, respectively. Furthermore, we show that mvsFlt is more effective than the unconjugated form at inhibiting retinal neovascularization in an oxygen-induced retinopathy model, an effect that is most likely due to the longer half-life of mvsFlt in the vitreous. Taken together, our results indicate that conjugation of sFlt to HyA does not affect its affinity for VEGF and this conjugation significantly improves drug half-life. These in vivo results suggest that our strategy of multivalent conjugation could substantially improve upon drug half-life, and thus the efficacy of currently available drugs that are used in diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, thereby improving patient quality of life. PMID:27257918

  4. In silico labeling reveals the time-dependent label half-life and transit-time in dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiwald Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mathematical models of dynamical systems facilitate the computation of characteristic properties that are not accessible experimentally. In cell biology, two main properties of interest are (1 the time-period a protein is accessible to other molecules in a certain state - its half-life - and (2 the time it spends when passing through a subsystem - its transit-time. We discuss two approaches to quantify the half-life, present the novel method of in silico labeling, and introduce the label half-life and label transit-time. The developed method has been motivated by laboratory tracer experiments. To investigate the kinetic properties and behavior of a substance of interest, we computationally label this species in order to track it throughout its life cycle. The corresponding mathematical model is extended by an additional set of reactions for the labeled species, avoiding any double-counting within closed circuits, correcting for the influences of upstream fluxes, and taking into account combinatorial multiplicity for complexes or reactions with several reactants or products. A profile likelihood approach is used to estimate confidence intervals on the label half-life and transit-time. Results Application to the JAK-STAT signaling pathway in Epo-stimulated BaF3-EpoR cells enabled the calculation of the time-dependent label half-life and transit-time of STAT species. The results were robust against parameter uncertainties. Conclusions Our approach renders possible the estimation of species and label half-lives and transit-times. It is applicable to large non-linear systems and an implementation is provided within the PottersWheel modeling framework (http://www.potterswheel.de.

  5. Effect of parent and daughter deformation on half-life time in exotic decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh; Antony Joseph

    2002-10-01

    Taking Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region we calculated half-life time for different modes of exotic decay treating parent and fragments as spheres and these values are compared with experimental data. We studied the effect of deformation of parent and daughter on half-life time treating emitted cluster as spherical. When deformations are included half-life time values are found to decrease, though slightly. It is found that parent deformation alone will not produce appreciable change in half-life time since it affects relatively small pre-scission part of the barrier.

  6. On the 209Po half-life error and its confirmation. A critique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent report on 209Po claimed to have made a determination of the 125-a half-life from measurements made over 0.8 % of one half-life. A careful reanalysis of the original data with a more complete and rigorous consideration of the underlying uncertainties demonstrates that this claim cannot withstand critical scrutiny. More importantly, this critique examines the larger issue as to what constitutes a valid half-life determination, and highlights that a careful and realistic analysis beyond the mere fitting of decay data to an exponential function is required for the measurement and reporting of half-life values. (author)

  7. Investigations into the transfer of sup 134+137 cesium from Chernobyl fall-out-contaminated grasscobs in the bodies of fallow deer and angora rabbits and on the biological half-life of radio-cesium by means of whole-body gamma spectroscopy. Untersuchungen zum Transfer von sup 134+137 Caesium aus falloutkontaminiertem Futter in Damwild und Angorakaninchen und zur biologischen Halbwertszeit des Radiocaesium mittels der Ganzkoerpergammaspektrometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feiden, F.

    1989-06-28

    The present work concerns a feeding experiment to establish the transfer-factors of {sup 134+137}cesium from Chernobyl fall-out-contaminated grasscobs in the bodies of fallow deer (Dama-dama) and angora rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). The transfer factor from the feed-stuff in the fallow deer body amounted to 0.0311 d/kg independent of the proportion of the contaminated grasscobs in the overall daily ration of food. The {sup 137}Cs activity/kg in the flesh of two killed deer averaged about the factor 1.35, in the joint muscles about the factor 1.44 higher. An increase in the transfer factor for the fallow deers flesh to 0.0448 d/kg is assumed. The transfer factor (whole body) for the angora rabbits amounted to 0.285 d/kg. Two animals killed in balanced condition displayed around the factor 1.35 higher cesium values in the muscles. On this base the TF{sub (meat)} could be given as at 0.385 d/kg. The biological half-life of the radio-cesium in the body of fallow deer comprised a fast component of 0.3 d and a proportion of about 37% in overall activity and a slower one of 13 d with a 63% proportion. On an average it amounted to 8.3 d for excretion of the first half of the initial burden. At 5.5 d, a fallow deer burdened by only one i.v. injection excreted 50% of the initial activity markedly more quickly. Two proportionally equal phases of 1.2 and 10 days of biological half-time were recognised. As regards the angora rabbits, the biological half-life amounted to 1.2 d for the faster component, and for a slower one about 8 d. The first half of the initial activity was excreted after about 5.5 d. (orig./MG).

  8. Precision measurement of the half-life and the decay branches of Ga-62

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canchel, G; Blank, B; Chartier, N; Delalee, F; Dendooven, P; Dossat, C; Giovinazzo, J; Huikari, J; Lalleman, AS; Jimenez, MJL; Madec, [No Value; Pedroza, JL; Penttila, H

    2005-01-01

    In an experiment performed at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaskyla, the beta-decay half-life of Ga-62 has been studied with high precision rising the IGISOL technique. A half-life of T-1/2 = 116.09(17) ms was nieasured. Using beta-gamma coincidences, the gamma intensity of the 9

  9. A recombinant polypeptide extends the in vivo half-life of peptides and proteins in a tunable manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Volker; Wang, Chia-Wei; Geething, Nathan C; Spink, Benjamin J; Campbell, Andrew; To, Wayne; Scholle, Michael D; Yin, Yong; Yao, Yi; Bogin, Oren; Cleland, Jeffrey L; Silverman, Joshua; Stemmer, Willem P C

    2009-12-01

    Increasing the in vivo residence times of protein therapeutics could decrease their dosing frequencies. We show that genetic fusion of an unstructured recombinant polypeptide of 864 amino acids, called XTEN, to a peptide or protein provides an apparently generic approach to extend plasma half-life. Allometric scaling suggests that a fusion of XTEN to the exenatide peptide should increase exenatide half-life in humans from 2.4 h to a projected time of 139 h. We confirmed the biological activity of the exenatide-XTEN fusion in mice. As extended stability might exacerbate undesirable side effects in some cases, we show that truncating the XTEN sequence can regulate plasma half-life. XTEN lacks hydrophobic amino acid residues that often contribute to immunogenicity and complicate manufacture. Based on data on XTEN fusions to exenatide, glucagon, GFP and human growth hormone, we expect that XTEN will enable dosing of otherwise rapidly cleared protein drugs at up to monthly intervals in humans. PMID:19915550

  10. Update of NIST half-life results corrected for ionization chamber source-holder instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterweger, M P; Fitzgerald, R

    2014-05-01

    As reported at the ICRM 2011, it was discovered that the source holder used for calibrations in the NIST 4πγ ionization chamber (IC) was not stable. This has affected a large number of half-life measurement results previously reported and used in compilations of nuclear data. Corrections have been made on all of the half-life data based on the assumption that the changes to the ionization chamber response were gradual. The corrections are energy dependent and therefore radionuclide specific. This presentation will review our results and present the recommended changes in half-life values and/or uncertainties.

  11. Standardization of 40 K by liquid scintillation counting. Determination of the half-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative abundance of the natural radioisotope ''40 K in environmental samples frequently generates interferences in low activity measurements. In the present study we propose the determination of ''40 K by the CIEMAT/NIST method. On this context, the verification of ''40 K half-life is required. We present a half-life value obtained by liquid scintillation counting in excellent agreement with those reported in the literature. (Author)

  12. Using gamma distribution to determine half-life of rotenone, applied in freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan, Maheswaran, E-mail: mrohan@aut.ac.nz [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Fairweather, Alastair; Grainger, Natasha [Science and Capability, Department of Conservation, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2015-09-15

    Following the use of rotenone to eradicate invasive pest fish, a dynamic first-order kinetic model is usually used to determine the half-life and rate at which rotenone dissipated from the treated waterbody. In this study, we investigate the use of a stochastic gamma model for determining the half-life and rate at which rotenone dissipates from waterbodies. The first-order kinetic and gamma models produced similar values for the half-life (4.45 days and 5.33 days respectively) and days to complete dissipation (51.2 days and 52.48 days respectively). However, the gamma model fitted the data better and was more flexible than the first-order kinetic model, allowing us to use covariates and to predict a possible range for the half-life of rotenone. These benefits are particularly important when examining the influence that different environmental factors have on rotenone dissipation and when trying to predict the rate at which rotenone will dissipate during future operations. We therefore recommend that in future the gamma distribution model is used when calculating the half-life of rotenone in preference to the dynamic first-order kinetics model. - Highlights: • We investigated the use of the gamma model to calculate the half-life of rotenone. • Physical and environmental variables can be incorporated into the model. • A method for calculating the range around a mean half-life is presented. • The model is more flexible than the traditionally used first-order kinetic model.

  13. Designing of peptides with desired half-life in intestine-like environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Arun

    2014-08-20

    Background: In past, a number of peptides have been reported to possess highly diverse properties ranging from cell penetrating, tumor homing, anticancer, anti-hypertensive, antiviral to antimicrobials. Owing to their excellent specificity, low-toxicity, rich chemical diversity and availability from natural sources, FDA has successfully approved a number of peptide-based drugs and several are in various stages of drug development. Though peptides are proven good drug candidates, their usage is still hindered mainly because of their high susceptibility towards proteases degradation. We have developed an in silico method to predict the half-life of peptides in intestine-like environment and to design better peptides having optimized physicochemical properties and half-life.Results: In this study, we have used 10mer (HL10) and 16mer (HL16) peptides dataset to develop prediction models for peptide half-life in intestine-like environment. First, SVM based models were developed on HL10 dataset which achieved maximum correlation R/R2 of 0.57/0.32, 0.68/0.46, and 0.69/0.47 using amino acid, dipeptide and tripeptide composition, respectively. Secondly, models developed on HL16 dataset showed maximum R/R2 of 0.91/0.82, 0.90/0.39, and 0.90/0.31 using amino acid, dipeptide and tripeptide composition, respectively. Furthermore, models that were developed on selected features, achieved a correlation (R) of 0.70 and 0.98 on HL10 and HL16 dataset, respectively. Preliminary analysis suggests the role of charged residue and amino acid size in peptide half-life/stability. Based on above models, we have developed a web server named HLP (Half Life Prediction), for predicting and designing peptides with desired half-life. The web server provides three facilities; i) half-life prediction, ii) physicochemical properties calculation and iii) designing mutant peptides.Conclusion: In summary, this study describes a web server \\'HLP\\' that has been developed for assisting scientific

  14. Determination of the half-life of 213Fr with high precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisichella, M.; Musumarra, A.; Farinon, F.; Nociforo, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Scuderi, V.; Torresi, D.; Strano, E.

    2013-07-01

    High-precision measurement of half-life and Qα value of neutral and highly charged α emitters is a major subject of investigation currently. In this framework, we recently pushed half-life measurements of neutral emitters to a precision of a few per mil. This result was achieved by using different techniques and apparatuses at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) and GSI Darmstadt. Here we report on 213Fr half-life determination [T1/2(213Fr) = 34.14±0.06 s] at INFN-LNS, detailing the measurement protocol used. Direct comparison with the accepted value in the literature shows a discrepancy of more than three sigma. We propose this new value as a reference, discussing previous experiments.

  15. Measurement of the (211)Pb half-life using recoil atoms from (219)Rn decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken-Smith, P M; Collins, S M

    2016-04-01

    The radioactive half-life of (211)Pb was measured, by α-particle counting of samples of radiochemically pure (211)Pb in equilibrium with its α-emitting progeny, (211)Bi and (211)Po. The samples were prepared by the collection of (215)Po recoil atoms from the decay of the (219)Rn decay progeny produced from a (223)Ra sample onto stainless steel discs. The radioactive decay of the (211)Pb was measured utilising a 2π proportional counter operating on the α plateau. A half-life of 36.164 (13)min was determined, which is in agreement with currently available literature. A full uncertainty budget is presented. A recommended half-life of T1/2((211)Pb)=36.161 (17)min has been evaluated from the current literature values. PMID:26773817

  16. β-decay half-life of V50 calculated by the shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaranen, M.; Srivastava, P. C.; Suhonen, J.; Zuber, K.

    2014-10-01

    In this work we survey the detectability of the β- channel of 2350V leading to the first excited 2+ state in 2450Cr. The electron-capture (EC) half-life corresponding to the transition of 2350V to the first excited 2+ state in 2250Ti had been measured earlier. Both of the mentioned transitions are 4th-forbidden non-unique. We have performed calculations of all the involved wave functions by using the nuclear shell model with the GXPF1A interaction in the full f-p shell. The computed half-life of the EC branch is in good agreement with the measured one. The predicted half-life for the β- branch is in the range ≈2×1019 yr whereas the present experimental lower limit is 1.5×1018 yr. We discuss also the experimental lay-out needed to detect the β--branch decay.

  17. Three-Laboratory Measurement of the {sup 44}Ti Half-Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Fischer, S.M.; Kutschera, W.; Paul, M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bonino, G.; Bonino, G.; Castagnoli, G.C.; Castagnoli, G.C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell`Universita, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Kutschera, W. [Institut fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik der Universitaet Wien, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel 91904] [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

    1998-03-01

    We report on a measurement of the {sup 44}Ti half-life aimed at lowering existing systematic uncertainties in this value, which is important to astrophysics. The half-life was measured by following the decay of {sup 44}Ti relative to {sup 60}Co for about 5yr and the measurements were performed independently in three laboratories{emdash}Argonne, Jerusalem, and Torino. We suggest to combine our result, 59.0{plus_minus}0.6yr, with the one from the accompanying Letter by G{umlt o}rres {ital et al.,} 60.3{plus_minus}1.3yr, to obtain a current {open_quotes}best value{close_quotes} for the half-life of {sup 44}Ti of 59.2{plus_minus}0.6 yr (1{sigma} error). {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Measurement of the {sup 214}Po half-life by the DEVIS track setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, V. A.; Brakhman, E. V.; Zeldovich, O. Ya.; Karelin, A. K.; Kirichenko, V. V.; Kobyakin, A. S., E-mail: Alexander.Kobyakin@itep.ru; Kozodaeva, O. M.; Kuchenkov, A. V.; Tsvetkova, T. N. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-04-15

    Measurement of the {sup 214}Po half-life with the DEVIS track setup at the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP, Moscow) by means of a procedure based on determining lifetimes of individual nuclei is described. The value obtained for the {sup 214}Po half-life is 163.8 {+-} 3.0 Micro-Sign s. The possibility of reaching the accuracy of the measurements that is required for testing the statement that the decay of some nuclei has a nonexponential character and the source intensity necessary for this are discussed.

  19. Dual Constant Domain-Fab: A novel strategy to improve half-life and potency of a Met therapeutic antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetto, Simona; Modica, Chiara; Chiriaco, Cristina; Fontani, Lara; Milla, Paola; Michieli, Paolo; Comoglio, Paolo M; Vigna, Elisa

    2016-06-01

    The kinase receptor encoded by the Met oncogene is a sensible target for cancer therapy. The chimeric monovalent Fab fragment of the DN30 monoclonal antibody (MvDN30) has an odd mechanism of action, based on cell surface removal of Met via activation of specific plasma membrane proteases. However, the short half-life of the Fab, due to its low molecular weight, is a severe limitation for the deployment in therapy. This issue was addressed by increasing the Fab molecular weight above the glomerular filtration threshold through the duplication of the constant domains, in tandem (DCD-1) or reciprocally swapped (DCD-2). The two newly engineered molecules showed biochemical properties comparable to the original MvDN30 in vitro, acting as full Met antagonists, impairing Met phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling pathways. As a consequence, Met-mediated biological responses were inhibited, including anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth. In vivo DCD-1 and DCD-2 showed a pharmacokinetic profile significantly improved over the original MvDN30, doubling the circulating half-life and reducing the clearance. In pre-clinical models of cancer, generated by injection of tumor cells or implant of patient-derived samples, systemic administration of the engineered molecules inhibited the growth of Met-addicted tumors.

  20. Study on Radiochemical Separation and Measurement of Half-life of ~(88)Kr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    88Kr is one of the important gaseous fission products for determining the burn up of nuclear fuel with a short half-life, high fission yield and high branch ratio of γ-ray. Due to the more uncertainty of evaluated data and rare experimented data,

  1. Dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the implantation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaizola, B.; Fraile, L.M.; Riisager, Karsten;

    2010-01-01

    The possible dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the solid-state environment has been investigated by the simultaneous measurement of implanted 221Fr ions in an insulator (Si) and a metallic substrate (Au) at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Our results indicate that, if existing, the difference ...

  2. Confirmation of 20% error in the 209Po half-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First results of a half-life measurement of 209Po show 20% discrepancy with the formerly recommended value of 102 (5) years, which was based on a single experiment performed in 1956. After one year of measurement, a statistical uncertainty on T1/2 of 3.5% has been reached and effects of long-term instability are assumed to be less than 5%. The preliminary half-life value obtained in this work, 120 (6) years, supports the newly determined value of 125.2 (33) years by Collé et al. (2014). The 20% error in the half-life has an impact on numerous measurements in which aged 209Po solutions were used as a tracer. - Highlights: • Measured half-life of 209Po is 120 (6) a. • The formerly recommended value was in error by 20%. • Measurement results using 209Po as a tracer are affected. • The error persisted for half a century

  3. Matching the decay half-life with the biological half-life: ImmunoPET imaging with (44)Sc-labeled cetuximab Fab fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Valdovinos, Hector F; Hernandez, Reinier; Hong, Hao; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo

    2014-12-17

    Scandium-44 (t1/2 = 3.9 h) is a relatively new radioisotope of potential interest for use in clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Herein, we report, for the first time, the room-temperature radiolabeling of proteins with (44)Sc for in vivo PET imaging. For this purpose, the Fab fragment of Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), was generated and conjugated with N-[(R)-2-amino-3-(para-isothiocyanato-phenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-N,N,N',N″,N″-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A″-DTPA). The high purity of Cetuximab-Fab was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. The potential of the bioconjugate for PET imaging of EGFR expression in human glioblastoma (U87MG) tumor-bearing mice was investigated after (44)Sc labeling. PET imaging revealed rapid tumor uptake (maximum uptake of ∼12% ID/g at 4 h postinjection) of (44)Sc-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab-Fab with excellent tumor-to-background ratio, which might allow for same day PET imaging in future clinical studies. Immunofluorescence staining was conducted to correlate tracer uptake in the tumor and normal tissues with EGFR expression. This successful strategy for immunoPET imaging of EGFR expression using (44)Sc-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab-Fab can make clinically translatable advances to select the right population of patients for EGFR-targeted therapy and also to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of anti-EGFR treatments.

  4. β+ decay and cosmic-ray half-life of 91Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the laboratory, 91Nb decays by electron capture with a 680-yr half-life. However, as a high energy cosmic ray, it would be stripped of its atomic electrons and would be able to undergo only β+ decay. We produced and chemically purified a sample of 91Nb and observed its decay with an array of Ge and NaI detectors. By following the β+ annihilation radiation, we were able to determine the β+ branching ratios of both the 105-keV, 61-d isomer and the ground state of 91Nb. The ground-state branch is (7.7±0.8)x10-3% leading to a β+ partial half-like of (8.8±1.9)x106 yr. Such a value of the half-life makes 91Nb a good candidate for determining the confinement time of this secondary component of the cosmic rays

  5. Theoretical half-life for beta decay of {sup 96}Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, H; Mustonen, M T; Suhonen, J [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PO Box 35, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2007-05-15

    Highly forbidden {beta}{sup -} decay of the 0{sup +} ground state of {sup 96}Zr is studied. Partial half-lives to the lowest 6{sup +}, 5{sup +} and 4{sup +} states of {sup 96}Nb have been computed using the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) with realistic two-body interactions in a large single-particle space. We find that the decay is dominated by the unique fourth-forbidden transition to the 5{sup +} state with the half-life 2.4 x 10{sup 20} y. This half-life is an order of magnitude longer than the one measured for the double beta decay of {sup 96}Zr.

  6. The half-life and exposure of Cefuroxime varied in newborn infants after a Caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G; Hyldig, N; Joergensen, J S;

    2016-01-01

    AIM: No information was available on how fast intravenous cefuroxime administered to pregnant women before a Caesarean section was cleared in newborn infants. This study investigated the drug's half-life and the exposure of healthy newborn infants after their mothers received the drug. METHODS......: Healthy mothers received a single dose of cefuroxime 15 to 60 minutes before skin incision. One blood sample was drawn from the umbilical cord and two blood samples were drawn from the infant after delivery. Total plasma cefuroxime (μg/ml) was measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS......: Cefuroxime was given to 22 mothers, including two who had twins. The concentration of cefuroxime varied significantly among infants (p<0.001), while the rate of decline did not (p=0.24). The median cefuroxime half-life was 3.5 hours (range 2.9-5.5), which was approximately three times longer than in normal...

  7. Unified description of the proton, alpha, cluster decays and spontaneously fissions half- life

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrodiev, Strachimir Cht

    2016-01-01

    Some time ago the possibility of classical (without Gamow tunneling) universal description of radioactive nuclei decay was demonstrated. Such possibility is basis on the classical interpretation of Bohmian Psi-field reality in Bohmian-Chetaev mechanics and the hypothesis for the presence of dissipative forces, generated from the Gryzinski translational precession of the charged particles spin, in Langevin- Kramers diffusion mechanism. In this paper is present an unified model of proton, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity and spontaneous fission half-life as explicit function which depends on the total decay energy and kinetic energy, the number of protons and neutrons of daughter product, the number of protons and neutrons of mother nuclei and from a set) unknown digital parameters. The Half- lifes of the 573 nuclei taken from NuDat database together with the recent experimental data from Oganessian provide a basis for discovering the explicit form of the Kramers solution of Langevin type equation in a framew...

  8. Precision half-life measurement of the 4-fold forbidden β decay of V50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, H.; Neumaier, S.; Zuber, K.

    2011-05-01

    A sensitive search of the 4-fold forbidden nonunique decay of V50 has been performed. A total mass measuring time product of 186 kg d has been accumulated. A reliable half-life value with the highest precision so far of (2.29±0.25)×1017 years of the electron capture decay of V50 into the first excited state of Ti50 could be obtained. A photon emission line following the β decay into the first excited state of Cr50 could not be observed, resulting in a lower limit on the half-life of the β-decay branch of 1.7×1018 years. This is not in good agreement with a claimed observation of this decay branch published in 1989.

  9. A half-life the divided life of Bruno Pontecorvo, physicist or spy

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Bruno Pontecorvo dedicated his career to hunting for the Higgs boson of his day: the neutrino, a nearly massless particle considered essential to the process of nuclear fission. His work on the Manhattan project under Enrico Fermi confirmed his reputation as a brilliant physicist and helped usher in the nuclear age. He should have won a Nobel Prize, but late in the summer of 1950 he vanished. At the height of the Cold War, Pontecorvo had disappeared behind the Iron Curtain. In Half-Life, physicist and historian Frank Close offers a heretofore untold history of Pontecorvo’s life, based on unprecedented access to his friends, family, and colleagues. With all the elements of a Cold War thriller—classified atomic research, an infamous double agent, a kidnapping by Soviet operatives—Half-Life is a history of particle physics at perhaps its most powerful: when it created the bomb.

  10. Half-life extended factor VIII for the treatment of hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, A

    2015-06-01

    Prophylactic infusion of factor VIII (FVIII) prevents joint bleeding and other hemorrhages in patients with hemophilia A. Conventional FVIII concentrates have a short half-life, with an average of about 12 h in adults, ranging in individual patients between 6 and 24 h, and even shorter in younger children. Therefore, effective prophylaxis requires frequent intravenous injection, usually three times per week or every other day. Several technologies are currently under investigation to extend the half-life of FVIII, including Fc fusion (Eloctate, Elocta, efmoroctocog alfa), addition of polyethylene glycol (turoctocog alfa pegol [N8-GP], BAY 94-9027, BAX 855), and a single-chain construct (CSL627). This review summarizes characteristics of products in clinical development and discusses their potential benefits.

  11. Discussions about whether radioactive half life can be changed by mechanic motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, some discussions and comments about the paper entitled "Can the decay rate of 32P be changed by mechanic motion?" (Ding et al., Science in China Series B:Chemistry (Chinese version), 2008, 38(11):1035-1037) are given. It was strongly suggested that its experimental methods, data calculations and conclusion should be reconsidered. After the data were recalculated, the new results supported that the chiral mechanic motion could induce the changes of radioactive half life.

  12. Derivation of a novel formula for α-decay half-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the basic principle of quantal decay of particle, we derive a formula of logarithm of decay half-life of an alpha particle emitting from a radioactive nucleus. The process of decay is understood as the transition of the particle from an isolated quasi-bound state to a scattering state. In this picture, the decay width is a resonance width in the system consisting of an α-cluster and the residual nucleus

  13. Multivalent antiviral XTEN-peptide conjugates with long in vivo half-life and enhanced solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Sheng; Song, Michael; Sim, Bee-Cheng; Gu, Chen; Podust, Vladimir N; Wang, Chia-Wei; McLaughlin, Bryant; Shah, Trishul P; Lax, Rodney; Gast, Rainer; Sharan, Rahul; Vasek, Arthur; Hartman, M Amanda; Deniston, Colin; Srinivas, Prathna; Schellenberger, Volker

    2014-07-16

    XTENs are unstructured, nonrepetitive protein polymers designed to prolong the in vivo half-life of pharmaceuticals by introducing a bulking effect similar to that of poly(ethylene glycol). While XTEN can be expressed as a recombinant fusion protein with bioactive proteins and peptides, therapeutic molecules of interest can also be chemically conjugated to XTEN. Such an approach permits precise control over the positioning, spacing, and valency of bioactive moieties along the length of XTEN. We have demonstrated the attachment of T-20, an anti-retroviral peptide indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 patients with multidrug resistance, to XTEN. By reacting maleimide-functionalized T-20 with cysteine-containing XTENs and varying the number and positioning of cysteines in the XTENs, a library of different peptide-polymer combinations were produced. The T-20-XTEN conjugates were tested using an in vitro antiviral assay and were found to be effective in inhibiting HIV-1 entry and preventing cell death, with the copy number and spacing of the T-20 peptides influencing antiviral activity. The peptide-XTEN conjugates were also discovered to have enhanced solubilities in comparison with the native T-20 peptide. The pharmacokinetic profile of the most active T-20-XTEN conjugate was measured in rats, and it was found to exhibit an elimination half-life of 55.7 ± 17.7 h, almost 20 times longer than the reported half-life for T-20 dosed in rats. As the conjugation of T-20 to XTEN greatly improved the in vivo half-life and solubility of the peptide, the XTEN platform has been demonstrated to be a versatile tool for improving the properties of drugs and enabling the development of a class of next-generation therapeutics. PMID:24932887

  14. Neutron activation analyses and half-life measurements at the usgs triga reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert E.

    Neutron activation of materials followed by gamma spectroscopy using high-purity germanium detectors is an effective method for making measurements of nuclear beta decay half-lives and for detecting trace amounts of elements present in materials. This research explores applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two parts. Part 1. High Precision Methods for Measuring Decay Half-Lives, Chapters 1 through 8 Part one develops research methods and data analysis techniques for making high precision measurements of nuclear beta decay half-lives. The change in the electron capture half-life of 51Cr in pure chromium versus chromium mixed in a gold lattice structure is explored, and the 97Ru electron capture decay half-life are compared for ruthenium in a pure crystal versus ruthenium in a rutile oxide state, RuO2. In addition, the beta-minus decay half-life of 71mZn is measured and compared with new high precision findings. Density Functional Theory is used to explain the measured magnitude of changes in electron capture half-life from changes in the surrounding lattice electron configuration. Part 2. Debris Collection Nuclear Diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility, Chapters 9 through 11 Part two explores the design and development of a solid debris collector for use as a diagnostic tool at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). NAA measurements are performed on NIF post-shot debris collected on witness plates in the NIF chamber. In this application NAA is used to detect and quantify the amount of trace amounts of gold from the hohlraum and germanium from the pellet present in the debris collected after a NIF shot. The design of a solid debris collector based on material x-ray ablation properties is given, and calculations are done to predict performance and results for the collection and measurements of trace amounts of gold and germanium from dissociated hohlraum debris.

  15. Regulation of the mRNA half-life in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griseri, Paola; Pagès, Gilles

    2014-08-10

    The control of the half-life of mRNA plays a central role in normal development and in disease progression. Several pathological conditions, such as breast cancer, correlate with deregulation of the half-life of mRNA encoding growth factors, oncogenes, cell cycle regulators and inflammatory cytokines that participate in cancer. Substantial stability means that a mRNA will be available for translation for a longer time, resulting in high levels of protein gene products, which may lead to prolonged responses that subsequently result in over-production of cellular mediators that participate in cancer. The stability of these mRNA is regulated at the 3'UTR level by different mechanisms involving mRNA binding proteins, micro-RNA, long non-coding RNA and alternative polyadenylation. All these events are tightly inter-connected to each other and lead to steady state levels of target mRNAs. Compelling evidence also suggests that both mRNA binding proteins and regulatory RNAs which participate to mRNA half-life regulation may be useful prognostic markers in breast cancers, pointing to a potential therapeutic approach to treatment of patients with these tumors. In this review, we summarize the main mechanisms involved in the regulation of mRNA decay and discuss the possibility of its implication in breast cancer aggressiveness and the efficacy of targeted therapy. PMID:25114848

  16. 238U spontaneous fission half-life and a new probable radioactivity mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 238U spontaneous fission half-life is reinvestigated using a special nuclear emulsion technique previously developed in our laboratory. A perfect visualisation of the fission fragments tracks in the absence of alpha particle tracks was obtained with the present method that also avoids the fading of the latent image. Under these conditions, two well defined peaks are observed experimentaly: one corresponding to the well-known range (approx 24 μm) of the 238U fission fragments tracks and the other showing evidence of short range tracks (approx 10 μm). For the 238U spontaneous fission half-life our result is (6.0+-0.4) x1015 y, in good agreement with the values obtained by some other workers using different experimental methods. A systematic theoretical analysis shows that the 238U spontaneous emission of nuclides with mass number between approx 20 e 70 is possible. The Kinetic energies calculated for these nuclides are found to fit the short range tracks observed in our experiment. From the experimental data, we attribute a (2 +- 1) x 1015 y half-life for all modes of emission involved in this process. (Author)

  17. Determination of the half-life and specific thermal power of 241Pu by nuclear calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    241Pu has the shortest half-life of the abundant plutonium isotopes present in reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuel with a value of approximately 14.3 years. It is important to know the half-life of 241Pu with a higher fractional accuracy than that of the other plutonium isotopes because the half-life of 241Pu and its associated uncertainty affects the estimation by decay calculation of both the total amount of separated plutonium in storage and the determination of the total plutonium mass by non-destructive assay. This paper addresses the determination of the 241Pu half-life using nuclear calorimetry by the measurement of the thermal power as 241Pu evolves in time from a sealed plutonium source, ideally initially rich in 241Pu and chemically stripped of 241Am. The absolute accuracy of nuclear calorimeters can be ensured over long periods of time (many years) using long-lived nuclear reference materials and/or traceable electrical heat standards. One can, therefore, expect nuclear calorimetry to offer an accurate way to determine the half-life of 241Pu, which is comparable in quality and independent, yet complementary, to other approaches. Temporal analysis of the power-versus-time data also yields an estimate of the specific power of 241Pu, which other methods do not. After describing the principle of the method and developing the pertinent mathematical expressions, we outline the approach by drawing on some unpublished notes of Kenneth C. Jordan who carried out such experiments at the Mound Laboratory over 40 years ago. Today, Jordan’s work remains possibly the most significant experiment of its type to the 241Pu nuclear data evaluator. However, objectively assigning confidence to his results is problematic because the details of the experiments and data reduction have never been adequately reported. This work goes some way to that end but, without the raw data and first-hand knowledge, cannot provide a complete record. We conclude that a new high

  18. Precise and direct determination of the half-life of 41Ca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörg, Gerhard; Amelin, Yuri; Kossert, Karsten; Lierse v. Gostomski, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Calcium-41 plays an important role in the long-term evaluation of the safety of final repositories for nuclear waste and is used to study the fine-scale chronology of the formation of the Solar System. Both applications are hindered by insufficient precision and poor consistency of previous determinations of the half-life. This work reports a half-life for 41Ca of (9.94 ± 0.15) × 104 years, which was determined with a combination of methods, chosen to provide the best possible precision. The activity was measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) exploiting the triple-to-double coincidence ratio method (TDCR); the absolute isotopic composition was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and isotope dilution. Enhanced precision and accuracy of the 41Ca half-life will allow the improvement of safety analyses for final deposit sites of nuclear waste and of dating first solids, and better constrain the stellar environment of the formation of the Solar System.

  19. A novel exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein, E2HSA, with an extended half-life and good glucoregulatory effect in healthy rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • E2HSA has an extended half-life and good plasma stability. • E2HSA could improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion. • E2HSA has excellent glucoregulatory effects in vivo. • E2HSA could potentially be used as a new long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes management. - Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has attracted considerable research interest in terms of the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their multiple glucoregulatory functions. However, the short half-life, rapid inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and excretion, limits the therapeutic potential of the native incretin hormone. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop the long-acting incretin mimetics via modifying its structure. Here we report a novel recombinant exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein E2HSA with HSA molecule extends their circulatory half-life in vivo while still retaining exendin-4 biological activity and therapeutic properties. In vitro comparisons of E2HSA and exendin-4 showed similar insulinotropic activity on rat pancreatic islets and GLP-1R-dependent biological activity on RIN-m5F cells, although E2HSA was less potent than exendin-4. E2HSA had a terminal elimation half-life of approximate 54 h in healthy rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, E2HSA could reduce postprandial glucose excursion and control fasting glucose level, dose-dependent suppress food intake. Improvement in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and control serum glucose excursions were observed during hyperglycemic clamp test (18 h) and oral glucose tolerance test (42 h) respectively. Thus the improved physiological characterization of E2HSA make it a new potent anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes therapy

  20. A novel exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein, E2HSA, with an extended half-life and good glucoregulatory effect in healthy rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lin; Meng, Zhiyun; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Wenzhong; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Dou, Guifang, E-mail: douguifang@vip.163.com

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • E2HSA has an extended half-life and good plasma stability. • E2HSA could improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion. • E2HSA has excellent glucoregulatory effects in vivo. • E2HSA could potentially be used as a new long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes management. - Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has attracted considerable research interest in terms of the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their multiple glucoregulatory functions. However, the short half-life, rapid inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and excretion, limits the therapeutic potential of the native incretin hormone. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop the long-acting incretin mimetics via modifying its structure. Here we report a novel recombinant exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein E2HSA with HSA molecule extends their circulatory half-life in vivo while still retaining exendin-4 biological activity and therapeutic properties. In vitro comparisons of E2HSA and exendin-4 showed similar insulinotropic activity on rat pancreatic islets and GLP-1R-dependent biological activity on RIN-m5F cells, although E2HSA was less potent than exendin-4. E2HSA had a terminal elimation half-life of approximate 54 h in healthy rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, E2HSA could reduce postprandial glucose excursion and control fasting glucose level, dose-dependent suppress food intake. Improvement in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and control serum glucose excursions were observed during hyperglycemic clamp test (18 h) and oral glucose tolerance test (42 h) respectively. Thus the improved physiological characterization of E2HSA make it a new potent anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes therapy.

  1. Measurement of the Two-Neutrino Double Beta Decay Half-life of $^{130}$Te with the CUORE-0 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alduino, C; Artusa, D R; Avignone, F T; Azzolini, O; Banks, T I; Bari, G; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bersani, A; Biassoni, M; Branca, A; Brofferio, C; Bucci, C; Camacho, A; Caminata, A; Canonica, L; Cao, X G; Capelli, S; Cappelli, L; Carbone, L; Cardani, L; Carniti, P; Casali, N; Cassina, L; Chiesa, D; Chott, N; Clemenza, M; Copello, S; Cosmelli, C; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Cushman, J S; D'Addabbo, A; Dafinei, I; Davis, C J; Dell'Oro, S; Deninno, M M; Di Domizio, S; Di Vacri, M L; Drobizhev, A; Fang, D Q; Faverzani, M; Fernandes, G; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Fiorini, E; Franceschi, M A; Freedman, S J; Fujikawa, B K; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gladstone, L; Gorla, P; Gotti, C; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Han, K; Hansen, E; Heeger, K M; Hennings-Yeomans, R; Hickerson, K P; Huang, H Z; Kadel, R; Keppel, G; Kolomensky, Yu G; Leder, A; Ligi, C; Lim, K E; Liu, X; Ma, Y G; Maino, M; Marini, L; Martinez, M; Maruyama, R H; Mei, Y; Moggi, N; Morganti, S; Mosteiro, P J; Napolitano, T; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; O'Donnell, T; Orio, F; Ouellet, J L; Pagliarone, C E; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pessina, G; Pettinacci, V; Piperno, G; Pira, C; Pirro, S; Pozzi, S; Previtali, E; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Sangiorgio, S; Santone, D; Scielzo, N D; Singh, V; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Taffarello, L; Tenconi, M; Terranova, F; Tomei, C; Trentalange, S; Vignati, M; Wagaarachchi, S L; Wang, B S; Wang, H W; Wilson, J; Winslow, L A; Wise, T; Woodcraft, A; Zanotti, L; Zhang, G Q; Zhu, B X; Zimmermann, S; Zucchelli, S

    2016-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the two-neutrino double beta decay half-life of $^{130}$Te with the CUORE-0 detector. From an exposure of 33.4 kg$\\cdot$y of TeO$_2$, the half-life is determined to be $T_{1/2}^{2\

  2. Calculation of the Aluminosilicate Half-Life Formation Time in the 2H Evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.F.

    2000-09-21

    The 2H Evaporator contains large quantities of aluminosilicate solids deposited on internal fixtures. The proposed cleaning operations will dissolve the solids in nitric acid. Operations will then neutralize the waste prior to transfer to a waste tank. Combining recent calculations of heat transfer for the 2H Evaporator cleaning operations and laboratory experiments for dissolution of solid samples from the pot, the authors estimated the re-formation rate for aluminosilicates during cooling. The results indicate a half-life formation of 17 hours when evaporator solution cools from 60 degrees C and 9 hours when cooled from 90 degrees C.

  3. Measurement of the half-life of sup 1 sup 7 sup 6 Lu

    CERN Document Server

    Nir-El, Y

    1998-01-01

    The half-life of sup 1 sup 7 sup 6 Lu was determined by measuring the disintegration rate of a solution of lutetium oxide, using a calibrated HPGe detector, and found to be (3.69+-0.02)x10 sup 1 sup 0 y. It is recommended that the current adopted value be calculated from the grouping of three published values since 1983, including our value, the weighted mean of which is (3.73+-0.01)x10 sup 1 sup 0 y.

  4. Half-life Measurements of Excited Levels in Fission Products around Mass Number 150

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, Y., E-mail: kojima.yasuaki@f.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Radioisotope Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Shima, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Hayashi, H. [Institute of Health Biosciences, the University of Tokushima, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Taniguchi, A. [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Kumatori 590-0494 (Japan); Shibata, M. [Radioisotope Research Center, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2014-06-15

    A spectrometer to measure nuclear level half-lives has been installed at the on-line isotope separator of the Kyoto University Reactor. This spectrometer consists of a LaBr3 scintillator, a thin plastic scintillator and an HPGe detector. Half-lives are deduced using the β-γ-γ delayed coincidence method. The prompt-time distribution curves measured with the spectrometer give a time resolution (FWHM) of 600 ps for 100-keV γ rays. This resolution means that half-lives down to the subnanosecond range or shorter can be measured. We reported recent measurements of the half-life of {sup 149}Pr and {sup 149}Nd. Some of the more interesting results include the first determination of the half-lives of {sup 149}Pr levels at 86.5 and 125.6 keV, which are 4.2(5) ns and 1.0(2) ns, respectively. In addition, the data indicate that the half-life of the 270.8-keV level in {sup 149}Nd is not 5.1(3) ns as reported previously, but 0.42(3) ns.

  5. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion.

  6. Model system that predicts effective half-life for radiolabeled antibody therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolabeled antibodies to tumor associated proteins localize in both experimental and clinical cancers. In the therapeutic applications of radiolabeled antibody, tumor effective half-life along with the concentration of isotope deposited and energies of the isotope used, determine the tumor dose. Antibodies directed against the same antigenic specificity but derived from different species have varied tumor and whole body effective half-lives and as a result, achieve different tumor doses. In vitro testing does not evaluate the in vivo differences in effective half-life that affect tumor dose. The authors have developed an animal model to evaluate the effective half-live and biodistribution of radiolabeled immunoglobulin (IgG) from diverse species. In both the experimental model and in the clinical trials, radiolabeled immunospecific and normal IgG derived from monkey, rabbit, and porcine sources had the longest effective half-lives, goat and sheep had intermediate effective half-lives, and chicken and turkey had the shortest effective half-lives. These species have been immunized for clinical use. The value of this model system is that it appears to be an effective in vivo preclinical screen for tumor effective half-live of antibodies and IgG from diverse species, thus guiding potential clinical use

  7. Going Beyond the Binary : The body, Sexuality and Identity in Shelley Jackson’s Half Life: a novel

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Linjing

    2012-01-01

    The thesis focuses on Shelley Jackson’s Half Life: a Novel with efforts directed towards a literary interpretation considering relevant issues within the context of gender and feminist theory. The argument rests upon four basic units: the theoretical framework at the outset, the question of the body next, thirdly an investigation of sexuality, and finally a consideration of identity. In Jackson’s Half Life: a Novel the non-dualist thinking underlies a deliberate play of dualism. To go beyond ...

  8. Site-Specific Albumination as an Alternative to PEGylation for the Enhanced Serum Half-Life in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byungseop; Lim, Sung In; Kim, Jong Chul; Tae, Giyoong; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-05-01

    Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been widely used as a serum half-life extender of therapeutic proteins. However, due to immune responses and low degradability of PEG, developing serum half-life extender alternatives to PEG is required. Human serum albumin (HSA) has several beneficial features as a serum half-life extender, including a very long serum half-life, good degradability, and low immune responses. In order to further evaluate the efficacy of HSA, we compared the extent of serum half-life extension of a target protein, superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP), upon HSA conjugation with PEG conjugation side-by-side. Combination of site-specific incorporation of p-azido-l-phenylalanine into sfGFP and copper-free click chemistry achieved the site-specific conjugation of a single HSA, 20 kDa PEG, or 30 kDa PEG to sfGFP. These sfGFP conjugates exhibited the fluorescence comparable to or even greater than that of wild-type sfGFP (sfGFP-WT). In mice, HSA-conjugation to sfGFP extended the serum half-life 9.0 times compared to that of unmodified sfGFP, which is comparable to those of PEG-conjugated sfGFPs (7.3 times for 20 kDa PEG and 9.5 times for 30 kDa PEG). These results clearly demonstrated that HSA was as effective as PEG in extending the serum half-life of a target protein. Therefore, with the additional favorable features, HSA is a good serum half-life extender of a (therapeutic) protein as an alternative to PEG. PMID:27050863

  9. Accurate measurements of 129I concentration by isotope dilution using MC-ICPMS for half-life determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determining the 129I concentration, a long-lived radionuclide present in spent nuclear fuel, is a major issue for nuclear waste disposal purpose. 129I also has to be measured in numerous environmental, nuclear and biological samples. To be able to accurately determine the 129I concentration, an analytical method based on the use of a multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) combined with an isotope dilution technique using an 127I spike, was developed. First, the influence of different media (HNO3, NaOH and TMAH) on natural 127I signal intensity and stability and on memory effects was studied. Then an analytical procedure was developed by taking into account the correction of blanks and interferences. Tellurium was chosen for instrumental mass bias correction, as no certified standards with suitable 127I/129I ratio are available. Finally, the results, reproducibility and uncertainties obtained for the 129I concentration determined by isotope dilution with a 127I spike are presented and discussed. The final expanded relative uncertainty obtained for the iodine-129 concentration was lower than 0.7% (k = 1). This precise 129I determination in association with further activity measurements of this nuclide on the same sample will render it possible to determine a new value of the 129I half-life with a reduced uncertainty (0.76%, k = 1).

  10. Accurate measurements of {sup 129}I concentration by isotope dilution using MC-ICPMS for half-life determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnard, Helene; Nonell, Anthony; Marie, Mylene [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives (CEA), Gif Sur Yvette (France). DEN, DPC, SEARS, LANIE; Chartier, Frederic [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives (CEA), Gif Sur Yvette (France). DEN, DPC

    2016-05-01

    Determining the {sup 129}I concentration, a long-lived radionuclide present in spent nuclear fuel, is a major issue for nuclear waste disposal purpose. {sup 129}I also has to be measured in numerous environmental, nuclear and biological samples. To be able to accurately determine the {sup 129}I concentration, an analytical method based on the use of a multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) combined with an isotope dilution technique using an {sup 127}I spike, was developed. First, the influence of different media (HNO{sub 3}, NaOH and TMAH) on natural {sup 127}I signal intensity and stability and on memory effects was studied. Then an analytical procedure was developed by taking into account the correction of blanks and interferences. Tellurium was chosen for instrumental mass bias correction, as no certified standards with suitable {sup 127}I/{sup 129}I ratio are available. Finally, the results, reproducibility and uncertainties obtained for the {sup 129}I concentration determined by isotope dilution with a {sup 127}I spike are presented and discussed. The final expanded relative uncertainty obtained for the iodine-129 concentration was lower than 0.7% (k = 1). This precise {sup 129}I determination in association with further activity measurements of this nuclide on the same sample will render it possible to determine a new value of the {sup 129}I half-life with a reduced uncertainty (0.76%, k = 1).

  11. The antitumor agent 3-bromopyruvate has a short half-life at physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Matthew; Biddle, Perry; Jantzi, Josh; Weaver, Samantha; Schirch, Doug

    2014-09-12

    Clinical research is currently exploring the validity of the anti-tumor candidate 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) as a novel treatment for several types of cancer. However, recent publications have overlooked rarely-cited earlier work about the instability of 3-BP and its decay to 3-hydroxypyruvate (3-HP) which have obvious implications for its mechanism of action against tumors, how it is administered, and for precautions when preparing solutions of 3-BP. This study found the first-order decay rate of 3-BP at physiological temperature and pH has a half-life of only 77 min. Lower buffer pH decreases the decay rate, while choice of buffer and concentration do not affect it. A method for preparing more stable solutions is also reported. PMID:25152397

  12. ORIGEN-S Decay Data Library and Half-Life Uncertainties

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, O W

    1998-01-01

    The results of an extensive update of the decay data of the ORIGEN-S library are presented in this report. The updated decay data were provided for both the ORIGEN-S and ORIGEN2 libraries in the same project. A complete edit of the decay data plus the available half-life uncertainties are included in Appendix A. A detailed description of the types of data contained in the library, the format of the library, and the data sources are also presented. Approximately 24% of the library nuclides are stable, 66% were updated from ENDF/B-VI, about 8% were updated from ENSDF, and the remaining 2% were not updated. Appendix B presents a listing of percentage changes in decay heat from the old to the updated library for all nuclides containing a difference exceeding 1% in any parameter.

  13. Precision Measurement of the 6He Half-Life and the Weak Axial Current in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Knecht, A; Zumwalt, D W; Delbridge, B G; Garcia, A; Mueller, P; Swanson, H E; Towner, I S; Utsuno, S; Williams, W; Wrede, C

    2011-01-01

    Studies of 6He beta decay along with tritium can play an important role in testing ab-initio nuclear wave-function calculations and may allow for fixing low-energy constants in effective field theories. Here, we present an improved determination of the 6He half-life to a relative precision of 3x10^(-4). Our value of 806.89 \\pm 0.11(stat)^{+0.23}_{-0.19}(syst) ms resolves a major discrepancy between previous measurements. Calculating the statistical rate function we determined the ft-value to be 803.04 ^{+0.26}_{-0.23} s. The extracted Gamow-Teller matrix element agrees within a few percent with ab-initio calculations.

  14. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S

    2015-01-01

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{136}$Xe, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated using latest (more reliable and precise) values for phase space factor. Finally, previous results (PRC 81 (2010) 035501) were up-dated and results for $^{136}$Xe were added.

  15. Analysis of two dead time correction methods for precise half-life determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, Jefferson W.M.; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A., E-mail: fredzini@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper two different dead time correction methods are applied to the determination of the half-life of short-lived radioisotopes {sup 28}Al, {sup 52}V and {sup 66}Cu; in the first, the mathematical non-paralyzable model correction is applied to the decay data, and in the second a {sup 60}Co source, counted together with the radioactive samples, was used as a 'livetime chronometer'. Both methods delivered compatible results for two of the radioisotopes, but not for {sup 52}V; also, while the results obtained with the mathematical correction are closer to the tabulated values from ENSDF, the data obtained with the {sup 60}Co chronometer are more consistent. These results indicate that the added dead time due to the additional {sup 60}Co source may not be negligible. (author)

  16. Development of a time-variable nuclear pulser for half life measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Domienikan, Claudio; Carvalhaes, Roberto P. M.; Genezini, Frederico A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP. P.O. Box 11049, Sao Paulo, 05422-970 (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    In this work a time-variable pulser system with an exponentially-decaying pulse frequency is presented, which was developed using the low-cost, open-source Arduino microcontroler plataform. In this system, the microcontroller produces a TTL signal in the selected rate and a pulse shaper board adjusts it to be entered in an amplifier as a conventional pulser signal; both the decay constant and the initial pulse rate can be adjusted using a user-friendly control software, and the pulse amplitude can be adjusted using a potentiometer in the pulse shaper board. The pulser was tested using several combinations of initial pulse rate and decay constant, and the results show that the system is stable and reliable, and is suitable to be used in half-life measurements.

  17. Precision measurement of the half-life of $^{109}$In in large and small lattice environments

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to undertake high precision measurements of the half-life of $^{109}$In in large and small lattice environments to study the effect of compression on the electron capture nuclear decay rate. Such studies are of general interest having implications in many areas ranging from astrophysics to geophysics. At present, very little data is available on the change of electron capture decay rate under compression and the available data seems to indicate that the observed increase of the electron capture decay rate under compression is much greater than the predictions of the best available density functional calculations as obtained from TB-LMTO or WIEN2K codes. The proposed experiment should generate more data thus clarifying the experimental situation.

  18. Half-life measurement of neutron-rich isotope 237Th

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    60 MeV/u 18O ions were used to bombard natural uranium targets, and the heavy neutron-rich isotope 237Th was produced via multi-nucleon transfer reaction and dissipative fragmentation of the heavy target. A relatively fast radiochcmical procedure was used to separate thorium from the mixture of uranium and complex reaction products. The chemically separated thorium fractions were studied by the γ-ray spectroscopic method. The behaviors of the growth and decay of 853.7 and 865.0 keV γ rays of 237pa decay were observed. Thc half-life of 237Th was determined to be 4.69±0.60 min.

  19. Q value and half-life of double-electron capture in Os-184

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, C; Beyer, T; Blaum, K; Block, M; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Eibach, M; Eliseev, S; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Nagy, Sz; Nörtershäuser, W; Renisch, D; Shabaev, V M; Tupitsyn, I I; Zubova, N A

    2012-01-01

    Os-184 has been excluded as a promising candidate for the search of neutrinoless double-electron capture. High-precision mass measurements with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP resulted in a marginal resonant enhancement with = -8.89(58) keV excess energy to the 1322.152(22) keV 0+ excited state in W-184. State-of-the-art energy density functional calculations are applied for the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements to the excited states predicting a strong suppression due to the large deformation of mother and daughter states. The half-life of the transition in Os-184 exceeds T_{1/2} > 1.3 10^{29} years for an effective neutrino mass of 1 eV.

  20. PASylation of Murine Leptin Leads to Extended Plasma Half-Life and Enhanced in Vivo Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morath, Volker; Bolze, Florian; Schlapschy, Martin; Schneider, Sarah; Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Seyfarth, Katrin; Klingenspor, Martin; Skerra, Arne

    2015-05-01

    Leptin plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis and appetite and, thus, has attracted attention for therapeutic approaches in spite of its limited pharmacological activity owing to the very short circulation in the body. To improve drug delivery and prolong plasma half-life, we have fused murine leptin with Pro/Ala/Ser (PAS) polypeptides of up to 600 residues, which adopt random coil conformation with expanded hydrodynamic volume in solution and, consequently, retard kidney filtration in a similar manner as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Relative to unmodified leptin, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering revealed an approximately 21-fold increase in apparent size and a much larger molecular diameter of around 18 nm for PAS(600)-leptin. High receptor-binding activity for all PASylated leptin versions was confirmed in BIAcore measurements and cell-based dual-luciferase assays. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed a much extended plasma half-life after ip injection, from 26 min for the unmodified leptin to 19.6 h for the PAS(600) fusion. In vivo activity was investigated after single ip injection of equimolar doses of each leptin version. Strongly increased and prolonged hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation was detected for PAS(600)-leptin. Also, a reduction in daily food intake by up to 60% as well as loss in body weight of >10% lasting for >5 days was observed, whereas unmodified leptin was merely effective for 1 day. Notably, application of a PASylated superactive mouse leptin antagonist (SMLA) led to the opposite effects. Thus, PASylated leptin not only provides a promising reagent to study its physiological role in vivo but also may offer a superior drug candidate for clinical therapy. PMID:25811325

  1. Pre-Clinical Intravenous Serum Pharmacokinetics of Albumin Binding and Non-Half-Life Extended Nanobodies®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hoefman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanobodies are antigen-binding, single variable domain proteins derived from naturally-occurring, heavy chain only antibodies. They are highly soluble, stable, and can be linked to build multi-specific formats. Several Nanobodies are currently in clinical development in different therapeutic areas, for both chronic and acute applications. For the former, prolonged exposure is achieved by half-life extending moieties that target endogenous albumin, while for the latter, non-half-life extended constructs are preferable. To demonstrate the general pharmacokinetic behavior of both formats, serum levels of seven intravenously administered Nanobodies were analyzed in cynomolgus monkeys, mice or rabbits. In monkeys, the total clearance of a monomeric irrelevant Nanobody was rapid (2.0 mL/(min*kg and approximated the species glomerular filtration rate, indirectly suggesting that the Nanobody was mainly eliminated via the kidneys. When linked to an anti-albumin Nanobody, a 376-fold decrease in clearance was observed, resulting in a terminal half-life of 4.9 days, corresponding to the expected species albumin half-life. Similar conclusions were drawn for (non- half-life extended mono-, bi- and trimeric Nanobodies in mice or rabbits, suggesting that these kinetic principles apply across species. Applying this knowledge to species translation and study design is crucial for successful pre-clinical development of novel therapeutic Nanobody candidates.

  2. Towards a Measurement of the Half-Life of {sup 60}Fe for Stellar and Early Solar System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostdiek, K.; Anderson, T.; Bauder, W.; Bowers, M.; Collon, P.; Dressler, R.; Greene, J.; Kutschera, W.; Lu, W.; Paul, M.

    2015-10-15

    Radioisotopes, produced in stars and ejected into the Interstellar Medium, are important for constraining stellar and early Solar System (ESS) models. In particular, the half-life of the radioisotope, Fe-60, can have an impact on calculations for the timing for ESS events, the distance to nearby Supernovae, and the brightness of individual, non-steady-state Fe gamma ray sources in the Galaxy. A half-life measurement has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame and measurements of the Fe-60/Fe-56 concentration of our samples using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has begun. This result will be coupled with an activity measurement of the isomeric decay in Co-60, which is the decay product of Fe. Preliminary half-life estimates of (2.53 +/- 0.24) x 10(6) years seem to confirm the recent measurement by Rugel et al. (2009). (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement of the 135Cs half-life with accelerator mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, C. M.; Cornett, R. J.; Charles, C. R. J.; Zhao, X. L.; Kieser, W. E.

    2016-01-01

    The isotope 135Cs is quoted as having a half-life of 2.3 Myr. However, there are three published values ranging from 1.8 to 3 Myr. This research reviews previous measurements and reports a new measurement of the half-life using newly developed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) techniques along with β and γ radiometric analysis. The half-life was determined to be (1.6 ±0.6 ) ×106 yr by AMS and (1.3 ±0.2 ) ×106 yr by ICPMS with 95% confidence. The two values agree with each other but differ from the accepted value by ˜40 % .

  4. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in Japanese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Carmen Miwa; Ito, Takehiko; Takaki, Jiro; Wang, Bin-Ling; Wang, Da-Hong; Takigawa, Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-10-01

    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children and socio-economic variables such as the prefecture income per capita, the percentage of primary industry, the population density per 1 km2, the diffusion rate of population under water supply, and the percentage of upper secondary school enrollment. The results indicated that the parasite carrier rate was higher in younger students. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was approximately 3 years with significant variation among prefectures. Multiple regression analyses showed that the decrease of infection in elementary and lower secondary school children had a significant positive association with primary industry and a significant negative association with prefecture income per capita. The school-health-based parasite intervention differs by prefecture and has changed over time according to the respective prefectural stage of economic development.

  5. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  6. Role of enhanced half-life factor VIII and IX in the treatment of haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ali J; Obaji, Samya G; Collins, Peter W

    2015-06-01

    Treatment of congenital haemophilia with factor VIII and IX concentrates often requires frequent infusions. This has obvious implications in establishing effective administration strategies and, in turn, adherence. To overcome these issues, three main technologies--polyethylene-glycol, Fc-neonatal IgG1 and albumin fusion products--have emerged into various stages of clinical development. Published data indicates an approximately 1·5- and fivefold increase in half-life of factor VIII and IX, respectively, compared to standard recombinant concentrates. Studies into efficacy and safety are starting to be published. Monitoring and optimal use of these new concentrates remains unknown. Weekly factor IX prophylaxis appears to be a feasible prophylactic regimen in haemophilia B patients. Weekly longer-acting FVIII is unlikely to provide adequate prophylaxis in most patients with haemophilia A but may reduce the frequency of infusions. Ongoing clinical trials and real life experience will help shape how these products can be used in practice and their cost effectiveness. The drive for convenience however should not overshadow the ultimate goal of prophylaxis, namely, preventing bleeding and arthropathy. PMID:25754016

  7. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: cehamidi@eng.usm.my [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2011-01-30

    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  8. High-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for superallowed Fermi β+ emitters at TRIUMF – ISAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laffoley A. T.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A program of high-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for superallowed Fermi β emitters is being carried out at TRIUMF’s Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Recent half-life measurements for the superallowed decays of 14O, 18Ne, and 26Alm, as well as branching-ratio measurements for 26Alm and 74Rb are reported. These results provide demanding tests of the Standard Model and the theoretical isospin symmetry breaking (ISB corrections in superallowed Fermi β decays.

  9. Measurement of the two neutrino double beta decay half-life of Zr-96 with the NEMO-3 detector

    OpenAIRE

    Argyriades, J.; Arnold, R.; Augier, C.; Baker, J.; Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Bongrand, M.; Broudin-Bay, G.; Brudanin, V.(Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia); Caffrey, A. J.; Chapon, A.; Chauveau, E.; Daraktchieva, Z.; Durand, D.; Egorov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Using 9.4 g of Zr-96 and 1221 days of data from the NEMO-3 detector corresponding to 0.031 kg yr, the obtained 2vbb decay half-life measurement is [2.35 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.16(syst)] x 10^19 yr. Different characteristics of the final state electrons have been studied, such as the energy sum, individual electron energy, and angular distribution. The 2v nuclear matrix element is extracted using the measured 2vbb half-life and is 0.049 +/- 0.002. Constraints on 0vbb decay have also been set.

  10. Measurement of the beta beta Decay Half-Life of Te-130 with the NEMO-3 Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, R.; Augier, C.; Baker, J.; Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Blondel, S.; Bongrand, M.; Broudin-Bay, G.; Brudanin, V.(Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia); Caffrey, A. J.; Chapon, A.; Chauveau, E.; Durand, D.; Egorov, V.; Flack, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report results from the NEMO-3 experiment based on an exposure of 1275 days with 661 g of Te-130 in the form of enriched and natural tellurium foils. The beta beta decay rate of Te-130 is found to be greater than zero with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations and the half-life is measured to be T-1/2(2v)=[7.0 +/- 0.9(stat) +/- 1: 1(syst)] x 10(20) yr. This represents the most precise measurement of this half- life yet published and the first real-time observation of this decay.

  11. Measurement of the Double Beta Decay Half-life of 130Te with the NEMO-3 Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, R.; Augier, C.; Baker, J.; Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Blondel, S.; Bongrand, M.; Broudin-Bay, G.; Brudanin, V.(Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia); Caffrey, A. J.; Chapon, A.; Chauveau, E.; Durand, D.; Egorov, V.; Flack, R.

    2011-01-01

    This Letter reports results from the NEMO-3 experiment based on an exposure of 1275 days with 661g of 130Te in the form of enriched and natural tellurium foils. The double beta decay rate of 130Te is found to be greater than zero with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations and the half-life is measured to be T1/2 = (7.0 +/- 0.9(stat) +/- 1.1(syst)) x 10^{20} yr. This represents the most precise measurement of this half-life yet published and the first real-time observation of this decay.

  12. Measurement of the Double Beta Decay Half-life of 130Te with the NEMO-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, R; Baker, J; Barabash, A S; Basharina-Freshville, A; Blondel, S; Bongrand, M; Broudin-Bay, G; Brudanin, V; Caffrey, A J; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Durand, D; Egorov, V; Flack, R; Garrido, X; Grozier, J; Guillon, B; Hubert, Ph; Jackson, C M; Jullian, S; Kauer, M; Klimenko, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V; Lalanne, D; Lamhamdi, T; Lang, K; Liptak, Z; Lutter, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, Ch; Martin-Albo, J; Mauger, F; Mott, J; Nachab, A; Nemchenok, I; Nguyen, C H; Nova, F; Novella, P; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J L; Richards, B; Ricol, J S; Saakyan, R; Sarazin, X; Shitov, Yu; Simard, L; Šimkovic, F; Smolnikov, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Štekl, I; Suhonen, J; Sutton, C S; Szklarz, G; Thomas, J; Timkin, V; Torre, S; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V; Vála, L; Vanyushin, I; Vasiliev, V; Vorobel, V; Vylov, T; Zukauskas, A

    2011-01-01

    This Letter reports results from the NEMO-3 experiment based on an exposure of 1275 days with 661g of 130Te in the form of enriched and natural tellurium foils. With this data set the double beta decay rate of 130Te is found to be non-zero with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations and the half-life is measured to be T1/2 = (7.0 +/- 0.9(stat) +/- 1.1(syst)) x 10^{20} yr. This represents the most precise measurement of this half-life yet published and the first real-time observation of this decay.

  13. Measurement of the ββ decay half-life of 130Te with the NEMO-3 detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R; Augier, C; Baker, J; Barabash, A S; Basharina-Freshville, A; Blondel, S; Bongrand, M; Broudin-Bay, G; Brudanin, V; Caffrey, A J; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Durand, D; Egorov, V; Flack, R; Garrido, X; Grozier, J; Guillon, B; Hubert, Ph; Hugon, C; Jackson, C M; Jullian, S; Kauer, M; Klimenko, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V; Lalanne, D; Lamhamdi, T; Lang, K; Liptak, Z; Lutter, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, Ch; Martin-Albo, J; Mauger, F; Mott, J; Nachab, A; Nemchenok, I; Nguyen, C H; Nova, F; Novella, P; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J L; Richards, B; Ricol, J S; Saakyan, R; Sarazin, X; Simard, L; Simkovic, F; Shitov, Yu; Smolnikov, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Stekl, I; Suhonen, J; Sutton, C S; Szklarz, G; Thomas, J; Timkin, V; Torre, S; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V; Vála, L; Vanyushin, I; Vasiliev, V; Vorobel, V; Vylov, Ts; Zukauskas, A

    2011-08-01

    We report results from the NEMO-3 experiment based on an exposure of 1275 days with 661 g of (130)Te in the form of enriched and natural tellurium foils. The ββ decay rate of (130)Te is found to be greater than zero with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations and the half-life is measured to be T(½)(2ν) = [7.0 ± 0.9(stat) ± 1.1(syst)] × 10(20) yr. This represents the most precise measurement of this half-life yet published and the first real-time observation of this decay. PMID:21902318

  14. Measurement of the ββ Decay Half-Life of Te130 with the NEMO-3 Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, R.; Augier, C.; Baker, J.; Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Blondel, S.; Bongrand, M.; Broudin-Bay, G.; Brudanin, V.; Caffrey, A. J.; Chapon, A.; Chauveau, E.; Durand, D.; Egorov, V.; Flack, R.; Garrido, X.; Grozier, J.; Guillon, B.; Hubert, Ph.; Hugon, C.; Jackson, C. M.; Jullian, S.; Kauer, M.; Klimenko, A.; Kochetov, O.; Konovalov, S. I.; Kovalenko, V.; Lalanne, D.; Lamhamdi, T.; Lang, K.; Liptak, Z.; Lutter, G.; Mamedov, F.; Marquet, Ch.; Martin-Albo, J.; Mauger, F.; Mott, J.; Nachab, A.; Nemchenok, I.; Nguyen, C. H.; Nova, F.; Novella, P.; Ohsumi, H.; Pahlka, R. B.; Perrot, F.; Piquemal, F.; Reyss, J. L.; Richards, B.; Ricol, J. S.; Saakyan, R.; Sarazin, X.; Simard, L.; Šimkovic, F.; Shitov, Yu.; Smolnikov, A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Štekl, I.; Suhonen, J.; Sutton, C. S.; Szklarz, G.; Thomas, J.; Timkin, V.; Torre, S.; Tretyak, V. I.; Umatov, V.; Vála, L.; Vanyushin, I.; Vasiliev, V.; Vorobel, V.; Vylov, Ts.; Zukauskas, A.

    2011-08-01

    We report results from the NEMO-3 experiment based on an exposure of 1275 days with 661 g of Te130 in the form of enriched and natural tellurium foils. The ββ decay rate of Te130 is found to be greater than zero with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations and the half-life is measured to be T1/22ν=[7.0±0.9(stat)±1.1(syst)]×1020yr. This represents the most precise measurement of this half-life yet published and the first real-time observation of this decay.

  15. PEGylation extends circulation half-life while preserving in vitro and in vivo activity of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotica Batra

    Full Text Available Excess proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs contributes to the development of arthritis, cardiovascular diseases and cancer progression, implicating these enzymes as therapeutic targets. While many small molecule inhibitors of MMPs have been developed, clinical uses have been limited, in part by toxicity and off-target effects. Development of the endogenous tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs as recombinant biopharmaceuticals represents an alternative therapeutic approach; however, the short plasma half-life of recombinant TIMPs has restricted their potential in this arena. To overcome this limitation, we have modified recombinant human TIMP-1 (rhTIMP-1 by PEGylation on lysine residues. We analyzed a mixture of mono- and di-PEGylated rhTIMP-1 species modified by attachment of 20 kDa mPEG chains (PEG(20K-TIMP-1, as confirmed by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry. This preparation retained complete inhibitory activity toward the MMP-3 catalytic domain and partial inhibitory activity toward full length MMP-9. Pharmacokinetic evaluation showed that PEGylation extended the plasma half-life of rhTIMP-1 in mice from 1.1 h to 28 h. In biological assays, PEG(20K-TIMP-1 inhibited both MMP-dependent cancer cell invasion and tumor cell associated gelatinase activity. Overall these results suggest that PEGylated TIMP-1 exhibits improved potential for development as an anti-cancer recombinant protein therapeutic, and additionally may offer potential for clinical applications in the treatment of other diseases.

  16. Natural decay and half-life: Two bases for the radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How can environmental protection imperatives and technical requirements be reconciled in radioactive waste disposal? In France, two kind of facilities illustrate how radioactive waste disposal can merge scientific, regulatory and political concerns, based on the natural decay property of radioactive material. Andra's near-surface disposal facilities for short-lived waste are operated for one generation (30 years) and monitored for ten generations (300 years), with the radioactivity of the waste declining to naturally-occurring levels through the process of radioactive decay by the end of that time. The waste to be disposed of in such facilities contains nuclides with half-life below 30 years and is said time-degradable at human scale. The challenges are different for long-lived waste, which are also time-degradable, but not at human scale. Risk assessments for disposal of such waste, relatively straightforward for the first few thousand years, must also demonstrate that levels decline to naturally-occurring levels, even though this may occur in tens of thousands of years, when it is predicted that climatic change, new glacial activity, and a drop in sea level will occur, and when civilizations will no doubt have changed as well. This demonstration of very long-term safety is an express requirement for radioactive waste disposal. The paper briefly describes the criteria used in the French regulation to determine what waste can be accepted for near-surface disposal and the recent significant steps taken to resume field work for the siting of underground laboratories and possible, much later, a repository for waste non acceptable for near-surface disposal. The conclusion focuses in demonstrating how a consistent National or International Waste Management Program based on clear ethical, societal, scientific and technological choices has to be prepared and presented to the Authorities and to the Public, allowing the waste management Organization to gain the necessary

  17. Developing a support vector machine based QSPR model for prediction of half-life of some herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samghani, Kobra; HosseinFatemi, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    The half-life (t1/2) of 58 herbicides were modeled by quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) based molecular structure descriptors. After calculation and the screening of a large number of molecular descriptors, the most relevant those ones selected by stepwise multiple linear regression were used for developing linear and nonlinear models which developed by using multiple linear regression and support vector machine, respectively. Comparison between statistical parameters of linear and nonlinear models indicates the suitability of SVM over MLR model for predicting the half-life of herbicides. The statistical parameters of R(2) and standard error for training set of SVM model were; 0.96 and 0.087, respectively, and were 0.93 and 0.092 for the test set. The SVM model was evaluated by leave one out cross validation test, which its result indicates the robustness and predictability of the model. The established SVM model was used for predicting the half-life of other herbicides that are located in the applicability domain of model that were determined via leverage approach. The results of this study indicate that the relationship among selected molecular descriptors and herbicide's half-life is non-linear. These results emphases that the process of degradation of herbicides in the environment is very complex and can be affected by various environmental and structural features, therefore simple linear model cannot be able to successfully predict it. PMID:26970881

  18. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: A probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bellotti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years source. In particular, we give a possible reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8⋅10−5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the 222Rn half-life: 3.82146(16stat(4syst days.

  19. Enhanced in Vivo Efficacy of a Type I Interferon Superagonist with Extended Plasma Half-life in a Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Daniel; Kuhn, Nadine; Abramovich, Renne; Sasson, Keren; Zozulya, Alla L.; Smith, Paul; Schlapschy, Martin; Aharoni, Rina; Köster, Mario; Eilam, Raya; Skerra, Arne; Schreiber, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    IFNβ is a common therapeutic option to treat multiple sclerosis. It is unique among the family of type I IFNs in that it binds to the interferon receptors with high affinity, conferring exceptional biological properties. We have previously reported the generation of an interferon superagonist (dubbed YNSα8) that is built on the backbone of a low affinity IFNα but modified to exhibit higher receptor affinity than even for IFNβ. Here, YNSα8 was fused with a 600-residue hydrophilic, unstructured N-terminal polypeptide chain comprising proline, alanine, and serine (PAS) to prolong its plasma half-life via “PASylation.” PAS-YNSα8 exhibited a 10-fold increased half-life in both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic assays in a transgenic mouse model harboring the human receptors, notably without any detectable loss in biological potency or bioavailability. This long-lived superagonist conferred significantly improved protection from MOG35–55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with IFNβ, despite being injected with a 4-fold less frequency and at an overall 16-fold lower dosage. These data were corroborated by FACS measurements showing a decrease of CD11b+/CD45hi myeloid lineage cells detectable in the CNS, as well as a decrease in IBA+ cells in spinal cord sections determined by immunohistochemistry for PAS-YNSα8-treated animals. Importantly, PAS-YNSα8 did not induce antibodies upon repeated administration, and its biological efficacy remained unchanged after 21 days of treatment. A striking correlation between increased levels of CD274 (PD-L1) transcripts from spleen-derived CD4+ cells and improved clinical response to autoimmune encephalomyelitis was observed, indicating that, at least in this mouse model of multiple sclerosis, CD274 may serve as a biomarker to predict the effectiveness of IFN therapy to treat this complex disease. PMID:25193661

  20. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko; Lo Svenningsen, Sine; Sneppen, Kim; Pedersen, Steen

    2011-03-18

    Bacterial mRNAs are translated by closely spaced ribosomes and degraded from the 5'-end, with half-lives of around 2 min at 37 °C in most cases. Ribosome-free or "naked" mRNA is known to be readily degraded, but the initial event that inactivates the mRNA functionally has not been fully described. Here, we characterize a determinant of the functional stability of an mRNA, which is located in the early coding region. Using literature values for the mRNA half-lives of variant lacZ mRNAs in Escherichia coli, we modeled how the ribosome spacing is affected by the translation rate of the individual codons. When comparing the ribosome spacing at various segments of the mRNA to its functional half-life, we found a clear correlation between the functional mRNA half-life and the ribosome spacing in the mRNA region approximately between codon 20 and codon 45. From this finding, we predicted that inserts of slowly translated codons before codon 20 or after codon 45 should shorten or prolong, respectively, the functional mRNA half-life by altering the ribosome density in the important region. These predictions were tested on eight new lacZ variants, and their experimentally determined mRNA half-lives all supported the model. We thus suggest that translation-rate-mediated differences in the spacing between ribosomes in this early coding region is a parameter that determines the mRNAs functional half-life. We present a model that is in accordance with many earlier observations and that allows a prediction of the functional half-life of a given mRNA sequence. PMID:21255584

  1. Effectiveness examination of requirements shown in interim report about clearance of solid waste contaminated by only short half-life nuclide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When radiation facility for various unsealed radioisotopes intends to execute clearance of solid waste contaminated by only short half-life nuclide, a necessary strategy to prevent from contamination of long half-life nuclide has been shown in technical examination interim. We established our radiation facility as a model for classification management of nuclide according to length of half-life and examined the effectiveness of the classification management of the interim report as index nuclides, tritium and Phosphorus-32, based on the example of our classification management of the nuclide in facilities. In this report it was found that the classification management of the nuclide by half-life prevented effectively long half-life nuclide from mixing with the solid waste contaminated by only short half-life nuclide. (author)

  2. EFFECTIVE HALF-LIFE OF CESIUM-137 IN VARIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL MEDIA AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.; Paller, M.; Baker, R.

    2013-12-12

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities into the SRS environment. However, only a relatively small number of pathways, most importantly {sup 137}Cs in fish and deer, have contributed significantly to doses and risks to the public. The “effective” half-lives (T{sub e}) of {sup 137}Cs (which include both physical decay and environmental dispersion) in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation and in fish and white-tailed deer from the SRS were estimated using long-term monitoring data. For 1974–2011, the T{sub e}s of {sup 137}Cs in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation were 17.0 years (95% CI = 14.2–19.9) and 13.4 years (95% CI = 10.8–16.0), respectively. These T{sub e}s were greater than in a previous study that used data collected only through 2005 as a likely result of changes in the flood regime of the Savannah River. Field analyses of {sup 137}Cs concentrations in deer collected during yearly controlled hunts at the SRS indicated an overall T{sub e} of 15.9 years (95% CI = 12.3–19.6) for 1965–2011; however, the T{sub e} for 1990–2011 was significantly shorter (11.8 years, 95% CI = 4.8–18.8) due to an increase in the rate of {sup 137}Cs removal. The shortest T{sub e}s were for fish in SRS streams and the Savannah River (3.5–9.0 years), where dilution and dispersal resulted in rapid {sup 137}Cs removal. Long-term data show that T{sub e}s are significantly shorter than the physical half-life of {sup 137}Cs in the SRS environment but that they can change over time. Therefore, it is desirable have a long period of record for calculating Tes and risky to extrapolate T{sub e}s beyond this period unless the processes governing {sup 137}Cs removal are clearly understood.

  3. Effective Half-Life of Caesium-137 in Various Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities into the SRS environment. However, only a relatively small number of pathways, most importantly 137Cs in fish and deer, have contributed significantly to doses and risks to the public. The “effective” half-lives (Te) of 137Cs (which include both physical decay and environmental dispersion) in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation and in fish and white-tailed deer from the SRS were estimated using long-term monitoring data. For 1974–2011, the Tes of 137Cs in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation were 17.0 years (95% CI = 14.2–19.9) and 13.4 years (95% CI = 10.8–16.0), respectively. These Tes were greater than in a previous study that used data collected only through 2005 as a likely result of changes in the flood regime of the Savannah River. Field analyses of 137Cs concentrations in deer collected during yearly controlled hunts at the SRS indicated an overall Te of 15.9 years (95% CI = 12.3–19.6) for 1965–2011; however, the Te for 1990–2011 was significantly shorter (11.8 years, 95% CI = 4.8–18.8) due to an increase in the rate of 137Cs removal. The shortest Tes were for fish in SRS streams and the Savannah River (3.5–9.0 years), where dilution and dispersal resulted in rapid 137Cs removal. Long-term data show that Tes are significantly shorter than the physical half-life of 137Cs in the SRS environment but that they can change over time. Therefore, it is desirable have a long period of record for calculating Tes and risky to extrapolate Tes beyond this period unless the processes governing 137Cs removal are clearly understood. - Highlights: • 137Cs Tes in SRS floodplain soil, floodplain vegetation, and deer were 13–17 years. • 137Cs Tes in fish from SRS streams were 4–7 years due to washout and sedimentation. • 137Cs Tes in SRS ecosystems were generally comparable to those at other sites

  4. Near-optimum procedure for half-life measurement by high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A near-optimum procedure for using high-resolution γ-ray spectrometry to measure the half-lives of appropriate γ-ray- emitting-nuclides is presented. Among the important points of the procedure are the employment of the reference source method for implicit correction of pileup and deadtime losses; the use of full-energy peak-area ratios as the fundamental measured quantities; and continuous, high-rate data acquisition to obtain good results in a fraction of a half-life if desired. Equations are given for estimating the precision of the computed half-lives in terms of total measurement time, number of spectral acquisitions, and the precision of peak-area ratios. Results of 169Yb half-life measurements are given as an example of the procedure's application. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  5. Measurement of the double-β decay half-life of 136Xe with the KamLAND-Zen experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kato, R.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakada, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Ono, Y.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Yoshida, S.; Banks, T. I.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; O'Donnell, T.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2012-04-01

    We present results from the KamLAND-Zen double-beta decay experiment based on an exposure of 77.6 days with 129 kg of 136Xe. The measured two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of 136Xe is T1/22ν=2.38±0.02(stat)±0.14(syst)×1021 yr, consistent with a recent measurement by EXO-200. We also obtain a lower limit for the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life, T1/20ν>5.7×1024 yr at 90% confidence level (C. L.), which corresponds to almost a fivefold improvement over previous limits.

  6. Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-life of {sup 136}Xe in KamLAND-Zen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KamLAND-Zen Collaboration; Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kato, R.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakada, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Ono, Y.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Yoshida, S.; Banks, T. I.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; O& #x27; Donnell, T.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.

    2012-01-23

    We present results from the KamLAND-Zen double-beta decay experiment based on an exposure of 77.6 days with 129 kg of {sup 136}Xe. The measured two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 136}Xe is T{sup 2{nu}}{sub 1/2} = 2:38 {+-} 0:02(stat) {+-}0.14(syst) x10{sup 21} yr, consistent with a recent measurement by EXO-200. We also obtain a lower limit for the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life, T{sup 0{nu}}{sub 1/2} > 5.7 x 10{sup 24} yr at 90% C.L.

  7. Pharmacokinetic Interactions for Drugs with a Long Half-Life-Evidence for the Need of Model-Based Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Elin M.; Acharya, Chayan; Clauson, Björn; Dooley, Kelly E; Karlsson, Mats O

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can lead to undesired drug exposure, resulting in insufficient efficacy or aggravated toxicity. Accurate quantification of DDIs is therefore crucial but may be difficult when full concentration-time profiles are problematic to obtain. We have compared non-compartmental analysis (NCA) and model-based predictions of DDIs for long half-life drugs by conducting simulation studies and reviewing published trials, using antituberculosis drug bedaquiline ...

  8. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: a probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bellotti, E; Di Carlo, G; Laubenstein, M; Menegazzo, R

    2015-01-01

    We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days) source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years) source. In particular, we give the reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8*10^-5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the ...

  9. The Delta F508 mutation shortens the biochemical half-life of plasma membrane CFTR in polarized epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heda, G D; Tanwani, M; Marino, C R

    2001-01-01

    Although the biosynthetic arrest of the DeltaF508 mutant of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) can be partially reversed by physical and chemical means, recent evidence suggests that the functional stability of the mutant protein after reaching the cell surface is compromised. To understand the molecular basis for this observation, the current study directly measured the half-life of Delta F508 and wild-type CFTR at the cell surface of transfected LLC-PK(1) cells. Plasma membrane CFTR expression over time was characterized biochemically and functionally in these polarized epithelial cells. Surface biotinylation, streptavidin extraction, and quantitative immunoblot analysis determined the biochemical half-life of plasma membrane DeltaF508 CFTR to be approximately 4 h, whereas the plasma membrane half-life of wild-type CFTR exceeded 48 h. This difference in biochemical stability correlated with CFTR-mediated transport function. These findings indicate that the Delta F508 mutation decreases the biochemical stability of CFTR at the cell surface. We conclude that the Delta F508 mutation triggers more rapid internalization of CFTR and/or its preferential sorting to a pathway of rapid degradation. PMID:11121388

  10. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, P. A. [Centro de Investigação do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, EPE, Porto, Portugal and Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Santos, J. A. M., E-mail: joao.santos@ipoporto.min-saude.pt [Centro de Investigação do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, EPE, Porto (Portugal); Serviço de Física Médica do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, EPE, Porto (Portugal); Serviço de Medicina Nuclear do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, EPE, Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as{sup 99m}Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of{sup 99m}Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using {sup 99m}Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for{sup 99m}Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides.

  11. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as99mTc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of99mTc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using 99mTc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for99mTc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides

  12. High-Precision Measurement of the 19Ne Half-Life and Implications for Right-Handed Weak Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Triambak, S; Sumithrarachchi, C S; Hackman, G; Ball, G C; Garrett, P E; Svensson, C E; Cross, D S; Garnsworthy, A B; Kshetri, R; Orce, J N; Pearson, M R; Tardiff, E R; Al-Falou, H; Austin, R A E; Churchman, R; Djongolov, M K; D'Entremont, R; Kierans, C; Milovanovic, L; O'Hagan, S; Reeve, S; Sjue, S K L; Williams, S J

    2012-01-01

    We report a precise determination of the 19Ne half-life to be $T_{1/2} = 17.262 \\pm 0.007$ s. This result disagrees with the most recent precision measurements and is important for placing bounds on predicted right-handed interactions that are absent in the current Standard Model. We are able to identify and disentangle two competing systematic effects that influence the accuracy of such measurements. Our findings prompt a reassessment of results from previous high-precision lifetime measurements that used similar equipment and methods.

  13. Fast renal trapping of porcine luteinizing hormone (pLH) shown by 123I-scintigraphic imaging in rats explains its short circulatory half-life.

    OpenAIRE

    Locatelli Alain; Magallon Thierry; Leroux Hervé; Lecompte François; Bernard Serge; Klett Danièle; Lepape Alain; Combarnous Yves

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Sugar moieties of gonadotropins play no primary role in receptor binding but they strongly affect their circulatory half-life and consequently their in vivo biopotencies. In order to relate more precisely hepatic trapping of these glycoproteic hormones with their circulatory half-life, we undertook a comparative study of the distribution and elimination of porcine LH (pLH) and equine CG (eCG) which exhibit respectively a short and a long half-life. This was done first by f...

  14. Direct Deposition Effect on the Distribution of Radiocesium in Persimmon Trees and the Effective Half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-7444 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) concentrations in persimmon tree tissues collected at Chiba, about 220 km south from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP), were measured to obtain half-life of radiocesium in the trees. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is a deciduous tree and bears edible fruits in autumn. There were no leaves when the sampling area was received the radioactive fallout in March 2011 due to the FDNPP accident; the amount of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in this area was ca. 13 kBq/m{sup 3} Both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were found in the newly emerged shoots of the persimmon trees collected at 26 April 2011 mainly due to foliar uptake. The concentrations were 1.1 kBq/kg-dry for {sup 137}Cs and 1.3 kBq/kg-dry for {sup 134}Cs. After that, continuous sampling of leaves, branches and fruits of the persimmon trees had been carried out for two years. Immediately after the collection, samples were transferred to our laboratory and weighed to obtain fresh weight. Leaf samples were usually separated into two portions; one portion was washed with tap water to remove dust from the surface and the other portion was not treated. For fruit samples, if it is possible, fruit flesh, peal and non-edible part were separated. All the samples were oven-dried at 80 deg. C for three days at least. Each dried sample was chopped into fine pieces, mixed well, and then transferred into plastic vessels separately. Radioactivity concentration was measured by a Ge-detecting system (Seiko EG and G Ortec) using 3000-40000 s counting intervals. By August 14, 2013, about 140 samples were collected from the trees; about 60 samples were leaves (both washed and untreated). Radiocesium concentrations in tree leaves decreased with time, and the effective half-life was about 190 d; the value was similar to those in branches (160 d for new branches, and 250 d for 1-2 y.o. branches) and fruits (250 d for fruit flesh and 230 d for peals). Thus we concluded that the half-life of radiocesium in

  15. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko;

    2011-01-01

    . Here, we characterize a determinant of the functional stability of an mRNA, which is located in the early coding region. Using literature values for the mRNA half-lives of variant lacZ mRNAs in Escherichia coli, we modeled how the ribosome spacing is affected by the translation rate of the individual...... of slowly translated codons before codon 20 or after codon 45 should shorten or prolong, respectively, the functional mRNA half-life by altering the ribosome density in the important region. These predictions were tested on eight new lacZ variants, and their experimentally determined mRNA half-lives all...

  16. On the absence of appreciable half-life changes in alpha emitters cooled in metals to 1 Kelvin and below

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, N J; Richards, P; Stone, J R; Veskovic, M; Williams, D A

    2006-01-01

    The recent suggestion that dramatic changes may occur in the lifetime of alpha and beta decay when the activity, in a pure metal host, is cooled to a few Kelvin, is examined in the light of published low temperature nuclear orientation (LTNO) experiments, with emphasis here on alpha decay. In LTNO observations are made of the anisotropy of radioactive emissions with respect to an axis of orientation. Correction of data for decay of metallic samples held at temperatures at and below 1 Kelvin for periods of days and longer has been a routine element of LTNO experiments for many years. No evidence for any change of half life on cooling, with an upper level of less than 1%, has been found, in striking contrast to the predicted changes, for alpha decay, of several orders of magnitude. The proposal that such dramatic changes might alleviate problems of disposal of long-lived radioactive waste is shown to be unrealistic.

  17. KINETIC MODELLING AND HALF LIFE STUDY OF ADSORPTIVE BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL ARTIFICIALLY CONTAMINATED WITH BONNY LIGHT CRUDE OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, comparative potential effects of commercial activated carbon (CAC and plantain peel-derived biochar (PPBC of different particle sizes and dosage to stimulate petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil were investigated. Microcosms containing soil were spiked with weathered Bonny light crude oil (WBLCO (10% w/w and amended with different particle sizes (0.02, 0.07 and 0.48 mm and dosage (20, 30 and 40 g of CAC and PPBC, respectively. The bioremediation experiments were carried out for a period of 28 days under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a positive relationship between the rate of petroleum hydrocarbons reduction and presence of the CAC and PPBC in crude oil contaminated soil microcosms. The WBLCO biodegradation data fitted well to the first-order kinetic model. The model revealed that WBLCO contaminated-soil microcosms amended with CAC and PPBC had higher biodegradation rate constants (k as well as lower half-life times (t1/2 than unamended soil (natural attenuation remediation system. The rate constants increased while half-life times decreased with decreased particle size and increased dosage of amendment agents. ANOVA statistical analysis revealed that WBLCO biodegradation in soil was significantly (p = 0.05 influenced by the addition of CAC and biochar amendment agents, respectively. However, Tukey’s post hoc test (at p = 0.05 showed that there was no significant difference in the bioremediation efficiency of CAC and PPBC. Thus, amendment of soils with biochar has the potential to be an inexpensive, efficient, environmentally friendly and relatively novel strategy to mitigate organic compound-contaminated soil.

  18. Label-free Fab and Fc affinity/avidity profiling of the antibody complex half-life for polyclonal and monoclonal efficacy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    A unified approach to affinity screening for Fab and Fc interactions of an antibody for its antigen and FcγR receptor has been developed. An antigen array is used for the Fab affinity and cross-reactivity screening and protein A/G proxy is the FcγR receptor. The affinities are derived using a simple 1:1 binding model with a consistent error analysis. The association and dissociation kinetics are measured over optimised times for accurate determination. The Fab/Fc affinities are derived for ten antibodies: mAb-actin (mouse), pAb-BSA (sheep), pAb-collagen V (rabbit), pAb-CRP (goat), mAb-F1 (mouse), mAbs (mouse) 7.3, 12.3, 29.3, 36.3 and 46.3 raised against LcrV in Yersinia pestis. The rate of the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes relates directly to their immunological function as does the Fc-FcγR complex and a new half-life plot has been defined with a Fab/Fc half-life range of 17-470 min. The upper half-life value points to surface avidity. Two antibodies that are protective as an immunotherapy define a Fab half-life >250 min and an Fc half-life >50 min as characteristics of ideal interactions which can form the basis of an antibody screen for immunotherapy. PMID:26187320

  19. Comparison of serum immunoglobulin G half-life in dairy calves fed colostrum, colostrum replacer or administered with intravenous bovine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jacob M; Hagey, Jill V; Chigerwe, Munashe

    2014-04-15

    In calves, passive immunity of immunoglobulins can be acquired through ingestion of colostrum or colostrum replacers. Plasma can been used to supplement immunoglobulins in healthy or sick calves. Serum half-life of colostral derived immuglobulin G (IgG) is estimated to be 20 days. Half-life of IgG is important in determining response to antigens and timing of vaccination in calves. To date studies evaluating half-life of colostrum replacer or plasma derived IgG are lacking. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum half-life of IgG derived from colostrum, colostrum replacer and plasma in dairy calves reared up to 35 days of age. Thirty Jersey calves were randomly assigned to receive colostrum or colostrum replacer by oroesophageal tubing or plasma by intravenous administration. Serum samples were collected at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. The results indicated that half-life for IgG in colostrum fed (28.5 days) or plasma transfused calves (27.3 days) was longer than colostrum replacer fed calves (19.1 days). Further studies are required to evaluate pathogen specific immunoglobulins in order to recommend vaccination timing in calves fed colostrum replacers. PMID:24534145

  20. Label-free Fab and Fc affinity/avidity profiling of the antibody complex half-life for polyclonal and monoclonal efficacy screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M

    2015-09-01

    A unified approach to affinity screening for Fab and Fc interactions of an antibody for its antigen and FcγR receptor has been developed. An antigen array is used for the Fab affinity and cross-reactivity screening and protein A/G proxy is the FcγR receptor. The affinities are derived using a simple 1:1 binding model with a consistent error analysis. The association and dissociation kinetics are measured over optimised times for accurate determination. The Fab/Fc affinities are derived for ten antibodies: mAb-actin (mouse), pAb-BSA (sheep), pAb-collagen V (rabbit), pAb-CRP (goat), mAb-F1 (mouse), mAbs (mouse) 7.3, 12.3, 29.3, 36.3 and 46.3 raised against LcrV in Yersinia pestis. The rate of the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes relates directly to their immunological function as does the Fc-FcγR complex and a new half-life plot has been defined with a Fab/Fc half-life range of 17-470 min. The upper half-life value points to surface avidity. Two antibodies that are protective as an immunotherapy define a Fab half-life >250 min and an Fc half-life >50 min as characteristics of ideal interactions which can form the basis of an antibody screen for immunotherapy.

  1. Measurement of the two neutrino double beta decay half-life of Zr-96 and search for associated neutrinoless processes with the NEMO-3 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Argyriades, J; Augier, C; Baker, J; Barabash, A S; Bongrand, M; Broudin-Bay, G; Brudanin, V B; Caffrey, A J; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Daraktchieva, Z; Durand, D; Egorov, V G; Fatemi-Ghomi, N; Flack, R; Freshville, A; Guillon, B; Hubert, Ph; Jullian, S; Kauer, M; King, S; Kochetov, O I; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V E; Lalanne, D; Lang, K; Lemiere, Y; Lutter, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, Ch; Martín-Albo, J; Mauger, F; Nachab, A; Nasteva, I; Nemchenok, I B; Nova, F; Novella, P; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J L; Ricol, J S; Saakyan, R; Sarazin, X; Simard, L; Shitov, Yu A; Smolnikov, A A; Snow, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Stekl, I; Sutton, C S; Szklarz, G; Thomas, J; Timkin, V V; Tretyak, V I; Tretyak, Vl I; Umatov, V I; Vàla, L; Vanyushin, I A; Vasiliev, V A; Vorobel, V; Vylov, Ts

    2009-01-01

    Using 1221 days of data from the NEMO-3 detector, the measurement of Zr-96 2vbb decay half-life is [2.35 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.19(syst)] x 10^19 yr. Different characteristics of the final state electrons have been studied, such as the energy sum, individual electron energy, and angular distribution. The 2v nuclear matrix element is extracted using the measured 2vbb half-life and is 0.049 +/- 0.003. A 90% CL limit is set on the 0vbb decay half-life of > 9.2 x 10^21 yr corresponding to a limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass < 7.2 - 19.5 eV. Limits on other mechanisms of 0vbb decay have also been set.

  2. External radiation exposure and effective half-life in Lu-177-Dota-Tate therapy; Aeussere Strahlenexposition und effektive Halbwertszeit bei Therapie mit Lu-177-Dota-Tate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitschen, Juergen; Knoop, Bernd O.; Behrendt, Ruediger; Geworski, Lilli [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Stabsstelle Strahlenschutz und Medizinische Physik; Knapp, Wolfram H. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the external radiation exposure emitted by the patient to his surroundings after discharge. Being in compliance with legal requirements is especially important when doing multiple therapies. To estimate the effective half-life to be used quite realistically, the individual effective half-lives for 41 patients with 52 therapies were calculated. From the resulting histogram the maximum value was determined to be 100 h. Substituting the physical half-life by this maximum effective half-life results in dose estimates, which are lower but still conservative. In addition, the analysis of dose related parameters for patients who underwent multiple therapies demonstrates that the parameters estimated for the first therapy cannot be transferred to the subsequent ones. (orig.)

  3. Depression of nuclear transcription and extension of mRNA half-life under anoxia in Artemia franciscana embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breukelen, F; Maier, R; Hand, S C

    2000-04-01

    Transcriptional activity, as assessed by nuclear run-on assays, was constant during 10 h of normoxic development for embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Exposure of embryos to only 4 h of anoxia resulted in a 79.3+/-1 % decrease in levels of in-vivo-initiated transcripts, and transcription was depressed by 88. 2+/-0.7 % compared with normoxic controls after 24 h of anoxia (means +/- s.e.m., N=3). Initiation of transcription was fully restored after 1 h of normoxic recovery. Artificially lowering the intracellular pH of aerobic embryos to the value reflective of anoxia (pH 6.7) showed that acidification alone explained over half the transcriptional arrest. Initiation of transcription was not rescued by application of 80 % carbon monoxide under anoxia, which suggests that heme-based oxygen sensing is not involved in this global arrest. When these transcriptional data are combined with the finding that mRNA levels are unchanged for at least 6 h of anoxia, it is clear that the half-life of mRNA is extended at least 8.5-fold compared with that in aerobic embryos. In contrast to the activation of compensatory mechanisms to cope with anoxia that occurs in mammalian cells, A. franciscana embryos enter a metabolically depressed state in which gene expression and mRNA turnover are cellular costs apparently not compatible with survival and in which extended tolerance supercedes the requirement for continued metabolic function. PMID:10708633

  4. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Plasma Half-Life Determination and Long-Term Tissue Distribution in Beef Cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J; Wagner, Sarah; Huwe, Janice K

    2015-12-30

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste, which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of biosolids to pastures and croplands used for feed, and as a result, animals such as beef cattle are exposed to PFOS. To determine plasma and tissue depletion kinetics in cattle, 2 steers and 4 heifers were dosed with PFOS at 0.098 mg/kg body weight and 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. Plasma depletion half-lives for steers and heifers were 120 ± 4.1 and 106 ± 23.1 days, respectively. Specific tissue depletion half-lives ranged from 36 to 385 days for intraperitoneal fat, back fat, muscle, liver, bone, and kidney. These data indicate that PFOS in beef cattle has a sufficiently long depletion half-life to permit accumulation in edible tissues.

  5. Plasma half-life and organ uptake ratio of radiolabeled glandular kallikrein in control and nephrectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, K.; Iwata, T.; Kokubu, T.

    1986-01-01

    The purified rat urinary kallikrein was radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase method and by chloramine T method. Plasma half-life of radiolabeled kallikrein was 5.06 +/- 0.59 (n = 5) min in control rats and 5.24 +/- 0.42 (n = 5) min in nephrectomized rats. There was no difference between two groups. From autoradiogram, main metabolic organs of radiolabeled kallikrein were liver, kidney and spleen. Total uptake of radiolabeled kallikrein in ech organ was the highest in liver (73.2%). The uptake per g tissue of radiolabeled kallikrein in each organ was high in liver (33.0%), kidney (31.4%) and spleen (21.1%). These results suggest that the active kallikrein is metabolized mainly in the liver, and kidney is not so an important organ to metabolize or to eliminate the active kallikrein in plasma. In order to clarify the mode of existence of active kallikrein in plasma, the following experiment was done by using disc gel electrophoresis. Radioactive profile of radiolabeled kallikrein showed one peak (Rf = 1.0), but radiolabeled kallikrein mixed with rat plasma showed two peaks, that is small peak (Rf = 1.0), and main peak (RF = 0.5). The most of radiolabeled kallikrein was bound to plasma protein and only five per cent was in free form. Furthermore, the binding of radiolabeled kallikrein to plasma protein was interfered by the addition of active kallikrein. These results suggest the possibility of existence of kallikrein binding protein in plasma.

  6. New and Emerging Agents for the Treatment of Hemophilia: Focus on Extended Half-Life Recombinant Clotting Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V

    2015-09-01

    Hemophilia A and B are X-linked disorders caused by deficient or defective clotting factor VIII (FVIII) or IX factor (FIX) proteins, and characterized by spontaneous or traumatic bleeding into joints and muscles. Previous use of plasma and plasma-derived clotting factors that lacked appropriate viral inactivation steps in manufacturing led to significant morbidity associated with transfusion-transmitted HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). The development of recombinant proteins revolutionized their treatment, and, with no new HIV or HCV infection via clotting proteins for nearly 30 years, greatly improved their lifespan, which now approaches that of the general population, and with the same risks for aging complications. Novel long-acting factor proteins are being licensed to extend FVIII and FIX half-life, thereby reducing infusion frequency and potentially bleed frequency and associated morbidity. Further, novel therapeutics which take advantage of new technologies, including siRNA, monoclonal antibody, and small peptide inhibition technologies, have the potential to simplify treatment and improve outcomes for those with inhibitors. PMID:26310188

  7. Plasminogen activator inhibitor with very long half-life (VLHL PAI-1) can reduce bleeding in PAI-1-deficient patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankun, Jerzy; Skrzypczak-Jankun, Ewa

    2013-08-01

    This review summarizes our current knowledge of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) deficiency and proposes some novel treatments for this condition. PAI-1 is a fast acting inhibitor of tissue and urokinase plasminogen activators (tPA and uPA). PAI-1 controls/slows clot lysis triggered by tPA activated plasminogen. PAI-1 deficiency was once considered to be an extremely rare disorder characterized by frequent and prolonged bleeding episodes. PAI-1 deficiency is now thought to be more frequent than initially reported and is known to be caused by mutations in the PAI-1 gene that produce a dysfunctional PAI-1 protein or slow the secretion of PAI-1 into the circulation. PAI-1 deficiency is characterized by hyperfibrinolysis that results in frequent bleeding episodes. Patients with this condition form normal blood clots that are quickly lysed by unopposed tPA-activated plasmin. Spontaneous bleeding is rare in PAI-1 deficient patients, but moderate hemorrhaging of the knees, elbows, nose, and gums can be triggered by mild trauma. Additionally, prolonged bleeding after surgery is common and menstrual bleeding may be severe. Moderate PAI-1 deficiency is associated with a lifelong bleeding tendency, but severe deficiencies can be life-threatening. The diagnosis of this disorder remains challenging due to the lack of a clear definition of PAI-1 deficiency as well as a lack of standardized tests. Patients with mild PAI-1 deficiency may be treated with antifibrinolytic agents (ε-aminocaproic acid or tranexamic acid); however, not all patients respond well to these treatments. These patients may be treated with wild-type PAI-1; however, this molecule quickly converts into its inactive form. We propose to use PAI-1 with an extended half-life to treat these patients. PMID:23988002

  8. Ecological half-life of 137Cs in fish from a stream contaminated by nuclear reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium (137Cs) concentrations were determined during 1974, 1981 and 1998 for seven species of fish inhabiting a stream (Steel Creek) contaminated by effluents from a nuclear reactor to examine the decline of this radionuclide in a natural ecosystem. Median 137Cs concentrations were highest in Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass) during each year of the investigation (1974=6.67 Bq g-1 dry wt. of whole body; 1981=3.72 Bq g-1; 1998=0.35 Bq g-1), but no patterns of differences were observed among Aphredoderus sayanus (pirate perch), Esox americanus (redfin pickerel), Lepomis auritus (redbreast sunfish), L. gulosus (warmouth), L. punctatus (spotted sunfish), and Notropis cummingsae (dusky shiner). Results demonstrated a rapid decline in 137Cs within fish from Steel Creek during the 24-year period. For example, 137Cs concentrations in all fish species declined significantly among years, even after accounting for radioactive decay. The observed percent declines in 137Cs concentrations of individual species were 3-4 times greater between 1974 and 1981 compared to that expected by physical decay alone, and 2-3 times greater during 1981-1998. Ecological half-lives (EHLs) of 137Cs in fish ranged from 4.43 years in A. sayanus to 6.53 years in L. gulosus. The EHL for 137Cs in all fish species combined was 5.54 years. Current levels of 137Cs in fish from Steel Creek (1.16 Bq g-1 dry wt. of whole body to below detection limits) indicate that the consumption of fish from this ecosystem poses little risk to humans and sensitive wildlife species. These results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the concept of ecological half-life into determinations concerning the length and severity of potential risks associated with radiocontaminants

  9. 基于半衰期的维基百科演化分析%Analysis of the Evolution of Wikipedia based on Half-life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高金菲; 梁晗晗

    2011-01-01

    本文将半衰期的理论与计算方法引入到对维基百科的研究中,以时间为标度揭示了中文维基百科的发展演化规律。从条目、参与者、编辑次数、链接等角度讨论了中文维基百科的总量半衰期和年度增量半衰期,在此基础上计算了各基本元素总量半衰期与总时间的关系,明确地展示了中文维基百科的发展演化规律。%This paper introduces the theory and computation method of half-life as the basic analyzing implement for Wikipedia, and indicates the evolution of Chinese Wikipedia with the time. From the points of view of articles, users, edits, links, etc., this paper discusses its total amount half-life and annual increment half-life, and then analyzes the relationship between total half-life and total time of each basic element. Finally, the evolution of Chinese Wikipedia is dearly demonstrated.

  10. Database for mRNA half-life of 19 977 genes obtained by DNA microarray analysis of pluripotent and differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharova, Lioudmila V; Sharov, Alexei A; Nedorezov, Timur; Piao, Yulan; Shaik, Nabeebi; Ko, Minoru S H

    2009-02-01

    Degradation of mRNA is one of the key processes that control the steady-state level of gene expression. However, the rate of mRNA decay for the majority of genes is not known. We successfully obtained the rate of mRNA decay for 19 977 non-redundant genes by microarray analysis of RNA samples obtained from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Median estimated half-life was 7.1 h and only genes, including Prdm1, Myc, Gadd45 g, Foxa2, Hes5 and Trib1, showed half-life less than 1 h. In general, mRNA species with short half-life were enriched among genes with regulatory functions (transcription factors), whereas mRNA species with long half-life were enriched among genes related to metabolism and structure (extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton). The stability of mRNAs correlated more significantly with the structural features of genes than the function of genes: mRNA stability showed the most significant positive correlation with the number of exon junctions per open reading frame length, and negative correlation with the presence of PUF-binding motifs and AU-rich elements in 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and CpG di-nucleotides in the 5'-UTR. The mRNA decay rates presented in this report are the largest data set for mammals and the first for ES cells.

  11. ANALYSIS OF WATER AND NAPL SATURATION, DEGRADATION HALF-LIFE, AND LOWER BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ON VOC TRANSPORT MODELING: IMPLICATIONS FOR SOIL VENTING CLOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulations using a one-dimensional, analytical, vadose zone, solute transport screening code (VFLUX) are conducted to assess the effect of water saturation, NAPL saturation, degradation half-life, and first-type, time-dependent and second-type, zero-gradient boundary conditions ...

  12. Half-life and rational drug use of paclitaxel%紫杉醇的半衰期与合理用药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈素虹

    2015-01-01

    In this article,the author mainly discusses the relationship of paclitaxel drug metabolism in human body and its half-life to promote its rational drug use.Refer to the relevant medical literature at home and abroad in recent years,we have induction and summary.The relationship of paclitaxel half-life and pesticide effect is analyzed.The paclitaxel half-life can determine the metabolism degree of the drug in the body,so drug half-life plays a critical role in the process of rational drug use.%本文主要对紫杉醇药物在人体内的代谢与其半衰期的关系进行探讨,以促进其合理用药。笔者参阅近几年来国内外的相关医学文献,进行归纳、总结,分析紫杉醇半衰期与药效之间的关系。根据紫杉醇的半衰期可以判定药物在人体内的代谢程度,因此药物半衰期在合理用药的过程中发挥着至关重要的作用。

  13. Platelet half-life in patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia type IIa, IIb, and IV according to Fredrickson with and without clinical signs of atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Widhalm, K.; Kaliman, J.; Hoefer, R. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). 2. Medizinische Klinik; Ludwig Boltzmann-Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin, Vienna (Austria); Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kinderklinik; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kardiologische Klinik)

    1982-09-01

    It is generally accepted that platelet half-life is shortened in atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Concerning changes due to hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP), however, there exist only few data. Therefore, we examined the platelet-half life in 60 patients with recently discovered HLP type IIa, IIb and IV according to Fredrickson before treatment in comparison to 60 controls. 33 of the HLP-patients had no clinical symptoms of angiopathy. 27 patients suffered from peripheral vascular disease or from coronary heart disease as verified by angiography. The labelling of autologous platelets was performed with 100..mu..Ci of /sup 111/Indium-oxine-sulfate at 37/sup 0/C for 5 minutes. The mean labelling efficiency was 90%, the recovery after 2 hours about 70%. Serum lipoproteins were estimated by means of ultracentrifugation and polyanionprecipitation according to Lipid Research Clinic Methods. In the patients with HLP platelet half-life was significantly shortened in comparison to the control group (p < 0.01). These changes were most pronounced in patients with HLP-type IIa and with atherosclerotic lesions, respectively. In patients with HLP-type IIa a very close correlation could be demonstrated between platelet half-life and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.72; p < 0.001) as well as total cholesterol (r = -0.73; p < 0.001). These data prove that in HLP in-vivo platelet function as measured by platelet survival is significantly influenced even before the occurrence of clinically relevant symptoms of atherosclerosis.

  14. Fast renal trapping of porcine Luteinizing Hormone (pLH shown by 123I-scintigraphic imaging in rats explains its short circulatory half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Alain

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar moieties of gonadotropins play no primary role in receptor binding but they strongly affect their circulatory half-life and consequently their in vivo biopotencies. In order to relate more precisely hepatic trapping of these glycoproteic hormones with their circulatory half-life, we undertook a comparative study of the distribution and elimination of porcine LH (pLH and equine CG (eCG which exhibit respectively a short and a long half-life. This was done first by following half-lives of pLH in piglets with hepatic portal circulation shunted or not. It was expected that such a shunt would enhance the short half-life of pLH. Subsequently, scintigraphic imaging of both 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in intact rats to compare their routes and rates of distribution and elimination. Methods Native pLH or eCG was injected to normal piglets and pLH was tested in liver-shunted anæsthetized piglet. Blood samples were recovered sequentially over one hour time and the hormone concentrations were determined by a specific ELISA method. Scintigraphic imaging of 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in rats using a OPTI-CGR gamma camera. Results In liver-shunted piglets, the half-life of pLH was found to be as short as in intact piglets (5 min. In the rat, the half-life of pLH was also found to be very short (3–6 min and 123I-pLH was found to accumulate in high quantity in less than 10 min post injection at the level of kidneys but not in the liver. 123I-eCG didn't accumulate in any organ in the rats during the first hour, plasma concentrations of this gonadotropin being still elevated (80% at this time. Conclusion In both the porcine and rat species, the liver is not responsible for the rapid elimination of pLH from the circulation compared to eCG. Our scintigraphic experiments suggest that the very short circulatory half-life of LH is due to rapid renal trapping.

  15. Measurement of the half-life of the two-neutrino double beta decay of 76Ge with the GERDA experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GERDA Collaboration; Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Andreotti, E.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Barnabé Heider, M.; Barros, N.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Becerici-Schmidt, N.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Budjáš, D.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; Cossavella, F.; Demidova, E. V.; Denisov, A.; Domula, A.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Ferella, A. D.; Freund, K.; Froborg, F.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gazzana, S.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Guthikonda, K. K.; Hampel, W.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Heusser, G.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Ioannucci, L.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kianovsky, S.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Klimenko, A.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Liu, X.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Machado, A. A.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Nemchenok, I.; Nisi, S.; O'Shaughnessy, C.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Peraro, L.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Ritter, F.; Sada, C.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Shevchik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Strecker, H.; Tarka, M.; Ur, C. A.; Vasenko, A. A.; Volynets, O.; von Sturm, K.; Walter, M.; Wegmann, A.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zavarise, P.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2013-03-01

    The primary goal of the GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN is the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 76Ge. High-purity germanium detectors made from material enriched in 76Ge are operated directly immersed in liquid argon, allowing for a substantial reduction of the background with respect to predecessor experiments. The first 5.04 kg yr of data collected in Phase I of the experiment have been analyzed to measure the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied double beta decay of 76Ge. The observed spectrum in the energy range between 600 and 1800 keV is dominated by the double beta decay of 76Ge. The half-life extracted from GERDA data is T2ν1/2 = (1.84+0.14-0.10) × 1021 yr.

  16. Measurement of the half-life of the two-neutrino double beta decay of Ge-76 with the Gerda experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Andreotti, E; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Heider, M Barnabe; Barros, N; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Becerici-Schmidt, N; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Belyaev, S T; Benato, G; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Bode, T; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Budjas, D; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; Cossavella, F; Demidova, E V; Denisov, A; Domula, A; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Ferella, A D; Freund, K; Froborg, F; Frodyma, N; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Gazzana, S; Grambayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Guthikonda, K K; Hampel, W; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Heusser, G; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Ioannucci, L; Csathy, J Janicsko; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kianovsky, S; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Klimenko, A; Knoepfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kusminov, V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lebedev, V I; Lehnert, B; Liao, H Y; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Liu, X; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Machado, A A; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Nemchenok, I; Nisi, S; O'Shaughnessy, C; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Peraro, L; Pullia, A; Riboldi, S; Ritter, F; Sada, C; Salathe, M; Schmitt, C; Schoenert, S; Schreiner, J; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Strecker, H; Tarka, M; Ur, C A; Vasenko, A A; Volynets, O; von Sturm, K; Walter, M; Wegmann, A; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zavarise, P; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN is the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76. High-purity germanium detectors made from material enriched in Ge-76 are operated directly immersed in liquid argon, allowing for a substantial reduction of the background with respect to predecessor experiments. The first 5.04 kg yr of data collected in Phase I of the experiment have been analyzed to measure the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied double beta decay of Ge-76. The observed spectrum in the energy range between 600 and 1800 keV is dominated by the double beta decay of Ge-76. The half-life extracted from Gerda data is T(1/2) = (1.84 +0.14 -0.10) 10^{21} yr.

  17. Pile-up corrections for high-precision superallowed {beta} decay half-life measurements via {gamma}-ray photopeak counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinyer, G.F. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail: ggrinyer@physics.uoguelph.ca; Svensson, C.E.; Andreoiu, C. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Andreyev, A.N. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Austin, R.A.E. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, St. Mary' s University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Ball, G.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bandyopadhyay, D. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Chakrawarthy, R.S. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Finlay, P. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Garrett, P.E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hackman, G. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hyland, B. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Kulp, W.D. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0430 (United States); Leach, K.G. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Leslie, J.R. [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ont., K7L 3N6 (Canada); Morton, A.C.; Pearson, C.J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Phillips, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sarazin, F. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Schumaker, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada)] (and others)

    2007-09-11

    A general technique that corrects {gamma}-ray gated {beta} decay-curve data for detector pulse pile-up is presented. The method includes corrections for non-zero time-resolution and energy-threshold effects in addition to a special treatment of saturating events due to cosmic rays. This technique is verified through a Monte Carlo simulation and experimental data using radioactive beams of {sup 26}Na implanted at the center of the 8{pi}{gamma}-ray spectrometer at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. The {beta}-decay half-life of {sup 26}Na obtained from counting 1809-keV {gamma}-ray photopeaks emitted by the daughter {sup 26}Mg was determined to be T{sub 1/2}=1.07167{+-}0.00055s following a 27{sigma} correction for detector pulse pile-up. This result is in excellent agreement with the result of a previous measurement that employed direct {beta} counting and demonstrates the feasibility of high-precision {beta}-decay half-life measurements through the use of high-purity germanium {gamma}-ray detectors. The technique presented here, while motivated by superallowed-Fermi {beta} decay studies, is general and can be used for all half-life determinations (e.g. {alpha}-, {beta}-, X-ray, fission) in which a {gamma}-ray photopeak is used to select the decays of a particular isotope.

  18. Clinical utility and patient perspectives on the use of extended half-life rFIXFc in the management of hemophilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguelino MG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maricel G Miguelino, Jerry S Powell Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA Abstract: Hemophilia B is an X-linked genetic disease caused by mutation of the gene for coagulation protein factor IX (FIX, with an incidence of approximately once every 30,000 male births in all populations and ethnic groups. When severe, the disease leads to spontaneous life threatening bleeding episodes. When untreated, most patients die from bleeding complications before 25 years of age. Current therapy requires frequent intravenous infusions of therapeutic recombinant or plasma-derived protein concentrates containing FIX. Most patients administer the infusions at home every few days, and must limit their physical activities to avoid abnormal bleeding when the FIX activity levels are below normal. After completing the pivotal Phase III clinical trial, a new therapeutic FIX preparation that has been engineered for an extended half-life in circulation, received regulatory approval in March 2014 in Canada and the US. This new FIX represents a major therapeutic advance for patients with hemophilia B. The half-life is prolonged due to fusion of the native FIX molecule with the normal constant region of immunoglobulin G. This fusion molecule then follows the normal immunoglobulin recirculation pathways through endothelial cells, resulting in prolonged times in circulation. In the clinical trials, over 150 patients successfully used eftrenonacog alfa regularly for more than 1 year to prevent spontaneous bleeding, to successfully treat any bleeding episodes, and to provide effective coagulation for major surgery. All infusions were well tolerated and effective, with no inhibitors detected and no safety concerns. This promising therapy should allow patients to use fewer infusions to maintain appropriate FIX activity levels in all clinical settings. Keywords: factor IX, hemophilia B, prophylaxis, genetic

  19. Propose of a model for dose and hazard calculation due the Rn-222, Rn-220 and its short half-life daugthers inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The compartimental dosimetric model is used to simulate, by computer, the interactions of the inhalated radon atom radiations and its short half-life daugthers with cells. The metabolic trajectory of these radionuclides is described by differential equations of continuous medium dynamics, where the elements transform by radioactive decay. This work permits to determine the individual retenction function, beeing useful in radioprotection routines or emergence situations. The results of internal dosimetry are consistent with the new I.C.R.P. - 32 international recommendations. (L.C.)

  20. Proposal of a new model for dose calculation due to the inhalation of Ru-222, Ru-220 and their sons with brief half-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consequences of the radiation interactions upon the human body are studied. In order to simulate by computer the radiation interaction of the atoms of radon and thoron atoms and their Sons with a brief half life inhaled with the cells, the compartimental dosimetric model is used. The metabolic pathway of those radionuclides is described by continuous medium dynamic differential equation. The energy transfer processes are seen in details. The individual retention function is determined by bio-analysis. The results of internal dosimetry are consistents with the new international recommendations from ICRP-32. (L.F.S.)

  1. Measurement of the double-beta decay half-life and search for the neutrinoless double-beta decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$ with the NEMO-3 detector

    OpenAIRE

    Collaboration, NEMO-3; :; Arnold, R.; Augier, C.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Baker, J. D.; Barabash, A. S.; Basharina-Freshville, A.; Blondel, S.; Blot, S; Bongrand, M.; Brudanin, V.(Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia); Busto, J.; Caffrey, A. J.; S. Calvez

    2016-01-01

    The NEMO-3 experiment at the Modane Underground Laboratory has investigated the double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$. Using $5.25$ yr of data recorded with a $6.99\\,{\\rm g}$ sample of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$, approximately $150$ double-$\\beta$ decay candidate events have been selected with a signal-to-background ratio greater than $3$. The half-life for the two-neutrino double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$ has been measured to be $T^{2\

  2. Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-Life and Search for the Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$ with the NEMO-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Augier, C; Bakalyarov, A M; Baker, J D; Barabash, A S; Basharina-Freshville, A; Blondel, S; Blot, S; Bongrand, M; Brudanin, V; Busto, J; Caffrey, A J; Calvez, S; Cascella, M; Cerna, C; Cesar, J P; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Chopra, A; Duchesneau, D; Durand, D; Egorov, V; Eurin, G; Evans, J J; Fajt, L; Filosofov, D; Flack, R; Garrido, X; Gómez, H; Guillon, B; Guzowski, P; Hodák, R; Huber, A; Hubert, P; Hugon, C; Jullian, S; Klimenko, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V; Lalanne, D; Lang, K; Lebedev, V I; Lemière, Y; Noblet, T Le; Liptak, Z; Liu, X R; Loaiza, P; Lutter, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, C; Mauger, F; Morgan, B; Mott, J; Nemchenok, I; Nomachi, M; Nova, F; Nowacki, F; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Povinec, P; Přidal, P; Ramachers, Y A; Remoto, A; Reyss, J L; Richards, B; Riddle, C L; Rukhadze, E; Rukhadze, N I; Saakyan, R; Salazar, R; Sarazin, X; Shitov, Yu; Simard, L; Šimkovic, F; Smetana, A; Smolek, K; Smolnikov, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Soulé, B; Štekl, I; Suhonen, J; Sutton, C S; Szklarz, G; Thomas, J; Timkin, V; Torre, S; Tretyak, Vl I; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V I; Vanushin, I; Vilela, C; Vorobel, V; Waters, D; Zhukov, S V; Žukauskas, A

    2016-01-01

    The NEMO-3 experiment at the Modane Underground Laboratory has investigated the double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$. Using $5.25$\\,yr of data recorded with a $6.99\\,{\\rm g}$ sample of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$, approximately $150$ double-$\\beta$ decay candidate events have been selected with a signal-to-background ratio greater than $3$. The half-life for the two-neutrino double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$ has been measured to be \\mbox{$T^{2\

  3. 裂变产物94Y和95Y半衰期的测定%Half-life determination of fission products 94Y and95Y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世联; 白涛; 师全林; 张小林; 凡金龙; 李奇; 刘杰; 卢嘉春; 常永福

    2009-01-01

    用脉冲反应堆热中子辐照浓缩235U溶液靶,经快速放射化学分离纯化出94Y和95Y溶液,稀释并制备放射性浓度依次相差~10倍的3个测量源.将测量源放置在井式HPGe探测器井内,采用质量归一法测得94Y和95Y的半衰期分别为(19.16±0.05)min和(10.36±0.03)min.%Solutions of enriched235U were irradiated in thermal-neutron flux producedby apulsed reactor,and 94Yand 95Y werc separated chemically from the fission products immediately.The purified solution of 94Y and 95Y is diluted aboutten timgs in sequence to three concentration solutions.Three Sources were prepared with the solutions.The sources are measured,from the lower concentration to higher onc,with a well-type HPGe detector to determine the half-life of94Y and95Y.The determined half-life results arg(19.16±0.05)min and(10.35±0.04)min for94Y and 95Y respectively.

  4. Comparison of effective I-131 half-life between thyroid hormone withdrawal and recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for thyroid cancer: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation for postoperative radioiodine ablation for differentiated thyroid carcinoma is performed by either thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone (rhTSH) administration. There is little information on the impact of the method of preparation with respect to whole-body effective I-131 half-life and its potential clinical implications in the Australian setting. A retrospective study was performed on patients admitted for adjuvant radioiodine ablation for non-metastatic differentiated thyroid carcinoma at the Royal Adelaide Hospital over a 4½-year period from 2009. Dose rate measurements were analysed for 19 rhTSH and 31 thyroid hormone withdrawal patients. The mean effective I-131 half-lives were 11.51 and 13.29 h for the rhTSH and thyroid hormone withdrawal groups, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.761). This result differs from previously published data where withdrawal periods were typically longer, resulting in slower renal clearance and longer half-lives for withdrawal patients. Our study did not demonstrate a significant difference in whole-body effective half-life of I-131 between the two methods of preparation for radioiodine ablation. This suggests that putative advantages of rhTSH over withdrawal in terms of whole-body radiation dose, duration of hospital admission and quality of life may be sensitive to duration of withdrawal.

  5. Isolation of invasive Plasmodium yoelii merozoites with a long half-life to evaluate invasion dynamics and potential invasion inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, Joe Kimanthi; Yahata, Kazuhide; Sakaguchi, Miako; Kaneko, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    Malaria symptoms and pathogenesis are caused by blood stage parasite burdens of Plasmodium spp., for which invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by merozoites is essential. Successful targeting by either drugs or vaccines directed against the whole merozoite or its antigens during its transient extracellular status would contribute to malaria control by impeding RBC invasion. To understand merozoite invasion biology and mechanisms, it is desired to obtain merozoites that retain their invasion activity in vitro. Accordingly, methods have been developed to isolate invasive Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium falciparum merozoites. Rodent malaria parasite models offer ease in laboratory maintenance and experimental genetic modifications; however, no methods have been reported regarding isolation of high numbers of invasive rodent malaria merozoites. In this study, Plasmodium yoelii-infected RBCs were obtained from infected mice, and mature schizont-infected RBCs enriched via Histodenz™ density gradients. Merozoites retaining invasion activity were then isolated by passing the preparations through a filter membrane. RBC-invaded parasites developed to mature stages in vitro in a synchronous manner. Isolated merozoites were evaluated for retention of invasion activity following storage at different temperatures prior to incubation with uninfected mouse RBCs. Isolated merozoites retained their invasion activity 4h after isolation at 10 or 15 °C, whereas their invasion activity reduced to 0-10% within 30 min when incubated on ice or at 37 °C prior to RBC invasion assay. Images of merozoites at successive steps during RBC invasion were captured by light and transmission electron microscopy. Synthetic peptides derived from the amino acid sequence of the P. yoelii invasion protein RON2 efficiently inhibited RBC invasion. The developed method to isolate and keep invasive P. yoelii merozoites for up to 4h is a powerful tool to study the RBC invasion biology of this parasite

  6. Prostaglandin I2 during radiolabelling improves recovery, but does not change platelet half-life and platelet uptake over active human lesion sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinzinger, H.; Fitscha, P.; Kaliman, J.

    1987-06-01

    The fact that prostacyclin is able to preserve platelets in-vitro stimulated the question whether platelets being treated in presence of prostacyclin might behave different after reinjection in human. We therefore studied the effect of synthetic PG12 in-vitro, being added immediately after blood sampling. It is demonstrated that the presence of prostacyclin does not change the labelling efficiency and in-vitro viability beside the alterations induced by this compound itself, however, it results in a significantly improved recovery. Furthermore, the platelet half-life in the patients as well as the deposition of the radiolabelled platelets on active human atherosclerotic lesions does not seem to be affected. Thus, the addition of PGI2-improves cellular viability during the preparation without negatively interfering with the in-vitro and in-vivo results later on. Thus, the use of PGI2 can be strongly recommended.

  7. THE FIRST ISOLATION OF AMERICIUM IN THE FORM OF PURE COMPOUNDS - THE SPECIFIC ALPHA-ACTIVITY AND HALF-LIFE OF Am241

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, B.B.; Asprey, L.B.

    1950-07-20

    The microgram scale isolation and preparation of pure compounds of americium is described. Data are presented to show that the alpha-half-life of the isotope Am{sup 241} is 490 {+-} 14 years. The absorption spectrum of Am(III) in 1M nitric acid in the range 3500-8000 mu is given. The wave lengths of 10 of the most prominent lines in the copper spark emission spectrum of americium are given to the nearest 0.01 {angstrom}. Evidence is presented to show that the potential for the Am(III)-Am(IV) couple in acid solution is more negative than -2v and that the potential for the Am(II)-Am(III) couple is more positive than +0.9v.

  8. Increased CDA expression/activity in males contributes to decreased cytidine analogue half-life and likely contributes to worse outcomes with 5-azacytidine or decitabine therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Reda Z; Jankowska, Ania; Ebrahem, Quteba; Gu, Xiaorong; Visconte, Valeria; Tabarroki, Ali; Terse, Pramod; Covey, Joseph; Chan, Kenneth; Ling, Yonghua; Engelke, Kory J.; Sekeres, Mikkael A.; Tiu, Ramon; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Saunthararajah, Yogen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The cytidine analogues 5-azacytidine and decitabine, used to treat myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), produce a molecular epigenetic effect, depletion of DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT1). This action is S-phase dependent. Hence, genetic factors that decrease the half-lives of these drugs could impact efficacy. Documentation of such impact, and elucidation of underlying mechanisms, could lead to improved clinical application. Design Cytidine deaminase (CDA) rapidly inactivates 5-azacytidine/decitabine. The effect of CDA SNP A79C and gender on CDA expression, enzyme activity and drug pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics was examined in mice and humans, and the impact on overall survival (OS) was evaluated in 5-azacytidine/decitabine-treated MDS patients (n=90) and cytarabine-treated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients (n=76). Results By HPLC, plasma CDA activity was decreased as expected in individuals with the SNP A79C. Interestingly and significantly, there was an even larger decrease in females compared to males. Explaining this decrease, liver CDA expression was significantly lower in female versus male mice. As expected, decitabine plasma levels, measured by mass-spectrometry, were significantly higher in females. In mathematical modeling, the detrimental impact of shorter drug half-life (e.g., in males) was greater in low compared to high S-phase fraction disease (e.g., MDS versus AML), since in high S-phase fraction disease, even a short exposure treats a major portion of cells. Accordingly, in multivariate analysis, OS was significantly worse in male versus female MDS patients treated with 5-azacytidine/decitabine. Conclusions Increased CDA expression/activity in males contributes to decreased cytidine analogue half-life and likely contributes to worse outcomes with 5-azacytidine or decitabine therapy. PMID:23287564

  9. Metabolically stable bradykinin B2 receptor agonists enhance transvascular drug delivery into malignant brain tumors by increasing drug half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Daniel

    2009-05-01

    -lysine-bradykinin and labradimil increased the blood half-life of Gd-DTPA sufficiently enough to increase significantly the tumor tissue Gd-DTPA area under the time-concentration curve. Conclusion Metabolically stable bradykinin B2 receptor agonists, methionine-lysine-bradykinin and labradimil, enhance the transvascular delivery of small chemotherapy drugs across the BBTB of malignant gliomas by increasing the blood half-life of the co-infused drug. The selectivity of the increase in drug delivery into the malignant glioma tissue, but not into normal brain tissue or skeletal muscle tissue, is due to the inherent porous nature of the BBTB of malignant glioma microvasculature.

  10. Precision measurement of the half-life and branching ratio of the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K. Nuclear mirror $\\beta$-decay is a competitive means to test the electroweak model by means of the high-precision measurement of V$_{ud}$ element of the CKM quark mixing matrix. One key ingredient to obtain V$_{ud}$ is the force of the transition, Ft, which has to be determined with a relative precision below 10$^{−3}$. This quantity is related to the half-life T$_{1/2}$ of the decaying nucleus, the branching ratio BR for this decay and the mass difference between the mother and daughter nucleus (Q value). Another important feature is the mixing ratio $\\rho$ between the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller character of the transition. In most cases, $\\rho$ is the major contributor to the uncertainty on Ft. Available data concerning T$_{1/2}$ and BR of $^{37}$K suffer from a lack of precision that will be easily reduced by a dedicated experiment.

  11. New limit for the half-life of double beta decay of $^{94}$Zr to the first excited state of $^{94}$Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Dokania, N; Gupta, G; Pal, S; Pillay, R G; Rath, P K; Tretyak, V I; Garai, A; Krishnamoorthy, H; Ghosh, C; Raina, P K; Bhushan, K G

    2016-01-01

    Double Beta Decay is a phenomenon of fundamental interest for particle physics and the study of these transitions to the excited states is of relevance to the calculation of Nuclear Transition Matrix Element for the process. In the present work, double beta decay of $^{94}$Zr to the $2^{+}_{1}$ excited state of $^{94}$Mo at 871.1 keV is studied using a low background $\\sim$ 250 cm$^3$ HPGe detector. No evidence of this decay was found with a 232 g.y exposure of natural Zirconium. The lower half-life limit obtained for the double beta decay of $\\rm^{94}Zr$ to the $2^{+}_{1}$ excited state of $\\rm^{94}Mo$ is $T_{1/2} > 6.1 \\times 10^{19}$ y at 90\\% C.L. ($T_{1/2} > 2.0 \\times 10^{20}$ y at 68\\% C.L.), a significant improvement by an order of magnitude over the existing experimental limit at 68\\% C.L.

  12. Precision measurement of the half-life and the $\\beta$-decay Q value of the superallowed 0$^{+}\\rightarrow$ 0$^{+}\\beta$-decay of $^{38}$Ca

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose to study the $\\beta$-decay of $^{38}$Ca. In a first instance, we intend to perform a high-precision study of the half-life of this nucleus as well as a measurement of its $\\beta$-decay Q-value with ISOLTRAP. At a later stage, we propose to study its decay branches to determine the super-allowed branching ratio with high precision. These measurements are essential to improve our understanding of the theoretical corrections (in particular the $\\delta$c correction factor) needed to calculate the universal Ft value from the ft value determined for individual nuclei. For this nucleus, the correction factor is predicted to increase significantly as compared to the nine well-studied nuclei between $^{10}$C and $^{54}$Co and the model calculations used to determine the corrections, in particular the shell-model calculations, are well under control in this mass region. Therefore, the T$_{Z}$= -1 nuclei between A=18 and A=38 are ideal test cases for the correction factors which limit today the precision on t...

  13. BikDDA, a mutant of Bik with longer half-life expression protein, can be a novel therapeutic gene for triple-negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiping Jiao

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that BikDD, a constitutively active mutant form of Bik, exhibited powerful antitumor effects in preclinical pancreatic, lung and breast cancer models. Howerver, the antitumor activity of BikDD in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is unknown. Here we show that aberrant expression of p-ERK1/2 was a meaningful molecular phenotype in TNBC patients, and can be an obstacle for treatment because of the converse correlation with Bik. A novel mutant, BikDDA, in which Ser124 was changed to Alanine to block BikDD phosphorylation by p-ERK1/2 prevented subsequent ubiquitin-proteasome degradation. BikDDA showed a prolonged half-life and enhanced pro-apoptotic ability in TNBC cells compared with BikDD. Moreover, aberrant expression of p-ERK1/2 was associated with 5-fluorouracil resistance in breast cancer patients and BikDDA enhanced the therapeutic effects of 5-fluorouracil in vitro.

  14. Ligand-substitution mode capillary electrophoretic reactor: extending capillary electrophoretic reactor toward measurement of slow dissociation kinetics with a half-life of hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iki, Nobuhiko; Takahashi, Mariko; Takahashi, Toru; Hoshino, Hitoshi

    2009-09-15

    A method employing capillary electrophoresis (CE) was developed to determine the rate constant of the very slow spontaneous dissociation of a complex species. The method uses a CE reactor (CER) to electrophoretically separate components from a complex zone and, thus, spontaneously dissociate a complex. The dissociation is accelerated by ligand substitution (LS) involving a competing ligand added to the electrophoretic buffer. The LS-CER method is validated using the dissociation of a Ti(IV)-catechin complex and EDTA as a competing ligand. There is good agreement between the spontaneous dissociation rate constant (k(d) = (1.64 +/- 0.63) x 10(-4) s(-1)) and the rate constant obtained by a conventional batchwise LS reaction (k(d) = (1.43 +/- 0.04) x 10(-4) s(-1)). Furthermore, the usefulness of the method is demonstrated using a Ti(IV)-tiron complex, for which k(d) = (0.51 +/- 0.43) x 10(-4) s(-1), corresponding to a half-life (t(1/2)) of 3.8 h. Notably, a single run of LS-CER for the Ti(IV) complex is completed within 40 min, implying that LS-CER requires a considerably shorter measurement time (roughly equal to t(1/2)) than conventional CER. LS-CER can be widely applied to determine the spontaneous dissociation rates of inorganic diagnostic and therapeutic reagents as well as of biomolecular complexes.

  15. Research on Half-life Measuring Index of Chinese Psychology Science Based on Bibliometrics%基于文献计量学的我国心理学学科半衰期分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳琼

    2014-01-01

    文章对心理学学科文献的引用和被引情况进行统计分析,通过学科文献被引半衰期和引用半衰期指标及其相关影响因素的分析,发现:心理学学科引用半衰期明显长于被引半衰期;心理学学科非常注重参考和借鉴国外的研究成果,但引用外文文献的时效相对滞后,说明我国心理学研究落后于国际水平;基础心理学半衰期最长,发展与教育心理学半衰期最短,比较符合偏理论的学科半衰期较长,偏应用的学科半衰期较短的规律。%This paper makes a statistical analysis of research papers' citation. Through analyzing the indexes of half- life of literature and the reference factors, it is found that citing half-life is longer than cited half-life in psychology. It is important to take reference of foreign research achievements in psychology, but the cited foreign papers are lagging, which shows psychology in China lags behind international level. The half-life of basic psychology is longest, while the half-life of development and education psychology is shortest, which shows the rule that half-life of discipline that focus more on theory is longer than the discipline that focus more on application.

  16. Alterative application of five anticonvulsants according to the half life for the treatment of status epilepticus in children with severe viral encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional subhibernation therapy may easily cause complications, such as respiratory depression and hyportension because of application of chlorpromazine hydrochloride and promethazine in a large dosage.OBJECTIVE: To observe therapeutic effect of modified subhibernation therapy (alterative application of five anticonvulsants according to the half life) on status epilepticus in children with severe viral encephalitis (VE).DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of Jilin University.PARTICIPANTS: The participants in present study were 96 patients withsevere viral encephalitis including 52 boys and 44 girls who received treatment in the Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of Jilin University from February 2000 to March 2006. All children met the diagnostic criteria of Zhufutong Practice Pediatrics (the seventh edition). Two weeks ago, they ever got upper respiratory infection or enteronitis and so on before the onset, spirit abnormal, behavior disorder, limbs act disorder, vomit, headache, convulsion,nervous system masculine signs such as limbs act disord, autonomic nerve damage manifestation, brain nerve palsy, dysreflexia, meningeal irritation sign, cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalography (EEG)abnormity. All parents provided the confirmed consent. The patients were randomly divided into control group (n =40) and experimental group (n =56).METHODS: Patients in the control group received anticonvulsion, ice compress and routine treatment. The convulsion was treated with five drugs: 0.5 mg/kg wintermin and phenergan, respectively, 100 g/L chlorpromazine hydrochloride (0.5 mL/kg), 5 mg/kg luminal, 0.3 mg/kg ansiolin. When convulsion attacked,those five drugs were given alternatively; however, those were not given if the convulsion did not attack.Children in the experimental group were treated with improved subhibernation therapy based on routine treatment. The dosages of anticonvulsants were as the

  17. Studies on the mechanism of the epileptiform activity induced by U18666A. II. concentration, half-life and distribution of radiolabeled U18666A in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Sarkar, C.P.; Towns, L.

    1982-06-01

    The concentration, half-life, and distribution in brain of U18666A, a drug that can drastically alter cerebral lipids and induce a chronic epileptiform state, was determined following both acute and chronic drug administration. U18666A specifically labeled with tritium was prepared by custom synthesis. Brain levels of 1 x 10(-6)M and higher were reached soon after giving an acute 10-mg/kg dose (i.p. or s.c.) of U18666A containing 7-/sup 3/H-U18666A of known specific activity. A steady state concentration of 1 to 2 x 10(-6)M was reached with chronic injection of 10 mg/kg every 4th day, a treatment schedule that results in altered brain lipids and induction of epilepsy if begun soon after birth. The disappearance of U18666A from both brain and serum was described by two similar biexponential processes, a brief rapid clearance (t1/2 . 10 h) and a sustained and much slower one (t1/2 . 65 h). Brain levels of the drug were about 10 times higher than serum at all times examined. Few differences were seen in the regional distribution of radiolabeled drug in brain as determined by both direct analysis and by autoradiographic examination; but the drug did concentrate in lipid-rich subcellular fractions. For example, the synaptosome and myelin fractions each contained about 25-35% of both the total /sup 3/H-labeled drug and total lipid in whole brain. The lipid composition of these fractions was drastically altered in treated animals. In conclusion, the chronic epileptiform state induced by U18666A does not appear to involve localization of the drug in a specific brain region or particular cell type. Rather, the condition could involve localization of the drug in lipid-rich membranes and marked changes in the composition of these membranes.

  18. First measurements on how pressure affects the half-life of 22Na: Comparison to theory and analog to 40K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. K.; Nelson, R. O.; Rundberg, R.; Steinle-Neumann, G.

    2007-12-01

    Radioactive decay plays a central role in planetary sciences as appropriate decay schemes are used to date geological and astronomical processes and radioactivity provides an important source of heat in planetary bodies, both in their early history during accretion and differentiation and also over geological times. The most important isotopes that currently heat the Earth are 40K, 232Th, 235U and 238U. As radioactive decay is a nuclear process it is considered to be insensitive to external factors such as pressure or chemical environment. This has been shown to be true for α, β+ and β- processes, however, electron capture decay is dependent on the electron charge density at the nucleus of a compound, which is sensitive to the external environment. Using high-resolution Ge gamma-ray detectors to make relative measurements with 137Cs and the positron decay of 22Na, we measure how pressure affects the half-life of 22Na due to electron-capture decay. Our systematics look favorable for observing this small effect. We will compare our preliminary measurements with complementary ab-initio all-electron computations using the linearized augmented plane wave method (LAPW). Using 22Na as an analog for 40K, our results suggest that the pressure effect for 40K, combined with the opposing effects of high temperatures, will have little, discernible effect on the heat production in the deep Earth as our predicted changes are smaller than the uncertainties in the total decay constant for 40K. This work was supported in part by the Carnegie/DOE Alliance Center (CDAC), through the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The LANSCE facility is operated, and portions of this work were performed, by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC52- 06NA25396.

  19. Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U-Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Lawrence Edwards, R.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Polyak, Victor J.; Asmerom, Yemane; Woodhead, Jon; Hellstrom, John; Wang, Yongjin; Kong, Xinggong; Spötl, Christoph; Wang, Xianfeng; Calvin Alexander, E.

    2013-06-01

    We have developed techniques for measuring 234U and 230Th on Faraday cups with precisions of 1-3 epsilon units (1 ɛ-unit=1 part in 104) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Using a Thermo-Scientific Neptune with desolvation nebulization, we obtained ionization/transmission efficiencies of 1-2% for both U and Th. We set up protocols to correct for tailing, prepared U and Th gravimetric standards, tested a Th mass fractionation correction procedure based on U isotopes, and identified natural calcite samples likely to be in U-Th isotopic secular equilibrium. The measured atomic ratios, 234U/238U=54.970 (±0.019)×10-6 and 230Th/238U=16.916 (±0.018)×10-6, for these calcite samples were identical within errors (quoted 2σ uncertainties calculated combining all sources of error). Half-life values calculated from these ratios are consistent with previous values, but have much smaller errors: 245,620±260 a for 234U and 75,584±110 a for 230Th (quoted 2σ uncertainties calculated using all sources of error). In calculating a 230Th age, some of the systematic errors included in estimating the full error in the half-lives effectively cancel. Removing these uncertainties (uncertainty in the 238U half-life value, uncertainty in our gravimetric uranium and thorium standards, and uncertainty in the absolute isotopic composition of the uranium standard), yields effective uncertainties for the purposes of 230Th dating of ±70 a for the 234U half-life value and ±30 a for the 230Th half-life value. Under ideal circumstances, with our methods, the 2σ uncertainty in age, including uncertainty in half-life values is ±10 a at 10 ka, ±100 a at 130 ka, ±300 a at 200 ka, ±1 ka at 300 ka, ±2 ka at 400 ka, ±6 ka at 500 ka, and ±12 ka at 600 ka. The isotopic composition of a sample with an age <800 ka can clearly be resolved from the isotopic composition of a sample in secular equilibrium, assuming closed system behavior. Using these

  20. 长效人白细胞介素4拮抗剂的研究%Interleukin-4 antagonists with longer half-life in plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋西勇; 唱韶红; 刘波; 巩新; 吴军

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop an interleukin-4(IL-4) antagonist named M5-IgG1Fc protein constructed by genetic engineering of antibody Fc fragment-cytokine mutein fusion protein which has a long half-life time in plasma.M5-IgG1 Fc protein binds to IL-4 receptor but cannot activate downstream signalling pathway , which provides a basis for drug develop-ment for allergic diseases .Methods The synthesized interleukin-4 mutant gene ( named M5 ) was cloned into the expres-sion vector pBV220 and transformed into E.coli DH5α.Chimeric gene M5-IgG1Fc obtained by overlap extension (SOE) method was transformed into glycoengineered Pichia pastoris GJK01 through expression vector pPICZαA .Then M5-IgGFc fusion protein was obtained by protein purification after being induced by methanol in 72 hours.The anti-IL-4 biologicial ac-tivity assay of M5 and M5-IgG1 Fc was performed with CTLL-2/IL-4R cells and detected with MTT colormetry .Finally,the half-life time of M5 and M5-IgG1 Fc protein in mice was compared by detecting the remaining amount in plasma with ELISA kit.Results The M5 protein expressed in E.coli and M5-IgG1 Fc fusion protein expressed in P.pastoris GJK01 both had IL-4 antagonistic bioactivity .The EC50 of both, which inhibited 5.6 ×10 -2 nmol/ml of IL-4, were 0.31 ±0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.03 nmol/ml,respectively.The maximum of M5 in plasma at 0.5 h was 5.8 ×10 -2 nmol/ml but the remaining amount was 2.8%of the maximum at 2 h.M5 protein could not be detected after administration at 8 h because of the detection line . The maximum of M5-IgG1 Fc fusion protein was 4.7 ×10 -2 nmol/ml,while fusion protein M5-IgG1 Fc decreased to 4.3%of its maximum at 120 h and could not be detected at 168 h.Conclusion M5 protein has IL-4 antagonistic bioactivity .M5-IgG1 Fc fusion protein expressed in glycoengineered P.pastoris GJK01 has IL-4 antagonistic bioactivity and long retention time in mice,which can be potentially used for treatment of allergic diseases .%目的

  1. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA decay: half-life of Beta-actin mRNA in human leukemia CCRF-CEM and Nalm-6 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barredo Julio C

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an alternative method to determine mRNA half-life (t1/2 based on the Real-Time RT-PCR procedure. This approach was evaluated by using the β-actin gene as a reference molecule for measuring of mRNA stability. Results Human leukemia Nalm-6 and CCRF-CEM cells were treated with various concentrations of Actinomycin D to block transcription and aliquots were removed periodically. Total RNA was isolated and quantified using the RiboGreen® fluorescent dye with the VersaFluor Fluorometer System. One μg of total RNA was reverse transcribed and used as template for the amplification of a region of the β-actin gene (231 bp. To generate the standard curve, serial ten-fold dilutions of the pBactin-231 vector containing the cDNA amplified fragment were employed, β-actin mRNAs were quantified by Real-Time RT-PCR using the SYBR® Green I fluorogenic dye and data analyzed using the iCycle iQ system software. Using this method, the β-actin mRNA exhibited a half-life of 6.6 h and 13.5 h in Nalm-6 and CCRF-CEM cells, respectively. The t1/2 value obtained for Nalm-6 is comparable to those estimated from Northern blot studies, using normal human leukocytes (5.5 h. Conclusions We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method based on Real-Time RT-PCR for measuring mRNA half-life. Our results confirm that β-actin mRNA half-life can be affected by the cellular growth rate.

  2. Influence of the high-affinity growth hormone (GH)-binding protein on plasma profiles of free and bound GH and on the apparent half-life of GH. Modeling analysis and clinical applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Veldhuis, J D; Johnson, M.L.; Faunt, L M; MERCADO, M.; Baumann, G

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of a specific high-affinity growth hormone (GH) binding protein (GH-BP) in plasma adds complexity to the dynamics of GH secretion and clearance. Intuitive predictions are that such a protein would damp sharp oscillations in GH concentrations otherwise caused by bursts of GH secretion into the blood volume, prolong the apparent half-life of circulating GH, and contribute a reservoir function. To test these implicit considerations, we formulated an explicit mathematical model of p...

  3. Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a potential agent of bioterrorism, has a short distribution and a long elimination half-life, and induces kidney and thymus lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue-Nan; Wang, Sheng-Han; Li, Tao; Wang, Qin; Tu, Wei; Cai, Kun; Hou, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Ren-Mao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Hao; Xiao, Le; Shi, Jing; Cheng, Yuan-Guo; Li, Jian-Chun; Wang, Hui

    2011-09-01

    Shiga toxin type 2, a major virulence factor produced by the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, is a potential toxin agent of bioterrorism. In this study, iodine-125 (125I) was used as an indicator to describe the in vivo Stx2 biodistribution profile. The rats were injected intravenously (i.v.) with 125I-Stx2 at three doses of 5.1-127.5 μg/kg body weight. Stx2 had a short distribution half-life (t (1/2)α, less than 6 min) and a long elimination half-life in rat. The toxicokinetics of Stx2 in rats was dose dependent and nonlinear. Stx2 concentrations in various tissues were detected at 5-min, 0.5-h, and 72-h postinjection. High radioactivity was found in the lungs, kidneys, nasal turbinates, and sometimes in the eyes, which has never been reported in previous studies. In a preliminary assessment, lesions were found in the kidney and thymus.

  4. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  5. Half life: nuclear power and future society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A definitive critique of nuclear power in Canada is delivered. Also analyzed are reprocessing and waste disposal hazards and the conventional wisdom of energy source mix and energy demand growth. (E.C.B.)

  6. Investigation of temperature effect on half-life periods of long-lived isomer sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 sup m Hf and sup 8 sup 7 sup m Sr

    CERN Document Server

    Alpatov, V G; Davydov, A V; Isaev, Y N; Kartashov, G R; Korotkov, M M; Samojlov, V M

    2001-01-01

    The experiments on measuring the half-life periods of the sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 sup m Hf and sup 8 sup 7 sup m Sr long-lived isomers at the room temperature and at 77 K with application of the HfO sub 2 , Sr(NO sub 3) sub 2 and SrCO sub 3 massive samples are described. The isomer states of the corresponding nuclei were formed by the samples irradiation through neutrons from the Pu-Be source. According to the Vysotski theory and other authors the surrounding of the gamma-active nuclei by a large number of the same nuclei in the basic state should lead to the T sub 1 sub / sub 2 growth due to distortion of the zero electromagnetic vacuum oscillations near the nuclear energy level value. Decrease in the sample temperature leads to the narrowing of the gamma-lines, especially for the Moessbauer low-energy transitions, which increases the resonance effect on the zero oscillations spectrum. Increase in the T sub 1 sub / sub 2 by 2.99 +- 0.87% was observed by cooling the sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 sup m Hf isomer sample, in the ...

  7. The outcome of treatment with adjusted dose of {sup 131}I to thyroid weight for Graves' disease by estimation of effective half life using a single radioiodine uptake measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomi, Yukari; Inoue, Takeshi; Suzuki, Seiji [Showa Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Fujigaoka Hospital; Watanabe, Masayoshi; Yoshimura, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Naofumi; Momotani, Naoko; Ito, Koichi; Ito, Kunihiko

    2000-03-01

    In the determination of therapeutic {sup 131}I doses, it takes several days to measure effective half life (EHL) of radioiodine in thyroid glands (Ordinary method). We suggested the new method to estimate EHL by a single radioiodine uptake measurement (INDEX method). We evaluated the outcome of {sup 131}I treatment with these two methods in outpatients with Graves' disease. Eighty outpatients were treated with INDEX method (Group I) and 108 outpatients with Ordinary method (Group O). At the 5-yr follow up, the incidence of hypothyroidism in Group I was 22.5%, sub-clinical hypothyroidism 8.8%, euthyroidism 30.0%, subclinical hyperthyroidism 13.7% and hyperthyroidism 25.0%. In Group O, 17.6% of the patients were hypothyroid, 16.7% subclinical hypothyroid, 30.5% euthyroid, 9.3% subclinical hyperthyroid and 25.9% hyperthyroid. There were no significant differences between these two methods. We conclude that INDEX method surpasses Ordinary method in timesaver and is equal in effectiveness. (author)

  8. The Result of Multiple I-131 Treatments on the Effective Half-Life of Retained Radioactivity in Patients Ablated for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Possible Evidence for Thyroid Remnant Function Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkalides, Demetrios

    2016-03-01

    The ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer by ingested I-131 depends on the activity absorbed by the remnant. This depends on the function of the thyroid cells and on the rate that radioactivity is excreted from the blood. The reduction of radioiodine is described by the effective half-life (EHL), which is the time taken to half the retained radioactivity. If the tumor recurs, more treatments are prescribed, often with escalating activities. Patients may receive several treatments during the evolution of the disease, and the total radioactivity administered (TRA) is the sum of all such activities. The patients' archived information permitted the calculation of EHL and TRA. The patient cohort processed here comprised 274 females and 101 males treated during 1997 to 2015. The TRA to the patients ranged between 1.1 and 129.5 GBq (average = 7.93 ± 9.9 GBq) and the EHL varied between 5.06 and 43.87 hours (average = 14.13 ± 5.7 hours). The data were processed as follows: (a) the EHL corresponding to the last treatment of each patient was plotted against TRA to patients who were treated once and to those treated several times for comparison and (b) using a small subgroup of 16 patients who were treated at least 5 times, the EHL and TRA corresponding to each treatment of each patient were plotted. A function of the form y = p-k·ln(x) was fitted on the data in all graphs and k was calculated. For patients treated once, EHL was independent of TRA. A decrease was seen in (a) multitreated patients, with the gradient (k) ranging between -0.541 and -13.880 and (b) 13 out of 16 patients, with the gradient (k) ranging between -5.55 and -31.17, both indicating an impairment of the remnant function, perhaps identified as "stunning." Since this is not avoidable, the uptake may be boosted by splitting the prescribed activity into low radioactivity fractions, which will also reduce patient hospitalization.

  9. Meia-vida do ametryn em argissolo vermelho-amarelo e latossolo vermelho-amarelo, com diferentes valores de pH Determination of half-life of ametryn on red-yellow latosol and red-yellow ultisol with different pH values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.B. Andrade

    2010-06-01

    .9, collected in degraded pastures without herbicide application. Ametryn was applied on these soil samples at a dose of 5.0 ha L-1. Twelve hours after application, the first soil samples were extracted from the pots to determine the concentration at zero time, and every five days new samples were removed from the other pots (two per time to determine ametryn concentration over time. Ametryn extraction from the soil matrix was performed by Solid Liquid Extraction with Partition at Low Temperature (SLE-PLT and quantified by liquid chromatography. A biological test for indirect determination of herbicide persistence was also carried out. Results indicated that ametryn half-life (t½ on the soils evaluated was 26, 19, 12 and 11 days in LVA soil pH 4.4; pH 4.9; pH 5.8 and PVA pH 5.9, respectively. Both methods (chromatography or bioassay used to evaluate ametryn persistence in soils showed that degradation of this herbicide is strongly influenced by soil pH and organic matter content.

  10. Half Life - The divided life of Bruno Maximovitch Pontecorvo

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    When Bruno Pontecorvo fled to the USSR at the height of the Cold War in 1950, half way through his life, the British Government, MI5 and FBI tried to portray him as scientifically insignificant, and to imply that his disappearance posed no threat to the West. In reality Pontecorvo was already one of the leading experts in nuclear physics, and recently declassified papers reveal that a prime agenda of FBI and MI5 was to cover up their errors. . During his time in the USSR he made major contributions to physics, and justified the sobriquet: "Mr Neutrino". This talk will reveal the background to his sudden flight, and also evaluate his work in theoretical physics in the aftermath of his arrival in Dubna. Previously secret documents now show that he proposed the concept of associated production before Gell Mann and Pais, and he had an idea to discover the neutrino at a reactor. He may be considered the father of neutrino astronomy with his successful prediction that neutrinos from a supernova could be detected, b...

  11. Cosmic-ray half-life of 144Pm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to test the possibility of using 144Pm as a clock to measure the mean cosmic-ray confinement time in the Galaxy, we counted a highly purified 1.4 μCi source of this isotope in GAMMASPHERE and searched for its astrophysically interesting β+ decay branch through the observation of positron-annihilation γ rays in coincidence with the characteristic 697-keV γ ray. Analysis of 57 h of source counting and 15 h of background shows no net signal and results in an upper limit of 3.7 of 511-511-697 keV coincident events. From this result we establish a 90% confidence level upper limit on the branch for this decay mode to be 7.4x10-6%. The implications of this result for the 144Pm cosmic-ray chronometer problem are discussed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  12. Cosmic-ray half-life of {sup 144}Pm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaerpoor, K.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Krane, K.S. [Physics Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon97331 (United States); Chan, Y.D.; Isaac, M.C.; Larimer, R.M.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Macleod, R.W.; Norman, E.B. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California94720 (United States); DiGregorio, D.E. [Laboratorio TANDAR-CNEA, Buenos Aires, 1429 (Argentina); Hindi, M.M.; Robinson, S.J. [Physics Department, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee38505 (United States); Miocinovic, P. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California94720 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In order to test the possibility of using {sup 144}Pm as a clock to measure the mean cosmic-ray confinement time in the Galaxy, we counted a highly purified 1.4 {mu}Ci source of this isotope in GAMMASPHERE and searched for its astrophysically interesting {beta}{sup +} decay branch through the observation of positron-annihilation {gamma} rays in coincidence with the characteristic 697-keV {gamma} ray. Analysis of 57 h of source counting and 15 h of background shows no net signal and results in an upper limit of 3.7 of 511-511-697 keV coincident events. From this result we establish a 90{percent} confidence level upper limit on the branch for this decay mode to be 7.4{times}10{sup {minus}6}{percent}. The implications of this result for the {sup 144}Pm cosmic-ray chronometer problem are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  13. What Is the Half-Life of Basketball Teams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav

    2013-01-01

    What do basketball teams have in common with radioactive nuclei? It turns out, there is more here than first meets the eye. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments feeds fans' craving when NBA competitions are not in swing, and the college tournament time has been referred to as "March Madness" or…

  14. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes; Desenvolvimento de dispositivo movimentador automatizado de amostras com vista a aplicacao em medidas de radioisotopos que possuem curto tempo de meia-vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Marcello

    2016-08-01

    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition {sup 60}Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  15. Quantitation of methadone in biological fluids using deuterium labeled internal standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterium labeled methadone which contained five 2H atoms in one aromatic ring was synthesized for use as an internal standard for quantitation of methadone in biological fluids. The method can measure plasma and urine levels of methadone down to 5 ng/ml. Plasma methadone levels were measured in several patients undergoing methadone maintenance therapy. Plasma levels generally fall between 100 and 400 ng/ml at an oral dose of 1 mg/kg. The half-life of methadone is estimated at 28.8 +- 4.8 hours and the volume of distribution is 312 liters

  16. Research of influential factors on elimination half life of vancomycin in children with severe pneumonia%万古霉素在重症肺炎患儿体内消除半衰期影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 宋新文; 许琼; 张华年; 徐华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨万古霉素在重症肺炎患儿体内消除半衰期的影响因素.方法:测定29例重症肺炎患儿静滴万古霉素后在消除相两个时间点的血药浓度,并以此估算每位患儿万古霉素的消除半衰期t1/2(β).进一步利用SPSS 13.0软件作多元线性回归分析来考察t1/2(β)与患儿性别、年龄、身高、体质量、给药量及各生化指标之间的相关性.结果:万古霉素t1/2(β)与血清肌酐(CRE,X)及天门冬酸氨基转移酶(AST,Y)浓度呈正相关(P<0.05),与其他统计数据无显著相关性.回归方程为:t1/2(β)=0.360X+0.043Y-6.316(r=0.851,P<0.01).结论:万古霉素在重症肺炎患儿体内的消除速率与肝、肾功能密切相关,应监测血药浓度并根据患儿的自身状况来制订个体化给药方案.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the influential factors on elimination half life of vancomycin in children with severe pneumonia. METHODS The serum vancomycin concentrations at two time points on elimination phase after intravenous drip in each one of 29 children with severe pneumonia were determined, and which were used to calculate the elimination half lives of vancomycin (t1/2beta). The correlation between vancomycin t1/2beta and sex, age, body height, body weight and biochemical indexes of patients was analyzed with multiple linear regression method by SPSS (13. 0) software. RESULTS Vancomycin t1/2betawas positive correlated with serum creatinine concentration(CRE) and AST (P<0. 05), but no significant correlation was noted between t1/2beta and other statistical data. The regression equation was t1/2beta = 0. 360CRE + 0. 043AST - 6. 316(r = 0. 851, P>0. 000). CONCLUSION The elimination rate of vancomycin in children with severe pneumonia was closely correlated with liver and kidney functions, so it's necessary to monitor the serum vancomycin concentration and draw up individualized therapy according the body condition of every patient.

  17. Biological monitoring of a worker acutely exposed to MBOCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, A M; Clapp, D; Ward, E; Wilson, H K; Cocker, J

    1990-01-01

    A 30 year-old male polyurethane worker was exposed to an accidental spill of 4,4'-methylene-bis-2-chloroaniline (MBOCA) at a plant producing MBOCA-cured plastic products. Exposure to MBOCA is significant in that this compound is a known animal carcinogen and a suspected human carcinogen. The employee was sprayed over his upper body and extremities with molten MBOCA while cleaning out a clogged hose from a MBOCA and polymer mixing machine. The subsequent environmental and medical evaluation of this episode included serial urinary MBOCA samples from the worker over a 2 week period to allow the calculation of a biological half-life for this compound. This worker experienced a very high dose of MBOCA as judged by his urinary MBOCA levels (peak value of 1,700 ppb 4 hours after exposure). There were no acute symptoms or other laboratory abnormalities noted. The kinetic evaluation resulted in a biological half-life for MBOCA in urine of approximately 23 hours. Assuming a one-compartment model, approximately 94% of an initial MBOCA dose will be eliminated within four days. This is the first report of kinetic analysis on urinary MBOCA excretion in humans. This information suggests that biological monitoring of the urine MBOCA concentrations in exposed workers may miss peak levels following an acute exposure unless the analyses of the urinary MBOCA are performed in a timely fashion. Recommendations to the company included: 1) installation of a warning system or lock-out device on the mixing machine to prevent the opening of the MBOCA hose prior to the release of pressure; and 2) annual medical surveillance of this individual for bladder cancer with urinalysis and urine cytology. PMID:2244630

  18. 乙型病毒性肝炎肝硬化患者肝功能状况对靶控输注瑞芬太尼药物半衰期和镇痛效果的影响%Effects of Liver Function in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Virus B Hepatitis on Drug Half-life and An-algesic Effect of Target Controlled Infusion of Remifentanil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓宁; 张卫

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To explore the safety and effects of liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis following virus B hepatitis(called“hepatitis B”for short)on drug half-life and analgesic effect of target controlled infusion of remifentanil. METH-ODS:100 patients with liver cirrhosis following hepatitis B underwent liver and gallbladder surgery under selective general anesthe-sia were collected from our hospital and divided into group A(mild abnormal liver function)and group B(severe abnormal liver function,3 cases withdrew from the test and 47 cases completed the test),with 50 cases in each group,according to Child-Pugh grading of liver function. Both group were given phenobarbital sodium 0.1 g+scopolamine 0.3 mg intramuscularly 0.5 h before oper-ation;midazolam 0.04 mg/kg+propofol 1.5 mg/kg+atracurium 0.6 mg/kg intravenously;target controlled infusion of Remifentanil hydrochloride for injection during operation with 0.125-0.250 μg/(kg·min). The distribution half-life and the elimination half-life of remifentanil were determined, and temperature pain perception threshold (tPDT) and electrical pain perception threshold (ePDT) were measured immediately after the operation;the occurrence of ADR was observed. RESULTS:The distribution and elimination half-life of remifentanil were (4.52 ± 1.25)min and(24.64 ± 1.30)min in group A and (4.68 ± 1.31)min and(25.45 ± 2.08)min in group B respectively,there was no statistical significance between 2 groups(P>0.05). tPDT and ePDT of group A were(8.88± 1.66)mA and(1.54±0.09)mA respectively,and those of group B were(9.16±1.58)mA and(1.34±0.15)mA,there was no sta-tistical significance between 2 groups (P>0.05). No obvious ADR was found in 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS:The abnormal liver function of patients with liver cirrhosis following hepatitis B have no significant effect on drug half-life and analgesic effect of remi-fentanil with good safety.%目的:探讨乙型病毒性肝炎(以下简称“乙肝”)肝硬化患者

  19. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  20. Applications of post-translational modifications of FoxO family proteins in biological functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Zhao; Yachen Wang; Wei-Guo Zhu

    2011-01-01

    The functions of the FoxO family proteins, in particular their transcriptional activities, are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, acetylation, ubiquitination, methylation and glycosylation. These PTMs occur in response to different cellular stresses, which in turn regulate the subcellular localization of FoxO family proteins, as well as their half-life, DNA binding, transcriptional activity and ability to interact with other cellular proteins. In this review, we summarize the role of PTMs of FoxO family proteins in linking their biological and functional relevance with various diseases.%The functions of the FoxO family proteins,in particular their transcriptional activities,are modulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs),including phosphorylation,acetylation,ubiquitination,methylation and glycosylation.These PTMs occur in response to different cellular stresses,which in turn regulate the subceilular localization of FoxO family proteins,as well as their half-life,DNA binding,transcriptional activity and ability to interact with other cellular proteins.In this review,we summarize the role of PTMs of FoxO family proteins in linking their biological and functional relevance with various diseases.

  1. Comparison of biological activities of human antithrombins with high-mannose or complex-type nonfucosylated N-linked oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Kanda, Yutaka; Takayama, Makoto; Hashimoto, Akitoshi; Sugihara, Tsutomu; Satoh-Kubota, Ai; Suzuki-Takanami, Eri; Yano, Keiichi; Iida, Shigeru; Satoh, Mitsuo

    2016-05-01

    The structure of the N-linked oligosaccharides attached to antithrombin (AT) has been shown to affect its anticoagulant activity and pharmacokinetics. Human AT has biantennary complex-type oligosaccharides with the unique feature of lacking a core fucose, which affects its biological activities by changing its heparin-binding affinity. In human plasma, AT circulates as a mixture of the α-form bearing four oligosaccharides and the β-form lacking an oligosaccharide at Asn135. However, it remains unclear how the immature high-mannose-type oligosaccharides produced by mammalian cells affect biological activities of AT. Here, we succeeded in directly comparing the activities between the high-mannose and complex types. Interestingly, although there were no substantial differences in thrombin inhibitory activity, the high-mannose type showed higher heparin-binding affinity. The anticoagulant activities were increased by heparin and correlated with the heparin-binding affinity, resulting in the strongest anticoagulant activity being displayed in the β-form with the high-mannose type. In pharmacokinetic profiling, the high-mannose type showed a much shorter plasma half-life than the complex type. The β-form was found to have a prolonged plasma half-life compared with the α-form for the high-mannose type; conversely, the α-form showed a longer half-life than the β-form for the complex-type. The present study highlights that AT physiological activities are strictly controlled not only by a core fucose at the reducing end but also by the high-mannose-type structures at the nonreducing end. The β-form with the immature high-mannose type appears to function as a more potent anticoagulant than the AT typically found in human plasma, once it emerges in the blood. PMID:26747427

  2. Quinic acid is a biologically active component of the Uncaria tomentosa extract C-Med 100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Christina; Lindgren, Hanna; Pero, Ronald W; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    We have previously reported that the C-Med 100 extract of the plant Uncaria tomentosa induces prolonged lymphocyte half life and hence increased spleen cell number in mice receiving the extract in their drinking water. Further, the extract induces cell proliferation arrest and inhibits activation of the transcriptional regulator nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in vitro. We now report that mice exposed to quinic acid (QA), a component of this extract, had significantly increased number of spleen cells, thus recapitulating the in vivo biological effect of C-Med 100 exposure. Commercially supplied QA (H(+) form) did not, however, inhibit cell proliferation in vitro, while the ammonia-treated QA (QAA) was a potent inhibitor. Both QA and QAA inhibited NF-kappaB activity in exposed cells at similar concentrations. Thus, our present data identify QA as a candidate component for both in vivo and in vitro biological effects of the C-Med 100 extract.

  3. Natural Biological Attenuation of Benzene in Groundwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Benzene has been found in subsurface unsaturated soil and groundwater beneath a petro-chemical plant. Although the groundwater contained several mg/L of benzene in the area immediately beneath the source, benzene was not detected in monitoring wells approximately 800m down stream. All kinds of physical processes such as adsorption and advection/dispersion are considered to account for the observed attenuation. The results indicated that the attenuation was primarily due to natural biological processes occurring within the aquifer. The evidence for the natural bioremediation of benzene from the groundwater included: (1) analysis of groundwater chemistry, (2) laboratory studies demonstrating benzene biodegradation in aquifer samples, and (3) computer simulations examining benzene transport. Laboratory experiments indicated that for conditions similar to those in the plume, the aerobic degradation of benzene by the naturally occurring microorganisms in the polluted groundwater samples was quite rapid with a half-life time of from 5 to 15 days. In situ analyses indicated the level of dissolved oxygen in the groundwater was over 2mg/L. Thus, oxygen should not limit the biodegradation. In fact, the benzene was also shown to degrade under anaerobic conditions. The results from the modeling simulations indicate that biodegradation is the dominant process influencing attenuation of the benzene.

  4. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  5. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  6. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  7. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Jackson, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Compilation of selected marine radioecological data for the US Subseabed Program: Summaries of available radioecological concentration factors and biological half-lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Subseabed Disposal Program has compiled an extensive concentration factor and biological half-life data base from the international marine radioecological literature. A microcomputer-based data management system has been implemented to provide statistical and graphic summaries of these data. The data base is constructed in a manner which allows subsets to be sorted using a number of interstudy variables such as organism category, tissue/organ category, geographic location (for in situ studies), and several laboratory-related conditions (e.g., exposure time and exposure concentration). This report updates earlier reviews and provides summaries of the tabulated data. In addition to the concentration factor/biological half-life data base, we provide an outline of other published marine radioecological works. Our goal is to present these data in a form that enables those concerned with predictive assessment of radiation dose in the marine environment to make a more judicious selection of data for a given application. 555 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs

  9. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  10. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  11. "半条命"当选最佳%Half-Life 2 Voted Best

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静

    2003-01-01

    @@ As much as Hollywood critics tend to spurn(弃绝)movies involving exploding zombies(巫毒崇拜), video game critics appear to love them. A game centered on the adventures of a scientist who blasts( 毁灭 ) an invading army of zombies has bested a field of rival offerings-including a driving adventure and a game first developed as a U. S. Army training tool-to win a coveted(觊觎的) award from game commentators.

  12. Half-life values in heavy elements using relativistic mean field model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The α decay is one of the most important decay modes for unstable nuclei. Measurements on α decay of ground state nuclei can provide reliable information on nuclear structure such as ground state energy, ground state life-time and nuclear spin and parity. Measurements on α decay are also used to identify new nuclides or new elements because α decay is a clean and reliable mode to extract information on the parent nuclei. To-date there are more than 400 nuclei in the periodic table that exhibit α decay phenomena. In recent years, there has been renewed interest in α decay because of development of radioactive beams and new detector technology under low temperature. We studied favoured α decay half-lives for two different mass regions

  13. β-decay half-life of Th and U isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our calculation predicts that the β-decay life time is about tens of seconds for 254Th and 256U and this time increases for nuclei with less neutron number, but thermally fissile. Finite life time of these thermally fissile isotopes could be very useful for energy production in nuclear reactor technology. If these neutron rich nuclei use as nuclear fuel, the reactor will achieve critical condition much faster than the normal nuclear fuel, because of the release of large number of neutrons during the fission process

  14. A short half-life GFP mouse model for analysis of suprachiasmatic nucleus organization

    OpenAIRE

    LeSAUTER, JOSEPH; Yan, Lily; Vishnubhotla, Bhavana; Quintero, Jorge E.; Kuhlman, Sandra J.; McMahon, Douglas G.; Silver, Rae

    2003-01-01

    Period1 (Per1) is one of several clock genes driving the oscillatory mechanisms that mediate circadian rhythmicity. Per1 mRNA and protein are highly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which contain oscillator cells that drive circadian rhythmicity in physiological and behavioral responses. We examined a transgenic mouse in which degradable green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by the mPer1 gene promoter. This mouse expresses precise free-running rhythms and characteristic light indu...

  15. A short half-life GFP mouse model for analysis of suprachiasmatic nucleus organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSauter, Joseph; Yan, Lily; Vishnubhotla, Bhavana; Quintero, Jorge E.; Kuhlman, Sandra J.; McMahon, Douglas G.; Silver, Rae

    2012-01-01

    Period1 (Per1) is one of several clock genes driving the oscillatory mechanisms that mediate circadian rhythmicity. Per1 mRNA and protein are highly expressed in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, which contain oscillator cells that drive circadian rhythmicity in physiological and behavioral responses. We examined a transgenic mouse in which degradable green fluorescent protein (GFP) is driven by the mPer1 gene promoter. This mouse expresses precise free-running rhythms and characteristic light induced phase shifts. GFP protein (reporting Per1 mRNA) is expressed rhythmically as measured by either fluorescence or immunocytochemistry. In addition the animals show predicted rhythms of Per1 mRNA, PER1 and PER2 proteins. The localization of GFP overlaps with that of Per1 mRNA, PER1 and PER2 proteins. Together, these results suggest that GFP reports rhythmic Per1 expression. A surprising finding is that, at their peak expression time GFP, Per1 mRNA, PER1 and PER2 proteins are absent or not detectable in a subpopulation of SCN cells located in the core region of the nucleus. PMID:12576188

  16. The mysteriously variable half-life of dissolved organic matter in aquatic ecosystems: artefact or insight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Chris; Fovet, Ophelie; Jones, Tim; Jones, Davey; Moldan, Filip; Futter, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluxes from land to water represent an important loss term in the terrestrial carbon balance, a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, a significant influence on aquatic light, nutrient and energy regimes, and an important concern for drinking water production. Although freshwaters are now recognised as zones of active carbon cycling, rather than passive conduits for carbon transport, evidence regarding the magnitude of, and controls on, DOM cycling in aquatic systems is incomplete and in some cases seemingly contradictory, with DOM 'half-lives' ranging from a few days to many years. Bringing together experimental, isotopic, catchment mass balance and modelling data, we suggest that apparently conflicting results can be reconciled through understanding of differences in: i) the terrestrial sources of DOM within heterogeneous landscapes, and consequent differences in its reactivity and stoichiometry; ii) experimental methodologies (i.e. which reactions are actually being measured), and iii) the extent of prior transformation of DOM upstream of the point of study. We argue that rapid photo-degradation, particularly of peat-derived DOM, is a key process in headwaters, whilst apparently slow DOM turnover in downstream, agriculturally-influenced lakes and rivers can partly be explained by the offsetting effect of in situ DOM production. This production appears to be strongly constrained by nutrient supply, thus linking DOM turnover and composition to the supply of inorganic nutrient inputs from diffuse agricultural pollution, and also providing a possible mechanistic link between aquatic DOM production and terrestrial DOM breakdown via the mineralisation and re-assimilation of organic nutrients. A more complete conceptual understanding of these interlinked processes will provide an improved understanding of the sources and fate of aquatic DOM, its role in the global carbon cycle, and the impact of anthropogenic activities, for example in relation to drinking water supplies and land management.

  17. Design of a Chemical Processing Apparatus for Radioisotopes of Short Half-Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has appeared to us useful to make suggestions to radiochemists having at their disposal a small reactor (e. g., 1012 n/cm2s flux) regarding which radioisotopes they can prepare and the minimum equipment required. The paper comprises three main parts: 1. Possible radioisotopes, which may be divided into two categories: (a) radioisotopes for medical uses, including: Na24, K42, Br82, Cu64, As76, Hg197 and colloidal Au198; and (b) radioisotopes for scientific or industrial uses, including in addition to the above-named: Sb122, As77, Mn56 and Au198 (chloride). 2. Chemical processing, in which two categories of radioisotopes emerge: (a) the category involving simple solution, normally requiring either cold dissolution in water or dilute acid or hot dissolution in concentrated acids. This category includes: Na24, K42, Br12, Hg197, Sb122, Mn56 and Au198 (chloride). (b) The category involving complex separations or transformations, in which fall preparations by Szilard-Chalmers effect, reactions (n, p), (n, γ), followed by β-decay or formation of colloids. The following maybe mentioned: Cu54, As76, As77 and colloidal Au198 and 3. Preparation areas. It is essential that these radioisotopes be prepared in leak-tight and shielded areas and be grouped according to their affinities. We accordingly suggest an apparatus consisting of 3 cells 2 m in length by 1 m in depth, linked together by a conveyor and used, e.g., for the following processes: 1st cell: Introduction of containers, opening and preparation of Na24, K42, and Br82; 2nd cell: Preparation of two out of the following three radioisotopes : Cu64, As76 and colloidal Au198; and 3rd cell: Bringing into solution of radioisotopes for various uses and preparation of Hg197. (author)

  18. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine half-life and pool size measurements in premature baboons developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, D.J.; Carnielli, Virgilio; Cogo, Paola; Seidner, S.R.; Luijendijk, I.H.I.; Wattimena, Josias; Jobe, Alan; Zimmermann, Luc

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBecause minimal information is available about surfactant metabolism in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we measured half-lives and pool sizes of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in very preterm baboons recovering from respiratory distress syndrome and developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia, using stable isotopes, radioactive isotopes, and direct pool size measurements. Eight ventilated premature baboons received (2)H-DPPC (dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine) on d 5 of life, and radioactive ...

  19. Ecological half-life of {sup 137}Cs in lichens in an alpine region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machart, Peter [Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Engineering and Physics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Hofmann, Werner [Division of Physics and Biophysics, Department of Materials Engineering and Physics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria)], E-mail: Werner.Hofmann@sbg.ac.at; Tuerk, Roman [Department of Organismic Biology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Steger, Ferdinand [Austrian Research Centers, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2007-09-15

    About 17 years after the Chernobyl accident, lichen samples were collected in an alpine region in Austria (Bad Gastein), which was heavily contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. Measured {sup 137}Cs activity concentrations in selected lichens (Cetraria islandica, Cetraria cucullata, and Cladonia arbuscula) ranged from 100 to 1100 Bq kg{sup -1} dry weight, depending on lichen species and sampling site. Ecological half-lives for {sup 137}Cs in different lichen samples, obtained by comparison with earlier measurements of the same lichen species at the same site, ranged from 2 to 6 years, with average values between 3 and 4 years. Comparison with earlier studies indicated that ecological half-lives hardly changed during the last 10 years, suggesting that ecological clearance mechanisms (e.g. washout or soil transfer) did not vary substantially at the selected sampling area.

  20. Internalization and half-life of membrane-bound macrophage colony-stimulating factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The binding of recombinant human macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) soluble receptor (rh-M-CSF-sR) to membrane-bound macrophage colony stimulating factor (m-M-CSF) and the internalization and recycling of rh-M-CSF-sR/m-M-CSF complexes mediated by m-M-CSF were studied with a model of J6-1 cell line. The results indicated that m-M-CSF bound rh-M-CSF-sR with high affinity (kd = 1.78×10-12 mol/L) and mediated a temperature- and energy- dependent internalization of rh-M-CSF-sR, and that internalized rh-M-CSF-sR could return to the cell surface in an m-M-CSF-bound state, suggesting that m-M-CSF may have a capability to mediate the internalization and recycling of rh-M-CSF-sR/m-M-CSF complexes. In addition, the half-lives of cell-associated M-CSF and its receptor of stimulated normal human cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and 4 leukemic cell lines were measured by indirect immunoflu- orescence and flow cytometry. The results showed that the half-lives of the various kinds of M-CSF isoforms and M-CSF-R in 4 leukemic cells, except those of membrane-bound M-CSF receptor (M-CSF-mR) of K562 and HL-60 cells, were longer than those of corresponding M-CSF isoform and its receptor in stimulated normal human CBMCs, suggesting that there is a slow degradation rate of cell-associated M-CSF and its receptor in leukemic cells.

  1. N-glycosylation increases the circulatory half-life of human growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flintegaard, Thomas V; Thygesen, Peter; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic use of recombinant GH typically involves daily sc injections. We examined the possibilities for prolonging the in vivo circulation of GH by introducing N-glycans. Human GH variants with a single potential N-glycosylation site (N-X-S/T) introduced by site-directed mutagenesis were expr...

  2. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine half-life and pool size measurements in premature baboons developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Janssen; V.P. Carnielli (Virgilio); P.E. Cogo (Paola); S.R. Seidner; I.H.I. Luijendijk; J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); A.H. Jobe (Alan); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBecause minimal information is available about surfactant metabolism in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we measured half-lives and pool sizes of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in very preterm baboons recovering from respiratory distress syndrome and developing bronchopulmon

  3. The Half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides Prevalence in Japanese School Children

    OpenAIRE

    Wang,Da-Hong; Wang, Bing-Ling; Takaki, Jiro; Ito, Takehiko; Kurosawa,Carmen Miwa; Takigawa,Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearsonʼs correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children...

  4. Soluble cytokine receptors in biological therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Crespo, Fabian A; Sun, Xichun

    2002-08-01

    Due to their fundamental involvement in the pathogenesis of many diseases, cytokines constitute key targets for biotherapeutic approaches. The discovery that soluble forms of cytokine receptors are involved in the endogenous regulation of cytokine activity has prompted substantial interest in their potential application as immunotherapeutic agents. As such, soluble cytokine receptors have many advantages, including specificity, low immunogenicity and high affinity. Potential disadvantages, such as low avidity and short in vivo half-lifes, have been addressed by the use of genetically-designed receptors, hybrid proteins or chemical modifications. The ability of many soluble cytokine receptors to inhibit the binding and biological activity of their ligands makes them very specific cytokine antagonists. Several pharmaceutical companies have generated a number of therapeutic agents based on soluble cytokine receptors and many of them are undergoing clinical trials. The most advanced in terms of clinical development is etanercept (Enbrel, Immunex), a fusion protein between soluble TNF receptor Type II and the Fc region of human IgG1. This TNF-alpha; antagonist was the first soluble cytokine receptor to receive approval for use in humans. In general, most agents based on soluble cytokine receptors have been safe, well-tolerated and have shown only minor side effects in the majority of patients. Soluble cytokine receptors constitute a new generation of therapeutic agents with tremendous potential for applications in a wide variety of human diseases. Two current areas of research are the identification of their most promising applications and characterisation of their long-term effects. PMID:12171504

  5. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  6. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  7. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  8. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  9. Somatostatin, somatostatin analogs and somatostatin receptor dynamics in the biology of cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscica, M; Arvigo, M; Steffani, L; Ferone, D; Magni, P

    2013-05-01

    The pharmacological effects (i.e., inhibition of endocrine secretion and cell proliferation) mediated by the hormone somatostatin (SRIF) are derived from its universal high-affinity binding to five different G proteincoupled receptors (GPCRs), named sst1-5. However, SRIF has a half-life of less than 3 min, whereas the available mono- and bi-specific SRIF preferential analogs show prolonged half-life and increased potency. These compounds may control tumor development, cell proliferation and metastatization by direct actions, including cell division arrest in G0/G1 phase (i.e., induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(kip1) or p21(Cip1)), induction of apoptosis (i.e., induction of p53 and Bax) and suppression of cell invasion. Along with these direct actions on the biology of cancer progression, in vivo SRIF analogs may also regulate tumor growth through indirect actions, by suppressing the secretion of growth-promoting hormones and growth factors and angiogenesis. Interestingly, when ssts are co-expressed, they may interact forming homo- or heterodimers, also with other GPCRs such as type 2 dopamine receptor and the μ-opioid receptor 1, altering their original pharmacological and functional properties. Dimers can be not only constitutive, but perhaps also ligandpromoted: hence, compounds with high affinity for different ssts isoforms may be used to achieve effects elicited by specific dimers. Future developments in the knowledge of ssts dynamics upon SRIF and SRIF analogs binding in neoplastic tissues may allow the full elucidation of the pathophysiological role of this system and the exploitation of the therapeutic potential of its modulation.

  10. Biodistribution and biological characteristics of p-[(bis-carboxymethyl) aminomethyl carboxyamino] hippuric acid (Pahida) labelled with technetium-99m. Establishment of pharmacokinetics parameters through compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biologic distribution of p- [(bis-carboxymethylaminomethyl carboxyamino)] hippuric acid (PAHIDA) labeled with sup(99m)Tc in Wistar rats, showed a selective renal uptake among the other organs and tissues. The compound is predominantly eliminated by urinary tract, with small enterohepatic percent of excretion Chromatographic analysis of urine showed the product and possible metabolites. PAHIDA- sup(99m)Tc blood clearance is relatively rapid and a good percent is transported by plasmatic proteins. The percent binding to the erythrocytes is significant after one hour, this is due probably to hydrolysed technetium. The extrapolation of the plasmatic curve denoted the existence of three exponentials, suggesting a model with three compartments: central or intravascular and two peripherics or extravasculars - rapid and slow exchange (retention). Exponential's half life and the transfer constant (k) among the compartments were determined. The compound retention was reaffirmed by whole body determination. The decomposition of the curve in two exponentials allowed to assess the component's half-life. The compartmental model proposed in agreement with the experimental results, showed the complex retention that may be related the binding with the blood components, the possibility of renal metabolization or a structural impediment in the interaction with the tubular cells receptors. (author)

  11. Mesoscopic biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Shivashankar

    2002-02-01

    In this paper we present a qualitative outlook of mesoscopic biology where the typical length scale is of the order of nanometers and the energy scales comparable to thermal energy. Novel biomolecular machines, governed by coded information at the level of DNA and proteins, operate at these length scales in biological systems. In recent years advances in technology have led to the study of some of the design principles of these machines; in particular at the level of an individual molecule. For example, the forces that operate in molecular interactions, the stochasticity involved in these interactions and their spatio-temporal dynamics are beginning to be explored. Understanding such design principles is opening new possibilities in mesoscopic physics with potential applications.

  12. Crusts: biological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Elias, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological soil crusts, a community of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, and fungi, are an essential part of dryland ecosystems. They are critical in the stabilization of soils, protecting them from wind and water erosion. Similarly, these soil surface communities also stabilized soils on early Earth, allowing vascular plants to establish. They contribute nitrogen and carbon to otherwise relatively infertile dryland soils, and have a strong influence on hydrologic cycles. Their presence can also influence vascular plant establishment and nutrition.

  13. Biological programming

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsden, Jeremy J.; Bándi, Gergely

    2010-01-01

    Biology offers a tremendous set of concepts that are potentially very powerfully usable for the software engineer, but they have been barely exploited hitherto. In this position paper we propose a fresh attempt to create the building blocks of a programming technology that could be as successful as life. A key guiding principle is to develop and make use of unambiguous definitions of the essential features of life.

  14. Marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index

  15. Marine biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  16. Biological Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviena Baskaran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Biology has entered a new era in distributing information based on database and this collection of database become primary in publishing information. This data publishing is done through Internet Gopher where information resources easy and affordable offered by powerful research tools. The more important thing now is the development of high quality and professionally operated electronic data publishing sites. To enhance the service and appropriate editorial and policies for electronic data publishing has been established and editors of article shoulder the responsibility.

  17. Tritium and Autoradiography in Cell Biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because tritium emits low energy beta radiation, it is the most useful isotope for high resolution autoradiography. The relative abundance of hydrogen in most biologically important substances combined with a relatively short half-life allows the labelling of cellular components at specific activities that can often be detected at intracellular dimensions by the use of nuclear emulsions. The cells are attached to glass by various cytological procedures and after fixation a -wet or fluid photographic emulsion is applied directly to the cell surface and allowed to dry. After exposure the emulsion is developed while still in contact with the biological specimen. The preparation, an autoradiogram, when viewed under the light microscope shows the cellular structures and the location of the isotope with a resolution of less than 1 pm. In this way the distribution of tritium-labelled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of individual chromosomes has been traced through two to three cell divisions. These studies were made possible by the preparation of tritiated thymidine which is a highly selective label for DNA and is quickly depleted when the cell is removed from the environment containing the labelled thymidine. The technique has yielded information on the mechanism of DNA replication, structure and reproduction of chromosomes, kinetics of cell division and more recently on the patterns and time sequence in the reproduction of different chromosomes in the same nucleus and the different parts of a single chromosome. All chromosomes studied so far contain two functional sub-units of DNA which are distributed in a semi-conservative fashion during reproduction. The two sub-units are unlike in some structural sense that limits the type of exchanges that may occur among the four sub-units of a reproducing chromosome. Present evidence on sequences leads to the hypothesis that chromosomes reproduce in a genetically controlled sequence. Further evidence on the patterns and mechanism of

  18. Biological biomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge-Herrero, E. [Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. Clinica Puerta de Hierro, Madrid (Spain)

    1997-05-01

    There are a number of situations in which substances of biological origin are employed as biomaterials. Most of them are macromolecules derived from isolated connective tissue or the connective tissue itself in membrane form, in both cases, the tissue can be used in its natural form or be chemically treated. In other cases, certain blood vessels can be chemically pretreated and used as vascular prostheses. Proteins such as albumin, collagen and fibrinogen are employed to coat vascular prostheses. Certain polysaccharides have also been tested for use in controlled drug release systems. Likewise, a number of tissues, such as dura mater, bovine pericardium, procine valves and human valves, are used in the preparation of cardiac prostheses. We also use veins from animals or humans in arterial replacement. In none of these cases are the tissues employed dissimilar to the native tissues as they have been chemically modified, becoming a new bio material with different physical and biochemical properties. In short, we find that natural products are being utilized as biomaterials and must be considered as such; thus, it is necessary to study both their chemicobiological and physicomechanical properties. In the present report, we review the current applications, problems and future prospects of some of these biological biomaterials. (Author) 84 refs.

  19. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  20. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaryJoe K Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  1. The ubiquitination of the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein is crucial for its biological function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Košík

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify what influences the short half-life of the influenza A virus PB1-F2 protein and whether a prolonged half-life affects the properties of this molecule. We hypothesized that the short half-life of PB1-F2 could conceal the phenotype of the protein. Because proteasome degradation might be involved in PB1-F2 degradation, we focused on ubiquitination, a common label for proteasome targeting. A cluster of lysine residues was demonstrated as an ubiquitination acceptor site in evolutionary and functionally distinct proteins. The PB1-F2 sequence alignment revealed a cluster of lysines on the carboxy terminal end of PB1-F2 in almost all of the GenBank sequences available to date. Using a proximity ligation assay, we identified ubiquitination as a novel posttranslational modification of PB1-F2. Changing the lysines at positions 73, 78, and 85 to arginines suppressed the ubiquitination of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1-derived PB1-F2. The mutation of the C-terminal lysine residue cluster positively affected the overall expression levels of avian A/Honk Kong/156/1997 (H5N1- and mammalian A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1-derived PB1-F2. Moreover, increased PB1-F2 copy numbers strengthened the functions of this virus in the infected cells. The results of a minigenome luciferase reporter assay revealed an enhancement of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity in the presence of stabilized PB1-F2, regardless of viral origin. IFNβ antagonism was enhanced in 293T cells transfected with a plasmid expressing stabilized K→R mutant variants of PB1-F2. Compared with PB1-F2 wt, the loss of ubiquitination enhanced the antibody response after DNA vaccination. In summary, we revealed that PB1-F2 is an ubiquitinated IAV protein, and this posttranslational modification plays a central role in the regulation of the biological functions of this protein.

  2. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Fact Sheet Structural Biology Fact Sheet Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area What is structural biology? Structural biology is a field of science focused ...

  3. KINETICS OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF LOW LEVEL PESTICIDE WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are chemical substances intended to protect food crops and livestock from pests in order to pro-mote agricultural productivity and protect public health. Contamination of soil, air and water and threat to human and animal health are the major constraints in the use of pesticides. Treatment of pesticide contaminated water is, therefore, paramount. Biological treatment provides the most economical option when compared to other treatment methods. The aim of the study was to develop a safe and effective in the farm biological treatment for low level agricultural pesticide wastewater. The degradation of the fungicide captan was evaluated under batch and continuous modes of operation with a retention time of 15 days. The initial cell number (30.1ח106 cells/mL in the soil water mixture first declined with time during the 24 h reaching 15.6ח106 and 11.1ח106 cells/mL in the batch and continuous bioreactors, respectively. This was due to the inhibitory effect of pesticide on some of the soil microbial species that had less tolerance to captan at the initial concentration of 144 mg L-1. Then, the microbial population started growing, reaching its maximum after 5 and 12 days from the start in the batch and continuous bioreactors, respectively. The lag period and the specific growth rate for the batch bioreactor were 22 h and 0.096 h-1, respectively. A captan degradation efficiency of 89.6% was achieved after 10 days in the continuous bioreactor compared to a degradation efficiency of 100% after 5 d in the batch bioreactor. This study showed that the effluent from the continuous bioreactor has a captan concentration of 12 mg L-1 which is not acceptable for livestock water according to Health Canada Guidelines. A half life of 52 h is observed in the batch bioreactor.

  4. Simulating Biological and Non-Biological Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzo, Angela; Gesierich, Benno; Wohlschlager, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the brain processes biological and non-biological movements in distinct neural circuits. Biological motion, in contrast to non-biological motion, refers to active movements of living beings. Aim of our experiment was to investigate the mechanisms underlying mental simulation of these two movement types. Subjects had to…

  5. Biological Literacy in a College Biology Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demastes, Sherry; Wandersee, James H.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the proposed definition of biological literacy as the understanding of a small number of pervasive biological principles appropriate to making informed personal and societal decisions. Utilizes the content of a major daily newspaper to adjust biology instruction to focus on this notion of biological literacy. Discusses benefits and…

  6. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Biological Biological

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Chinese Biological Abstracts sponsored by the Library, the Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Biological Documentation and Information Network, all of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, commenced publication in 1987 and was initiated to provide access to the Chinese information in the field of biology.

  7. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    MaryJoe K Rice; Ruder, Warren C.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic bi...

  8. Cell biology perspectives in phage biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansaldi, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Cellular biology has long been restricted to large cellular organisms. However, as the resolution of microscopic methods increased, it became possible to study smaller cells, in particular bacterial cells. Bacteriophage biology is one aspect of bacterial cell biology that has recently gained insight from cell biology. Despite their small size, bacteriophages could be successfully labeled and their cycle studied in the host cells. This review aims to put together, although non-extensively, several cell biology studies that recently pushed the elucidation of key mechanisms in phage biology, such as the lysis-lysogeny decision in temperate phages or genome replication and transcription, one step further.

  9. Effects of interlinker sequences on the biological properties of bispecific single-chain antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Min; JIANG Xin; YANG Zhi; YIN Changcheng; LI Hua; ZHAO Rui; ZHANG Zhong; LIN Qing; HUANG Hualiang

    2003-01-01

    Single-chain bispecific antibody (scBsAb) is one of the promising genetic engineering antibody formats for clinical application. But the effects of interlinker sequences on the biological properties of bispecific single-chain antibodies have not been studied in detail. Three interlinker sequences were designed and synthesized, and denominated as Fc, HSA, 205C′, respectively. Universal vectors with these different interlinker sequences for scBsAb expression in E. coli were constructed. A model scBsAb based on a reshaped single-chain antibody (scFv) against human CD3 and a scFv directed against human ovarian carcinoma were generated and expressed in E. coli. The results of SDS-PAGE and Western blot showed that the different interlinker sequences did not affect the expression levelof scBsAb. However, as demonstrated by ELISA and pharmacokinetics studies performed in mice, scBsAbs with different interlinker sequences had difference in the antigen-binding activities and terminal half-life time (T1/2β) in vivo, the interlinker HSA could remarkably prolong the retention time of scBsAb in blood. These results indicated that the peptide sequence of interlinker could affect important biological properties of scBsAb, such as antigen-binding properties and stability in vivo. So, selection of an appropriate interlinker sequence is very important for scBsAb construction. Optimal interlinker can bring scBsAb biologicalproperties more suitable for clinical application.

  10. Chemical Dissolution Pathways of MoS2 Nanosheets in Biological and Environmental Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongying; von dem Bussche, Annette; Qiu, Yang; Valentin, Thomas M; Gion, Kyle; Kane, Agnes B; Hurt, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Material stability and dissolution in aqueous media are key issues to address in the development of a new nanomaterial intended for technological application. Dissolution phenomena affect biological and environmental persistence; fate, transport, and biokinetics; device and product stability; and toxicity pathways and mechanisms. This article shows that MoS2 nanosheets are thermodynamically and kinetically unstable to O2-oxidation under ambient conditions in a variety of aqueous media. The oxidation is accompanied by nanosheet degradation and release of soluble molybdenum and sulfur species, and generates protons that can colloidally destabilize the remaining sheets. The oxidation kinetics are pH-dependent, and a kinetic law is developed for use in biokinetic and environmental fate modeling. MoS2 nanosheets fabricated by chemical exfoliation with n-butyl-lithium are a mixture of 1T (primary) and 2H (secondary) phases and oxidize rapidly with a typical half-life of 1-30 days. Ultrasonically exfoliated sheets are in pure 2H phase, and oxidize much more slowly. Cytotoxicity experiments on MoS2 nanosheets and molybdate ion controls reveal the relative roles of the nanosheet and soluble fractions in the biological response. These results indicate that MoS2 nanosheets will not show long-term persistence in living systems and oxic natural waters, with important implications for biomedical applications and environmental risk. PMID:27267956

  11. Ambient and biological monitoring of cokeoven workers: determinants of the internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeneelen, F J; van Leeuwen, F E; Oosterink, S; Anzion, R B; van der Loop, F; Bos, R P; van Veen, H G

    1990-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in the breathing zone air of 56 battery workers at two cokeovens during three consecutive days. The concentration of total PAH ranged up to 186 micrograms/m3. Preshift and end of shift urine samples were collected to determine 1-hydroxypyrene, a metabolite of pyrene. Control urine samples were available from 44 workers in the shipping yard of a hot rolling mill. The median values of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine of smoking and non-smoking controls were 0.51 and 0.17 mumol/mol creatinine, respectively. Concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene up to 11.2 mumol/mol were found in the urine of the cokeoven workers. At the start of the three day working period after 32 hours off work, the 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were four times higher and at the end of the working period 10 times higher compared with control concentrations. Excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene occurred with a half life of 6-35 hours. Both the ambient air monitoring data and the biological monitoring data showed that the topside workers were the heaviest exposed workers. The relation between air monitoring data and biological monitoring data was not strong. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify determinants of the internal dose. The combination of exposure and smoking amplify each other and the use of a protective airstream helmet decreases the internal dose. An effect of alcohol consumption and the use of medication on the toxicokinetics of pyrene was not found.

  12. Biological effects of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth chapter presents: cell structure and metabolism; radiation interaction with biological tissues; steps of the production of biological effect of radiation; radiosensitivity of tissues; classification of biological effects; reversibility, transmissivity and influence factors; pre-natal biological effects; biological effects in therapy and syndrome of acute irradiation

  13. Identification of the biologically active liquid chemistry induced by a nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wende, Kristian; Williams, Paul; Dalluge, Joe; Gaens, Wouter Van; Aboubakr, Hamada; Bischof, John; von Woedtke, Thomas; Goyal, Sagar M; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Bogaerts, Annemie; Masur, Kai; Bruggeman, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of interaction of cold nonequilibrium plasma jets with mammalian cells in physiologic liquid is reported. The major biological active species produced by an argon RF plasma jet responsible for cell viability reduction are analyzed by experimental results obtained through physical, biological, and chemical diagnostics. This is complemented with chemical kinetics modeling of the plasma source to assess the dominant reactive gas phase species. Different plasma chemistries are obtained by changing the feed gas composition of the cold argon based RF plasma jet from argon, humidified argon (0.27%), to argon/oxygen (1%) and argon/air (1%) at constant power. A minimal consensus physiologic liquid was used, providing isotonic and isohydric conditions and nutrients but is devoid of scavengers or serum constituents. While argon and humidified argon plasma led to the creation of hydrogen peroxide dominated action on the mammalian cells, argon-oxygen and argon-air plasma created a very different biological action and was characterized by trace amounts of hydrogen peroxide only. In particular, for the argon-oxygen (1%), the authors observed a strong negative effect on mammalian cell proliferation and metabolism. This effect was distance dependent and showed a half life time of 30 min in a scavenger free physiologic buffer. Neither catalase and mannitol nor superoxide dismutase could rescue the cell proliferation rate. The strong distance dependency of the effect as well as the low water solubility rules out a major role for ozone and singlet oxygen but suggests a dominant role of atomic oxygen. Experimental results suggest that O reacts with chloride, yielding Cl2(-) or ClO(-). These chlorine species have a limited lifetime under physiologic conditions and therefore show a strong time dependent biological activity. The outcomes are compared with an argon MHz plasma jet (kinpen) to assess the differences between these (at least seemingly) similar plasma sources

  14. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  15. Synthetic biology: insights into biological computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, Romilde; Urrios, Arturo; Velazquez-Garcia, Silvia; de Nadal, Eulàlia; Posas, Francesc

    2016-04-18

    Organisms have evolved a broad array of complex signaling mechanisms that allow them to survive in a wide range of environmental conditions. They are able to sense external inputs and produce an output response by computing the information. Synthetic biology attempts to rationally engineer biological systems in order to perform desired functions. Our increasing understanding of biological systems guides this rational design, while the huge background in electronics for building circuits defines the methodology. In this context, biocomputation is the branch of synthetic biology aimed at implementing artificial computational devices using engineered biological motifs as building blocks. Biocomputational devices are defined as biological systems that are able to integrate inputs and return outputs following pre-determined rules. Over the last decade the number of available synthetic engineered devices has increased exponentially; simple and complex circuits have been built in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells. These devices can manage and store information, take decisions based on past and present inputs, and even convert a transient signal into a sustained response. The field is experiencing a fast growth and every day it is easier to implement more complex biological functions. This is mainly due to advances in in vitro DNA synthesis, new genome editing tools, novel molecular cloning techniques, continuously growing part libraries as well as other technological advances. This allows that digital computation can now be engineered and implemented in biological systems. Simple logic gates can be implemented and connected to perform novel desired functions or to better understand and redesign biological processes. Synthetic biological digital circuits could lead to new therapeutic approaches, as well as new and efficient ways to produce complex molecules such as antibiotics, bioplastics or biofuels. Biological computation not only provides possible biomedical and

  16. Translational environmental biology: cell biology informing conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traylor-Knowles, Nikki; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-05-01

    Typically, findings from cell biology have been beneficial for preventing human disease. However, translational applications from cell biology can also be applied to conservation efforts, such as protecting coral reefs. Recent efforts to understand the cell biological mechanisms maintaining coral health such as innate immunity and acclimatization have prompted new developments in conservation. Similar to biomedicine, we urge that future efforts should focus on better frameworks for biomarker development to protect coral reefs.

  17. Pictures of Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Cserer, Amelie; Seiringer, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    This article is concerned with the representation of Synthetic Biology in the media and by biotechnology experts. An analysis was made of German-language media articles published between 2004 and 2008, and interviews with biotechnology-experts at the Synthetic Biology conference SB 3.0 in Zurich 2007. The results have been reflected in terms of the definition of Synthetic Biology, applications of Synthetic Biology and the perspectives of opportunities and risks. In the media, Synthetic Biolog...

  18. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  19. Effects of transforming growth interacting factor on biological behaviors of gastric carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Liang Hu; Ji-Fang Wen; De-Sheng Xiao; Hui Zhen; Chun-Yan Fu

    2005-01-01

    AIM:Transforming growth interacting factor (TGIF) is an inhibitor of both transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and retinoid signaling pathways. Moreover, the activation of MAPK pathway can prolong its half-life. However, its role in carcinogenesis is still unknown. Thus we attempted to investigate the effect of TGIF on biologic behaviors of gastric carcinoma cells.METHODS: Gastric carcinoma cell line, SGC-7901, was stably transfected with plasmid PcDNA3.1-TGIF. Western blotting and cell immunohistochemistry screening for the highly expressing clone of TGIF were employed. The growth of transfected cells was investigated by MTT and colonyformation assays, and apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry (FCM) and transmission electron microscopy.Tumorigenicity of the transfectant cells was also analyzed.RESULTS: TGIF had no effect on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of SGC-7901 cells, but cellular organelles of cells transfected with TGIF were richer than those of vector control or parental cells. Its clones were smaller than the control ones in plate efficiency, and its tumor tissues also had no obvious necrosis compared with the vector control or parental cells. Moreover, TGIF could resist TGF-β mediated growth inhibition.CONCLUSION: TGIF may induce differentiation of stomach neoplastic cells. In addition, TGIF can counteract the growth inhibition induced by TGF-β.

  20. Generation of biologically active multi-sialylated recombinant human EPOFc in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Castilho

    Full Text Available Hyperglycosylated proteins are more stable, show increased serum half-life and less sensitivity to proteolysis compared to non-sialylated forms. This applies particularly to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO. Recent progress in N-glycoengineering of non-mammalian expression hosts resulted in in vivo protein sialylation at great homogeneity. However the synthesis of multi-sialylated N-glycans is so far restricted to mammalian cells. Here we used a plant based expression system to accomplish multi-antennary protein sialylation. A human erythropoietin fusion protein (EPOFc was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana ΔXTFT, a glycosylation mutant that lacks plant specific N-glycan residues. cDNA of the hormone was co-delivered into plants with the necessary genes for (i branching (ii β1,4-galactosylation as well as for the (iii synthesis, transport and transfer of sialic acid. This resulted in the production of recombinant EPOFc carrying bi- tri- and tetra-sialylated complex N-glycans. The formation of this highly complex oligosaccharide structure required the coordinated expression of 11 human proteins acting in different subcellular compartments at different stages of the glycosylation pathway. In vitro receptor binding assays demonstrate the generation of biologically active molecules. We demonstrate the in planta synthesis of one of the most complex mammalian glycoforms pointing to an outstanding high degree of tolerance to changes in the glycosylation pathway in plants.

  1. Polonium-210 and lead-210 in the Southern Polar Ocean: Naturally occurring tracers of biological and hydrographical processes in the surface waters of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis the distribution of 210Po and 210Pb in the upper 600 m of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea was investigated along north-south transects in austral spring and autumn. 210Po and 210Pb can serve as sensitive tracers for the special hydrographic conditions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the Weddell Sea as well as for biological processes during phytoplankton blooms. The 210Po/210Pb disequilibrium was used as a tracer for particle export. This tracer integrates export on a timescale of 276 days because of the 138 day half-life of 210Po and complements the 234Th/238U disequilibrium as another tracer for plankton production and export on a shorter timescale of several weeks. (orig.)

  2. Effect of Half-Life on the Pharmacodynamic Index of Zanamivir against Influenza Virus Delineated by a Mathematical Model▿

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Ashley N.; Bulitta, Jürgen B.; McSharry, James J.; Weng, Qingmei; Adams, Jonathan R.; Kulawy, Robert; Drusano, George L.

    2011-01-01

    Intravenous zanamivir is recommended for the treatment of hospitalized patients with complicated oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus infections. In a companion paper, we show that the time above the 50% effective concentration (time>EC50) is the pharmacodynamic (PD) index predicting the inhibition of viral replication by intravenous zanamivir. However, for other neuraminidase inhibitors, the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve to the EC50 (AUC/EC50) is the most predictive i...

  3. Developments in human growth hormone preparations: sustained-release, prolonged half-life, novel injection devices, and alternative delivery routes

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Y; Xu M; Yuan M; Liu Z.; Yuan W

    2014-01-01

    Yunpeng Cai,1,2 Mingxin Xu,2 Minglu Yuan,2 Zhenguo Liu,1 Weien Yuan2 1Department of Neurology, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, 2School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Since the availability of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) enabled the application of human growth hormone both in clinical and research use in the 1980s, millions of patients were prescribed a daily injection of rhGH, but noncompliance rates were...

  4. KINETIC MODELLING AND HALF LIFE STUDY OF ADSORPTIVE BIOREMEDIATION OF SOIL ARTIFICIALLY CONTAMINATED WITH BONNY LIGHT CRUDE OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry; Kigho Moses Oghenejoboh; Bamidele Ogbe Solomon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, comparative potential effects of commercial activated carbon (CAC) and plantain peel-derived biochar (PPBC) of different particle sizes and dosage to stimulate petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil were investigated. Microcosms containing soil were spiked with weathered Bonny light crude oil (WBLCO) (10% w/w) and amended with different particle sizes (0.02, 0.07 and 0.48 mm) and dosage (20, 30 and 40 g) of CAC and PPBC, respectively. The bioremediation experiments were c...

  5. Sensitivity Analysis on the Half-Life of Trichloroethylene and the Distribution Coefficient at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joshua D [Univ of KY, Dept of Civil Engineering

    2007-06-01

    To determine the future extent of the TCE contamination plume at PGDP, a groundwater and solute transport model has been developed by the Department of Energy (DOE). The model used to perform these calculations is MODFLOWT which is an enhanced groundwater transport model developed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). MODFLOWT models groundwater movement as well as the transport of species that are subject to adsorption and decay by using a finite difference method (Duffield et al 2001). A significant limitation of MODFLOWT is that it requires large amounts of data. This data can be difficult and expensive to obtain. MODFLOWT also requires excessive computational time to perform one simulation. It is desirable to have a model that can predict the spatial extent of the contaminant plume without as much required data and that does not require excessive computational times. The purpose of this study is to develop and alternative model to MODFLOWT that can produce similar results for possible use in a companion management model. The alternative model used in this study is an artificial neural network (ANN).

  6. High flow air sampling for determination of alpha long half-life emitters: area monitoring of a radioactive material disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ore Treatment Unit (UTM) is a mine and closed uranium plant, located in Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. It has a radioactive material disposal composed primarily of pie II and mesothorium. It is stored in six sheds designated C-01, C-02, C-05, C-06, C-07 and C-09. This study aims to present the high flow area monitoring program and results obtained in 2009. The threshold derived from concentration in the air was 0.25 Bq m-3. The average of the activity concentrations in 2009 were: for C-01 1.17 Bq m-3; C-02 0.006 Bq m-3; C-05 1.98 Bq m-3; C-06 2.14 Bq m-3; C-07 0.34 Bq m-3 and C-09 0,025 Bq m-3. Such values indicate that the control stay is an important factor in occupational workers' control, as well as the use of EPI's and behavioral care, besides radioprotection training to allow the access to the areas. No worker, supervisor or visitor reached the limit research

  7. Comparative study of stability and half-life of enzymes and enzyme aggregates implemented in anaerobic biogas processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binner, Roman; Schmack, Doris; Reuter, Monika [Research and Development Department, Schmack Biogas GmbH, Schwandorf (Germany); Menath, Veronika; Huber, Harald; Thomm, Michael [University of Regensburg, Department of Microbiology, Regensburg (Germany); Bischof, Franz [University of Applied Sciences Amberg-Weiden, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering/Environmental Engineering, Amberg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Anaerobic digestion of mainly energy crops gains more and more importance in developing a sustainable energy supply. Therefore, the optimization of gas yield plays a major role in specific research attempts and economical considerations. One possibility to increase natural polymer degradation and concomitantly energy efficiency is the addition of exoenzymes to biogas facilities to enforce the primary degradation steps for biogas production. Therefore, in the present study, the stability and activity of five externally added enzyme mixtures to anaerobic biogas processes were investigated. Protein assays using soluble fractions of different biogas plants incubated together with the enzyme mixtures revealed that, within about 10 min, the externally added enzymes were mostly degraded. This very low stability in biogas reactors makes it unlikely that the addition of enzymes contributes significantly to degradation of macromolecules in the biogas process. Even the addition of protease inhibitors did not protect the added enzyme mixtures from degradation in most experiments. Furthermore, the influence of added enzymes on the viscosity of the biomass was tested. Only a marginal effect was obtained, when applying a tenfold higher concentration of added enzymes as proposed for practical use. The same result was achieved when commercially available enzymes were added to technical-scale fermentations using corn silage as monosubstrate. Therefore, these studies did not provide evidence that the addition of external enzymes into anaerobic degradation systems increases the methane yield in biogas facilities. (orig.)

  8. In silico prediction of brain exposure: drug free fraction, unbound brain to plasma concentration ratio and equilibrium half-life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Morena; Jacobson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of CNS drug pharmacokinetics programs has recently shifted from determining the total concentrations in brain and blood to considering also unbound fractions and concentrations. Unfortunately, assessing unbound brain exposure experimentally requires demanding in vivo and in vitro studies. We propose a physical model, based on lipid binding and pH partitioning, to predict in silico the unbound volume of distribution in the brain. The model takes into account the partition of a drug into lipids, interstitial fluid and intracellular compartments of the brain. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the contributions of lipid binding and pH partitioning are important in determining drug exposure in brain. The predicted values are used, together with predictions for plasma protein binding, as corrective terms in a second model to derive the unbound brain to plasma concentration ratio starting from experimental values of total concentration ratio. The calculated values of brain free fraction and passive permeability are also used to qualitatively determine the brain to plasma equilibration time in a model that shows promising results but is limited to a very small set of compounds. The models we propose are a step forward in understanding and predicting pharmacologically relevant exposure in brain starting from compounds’ chemical structure and neuropharmacokinetics, by using experimental total brain to plasma ratios, in silico calculated properties and simple physics-based approaches. The models can be used in central nervous system drug discovery programs for a fast and cheap assessment of unbound brain exposure. For existing compounds, the unbound ratios can be derived from experimental values of total brain to plasma ratios. For both existing and hypothetical compounds, the unbound volume of distribution due to lipid binding and pH partitioning can be calculated starting only from the chemical structure. PMID:23578025

  9. Q value and half-life of double-electron capture in 184Os

    OpenAIRE

    Smorra, C.; Rodríguez, T.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, C.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Langanke, K.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Nagy, S.; Nörtershäuser, W; Renisch, D.; Shabaev, V.

    2012-01-01

    184Os has been excluded as a promising candidate for the search of neutrinoless double-electron capture. High-precision mass measurements with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP result in a marginal resonant enhancement with Δ=−8.89(58) keV excess energy to the 1322.152(22) keV 0+ excited state in 184W. State-of-the-art energy density functional calculations are applied for the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements to the excited states predicting a strong suppression due to th...

  10. Analytic determination of the activation of essential and toxic trace elements in biological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron activation-analysis technique for the multielement determination in biological material was developed. The individual steps of this procedure comprise radiochemical and also instrumental analytic techniques. After radiochemical separation 34 elements can be determined, after only instrumental procedures 26 elements can be detected in biological material. The radiochemical analysis of 34 elements lasts 4 days. Tracer investigations on the radionuclide retention of the anorganic separators HAP, TiP and ZP in 9N aqueous HNO3 solution indicated that apart from Na-24, K-42 and P-32 the radionuclides Cs-134, Rb-86 and Se-75 are almost quantitatively adsorbed at the separators. For the remaining investigated radionuclides different but well-reproducible retention values resulted. The pH-value only slightly influences the extent of the radionuclide retention. Kinetic investigations on the radiochemical precipitation of some radionuclides on Cu and Cu(Hg)sub(x) were carried out. The depositing of the radionuclides Ag-110m, Hg-203 and Se-75 at 00C and room temperature on Cu(Hg)sub(x) and Cu foil is a first order reaction. The half-life periods and the velocity constants of the depositing on Cu and Cu(Hg)sub(x) were determined for the investigated radionuclides in dependency of the temperature. The technique was examined by means of international biological multielement standards of known element combinations. The realisation of ring tests for the multielement determination in potatoe and milk powder showed that this method provides precise results. The applicability of the radiochemical method was confirmed by the simultaneous determination of 25 elements in overall nutrition samples. The instrumental technique was applied for the multielement determination in human hair (of the head) and in river water. (orig./MG)

  11. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  12. Advances in Biological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reviews major developments in areas that are at the cutting edge of biological research. Areas include: human anti-cancer gene, recombinant DNA techniques for the detection of Huntington disease carriers, and marine biology. (CW)

  13. Biology is simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Tim

    2015-12-30

    This paper explores the potential for simplicity to reveal new biological understanding. Borrowing selectively from physics thinking, and contrasting with Crick's reductionist philosophy, the author argues that greater emphasis on simplicity is necessary to advance biology and its applications.

  14. Engineering scalable biological systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Timothy K.

    2010-01-01

    Synthetic biology is focused on engineering biological organisms to study natural systems and to provide new solutions for pressing medical, industrial, and environmental problems. At the core of engineered organisms are synthetic biological circuits that execute the tasks of sensing inputs, processing logic, and performing output functions. In the last decade, significant progress has been made in developing basic designs for a wide range of biological circuits in bacteria, yeast, and mammal...

  15. Systems interface biology

    OpenAIRE

    Francis J Doyle; Stelling, Jörg

    2006-01-01

    The field of systems biology has attracted the attention of biologists, engineers, mathematicians, physicists, chemists and others in an endeavour to create systems-level understanding of complex biological networks. In particular, systems engineering methods are finding unique opportunities in characterizing the rich behaviour exhibited by biological systems. In the same manner, these new classes of biological problems are motivating novel developments in theoretical systems approaches. Henc...

  16. Biological Races in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two m...

  17. Upgrading Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On many campuses throughout the country, undergraduate biology education is in serious need of an upgrade. During the past few decades, the body of biological knowledge has grown exponentially, and as a research endeavor, the practice of biology has evolved. Education research has also made great strides, revealing many new insights into how…

  18. Biology Myth-Killers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Evan

    2014-01-01

    "Biology Myth-Killers" is an activity designed to identify and correct common misconceptions for high school and college introductory biology courses. Students identify common myths, which double as biology misconceptions, and use appropriate sources to share the "truth" about the myths. This learner-centered activity is a fun…

  19. Drug-Encoded Biomarkers for Monitoring Biological Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoneva, Desislava; Stritzker, Jochen; Bedenk, Kristina; Zhang, Qian; Frentzen, Alexa; Cappello, Joseph; Fischer, Utz; Szalay, Aladar A

    2015-01-01

    Blood tests are necessary, easy-to-perform and low-cost alternatives for monitoring of oncolytic virotherapy and other biological therapies in translational research. Here we assessed three candidate proteins with the potential to be used as biomarkers in biological fluids: two glucuronidases from E. coli (GusA) and Staphylococcus sp. RLH1 (GusPlus), and the luciferase from Gaussia princeps (GLuc). The three genes encoding these proteins were inserted individually into vaccinia virus GLV-1h68 genome under the control of an identical promoter. The three resulting recombinant viruses were used to infect tumor cells in cultures and human tumor xenografts in nude mice. In contrast to the actively secreted GLuc, the cytoplasmic glucuronidases GusA and GusPlus were released into the supernatants only as a result of virus-mediated oncolysis. GusPlus resulted in the most sensitive detection of enzyme activity under controlled assay conditions in samples containing as little as 1 pg/ml of GusPlus, followed by GusA (25 pg/ml) and GLuc (≥375 pg/ml). Unexpectedly, even though GusA had a lower specific activity compared to GusPlus, the substrate conversion in the serum of tumor-bearing mice injected with the GusA-encoding virus strains was substantially higher than that of GusPlus. This was attributed to a 3.2 fold and 16.2 fold longer half-life of GusA in the blood stream compared to GusPlus and GLuc respectively, thus a more sensitive monitor of virus replication than the other two enzymes. Due to the good correlation between enzymatic activity of expressed marker gene and virus titer, we conclude that the amount of the biomarker protein in the body fluid semiquantitatively represents the amount of virus in the infected tumors which was confirmed by low light imaging. We found GusA to be the most reliable biomarker for monitoring oncolytic virotherapy among the three tested markers. PMID:26348361

  20. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  1. Computational systems chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oprea, Tudor I; May, Elebeoba E; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology (SCB) (Nat Chem Biol 3: 447-450, 2007).The overarching goal of computational SCB is to develop tools for integrated chemical-biological data acquisition, filtering and processing, by taking into account relevant information related to interactions between proteins and small molecules, possible metabolic transformations of small molecules, as well as associated information related to genes, networks, small molecules, and, where applicable, mutants and variants of those proteins. There is yet an unmet need to develop an integrated in silico pharmacology/systems biology continuum that embeds drug-target-clinical outcome (DTCO) triplets, a capability that is vital to the future of chemical biology, pharmacology, and systems biology. Through the development of the SCB approach, scientists will be able to start addressing, in an integrated simulation environment, questions that make the best use of our ever-growing chemical and biological data repositories at the system-wide level. This chapter reviews some of the major research concepts and describes key components that constitute the emerging area of computational systems chemical biology.

  2. Quantum biological information theory

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2016-01-01

    This book is a self-contained, tutorial-based introduction to quantum information theory and quantum biology. It serves as a single-source reference to the topic for researchers in bioengineering, communications engineering, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, biology, computer science, and physics. The book provides all the essential principles of the quantum biological information theory required to describe the quantum information transfer from DNA to proteins, the sources of genetic noise and genetic errors as well as their effects. Integrates quantum information and quantum biology concepts; Assumes only knowledge of basic concepts of vector algebra at undergraduate level; Provides a thorough introduction to basic concepts of quantum information processing, quantum information theory, and quantum biology; Includes in-depth discussion of the quantum biological channel modelling, quantum biological channel capacity calculation, quantum models of aging, quantum models of evolution, quantum models o...

  3. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  4. Foundations of biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sikorav, Jean-Louis; Braslau, Alan; Goldar, Arach

    2014-01-01

    It is often stated that there are no laws in biology, where everything is contingent and could have been otherwise, being solely the result of historical accidents. Furthermore, the customary introduction of fundamental biological entities such as individual organisms, cells, genes, catalysts and motors remains largely descriptive; constructive approaches involving deductive reasoning appear, in comparison, almost absent. As a consequence, both the logical content and principles of biology ne...

  5. Introducing Aquatic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Kinne, Otto; Browman, Howard I.; Seaman, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The Inter-Research Science Center (IR) journals Marine Ecology Progress Series (MEPS) and Aquatic Microbial Ecology (AME) have been receiving increasing numbers of high-quality manuscripts that are principally biological, rather than ecological. With regret, we have had to turn these submissions away. Also, leading limnologists have for many years suggested that IR should provide an outlet for top quality articles on freshwater biology and ecology. Aquatic Biology (...

  6. Glycobiology Current Molecular Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Sabire KARAÇALI

    2003-01-01

    Carbohydrate chemistry evolved into carbohydrate biochemistry and gradually into the biology of carbohydrates, or glycobiology, at the end of the last century. Glycobiology is the new research area of modern molecular biology, and it investigates the structure, biosynthesis and biological functions of glycans. The numbers, linkage types (a or b), positions, binding points and functional group differences of monosaccharides create microheterogeneity. Thus, numerous glycoforms with precise stru...

  7. Biological aerosol background characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatny, Janet; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-05-01

    To provide useful information during military operations, or as part of other security situations, a biological aerosol detector has to respond within seconds or minutes to an attack by virulent biological agents, and with low false alarms. Within this time frame, measuring virulence of a known microorganism is extremely difficult, especially if the microorganism is of unknown antigenic or nucleic acid properties. Measuring "live" characteristics of an organism directly is not generally an option, yet only viable organisms are potentially infectious. Fluorescence based instruments have been designed to optically determine if aerosol particles have viability characteristics. Still, such commercially available biological aerosol detection equipment needs to be improved for their use in military and civil applications. Air has an endogenous population of microorganisms that may interfere with alarm software technologies. To design robust algorithms, a comprehensive knowledge of the airborne biological background content is essential. For this reason, there is a need to study ambient live bacterial populations in as many locations as possible. Doing so will permit collection of data to define diverse biological characteristics that in turn can be used to fine tune alarm algorithms. To avoid false alarms, improving software technologies for biological detectors is a crucial feature requiring considerations of various parameters that can be applied to suppress alarm triggers. This NATO Task Group will aim for developing reference methods for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to improve alarm algorithms for biological detection. Additionally, they will focus on developing reference standard methodology for monitoring biological aerosol characteristics to reduce false alarm rates.

  8. Integrated Biological Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological control is any activity taken to prevent, limit, clean up, or remediate potential environmental, health and safety, or workplace quality impacts from plants, animals, or microorganisms. At Hanford the principal emphasis of biological control is to prevent the transport of radioactive contamination by biological vectors (plants, animals, or microorganisms), and where necessary, control and clean up resulting contamination. Other aspects of biological control at Hanford include industrial weed control (e.g.; tumbleweeds), noxious weed control (invasive, non-native plant species), and pest control (undesirable animals such as rodents and stinging insects; and microorganisms such as molds that adversely affect the quality of the workplace environment). Biological control activities may be either preventive (apriori) or in response to existing contamination spread (aposteriori). Surveillance activities, including ground, vegetation, flying insect, and other surveys, and apriori control actions, such as herbicide spraying and placing biological barriers, are important in preventing radioactive contamination spread. If surveillance discovers that biological vectors have spread radioactive contamination, aposteriori control measures, such as fixing contamination, followed by cleanup and removal of the contamination to an approved disposal location are typical response functions. In some cases remediation following the contamination cleanup and removal is necessary. Biological control activities for industrial weeds, noxious weeds and pests have similar modes of prevention and response

  9. Biological pretreatment sewages water

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with waste water purification at the stage of pre-inflow of water into the biological waste water treatment plants. It is divided into two parts, a theoretical and calculation. The theoretical part deals about sewage water and the method of biological treatment. Design proposal is part of the activation tank for quantity EO.

  10. Experimenting with Mathematical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanft, Rebecca; Walter, Anne

    2016-01-01

    St. Olaf College recently added a Mathematical Biology concentration to its curriculum. The core course, Mathematics of Biology, was redesigned to include a wet laboratory. The lab classes required students to collect data and implement the essential modeling techniques of formulation, implementation, validation, and analysis. The four labs…

  11. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  12. Bioinformatics and School Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalpech, Roger

    2006-01-01

    The rapidly changing field of bioinformatics is fuelling the need for suitably trained personnel with skills in relevant biological "sub-disciplines" such as proteomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics, etc. But because of the complexity--and sheer weight of data--associated with these new areas of biology, many school teachers feel…

  13. Optics of Biological Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hoekstra, Alfons; Videen, Gorden

    2007-01-01

    This book covers the optics of single biological particles, both theory and experiment, with emphasis on Elastic Light Scattering and Fluorescence. It deals with the optics of bacteria (bio-aerosols), marine particles (selected phytoplankton communities) and red and white blood cells. Moreover, there are dedicated chapters on a general theory for scattering by a cell, and modelling and simulation of scattering by inhomogeneous biological cells. Finally, one chapter is dedicated to astro-biological signatures, discussing the possibilities for detecting non-terrestrial biological material. The volume has up-to-date discussions on new experimental and numerical techniques, and many examples of applications of these techniques in real-life systems, as used to detect and characterize e.g. biological warfare agents or human blood cells.

  14. Frontiers in mathematical biology

    CERN Document Server

    1994-01-01

    Volume 100, which is the final volume of the LNBM series serves to commemorate the acievements in two decades of this influential collection of books in mathematical biology. The contributions, by the leading mathematical biologists, survey the state of the art in the subject, and offer speculative, philosophical and critical analyses of the key issues confronting the field. The papers address fundamental issues in cell and molecular biology, organismal biology, evolutionary biology, population ecology, community and ecosystem ecology, and applied biology, plus the explicit and implicit mathematical challenges. Cross-cuttting issues involve the problem of variation among units in nonlinear systems, and the related problems of the interactions among phenomena across scales of space, time and organizational complexity.

  15. Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics of etanercept, rheumatoid arthritis biologics, after intravenous and subcutaneous administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Yo; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Min-Soo; Baek, In-Hwan

    2016-08-01

    Etanercept was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2010 as a biologic agent for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of etanercept after intravenous and subcutaneous injection in rats. The plasma concentration of etanercept was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intravenous and subcutaneous administration of 2 mg/kg of etanercept to rats showed that etanercept was slowly absorbed (time to reach the peak drug concentration [T max] = 1.60 days, bioavailability [F] = 47.18 %) and slowly eliminated (half-life [t 1/2], 2.33 days after intravenous administration and 3.31 days after subcutaneous administration). The area under the curve values on day 13 (AUC13day) were 121.25 ± 14.37 and 48.56 ± 6.78 μg day/mL after intravenous and subcutaneous administration, respectively. A two-compartment model with Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics (V max = 94.28 µg/day; K m = 10.88 µg/mL) was used to describe the pharmacokinetic profile of etanercept. Our results describe the pharmacokinetic profile of etanercept, and these results could be used for the development of etanercept biosimilars. PMID:25725773

  16. Managing biological diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Fred B.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1993-01-01

    Biological diversity is the variety of life and accompanying ecological processes (Off. Technol. Assess. 1987, Wilcove and Samson 1987, Keystone 1991). Conservation of biological diversity is a major environmental issue (Wilson 1988, Counc. Environ. Quality 1991). The health and future of the earth's ecological systems (Lubchenco et al. 1991), global climate change (Botkin 1990), and an ever-increasing rate in loss of species, communities, and ecological systems (Myers 1990) are among issues drawing biological diversity to the mainstream of conservation worldwide (Int. Union Conserv. Nat. and Nat. Resour. [IUCN] et al. 1991). The legal mandate for conserving biological diversity is now in place (Carlson 1988, Doremus 1991). More than 19 federal laws govern the use of biological resources in the United States (Rein 1991). The proposed National Biological Diversity Conservation and Environmental Research Act (H.R. 585 and S.58) notes the need for a national biological diversity policy, would create a national center for biological diversity research, and recommends a federal interagency strategy for ecosystem conservation. There are, however, hard choices ahead for the conservation of biological diversity, and biologists are grappling with how to set priorities in research and management (Roberts 1988). We sense disillusion among field biologists and managers relative to how to operationally approach the seemingly overwhelming charge of conserving biological diversity. Biologists also need to respond to critics like Hunt (1991) who suggest a tree farm has more biological diversity than an equal area of old-growth forest. At present, science has played only a minor role in the conservation of biological diversity (Weston 1992) with no unified approach available to evaluate strategies and programs that address the quality and quantity of biological diversity (Murphy 1990, Erwin 1992). Although actions to conserve biological diversity need to be clearly defined by

  17. Biology and Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bascompte, Jordi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Biology has become the new “physics” of mathematics, one of the areas of greatest mathematical applications. In turn, mathematics has provided powerful tools and metaphors to approach the astonishing complexity of biological systems. This has allowed the development of sound theoretical frameworks. Here, I summarize some of the most significant contributions of mathematics to biology, ranging from population genetics, to developmental biology, and to networks of species interactions.La biología se ha convertido en la nueva “física” de las matemáticas, una de las áreas con mayores aplicaciones. Las matemáticas, por su parte, han proporcionado herramientas y metáforas muy poderosas para abordar la increíble complejidad de los sistemas biológicos. Esto ha permitido la génesis de marcos conceptuales sólidos. En este artículo resumo algunas de las aplicaciones más exitosas de las matemáticas a la biología que van desde la genética de poblaciones a la biología del desarrollo y las redes de interacciones ecológicas.

  18. Biological and Chemical Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, P J

    2002-12-19

    The LLNL Chemical & Biological National Security Program (CBNP) provides science, technology and integrated systems for chemical and biological security. Our approach is to develop and field advanced strategies that dramatically improve the nation's capabilities to prevent, prepare for, detect, and respond to terrorist use of chemical or biological weapons. Recent events show the importance of civilian defense against terrorism. The 1995 nerve gas attack in Tokyo's subway served to catalyze and focus the early LLNL program on civilian counter terrorism. In the same year, LLNL began CBNP using Laboratory-Directed R&D investments and a focus on biodetection. The Nunn-Lugar-Domenici Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction Act, passed in 1996, initiated a number of U.S. nonproliferation and counter-terrorism programs including the DOE (now NNSA) Chemical and Biological Nonproliferation Program (also known as CBNP). In 2002, the Department of Homeland Security was formed. The NNSA CBNP and many of the LLNL CBNP activities are being transferred as the new Department becomes operational. LLNL has a long history in national security including nonproliferation of weapons of mass destruction. In biology, LLNL had a key role in starting and implementing the Human Genome Project and, more recently, the Microbial Genome Program. LLNL has over 1,000 scientists and engineers with relevant expertise in biology, chemistry, decontamination, instrumentation, microtechnologies, atmospheric modeling, and field experimentation. Over 150 LLNL scientists and engineers work full time on chemical and biological national security projects.

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of the thermo-treatment process to dispose of recombinant DNA waste from biological research laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge of recombinant DNA waste from biological laboratories into the eco-system may be one of the pathways resulting in horizontal gene transfer or 'gene pollution'. Heating at 100 deg. C for 5-10 min is a common method for treating recombinant DNA waste in biological research laboratories in China. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness and the safety of the thermo-treatment method in the disposal of recombinant DNA waste. Quantitative PCR, plasmid transformation and electrophoresis technology were used to evaluate the decay/denaturation efficiency during the thermo-treatment process of recombinant plasmid, pET-28b. Results showed that prolonging thermo-treatment time could improve decay efficiency of the plasmid, and its decay half-life was 2.7-4.0 min during the thermo-treatment at 100 deg. C. However, after 30 min of thermo-treatment some transforming activity remained. Higher ionic strength could protect recombinant plasmid from decay during the treatment process. These results indicate that thermo-treatment at 100 deg. C cannot decay and inactivate pET-28b completely. In addition, preliminary results showed that thermo-treated recombinant plasmids were not degraded completely in a short period when they were discharged into an aquatic environment. This implies that when thermo-treated recombinant DNAs are discharged into the eco-system, they may have enough time to re-nature and transform, thus resulting in gene diffusion

  20. Neutron in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-11-01

    Neutron in biology can provide an experimental method of directly locating relationship of proteins and DNA. However, there are relatively few experimental study of such objects since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections and inelastic spectra due to the low flux of neutron illuminating the sample. Since a next generation neutron source of JAERI will be 5MW spallation neutron source and its effective neutron flux will be 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3} times higher than the one of JRR-3M, neutron in biology will open a completely new world for structural biology. (author)

  1. Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Pharmacokinetic Study of Novel Liguzinediol Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Liguzinediol (LZDO ester prodrugs 3–5 were synthesized and evaluated in vitro and in vivo for their potential use in prolonging the half-life of the parent drug LZDO (1a in vivo. Prodrugs 3–5 were found to display a potent positive inotropic effect on the myocardium, without the risk of arrhythmia. Prodrugs 3–5 rapidly underwent enzymatic hydrolysis to release the parent compound LZDO in 1–3 h in rat liver microsomes and rat plasma. The half-life of the parent compound was prolonged after intragastric administration of prodrug 3, which was found to be a superior prodrug candidate for increasing myocardial contractility.

  2. The biological effects of 224Ra injected into dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of injected 224Ra in the dog. Radium-224 is a short-lived isotope of radium with a half-life of 3.62 d. When administered parenterally, it deposits on bone surfaces; because of its short half-life, most of its energy is deposited on bone surfaces, in a manner similar to plutonium. The experimental design included a comparison to the exposed human population. Instead of using a single injection of 224Ra, groups were included in which dogs were injected once, 10 times, or 50 times. This design provided groups that could be compared to the multiple injections often used in people for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis

  3. A Molecular Biology Database Digest

    OpenAIRE

    Bry, François; Kröger, Peer

    2000-01-01

    Computational Biology or Bioinformatics has been defined as the application of mathematical and Computer Science methods to solving problems in Molecular Biology that require large scale data, computation, and analysis [18]. As expected, Molecular Biology databases play an essential role in Computational Biology research and development. This paper introduces into current Molecular Biology databases, stressing data modeling, data acquisition, data retrieval, and the integration...

  4. Large Pelagics Biological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Biological Survey (LPBS) collects additional length and weight information and body parts such as otoliths, caudal vertebrae, dorsal spines, and...

  5. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  6. The Biology of Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, D. M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses topics to aid in understanding animal behavior, including the value of the biological approach to psychology, functional systems, optimality and fitness, universality of environmental effects on behavior, and evolution of social behavior. (DS)

  7. Laboratory of Biological Modeling

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laboratory of Biological Modeling is defined by both its methodologies and its areas of application. We use mathematical modeling in many forms and apply it to...

  8. Insecticides and Biological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, G. O.

    1972-01-01

    Use of insecticides has been questioned due to their harmful effects on edible items. Biological control of insects along with other effective practices for checking spread of parasites on crops are discussed. (PS)

  9. Chemistry and biology data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Chemical monitoring data and biological data from field collected samples. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Biales , A., D. Denton , D....

  10. Fishery Biology Database (AGDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Basic biological data are the foundation on which all assessments of fisheries resources are built. These include parameters such as the size and age composition of...

  11. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This section contains summaries of research on mechanisms of lethality and radioinduced changes in mammalian cell properties, new cell systems for the study of the biology of mutation and neoplastic transformation, and comparative properties of ionizing radiations

  12. Enhanced Biological Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of a variety of biological, reproductive, and energetic data collected from fish on the continental shelf in the northwest Atlantic Ocean....

  13. Precision Measurement in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  14. Mechanical Biological Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilitewski, B-; Oros, Christiane; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The basic processes and technologies of composting and anaerobic digestion, as described in the previous chapters, are usually used for specific or source-separated organic waste flows. However, in the 1990s mechanical biological waste treatment technologies (MBT) were developed for unsorted...... or residual waste (after some recyclables removed at the source). The concept was originally to reduce the amount of waste going to landfill, but MBT technologies are today also seen as plants recovering fuel as well as material fractions. As the name suggests the technology combines mechanical treatment...... technologies (screens, sieves, magnets, etc.) with biological technologies (composting, anaerobic digestion). Two main technologies are available: Mechanical biological pretreatment (MBP), which first removes an RDF fraction and then biologically treats the remaining waste before most of it is landfilled...

  15. [Systems biology of cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillot, Emmanuel; Calzone, Laurence; Zinovyev, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    Cancer Systems Biology is now accepted and recognized as a promising field both in biological and clinical research. It relies on a rigorous formalization of regulation networks into precise and unambiguous languages. It provides both detailed and modular views of the complex biological system of interest (which in cancer research is typically an interaction network governing essential cellular events such as proliferation, differentiation, cell death...) in order to facilitate the interpretation of molecular profiles of tumors. The translation of these networks into mathematical models allows prediction of the evolution of the system in time and under certain perturbations. As a result, it can not only propose specific target points for pharmaceutical purposes, but also anticipate the evolution of tumors as well as their classifications. These characteristics emphasize the important role of Systems Biology of Cancer in the future of biomedical research.

  16. Thermodynamics of Biological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hernan G.; Kondev, Jane; Orme, Nigel; Theriot, Julie A.; Phillips, Rob

    2012-01-01

    There is a long and rich tradition of using ideas from both equilibrium thermodynamics and its microscopic partner theory of equilibrium statistical mechanics. In this chapter, we provide some background on the origins of the seemingly unreasonable effectiveness of ideas from both thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in biology. After making a description of these foundational issues, we turn to a series of case studies primarily focused on binding that are intended to illustrate the broad biological reach of equilibrium thinking in biology. These case studies include ligand-gated ion channels, thermodynamic models of transcription, and recent applications to the problem of bacterial chemotaxis. As part of the description of these case studies, we explore a number of different uses of the famed Monod–Wyman–Changeux (MWC) model as a generic tool for providing a mathematical characterization of two-state systems. These case studies should provide a template for tailoring equilibrium ideas to other problems of biological interest. PMID:21333788

  17. Vibrations, Quanta and Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Huelga, S F

    2013-01-01

    Quantum biology is an emerging field of research that concerns itself with the experimental and theoretical exploration of non-trivial quantum phenomena in biological systems. In this tutorial overview we aim to bring out fundamental assumptions and questions in the field, identify basic design principles and develop a key underlying theme -- the dynamics of quantum dynamical networks in the presence of an environment and the fruitful interplay that the two may enter. At the hand of three biological phenomena whose understanding is held to require quantum mechanical processes, namely excitation and charge transfer in photosynthetic complexes, magneto-reception in birds and the olfactory sense, we demonstrate that this underlying theme encompasses them all, thus suggesting its wider relevance as an archetypical framework for quantum biology.

  18. EDITORIAL: Physical Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Jane

    2004-06-01

    Physical Biology is a new peer-reviewed publication from Institute of Physics Publishing. Launched in 2004, the journal will foster the integration of biology with the traditionally more quantitative fields of physics, chemistry, computer science and other math-based disciplines. Its primary aim is to further the understanding of biological systems at all levels of complexity, ranging from the role of structure and dynamics of a single molecule to cellular networks and organisms. The journal encourages the development of a new biology-driven physics based on the extraordinary and increasingly rich data arising in biology, and provides research directions for those involved in the creation of novel bio-engineered systems. Physical Biology will publish a stimulating combination of full length research articles, communications, perspectives, reviews and tutorials from a wide range of disciplines covering topics such as: Single-molecule studies and nanobiotechnology Molecular interactions and protein folding Charge transfer and photobiology Ion channels; structure, function and ion regulation Molecular motors and force generation Subcellular processes Biological networks and neural systems Modeling aspects of molecular and cell biology Cell-cell signaling and interaction Biological patterns and development Evolutionary processes Novel tools and methods in physical biology Experts in the areas encompassed by the journal's scope have been appointed to the Editorial Scientific Committee and the composition of the Committee will be updated regularly to reflect the developments in this new and exciting field. Physical Biology is free online to everyone in 2004; you are invited to take advantage of this offer by visiting the journal homepage at http://physbio.iop.org This special print edition of Physical Biology is a combination of issues 1 and 2 of this electronic-only journal and it brings together an impressive range of articles in the fields covered, including a popular

  19. Multiscale Biological Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Materials formed by organisms, also known as biological materials, exhibit outstanding structural properties. The range of materials formed in nature is remarkable and their functions include support, protection, motion, sensing, storage, and maintenance of physiological homeostasis. These complex...... materials are characterized by their hierarchical and composite design, where features with sizes ranging from nanometers to centimeters provide the basis for the functionality of the material. Understanding of biological materials is, while very interesting from a basic research perspective, also valuable...... as inspiration for the development of new materials for medical and technological applications. In order to successfully mimic biological materials we must first have a thorough understanding of their design. As such, the purpose of the characterization of biological materials can be defined as the establishment...

  20. Synthetic biology: A foundation for multi-scale molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Adam G; McClintock, Maria K; Stephen S. Fong

    2010-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology has made rapid progress in a number of areas including method development, novel applications and community building. In seeking to make biology “engineerable,” synthetic biology is increasing the accessibility of biological research to researchers of all experience levels and backgrounds. One of the underlying strengths of synthetic biology is that it may establish the framework for a rigorous bottom-up approach to studying biology starting at the DNA level. Bu...

  1. Noise in Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Tsimring, Lev S

    2014-01-01

    Noise permeates biology on all levels, from the most basic molecular, sub-cellular processes to the dynamics of tissues, organs, organisms, and populations. The functional roles of noise in biological processes can vary greatly. Along with standard, entropy-increasing effects of producing random mutations, diversifying phenotypes in isogenic populations, limiting information capacity of signaling relays, it occasionally plays more surprising constructive roles by accelerating the pace of evol...

  2. Synthetic biology and biosecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robienski, Jürgen; Simon, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the conflict fields and legal questions of synthetic biology, esp. concerning biosecurity. A respective jurisprudential discussion has not taken place yet in Germany apart from few statements and recommendations. But in Germany, Europe and the USA, it is generally accepted that a broad discussion is necessary. This is esp. true for the question of biosecurity and the possible dangers arising from Synthetic Biology. PMID:25845204

  3. Systems cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred D; Ratushny, Alexander V; Aitchison, John D

    2014-09-15

    Systems cell biology melds high-throughput experimentation with quantitative analysis and modeling to understand many critical processes that contribute to cellular organization and dynamics. Recently, there have been several advances in technology and in the application of modeling approaches that enable the exploration of the dynamic properties of cells. Merging technology and computation offers an opportunity to objectively address unsolved cellular mechanisms, and has revealed emergent properties and helped to gain a more comprehensive and fundamental understanding of cell biology.

  4. [Biologics and mycobacterial diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Kazunari; Matsumoto, Tomoshige

    2013-03-01

    Various biologics such as TNF-alpha inhibitor or IL-6 inhibitor are now widely used for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Many reports suggested that one of the major issues is high risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) associated with using these agents, which is especially important in Japan where tuberculosis still remains endemic. Another concern is the risk of development of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) diseases and we have only scanty information about it. The purpose of this symposium is to elucidate the role of biologics in the development of mycobacterial diseases and to establish the strategy to control them. First, Dr. Tohma showed the epidemiologic data of TB risks associated with using biologics calculated from the clinical database on National Database of Rheumatic Diseases by iR-net in Japan. He estimated TB risks in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients to be about four times higher compared with general populations and to become even higher by using biologics. He also pointed out a low rate of implementation of QuantiFERON test (QFT) as screening test for TB infection. Next, Dr. Tokuda discussed the issue of NTM disease associated with using biologics. He suggested the airway disease in RA patients might play some role in the development of NTM disease, which may conversely lead to overdiagnosis of NTM disease in RA patients. He suggested that NTM disease should not be uniformly considered a contraindication to treatment with biologics, considering from the results of recent multicenter study showing relatively favorable outcome of NTM patients receiving biologics. Patients with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) should receive LTBI treatment before starting biologics. Dr. Kato, a chairperson of the Prevention Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis, proposed a new LTBI guideline including active implementation of LTBI treatment, introducing interferon gamma release assay, and appropriate selection of persons at high risk for

  5. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  6. Automated High-Throughput Permethylation for Glycosylation Analysis of Biologics Using MALDI-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubhakar, Archana; Kozak, Radoslaw P; Reiding, Karli R; Royle, Louise; Spencer, Daniel I R; Fernandes, Daryl L; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring glycoprotein therapeutics for changes in glycosylation throughout the drug's life cycle is vital, as glycans significantly modulate the stability, biological activity, serum half-life, safety, and immunogenicity. Biopharma companies are increasingly adopting Quality by Design (QbD) frameworks for measuring, optimizing, and controlling drug glycosylation. Permethylation of glycans prior to analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is a valuable tool for glycan characterization and for screening of large numbers of samples in QbD drug realization. However, the existing protocols for manual permethylation and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) steps are labor intensive and are thus not practical for high-throughput (HT) studies. Here we present a glycan permethylation protocol, based on 96-well microplates, that has been developed into a kit suitable for HT work. The workflow is largely automated using a liquid handling robot and includes N-glycan release, enrichment of N-glycans, permethylation, and LLE. The kit has been validated according to industry analytical performance guidelines and applied to characterize biopharmaceutical samples, including IgG4 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). The HT permethylation enabled glycan characterization and relative quantitation with minimal side reactions: the MALDI-TOF-MS profiles obtained were in good agreement with hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography (HILIC) and ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) data. Automated permethylation and extraction of 96 glycan samples was achieved in less than 5 h and automated data acquisition on MALDI-TOF-MS took on average less than 1 min per sample. This automated and HT glycan preparation and permethylation showed to be convenient, fast, and reliable and can be applied for drug glycan profiling and clinical glycan biomarker studies. PMID:27479043

  7. Phosphorus in biological standards and samples by thermal neutron irradiation and β-counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nondestructive NAA method based on the reaction 31P(n,γ)32P (T1/2 = 14.23 d) has been developed where the product nucleus, a pure β-emitter with end point energy 1.71 MeV is measured by using an end window G.M counter and an Al filter of 27 mg x cm-2. 32P was identified by measuring Eβ using Feather's analysis and its half-life was found to be 15.3±0.2 days in standard reference materials (SRMs) and samples. For most reference materials (RMs) from NIST (USA) and IAEA (Vienna), our values agree within ±5% of the certified values. A variety of biological samples have also been analyzed and our values are in the range; medicinal herbs (n 43), 0.29-5.23 mg/g; bhasmas (n = 19), 0.09-51.4 mg/g; vegetables (n = 8), 1.85-5.73 mg/g; lentils (n = 6), 2.1-5.5 mg/g; flours (n = 6), 1.3-3.3 mg/g; vegetarian diet (n = 5), 2.41-2.90 mg/g; fish (n = 43), 3.61-36.8 mg/g; human and animal milk (n = 6), 1.24-7.95 mg/g; commercial milk powders (n = 14), 2.76-11.9 mg/g; water from various sources (n = 14), 1-417 μg/l; human and animal blood (n = 9), 1.00-15.0 mg/g; cancerous and healthy breast tissue (n = 60), 1.00-8.63 mg/g; human hair (n = 43), 0.12-5.81 mg/g, where n is the number of samples analyzed. The method is simple, fast, and nondestructive and provides data within ±5% error limit with a detection limit of 0.1 mg/g. (author)

  8. Biological markers of oxidative stress: Applications to cardiovascular research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a common mediator in pathogenicity of established cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, it likely mediates effects of emerging, less well-defined variables that contribute to residual risk not explained by traditional factors. Functional oxidative modifications of cellular proteins, both reversible and irreversible, are a causal step in cellular dysfunction. Identifying markers of oxidative stress has been the focus of many researchers as they have the potential to act as an “integrator” of a multitude of processes that drive cardiovascular pathobiology. One of the major challenges is the accurate quantification of reactive oxygen species with very short half-life. Redox-sensitive proteins with important cellular functions are confined to signalling microdomains in cardiovascular cells and are not readily available for quantification. A popular approach is the measurement of stable by-products modified under conditions of oxidative stress that have entered the circulation. However, these may not accurately reflect redox stress at the cell/tissue level. Many of these modifications are “functionally silent”. Functional significance of the oxidative modifications enhances their validity as a proposed biological marker of cardiovascular disease, and is the strength of the redox cysteine modifications such as glutathionylation. We review selected biomarkers of oxidative stress that show promise in cardiovascular medicine, as well as new methodologies for high-throughput measurement in research and clinical settings. Although associated with disease severity, further studies are required to examine the utility of the most promising oxidative biomarkers to predict prognosis or response to treatment.

  9. Stochastic Methods in Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallianpur, Gopinath; Hida, Takeyuki

    1987-01-01

    The use of probabilistic methods in the biological sciences has been so well established by now that mathematical biology is regarded by many as a distinct dis­ cipline with its own repertoire of techniques. The purpose of the Workshop on sto­ chastic methods in biology held at Nagoya University during the week of July 8-12, 1985, was to enable biologists and probabilists from Japan and the U. S. to discuss the latest developments in their respective fields and to exchange ideas on the ap­ plicability of the more recent developments in stochastic process theory to problems in biology. Eighteen papers were presented at the Workshop and have been grouped under the following headings: I. Population genetics (five papers) II. Measure valued diffusion processes related to population genetics (three papers) III. Neurophysiology (two papers) IV. Fluctuation in living cells (two papers) V. Mathematical methods related to other problems in biology, epidemiology, population dynamics, etc. (six papers) An important f...

  10. Biological races in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Alan R

    2013-09-01

    Races may exist in humans in a cultural sense, but biological concepts of race are needed to access their reality in a non-species-specific manner and to see if cultural categories correspond to biological categories within humans. Modern biological concepts of race can be implemented objectively with molecular genetic data through hypothesis-testing. Genetic data sets are used to see if biological races exist in humans and in our closest evolutionary relative, the chimpanzee. Using the two most commonly used biological concepts of race, chimpanzees are indeed subdivided into races but humans are not. Adaptive traits, such as skin color, have frequently been used to define races in humans, but such adaptive traits reflect the underlying environmental factor to which they are adaptive and not overall genetic differentiation, and different adaptive traits define discordant groups. There are no objective criteria for choosing one adaptive trait over another to define race. As a consequence, adaptive traits do not define races in humans. Much of the recent scientific literature on human evolution portrays human populations as separate branches on an evolutionary tree. A tree-like structure among humans has been falsified whenever tested, so this practice is scientifically indefensible. It is also socially irresponsible as these pictorial representations of human evolution have more impact on the general public than nuanced phrases in the text of a scientific paper. Humans have much genetic diversity, but the vast majority of this diversity reflects individual uniqueness and not race. PMID:23684745

  11. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  12. Informing Biological Design by Integration of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Smolke, Christina D.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields.

  13. Biological therapy of psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivamani Raja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of psoriasis has undergone a revolution with the advent of biologic therapies, including infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, efalizumab, and alefacept. These medications are designed to target specific components of the immune system and are a major technological advancement over traditional immunosuppressive medications. These usually being well tolerated are being found useful in a growing number of immune-mediated diseases, psoriasis being just one example. The newest biologic, ustekinumab, is directed against the p40 subunit of the IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines. It has provided a new avenue of therapy for an array of T-cell-mediated diseases. Biologics are generally safe; however, there has been concern over the risk of lymphoma with use of these agents. All anti-TNF-α agents have been associated with a variety of serious and "routine" opportunistic infections.

  14. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920s and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider. PMID:22639577

  15. Epigenetics: Biology's Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The perspective presented here is that modern genetics is at a similar stage of development as were early formulations of quantum mechanics theory in the 1920's and that in 2010 we are at the dawn of a new revolution in genetics that promises to enrich and deepen our understanding of the gene and the genome. The interrelationships and interdependence of two views of the gene - the molecular biological view and the epigenetic view - are explored, and it is argued that the classical molecular biological view is incomplete without incorporation of the epigenetic perspective and that in a sense the molecular biological view has been evolving to include the epigenetic view. Intriguingly, this evolution of the molecular view toward the broader and more inclusive epigenetic view of the gene has an intriguing, if not precise, parallel in the evolution of concepts of atomic physics from Newtonian mechanics to quantum mechanics that are interesting to consider.

  16. The biology of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, R

    1992-09-01

    Historically, models of personality have generally postulated, or assumed, a link with biology. This century has witnessed a major revision of these ideas with both behavioural and psychoanalytic theorists emphasising life experiences as being largely responsible for behaviour as adults. Challenges to this assumption of the overwhelming importance of life experiences are reviewed. An extensive body of data now exists suggesting that biology contributes significantly to individual variability. This biological contribution occurs at a relatively low level in the central nervous system, best defined as temperament. Further research has suffered from the lack of a cohesive psychobiological model. Cloninger's tridimensional theory of personality is presented as a model which attempts to bridge the gap between theoretical temperamental traits, neurotransmitter function and clinical psychiatry. It is to be hoped that new theoretical models will be formulated which will focus on the importance of temperamental variables in psychiatric disorders.

  17. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  18. 7th Annual Systems Biology Symposium: Systems Biology and Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitski, Timothy P.

    2008-04-01

    Systems biology recognizes the complex multi-scale organization of biological systems, from molecules to ecosystems. The International Symposium on Systems Biology has been hosted by the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle, Washington, since 2002. The annual two-day event gathers the most influential researchers transforming biology into an integrative discipline investingating complex systems. Engineering and application of new technology is a central element of systems biology. Genome-scale, or very small-scale, biological questions drive the enigneering of new technologies, which enable new modes of experimentation and computational analysis, leading to new biological insights and questions. Concepts and analytical methods in engineering are now finding direct applications in biology. Therefore, the 2008 Symposium, funded in partnership with the Department of Energy, featured global leaders in "Systems Biology and Engineering."

  19. Biological and Pharmaceutical Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Challa S. S. R.

    2006-01-01

    This first comprehensive yet concise overview of all important classes of biological and pharmaceutical nanomaterials presents in one volume the different kinds of natural biological compounds that form nanomaterials or that may be used to purposefully create them. This unique single source of information brings together the many articles published in specialized journals, which often remain unseen by members of other, related disciplines. Covering pharmaceutical, nucleic acid, peptide and DNA-Chitosan nanoparticles, the book focuses on those innovative materials and technologies needed for the continued growth of medicine, healthcare, pharmaceuticals and human wellness. For chemists, biochemists, cell biologists, materials scientists, biologists, and those working in the pharmaceutical and chemical industries.

  20. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron structural biology will be one of the most important fields in the life sciences which will interest human beings in the 21st century because neutrons can provide not only the position of hydrogen atoms in biological macromolecules but also the dynamic molecular motion of hydrogen atoms and water molecules. However, there are only a few examples experimentally determined at present because of the lack of neutron source intensity. Next generation neutron source scheduled in JAERI (Performance of which is 100 times better than that of JRR-3M) opens the life science of the 21st century. (author)

  1. Chemical and Biological Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel', N. M.

    1981-10-01

    Examples of the application of the methods and ideas of chemical kinetics in various branches of chemistry and biology are considered and the results of studies on the kinetics and mechanisms of autoxidation and inhibited and catalysed oxidation of organic substances in the liquid phase are surveyed. Problems of the kinetics of the ageing of polymers and the principles of their stabilisation are discussed and certain trends in biological kinetics (kinetics of tumour growth, kinetic criteria of the effectiveness of chemotherapy, problems of gerontology, etc.) are considered. The bibliography includes 281 references.

  2. Networks in Cell Biology = Modelling cell biology with networks

    OpenAIRE

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, M.

    2010-01-01

    The science of complex biological networks is transforming research in areas ranging from evolutionary biology to medicine. This is the first book on the subject, providing a comprehensive introduction to complex network science and its biological applications. With contributions from key leaders in both network theory and modern cell biology, this book discusses the network science that is increasingly foundational for systems biology and the quantitative understanding of living systems. It ...

  3. Biological dosimetry study in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients treated with 131Iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , two blood samples were taken for each patient: 1) before the diagnostic 131I study (to evaluate the contribution of previous therapeutic doses) and 2) after administration of the therapeutic activity. The dicentric assay and the chromosome painting technique (Fluorescence in situ Hybridization - FISH) were used. The application of different dose-effect calibration curves was examined. The chromosome aberration distribution among cells was analyzed, its relationship to clinical, biochemical and internal dosimetry data was investigated. Dose estimations from pre and post treatment samples were obtained and corrected for past and protracted exposures, respectively. In addition, the dose due to the current treatment was calculated and correlated with the internal dosimetry estimation. The application of biological dosimetry in these cases of internal 131I incorporation is sustained by the results obtained. It is acceptable to use a 60Co calibration curve for dose estimation of patients treated with 131I, there is no need for applying correction factors. Significant deviations from Poisson were observed in chromosome aberration distribution among cells, mainly in patients with multiple or bone metastases and when the time in between radiotherapies was short. On the whole, patients who had suffered deterministic effects did not show evidences of inhomogeneity. The estimated dose values from the samples before radiotherapy support the idea that a three year half life is not enough for decay corrections in the order of months. It is not possible to settle on a single value of half life to apply due to the considerable variations between patients. Realistic adjustments for protracted overexposure dose estimation were achieved when a 6 h exposure time was considered. Correlation between whole body absorbed doses estimated by biological and internal dosimetry was found (p<0,01). Patients who received equal amounts of therapeutic activity show different whole body dose

  4. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes an

  5. Situeret interesse i biologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Niels Bonderup

    2006-01-01

    Interesse hævdes at spille en vigtig rolle i læring. Med udgangspunkt i interesseteori og situeret læring har jeg foretaget et studium i en gymnasieklasse med biologi på højt niveau, med henblik på at identificere hvilke forhold der har betydning for hvad der fanger elevers interesse. Jeg har...

  6. Water pollution biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, C.F. [University of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    Chapter 4 of this book describes the effects of major types of pollutants on aquatic life. These are: organic pollution, eutrophication, acidification, toxic chemicals, oil, and radioactivity. The review includes an description of some of the methods of assessing the biological impacts of pollution. 50 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Biology Curriculum Support Document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  8. Molecular Biology of Medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-01-01

    Current methods of diagnosis and treatment of medulloblastoma, and the influence of new biological advances in the development of more effective and less toxic therapies are reviewed by researchers at Children’s National Medical Center, The George Washington University, Washington, DC.

  9. Bayes in biological anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konigsberg, Lyle W; Frankenberg, Susan R

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we both contend and illustrate that biological anthropologists, particularly in the Americas, often think like Bayesians but act like frequentists when it comes to analyzing a wide variety of data. In other words, while our research goals and perspectives are rooted in probabilistic thinking and rest on prior knowledge, we often proceed to use statistical hypothesis tests and confidence interval methods unrelated (or tenuously related) to the research questions of interest. We advocate for applying Bayesian analyses to a number of different bioanthropological questions, especially since many of the programming and computational challenges to doing so have been overcome in the past two decades. To facilitate such applications, this article explains Bayesian principles and concepts, and provides concrete examples of Bayesian computer simulations and statistics that address questions relevant to biological anthropology, focusing particularly on bioarchaeology and forensic anthropology. It also simultaneously reviews the use of Bayesian methods and inference within the discipline to date. This article is intended to act as primer to Bayesian methods and inference in biological anthropology, explaining the relationships of various methods to likelihoods or probabilities and to classical statistical models. Our contention is not that traditional frequentist statistics should be rejected outright, but that there are many situations where biological anthropology is better served by taking a Bayesian approach. To this end it is hoped that the examples provided in this article will assist researchers in choosing from among the broad array of statistical methods currently available.

  10. Openers for Biology Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, C. Robert R.

    This teaching guide contains 200 activities that are suitable for openers and demonstrations in biology classes. Details are provided regarding the use of these activities. Some of the broad topics under which the activities are organized include algae, amphibians, bacteria, biologists, crustaceans, dinosaurs, ecology, evolution, flowering plants,…

  11. Biological response modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Much of what used to be called immunotherapy is now included in the term biological response modifiers. Biological response modifiers (BRMs) are defined as those agents or approaches that modify the relationship between the tumor and host by modifying the host's biological response to tumor cells with resultant therapeutic effects.'' Most of the early work with BRMs centered around observations of spontaneous tumor regression and the association of tumor regression with concurrent bacterial infections. The BRM can modify the host response in the following ways: Increase the host's antitumor responses through augmentation and/or restoration of effector mechanisms or mediators of the host's defense or decrease the deleterious component by the host's reaction; Increase the host's defenses by the administration of natural biologics (or the synthetic derivatives thereof) as effectors or mediators of an antitumor response; Augment the host's response to modified tumor cells or vaccines, which might stimulate a greater response by the host or increase tumor-cell sensitivity to an existing response; Decrease the transformation and/or increase differentiation (maturation) of tumor cells; or Increase the ability of the host to tolerate damage by cytotoxic modalities of cancer treatment.

  12. Next-generation biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues da Fonseca, Rute Andreia; Albrechtsen, Anders; Themudo, Gonçalo Espregueira;

    2016-01-01

    we present an overview of the current sequencing technologies and the methods used in typical high-throughput data analysis pipelines. Subsequently, we contextualize high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies within their applications in non-model organism biology. We include tips regarding managing...

  13. Biological Warfare Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Vrat Kamboj

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a long historic record of use of biological warfare (BW agents by warring countriesagainst their enemies. However, the frequency of their use has increased since the beginningof the twentieth century. World war I witnessed the use of anthrax agent against human beingsand animals by Germans, followed by large-scale field trials by Japanese against war prisonersand Chinese population during world war II. Ironically, research and development in biologicalwarfare agents increased tremendously after the Geneva Protocol, signed in 1925, because ofits drawbacks which were overcome by Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BTWC in1972. Biological warfare programme took back seat after the 1972 convention but biologicalagents regained their importance after the bioterrorist attacks of anthrax powder in 2001. In thelight of these attacks, many of which turned out to be hoax, general awareness is required aboutbiological warfare agents that can be used against them. This review has been written highlightingimportant biological warfare agents, diseases caused by them, possible therapies and otherprotection measures.

  14. Nuclear physics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is about nuclear instrumentation and biological concepts, based on images from appropriate Β detectors. First, three detectors are described: the SOFI detector, for gene mapping, the SOFAS detector, for DNA sequencing and the RIHR detector, for in situ hybridization. Then, the paper presents quantitative imaging in molecular genetic and functional imaging. (TEC)

  15. Antiprotons get biological

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    After its final run in September, the first results of the Antiproton Cell Experiment (ACE) look very promising. It was the first experiment to take data on the biological effects of antiproton beams to evaluate the potential of antiprotons in radiation therapy.

  16. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  17. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  18. Biological trade and markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other ‘commodities’. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten ‘terms of contract’ that ‘self-stabilize’ trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models—often called ‘Walrasian’ markets—are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying ‘principal–agent’ problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists

  19. Biological trade and markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerstein, Peter; Noë, Ronald

    2016-02-01

    Cooperation between organisms can often be understood, like trade between merchants, as a mutually beneficial exchange of services, resources or other 'commodities'. Mutual benefits alone, however, are not sufficient to explain the evolution of trade-based cooperation. First, organisms may reject a particular trade if another partner offers a better deal. Second, while human trade often entails binding contracts, non-human trade requires unwritten 'terms of contract' that 'self-stabilize' trade and prevent cheating even if all traders strive to maximize fitness. Whenever trading partners can be chosen, market-like situations arise in nature that biologists studying cooperation need to account for. The mere possibility of exerting partner choice stabilizes many forms of otherwise cheatable trade, induces competition, facilitates the evolution of specialization and often leads to intricate forms of cooperation. We discuss selected examples to illustrate these general points and review basic conceptual approaches that are important in the theory of biological trade and markets. Comparing these approaches with theory in economics, it turns out that conventional models-often called 'Walrasian' markets-are of limited relevance to biology. In contrast, early approaches to trade and markets, as found in the works of Ricardo and Cournot, contain elements of thought that have inspired useful models in biology. For example, the concept of comparative advantage has biological applications in trade, signalling and ecological competition. We also see convergence between post-Walrasian economics and biological markets. For example, both economists and biologists are studying 'principal-agent' problems with principals offering jobs to agents without being sure that the agents will do a proper job. Finally, we show that mating markets have many peculiarities not shared with conventional economic markets. Ideas from economics are useful for biologists studying cooperation but need

  20. Improved biological properties and hypouricemic effects of uricase from Candida utilis loaded in novel alkaline enzymosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan QY

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Qun-You Tan,1,* Jing-Qing Zhang,2,* Na Wang,3,* Hong Yang,4 Xiaoling Li,5 Hua-Rong Xiong,2 Jian-Yong Wu,2 Chun-Jing Zhao,3 Hong Wang,2 Hua-Feng Yin2 1Department of Thoracic Surgery, Institute of Surgery Research, Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 2Medicine Engineering Research Center, Chongqing Key Laboratory of Biochemical & Molecular Pharmacology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 3School of Pharmacy, Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 4School of Pharmacy, Medical College of Soochow University, Soochow, People's Republic of China; 5TJ Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: Previous studies on various enzymosomes (functional lipid vesicles encapsulating an enzyme have been mostly carried out in vitro and have focused on preserving catalytic activity and improving the stability of the enzyme. Until now, few studies have focused on their in vivo fate. Similarly, although we have previously reported the increased in vitro uricolytic activity (about 2.2 times higher than that of free uricase, or three times higher than that of PEGylated uricase, Puricase®, under physiological pH and temperature and improved stability of the novel alkaline enzymosomes (functional lipid vesicles encapsulating uricase from Candida utilis: uricase-containing lipid vesicles, UOXLVs, it is still necessary to study the biological properties and hypouricemic effects of UOXLVs in vivo.Methods: The enzyme kinetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, immunogenicity, and preliminary safety of UOXLVs were evaluated.Results: The Michaelis constant (Km value of the UOXLVs was slightly lower than that of the free enzyme. The enzyme release from the UOXLVs lasted over 12 hours and their circulation half-life was about sevenfold longer than that of the free uricase. Meanwhile, the UOXLVs had a 22-fold

  1. Systems biology, emergence and antireductionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesić, Srdjan

    2016-09-01

    This study explores the conceptual history of systems biology and its impact on philosophical and scientific conceptions of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence. Development of systems biology at the beginning of 21st century transformed biological science. Systems biology is a new holistic approach or strategy how to research biological organisms, developed through three phases. The first phase was completed when molecular biology transformed into systems molecular biology. Prior to the second phase, convergence between applied general systems theory and nonlinear dynamics took place, hence allowing the formation of systems mathematical biology. The second phase happened when systems molecular biology and systems mathematical biology, together, were applied for analysis of biological data. Finally, after successful application in science, medicine and biotechnology, the process of the formation of modern systems biology was completed. Systems and molecular reductionist views on organisms were completely opposed to each other. Implications of systems and molecular biology on reductionist-antireductionist debate were quite different. The analysis of reductionism, antireductionism and emergence issues, in the era of systems biology, revealed the hierarchy between methodological, epistemological and ontological antireductionism. Primarily, methodological antireductionism followed from the systems biology. Only after, epistemological and ontological antireductionism could be supported.

  2. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    OpenAIRE

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that...

  3. Biological Threats Detection Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among many decisive factors, which can have the influence on the possibility of decreases the results of use biological agents should be mentioned obligatory: rapid detection and identification of biological factor used, the proper preventive treatment and the medical management. The aims of identification: to identify the factor used, to estimate the area of contamination, to evaluate the possible countermeasure efforts (antibiotics, disinfectants) and to assess the effectiveness of the decontamination efforts (decontamination of the persons, equipment, buildings, environment etc.). The objects of identification are: bacteria and bacteria's spores, viruses, toxins and genetically modified factors. The present technologies are divided into: based on PCR techniques (ABI PRISM, APSIS, BIOVERIS, RAPID), immuno (BADD, RAMP, SMART) PCR and immuno techniques (APDS, LUMINEX) and others (BDS2, LUNASCAN, MALDI). The selected technologies assigned to field conditions, mobile and stationary laboratories will be presented.(author)

  4. Introduction to radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is arranged in a logical sequence, starting from radiation physics and radiation chemistry, followed by molecular, subcellular and cellular effects and going on to the level of organism. Topics covered include applied radiobiology like modifiers of radiosensitivity, predictive assay, health physics, human genetics and radiopharmaceuticals. The topics covered are : 1. Radiation Physics, 2. Detection and Measurement of Radiation, 3. Radiation Chemistry, 4. DNA Damage and Repair, 5. Chromosomal Aberrations and Gene Mutations, 6. Cellular Radiobiology 7. Acute Radiation Effects, 8. Delayed Effects of Radiation, 9. Biological Basis of Radiotherapy, 10. Chemical Modifiers of Radiosensitivity, 11. Hyperthermia, 12. High LET Radiations in Cancer, Therapy, 13. Predictive Assays, 14. Radiation Effects on Embryos, 15. Human Radiation Genetics, 16. Radiolabelled Compounds in Biology and Medicine and 17. Radiological Health

  5. Radiation biology for environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution problems such as the green-house effect by increase of CO2, acid rain caused by flue gases, and contamination of chemicals and pesticides in foods and water, have become serious in the world with the rapid development of industry and agriculture. To solve some of these problems, radiation treatment has being applied for the removal of the contaminants from flue gases and waste water from industrial plants. On the other hand, the contribution of radiation biology for these environmental pollution problems is not direct but it has contributed indirectly in many fields. This paper describes the contributions of radiation biology for environment in the following two topics: 1) control of insects and microorganisms, and 2) application of radiation for agricultural wastes

  6. Traceability of biologicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Spierings, Irina; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K;

    2015-01-01

    . Efforts to improve the traceability should, in the short term, be focused toward encouraging health professionals and patients to systematically record and report detailed exposure information. Long-term solutions lie in expanding the accessibility to, and increasing the electronic exchange of exposure......INTRODUCTION: Traceability is important in the postmarketing surveillance of biologicals, since changes in the manufacturing process may give rise to product- or batch-specific risks. With the expected expansion of the biosimilar market, there have been concerns about the ability to trace...... individual products within pharmacovigilance databases. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the present challenges in the traceability of biologicals in relation to pharmacovigilance, by exploring the processes involved in ensuring traceability. They explore both the existing systems that are in place...

  7. Biological scaling and physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R P Rau

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber’s law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as -1/4 in terms of the mass of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  8. Quantum physics meets biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Markus; Juffmann, Thomas; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-12-01

    Quantum physics and biology have long been regarded as unrelated disciplines, describing nature at the inanimate microlevel on the one hand and living species on the other hand. Over the past decades the life sciences have succeeded in providing ever more and refined explanations of macroscopic phenomena that were based on an improved understanding of molecular structures and mechanisms. Simultaneously, quantum physics, originally rooted in a world-view of quantum coherences, entanglement, and other nonclassical effects, has been heading toward systems of increasing complexity. The present perspective article shall serve as a "pedestrian guide" to the growing interconnections between the two fields. We recapitulate the generic and sometimes unintuitive characteristics of quantum physics and point to a number of applications in the life sciences. We discuss our criteria for a future "quantum biology," its current status, recent experimental progress, and also the restrictions that nature imposes on bold extrapolations of quantum theory to macroscopic phenomena.

  9. Biological scaling and physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, A R P

    2002-09-01

    Kleiber's law in biology states that the specific metabolic rate (metabolic rate per unit mass) scales as M- 1/4 in terms of the mass M of the organism. A long-standing puzzle is the (- 1/4) power in place of the usual expectation of (- 1/3) based on the surface to volume ratio in three-dimensions. While recent papers by physicists have focused exclusively on geometry in attempting to explain the puzzle, we consider here a specific law of physics that governs fluid flow to show how the (- 1/4) power arises under certain conditions. More generally, such a line of approach that identifies a specific physical law as involved and then examines the implications of a power law may illuminate better the role of physics in biology.

  10. Topology in Molecular Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Monastyrsky, Michail Ilych

    2007-01-01

    The book presents a class of new results in molecular biology for which topological methods and ideas are important. These include: the large-scale conformation properties of DNA; computational methods (Monte Carlo) allowing the simulation of large-scale properties of DNA; the tangle model of DNA recombination and other applications of Knot theory; dynamics of supercoiled DNA and biocatalitic properties of DNA; the structure of proteins; and other very recent problems in molecular biology. The text also provides a short course of modern topology intended for the broad audience of biologists and physicists. The authors are renowned specialists in their fields and some of the new results presented here are documented for the first time in monographic form.

  11. Lagrangians for biological models

    CERN Document Server

    Nucci, M C

    2011-01-01

    We show that a method presented in [S.L. Trubatch and A. Franco, Canonical Procedures for Population Dynamics, J. Theor. Biol. 48 (1974), 299-324] and later in [G.H. Paine, The development of Lagrangians for biological models, Bull. Math. Biol. 44 (1982) 749-760] for finding Lagrangians of classic models in biology, is actually based on finding the Jacobi Last Multiplier of such models. Using known properties of Jacobi Last Multiplier we show how to obtain linear Lagrangians of those first-order systems and nonlinear Lagrangian of the corresponding single second-order equations that can be derived from them, even in the case where those authors failed such as the host-parasite model.

  12. Heritability and biological explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkheimer, E

    1998-10-01

    Modern neuroscientific and genetic technologies have provoked intense disagreement between scientists who envision a future in which biogenetic theories will enrich or even replace psychological theories, and others who consider biogenetic theories exaggerated, dehumanizing, and dangerous. Both sides of the debate about the role of genes and brains in the genesis of human behavior have missed an important point: All human behavior that varies among individuals is partially heritable and correlated with measurable aspects of brains, but the very ubiquity of these findings makes them a poor basis for reformulating scientists' conceptions of human behavior. Materialism requires psychological processes to be physically instantiated, but more crucial for psychology is the occasional empirical discovery of behavioral phenomena that are specific manifestations of low-level biological variables. Heritability and psychobiological association cannot be the basis for establishing whether behavior is genetic or biological, because to do so leads only to the banal tautology that all behavior is ultimately based in the genotype and brain.

  13. Male mating biology

    OpenAIRE

    Howell Paul I; Knols Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes...

  14. Dominating biological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Milenković

    Full Text Available Proteins are essential macromolecules of life that carry out most cellular processes. Since proteins aggregate to perform function, and since protein-protein interaction (PPI networks model these aggregations, one would expect to uncover new biology from PPI network topology. Hence, using PPI networks to predict protein function and role of protein pathways in disease has received attention. A debate remains open about whether network properties of "biologically central (BC" genes (i.e., their protein products, such as those involved in aging, cancer, infectious diseases, or signaling and drug-targeted pathways, exhibit some topological centrality compared to the rest of the proteins in the human PPI network.To help resolve this debate, we design new network-based approaches and apply them to get new insight into biological function and disease. We hypothesize that BC genes have a topologically central (TC role in the human PPI network. We propose two different concepts of topological centrality. We design a new centrality measure to capture complex wirings of proteins in the network that identifies as TC those proteins that reside in dense extended network neighborhoods. Also, we use the notion of domination and find dominating sets (DSs in the PPI network, i.e., sets of proteins such that every protein is either in the DS or is a neighbor of the DS. Clearly, a DS has a TC role, as it enables efficient communication between different network parts. We find statistically significant enrichment in BC genes of TC nodes and outperform the existing methods indicating that genes involved in key biological processes occupy topologically complex and dense regions of the network and correspond to its "spine" that connects all other network parts and can thus pass cellular signals efficiently throughout the network. To our knowledge, this is the first study that explores domination in the context of PPI networks.

  15. Integrative radiation systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group "Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer" of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology. PMID:24411063

  16. [Biological etiologies of transsexualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butty, Anne-Virginie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2016-03-16

    Transsexualism or gender dysphoria is a disorder of sexual identity of unknown etiology. At the biological level, one assumes atypical brain development during certain periods of its formation (genesis) notably during embryogenesis, as a result of altered hormonal influence and a particular genetic polymorphism. This article summarizes the research conducted to date in these three areas only, excluding psycho-social and environmental factors. PMID:27149713

  17. Integrative radiation systems biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maximisation of the ratio of normal tissue preservation and tumour cell reduction is the main concept of radiotherapy alone or combined with chemo-, immuno- or biologically targeted therapy. The foremost parameter influencing this ratio is radiation sensitivity and its modulation towards a more efficient killing of tumour cells and a better preservation of normal tissue at the same time is the overall aim of modern therapy schemas. Nevertheless, this requires a deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms of radiation sensitivity in order to identify its key players as potential therapeutic targets. Moreover, the success of conventional approaches that tried to statistically associate altered radiation sensitivity with any molecular phenotype such as gene expression proofed to be somewhat limited since the number of clinically used targets is rather sparse. However, currently a paradigm shift is taking place from pure frequentistic association analysis to the rather holistic systems biology approach that seeks to mathematically model the system to be investigated and to allow the prediction of an altered phenotype as the function of one single or a signature of biomarkers. Integrative systems biology also considers the data from different molecular levels such as the genome, transcriptome or proteome in order to partially or fully comprehend the causal chain of molecular mechanisms. An example for the application of this concept currently carried out at the Clinical Cooperation Group “Personalized Radiotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer” of the Helmholtz-Zentrum München and the LMU Munich is described. This review article strives for providing a compact overview on the state of the art of systems biology, its actual challenges, potential applications, chances and limitations in radiation oncology research working towards improved personalised therapy concepts using this relatively new methodology

  18. Biology of infantile hemangioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itinteang, Tinte; Withers, Aaron H J; Davis, Paul F; Tan, Swee T

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by an initial proliferation during infancy followed by spontaneous involution over the next 5-10 years, often leaving a fibro-fatty residuum. IH is traditionally considered a tumor of the microvasculature. However, recent data show the critical role of stem cells in the biology of IH with emerging evidence suggesting an embryonic developmental anomaly due to aberrant proliferation and differentiation of a hemogenic endothelium with a neural crest phenotype that possesses the capacity for endothelial, hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and neuronal differentiation. Current evidence suggests a putative placental chorionic mesenchymal core cell embolic origin of IH during the first trimester. This review outlines the emerging role of stem cells and their interplay with the cytokine niche that promotes a post-natal environment conducive for vasculogenesis involving VEGFR-2 and its ligand VEGF-A and the IGF-2 ligand in promoting cellular proliferation, and the TRAIL-OPG anti-apoptotic pathway in preventing cellular apoptosis in IH. The discovery of the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the biology of IH provides a plausible explanation for the programed biologic behavior and the β-blocker-induced accelerated involution of this enigmatic condition. This crucially involves the vasoactive peptide, angiotensin II, that promotes cellular proliferation in IH predominantly via its action on the ATIIR2 isoform. The role of the RAS in the biology of IH is further supported by the effect of captopril, an ACE inhibitor, in inducing accelerated involution of IH. The discovery of the critical role of RAS in IH represents a novel and fascinating paradigm shift in the understanding of human development, IH, and other tumors in general. PMID:25593962

  19. Biology of Infantile Hemangioma

    OpenAIRE

    Itinteang, Tinte; Withers, Aaron H. J.; Davis, Paul F.; Tan, Swee T.

    2014-01-01

    Infantile hemangioma (IH), the most common tumor of infancy, is characterized by an initial proliferation during infancy followed by spontaneous involution over the next 5–10 years, often leaving a fibro-fatty residuum. IH is traditionally considered a tumor of the microvasculature. However, recent data show the critical role of stem cells in the biology of IH with emerging evidence suggesting an embryonic developmental anomaly due to aberrant proliferation and differentiation of a hemogenic ...

  20. Biological Correlates of Empathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Timucin Oral

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Empathy can be defined as the capacity to know emotionally what another is experiencing from within the frame of reference of that other person and the capacity to sample the feelings of another or it can be metaphorized as to put oneself in another’s shoes. Although the concept of empathy was firstly described in psychological theories, researches studying the biological correlates of psychological theories have been increasing recently. Not suprisingly, dinamically oriented psychotherapists Freud, Kohut, Basch and Fenichel had suggested theories about the biological correlates of empathy concept and established the basis of this modality decades ago. Some other theorists emphasized the importance of empathy in the early years of lifetime regarding mother-child attachment in terms of developmental psychology and investigated its role in explanation of psychopathology. The data coming from some of the recent brain imaging and animal model studies also seem to support these theories. Although increased activity in different brain regions was shown in many of the brain imaging studies, the role of cingulate cortex for understanding mother-child relationship was constantly emphasized in nearly all of the studies. In addition to these studies, a group of Italian scientists has defined a group of neurons as “mirror neurons” in their studies observing rhesus macaque monkeys. Later, they also defined mirror neurons in human studies, and suggested them as “empathy neurons”. After the discovery of mirror neurons, the hopes of finding the missing part of the puzzle for understanding the biological correlates of empathy raised again. Although the roles of different biological parameters such as skin conductance and pupil diameter for defining empathy have not been certain yet, they are going to give us the opportunity to revise the inconsistent basis of structural validity in psychiatry and to stabilize descriptive validity. In this review, the

  1. Biological Rhythms and Preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Ditisheim, Agnès J.; Dibner, Charna; Philippe, Jacques; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer. Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing h...

  2. Lung Stem cell biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ardhanareeswaran, Karthikeyan; Mirotsou, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the past few years new insights have been added to the study of stem cells in the adult lung. The exploration of the endogenous lung progenitors as well as the study of exogenously delivered stem cell populations holds promise for advancing our understanding of the biology of lung repair mechanisms. Moreover, it opens new possibilities for the use of stem cell therapy for the development of regenerative medicine approaches for the treatment of lung disease. Here, we discuss the main type...

  3. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  4. Neutrons in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The start of JRR-3M in 1990 was a great epoch to the neutron scattering research in Japan. Abundant neutron beam generated by the JRR-3M made it possible to widen the research field of neutron scattering in Japan. In the early days of neutron scattering, biological materials were too difficult object to be studied by neutrons not only because of their complexity but also because of the strong incoherent scattering by hydrogen. However, the remarkable development of the recent neutron scattering and its related sciences, as well as the availability of higher flux, has made the biological materials one of the most attractive subjects to be studied by neutrons. In early September 1992, an intensive workshop titled 'Neutrons in Biology' was held in Hitachi City by making use of the opportunity of the 4th International Conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation (BSR92) held in Tsukuba. The workshop was organized by volunteers who are eager to develop the researches in this field in Japan. Numbers of outstanding neutron scattering biologists from U.S., Europe and Asian countries met together and enthusiastic discussions were held all day long. The editors believe that the presentations at the workshop were so invaluable that it is absolutely adequate to put them on record as an issue of JAERI-M and to make them available for scientists to refer to in order to further promote the research in the future. (author)

  5. Biological heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Anatol; Cebotari, Serghei; Tudorache, Igor; Beckmann, Erik; Hilfiker, Andres; Haverich, Axel

    2013-10-01

    Cardiac valvular pathologies are often caused by rheumatic fever in young adults, atherosclerosis in elderly patients, or by congenital malformation of the heart in children, in effect affecting almost all population ages. Almost 300,000 heart valve operations are performed worldwide annually. Tissue valve prostheses have certain advantages over mechanical valves such as biocompatibility, more physiological hemodynamics, and no need for life-long systemic anticoagulation. However, the major disadvantage of biological valves is related to their durability. Nevertheless, during the last decade, the number of patients undergoing biological, rather than mechanical, valve replacement has increased from half to more than three-quarters for biological implants. Continuous improvement in valve fabrication includes development of new models and shapes, novel methods of tissue treatment, and preservation and implantation techniques. These efforts are focused not only on the improvement of morbidity and mortality of the patients but also on the improvement of their quality of life. Heart valve tissue engineering aims to provide durable, "autologous" valve prostheses. These valves demonstrate adaptive growth, which may avoid the need of repeated operations in growing patients.

  6. Synthetic biology: advancing biological frontiers by building synthetic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  7. Marine molecular biology: An emerging field of biological sciences

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Thakur, N.L.; Jain, R.; Natalio, F.; Hamer, B.; Thakur, A.N.; Muller, W.E.G.

    the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular...

  8. Synthetic biology: Understanding biological design from synthetic circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherji, Shankar; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of synthetic biology is to uncover the design principles of natural biological systems through the rational design of gene and protein circuits. Here, we highlight how the process of engineering biological systems — from synthetic promoters to the control of cell–cell interactions — has contributed to our understanding of how endogenous systems are put together and function. Synthetic biological devices allow us to grasp intuitively the ranges of behaviour generated by simple...

  9. Review of Pasteuria penetrans: Biology, Ecology, and Biological Control Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Z. X.; Dickson, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last 10 years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology, and biological control potential of P. penetrans and other P...

  10. Bridging the gap between systems biology and synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Di; Hoynes-O’Connor, Allison; Zhang, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology is an inter-disciplinary science that studies the complex interactions and the collective behavior of a cell or an organism. Synthetic biology, as a technological subject, combines biological science and engineering, allowing the design and manipulation of a system for certain applications. Both systems and synthetic biology have played important roles in the recent development of microbial platforms for energy, materials, and environmental applications. More importantly, syst...

  11. Biological surface science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasemo, Bengt

    2002-03-01

    Biological surface science (BioSS), as defined here is the broad interdisciplinary area where properties and processes at interfaces between synthetic materials and biological environments are investigated and biofunctional surfaces are fabricated. Six examples are used to introduce and discuss the subject: Medical implants in the human body, biosensors and biochips for diagnostics, tissue engineering, bioelectronics, artificial photosynthesis, and biomimetic materials. They are areas of varying maturity, together constituting a strong driving force for the current rapid development of BioSS. The second driving force is the purely scientific challenges and opportunities to explore the mutual interaction between biological components and surfaces. Model systems range from the unique water structures at solid surfaces and water shells around proteins and biomembranes, via amino and nucleic acids, proteins, DNA, phospholipid membranes, to cells and living tissue at surfaces. At one end of the spectrum the scientific challenge is to map out the structures, bonding, dynamics and kinetics of biomolecules at surfaces in a similar way as has been done for simple molecules during the past three decades in surface science. At the other end of the complexity spectrum one addresses how biofunctional surfaces participate in and can be designed to constructively participate in the total communication system of cells and tissue. Biofunctional surfaces call for advanced design and preparation in order to match the sophisticated (bio) recognition ability of biological systems. Specifically this requires combined topographic, chemical and visco-elastic patterns on surfaces to match proteins at the nm scale and cells at the micrometer scale. Essentially all methods of surface science are useful. High-resolution (e.g. scanning probe) microscopies, spatially resolved and high sensitivity, non-invasive optical spectroscopies, self-organizing monolayers, and nano- and microfabrication

  12. Logical analysis of biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian

    2005-01-01

    R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005.......R. Mardare, Logical analysis of biological systems. Fundamenta Informaticae, N 64:271-285, 2005....

  13. Is Our Biology to Blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Scott

    1977-01-01

    Brief analyses of three recent examples of biological determinism: sex roles, overpopulation, and sociobiology, are presented in this article. Also a brief discussion of biological determinism and education is presented. (MR)

  14. Biological treatment of Crohn's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten; Seidelin, Jakob Benedict;

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of biological agents for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD) has led to a transformation of the treatment paradigm. Several biological compounds have been approved for patients with CD refractory to conventional treatment: infliximab, adalimumab and certolizumab pegol (and...

  15. American Institute of Biological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Newsroom | Contact Us The American Institute of Biological Sciences is the national scientific organization that promotes the ... Education Research AIBS Education is dedicated to improving biological science literacy at all levels of formal and informal ...

  16. Biology of Applied Digital Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Briscoe, G.; Sadedin, S.; Paperin, G.

    2007-01-01

    A primary motivation for our research in Digital Ecosystems is the desire to exploit the self-organising properties of biological ecosystems. Ecosystems are thought to be robust, scalable architectures that can automatically solve complex, dynamic problems. However, the biological processes that contribute to these properties have not been made explicit in Digital Ecosystems research. Here, we discuss how biological properties contribute to the self-organising features of biological ecosystem...

  17. Synthetic Biology for Therapeutic Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Abil, Zhanar; Xiong, Xiong; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a relatively new field with the key aim of designing and constructing biological systems with novel functionalities. Today, synthetic biology devices are making their first steps in contributing new solutions to a number of biomedical challenges, such as emerging bacterial antibiotic resistance and cancer therapy. This review discusses some synthetic biology approaches and applications that were recently used in disease mechanism investigation and disease modeling, drug d...

  18. Logical impossibilities in biological networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monendra Grover

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological networks are complex and involve several kinds of molecules. For proper biological function it is important for these biomolecules to act at an individual level and act at the level of interaction of these molecules. In this paper some of the logical impossibilities that may arise in the biological networks and their possible solutions are discussed. It may be important to understand these paradoxes and their possible solutions in order to develop a holistic view of biological function.

  19. Attitude of teenagers towards biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lavtižar, Teja

    2016-01-01

    ROSE project is a comprehensive study in which students' attitudes towards Science and Technology affected by many factors have been examined. In our study, only some aspects have been focused due to a narrower field of biology which has been interested in, and the direction of the attitude between Biology to elementary school students has been checked. The purpose of the master's work has been to determine the attitude of the teenagers to Biology as science and Biology as a school subjec...

  20. Biological degradation of triclocarban and triclosan in a soil under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and comparison with environmental fate modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triclocarban and triclosan are two antimicrobial agents widely used in many personal care products. Their biodegradation behaviour in soil was investigated by laboratory degradation experiments and environmental fate modelling. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses showed that triclocarban and triclosan had a tendency to partition into soil or sediment in the environment. Fate modelling suggests that either triclocarban or triclosan 'does not degrade fast' with its primary biodegradation half-life of 'weeks' and ultimate biodegradation half-life of 'months'. Laboratory experiments showed that triclocarban and triclosan were degraded in the aerobic soil with half-life of 108 days and 18 days, respectively. No negative effect of these two antimicrobial agents on soil microbial activity was observed in the aerobic soil samples during the experiments. But these two compounds persisted in the anaerobic soil within 70 days of the experimental period. - Triclocarban and triclosan can be degraded by microbial processes in aerobic soil, but will persist in anaerobic soil

  1. Functions in Biological Kind Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombrozo, Tania; Rehder, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Biological traits that serve functions, such as a zebra's coloration (for camouflage) or a kangaroo's tail (for balance), seem to have a special role in conceptual representations for biological kinds. In five experiments, we investigate whether and why functional features are privileged in biological kind classification. Experiment 1…

  2. Semiconductor nanostructures in biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexson, Dimitri [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Chen Hongfeng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Cho, Michael [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Dutta, Mitra [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Li Yang [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Shi, Peng [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Raichura, Amit [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Ramadurai, Dinakar [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Parikh, Shaunak [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Stroscio, Michael A [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Vasudev, Milana [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2005-07-06

    Semiconductor nanostructures in biological applications are discussed. Results are presented on the use of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots both as biological tags and as structures that interact with and influence biomolecules. Results are presented on the use of semiconducting carbon nanotubes in biological applications. (topical review)

  3. Biological Computing Fundamentals and Futures

    CERN Document Server

    Akula, Balaji

    2009-01-01

    The fields of computing and biology have begun to cross paths in new ways. In this paper a review of the current research in biological computing is presented. Fundamental concepts are introduced and these foundational elements are explored to discuss the possibilities of a new computing paradigm. We assume the reader to possess a basic knowledge of Biology and Computer Science

  4. ECO-BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Burak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology for computer modeling of complex eco-biological models is presented in this paper. It is based on system approach of J. Forrester. Developed methodology is universal for complex ecological and biological systems. Modeling algorithm considers specialties of eco-biological systems and shows adequate and accurate results in practice. 

  5. Allometric Scaling in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banavar, Jayanth

    2009-03-01

    The unity of life is expressed not only in the universal basis of inheritance and energetics at the molecular level, but also in the pervasive scaling of traits with body size at the whole-organism level. More than 75 years ago, Kleiber and Brody and Proctor independently showed that the metabolic rates, B, of mammals and birds scale as the three-quarter power of their mass, M. Subsequent studies showed that most biological rates and times scale as M-1/4 and M^1/4 respectively, and that these so called quarter-power scaling relations hold for a variety of organisms, from unicellular prokaryotes and eukaryotes to trees and mammals. The wide applicability of Kleiber's law, across the 22 orders of magnitude of body mass from minute bacteria to giant whales and sequoias, raises the hope that there is some simple general explanation that underlies the incredible diversity of form and function. We will present a general theoretical framework for understanding the relationship between metabolic rate, B, and body mass, M. We show how the pervasive quarter-power biological scaling relations arise naturally from optimal directed resource supply systems. This framework robustly predicts that: 1) whole organism power and resource supply rate, B, scale as M^3/4; 2) most other rates, such as heart rate and maximal population growth rate scale as M-1/4; 3) most biological times, such as blood circulation time and lifespan, scale as M^1/4; and 4) the average velocity of flow through the network, v, such as the speed of blood and oxygen delivery, scales as M^1/12. Our framework is valid even when there is no underlying network. Our theory is applicable to unicellular organisms as well as to large animals and plants. This work was carried out in collaboration with Amos Maritan along with Jim Brown, John Damuth, Melanie Moses, Andrea Rinaldo, and Geoff West.

  6. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  7. The Promises of Biology and the Biology of Promises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jieun

    2015-01-01

    commitments with differently imagined futures. I argue that promises are constitutive of the stem cell biology, rather than being derivative of it. Since the biological concept of stem cells is predicated on the future that they promise, the biological life of stem cells is inextricably intertwined...... patients’ bodies in anticipation of materializing the promises of stem cell biology, they are produced as a new form of biovaluable. The promises of biology move beyond the closed circuit of scientific knowledge production, and proliferate in the speculative marketplaces of promises. Part II looks at how...... of technologized biology and biological time can appear promising with the backdrop of the imagined intransigence of social, political, and economic order in the Korean society....

  8. Biological Petri Nets

    CERN Document Server

    Wingender, E

    2011-01-01

    It was suggested some years ago that Petri nets might be well suited to modeling metabolic networks, overcoming some of the limitations encountered by the use of systems employing ODEs (ordinary differential equations). Much work has been done since then which confirms this and demonstrates the usefulness of this concept for systems biology. Petri net technology is not only intuitively understood by scientists trained in the life sciences, it also has a robust mathematical foundation and provides the required degree of flexibility. As a result it appears to be a very promising approach to mode

  9. Biology Attitude Scale

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLYURT, Selami; GÜL, Şeyda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a scale determining secondary school stu- dent’s attitude towards biology. For this aim, at first, totally 92 scale items were prepared by reviewing relevant literature. 88 items in this scale were a five-point Likert type scale. 4 of 92 items consisted of demographic variables. The scale was applied to a sample of 109 students randomly selected from two secondary schools in Erzurum. At the end of this application, SPSS 12.0 Statistical Program was used to ...

  10. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  11. Biology of Nanobots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wentao; Pavlick, Ryan; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-12-01

    One of the more interesting recent discoveries has been the ability to design nano/microbots which catalytically harness the chemical energy in their environment to move autonomously. Their potential applications include delivery of materials, self-assembly of superstructures, and roving sensors. One emergent area of research is the study of their collective behavior and how they emulate living systems. The aim of this chapter is to describe the "biology" of nanobots, summarizing the fundamentals physics behind their motion and how the bots interact with each other to initiate complex emergent behavior.

  12. Mathematics and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In India and in so many other countries, the science students are generally separated into two main streams: one opting mathematical sciences, the other studying biological sciences. As a result, medicos and biologists have no adequate knowledge of mathematical sciences. It causes a great drawback to them in order to be perfect and updated in their profession, due to the tremendous application of mathematics in bio-sciences, now-a-days. The main aim of this article is to emphasize on the need of the time to produce the mathematico-biologists in abundance for the better service of mankind. (author)

  13. [Woman and race biology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, H

    1993-01-01

    Early 20th century race biology takes a special interest in woman as part of the "intra-racial" project of bringing forth healthy and competitive individuals. But there are other motives as well for the race biologist to take an interest in woman. She is believed to develop fewer individual characteristics and is therefore a more typical representative of her race than man. The development level of the race is also presupposed to be discernible by the degree of "gender diformism": a race of higher standing would exhibit a greater difference between the sexes. The anthropologist, anatomist, gynaecologist--or whatever guise the race biologist may adopt-- will, in principle, stress that the relation between the sexes is not a matter of "more or less", but one of differences in kind. In reality, the "more-or-less of comparison is the very cornerstone of the issue. Quantitative differences, directly observed or obtained from statistics, are construed as signs of difference in kind. 18th century medical philosophy and sex-linked anthropology laid the theoretical foundation of the 19th century essentialist conception of woman, which is also that adopted by race biology. Eugenics of social Darwinist inspiration regarded prophylactic health care and social welfare programs with scepticism. A race biology founded on the man-woman dualism could sustain altogether different conclusions. An advanced culture calls for extensive division of labour. An extended childhood renders possible higher development but will also impose higher demands on woman. The protection of the female organism is thus an exigency for any people or race striving to survive and evolve. From society's care for the female organism health care for women and preventive maternity care will emerge. Race biology has been a preeminently German concern, as indicated by the selection of works taken to represent this perspective on woman: Bartels-Ploss' Das Weib, C.H. Stratz' Die Rassenschönheit des Weibes and

  14. [The biologization of ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Lax, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    Three ethics exist as a condition of possibility of any possible ethics, following a material and biological foundation. This content argument (not logical-formal) supposes a refutation of the naturalistic fallacy that the analytical philosophy attributes to Hume, in three areas of the ethical human experience: body, society and nature. These are: the ethics of the species [J. Habermas], the ethics of liberation [E. Dussel] and the ethics of the responsibility [H. Jonas]. This material argument is a philosophical foundation to considering for three types of applied ethics: medical bioethics, development ethics and environmental ethics. PMID:20405971

  15. Nutritional Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kasper

    and network biology has the potential to increase our understanding of how small molecules affect metabolic pathways and homeostasis, how this perturbation changes at the disease state, and to what extent individual genotypes contribute to this. A fruitful strategy in approaching and exploring the field...... of nutritional research is, therefore, to borrow methods that are well established in medical and pharmacological research. In this thesis, we use advanced data-mining tools for the construction of a database with available, state-of-the-art information concerning the interaction of food and its molecular...

  16. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  17. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  18. Biological effective doses in 300 patients undergoing therapy with 177Lu-octreotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Aim: fractionated therapy with 177Lu-octreotate has been reported to be an effective treatment option for patients with generalized neuroendocrine tumors. The main aim of this study was to calculate the biological effective dose (BED) to the kidneys using an individualized dosimetry protocol, and to assess differences in the number of possible treatment cycles based on BED compared to those based on absorbed dose. Methods: a total of 148 female and 152 male patients with neuroendocrine tumors with high somatostatin receptor expression (grade 3 or 4) were included. After infusion of 7.4 GBq of 177Lu-octreotate SPECT/CT images over the abdomen were acquired at 24, 96 and 168 h after infusion. Absorbed dose to kidneys was calculated based on pharmacokinetic data obtained from SPECT/CT. From this the effective half-life of 177Lu-octreotate in the kidneys was estimated, and BED was calculated using the equation described by Barone et al. (1). Results and discussion: for a single treatment cycle of 7.4 GBq, median (1:st-3:rd quartiles) BED was 5.0 Gy (3.9-6.1) in the right kidney and 4.7 Gy (3.7-5.8) in the left kidney. For the same treatment cycle, BED was 9.0% (7.1-11.3) and 8.7% (7.0-10.9) higher than absorbed dose in right and left kidneys, respectively. In patients with high absorbed doses, BED could be more than 20% higher than absorbed dose. Assuming an absorbed dose limit of 23 Gy and a BED limit of 45 Gy to the kidneys, the possible number of treatment cycles was 5.4 (4.5-6.8) based on absorbed dose while using BED increased the number of possible cycles to 9.8 (8.1-12.5). Conclusions: although biological effective dose to the kidneys is higher than absorbed dose, use of BED to estimate the number of possible treatment cycles in 177Lu-octreotate therapy may allow for more treatment cycles than the use of absorbed dose. Refs: 1) Barone, R. et al. Patient-specific dosimetry in predicting renal toxicity with (90)Y

  19. Male mating biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howell Paul I

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area.

  20. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Y. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  1. Neutron instrumentation for biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, S.A. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the October 1994 round of proposals at the ILL, the external biology review sub- committee was asked to allocate neutron beam time to a wide range of experiments, on almost half the total number of scheduled neutron instruments: on 3 diffractometers, on 3 small angle scattering instruments, and on some 6 inelastic scattering spectrometers. In the 3.5 years since the temporary reactor shutdown, the ILL`s management structure has been optimized, budgets and staff have been trimmed, the ILL reactor has been re-built, and many of the instruments up-graded, many powerful (mainly Unix) workstations have been introduced, and the neighboring European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has established itself as the leading synchrotron radiation source and has started its official user program. The ILL reactor remains the world`s most intense dedicated neutron source. In this challenging context, it is of interest to review briefly the park of ILL instruments used to study the structure and energetics of small and large biological systems. A brief summary will be made of each class of experiments actually proposed in the latest ILL proposal round.

  2. Oscillations in Mathematical Biology

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    The papers in this volume are based on talks given at a one day conference held on the campus of Adelphi University in April 1982. The conference was organized with the title "Oscillations in Mathematical Biology;" however the speakers were allowed considerable latitutde in their choice of topics. In the event, the talks all concerned the dynamics of non-linear systems arising in biology so that the conference achieved a good measure of cohesion. Some of the speakers cho~e not to submit a manuscript for these proceedings, feeling that their material was too conjectural to be committed to print. Also the paper of Rinzel and Troy is a distillation of the two separate talks that the authors gave. Otherwise the material reproduces the conference proceedings. The conference was made possible by the generous support of the Office of the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Adelphi. The bulk of the organization of the conference was carried out by Dr. Ronald Grisell whose energy was in large measure responsib...

  3. Mathematical modeling of biological processes

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Avner

    2014-01-01

    This book on mathematical modeling of biological processes includes a wide selection of biological topics that demonstrate the power of mathematics and computational codes in setting up biological processes with a rigorous and predictive framework. Topics include: enzyme dynamics, spread of disease, harvesting bacteria, competition among live species, neuronal oscillations, transport of neurofilaments in axon, cancer and cancer therapy, and granulomas. Complete with a description of the biological background and biological question that requires the use of mathematics, this book is developed for graduate students and advanced undergraduate students with only basic knowledge of ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations; background in biology is not required. Students will gain knowledge on how to program with MATLAB without previous programming experience and how to use codes in order to test biological hypothesis.

  4. Protein microarrays for systems biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lina Yang; Shujuan Guo; Yang Li; Shumin Zhou; Shengce Tao

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology holds the key for understanding biological systems on a system level. It eventually holds the key for the treatment and cure of complex diseases such as cancer,diabetes, obesity, mental disorders, and many others. The '-omics' technologies, such as genomics, transcriptomics,proteomics, and metabonomics, are among the major driving forces of systems biology. Featured as highthroughput, miniaturized, and capable of parallel analysis,protein microarrays have already become an important technology platform for systems biology, In this review, we will focus on the system level or global analysis of biological systems using protein microarrays. Four major types of protein microarrays will be discussed: proteome microarrays, antibody microarrays, reverse-phase protein arrays,and lectin microarrays. We will also discuss the challenges and future directions of protein microarray technologies and their applications for systems biology. We strongly believe that protein microarrays will soon become an indispensable and invaluable tool for systems biology.

  5. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  6. Biology of Sexual Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Mysore Nagaraj

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity is a multifaceted activity, involving complex interactions between the nervous system, the endocrine system, the vascular system and a variety of structures that are instrumental in sexual excitement, intercourse and satisfaction. Sexual function has three components i.e., desire, arousal and orgasm. Many sexual dysfunctions can be categorized according to the phase of sexual response that is affected. In actual clinical practice however, sexual desire, arousal and orgasmic difficulties more often than not coexist, suggesting an integration of phases. Sexual dysfunction can result from a wide variety of psychological and physiological causes including derangements in the levels of sex hormones and neurotrensmitters. This review deals with the biology of different phases of sexual function as well as implications of hormones and neurotransmitters in sexual dysfunction

  7. Neutron structural biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimura, Nobuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms in protein which play important roles in physiological functions. However, there are relatively few examples of neutron crystallography in biology since it takes a lot of time to collect a sufficient number of Bragg reflections due to the low flux of neutrons illuminating the sample. In order to overcome the flux problem, we have successfully developed the neutron IP, where the neutron converter, {sup 6}Li or Gd, was mixed with a photostimulated luminescence material on flexible plastic support. Neutron Laue diffraction 2A data from tetragonal lysozyme were collected for 10 days with neutron imaging plates, and 960 hydrogen atoms in the molecule and 157 bound water molecules were identified. These results explain the proposed hydrolysis mechanism of the sugar by the lysozyme molecule and that lysozyme is less active at pH7.0. (author)

  8. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  9. Biological effects of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogiu, Toshiaki; Ohmachi, Yasushi; Ishida, Yuka [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (JP)] [and others

    2003-03-01

    Although the occasion to be exposed to neutrons is rare in our life, except for nuclear accidents like in the critical accident at Tokai-mura in 1999, countermeasures against accident should be always prepared. In the Tokai-mura accident, residents received less than 21 mSv of neutrons and gamma rays. The cancer risks and fetal effects of low doses of neutrons were matters of concern among residents. The purpose of this program is to investigate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for leukemias, and thereby to assess risks of neutrons. Animal experiments are planed to obtain the following RBEs: (1) RBE for the induction of leukemias in mice and (2) RBE for effects on fetuses. Cyclotron fast neutrons (10 MeV) and electrostatic accelerator-derived neutrons (2 MeV) are used for exposure in this program. Furthermore, cytological and cytogenetic analyses will be performed. (author)

  10. The biology of strigolactones

    KAUST Repository

    Ruyter-Spira, Carolien P.

    2013-02-01

    The strigolactones are rhizosphere signaling molecules as well as a new class of plant hormones with a still increasing number of biological functions being uncovered. Here, we review a recent major breakthrough in our understanding of strigolactone biosynthesis, which has revealed the unexpected simplicity of the originally postulated complex pathway. Moreover, the discovery and localization of a strigolactone exporter sheds new light on putative strigolactone fluxes to the rhizosphere as well as within the plant. The combination of these data with information on the expression and regulation of strigolactone biosynthetic and downstream signaling genes provides new insights into how strigolactones control the many different aspects of plant development and how their rhizosphere signaling role may have evolved. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Networks in Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Mark; Caldarelli, Guido; De Los Rios, Paolo; Rao, Francesco; Vendruscolo, Michele

    2010-05-01

    Introduction; 1. Network views of the cell Paolo De Los Rios and Michele Vendruscolo; 2. Transcriptional regulatory networks Sarath Chandra Janga and M. Madan Babu; 3. Transcription factors and gene regulatory networks Matteo Brilli, Elissa Calistri and Pietro Lió; 4. Experimental methods for protein interaction identification Peter Uetz, Björn Titz, Seesandra V. Rajagopala and Gerard Cagney; 5. Modeling protein interaction networks Francesco Rao; 6. Dynamics and evolution of metabolic networks Daniel Segré; 7. Hierarchical modularity in biological networks: the case of metabolic networks Erzsébet Ravasz Regan; 8. Signalling networks Gian Paolo Rossini; Appendix 1. Complex networks: from local to global properties D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 2. Modelling the local structure of networks D. Garlaschelli and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 3. Higher-order topological properties S. Ahnert, T. Fink and G. Caldarelli; Appendix 4. Elementary mathematical concepts A. Gabrielli and G. Caldarelli; References.

  12. A Biologically Inspired Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for measuring the distance among records based on the correlations of data stored in the corresponding database entries. The original method (F. Bagnoli, A. Berrones and F. Franci. Physica A 332 (2004) 509-518) was formulated in the context of opinion formation. The opinions expressed over a set of topic originate a ``knowledge network'' among individuals, where two individuals are nearer the more similar their expressed opinions are. Assuming that individuals' opinions are stored in a database, the authors show that it is possible to anticipate an opinion using the correlations in the database. This corresponds to approximating the overlap between the tastes of two individuals with the correlations of their expressed opinions. In this paper we extend this model to nonlinear matching functions, inspired by biological problems such as microarray (probe-sample pairing). We investigate numerically the error between the correlation and the overlap matrix for eight sequences of reference with r...

  13. Platelets in Lung Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Andrew S.; Zimmerman, Guy A.

    2013-01-01

    Platelets and the lungs have an intimate relationship. Platelets are anucleate mammalian blood cells that continuously circulate through pulmonary vessels and that have major effector activities in hemostasis and inflammation. The lungs are reservoirs for megakaryocytes, the requisite precursor cell in thrombopoiesis, which is the intricate process by which platelets are generated. Platelets contribute to basal barrier integrity of the alveolar capillaries, which selectively restricts the transfer of water, proteins, and red blood cells out of the vessels. Platelets also contribute to pulmonary vascular repair. Although platelets bolster hemostatic and inflammatory defense of the healthy lung, experimental evidence and clinical evidence indicate that these blood cells are effectors of injury in a variety of pulmonary disorders and syndromes. Newly discovered biological capacities of platelets are being explored in the context of lung defense, disease, and remodeling. PMID:23043249

  14. [Biological therapy for osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinya; Tanaka, Sakae

    2014-06-01

    Osteoporosis is a disorder of bone formation and resorption balance. Advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of bone formation and resorption led to promising therapeutic targets for osteoporosis. In the novel biological drugs, denosumab, a monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) has been clinically applied by positive effect on bone mineral density, negative effect on bone resorption, preventive effect on fragility fractures and safety. Odanacatib, a cathepsin K inhibitor is drawing attention as an antiresorptive drug which has lower bone resorption potency than bisphosphoneate. On the other hand, BHQ-880, an anti-Dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1) antibody and romosozumab (AMG-785) , an anti-sclerostin antibody which activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway are drawing attention as bone formation accelerators with no bone resorption acceleration. Clinical studies of these drugs are now ongoing and their clinical applications are expected. PMID:24870844

  15. Biological signals as handicaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafen, A

    1990-06-21

    An ESS model of Zahavi's handicap principle is constructed. This allows a formal exposition of how the handicap principle works, and shows that its essential elements are strategic. The handicap model is about signalling, and it is proved under fairly general conditions that if the handicap principle's conditions are met, then an evolutionarily stable signalling equilibrium exists in a biological signalling system, and that any signalling equilibrium satisfies the conditions of the handicap principle. Zahavi's major claims for the handicap principle are thus vindicated. The place of cheating is discussed in view of the honesty that follows from the handicap principle. Parallel signalling models in economics are discussed. Interpretations of the handicap principle are compared. The models are not fully explicit about how females use information about male quality, and, less seriously, have no genetics. A companion paper remedies both defects in a model of the handicap principle at work in sexual selection. PMID:2402153

  16. Evolutionary biology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard; Summers, Kyle

    2005-10-01

    Cancer is driven by the somatic evolution of cell lineages that have escaped controls on replication and by the population-level evolution of genes that influence cancer risk. We describe here how recent evolutionary ecological studies have elucidated the roles of predation by the immune system and competition among normal and cancerous cells in the somatic evolution of cancer. Recent analyses of the evolution of cancer at the population level show how rapid changes in human environments have augmented cancer risk, how strong selection has frequently led to increased cancer risk as a byproduct, and how anticancer selection has led to tumor-suppression systems, tissue designs that slow somatic evolution, constraints on morphological evolution and even senescence itself. We discuss how applications of the tools of ecology and evolutionary biology are poised to revolutionize our understanding and treatment of this disease.

  17. Robust Design of Biological Circuits: Evolutionary Systems Biology Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bor-Sen Chen; Chih-Yuan Hsu; Jing-Jia Liou

    2011-01-01

    Artificial gene circuits have been proposed to be embedded into microbial cells that function as switches, timers, oscillators, and the Boolean logic gates. Building more complex systems from these basic gene circuit components is one key advance for biologic circuit design and synthetic biology. However, the behavior of bioengineered gene circuits remains unstable and uncertain. In this study, a nonlinear stochastic system is proposed to model the biological systems with intrinsic parameter ...

  18. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  19. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  20. Computational Biology: A Programming Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue;

    2011-01-01

    identify some strengths and shortcomings from a programming perspective. To show concretely what one could see as programming in biocomputing, we outline (from recent work) a computation model and a small programming language that are biologically more plausible than existing silicon-inspired models....... Whether or not the model is biologically plausible in an absolute sense, we believe it sets a standard for a biological device that can be both universal and programmable....

  1. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consum...

  2. Relations between Intuitive Biological Thinking and Biological Misconceptions in Biology Majors and Nonmajors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D.; Tanner, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Research and theory development in cognitive psychology and science education research remain largely isolated. Biology education researchers have documented persistent scientifically inaccurate ideas, often termed misconceptions, among biology students across biological domains. In parallel, cognitive and developmental psychologists have described intuitive conceptual systems—teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—that humans use to reason about biology. We hypothesize that seemingly unrelated biological misconceptions may have common origins in these intuitive ways of knowing, termed cognitive construals. We presented 137 undergraduate biology majors and nonmajors with six biological misconceptions. They indicated their agreement with each statement, and explained their rationale for their response. Results indicate frequent agreement with misconceptions, and frequent use of construal-based reasoning among both biology majors and nonmajors in their written explanations. Moreover, results also show associations between specific construals and the misconceptions hypothesized to arise from those construals. Strikingly, such associations were stronger among biology majors than nonmajors. These results demonstrate important linkages between intuitive ways of thinking and misconceptions in discipline-based reasoning, and raise questions about the origins, persistence, and generality of relations between intuitive reasoning and biological misconceptions. PMID:25713093

  3. The ontology of biological sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelso Janet

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological sequences play a major role in molecular and computational biology. They are studied as information-bearing entities that make up DNA, RNA or proteins. The Sequence Ontology, which is part of the OBO Foundry, contains descriptions and definitions of sequences and their properties. Yet the most basic question about sequences remains unanswered: what kind of entity is a biological sequence? An answer to this question benefits formal ontologies that use the notion of biological sequences and analyses in computational biology alike. Results We provide both an ontological analysis of biological sequences and a formal representation that can be used in knowledge-based applications and other ontologies. We distinguish three distinct kinds of entities that can be referred to as "biological sequence": chains of molecules, syntactic representations such as those in biological databases, and the abstract information-bearing entities. For use in knowledge-based applications and inclusion in biomedical ontologies, we implemented the developed axiom system for use in automated theorem proving. Conclusion Axioms are necessary to achieve the main goal of ontologies: to formally specify the meaning of terms used within a domain. The axiom system for the ontology of biological sequences is the first elaborate axiom system for an OBO Foundry ontology and can serve as starting point for the development of more formal ontologies and ultimately of knowledge-based applications.

  4. Biological and medical sensor technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Iniewski, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Biological and Medical Sensor Technologies presents contributions from top experts who explore the development and implementation of sensors for various applications used in medicine and biology. Edited by a pioneer in the area of advanced semiconductor materials, the book is divided into two sections. The first part covers sensors for biological applications. Topics include: Advanced sensing and communication in the biological world DNA-derivative architectures for long-wavelength bio-sensing Label-free silicon photonics Quartz crystal microbalance-based biosensors Lab-on-chip technologies fo

  5. Telemetry System of Biological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Spisak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobile telemetry system of biological parameters serves for reading and wireless data transfer of measured values of selected biological parameters to an outlying computer. It concerns basically long time monitoring of vital function of car pilot.The goal of this projects is to propose mobile telemetry system for reading, wireless transfer and processing of biological parameters of car pilot during physical and psychical stress. It has to be made with respect to minimal consumption, weight and maximal device mobility. This system has to eliminate signal noise, which is created by biological artifacts and disturbances during the data transfer.

  6. Ethical Issues in Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Heavey, Patrick Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology has been defined as: “the design and construction of new biological parts, devices, and systems, and the re-design of existing, natural biological systems for useful purposes” (syntheticbiology.org). The convergence of scientific fields such as molecular biology, computer science and others have rendered it a natural progression, based on existing knowledge.The fact that humanity has reached a stage of development where it seems feasible to “create” life, or design it to a h...

  7. Crystallogenesis of biological macromolecules. Biological, microgravity and other physicochemical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giege, R; Drenth, J; Ducruix, A; McPherson, A; Saenger, W

    1995-01-01

    After an historical introduction and justification of the importance of proteins (as well as other macromolecules or macromolecular assemblies of biological origin) in modern biology but also in physics, this review presents the state of the field of macromolecular crystallogenesis. The basic questi

  8. Rotating Biological Contractors (RBC's). Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickefoose, Charles S.

    This two-lesson unit on rotating biological contactors (RBC's) is designed to be used with students who have had some experience in wastewater treatment and a basic understanding of biological treatment. The first lesson provides information on the concepts and components of RBC treatment systems. The second lesson focuses on design operation and…

  9. Exploring Visuomotor Priming Following Biological and Non-Biological Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, E.; Bradshaw, C.; Galpin, A.; Lawrence, A.; Poliakoff, E.

    2010-01-01

    Observation of human actions influences the observer's own motor system, termed visuomotor priming, and is believed to be caused by automatic activation of mirror neurons. Evidence suggests that priming effects are larger for biological (human) as opposed to non-biological (object) stimuli and enhanced when viewing stimuli in mirror compared to…

  10. Quantitative biology: where modern biology meets physical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Zhu, Lian; Mazutis, Linas; Sgro, Allyson E; Fai, Thomas G; Podolski, Marija

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative methods and approaches have been playing an increasingly important role in cell biology in recent years. They involve making accurate measurements to test a predefined hypothesis in order to compare experimental data with predictions generated by theoretical models, an approach that has benefited physicists for decades. Building quantitative models in experimental biology not only has led to discoveries of counterintuitive phenomena but has also opened up novel research directions. To make the biological sciences more quantitative, we believe a two-pronged approach needs to be taken. First, graduate training needs to be revamped to ensure biology students are adequately trained in physical and mathematical sciences and vice versa. Second, students of both the biological and the physical sciences need to be provided adequate opportunities for hands-on engagement with the methods and approaches necessary to be able to work at the intersection of the biological and physical sciences. We present the annual Physiology Course organized at the Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, MA) as a case study for a hands-on training program that gives young scientists the opportunity not only to acquire the tools of quantitative biology but also to develop the necessary thought processes that will enable them to bridge the gap between these disciplines.

  11. "Protected biological control"- Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilkington, L.J.; Messelink, G.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Mottee, Le K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management s

  12. Flotation of Biological Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Z. Kyzas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Flotation constitutes a gravity separation process, which originated from the minerals processing field. However, it has, nowadays, found several other applications, as for example in the wastewater treatment field. Concerning the necessary bubble generation method, typically dispersed-air or dissolved-air flotation was mainly used. Various types of biological materials were tested and floated efficiently, such as bacteria, fungi, yeasts, activated sludge, grape stalks, etc. Innovative processes have been studied in our Laboratory, particularly for metal ions removal, involving the initial abstraction of heavy metal ions onto a sorbent (including a biosorbent: in the first, the application of a flotation stage followed for the efficient downstream separation of metal-laden particles. The ability of microorganisms to remove metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions (as most wastewaters are is a well-known property. The second separation process, also applied effectively, was a new hybrid cell of microfiltration combined with flotation. Sustainability in this field and its significance for the chemical and process industry is commented.

  13. Analog synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  14. Biological rhythms and preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès eDitisheim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer.Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing hypertension have been identified, the underlying mechanism of this multi-factorial disease is yet not fully understood.The disruption of the light/dark cycle in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes. Slightly increased risk for small for gestational age babies, low birth weight babies and preterm deliveries has been reported in shift working women. Whether altered circadian cycle represents a risk factor for preeclampsia or preeclampsia is itself linked with an abnormal circadian cycle is less clear. There are only few reports available, showing conflicting results. In this review, we will discuss recent observations concerning circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. We explore the hypothesis that circadian misalignments may represent a risk factor for preeclampsia. Unraveling potential link between circadian clock gene and preeclampsia could offer a novel approach to our understanding of this multi-system disease specific to pregnancy.

  15. [Hemodialysis with biological object].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eventov, V L; Maksimenko, V A; Zhidkov, I L; Andrianova, M Iu

    2005-01-01

    The essence of the method of biodialysis (hemodialysis with biological object) developed and suggested by the authors for clinical use consists in that the healthy organism exerts, through a system of mass transfer, a therapeutic action on the sick organism. Blood from the affected and healthy organisms is perfused through individual mass exchangers (dialyzers, hemodiafilters and hemofilters), which are hydraulically connected by a circulating transport medium. Metabolites that accumulate in blood of the affected organism diffuse into the transport medium and, from there, into blood of the healthy organism, which metabolizes them. The reverse process occurs simultaneously: substances, whose concentration in blood of the sick organism is less versus the healthy organism, diffuse from blood of the healthy organism to blood of patient. The method suggested by us can be used in clinical practice for normalizing a variety of parameters in patients with hepatic and renal insufficiency. Besides, a number of substances can be transferred from the healthy donor to patient in the process of biodialysis, which opens promising potentialities for the treatment of many diseases.

  16. Biological dosimetry; Dosimetria biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C., E-mail: citlali.guerrero@inin.gob.m [ININ, Departamento de Biologia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    In the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) the works to establish a laboratory of biological dosimetry were initiated in 1998, with the purpose that could assist any situation with respect to the exposition to radiation, so much of the occupational exposed personnel as of individuals not related with the handling of radio-active material. The first activity that was realized was to develop the corresponding curves in vitro of dose response for different qualities and radiation types. In the year 2000 the curve corresponding to the gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co was published and up to 2002 the curve corresponding to the X rays of 58 KeV, 120 and 250 kVp. In all the cases, the curves contain the requirements to be used in the determination of the exposition dose. At the present time the curves dose-response are developing for neutrons take place in the reactor Triga Mark III of ININ. Additionally to these activities, cases of suspicion of accidental exposition to radiation have been assisted, using in a beginning the curves published by the IAEA and, from the year 2000, the curves developed in the ININ. (Author)

  17. Eosinophils in glioblastoma biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curran Colleen S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. The development of this malignant glial lesion involves a multi-faceted process that results in a loss of genetic or epigenetic gene control, un-regulated cell growth, and immune tolerance. Of interest, atopic diseases are characterized by a lack of immune tolerance and are inversely associated with glioma risk. One cell type that is an established effector cell in the pathobiology of atopic disease is the eosinophil. In response to various stimuli, the eosinophil is able to produce cytotoxic granules, neuromediators, and pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as pro-fibrotic and angiogenic factors involved in pathogen clearance and tissue remodeling and repair. These various biological properties reveal that the eosinophil is a key immunoregulatory cell capable of influencing the activity of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Of central importance to this report is the observation that eosinophil migration to the brain occurs in response to traumatic brain injury and following certain immunotherapeutic treatments for GBM. Although eosinophils have been identified in various central nervous system pathologies, and are known to operate in wound/repair and tumorstatic models, the potential roles of eosinophils in GBM development and the tumor immunological response are only beginning to be recognized and are therefore the subject of the present review.

  18. Biological Rhythms and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditisheim, Agnès J.; Dibner, Charna; Philippe, Jacques; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    The impact of impaired circadian rhythm on health has been widely studied in shift workers and trans-meridian travelers. A part from its correlation with sleep and mood disorders, biological rhythm impairment is a recognized risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and breast cancer. Preeclampsia is a major public health issue, associated with a significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality worldwide. While the risks factors for this condition such as obesity, diabetes, pre-existing hypertension have been identified, the underlying mechanism of this multi-factorial disease is yet not fully understood. The disruption of the light/dark cycle in pregnancy has been associated with adverse outcomes. Slightly increased risk for “small for gestational age” babies, “low birth weight” babies, and preterm deliveries has been reported in shift working women. Whether altered circadian cycle represents a risk factor for preeclampsia or preeclampsia is itself linked with an abnormal circadian cycle is less clear. There are only few reports available, showing conflicting results. In this review, we will discuss recent observations concerning circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies. We explore the hypothesis that circadian misalignments may represent a risk factor for preeclampsia. Unraveling potential link between circadian clock gene and preeclampsia could offer a novel approach to our understanding of this multi-system disease specific to pregnancy. PMID:23579266

  19. Mammalian cell biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress is reported on studies of the molecular biology and functional changes in cultured mammalian cells following exposure to x radiation, uv radiation, fission neutrons, or various chemical environmental pollutants alone or in combinations. Emphasis was placed on the separate and combined effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons released during combustion of fossil fuels and ionizing and nonionizing radiations. Sun lamps, which emit a continuous spectrum of near ultraviolet light of 290 nm to 315 nm were used for studies of predictive cell killing due to sunlight. Results showed that exposure to uv light (254 nm) may not be adequate to predict effects produced by sunlight. Data are included from studies on single-strand breaks and repair in DNA of cultured hamster cells exposed to uv or nearultraviolet light. The possible interactions of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (DmBA) alone or combined with exposure to x radiation, uv radiation (254 nm) or near ultraviolet simulating sunlight were compared for effects on cell survival

  20. Mesangial cell biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abboud, Hanna E., E-mail: Abboud@uthscsa.edu

    2012-05-15

    Mesangial cells originate from the metanephric mesenchyme and maintain structural integrity of the glomerular microvascular bed and mesangial matrix homeostasis. In response to metabolic, immunologic or hemodynamic injury, these cells undergo apoptosis or acquire an activated phenotype and undergo hypertrophy, proliferation with excessive production of matrix proteins, growth factors, chemokines and cytokines. These soluble factors exert autocrine and paracrine effects on the cells or on other glomerular cells, respectively. MCs are primary targets of immune-mediated glomerular diseases such as IGA nephropathy or metabolic diseases such as diabetes. MCs may also respond to injury that primarily involves podocytes and endothelial cells or to structural and genetic abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane. Signal transduction and oxidant stress pathways are activated in MCs and likely represent integrated input from multiple mediators. Such responses are convenient targets for therapeutic intervention. Studies in cultured MCs should be supplemented with in vivo studies as well as examination of freshly isolated cells from normal and diseases glomeruli. In addition to ex vivo morphologic studies in kidney cortex, cells should be studied in their natural environment, isolated glomeruli or even tissue slices. Identification of a specific marker of MCs should help genetic manipulation as well as selective therapeutic targeting of these cells. Identification of biological responses of MCs that are not mediated by the renin–angiotensin system should help development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies to treat diseases characterized by MC pathology.

  1. Bomb pulse biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: buchholz2@llnl.gov [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  2. Biophotonics and Bone Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, Gregory; Fischer, David; Asipauskas, Marius; Chauhan, Chirag; Compitello, Nicole; Burke, Jamie; Tate, Melissa Knothe

    2004-01-01

    One of the more serious side effects of extended space flight is an accelerated bone loss. Rates of bone loss are highest in the weight-bearing bones of the hip and spine regions, and the average rate of bone loss as measured by bone mineral density measurements is around 1.2% per month for persons in a microgravity environment. It is well known that bone remodeling responds to mechanical forces. We are developing two-photon microscopy techniques to study bone tissue and bone cell cultures to better understand the fundamental response mechanism in bone remodeling. Osteoblast and osteoclast cell cultures are being studied, and the goal is to use molecular biology techniques in conjunction with Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) to study the physiology of in-vitro cell cultures in response to various stimuli, such as fluid flow induced shear stress and mechanical stress. We have constructed a two-photon fluorescence microscope for these studies, and are currently incorporating FLIM detection. Current progress will be reviewed. This work is supported by the NASA John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium.

  3. Biological control of ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samish, M.; Ginsberg, H.; Glazer, I.; Bowman, A.S.; Nuttall, P.

    2004-01-01

    Ticks have numerous natural enemies, but only a few species have been evaluated as tick biocontrol agents (BCAs). Some laboratory results suggest that several bacteria are pathogenic to ticks, but their mode of action and their potential value as biocontrol agents remain to be determined. The most promising entomopathogenic fungi appear to be Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana, strains of which are already commercially available for the control of some pests. Development of effective formulations is critical for tick management. Entomopathogenic nematodes that are pathogenic to ticks can potentially control ticks, but improved formulations and selection of novel nematode strains are needed. Parasitoid wasps of the genus Ixodiphagus do not typically control ticks under natural conditions, but inundative releases show potential value. Most predators of ticks are generalists, with a limited potential for tick management (one possible exception is oxpeckers in Africa). Biological control is likely to play a substantial role in future IPM programmes for ticks because of the diversity of taxa that show high potential as tick BCAs. Considerable research is required to select appropriate strains, develop them as BCAs, establish their effectiveness, and devise production strategies to bring them to practical use.

  4. ATTITUDES OF BIOLOGY TEACHERS ON TEACHING EVOLUTION OF BIOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. R. Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the attitudes of teachers and high school biology in public schools in Cuiabá about the theory of biological evolution, characterizing its proximity to biological evolution and its opposite perspective to the presence of this theory in science curriculum. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire-type Likert scale of 4 points, descriptive analyzes were made, represented by absolute data, with the aid of Excel 2010. The results show that the theory of biological evolution is highly accepted by the teachers, even considering religious people or people of faith. Furthermore, they indicate that they do not feel prepared to teach and know how few strategies to encourage dialogue between these beliefs and concepts of biological evolution bases.

  5. ATTITUDES OF BIOLOGY TEACHERS ON TEACHING EVOLUTION OF BIOLOGICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. R. Almeida

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to determine the attitudes of teachers and high school biology in public schools in Cuiabá about the theory of biological evolution, characterizing its proximity to biological evolution and its opposite perspective to the presence of this theory in science curriculum. Data collection was conducted through a questionnaire-type Likert scale of 4 points, descriptive analyzes were made, represented by absolute data, with the aid of Excel 2010. The results show that the theory of biological evolution is highly accepted by the teachers, even considering religious people or people of faith. Furthermore, they indicate that they do not feel prepared to teach and know how few strategies to encourage dialogue between these beliefs and concepts of biological evolution bases.

  6. Biology and Water Pollution Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Charles E.

    Within this text, the reader is attuned to the role biology can and should play in combating the alarming increase in water pollution. Both the urgency of the problem and the biological techniques that are being developed to cope with the water pollution crisis are scrutinized; what is and is not known about the problem is explained; past,…

  7. Biological clocks: riding the tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-10-21

    Animals with habitats in the intertidal zone often display biological rhythms that coordinate with both the tidal and the daily environmental cycles. Two recent studies show that the molecular components of the biological clocks mediating tidal rhythms are likely different from the phylogenetically conserved components that mediate circadian (daily) rhythms.

  8. Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, C.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, N.;

    2004-01-01

    from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The background, description, and status...

  9. Querying Large Biological Network Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsoy, Gunhan

    2013-01-01

    New experimental methods has resulted in increasing amount of genetic interaction data to be generated every day. Biological networks are used to store genetic interaction data gathered. Increasing amount of data available requires fast large scale analysis methods. Therefore, we address the problem of querying large biological network datasets.…

  10. From Biology to Quality (BQ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    2011-01-01

    “Quality is never an accident; it is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, intelligent direction and skilful execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives.” (William A. Foster) The quality of fish meat is dependent upon a wide range of biological and non-biological ...

  11. Static Analysis for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Rosa, D. Schuch da;

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows how static analysis techniques can help understanding biological systems. Based on a simple example we illustrate the outcome of performing three different analyses extracting information of increasing precision. We conclude by reporting on the potential impact and exploitation o...... of these techniques in systems biology....

  12. BIological Psychology, Exercise, and Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews theory and methods used by the field of biological psychology to study stress that have potential for understanding how behavioral and biological adaptations to the stress of exercise are integrated. The overview focuses on anxiety, depression, and physiological responsiveness to nonexercise stressors from the perspective of biological…

  13. Structural Biology Guides Antibiotic Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyak, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Modern drug discovery programs require the contribution of researchers in a number of specialist areas. One of these areas is structural biology. Using X-ray crystallography, the molecular basis of how a drug binds to its biological target and exerts its mode of action can be defined. For example, a drug that binds into the active site of an…

  14. Do-it-yourself biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golinelli, Stefano; Ruivenkamp, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Do-it-yourself biology, or garage biology, is a set of practices through which lay people can practice biotechnology and thus also challenge the exclusive control exercised on biotech R&D by Big Bio. This article describes how garage biologists aim to radically transform biotechnological soci

  15. Virtual Environments in Biology Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikropoulos, Tassos A.; Katsikis, Apostolos; Nikolou, Eugenia; Tsakalis, Panayiotis

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the design, development and evaluation of an educational virtual environment for biology teaching. In particular it proposes a highly interactive three-dimensional synthetic environment involving certain learning tasks for the support of teaching plant cell biology and the process of photosynthesis. The environment has been…

  16. Biological radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work examines ionizing radiations: what they are, where they come from, their actions and consequences, finally the norms and preventive measures necessary to avoid serious contamination, whether the individual or the population in general is involved. Man has always been exposed to natural irradiation, but owing to the growing use of ionizing radiations both in medicine and in industry, not to mention nuclear tests and their use as an argument of dissuasion, the irradiation of human beings is increasing daily. Radioactive contamination does remain latent, apart from acute cases, but this is where the danger lies since the consequences may not appear until long after the irradiation. Of all biological effects due to the action of radioelements the genetic risk is one of the most important, affecting the entire population and especially the generations to come. The risk of cancer and leukemia induction plays a substantial part also since a large number of people may be concerned, depending on the mode of contamination involved. All these long-term dangers do not of course exclude the various general or local effects to which the individual alone may be exposed and which sometimes constitute a threat to life. As a result the use of ionizing radiations must be limited and should only be involved if no other process can serve instead. The regulations governing radioelements must be stringent and their application strictly supervised for the better protection of man. This protection must be not only individual but also collective since pollution exists in air, water and land passes to plants and animals and finally reaches the last link in the food chain, man

  17. Medical-biological problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains data on operational and emergency staff of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant who were exposed to radiation as a consequence of the reactor accident, the size of the doses received and consequences for health. 203 persons were found to have acute radiation sickness. Of the 22 patients suffering from an extremely severe degree of acute radiation sickness, 19 died. Of the 23 patients with severe bone marrow syndrome, 7 died. For the majority of patients, clinical recovery occurred toward the end of the second month following the accident. The main harmful factor for all victims was the relatively uniform gamma- and beta-radiation effect in a dosage exceeding 1 Gy and, in the case of 35 people exceeding 4 Gy. Radiation damage to wide areas of the skin was one of the main factors contributing to the overall severe condition of the patients, and was a determining factor in the main fatal complications. A preliminary evaluation of the use of some biochemical and immunological tests in the event of accidental exposure to radiation and the methods of treatment and preliminary assessment of their effectiveness are presented. Another part of the report contains data on the doses from radiation exposure to the population of the town of Pripyat' until the time of evacuation and to the population in the 30 km zone around Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and radiation consequences of the accident for the population of different regions in the European part of the USSR, especially the problems related to the contamination of food products. The last part of the report gives some data on the organization of medical examinations of the population from the region around the Chernobyl' plant and on the long-term programmes for the medical and biological monitoring of the population and personnel

  18. Early and late half-life of human chorionic gonadotropin as a predictor of persistent trophoblast after laparoscopic conservative surgery for an ectopic pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Billieux, Marie-Hélène

    2003-01-01

    Cette étude a été effectuée dans le but de déterminer si le calcul de la 1ère ou 2ème demi-vie de l'hormone chorionogonadotrophique (hCG) permettait d'identifier la présence de trophoblaste persistant après traitement chirurgical conservateur de grossesse extra-utérine par laparoscopie. Après un abortus ou un accouchement, l'hCG décroît, dans la circulation sanguine, selon une cinétique de 1er ordre, caractérisée par une disparition rapide (1ère demi-vie) puis plus lente (2ème demi-vie). Entr...

  19. Early and late half-life of human chorionic gonadotropin as a predictor of persistent trophoblast after laparoscopic conservative surgery for an ectopic pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Billieux, Marie-Hélène; Bischof, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Cette étude a été effectuée dans le but de déterminer si le calcul de la 1ère ou 2ème demi-vie de l'hormone chorionogonadotrophique (hCG) permettait d'identifier la présence de trophoblaste persistant après traitement chirurgical conservateur de grossesse extra-utérine par laparoscopie. Après un abortus ou un accouchement, l'hCG décroît, dans la circulation sanguine, selon une cinétique de 1er ordre, caractérisée par une disparition rapide (1ère demi-vie) puis plus lente (2ème demi-vie). Entr...

  20. Fission rates measured using high-energy gamma-rays from short half-life fission products in fresh and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, higher discharge burn-ups and initial fuel enrichments have led to more and more heterogeneous core configurations in light water reactors (LWRs), especially at the beginning of cycle when fresh fuel assemblies are loaded next to highly burnt ones. As this trend is expected to continue in the future, the Paul Scherrer Institute has, in collaboration with the Swiss Association of Nuclear Utilities, swissnuclear, launched the experimental programme LIFE(at)PROTEUS. The LIFE(at)PROTEUS programme aims to better characterise interfaces between burnt and fresh UO2 fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. Thereby, a novel experimental database is to be made available for enabling the validation of neutronics calculations of strongly heterogeneous LWR core configurations. During the programme, mixed fresh and highly burnt UO2 fuel lattices will be investigated in the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. One of the main types of investigations will be to irradiate the fuel in PROTEUS and measure the resulting fission rate distributions across the interface between fresh and burnt fuel zones. The measurement of fission rates in burnt fuel re-irradiated in a zero-power reactor requires, however, the development of new experimental techniques which are able to discriminate against the high intrinsic activity of the fuel. The principal goal of the present research work has been to develop such a new measurement technique. The selected approach is based on the detection of high-energy gamma-ray lines above the intrinsic background (i.e. above 2200 keV), which are emitted by short-lived fission products freshly created in the fuel. The fission products 88Kr, 142La, 138Cs, 84Br, 89Rb, 95Y, 90mRb and 90Rb, with half-lives between 2.6 min and 2.8 h, have been identified as potential candidates. During the present research work, the gamma-ray activity of short-lived fission products has, for the first time, been measured and quantitatively evaluated for re-irradiated burnt UO2 fuel samples with burn-ups of about 36 and 46 GWd/t. Based on experiments carried out with these fuel samples in a reference test lattice of the PROTEUS reactor, fresh-to-burnt-fuel fission rate ratios could be determined. The 1σ uncertainties on the derived fission rate ratios are 1.7 to 3.4% and are mainly due to the statistical uncertainties. Calculated values of the fission rate ratios, as obtained using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX, have been shown to agree with the experimental results within these uncertainties. In deriving fresh-to-burnt-fuel fission rate ratios, 142La and 138Cs have emerged as the preferred fission products. Their fission yields for the main fissile isotopes ( 235U, 239Pu and 241Pu) are similar, which makes them relatively insensitive to the exact composition of the burnt fuel. Finally, a measurement station for the future LIFE(at)PROTEUS experiments has been proposed and evaluated, along with a detailed formulation of recommendations for optimised irradiation and measurement strategies. The estimated accuracy for the foreseen measurements of fission rate ratios between fresh and highly burnt fuel pins is 1 to 2%. The contribution of nuclear-data related uncertainties have been pointed out as possibly representing the main constraint on the achievable accuracy in future experiments. In brief, the present research work has established a novel experimental technique for measuring and comparing fission rates in fresh and highly burnt fuels in a zero-power research reactor such as PROTEUS. Moreover, possibilities have been presented for the further optimisation needed for a future, routine application of the technique. (author)

  1. Anti-EGFR scFv tetramer (tetrabody) with a stable monodisperse structure, strong anticancer effect, and a long in vivo half-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Ryutaro; Koyama, Noriaki; Hagiwara, Yasuyo; Masakari, Yosuke; Orimo, Ryota; Arai, Kyoko; Ogata, Hiromi; Furumoto, Shozo; Umetsu, Mitsuo; Kumagai, Izumi

    2016-06-01

    The development of single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) as therapeutic agents has the potential to reduce the high cost of antibody production, but the development process often impairs scFv functions such as binding affinity and pharmacokinetics. Multimerization is one strategy for recovering or enhancing these lost functions. Previously, we constructed several antiepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) scFv multimers by modifying linker length and domain order. Antitumor effects comparable with those of the currently approved anti-EGFR therapeutic antibodies were observed for scFv trimers. In the present study, we fractionated an anti-EGFR scFv tetramer from the intracellular soluble fraction of an Escherichia coli transformant. Compared with the trimer, the tetramer showed higher affinity, greater cancer cell growth inhibition, and prolonged blood retention time. Furthermore, the tetramer did not dissociate into the trimer or other smaller species during long-term storage (up to 33 weeks). Thus, our developed scFv tetramer is an attractive candidate next-generation anti-EGFR therapeutic antibody that can be produced via a low-cost bacterial expression system. PMID:27419062

  2. Increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII and longer plasma-derived factor VII half-life may explain their long lasting prophylactic effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, N.C.J.; Masereeuw, R.; Holme, P.A.; Kraaij, M.G.J. van; Laros, B.A.P.; Peyvandi, F.; Heerde, W.L. van

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prophylaxis with plasma-derived or recombinant activated factor VII is beneficial in severe factor VII deficiency. To understand why prophylactic treatment with both products is efficacious, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten factor VII deficient patients

  3. Human FcRn can mediate the transport across intestinal mucosal barrier and prolong the half-life of rabbit IgG in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchang Pang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available FcRn (neonatal Fc receptor plays an important role in IgG transportation, antigen presentation and signal transmission. In this study, the complement fixation test and flow cytometry test were performed to verify whether the heterologous antibody could be transmitted to the serum or leukocyte with FcγR (Fc gamma receptor across the intestinal mucosa. The results showed that rabbit anti-bovine IgG could be detected in both the serum and the leukocytes, which indicated that the heterologous antibody could transport across the intestinal mucosa to enter the blood and be effectively delivered to the leukocytes with FcγR. In addition, the results also showed that the rabbit anti-bovine IgG still could be detected in the leukocyte group (P=0.044<0.05 after 21 days. It indicated that the rabbit IgG could exist in the body for a long term (up to 21 days after being transported to the cells containing FcγR.

  4. Inelastic scattering of pulsed 14.4 MeV neutrons as a function of depth in tissue and the half-life for radiative capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reduction in the fast neutron inelastic scattering reaction with carbon was measured as a function of the increasing thickness of water through which the neutron beam had to penetrate. Wax was used as the source of signal from carbon. The data suggest that the half-value thickness of water is 9.2±1.1 cm for a 14.4 MeV neutron beam of the small dimensions used in this experiment. (UK)

  5. The role of long half-life isotopes for use in LDR brachytherapy. Report of the advisory group meeting (325-E3-AG-1086)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachytherapy is a growing activity in the management of cancer. Where indications exist for brachytherapy, LDR still retains a significant but decreasingly important role in the overall management. It remains the preferred form of brachytherapy in a few sites such as the nose, lip, vagina and penis. It is well tested in the paediatric population where long-term sequelae are highly significant and have not yet been evaluated for mHDR. Prostatic cancer permanent seed implant boosts is currently the only application where LDR is receiving increasing clinical support. LDR still can play an equally effective role when brachytherapy is required in gynaecological, breast and head and neck cancer and soft tissue sarcomas. The meeting recognised the growing role of mHDR as the major modality in brachytherapy administration. It is further noted that changing circumstances and opinions regarding mHDR may exert a major influence on the continued future of LDR as a treatment modality. LDR brachytherapy special techniques are becoming less widely distributed and less frequently performed. Only a few centres remain where sufficient procedures are performed to give adequate training in a period of a few months. The meeting recommended that the Agency should promote the creation of regional training centres of excellence where the practice of LDR brachytherapy should be available. The meeting recommended that the Member States should continue support for LDR brachytherapy techniques beyond gynaecological techniques until such time as clear evidence is presented for discontinuation

  6. HIV-1 gp41 envelope IgA is frequently elicited after transmission but has an initial short response half-life

    OpenAIRE

    Yates, N L; Stacey, A R; Nolen, T L; Vandergrift, N A; Moody, M.A.; Montefiori, D C; Weinhold, K J; Blattner, W. A.; Borrow, P; Shattock, R.; Cohen, M.S.; Haynes, B. F.; Tomaras, G.D.

    2013-01-01

    Prevention of HIV-1 transmission at mucosal surfaces will likely require durable pre-existing mucosal anti-HIV-1 antibodies (Abs). Defining the ontogeny, specificities and potentially protective nature of the initial mucosal virus-specific B-cell response will be critical for understanding how to induce protective Ab responses by vaccination. Genital fluids from patients within the earliest stages of acute HIV-1 infection (Fiebig I–VI) were examined for multiple anti-HIV specificities. Gp41 (...

  7. Half-life systematics across the N=126 shell closure: role of first-forbidden transitions in the β decay of heavy neutron-rich nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A I; Benlliure, J; Kurtukián-Nieto, T; Schmidt, K-H; Verma, S; Regan, P H; Podolyák, Z; Górska, M; Pietri, S; Kumar, R; Casarejos, E; Al-Dahan, N; Algora, A; Alkhomashi, N; Álvarez-Pol, H; Benzoni, G; Blazhev, A; Boutachkov, P; Bruce, A M; Cáceres, L S; Cullen, I J; Denis Bacelar, A M; Doornenbal, P; Estévez-Aguado, M E; Farrelly, G; Fujita, Y; Garnsworthy, A B; Gelletly, W; Gerl, J; Grebosz, J; Hoischen, R; Kojouharov, I; Kurz, N; Lalkovski, S; Liu, Z; Mihai, C; Molina, F; Mücher, D; Rubio, B; Shaffner, H; Steer, S J; Tamii, A; Tashenov, S; Valiente-Dobón, J J; Walker, P M; Wollersheim, H J; Woods, P J

    2014-07-11

    This Letter reports on a systematic study of β-decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei around doubly magic (208)Pb. The lifetimes of the 126-neutron shell isotone (204)Pt and the neighboring (200-202)Ir, (203)Pt, (204)Au are presented together with other 19 half-lives measured during the "stopped beam" campaign of the rare isotope investigations at GSI collaboration. The results constrain the main nuclear theories used in calculations of r-process nucleosynthesis. Predictions based on a statistical macroscopic description of the first-forbidden β strength reveal significant deviations for most of the nuclei with Nforbidden transitions reproduce more satisfactorily the trend in the measured half-lives for the nuclei in this region, where the r-process pathway passes through during β decay back to stability.

  8. Integrative analysis of mRNA expression and half-life data reveals trans-acting genetic variants associated with increased expression of stable transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thong T Nguyen

    Full Text Available Genetic variation in gene expression makes an important contribution to phenotypic variation and susceptibility to disease. Recently, a subset of cis-acting expression quantitative loci (eQTLs has been found to result from polymorphisms that affect RNA stability. Here we carried out a search for trans-acting variants that influence RNA stability. We first demonstrate that differences in the activity of trans-acting factors that stabilize RNA can be detected by comparing the expression levels of long-lived (stable and short-lived (unstable transcripts in high-throughput gene expression experiments. Using gene expression microarray data generated from eight HapMap3 populations, we calculated the relative expression ranks of long-lived transcripts versus short-lived transcripts in each sample. Treating this as a quantitative trait, we applied genome-wide association and identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs6137010, on chromosome 20p13 with which it is strongly associated in two Asian populations (p = 4×10(-10 in CHB - Han Chinese from Beijing; p = 1×10(-4 in JPT - Japanese from Tokyo. This SNP is a cis-eQTL for SNRPB in CHB and JPT but not in the other six HapMap3 populations. SNRPB is a core component of the spliceosome, and has previously been shown to affect the expression of many RNA processing factors. We propose that a cis-eQTL of SNRPB may be directly responsible for inter-individual variation in relative expression of long-lived versus short-lived transcript in Asian populations. In support of this hypothesis, knockdown of SNRPB results in a significant reduction in the relative expression of long-lived versus short-lived transcripts. Samples with higher relative expression of long-lived transcripts also had higher relative expression of coding compared to non-coding RNA and of RNA from housekeeping compared to non-housekeeping genes, due to the lower decay rates of coding RNAs, particularly those that perform housekeeping functions, compared to non-coding RNAs.

  9. Life is a journey: source-path-goal structure in the videogames "Half-Life 2", "Heavy Rain", and "Grim Fandango"

    OpenAIRE

    Kromhout, R.; Forceville, C.

    2013-01-01

    The debate between narrativists and ludologists has long enlivened discussions among game theorists. Should videogames be seen as an offshoot of (film) stories, and thus be studied primarily from the perspective of narratology? Or do they represent a truly different phenomenon, and thus require an analytic approach that has nothing to gain from narratology? In this paper we intend not so much to solve this conundrum as suggest how it has arisen in the first place, by showing what journey stor...

  10. Influência dos sucos de frutas sobre a biodisponibilidade e meia-vida dos medicamentos Influence of fruit juices on bioavailability and half-life of drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Mariante de Abreu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A administração de medicamentos juntamente com sucos de frutas pode determinar variações na farmacocinética e farmacodinâmica, comprometendo a biodisponibilidade e meia-vida dos compostos envolvidos. Objetivo: Verificar e classificar informações sobre ocorrências de interações que resultam da co-administração de medicamentos e sucos de frutas. Materiais e Métodos: Foi realizada uma revisão na literatura a cerca do tema proposto. Os dados sobre interações foram obtidos de pesquisa em diferentes bancos de dados e livros relacionados, realizada no período de 2008/2009. O método utilizado no estudo incluiu a análise de informações obtidas a partir de bases de dados como PUBMED, SCIELO, BDENF, BBO e natural medicine comprehensive database, sendo que os descritores utilizados consistiram em: interações, interactions, sucos de frutas, fruit juice, CYP 450, P-glicoproteínas e OATP (organic anion transporter polypeptide. Resultados: Ficou evidente a existência de um número significativo de interações, identificadas a partir de estudos experimentais, casos-controle e relatos de caso. Referências sobre agravamento de um efeito ou ineficácia terapêutica, decorrentes da associação de fármacos com sucos de frutas, foram citadas por diversos autores. Conclusão: O estudo evidenciou que interações entre sucos de laranja e toranja consistem nas ocorrências mais comumente citadas, muitas vezes responsáveis por variações sobre a biodisponibilidade e meia-vida de fármacos o que, em última instância, determina variações na resposta terapêutica.Administering medications together with fruit juices may lead to variations in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, with repercussions on the bioavailability and half –life of the compounds. Pharmacokinetic mechanisms are usually related to intestinal and hepatic enzymes of cytochrome P-450 (CYP 450 interference, as well as in transporter enzymes of the mucosa (P-glycoproteín, organic anion transporter polypeptide - OATP. Based on the data above, the aforementioned article seeks information on interaction events involving the co-administration of medications and fruit juices. The review was based on research performed in different databases and related books. The results showed a significant number of interactions, identified in experimental studies, cases-controls and case report. References to the potentiation of an effect, or to therapeutic inefficacy, as a result of the association of pharmaceuticals with fruit juice, were mentioned by several authors, which justify the relevance of diagnosing these phenomenon.

  11. Life is a journey: source-path-goal structure in the videogames "Half-Life 2", "Heavy Rain", and "Grim Fandango"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kromhout; C. Forceville

    2013-01-01

    The debate between narrativists and ludologists has long enlivened discussions among game theorists. Should videogames be seen as an offshoot of (film) stories, and thus be studied primarily from the perspective of narratology? Or do they represent a truly different phenomenon, and thus require an a

  12. Half-life Model: the Scale of Kaizen%半生命周期--持续改进的标尺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春明; 韩之俊

    2005-01-01

    半生命周期模型揭示了企业在持续改进过程中各种"缺陷"水平改进程度与时间的关系.本文对持续改进半生命周期规律的发现、模型建立与检验及其复杂性矩阵进行了系统的介绍,分析比较了半生命周期模型与学习曲线模型的区别与联系,并就其进一步研究的方向进行了思考.

  13. Engineering life through Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Paras; Kamma, Akhil

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is a field involving synthesis of novel biological systems which are not generally found in nature. It has brought a new paradigm in science as it has enabled scientists to create life from the scratch, hence helping better understand the principles of biology. The viability of living organisms that use unnatural molecules is also being explored. Unconventional projects such as DNA playing tic-tac-toe, bacterial photographic film, etc. are taking biology to its extremes. The field holds a promise for mass production of cheap drugs and programming bacteria to seek-and-destroy tumors in the body. However, the complexity of biological systems make the field a challenging one. In addition to this, there are other major technical and ethical challenges which need to be addressed before the field realizes its true potential.

  14. Engineering life through Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Paras; Kamma, Akhil

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Biology is a field involving synthesis of novel biological systems which are not generally found in nature. It has brought a new paradigm in science as it has enabled scientists to create life from the scratch, hence helping better understand the principles of biology. The viability of living organisms that use unnatural molecules is also being explored. Unconventional projects such as DNA playing tic-tac-toe, bacterial photographic film, etc. are taking biology to its extremes. The field holds a promise for mass production of cheap drugs and programming bacteria to seek-and-destroy tumors in the body. However, the complexity of biological systems make the field a challenging one. In addition to this, there are other major technical and ethical challenges which need to be addressed before the field realizes its true potential. PMID:17274769

  15. Synthetic biology and genetic causation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Gry; Parkkinen, Veli-Pekka

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology research is often described in terms of programming cells through the introduction of synthetic genes. Genetic material is seemingly attributed with a high level of causal responsibility. We discuss genetic causation in synthetic biology and distinguish three gene concepts differing in their assumptions of genetic control. We argue that synthetic biology generally employs a difference-making approach to establishing genetic causes, and that this approach does not commit to a specific notion of genetic program or genetic control. Still, we suggest that a strong program concept of genetic material can be used as a successful heuristic in certain areas of synthetic biology. Its application requires control of causal context, and may stand in need of a modular decomposition of the target system. We relate different modularity concepts to the discussion of genetic causation and point to possible advantages of and important limitations to seeking modularity in synthetic biology systems. PMID:23591049

  16. Biology and Economics: Metaphors that Economists usually take from Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny García Callejas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, Stanley Jevons, Karl Marx, Francois Quesnay and Joseph Schumpeter all have at least one thing in common: they used biological metaphors when speaking about economics. Nonetheless, today, this relation subsists and biology and economics are viewed as complementary sciences that have a lot to gain from joint research in fields like: evolutionary economics, economic growth, cognitive economics and environmental and ecological economics, among others. This paper, divided in four sections, will show this conclusion and explain that biology and economics are more sisters than strangers

  17. The Relationships between Epistemic Beliefs in Biology and Approaches to Learning Biology among Biology-Major University Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi-Chun; Liang, Jyh-Chong; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between students' epistemic beliefs in biology and their approaches to learning biology. To this end, two instruments, the epistemic beliefs in biology and the approaches to learning biology surveys, were developed and administered to 520 university biology students, respectively. By and…

  18. Digital 'faces' of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Kathrin

    2013-06-01

    In silicio design plays a fundamental role in the endeavour to synthesise biological systems. In particular, computer-aided design software enables users to manage the complexity of biological entities that is connected to their construction and reconfiguration. The software's graphical user interface bridges the gap between the machine-readable data on the algorithmic subface of the computer and its human-amenable surface represented by standardised diagrammatic elements. Notations like the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), together with interactive operations such as drag & drop, allow the user to visually design and simulate synthetic systems as 'bio-algorithmic signs'. Finally, the digital programming process should be extended to the wet lab to manufacture the designed synthetic biological systems. By exploring the different 'faces' of synthetic biology, I argue that in particular computer-aided design (CAD) is pushing the idea to automatically produce de novo objects. Multifaceted software processes serve mutually aesthetic, epistemic and performative purposes by simultaneously black-boxing and bridging different data sources, experimental operations and community-wide standards. So far, synthetic biology is mainly a product of digital media technologies that structurally mimic the epistemological challenge to take both qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of biological systems into account in order to understand and produce new and functional entities.

  19. The diversification of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Nathan; Dietrich, Michael R; Alomepe, Beverly S; Antrim, Amelia F; ByrneSim, Bay Lauris; He, Yi

    2015-10-01

    In the 1960s, "developmental biology" became the dominant term to describe some of the research that had previously been included under the rubrics of embryology, growth, morphology, and physiology. As scientific societies formed under this new label, a new discipline took shape. Historians, however, have a number of different perspectives on what changes led to this new field of developmental biology and how the field itself was constituted during this period. Using the General Embryological Information Service, a global index of post-World War II development-related research, we have documented and visualized significant changes in the kinds of research that occurred as this new field formed. In particular, our analysis supports the claim that the transition toward developmental biology was marked by a growth in new topics and forms of research. Although many historians privilege the role of molecular biology and/or the molecularization of biology in general during this formative period, we have found that the influence of molecular biology is not sufficient to account for the wide range of new research that constituted developmental biology at the time. Overall, our work creates a robust characterization of the changes that occurred with regard to research on growth and development in the decades following World War II and provides a context for future work on the specific drivers of those changes. PMID:26056745

  20. Fostering synergy between cell biology and systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, James A; Funk, Cory C; Price, Nathan D

    2015-08-01

    In the shared pursuit of elucidating detailed mechanisms of cell function, systems biology presents a natural complement to ongoing efforts in cell biology. Systems biology aims to characterize biological systems through integrated and quantitative modeling of cellular information. The process of model building and analysis provides value through synthesizing and cataloging information about cells and molecules, predicting mechanisms and identifying generalizable themes, generating hypotheses and guiding experimental design, and highlighting knowledge gaps and refining understanding. In turn, incorporating domain expertise and experimental data is crucial for building towards whole cell models. An iterative cycle of interaction between cell and systems biologists advances the goals of both fields and establishes a framework for mechanistic understanding of the genome-to-phenome relationship.

  1. Biology and Economics: Metaphors that Economists usually take from Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Danny García Callejas

    2007-01-01

    Adam Smith, Alfred Marshall, Stanley Jevons, Karl Marx, Francois Quesnay and Joseph Schumpeter all have at least one thing in common: they used biological metaphors when speaking about economics. Nonetheless, today, this relation subsists and biology and economics are viewed as complementary sciences that have a lot to gain from joint research in fields like: evolutionary economics, economic growth, cognitive economics and environmental and ecological economics, among others. This paper, divi...

  2. Basic radiotherapy physics and biology

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, David S; Das, Indra J; Mendonca, Marc S; Dynlacht, Joseph R

    2014-01-01

    This book is a concise and well-illustrated review of the physics and biology of radiation therapy intended for radiation oncology residents, radiation therapists, dosimetrists, and physicists. It presents topics that are included on the Radiation Therapy Physics and Biology examinations and is designed with the intent of presenting information in an easily digestible format with maximum retention in mind. The inclusion of mnemonics, rules of thumb, and reader-friendly illustrations throughout the book help to make difficult concepts easier to grasp. Basic Radiotherapy Physics and Biology is a

  3. Rethinking biologics in lupus nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venuturupalli, S

    2016-09-01

    Lupus nephritis (LN) is a chronic and devastating complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. Despite advances in our understanding of LN and the availability of effective therapies, LN remains a difficult clinical problem, and progression to end stage renal disease remains a significant challenge. Though the advent of biologics has revolutionized the treatment of many rheumatological conditions, and several clinical trials of biologics have been conducted in LN, the promise of biologics remains unfulfilled. The experience gained from these initial clinical trials can help tailor approaches in future clinical trials, and the lessons learned can be applied to find a cure for this condition. PMID:27497255

  4. Biological Optimisation for Nurse Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Twycross, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Artificial immune systems (AISs) to date have generally been inspired by naive biological metaphors. This has limited the effectiveness of these systems. In this position paper two ways in which AISs could be made more biologically realistic are discussed. We propose that AISs should draw their inspiration from organisms which possess only innate immune systems, and that AISs should employ systemic models of the immune system to structure their overall design. An outline of plant and invertebrate immune systems is presented, and a number of contemporary research that more biologically-realistic AISs could have is also discussed.

  5. The renaissance of developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Johnston, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Since its heyday in the 1980s and 90s, the field of developmental biology has gone into decline; in part because it has been eclipsed by the rise of genomics and stem cell biology, and in part because it has seemed less pertinent in an era with so much focus on translational impact. In this essay, I argue that recent progress in genome-wide analyses and stem cell research, coupled with technological advances in imaging and genome editing, have created the conditions for the renaissance of a new wave of developmental biology with greater translational relevance.

  6. Ten questions about systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joyner, Michael J; Pedersen, Bente K

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we raise 'ten questions' broadly related to 'omics', the term systems biology, and why the new biology has failed to deliver major therapeutic advances for many common diseases, especially diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We argue that a fundamentally narrow and reductionist...... to understand how whole animals adapt to the real world. We argue that a lack of fluency in these concepts is a major stumbling block for what has been narrowly defined as 'systems biology' by some of its leading advocates. We also point out that it is a failure of regulation at multiple levels that causes many...

  7. Bilingual teaching of molecular biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Recently bilingual teaching in China's universities has been widely carried out and become a popular subject for study. In this paper, the reasons for bilingual teaching of molecular biology are pointed out, the textbook of molecular biology and teaching method in bilingual teaching classes are determined after investigation and the practice of bilingually teaching molecular biology use both English and Chinese in a class. The effect has proved good. The bilingual teaching methods, the problem of bilingual teaching, the importance of understanding its significance and the possibilities of improving such teaching of the subject are also discussed.

  8. Biological Databases for Human Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Zou; Lina Ma; Jun Yu; Zhang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    The completion of the Human Genome Project lays a foundation for systematically studying the human genome from evolutionary history to precision medicine against diseases. With the explosive growth of biological data, there is an increasing number of biological databases that have been developed in aid of human-related research. Here we present a collection of human-related biological databases and provide a mini-review by classifying them into different categories according to their data types. As human-related databases continue to grow not only in count but also in volume, challenges are ahead in big data storage, processing, exchange and curation.

  9. Microbial transmutation of 137Cs and LENR in growing biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the results of long-term investigations of stable and radioactive isotopes transmutation in growing microbiological cultures. It is shown that transmutation during growth of microbiological associations is 20 times more effective than the same process in the form of 'clean' microbiological culture. In this work, the process of controlled decontamination of highly active reactor isotopes (reactor waste) through the process of growing microbiological associations has been studied. The most rapidly increasing decay rate of 137Cs isotope, which occurred with the 'effective' half life τ* ≈ 310 days (involving an increase in rate and decrease in half life by a factor of 35) was observed in the presence of Ca salt in closed flask with active water containing 137Cs solution and optimal microbiological association. (author)

  10. The biology of plant metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Following a general introduction, this book includes details of metabolomics of model species including Arabidopsis and tomato. Further chapters provide in-depth coverage of abiotic stress, data integration, systems biology, genetics, genomics, chemometrics and biostatisitcs. Applications of plant m

  11. Biological Sample Monitoring Database (BSMDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Biological Sample Monitoring Database System (BSMDBS) was developed for the Northeast Fisheries Regional Office and Science Center (NER/NEFSC) to record and...

  12. The relativity of biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail. PMID:26449352

  13. Quivira NWR biological baseline data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is biological baseline data for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge as of January 2016. It contains data on species found on the refuge, when and where...

  14. Biology is the new physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The application of mathematics and computer science to biology is changing the nature of research. Philip Hunter explores the cross-fertilization of ideas between the disciplines and how it creates new job opportunities for biologists and mathematicians

  15. Inference problems in structural biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Simon

    The structure and dynamics of biological molecules are essential for their function. Consequently, a wealth of experimental techniques have been developed to study these features. However, while experiments yield detailed information about geometrical features of molecules, this information is of...

  16. Aging and computational systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Kathleen M; Morgan, Amy E; Mc Auley, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Aging research is undergoing a paradigm shift, which has led to new and innovative methods of exploring this complex phenomenon. The systems biology approach endeavors to understand biological systems in a holistic manner, by taking account of intrinsic interactions, while also attempting to account for the impact of external inputs, such as diet. A key technique employed in systems biology is computational modeling, which involves mathematically describing and simulating the dynamics of biological systems. Although a large number of computational models have been developed in recent years, these models have focused on various discrete components of the aging process, and to date no model has succeeded in completely representing the full scope of aging. Combining existing models or developing new models may help to address this need and in so doing could help achieve an improved understanding of the intrinsic mechanisms which underpin aging.

  17. The relativity of biological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubichler, Manfred D; Stadler, Peter F; Prohaska, Sonja J; Nowick, Katja

    2015-12-01

    Function is a central concept in biological theories and explanations. Yet discussions about function are often based on a narrow understanding of biological systems and processes, such as idealized molecular systems or simple evolutionary, i.e., selective, dynamics. Conflicting conceptions of function continue to be used in the scientific literature to support certain claims, for instance about the fraction of "functional DNA" in the human genome. Here we argue that all biologically meaningful interpretations of function are necessarily context dependent. This implies that they derive their meaning as well as their range of applicability only within a specific theoretical and measurement context. We use this framework to shed light on the current debate about functional DNA and argue that without considering explicitly the theoretical and measurement contexts all attempts to integrate biological theories are prone to fail.

  18. Biology and treatment of myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioli, Annamaria; Melchor, Lorenzo; Walker, Brian A; Davies, Faith E; Morgan, Gareth J

    2014-09-01

    In recent years significant progress has been made in the understanding of multiple myeloma (MM) biology and its treatment. Current strategies for the treatment of MM involve the concept of sequential blocks of therapy given as an induction followed by consolidation and maintenance. In an age characterized by emerging and more powerful laboratory techniques, it is of primary importance to understand the biology of MM and how this biology can guide the development of new treatment strategies. This review focuses on the genetic basis of myeloma, including the most common genetic abnormalities and pathways affected and the effects that these have on MM treatment strategies. MM biology is discussed also in the light of more recent theory of intraclonal heterogeneity. PMID:25486959

  19. Generation of Biologically Active Multi-Sialylated Recombinant Human EPOFc in Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Castilho; Laura Neumann; Pia Gattinger; Richard Strasser; Karola Vorauer-Uhl; Thomas Sterovsky; Friedrich Altmann; Herta Steinkellner

    2013-01-01

    Hyperglycosylated proteins are more stable, show increased serum half-life and less sensitivity to proteolysis compared to non-sialylated forms. This applies particularly to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO). Recent progress in N-glycoengineering of non-mammalian expression hosts resulted in in vivo protein sialylation at great homogeneity. However the synthesis of multi-sialylated N-glycans is so far restricted to mammalian cells. Here we used a plant based expression system to accomp...

  20. Synthetic Biology: Integrated Gene Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Nandagopal, Nagarajan; Michael B Elowitz

    2011-01-01

    A major goal of synthetic biology is to develop a deeper understanding of biological design principles from the bottom up, by building circuits and studying their behavior in cells. Investigators initially sought to design circuits “from scratch” that functioned as independently as possible from the underlying cellular system. More recently, researchers have begun to develop a new generation of synthetic circuits that integrate more closely with endogenous cellular processes. These approaches...