WorldWideScience

Sample records for biological field station

  1. Biological field stations: research legacies and sites for serendipity

    Science.gov (United States)

    William K. Michener; Keith L. Bildstein; Arthur McKee; Robert R. Parmenter; William W. Hargrove; Deedra McClearn; Mark Stromberg

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations are distributed throughout North America, capturing much of the ecological variability present at the continental scale and encompassing many unique habitats. In addition to their role in supporting research and education, field stations offer legacies of data, specimens, and accumulated knowledge. Such legacies often provide the only...

  2. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  3. What are undergraduates doing at biological field stations and marine laboratories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janet Hodder

    2009-01-01

    Biological field stations and marine laboratories (FSMLs) serve as places to study the natural environment in a variety of ways, from the level of the molecule to the globe. Undergraduate opportunities at FSMLs reflect the diversity of study options -- formal courses, research and service internships, and field-trip experiences -- and students are responding to those...

  4. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  5. Space Station Biological Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Catherine C.; Hargens, Alan R.; Wade, Charles E.

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center is responsible for the development of the Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) which will support non-human life sciences research on the International Space Station Alpha (ISSA). The SSBRP is designed to support both basic research to understand the effect of altered gravity fields on biological systems and applied research to investigate the effects of space flight on biological systems. The SSBRP will provide the necessary habitats to support avian and reptile eggs, cells and tissues, plants and rodents. In addition a habitat to support aquatic specimens will be provided by our international partners. Habitats will be mounted in ISSA compatible racks at u-g and will also be mounted on a 2.5 m diameter centrifuge except for the egg incubator which has an internal centrifuge. The 2.5 m centrifuge will provide artificial gravity levels over the range of 0.01 G to 2 G. The current schedule is to launch the first rack in 1999, the Life Sciences glovebox and a second rack early in 2001, a 4 habitat 2.5 in centrifuge later the same year in its own module, and to upgrade the centrifuge to 8 habitats in 2004. The rodent habitats will be derived from the Advanced Animal Habitat currently under development for the Shuttle program and will be capable of housing either rats or mice individually or in groups (6 rats/group and at least 12 mice/group). The egg incubator will be an upgraded Avian Development Facility also developed for the Shuttle program through a Small Business and Innovative Research grant. The Space Tissue Loss cell culture apparatus, developed by Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, is being considered for the cell and tissue culture habitat. The Life Sciences Glovebox is crucial to all life sciences experiments for specimen manipulation and performance of science procedures. It will provide two levels of containment between the work volume and the crew through the use of seals and negative pressure. The glovebox

  6. Gravitational biology on the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, J. R.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of gravitational biology is summarized, future areas of required basic research in earth-based and spaceflight projects are presented, and potential applications of gravitational biology on a space station are demonstrated. Topics covered include vertebrate reproduction, prenatal/postnatal development, a review of plant space experiments, the facilities needed for growing plants, gravimorphogenesis, thigmomorphogenesis, centrifuges, maintaining a vivarium, tissue culture, and artificial human organ generation. It is proposed that space stations carrying out these types of long-term research be called the National Space Research Facility.

  7. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  8. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, James C

    2016-01-01

    As wireless technology becomes more sophisticated and accessible to more users, the interactions of electromagnetic fields with biological systems have captured the interest not only of the scientific community but also the general public. Unintended or deleterious biological effects of electromagnetic fields and radiation may indicate grounds for health and safety precautions in their use. Spanning static fields to terahertz waves, Electromagnetic Fields in Biological Systems explores the range of consequences these fields have on the human body. With contributions by an array of experts, topics discussed include: Essential interactions and field coupling phenomena, highlighting their importance in research on biological effects and in scientific, industrial, and medical applications Electric field interactions in cells, focusing on ultrashort, pulsed high-intensity fields The effect of exposure to naturally occurring and human-made static, low-frequency, and pulsed magnetic fields in biological systems Dosi...

  9. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.

    1993-01-01

    In this generally intelligible article, the author describes at first the physical fundamentals of electromagnetic fields and their basic biological significance and effects for animals and human beings before dealing with the discussion regarding limiting values and dangers. The article treats possible connections with leukaemia as well as ith melatonine production more detailed. (vhe) [de

  10. Space vehicle field unit and ground station system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Delapp, Jerry; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Michel, John; Enemark, Donald

    2017-09-19

    A field unit and ground station may use commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components and share a common architecture, where differences in functionality are governed by software. The field units and ground stations may be easy to deploy, relatively inexpensive, and be relatively easy to operate. A novel file system may be used where datagrams of a file may be stored across multiple drives and/or devices. The datagrams may be received out of order and reassembled at the receiving device.

  11. Biological reduction of dust nuisance on power station waste dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozel, J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of pot trials and succeeding field trials carried out in 1966-72 to find out the best method of reclamationand stabilishing the fly ash and cinder waste dump at the Melnik power station are summarised. The material consists mainly of fine particles with a size range of less than 1 micron to 0.16 mm in diam., and creates a source of blown dust in dry weather. Treatment of the waste material before sowing grass and legume species, the species tested, sowing rates, applied fertilizers, irrigation and treatment of the resulting swards are discussed. The most suitable species were Festuca rubra, F. ovina, perennial ryegrass and Italian ryegrass; the cost of stabilising the dump was lowest with Italian ryegrass. (In English)

  12. Boracéia Biological Station: an ornithological review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner Cavarzere

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Boracéia Biological Station, near the city of Salesópolis, SP, is located in one of the most well-defined centers of endemism in eastern Brazil - the Serra do Mar Center. While the station was established only in 1954 under the auspices of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, the avifauna of this locality had already attracted the attention of ornithologists by the 1940s, when the first specimens were collected. Here we describe the ornithological history of the Boracéia Biological Station with a review of all the bird species recorded during more than 68 years, including recent transect and mist-netting records. Boracéia's records were found in museums, literature and unpublished reports that totaled 323 bird species when recent data is also considered. Of these, 117 are endemic to the Atlantic forest and 28 are threatened in the state. Although there are a few doubtful records that need to be checked, some species are the only sightings in the state. Boracéia includes a recently discovered species near the station site and is extremely important for the conservation of Atlantic forest birds.A Estação Biológica de Boracéia, localizada em Salesópolis, SP, situa-se na Serra do Mar, importante região biogeográfica e um dos centros de endemismo mais bem definidos do Brasil. Apesar de instituída em 1954, quando passou a pertencer ao Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, a avifauna desta localidade já era objeto de pesquisas desde a década de 1940, época em que foram realizadas as primeiras coletas de aves. Aqui é apresentada pela primeira vez uma revisão de todos os registros avifaunísticos realizados nessa localidade ao longo de mais de 68 anos assim como a adição de novos registros com base em dados coletados recentemente com transectos lineares e redes de neblina. Os registros para Boracéia estiveram representados em museus, na literatura e em dados não publicados que, somados aos registros

  13. Marine molecular biology: an emerging field of biological sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Narsinh L; Jain, Roopesh; Natalio, Filipe; Hamer, Bojan; Thakur, Archana N; Müller, Werner E G

    2008-01-01

    An appreciation of the potential applications of molecular biology is of growing importance in many areas of life sciences, including marine biology. During the past two decades, the development of sophisticated molecular technologies and instruments for biomedical research has resulted in significant advances in the biological sciences. However, the value of molecular techniques for addressing problems in marine biology has only recently begun to be cherished. It has been proven that the exploitation of molecular biological techniques will allow difficult research questions about marine organisms and ocean processes to be addressed. Marine molecular biology is a discipline, which strives to define and solve the problems regarding the sustainable exploration of marine life for human health and welfare, through the cooperation between scientists working in marine biology, molecular biology, microbiology and chemistry disciplines. Several success stories of the applications of molecular techniques in the field of marine biology are guiding further research in this area. In this review different molecular techniques are discussed, which have application in marine microbiology, marine invertebrate biology, marine ecology, marine natural products, material sciences, fisheries, conservation and bio-invasion etc. In summary, if marine biologists and molecular biologists continue to work towards strong partnership during the next decade and recognize intellectual and technological advantages and benefits of such partnership, an exciting new frontier of marine molecular biology will emerge in the future.

  14. Radiations from GSM Base Stations and its Biological Effects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    0.05) higher than the RF radiations (59mV/m) in the control stations where no base stations were located within 300m radius. Comparison of these values to the International. Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. (ICNIRP) guideline ...

  15. Main results of biological experiments on Russian orbital stations and its contribution in future life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechitailo, Galina S.

    Biological experiments in a field of space biology have been started before the first satellite flight. These experiments were devoted to an estimation of space radiation factors on living organisms and carried out in mountains. The systematic biological experiments in space have been started in 1971 with orbital station Salyut. In total more than 1000 experiments have been installed in space flights: fundamental investigations (panspermia theory, gravity biology, complex factors of space environment on biological objects) and applications focused on future biological life support systems. The investigations were directed to some tasks: influence of complex factors of space flight on living organisms at different stages of the evolution scale; investigations of proteins and DNA, cell, tissue, organism and assembled organisms under space flight factors with separation of individual factors, for example, microgravity and space radiation. The aim was to understand the organism reactions on different levels, to get complete ontogenesis cycle in space flight and to find adaption ability of organisms to extreme factors of the space flight. In course of investigations, the unique experimental equipment for orbital biological experiments has been designed; new methods for organism protection against the negative factors of space flight were found; developed new biotechnological products and processes; developed recommendations for space station interior with biological objects for psychological comfort of crew. The results showed a possibility and ways to include different organisms into biotechnological life support systems for future space stations and interplanet spaceships.

  16. Electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base station - variability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Pawel; Zubrzak, Bartlomiej

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the character of electromagnetic field (EMF) in mobile phone base station (BS) surroundings and its variability in time with an emphasis on the measurement difficulties related to its pulse and multi-frequency nature. Work also presents long-term monitoring measurements performed recently in different locations in Poland - small city with dispersed building development and in major polish city - dense urban area. Authors tried to determine the trends in changing of EMF spectrum analyzing daily changes of measured EMF levels in those locations. Research was performed using selective electromagnetic meters and also EMF meter with spectrum analysis.

  17. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-05-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches over the vast sediment flats during low tide. However, the abundance and function of the diatom film is not homogenously distributed. Recently, we have realized the importance of bivalve reefs for structuring intertidal ecosystems; by creating structures on the intertidal flats they provide habitat, reduce hydrodynamic stress and modify the surrounding sediment conditions, which promote the abundance of associated organisms. Accordingly, field studies show that high chlorophyll a concentration in the sediment co-vary with the presence of mussel beds. Here we present conclusive evidence by a manipulative experiment that mussels increase the local biomass of benthic microalgae; and relate this to increasing biomass of microalgae as well as productivity of the biofilm across a nearby mussel bed. Our results show that the ecosystem engineering properties of mussel beds transform them into hot spots for primary production on tidal flats, highlighting the importance of biological control of sedimentary systems.

  18. Bioremediation of oil contaminated soil from service stations. Evaluation of biological treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puustinen, J.; Jorgensen, K.S.; Strandberg, T.; Suortti, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    Biological treatment of contaminated soil has received much attention during the last decade. Microbes are known to be able to degrade many oil hydrocarbons. However, research is needed to ensure that new technologies are implemented in a safe and reliable way under Finnish climatic conditions. The main points of interest are the rate of the degradation as well as the survival and efficiency of microbial inoculants possibly introduced during the treatment. During 1993 the biotreatability of oil-contaminated soil from service stations was investigated in cooperation with the Finnish Petroleum Federation. The goal of this field-scale study was to test how fast lubrication oil can be composted during one Finnish summer season and to find out whether microbial inoculants would enhance the degradation rate. The soil was excavated from three different service stations in the Helsinki metropolitan area and was transported to a controlled composting area. The soil was sieved and compost piles, also called biopiles, were constructed on the site. Bark chips were used as the bulking agent and nutrients and lime were added to enhance the biological activity. Two different commercial bacterial inoculants were added to two of the piles. The piles were turned by a tractor-drawn screw-type mixer at two to four weeks interval. Between the mixings, the piles were covered with tarpaulins to prevent evaporation and potential excessive wetting. Several microbiological parameters were determined during the test period as well as the temperature and mineral oil content

  19. Investigation of the electromagnetic radiation fields from the Sabborah radio broadcasting station and comparing it with the ICNIRP recommended limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M.H.; AboKasem, I.

    2007-04-01

    This study concerns a radio emission base station which is located near Sabborah, about 20 Km in the west of Damascus. The aim of this study is to investigate the level and the distribution of electromagnetic field in the nearby of this station in order to determine the level of its hazardous biological effect on the worker and the people living nearby. This work is based on two main parts: First, a theoretical part which offer the concept of electromagnetic wave, the emission and measurement of electromagnetic field, the hazardous biological effects and the general guideline for limiting the exposure to electromagnetic field recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the would Health Organization. Finally, an Experimental part which presents the realized measurements of electric field using two electric field strength meters, the results and recommendations.(author)

  20. Performance indices for pumping stations in irrigated rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marini Köpp

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Performance indices can be used as indices of energy use in irrigation systems. Pumping stations (PSs are elements that require energy for irrigation of rice fields by conventional flood irrigation. Interplay of physical, hydraulic, and electrical parameters generates indices that determine the performance in the diagnosis of PSs, operation, and projects for new sets. In this study, it was proposed and classified performance indices for PSs in rice fields, focusing on the efficient use of energy. The study was carried out through an investigation of 160 PSs in operation, located at the western border of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, which constituted an actual field situation. Next, PSs were optimized in relation to the selection of a piping system, using the lowest total cost, the choice of pump, and motors with better performance for the necessary situation as criteria. Results provided nine indices that classified the performance as "excellent", "very good", "good", "poor", and "very poor", which allowed the assessment of projects and the diagnosis of PSs.

  1. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  2. Biological effects of electrical and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault de Boesinghe, L. de

    1979-01-01

    A review is made by the author of the literature about the biological effects of electrical and magnetic fields. A distinction is made between the observations made on man and the experience on animals. The results do not allow to reach a uniform conclusion. The used methodology is furthermore often open for discussion. One fundamental question remains: is there or not a threshold value. The question may be asked if objective modifications would not better come out in the light of systematical programs studies. This review of the literature gives results which anyway justify a systematic study of this subject. (author)

  3. Pleistocene plant fossils in and near La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally P. Horn; Robert L. Sanford; David Dilcher; Terry A. Lott; Paul R. Renne; Michael C. Wiemann; Duane Cozadd; Orlando Vargas

    2003-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and 40 Ar/39Ar analysis of overlying tephra indicate that plant fossil assemblages exposed by stream erosion and well construction in and near La Selva Biological Station in eastern lowland Costa Rica are Pleistocene in age. We identified plant taxa based on wood, leaves, fruits, seeds, pollen, and spores examined from three sites at ca 30 m...

  4. Micrometeorological Characterization of the Mace Head Field Station during PARFORCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.; Leeuw, G. de

    2000-01-01

    Micrometeorological flux packages, consisting of 3D ultrasonic anemometers and an IR water vapour sensor, each sampling at a rate of 20 Hz, were used to characterise turbulent transport properties at the Mace Head Research Station during PARFORCE experiments in 1998 and 1999. Micrometeorological

  5. Measurements of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted from Cellular Base Stations in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Ali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing the usage of mobile communication devices and internet network information, the entry of private telecommunications companies in Iraq has been started since 2003. These companies began to build up cellular towers to accomplish the telecommunication works but they ignore the safety conditions imposed for the health and environment that are considered in random way. These negative health effects which may cause a health risk for life beings and environment pollution. The aim of this work is to determine the safe and unsafe ranges and discuss damage caused by radiation emitted from Asia cell base stations in Shirqat city and discuses the best ways in which can be minimize its exposure level to avoid its negative health effects. Practical measurements of power density around base stations has been accomplished by using a radiation survey meter type (Radio frequency EMF Strength Meter 480846 in two ways. The first way of measurements has been accomplished at a height of 2 meters above ground for different distances from (0-300 meters .The second way is at a distance of 150 meters for different levels from (2-15 meters above ground level. The maximum measured power density is about (3 mW/m2. Results indicate that the levels of power density are far below the RF radiation exposure of USSR safety standards levels. And that means these cellular base station don't cause negative the health effect for life being if the exposure is within the acceptable international standard levels.

  6. EME assessments using telstra's mobile base station field intensity plotter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.; Hurren, S.; Vinnal, E.; Armstrong, M.

    2001-01-01

    Public interest in the potential health issues arising from mobile phone base stations has highlighted the importance of having accessible and easy to understand information on electromagnetic energy (EME) emission levels. A range of groups including residents, community groups, businesses, schools, site owners and local governments are often interested in knowing what EME levels a particular base station is capable of producing and how these compare to safety standards regulated by the Australian Communications Authority (ACA). Performing the complex mathematical calculations to predict these levels requires significant expertise, is time consuming and relatively costly. A new software tool, born out of Telstra's EME Research and Development Program, is set to revolutionise EME assessments by facilitating the provision of this information in a more timely, standardised and cost effective manner. Telstra has taken the decision to commercialise the software, which is a world first, because of expressions of interest from other carriers, EME assessment specialists, government agencies and regulatory organisations both in Australia and overseas. Significantly, the software should improve the flow of easy to understand and accurate information on emission levels from base stations. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  7. Examples of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in a Finnish metro station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpinen, L.; Sydaenheimo, L.; Laehdetie, A.; Amundin, A.; Piippo, H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to present examples of extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields in a Finnish metro station. The metro trains are powered by 750 V DC voltage supplied through a conductor rail next to the running rails. We measured magnetic fields with a magnetic field meter MFM 3000 in 17 cases when a train was leaving the platform in the same metro station. The maximum measured magnetic field was 5400 nT (at 1 m height and 4.3 m from the conductor rail). The magnetic field stayed at this level for a very short time after the metro left the platform. It is possible that there are also DC magnetic fields near the metro as the train leaves the station because the trains are powered by DC voltage. Therefore, it is also important to measure DC fields and DC currents in the future. (authors)

  8. [Investigation of microbial contamination of the air and equipment of a biological waste water purification station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikbaeva, L A; Figurovskiĭ, A P; Vasil'ev, O D; Ermolaev-Makovskiĭ, M A; Merkur'eva, M A

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes the results of a study of ambient air microbiological pollution in the working premises and equipment surfaces in the main shops of the biological waste water purification station of a cardboard-polygraphic plant. The findings suggest that there is high microbial contamination of the working environment, which should be born in mind on developing measures to optimize working conditions and on studying morbidity rates among the workers.

  9. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Wonsits Valley Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Wonsits Valley Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  10. Title V Operating Permit: QEP Field Services Company - Coyote Wash Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Response to public comments and the Title V Operating Permit for the QEP Field Services Company, Coyote Wash Compressor Station, located on the Uintah and Ouray Indian Reservation in Uintah County, Utah.

  11. Investigation of Magnetic Field in the Subway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ctibor Henzl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with computing of magnetic field in the rails surroundings of subway (underground. The calculation of field is made by using of an analytical method in Excel VBA. There is also used commercial FEM software ANSYS and finite element method. Output results of the both methods are finally compared.

  12. Computer Analysis of Electromagnetic Field Exposure Hazard for Space Station Astronauts during Extravehicular Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Kelley, James S.; Panneton, Robert B.; Arndt, G. Dickey

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the RF radiation hazards to astronauts and electronics equipment due to various Space Station transmitters, the electric fields around the various Space Station antennas are computed using the rigorous Computational Electromagnetics (CEM) techniques. The Method of Moments (MoM) was applied to the UHF and S-band low gain antennas. The Aperture Integration (AI) method and the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) method were used to compute the electric field intensities for the S- and Ku-band high gain antennas. As a result of this study, The regions in which the electric fields exceed the specified exposure levels for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) electronics equipment and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) astronaut are identified for various Space Station transmitters.

  13. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  14. Speech recognition employing biologically plausible receptive fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Bothe, Hans-Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    The main idea of the project is to build a widely speaker-independent, biologically motivated automatic speech recognition (ASR) system. The two main differences between our approach and current state-of-the-art ASRs are that i) the features used here are based on the responses of neuronlike...... Model-based adaptation procedures. Two databases are used, TI46 for discrete speech a subset of the TIMIT database collected from speakers belonging to the New York dialect region. Each of the selection of 10 sentences is uttered once by each of 35 speakers. The major differences between the two data...... sets initiate the development and comparison of two distinct ASRs within the project, which will be presented in the following. Employing a reduced sampling frequency and bandwidth of the signals, the ASR algorithm reaches and goes beyond recognition results that are known from humans....

  15. Pulsed Electric Fields for Biological Weapons Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    including Staphylococcus, a-hemolytic Streptococcus, Actinomyces, and Candida species. , 12% 0.1 % ° F R 3 R2 R3 .0 E R5:2 % R5: 32...pulsed electric field. Pore formation in these simulations of homogeneous lipid bilayers is a molecular process , an extension of water defects into...and Bianco, A. (2006). Functionalized carbon nanotubes are non-cytotoxic and preserve the functionality of primary immune cells. Nano Letters 6, 1522-8

  16. Perception of Biological Motion in Central and Peripheral Visual Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laicāne Ilze

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies analysing biological motion perception based on reduced number of dots have demonstrated that biological motion can be perceived even when only the lower part of the body is visible or when the number of dots representing the object is reduced. What is the minimal amount of information that enables biological motion to be distinguished from its scrambled version? The results of the current experiment demonstrate that biological motion can be distinguished from its scrambled version when the object is formed of approximately 5 (4.7 ± 0.1 dots. Additionally, we also investigated whether the threshold value for biological motion perception differs in central and peripheral visual fields. By using stimulus magnification, we demonstrate that the number of dots sufficient for biological motion perception is similar in the central visual field and near periphery. Hence, stimulus magnification can compensate for reduced task performance in the peripheral visual field. The current results suggest that reduced performance of biological motion perception in the peripheral visual field (as demonstrated in other studies is due to difficulties with the global perception of biological motion.

  17. Modelling indoor electromagnetic fields (EMF) from mobile phone base stations for epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuizen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34472641X; Vermeulen, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van Eijsden, M.; van Strien, R.; Bürgi, A.; Loomans, E.; Guxens, M.; Kromhout, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Huss, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880

    2014-01-01

    Radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from mobile phone base stations can be reliably modelled for outdoor locations, using 3D radio wave propagation models that consider antenna characteristics and building geometry. For exposure assessment in epidemiological studies, however, it is

  18. [Risk of electromagnetic fields in electric power stations and substations of a petrochemical plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, A; Fabri, G; Romeo, A

    2003-01-01

    Authors evaluate electromagnetic field exposure in the low-frequency range (5-30,000 Hz) in electric power stations and substations of petroleum processing plant. According to the measured values and the reference exposure limits considered, they conclude that operators should be exposed without adverse effects.

  19. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  20. Investigation of the exposure level of electromagnetic fields produced by mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Kharita, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the real values of microwave level distribution and propagation in the locality around samples of mobile phone base station, and to compare the results with the exposure restriction limits recommenced by the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Measurements were performed using special meters for microwaves; the first (Narda SRM-3000) is used for electromagnetic waves frequency spectrum scanning and the second (NARDA) emr 300) determine the level of electric and magnetic fields and the power density of these waves nearby any sort of transmitters. Samples of different kinds of mobile phone base station were chosen to cover important zones of Damascus, and the region around each base station was also scanned in the emission direction and according to accessibility into the studies positions. Results showed that the signal level in all measured points is lower than the ICNIRP restriction level, but for few points the detected microwave level has relatively important values. The signal level inside building situated partially in the emission direction of the base station transmitters decreases stepwise and walls reduce considerably the signal intensity. To realize these kind of field studies in the best way and obtain the maximum profits for all people, the properties and operating system of transmitters used in mobile phone base station must be known, and therefore, it is very important to achieve a transparent collaboration between research laboratory and mobile phone company. (author)

  1. Crystallization of biological macromolecules from flash frozen samples on the Russian Space Station Mir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszelak, S; Leja, C; McPherson, A

    1996-11-20

    One hundred eighty-three flash frozen, liquid-liquid diffusion and batch method protein and virus crystallization samples were launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on June 27 (STS-71) and transferred to the Russian Space Station Mir on July 1, 1995. They were returned to earth November 20, 1995 (STS-74). Subsequent examination showed that of the 19 types of proteins and viruses investigated, 17 were crystallized during the period on Mir. The experiment demonstrates the utility of this very simple and inexpensive approach for the crystallization of biological macromolecules in space over extended time periods. The distribution of crystals among the three types of containers used indicated small samples yielded results equal or better than larger samples and that long diffusion path lengths were clearly better. Distribution of crystals within the container tubes showed a striking gradient of quality and size that indicated long, narrow tubes yield superior crystals, as predicted from other work based on crystallization in capillaries.

  2. Landscape ecosystems of the University of Michigan Biological Station: Ecosystem diversity and ground-cover diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearsall, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this research is to provide an understanding of the three-dimensional (air-earth-organism) units of the landscape of the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) that the author calls landscape ecosystem types, or simply ecosystems. Specifically, he has focused on the kinds, spatial location and patterns, and composition (physiography, soil, vegetation) of the local landscape ecosystem types of UMBS and Colonial Point. Future research on the functioning of these ecosystems together with inventories of their plant and animal life will add significantly to the landscape ecology research that has been initiated. A major reason for this research is to provide the conceptual basis and baseline data for understanding ecosystem change. Although it is popular to speak of climate change, entire ecosystems change; some components change faster than others.

  3. Quantification and Measurement of Internal Electromagnetic Fields Induced in Finite Biological Bodies by Nonuniform Electromagnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-15

    implantable EM field probes which can be used to measure the internal EM fields induced in simulated biological bod ies. Major topics of this program include...be used to measure the internal EM fields induced in simulated biological bodies with a high degree of accuracy. Most of the originally planned topics...following papers: (1) "Focal hyperthermia as induced by RF radiation of simulacra with embedded tumors and as induced by EM fields in a model of a human

  4. A New Weather Station and Soil Moisture Sensor for Field Experiments at Seibersdorf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Heng, Lee; Arrillaga, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A new weather station (iMETOS ag station from Pessl Instruments) was setup and installed in the Seibersdorf field experimental station. The weather station records temperature, relative humidity, dew point temperature, leaf wetness, rainfall, global radiation and wind speed. These data will be compared with an existing weather station installed nearly twenty years ago. The iMetos was also expanded to include soil moisture sensors and soil matric potential sensor (Decagon 10HS and MPS-1, respectively). The latter will also be used as part of the comparison of different soil moisture monitoring sensors (TDR, EnviroScan, Neutron Probe and Diviner) available in the field. The whole weather station and soil moisture sensor setup will be useful in providing evapotranspiration data and irrigation scheduling for the field experiment on 'Integrating soil water measurements and isotope tracer ( 13 C, 18 O and 2 H) techniques to evaluate wheat lines for tolerance to drought under pre- and post-anthesis water stress'. The study aims to relate soil water measurements with isotopic signatures of carbon and oxygen in plant leaves to select wheat lines tolerance to water stress at different growth stages and to compare the reliability of the different soil water monitoring equipments to estimate plant available water for wheat plants grown under different water stressed conditions plus to provide quantitative information on the use of isotope tracer techniques to evaluate wheat plants for tolerance to water stress at the different growth stages. The weather and soil data also will be useful for fellowship training in soil moisture instrumentation and soil water balance. The iMetos is powered by rechargeable batteries and a solar panel. It is a wireless internet based data-logging system which makes it convenient to view or download the data anywhere, anytime

  5. Physical and biological organ dosimetry analysis for international space station astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; Willingham, Veronica; George, Kerry A

    2008-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed the biological and physical organ dose equivalents for International Space Station (ISS) astronauts. Individual physical dosimetry is difficult in space due to the complexity of the space radiation environment, which consists of protons, heavy ions and secondary neutrons, and the modification of these radiation types in tissue as well as limitations in dosimeter devices that can be worn for several months in outer space. Astronauts returning from missions to the ISS undergo biodosimetry assessment of chromosomal damage in lymphocyte cells using the multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Individual-based pre-flight dose responses for lymphocyte exposure in vitro to gamma rays were compared to those exposed to space radiation in vivo to determine an equivalent biological dose. We compared the ISS biodosimetry results, NASA's space radiation transport models of organ dose equivalents, and results from ISS and space shuttle phantom torso experiments. Physical and biological doses for 19 ISS astronauts yielded average effective doses and individual or population-based biological doses for the approximately 6-month missions of 72 mSv and 85 or 81 mGy-Eq, respectively. Analyses showed that 80% or more of organ dose equivalents on the ISS are from galactic cosmic rays and only a small contribution is from trapped protons and that GCR doses were decreased by the high level of solar activity in recent years. Comparisons of models to data showed that space radiation effective doses can be predicted to within about a +/-10% accuracy by space radiation transport models. Finally, effective dose estimates for all previous NASA missions are summarized.

  6. Biological actions and effects of low-frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brix, J.

    1993-01-01

    Cell culture studies have shown that low-frequency electromagnetic fields may affect cell behaviour. The fact that the corresponding field strengths are too weak to affect membrane potential, suggests that these fields trigger enzymatic reactions at the outer face of the membrane, i.e. cell-intrinsic reaction cascades and a biological modification of the affected biological system take place. These are working models and hypotheses which need to substantiated by further studies in this field. Epidemiological studies suggest that electromagnetic fields influence cancer development in man. However there is no action model indicating exposure to fields to be a genotoxic agent possible triggering a direct genetic modification which precludesr any initialization. (orig.) [de

  7. Biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for Aquatic Habitat in International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemoto, H.; Shoji, T.; Uchida, S.

    2014-04-01

    The biological filter capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification was constructed for aquatic animal experiments in the International Space Station (ISS). The biological filter will be used to remove harmful ammonia excreted from aquatic animals in a closed water circulation system (Aquatic Habitat). The biological filter is a cylindrical tank packed with porous glass beads for nitrification and dual plastic bags for denitrification. The porous beads are supporting media for Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi. The N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells on the porous beads, oxidize the excreted ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. On the other hand, the dual bag is composed of an outer non-woven fabric bag and an inner non-porous polyethylene film bag. The outer bag is supporting media for Paracoccus pantotrophus. The inner bag, in which 99.5% ethanol is packed, releases the ethanol slowly, since ethanol can permeate through the non-porous polyethylene film. The P. pantotrophus cells on the outer bag reduce the produced nitrate to nitrogen gas by using the released ethanol as an electron donor for denitrification. The biological filter constructed in this study consequently removed the ammonia without accumulating nitrate. Most of the excess ethanol was consumed and did not affect the nitrification activity of the N. europaea cells and N. winogradskyi cells severely. In accordance with the aquatic animal experiments in the ISS, small freshwater fish had been bred in the closed water circulation system equipped with the biological filter for 90 days. Ammonia concentration daily excreted from fish is assumed to be 1.7 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Under such conditions, the harmful ammonia and nitrite concentrations were kept below 0.1 mg-N/L in the recirculation water. Nitrate and total organic carbon concentrations in the recirculation water were kept below 5 mg-N/L and 3 mg-C/L, respectively. All breeding fish were alive and ate

  8. Levels of electric field strength within the immediate vicinity of FM radio stations in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azah, C K; Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J

    2013-10-01

    Heightened awareness of the ever-expanding use of radiofrequency (RF) techniques and technology has led to mounting concerns from the general public and the scientific community regarding the possible health effects that may arise as a consequence of exposure to RF radiations and has drawn the attention of many researchers the world over. A survey of the RF electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 20 frequency-modulated (FM) radio stations has been made in Accra, Ghana. The fundamental object was to determine the levels of RF fields from FM broadcast antennae within 10-200 m radius about the foot of the FM base station and at a height of 1.5 m above the ground at selected locations. A spectrum analyser and a bi-conical antenna element sensitive and effective within the frequency band of 30-300 MHz were used. Results obtained indicated that the levels of electric field strength ranged from 5.4E-04 V m(-1) at FM station 'O' to 7.4E-08 V m(-1) at FM station 'D'. At a transmission frequency range of 88-108 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 2.5E-10 to 1.5E-17 Wm(-2). These values are very low and are far below the reference level set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and therefore do not pose any known hazard to the inhabitants of Accra, Ghana. The electric field levels presented in this work are comparable with those reported from epidemiological studies conducted elsewhere.

  9. Socialization into science: An ethnographic study in a field research station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calovini, Theresa Ann

    While the place of language in building the tasks and activities of the science classroom has received attention in the education literature, how students do the work of affiliation building through language remains poorly understood. This dissertation is based on ethnographic research in an apprenticeship learning situation at a biological field research station. I carried out this research with five undergraduates apprentices. I focus on how the language used in this apprenticeship situation positioned the apprentices with science. Issues of access and diversity in science education have motivated this research but this point can be missed because the five apprentices were all fairly successful in university science. They had all secured their job for the summer as paid research assistants. Yet, even with these successful students, science had a complicated place in their lives. I draw on Gee's (1999) notion of Discourse to understand this complexity. I focus on four Discourses--- Science, Knowing about the Animals, Senior Projects and RAships, and Relationships ---which were important in the apprentices' learning about and socialization with science. I try to understand the inter-workings of these four Discourses through a detailed analysis of three conversations involving one of the participants, Michelle. Michelle's use of narrative emerged as a linguistic resource which she used to explore dilemmas she experienced in the tensions between these four Discourses. Michelle was in many ways an ideal apprentice. She did her job well and she sought and received expert advice on her Senior project. Nonetheless, Michelle faced obstacles in her pursuit of a career in science and these obstacles related to language use and her use of narrative. I show how her use of narrative either facilitated or impeded her learning, depending on the context of the interaction. My analysis of Discourse points to important issues in language use by both students and teachers, with

  10. Investigation of the exposure level of electromagnetic fields produced by mobile telephone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abukassem, I.; Kharita, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic field levels in the surrounding of different samples of mobile phone base station were investigated in order to cover residential zones of Damascus and her environs. Measurements were achieved according to the emission direction and to the studied positions environment. Results showed that the signal level in all measured points is lower than the International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) restriction level, but for few measurement points the detected microwave level has relatively important values. The signal level inside building situated partially in the emission direction of the base station transmitters decreases stepwise and walls reduce considerably the signal intensity. This study showed the importance of achieving a transparent collaboration between research laboratory and mobile phone companies in order to improve the protection level.(author)

  11. Review: Bioenergetic Fields and Their Biologic Effects Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Movaffaghi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available As interests in complementary and alternative medicine grows, the scientists are looking forward in researches which determine the mechanisms in which they exert their effectiveness. Some of these modalities like Yoga, Acupuncture, and especially other bio-field therapies such as none contact therapeutic touch, affects the bio-field which spreads throughout the body and into the space around it. According to physic’s law, when electricity flows throw the living tissues, like what happens in our heart and brain, biomagnetic fields are being induced in the surrounding space. Beside that moving charges like ions and free radicals which finally produce electromagnetic fields. Using very sensitive magnetometers, biomagnetic fields have been detected and get amplified up to 1000 times by meditation. This phenomenon could be the basis for most of most complementaty therapeutic approaches like therapeutic touch. On the other hand the electrical, magnetic and bio-magnetic fields have a well known application in conventional medicine. Modern research about bio-magnetism and magneto-biology suggests that in term of both aspects, the effects and the mechanisms for all the different looking modalities used in conventional medicine and complementary medicine which have commons in their fundamentals. This article reviews some of the recent works on biological effects of natural or artificial electromagnetic fields.

  12. Biological effect of paramecium in diffused ultrasonic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiuh-Kuang; Huang, Yi-Cheng

    2002-04-01

    Since the cell structure or biophysical reaction includes in the interaction between ultrasound and living matter. When multi-cell creature is exposed to ultrasound, this reaction will lead the biological effect becomes complex. Therefore, in this paper, a single cell creature is chosen to study the biological effects induced by ultrasound exposure. The paramecium, which possesses many features typical of higher-order animal cells, was considered an appropriate choice for this study. The ability shown by ultrasound in promoting and/or accelerating many reactions has been shown to be a useful field. The growth phase of paramecium by using the ultrasound irradiation is an important parameter in this study. In our experiment, the exponential and stationary phases were employed. Three important factors must be taken into account when an ultrasonic biological reaction is investigated: the medium system, the bubbles' field, and the acoustic field. The medium system involves the physical parameters of the medium field. The bubbles' field includes the reacting bubble size of the liquid and the resonance frequency of the reaction bubbles. The oscillation of the cells in response to the ultrasound radiation is simulated using Rayleigh-Plesset's bubble activation theory. The resonance frequency of the unicellular creature is then calculated. The acoustic field is about using the diffuse field theory of Sabine to create a uniform sound field for the radiation experiment. The resonance frequency of the paramecium vacuole is among 0.54-1.09 MHz. When the 0.25 and 0.5 MHz frequencies of ultrasound was irradiated in the stationary phase of the paramecium, the relative growth rate was about 20% lower than that of unexposed sample. Therefore, the phenomenon of inhibition and destruction appeared during irradiation. The exponential phase of the paramecium samples appear to be different when irradiated with 1 MHz ultrasound. As can be seen in the results, the maximum relative growth

  13. Monitoring water cycle elements using GNSS geodetic receivers at the field research station Marquardt, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Tzvetan; Vey, Sibylle; Alshawaf, Fadwa; Dick, Galina; Guerova, Guergana; Güntner, Andreas; Hohmann, Christian; Kunwar, Ajeet; Trost, Benjamin; Wickert, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Water storage variations in the atmosphere and in soils are among the most dynamic within the Earth's water cycle. The continuous measurement of water storage in these media with a high spatial and temporal resolution is a challenging task, not yet completely solved by various observation techniques. With the development of the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) a new approach for atmospheric water vapor estimation in the atmosphere and in parallel of soil moisture in the vicinity of GNSS ground stations was established in the recent years with several key advantages compared to traditional techniques. Regional and global GNSS networks are nowadays operationally used to provide the Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) information with high temporal resolution above the individual stations. Corresponding data products are used to improve the day-by-day weather prediction of leading forecast centers. Selected stations from these networks can be used to additionally derive the soil moisture in the vicinity of the receivers. Such parallel measurement of IWV and soil moisture using a single measuring device provides a unique possibility to analyze water fluxes between the atmosphere and the land surface. We installed an advanced experimental GNSS setup for hydrology at the field research station of the Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy in Marquardt, around 30km West of Berlin, Germany. The setup includes several GNSS receivers, various Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) sensors at different depths for soil moisture measurement and an meteorological station. The setup was mainly installed to develop and improve GNSS based techniques for soil moisture determination and to analyze GNSS IWV and SM in parallel on a long-term perspective. We introduce initial results from more than two years of measurements. The comparison in station Marquardt shows good agreement (correlation 0.79) between the GNSS derived soil moisture and the TDR measurements. A

  14. 47 CFR 1.544 - Application for broadcast station to conduct field strength measurements and for experimental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for broadcast station to conduct... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Broadcast Applications and Proceedings General Filing Requirements § 1.544 Application for broadcast station to conduct field strength...

  15. IMOS National Reference Stations: a continental-wide physical, chemical and biological coastal observing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim P Lynch

    Full Text Available Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS. The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology.

  16. Materials for the field test - students' attitudes to nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Kattmann, U.; Lucht, H.; Spada, H.

    1975-01-01

    This working paper contains all the materials developed for and used in the field test of 'Student Attitudes toward Atomic Power Stations'. This research is a component of a larger project called 'Attitudes and Attitudes Change with Regard to Problems of Energy Supply and their Consequences for our Environment'. A central aim of this project is the development of instrumental strategies enabling the student to build up in this field a critically reflective and active behavior and attitudes based on sound problem consciousness. These instrumental strategies are derived from theories of social, learning and environmental psychology. A concrete result of these efforts are the materials of the field test mentioned above. They include: a) The draft of an instructional unit 'Atomic Power Stations - Prosperity or Disaster' with - a booklet on the subject matter for students and teachers - a paper on the contents of the instructional unit and their sequence - information for the students concerning the aims of the investigation - working materials for the students - reading materials for the teachers informing them about the proposed instructional strategies based on the psychological theories: (1) model-learning and the structuring of knowledge, (2) how to activate and motivate students, (3) the stabilization of attitudes and (4) small group work. b) Instruments for testing and observation. These instruments were used within a criterion-oriented evaluation and for a test of the effects of the different proposed items used in the instruction. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Concrete with superabsorbent polymers (SAP) - experience from the Fehmarn field exposure station in Rødbyhavn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Pade, Claus

    2011-01-01

    A field exposure station has been established in Rødbyhavn Habour. One of the concrete types tested is with superabsorbent polymer (SAP) - a new type of additive, which can be used to mitigate self-desiccation and to control air void structure. This paper presents results from the extensive...... laboratory test program, which was conducted before test panels were placed in Rødbyhavn Habour. Results show that when using SAP, it is possible to produce concrete with a pre-defined air void structure. Strength and transport properties are comparable to the properties of a reference concrete, but results...

  18. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  19. Biological interactions and human health effects of static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-09-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems will be described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecular structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary will also be presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields studied in the laboratory and in natural settings. One aspect of magnetic field effects that merits special concern is their influence on implanted medical electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers. Several extensive studies have demonstrated closure of the reed switch in pacemakers exposed to relatively weak static magnetic fields, thereby causing them to revert to an asynchronous mode of operation that is potentially hazardous. Recommendations for human exposure limits are provided

  20. Magnetic fields of AM band radio broadcast signals at the Richmond Field Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Alex; Frangos, William

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive sensing of the shallow subsurface is necessary for detection and delineation of buried hazardous wastes, monitoring of the condition of clay containment caps, and a variety of other purposes. Electromagnetic methods have proven to be effective in environmental site characterization where there is a need for increased resolution in subsurface characterization. Two considerations strongly suggest the use of frequencies between 100 kHz and 100 MHz for such applications: 1) the induction response of many targets is small due to small size, and 2) a need to determine both the electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity which are related to chemistry and hydrology. Modeling and physical parameter studies confirm that measurements at frequencies between 1 and 100 MHz can resolve variations in subsurface conductivity and permittivity. To provide the necessary technology for shallow subsurface investigations, we propose to exploit the concept of electromagnetic impedance, the ratio of orthogonal horizontal electric and magnetic fields. Prior to assembling the equipment for measuring surface impedance using controlled, local source it was felt prudent to measure the surface impedance of geological materials at the University of California at Berkeley's Richmond Field (RFS) using ambient energy in the broadcast band. As a first step toward this intermediate goal, we have examined and characterized local AM band radio signals in terms of both signal strength and polarization of the magnetic component as received at RFS. In addition, we have established the viability of a commercial radio-frequency magnetic sensor

  1. Instrumentation for electromagnetic field generation in biological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaric, K.; Malaric, R.; Tkalec, M.; Lenicek, I.; Sala, A.

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are part of everyday life in modern world. Extremely low-frequency EMFs (50 Hz) are produced by most electric home appliance, electric power transmission and distribution lines. For the last ten years mobile phones have been widely used all around the world. They operate on the EMF frequencies from 400 MHz to 1900 MHz. The effects of EMFs on living organisms have been the subject of debate and research for the last thirty years. The instrumentation for generation of EMFs have been designed at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Zagreb, and can be used for controlled exposure to different EMFs. To study the effect of extremely low-frequency EMF, duckweed (Lemna minor) - the model plant in biological measurement, test setup was made for magnetic field in Helmholtz coil and for electric field between two parallel circle electrodes. For the effect of mobile phones frequencies, test setup with exposition to the electromagnetic field was done with Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode (GTEM) cell. The research confirmed that instrumentation used in these experiments is suitable for evaluation of biological effects of EMFs. The effect of different field strengths, exposure times and modulation can be tested with these instrumentation.(author)

  2. The relative biological effectiveness of out-of-field dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderson, Michael; Koger, Brandon; Kirkby, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: using simulations and models derived from existing literature, this work investigates relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for out-of-field radiation and attempts to quantify the relative magnitudes of different contributing phenomena (spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects). Specific attention is paid to external beam radiotherapy treatments for prostate cancer. Materials and methods: using different biological models that account for spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects, the RBE was calculated for different points moving radially out from isocentre for a typical single arc VMAT prostate case. The RBE was found by taking the ratio of the equivalent dose with the physical dose. Equivalent doses were calculated by determining what physical dose would be necessary to produce the same overall biological effect as that predicted using the different biological models. Results: spectral effects changed the RBE out-of-field less than 2%, whereas response models incorporating low dose hypersensitivity and bystander effects resulted in a much more profound change of the RBE for out-of-field doses. The bystander effect had the largest RBE for points located just outside the edge of the primary radiation beam in the cranial caudal (z-direction) compared to low dose hypersensitivity and spectral effects. In the coplanar direction, bystander effect played the largest role in enhancing the RBE for points up to 8.75 cm from isocentre. Conclusions: spectral, bystander, and low dose hypersensitivity effects can all increase the RBE for out-of-field radiation doses. In most cases, bystander effects seem to play the largest role followed by low dose hypersensitivity. Spectral effects were unlikely to be of any clinical significance. Bystander, low dose hypersensitivity, and spectral effect increased the RBE much more in the cranial caudal direction (z-direction) compared with the coplanar directions.

  3. Automatic Weather Station (AWS Program operated by the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the 2011-2012 field season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Lazzara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the 2011-2012 austral summer, the Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS program at the University of Wisconsin?Madison completed its 32nd year of observations. Ongoing studies utilizing the network include topics in Antarctic meteorology and climate studies. This field season consisted of work throughout the Ross Island area, the Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica, and East Antarctica. Argos satellite transmissions are the primary method for relaying station data, but throughout this year, a number of stations in the Ross Island area have been converted to Freewave modems, with their data being relayed through McMurdo station. Each AWS station report contains information regarding the instrumentation currently installed and the work performed at each site. An overview of the AWS applications is included along with field work accomplished.

  4. National surveys of radiofrequency field strengths from radio base stations in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyner, K. H.; Van Wyk, M. J.; Rowley, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analysed almost 260 000 measurement points from surveys of radiofrequency (RF) field strengths near radio base stations in seven African countries over two time frames from 2001 to 2003 and 2006 to 2012. The results of the national surveys were compared, chronological trends investigated and potential exposures compared by technology and with frequency modulation (FM) radio. The key findings from these data are that irrespective of country, the year and mobile technology, RF fields at a ground level were only a small fraction of the international human RF exposure recommendations. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in typical measured levels since the introduction of 3G services. The mean levels in these African countries are similar to the reported levels for countries of Asia, Europe and North America using similar mobile technologies. The median level for the FM services in South Africa was comparable to the individual but generally lower than the combined mobile services. (authors)

  5. Electric and magnetic fields in medicine and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Papers Include: The effects of low frequency (50 Hz) magnetic fields on neuro-chemical transmission in vitro; Morphological changes in E Coli subjected to DC electrical fields; An investigation of some claimed biological effects of electromagnetic fields; Electrical phenomena and bone healing - a comparison of contemporary techniques; Clinical evaluations of a portable module emitting pulsed RF energy; The design, construction and performance of a magnetic nerve stimulator; The principle of electric field tomography and its application to selective read-out of information from peripheral nerves; Applied potential tomography - clinical applications; Impendance imaging using a linear electrode array; Mathematics as an aid to experiment: human body currents induced by power frequency electric fields; Effects of electric field near 750KV transmission line and protection against their harmful consequences; Leukemia and electromagnetic fields: a case-control study; Overhead power lines and childhood cancer; Magnetic measurement of nerve action currents - a new intraoperative recording technique; The potential use of electron spin resonance or impedance measurement to image neuronal electrical activity in the human brain

  6. Wood retention and transport in tropical, headwater streams, La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadol, Daniel; Wohl, Ellen

    2010-11-01

    Wood in tropical streams has the potential to be more mobile than wood in otherwise similar temperate streams because of the warm and humid conditions that promote decay and the more frequent and flashier floods of the tropics. To test this hypothesis, we monitored all large wood pieces for 2.3 years in 10 50-m-long reaches of old-growth headwater streams in La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Annual wood retention rates for pieces ranged from 0.55 to 0.91 among the sites, and retention rates by volume ranged from 0.67 to 0.99. Assuming steady state wood load, which is reasonable for La Selva, these rates are equivalent to mean residence times of 2.2-10.6 years for pieces, and 3.0-83.2 years for a volume of wood. Calculating mean residence time from the weighted average of retention rates gives an average residence time of 4.9 years for a piece of wood and 6.9 years for a volume of wood. These values are less than those reported for old-growth temperate forests, supporting our hypothesis. Mobility of individual pieces was best predicted by piece length relative to stream width ( lr, higher lr led to lower mobility), channel gradient ( s, higher s led to higher mobility), and piece integration into the channel (unattached pieces were 2.6 times more mobile than attached, ramp, or bridge pieces). Temporal variation in retention rates was well explained by variation in peak flow. All four of these factors have also been observed to influence mobility in the temperate zone. The higher mobility of wood in our study site relative to the temperate rainforest of the Pacific Northwest may be explained by the flashy and frequent floods, the high decay rate, or the branching morphology of the native trees; but differentiating the role of these factors, particularly flow and decay, will be complicated by their covariation across climates.

  7. Influencing attitudes toward science through field experiences in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Deborah Mcintyre

    The purpose of this study was to determine how student attitudes toward science are influenced by field experiences in undergraduate biology courses. The study was conducted using two institutions of higher education including a 2-year lower-level and a 2-year upper-level institution. Data were collected through interviews with student participants, focus group discussions, students' journal entries, and field notes recorded by the researcher during the field activities. Photographs and video recordings were also used as documentation sources. Data were collected over a period of 34 weeks. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data included students' beliefs that field experiences (a) positively influence student motivation to learn, (b) increase student ability to learn the concepts being taught, and (c) provide opportunities for building relationships and for personal growth. The findings of the study reinforce the importance of offering field-study programs at the undergraduate level to allow undergraduate students the opportunity to experience science activities in a field setting. The research study was framed by the behavioral and developmental theories of attitude and experience including the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Theory of Experiential Learning (Kolb, 1984).

  8. Extremely low-frequency magnetic fields of transformers and possible biological and health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirav, Bahriye; Sezgin, Gaye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2014-12-01

    Physiological processes in organisms can be influenced by extremely low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic energy. Biological effect studies have great importance; as well as measurement studies since they provide information on the real exposure situations. In this study, the leakage magnetic fields around a transformer were measured in an apartment building in Küçükçekmece, Istanbul, and the measurement results were evaluated with respect to the international exposure standards. The transformer station was on the bottom floor of a three-floor building. It was found that people living and working in the building were exposed to ELF magnetic fields higher than the threshold magnetic field value of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many people living in this building reported health complaints such as immunological problems of their children. There were child-workers working in the textile factories located in the building. Safe distances or areas for these people should be recommended. Protective measures could be implemented to minimize these exposures. Further residential exposure studies are needed to demonstrate the exposure levels of ELF magnetic fields. Precautions should, therefore, be taken either to reduce leakage or minimize the exposed fields. Shielding techniques should be used to minimize the leakage magnetic fields in such cases.

  9. A new station for monitoring electromagnetic fields in Duronia (Italy: experimental setup and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Di Lorenzo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Since the end of 2007 a new electromagnetic field monitoring station has been in operation in Central Italy in the area of a village called Duronia. The station was created in the framework of the MEM (Magnetic and Electric

    fields Monitoring Project composed of a team headed by the Abruzzo region. The main target of the MEM Project is to create in the Adriatic Area a network of observatories to monitor the environmental electromagnetic signals in the frequency band from 0.001Hz to 100kHz (ULF-ELF-VLF. The peculiarity of the Duronia installation is the low electromagnetic background noise of the site and the low noise of the instrumentation. Here we show the experimental setup, with a brief discussion on the installed instrumentation and on the preliminaresults obtained in the first months of operation. The research activity is mainly focused on the analysis of the spectral structure of the Schumann Resonance in the range of frequencies [5.0-35.0]Hz, and the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator in the range of frequencies [0.1-7.0]Hz and their evolution in time. Another target concerns the long-term monitoring of local magnetic field anomalies possiblelated to the local geodynamical processes.



  10. Assessment of levels of occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields to workers in television stations in Accra-Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osei, S.

    2012-01-01

    The growing number of television (TV) stations in the country and the increasing use of RF and ELF technology have led to the heightened worker concern of the potential health risk that may exist. Despite these concerns, very little is known about the occupational exposure to RF and ELFs in Ghana. A survey of the RF and ELF radiation at two TV stations were made in Accra, Ghana. The primary objective of this study was to determine the level of RF and ELF exposure to workers in the TV stations. A spectrum analyser, a bi-conical antenna (30 - 300MHz), a log periodic antenna (200MHz - 2.0GHz) and an EMFields Professional ELF survey meter with sensitivity of 10Hz - 2000Hz ± 3dB were used. Results obtained indicated that the RF power density ranged between 2.6mW/m 2 and 455.6mW/2 2 in GTV and between 0.97mW/m 2 and 181.4mW/m 2 in Metro TV. These levels of occupational exposure were within acceptable levels recommended by ICNIRP. ELF measurement results showed that the average electric field ranged between 0.1200V/m and 1150V/m in GTV and between 0.0006V/m and 0.0709V/m in Metro TV. The computed induced currents from ELFs for a male worker ranged between 1.8617E-05mA and 0.01784mA in GTV and between 0.0009mA and 0.1099mA in Metro TV. Results from analysis of questionnaires administered to workers to elicit response on common symptoms they experience at the workplace showed that a higher percentage of workers in the studio and technical section experience some biological effects or symptoms of RF and ELF as compared to workers in administration. The electric field levels recorded in this work are comparable to similar studies conducted elsewhere.(au)

  11. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and recently updated safety guidelines for strong static magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields. (author)

  12. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields and recently updated safety guidelines for strong static magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi-Sekino, Sachiko; Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2011-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to artificial and naturally occurring magnetic fields that originate from many different sources. We review recent studies that examine the biological effects of and medical applications involving electromagnetic fields, review the properties of static and pulsed electromagnetic fields that affect biological systems, describe the use of a pulsed electromagnetic field in combination with an anticancer agent as an example of a medical application that incorporates an electromagnetic field, and discuss the recently updated safety guidelines for static electromagnetic fields. The most notable modifications to the 2009 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are the increased exposure limits, especially for those who work with or near electromagnetic fields (occupational exposure limits). The recommended increases in exposure were determined using recent scientific evidence obtained from animal and human studies. Several studies since the 1994 publication of the guidelines have examined the effects on humans after exposure to high static electromagnetic fields (up to 9.4 tesla), but additional research is needed to ascertain further the safety of strong electromagnetic fields.

  13. Characterisation of ground motion recording stations in the Groningen gas field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorlandt, Rik; Kruiver, Pauline P.; de Kleine, Marco P. E.; Karaoulis, Marios; de Lange, Ger; Di Matteo, Antonio; von Ketelhodt, Julius; Ruigrok, Elmer; Edwards, Benjamin; Rodriguez-Marek, Adrian; Bommer, Julian J.; van Elk, Jan; Doornhof, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    The seismic hazard and risk analysis for the onshore Groningen gas field requires information about local soil properties, in particular shear-wave velocity (V S). A fieldwork campaign was conducted at 18 surface accelerograph stations of the monitoring network. The subsurface in the region consists of unconsolidated sediments and is heterogeneous in composition and properties. A range of different methods was applied to acquire in situ V S values to a target depth of at least 30 m. The techniques include seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT) with varying source offsets, multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) on Rayleigh waves with different processing approaches, microtremor array, cross-hole tomography and suspension P-S logging. The offset SCPT, cross-hole tomography and common midpoint cross-correlation (CMPcc) processing of MASW data all revealed lateral variations on length scales of several to tens of metres in this geological setting. SCPTs resulted in very detailed V S profiles with depth, but represent point measurements in a heterogeneous environment. The MASW results represent V S information on a larger spatial scale and smooth some of the heterogeneity encountered at the sites. The combination of MASW and SCPT proved to be a powerful and cost-effective approach in determining representative V S profiles at the accelerograph station sites. The measured V S profiles correspond well with the modelled profiles and they significantly enhance the ground motion model derivation. The similarity between the theoretical transfer function from the V S profile and the observed amplification from vertical array stations is also excellent.

  14. Assessment of electromagnetic fields intensity emitted by cellular phone base stations in surrounding flats - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmyslony, M.; Politanski, P.; Mamrot, P.; Bortkiewicz, A.

    2006-01-01

    A rapid development of mobile telecommunications (MT) has resulted in an increased concern about possible detrimental health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by MT systems, and by MT base stations in particular. Research into EMFs effects on the health of inhabitants living in their vicinity requires first of all a solid assessment of the exposure level. Up to now, the reports in this field have been rather scant. This article presents the results of preliminary measurements of EMFs fields in selected flats around selected base stations in the city of Lodz. Measurements of electric field strength, E, to assess EMF exposure were based on the standard procedures currently in force in Poland. As the study is regarded as a preliminary one, the measurements were conducted in buildings with the expected largest radiation. The measurements show that in the flats located up to 500 m from the base station, EMFs are within the limits specified by relevant Polish regulations on the general public and environmental protection. It was also observed that in a few (less than 10%) flats the field with E exceeded 0.8 V/m. The results show that there are no correlations between electric field strength and distance between the flat and the base station. Therefore, the distance from the base station cannot be used to represent the exposure rate; to determine the latter, EMF measurements are necessary. (author)

  15. Study on temperature field airborne remote sensing survey along shore nuclear power station in different tide status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Chunli; Li Mingsong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear Power Station needs to let large quantity of cooling water to the near sea area when it is running. Whether the cooling water has effect to surrounding environment and the running of Nuclear Power Station needs further research. Temperature Drainage Mathematic Model and Physical Analogue Model need to acquire the distribution characteristic of near Station sea surface temperature field in different seasons and different tide status. Airborne Remote Sending Technique has a advantage in gaining high resolution sea surface temperature in different tide status, and any other manual method with discrete point survey can not reach it. After a successful implementation of airborne remote sensing survey to gain the near-shore temperature drainage information in Qinshan Nuclear Power Station, it provides the reference methods and ideas for temperature drainage remote sensing survey of Nuclear Power Station. (authors)

  16. Influence of different natural physical fields on biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashinsky, A. L.

    2001-01-01

    In space flight conditions gravity, magnetic, and electrical fields as well as ionizing radiation change both in size, and in direction. This causes disruptions in the conduct of some physical processes, chemical reactions, and metabolism in living organisms. In these conditions organisms of different phylogenetic level change their metabolic reactions undergo changes such as disturbances in ionic exchange both in lower and in higher plants, changes in cell morphology for example, gyrosity in Proteus ( Proteus vulgaris), spatial disorientation in coleoptiles of Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) and Pea ( Pisum sativum) seedlings, mutational changes in Crepis ( Crepis capillaris) and Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana) seedling. It has been found that even in the absence of gravity, gravireceptors determining spatial orientation in higher plants under terrestrial conditions are formed in the course of ontogenesis. Under weightlessness this system does not function and spatial orientation is determined by the light flux gradient or by the action of some other factors. Peculiarities of the formation of the gravireceptor apparatus in higher plants, amphibians, fish, and birds under space flight conditions have been observed. It has been found that the system in which responses were accompanied by phase transition have proven to be gravity-sensitive under microgravity conditions. Such reactions include also the process of photosynthesis which is the main energy production process in plants. In view of the established effects of microgravity and different natural physical fields on biological processes, it has been shown that these processes change due to the absence of initially rigid determination. The established biological effect of physical fields influence on biological processes in organisms is the starting point for elucidating the role of gravity and evolutionary development of various organisms on Earth.

  17. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotronradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried,Daniel

    2004-12-23

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  18. South Baltic representative coastal field surveys, including monitoring at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Schönhofer, Jan; Szmytkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-10-01

    The paper contains a brief description of selected investigations carried out in the south Baltic coastal zone, with the particular focus on the history and recent activities conducted at the Coastal Research Station in Lubiatowo (CRS Lubiatowo), Poland. These activities comprise field investigations of nearshore hydrodynamic, lithodynamic, and morphodynamic processes. The study area is a sandy multi-bar shore with a mild slope, much exposed to the impact of waves approaching from NW-NE sector. The shore has a dissipative character which means that the wave energy is subject to gradual dissipation in the nearshore zone and only a small part of this energy is reflected by the shore. Due to the big wind fetch in N-NNE direction, the location of CRS Lubiatowo is favourable to registration of the maximum values of parameters of hydrodynamic and morphodynamic processes which occur in the Baltic during extreme storms.

  19. Measuring human remains in the field: Grid technique, total station, or MicroScribe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sládek, Vladimír; Galeta, Patrik; Sosna, Daniel

    2012-09-10

    Although three-dimensional (3D) coordinates for human intra-skeletal landmarks are among the most important data that anthropologists have to record in the field, little is known about the reliability of various measuring techniques. We compared the reliability of three techniques used for 3D measurement of human remain in the field: grid technique (GT), total station (TS), and MicroScribe (MS). We measured 365 field osteometric points on 12 skeletal sequences excavated at the Late Medieval/Early Modern churchyard in Všeruby, Czech Republic. We compared intra-observer, inter-observer, and inter-technique variation using mean difference (MD), mean absolute difference (MAD), standard deviation of difference (SDD), and limits of agreement (LA). All three measuring techniques can be used when accepted error ranges can be measured in centimeters. When a range of accepted error measurable in millimeters is needed, MS offers the best solution. TS can achieve the same reliability as does MS, but only when the laser beam is accurately pointed into the center of the prism. When the prism is not accurately oriented, TS produces unreliable data. TS is more sensitive to initialization than is MS. GT measures human skeleton with acceptable reliability for general purposes but insufficiently when highly accurate skeletal data are needed. We observed high inter-technique variation, indicating that just one technique should be used when spatial data from one individual are recorded. Subadults are measured with slightly lower error than are adults. The effect of maximum excavated skeletal length has little practical significance in field recording. When MS is not available, we offer practical suggestions that can help to increase reliability when measuring human skeleton in the field. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phase-field theories for mathematical modeling of biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Guillermo R; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Hernández-Machado, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    Biological membranes are complex structures whose mechanics are usually described at a mesoscopic level, such as the Helfrich bending theory. In this article, we present the phase-field methods, a useful tool for studying complex membrane problems which can be applied to very different phenomena. We start with an overview of the general theory of elasticity, paying special attention to its derivation from a molecular scale. We then study the particular case of membrane elasticity, explicitly obtaining the Helfrich bending energy. Within the framework of this theory, we derive a phase-field model for biological membranes and explore its physical basis and interpretation in terms of membrane elasticity. We finally explain three examples of applications of these methods to membrane related problems. First, the case of vesicle pearling and tubulation, when lipidic vesicles are exposed to the presence of hydrophobic polymers that anchor to the membrane, inducing a shape instability. Finally, we study the behavior of red blood cells while flowing in narrow microchannels, focusing on the importance of membrane elasticity to the cell flow capabilities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Seasonal field efficacy of pyriproxyfen autodissemination stations against container-inhabiting mosquito Aedes albopictus under different habitat conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Devi Shankar; Wang, Yi; Faraji, Ary; Williams, Gregory M; Williges, Eric; Gaugler, Randy

    2018-04-01

    Control of the container-inhabiting mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is difficult using conventional methods due to its selection of cryptic peri-domestic habitats. We evaluated whether autodissemination stations can deliver sufficient pyriproxyfen to sentinel containers to produce significant pupal mortality in different habitats such as competing oviposition sites, peri-domestic habitats, junkyards and tire piles. We also tested how far the pesticide could be transferred over a 200-m range. Autodissemination stations performed effectively for 8-12 weeks under field conditions. Pupal mortality was reduced in sentinel cups with high-competing oviposition habitats (5 versus 20) in isolated plots; however, similar results were not seen in residential areas. Increasing the number of stations per plot (from 1 to 4) enhanced the efficacy. Peri-domestic habitat trials showed the highest pupal mortality (50.4%) and site contamination with pyriproxyfen (82.2%) among the trials. Autodissemination stations were able to contaminate habitats in a junkyard (50.0%) and tire piles (40.2%). Pyriproxyfen was detected in sentinel cups up to 200 m from stations. Detection of pyriproxyfen by residue analysis (0.005-0.741 µg L -1 ) in field samples confirmed the transfer of the insect growth regulator. Autodissemination stations have shown promising potential as a novel pest management tool against container mosquitoes in field trials in different habitats confronted by mosquito control personnel. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Epigenetics: A way to bridge the gap between biological fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoglou, Antonine; Merlin, Francesca

    2017-12-01

    The concept of epigenetics has evolved since Waddington defined it from the late 1930s as the study of the causal mechanisms at work in development. It has become a multi-faceted notion with different meanings, depending on the disciplinary context it is used. In this article, we first analyse the transformations of the concept of epigenetics, from Waddington to contemporary accounts, in order to identify its different meanings and traditions, and to come up with a typology of epigenetics throughout its history. Second, we show on this basis that epigenetics has progressively turned its main focus from biological problems regarding development, toward issues concerning evolution. Yet, both these different epistemological aspects of epigenetics still coexist. Third, we claim that the classical opposition between epigenesis and preformationism as ways of thinking about the developmental process is part of the history of epigenetics and has contributed to its current various meanings. With these objectives in mind, we first show how Waddington introduced the term "epigenetics" in a biological context in order to solve a developmental problem, and we then build on this by presenting Nanney's, Riggs' and Holliday's definitions, which form the basis for the current conception of "molecular epigenetics". Then, we show that the evo-devo research field is where some particular uses of epigenetics have started shifting from developmental issues to evolutionary problems. We also show that epigenetics has progressively focused on the issue of epigenetic inheritance within the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis' framework. Finally, we conclude by presenting a typology of the different conceptions of epigenetics throughout time, and analyse the connections between them. We argue that, since Waddington, epigenetics, as an integrative research area, has been used to bridge the gap between different biological fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Plant- Compost -Microorganisms Synergy for the Remediation of Diesel contaminated Soil: Success Stories from the Field Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Imran; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard; Sessitsch, Angela; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2016-04-01

    Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) contain a mixture of crude oil, gasoline, creosote and diesel is one of the most common groups of persistent organic pollutants. TPH enters into the ecosystem (soil, water and air) through leakage of underground storage tanks (LUST), accidental oil spills, transportation losses and industrial processes. Pollution associated with diesel oil and its refined products is of great concern worldwide due to its threats/damages for human and ecosystem health, soil structure and ground water quality. Extensive soils pollution with petroleum hydrocarbons results in extreme harsh surroundings, produce hydrophobic conditions and infertile soils that ultimately lead towards less plant and microorganisms growth. Among biological methods, bioremediation and phytoremediation are promising technologies that have both technical and ecological benefits as compared to convention methods. Within phytoremediation, rhizoremediation based on stimulation of degrading microorganism's population influenced by plant rhizospheric effect is known as main mechanism for phytoremediation of petroleum polluted soils. Composting along with rhizodegradtion was used to remediate freshly spilled soils at Lysimeter station Siebersdof, Austria. Experiment was started in July 2013 and will be monitored up to September 2016. Field station has 12 Lysimeter in total; each has length, width and depth of 100 cm respectively. Each Lysimeter was filled with normal agricultural soil from Siebersdof (0-70 cm), sand (70-85 cm) and stones (85-100cm). Sand and stones were added to support the normal leaching and percolation of water as we collected leachate samples after regular intervals. After filling, commercial diesel oil (2% w/w of 0-70 cm soil) was spilled on top of each Lysimeter as accidental spill occurs in filed. Compost was added at 0-15 cm layer (5% w/w of soil) to stimulate plant as well as microorganisms growth. Whole Lysimeter station was divided into three treatments

  4. The viability of biological treatment at Ibi wastewater treatment station; Viabilidad del tratamiento biologico de aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flor Garcia, M.V.; Morenilla Martinez, J.J.; Ruiz Zapata, R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, we have proved the viability of biological treatment of leaving waters from Ibi Wastewater Treatment Station, where water is subject to the action of coagulant agents, following a physical and chemical process. the experience was based on wastewater treatment by using activated sludge, at experimental scale in a pilot plant. During the experiments, we controlled the main parameters which indicate treatment success; namely, Suspended Solids (SS), pH, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), in addition to other substances such as nutrients and toxicants, and inhibitors of bio metabolism. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. Field investigation source area ST58 old Quartermaster service station, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liikala, T.L.; Evans, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Source area ST58 is the site of the old Quartermaster service station at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. The source area is one of several Source Evaluation Report sites being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Air Force as candidates for no further remedial action, interim removal action, or a remedial investigation/feasibility study under a Federal Facilities Agreement. The purpose of this work was to characterize source area ST58 and excavate the most contaminated soils for use in composting treatability studies. A field investigation was conducted to determine the nature and extent of soil contamination. The field investigation entailed a records search; grid node location, surface geophysical, and soil gas surveys; and test pit soil sampling. Soil excavation followed based on the results of the field investigation. The site was backfilled with clean soil. Results from this work indicate close spatial correlation between screening instruments, used during the field investigation and soil excavation, and laboratory analyses. Gasoline was identified as the main subsurface contaminant based on the soil gas surveys and test pit soil sampling. A center of contamination was located near the northcentral portion of the source area, and a center was located in the northwestern comer. The contamination typically occurred near or below a former soil horizon probably as a result of surface spills and leaks from discontinuities and/or breaks in the underground piping. Piping locations were delineated during the surface geophysical surveys and corresponded very well to unscaled drawings of the site. The high subsurface concentrations of gasoline detected in the northwestern comer of the source area probably reflect ground-water contamination and/or possibly floating product.

  6. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 6: Space Station Freedom/spacelab modules compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The differences in rack requirements for Spacelab, the Shuttle Orbiter, and the United States (U.S.) laboratory module, European Space Agency (ESA) Columbus module, and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of Space Station Freedom are identified. The feasibility of designing standardized mechanical, structural, electrical, data, video, thermal, and fluid interfaces to allow space flight hardware designed for use in the U.S. laboratory module to be used in other locations is assessed.

  7. Biological and radioecological investigations at the Ringhals nuclear power station, 1968-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimaas, U.; Jacobsson, A.; Neuman, E.

    1989-09-01

    The summary is based on 19 papers, which are presented in the References. The reports concern fish, bottom-living animals, zooplankton and algae as well as the presence of radioactivity in the aquatic and terrestrial environments. The investigation has been conducted at the request of Vaesterbygden's Water Rights Court and present the experiences of twelve operational years, of which the last four years have been with the power station at full capacity. In judging the effects of the operation of the power station, particular emphasis has been placed on questions given priority by the Water Rights Court, namely fishing and radioactivity. As regards fishing, the direct effects of the cooling-system on fish in different developmental stages have been assessed to be of importance. Water-borne radioactivity has been traced in organisms and sediment in the area. The concentrations of different radionucleids originating from the power station are highest in algae and lowest in fish-meat. The results form the basis of calculations of the radioactive dose to man. (orig./HP)

  8. An unattended verification station for UF6 cylinders: Field trial findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. E.; Miller, K. A.; McDonald, B. S.; Webster, J. B.; Zalavadia, M. A.; Garner, J. R.; Stewart, S. L.; Branney, S. J.; Todd, L. C.; Deshmukh, N. S.; Nordquist, H. A.; Kulisek, J. A.; Swinhoe, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has pursued innovative techniques and an integrated suite of safeguards measures to address the verification challenges posed by the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Among the unattended instruments currently being explored by the IAEA is an Unattended Cylinder Verification Station (UCVS), which could provide automated, independent verification of the declared relative enrichment, 235U mass, total uranium mass, and identification for all declared uranium hexafluoride cylinders in a facility (e.g., uranium enrichment plants and fuel fabrication plants). Under the auspices of the United States and European Commission Support Programs to the IAEA, a project was undertaken to assess the technical and practical viability of the UCVS concept. The first phase of the UCVS viability study was centered on a long-term field trial of a prototype UCVS system at a fuel fabrication facility. A key outcome of the study was a quantitative performance evaluation of two nondestructive assay (NDA) methods being considered for inclusion in a UCVS: Hybrid Enrichment Verification Array (HEVA), and Passive Neutron Enrichment Meter (PNEM). This paper provides a description of the UCVS prototype design and an overview of the long-term field trial. Analysis results and interpretation are presented with a focus on the performance of PNEM and HEVA for the assay of over 200 "typical" Type 30B cylinders, and the viability of an "NDA Fingerprint" concept as a high-fidelity means to periodically verify that material diversion has not occurred.

  9. Type test of Class 1E electric cables, field splices, and connections for nuclear power generating stations - 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    This Standard provides direction for establishing type tests which may be used in qualifying Class 1E electric cables, field splices, and other connections for service in nuclear power generating stations. General guidelines for qualifications are given in IEEE Std 323-1974, Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Electric Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. Categories of cables covered are those used for power control and instrumentation services. Though intended primarily to pertain to cable for field installation, this guide may also be used for the qualification of internal wiring of manufactured devices

  10. A large-scale measurement of electromagnetic fields near GSM base stations in Guangxi, China for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Shao, Q.; Yang, L.; Qi, D.; Lin, J.; Lin, X.; Yu, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from wireless telecommunication base station antennae can lead to debates, conflicts or litigations among the adjacent residents if inappropriately managed. This paper presents a measurement campaign for the GSM band EMF exposure in the vicinity of 827 base station sites (totally 6207 measurement points) in Guangxi, China. Measurement specifications are designed for risk communication with the residents who previously complained of over-exposure. The EMF power densities with the global positioning system coordinate at each measured point were recorded. Compliance with the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and Chinese environmental EMF safety standards was studied. The results show that the GSM band EMF level near the base stations is very low. The measurement results and the EMF risk communication procedures positively influence public perception of the RF EMF exposure from the base stations and promote the exchange of EMF exposure-related knowledge. (authors)

  11. Design Analysis of SNS Target StationBiological Shielding Monoligh with Proton Power Uprate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ibrahim, Ahmad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report documents the analysis of the dose rate in the experiment area outside the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) target station shielding monolith with proton beam energy of 1.3 GeV. The analysis implemented a coupled three dimensional (3D)/two dimensional (2D) approach that used both the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended (MCNPX) 3D Monte Carlo code and the Discrete Ordinates Transport (DORT) two dimensional deterministic code. The analysis with proton beam energy of 1.3 GeV showed that the dose rate in continuously occupied areas on the lateral surface outside the SNS target station shielding monolith is less than 0.25 mrem/h, which complies with the SNS facility design objective. However, the methods and codes used in this analysis are out of date and unsupported, and the 2D approximation of the target shielding monolith does not accurately represent the geometry. We recommend that this analysis is updated with modern codes and libraries such as ADVANTG or SHIFT. These codes have demonstrated very high efficiency in performing full 3D radiation shielding analyses of similar and even more difficult problems.

  12. Biological investigations off the Oskarshamn nuclear power station during the 1980's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuman, E.; Andersson, J.

    1990-11-01

    The Oscarshamn power station consists of three nuclear reactors, of which the first came into production in 1972 and the last in 1985. The power station uses large volumes of cooling-water; altogether 100 m 3 /s is heated 10 degrees C. During the 1970's, the investigations of the ecological effects of the use of cooling-water had a wide coverage, whereas during the 1980's, the years treated here, the investigations have mainly been concentrated on fish and bottom fauna. The temperature increase stimulates growth of many organisms and causes attraction. The cooling-water plume and the counter-currents it causes increase the transports of nutrients. The concentration of nutrients in different ways contributes to increased production further up in the food chains and strengthens the attraction of fish. The losses of fish in the cooling system have been relatively small. The parasitization frequency of eels in the receiving bay is extremely high, but otherwise there have been no abnormal disease or parasite attacks. Disturbances to the reproduction of fish in the heated water are present. The importance of this, particularly for surrounding areas, should be investigated within the continued monitoring. (authors)

  13. Chemical, Biological, and Explosive Sensors for Field Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyle, Kevin; Manard, Manuel; Weeks, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) is developing handheld chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) detection systems and sensor motes for wireless networked field operations. The CBE sensors are capable of detecting and identifying multiple targeted toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and high-explosive vapor components. The CBE devices are based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled with fast gas chromatography (GC) or mass spectrometry. The systems all include the concepts of: (1) Direct air/particulate 'smart' sampling; (2) Selective, continuous real-time (∼1 sec) alert monitoring using DMS; and (3) Highly selective, rapid dual technology separation/verification analysis The biosensor technology is based on Raman aerosol particle flow cytometry for target detection and identification. Monitoring and identifying trace level chemical vapors directly from ambient air will allow First Responders to quickly adapt situational response strategies and personal protective equipment needs to the specific response scenario being encountered. First Responders require great confidence in the measurements and ability of a given system to detect CBE below threshold levels without interferences. The concept of determining the background matrix in near real-time to allow subsequent automated field-programmable method selection and cueing of high-value assets in a wide range of environs will be presented. This provides CBE information for decisions prior to First Responders entering the response site or sending a portable mobile unit for a remote site survey of the hazards. The focus is on real-time information needed by those responsible for emergency response and national security

  14. Chemical, Biological, and Explosive Sensors for Field Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Kyle, Manuel Manard, Stephan Weeks

    2009-01-31

    Special Technologies Laboratory (STL) is developing handheld chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) detection systems and sensor motes for wireless networked field operations. The CBE sensors are capable of detecting and identifying multiple targeted toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) and high-explosive vapor components. The CBE devices are based on differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) coupled with fast gas chromatography (GC) or mass spectrometry. The systems all include the concepts of: 1. Direct air/particulate “smart” sampling 2. Selective, continuous real-time (~1 sec) alert monitoring using DMS 3. Highly selective, rapid dual technology separation/verification analysis The biosensor technology is based on Raman aerosol particle flow cytometry for target detection and identification. Monitoring and identifying trace level chemical vapors directly from ambient air will allow First Responders to quickly adapt situational response strategies and personal protective equipment needs to the specific response scenario being encountered. First Responders require great confidence in the measurements and ability of a given system to detect CBE below threshold levels without interferences. The concept of determining the background matrix in near real-time to allow subsequent automated field-programmable method selection and cueing of high-value assets in a wide range of environs will be presented. This provides CBE information for decisions prior to First Responders entering the response site or sending a portable mobile unit for a remote site survey of the hazards. The focus is on real-time information needed by those responsible for emergency response and national security.

  15. Biological effect of magnetic field on the fermentation of wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Dobšinský

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During the transformation process of matter is produced energy, which afterwards interacts with matter itself, and other forms of energy. Energy induced electromagnetic appliances may affect the processes occurring in biological systems. In our study we have evaluated the wine fermentation process of the magnetic field with different amplitudes of electromagnetic induction, the constant exposure of 30 minutes a day for 10 days. The device for inducing magnetism was constructed at the Department of Fruit Growing, Viticulture and Enology at Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra for research purposes. Essence of the device lies in the way of the management of direct current, which flows through the coil. Volume of direct current is regulated by network auto-transformer. Output of network autotransformer is rectified by two-way bridge rectifier. The coil is powered by a direct current voltage pulse. This device has a maximum value of the magnetic induction at 150 mT. At full power it must be supplied from three-phase socket with a rated current of 32 A. For our experiment, we chose wine grape variety of Hibernal, from Nitra wine region. The magnetic field induced by the electromagnetic device has an impact on the process of fermentation and sensory characteristics of a young wine. As part of the sensory profile, we noticed higher levels of residual sugar and speed up of the fermentation process and the process of purifying of the young wine. The influence of magnetic field on grape juice during the entire fermentation process and production of wine is a convenient way to improve the quality of wine without side effects or any chemical additives.

  16. Draft Title V Operating Permit: Andeavor Field Services, LLC - Walker Hollow Compressor Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draft Operating Permit (Permit Number: V-UO-000979-2017.00), statement of basis, public notice bulletin, and the administrative permit docket (application and other supporting documents) for the Andeavor Walker Hollow Compressor Station.

  17. Geoscience Australia Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddick, R. [Geoscience Australia, Symonston (Australia); Twilley, B. [Geoscience Australia, Symonston (Australia)

    2016-03-01

    This station formed part of the Australian Regional GPS Network (ARGN) and South Pacific Regional GPS Network (SPRGN), which is a network of continuous GPS stations operating within Australia and its Territories (including Antarctica) and the Pacific. These networks support a number of different science applications including maintenance of the Geospatial Reference Frame, both national and international, continental and tectonic plate motions, sea level rise, and global warming.

  18. Laboratory and field evaluation of a biological monitoring system using Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, W.T.; Allen, H.J.; Schwalm, F.U.; Acevedo, M.F.; Ammann, L.P.; Dickson, K.L.; Kennedy, J.H. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Morgan, E.L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory and field experiments have been performed to evaluate a non-invasive biomonitoring system using the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea and Mulinia lateralis. C. fluminea was exposed to simulated episodic toxicity events in the laboratory using copper, diazinon, and regulated flow rates. Group behavior during these simulated events was compared to behavior during unstressed periods to develop a statistical model and an alarm criteria. Bayou Chico, Pensacola Bay, FL, was the site for field experiments in which M. lateralis was placed in situ to evaluate the performance of the biomonitoring system. The biomonitoring system consists of proximity sensors which detect an aluminum foil target attached to the valve of an organism. Valve movements of the clams are then digitally recorded using a personal computer. Data collected from remote sites are telemetered to the lab using short wave radio. In its final form, the authors envision an in situ biological monitoring system using bivalves deployed in aquatic systems in conjunction with automated monitoring systems like those found at USGS gauging stations. A tool such as this could be used as a warning system to increase the probability of detecting toxic events as they occur.

  19. Avian community response to lowland tropical rainforest isolation: 40 years of change at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Bryan J; Sherry, Thomas W; Young, Bruce E

    2006-02-01

    Since 1960, most of the forest surrounding the La Selva Biological Station, an intensively studied tropical research facility in Costa Rica, has been converted to agricultural uses. We used quantitative censuses and analysis of previously published categorical abundances to assess changes in the bird community, and we evaluated potential causes of species-specific changes by assessing their association with habitat, diet, participation in mixed-species flocks, and nest type. Approximately the same percentage of species increased as decreased in abundance from 1960 to 1999 (10-20% of all species, depending on method of assessment). Diet was the single most important trait associated with declining species. At least 50% of the species that declined have insectivorous diets. Use of forest habitat and participation in mixed-species flocks were also significant factors associated with declines, but nest type was unrelated to change in abundance. The species that increased in abundance tended to occur in open habitats and have omnivorous diets. These results reinforce the importance of several population risk factors associated with tropical understory insectivory and mixed-species flocking: patchy spatial distribution, low population density, large home range, and dietary specialization. La Selva's protected area (1611 ha), despite a forested connection on one boundary with a higher elevation national park, is apparently too small to maintain at least one major guild (understory insectivores). This first quantitative assessment of bird community change at La Selva highlights the need to intensify study of the mechanisms and consequences of biological diversity change in tropical forest fragments.

  20. Near-Field Characterization of Methane Emission Variability from a Compressor Station Using a Model Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Brian J; Golston, Levi M; O'Brien, Anthony S; Ross, Kevin; Harrison, William A; Tao, Lei; Lary, David J; Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N; Zondlo, Mark A

    2015-07-07

    A model aircraft equipped with a custom laser-based, open-path methane sensor was deployed around a natural gas compressor station to quantify the methane leak rate and its variability at a compressor station in the Barnett Shale. The open-path, laser-based sensor provides fast (10 Hz) and precise (0.1 ppmv) measurements of methane in a compact package while the remote control aircraft provides nimble and safe operation around a local source. Emission rates were measured from 22 flights over a one-week period. Mean emission rates of 14 ± 8 g CH4 s(-1) (7.4 ± 4.2 g CH4 s(-1) median) from the station were observed or approximately 0.02% of the station throughput. Significant variability in emission rates (0.3-73 g CH4 s(-1) range) was observed on time scales of hours to days, and plumes showed high spatial variability in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. Given the high spatiotemporal variability of emissions, individual measurements taken over short durations and from ground-based platforms should be used with caution when examining compressor station emissions. More generally, our results demonstrate the unique advantages and challenges of platforms like small unmanned aerial vehicles for quantifying local emission sources to the atmosphere.

  1. Modeling and Measurement of Electromagnetic Fields Near LORAN-C and OMEGA Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-15

    major radionavigational systems available to marine vessels and aircraft throughout much of the world. Stations located in the United States are under...Automation ( IGUANA ) and is used to provide graphic displays of the NEC input data set (6). These displays provide a quick visual check revealing any errors...no guy wires. The IGUANA software is also capable of rotating the model for other perspective views. Another useful software package called Graphical

  2. Biological applications of near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moers, Marco H.P.; Moers, M.H.P.; Ruiter, A.G.T.; Jalocha, A.; Jalocha, Alain; van Hulst, N.F.

    1995-01-01

    Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) is a true optical microscopic technique allowing fluorescence, absorption, reflection and polarization contrast with the additional advantage of nanometer lateral resolution, unlimited by diffraction and operation at ambient conditions. NSOM based on

  3. Effects of Magnetic Field on Biological Cells and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Jen

    2001-03-01

    While there has been extensive research performed in the physics of magnetic fields and the physics and chemistry in life sciences, independent of each other, there has been a paucity of scientific research and development investigating the possible applications of magnetic fields in life sciences. The focus of this presentation is to present the stimulation mechanism by which magnetic fields affect (a) yeast cells (b) plant cells and (c) mammalian normal and cancer cells. Recently we have found that the Saccharomyces Cerevsa yeast growth increases by about 30to a 1 tesla field and the production of CO2 increases by about 30of yeast metabolism may be due to an increase in intercellular interaction and protein channel alignment, the introduction of an alteration in the DNA from the magnetic field exposure or a combination of these mechanisms. We also have found that the application of high magnetic fields (1 tesla and above) can have marked effects on the germination and growth of plants, especially corn, beans and peas. This finding has opened up the possibility of technology developments in botanical growth systems to accelerate seed germination and crop harvesting. Most recently we have investigated the application of high magnetic fields on leukemia, CaCoII and HEP G2 cancer cell lines. We found that when leukemia are exposed to a 12 tesla field for 2 hours has an increase in cell death by about 30that were not exposed to the magnetic field. Viability of CaCoII cells sandwiched between permanent magnets of maximum strength of 1.2 tesla was measured. A decrease in viable cells by 33unexposed cells. HSP 70 was measured for HEPG2 cells that were exposed to permanent magnetic field of 1.2 tesla for 40 minutes and for unexposed cells. It was found that the exposed cells produce 19 times more HSP70 compared to unexposed cells. Our results together with other investigators report suggest a strong evidence of a reduction in the cell growth rate for cancer cells when

  4. Exact image theory for field calculation in layered biological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, E.; Lindell, I.V.

    1985-01-01

    A method based on the exact image theory to calculate the near field distribution of a horn antenna in direct contact with the skin is introduced. Being exact, the method is not restricted by parameter values and can be applied in optimization of horn aperture function to produce focus fields in the human body. The method observes the effect of the skin layer and can be applied for an arbitrary aperture function. The optimization is demonstrated with few examples

  5. Indoor transformer stations and ELF magnetic field exposure: use of transformer structural characteristics to improve exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Enembe Oku; Roivainen, Päivi; Kheifets, Leeka; Mezei, Gabor; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that populations of multiapartment buildings with indoor transformer stations may serve as a basis for improved epidemiological studies on the relationship between childhood leukaemia and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs). This study investigated whether classification based on structural characteristics of the transformer stations would improve ELF MF exposure assessment. The data included MF measurements in apartments directly above transformer stations ("exposed" apartments) in 30 buildings in Finland, and reference apartments in the same buildings. Transformer structural characteristics (type and location of low-voltage conductors) were used to classify exposed apartments into high-exposure (HE) and intermediate-exposure (IE) categories. An exposure gradient was observed: both the time-average MF and time above a threshold (0.4 μT) were highest in the HE apartments and lowest in the reference apartments, showing a statistically significant trend. The differences between HE and IE apartments, however, were not statistically significant. A simulation exercise showed that the three-category classification did not perform better than a two-category classification (exposed and reference apartments) in detecting the existence of an increased risk. However, data on the structural characteristics of transformers is potentially useful for evaluating exposure-response relationship.

  6. Electromagnetic field interaction with biological systems and microwave hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behari, J.; Srivastava, G.P.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of microwaves with biological system is best understood in terms of heating of the tissues. This in turn lead to changes in chemical reaction rates and current flows, the understanding of which demands a basic knowledge of mechanisms of microwave-biointeraction. A practical advantage of this lies in using this method for selective heating of tissues as in the case of cancer. Modality of heating by using interstitial implants and interstitial antennas is discussed. Design of antennas for specific heating profile is also presented. (author)

  7. Nanoscaled biological gated field effect transistors for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Andersen, Karsten Brandt

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is the study of chromosome structure and function, and is often used in cancer diagnosis, as many chromosome abnormalities are linked to the onset of cancer. A novel label free detection method for chromosomal translocation analysis using nanoscaled field effect transistors...

  8. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  9. Waveguide evanescent field fluorescence microscopy & its application in cell biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Abdollah

    There are many powerful microscopy technologies available for the investigation of bulk materials as well as for thin film samples. Nevertheless, for imaging an interface, especially live cells on a substrate and ultra thin-films, only Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy is available. This TIRF microscopy allows imaging without interference of the bulk. Various approaches are employed in fluorescence microscopy applications to restrict the excitation and detection of fluorophores to a thin region of the specimen. Elimination of background fluorescence from outside the focal plane can dramatically improve the signal-to-noise ratio, and consequently, the spatial resolution of the features or events of interest. TIRF microscopy is an evanescent field based microscopy. In this method, fluorescent dyes are only excited within an evanescent field: roughly within 100 nm above a glass coverslip. This will allow imaging surface and interfacial issues of the glass coverslip and an adjacent material. Waveguide evanescent field fluorescence (WEFF) microscopy is a new development for imaging cell-substrate interactions in real time and in vitro. It is an alternative to TIRF microscopy. In this method the light is coupled into a waveguide via an optical grating. The coupled light propagates as a waveguide mode and exhibits an evanescent field on top of the waveguide. This can be used as a surface-bound illumination source to excite fluorophores. This evanescent field serves as an extremely powerful tool for quality control of thin films, to study cell-substrate contacts, and investigating the effect of external agents and drugs on the cell-substrate interaction in real time and in vitro. This new method has been established and optimized to minimize non-uniformity, scattering and photo bleaching issues. Visualizing and quantifying of the cell-substrates and solid thin films have been carried out by WEFF microscopy. The images of the cell-substrate interface

  10. A time-lapse gravity survey of the Coso geothermal field, China Lake Naval Air Weapons Station, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Geoffrey; Cronkite-Ratcliff, Collin; Blake, Kelly

    2018-04-19

    We have conducted a gravity survey of the Coso geothermal field to continue the time-lapse gravity study of the area initiated in 1991. In this report, we outline a method of processing the gravity data that minimizes the random errors and instrument bias introduced into the data by the Scintrex CG-5 relative gravimeters that were used. After processing, the standard deviation of the data was estimated to be ±13 microGals. These data reveal that the negative gravity anomaly over the Coso geothermal field, centered on gravity station CER1, is continuing to increase in magnitude over time. Preliminary modeling indicates that water-table drawdown at the location of CER1 is between 65 and 326 meters over the last two decades. We note, however, that several assumptions on which the model results depend, such as constant elevation and free-water level over the study period, still require verification.

  11. Resonance properties of the biological objects in the RF field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocherova, E.; Kupec, P.; Stofanik, V.

    2011-12-01

    Irradiation of people with electromagnetic fields emitted from miscellaneous devices working in the radio-frequency (RF) range may have influence, for example may affect brain processes. The question of health impact of RF electromagnetic fields on population is still not closed. This article is devoted to an investigation of resonance phenomena of RF field absorption in the models of whole human body and body parts (a head) of different size and shape. The values of specific absorption rate (SAR) are evaluated for models of the different shapes: spherical, cylindrical, realistic shape and for different size of the model, that represents the case of new-born, child and adult person. In the RF frequency region, absorption depends nonlinearly on frequency. Under certain conditions (E-polarization), absorption reaches maximum at frequency, that is called "resonance frequency". The whole body absorption and the resonance frequency depends on many further parameters, that are not comprehensively clarified. The simulation results showed the dependence of the whole-body average SAR and resonance frequency on the body dimensions, as well as the influence of the body shape.

  12. Resonance properties of the biological objects in the RF field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cocherova, E; Kupec, P; Stofanik, V

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation of people with electromagnetic fields emitted from miscellaneous devices working in the radio-frequency (RF) range may have influence, for example may affect brain processes. The question of health impact of RF electromagnetic fields on population is still not closed. This article is devoted to an investigation of resonance phenomena of RF field absorption in the models of whole human body and body parts (a head) of different size and shape. The values of specific absorption rate (SAR) are evaluated for models of the different shapes: spherical, cylindrical, realistic shape and for different size of the model, that represents the case of new-born, child and adult person. In the RF frequency region, absorption depends nonlinearly on frequency. Under certain conditions (E-polarization), absorption reaches maximum at frequency, that is called r esonance frequency . The whole body absorption and the resonance frequency depends on many further parameters, that are not comprehensively clarified. The simulation results showed the dependence of the whole-body average SAR and resonance frequency on the body dimensions, as well as the influence of the body shape.

  13. Biological effects of exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahnstroem, G.

    1992-10-01

    The biological effects of exposure to low frequency electric and magnetic fields are reviewed with the objective of summarizing effects directly relevant to considerations of the health and safety of exposed people

  14. Mars Field Geology, Biology, and Paleontology Workshop: Summary and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budden, Nancy Ann (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    Current NASA planning envisions human missions to Mars as early as 2013, on a mission that would send six crew members for a 500-day stay on the surface of Mars. While our understanding of how we would get there and back is fairly mature, the planning for what the crew would do to explore while on the surface for 500 days is less detailed. Mission objectives are to understand the composition and geo- morphology of the martian surface, and to continue to investigate and sample the geologic history of Mars. Special emphasis will focus on exploring for possible biogenic signatures, past or present, and on analyzing pre-biotic chemistry. The purpose of this workshop was to explore the strategies, desired capabilities, skills, and operational realities required to lend success to the first human missions to Mars. Current mission planning dictates that there will be considerable mobility, sampling and analytical capability available to human crews, at a site warranting long-term geologic and possibly biological interest. However, the details of specific capabilities are not yet clearly defined.

  15. Measuring human remains in the field: Grid technique, total station, or MicroScribe?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sládek, Vladimír; Galeta, P.; Sosna, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 221, 1-3 (2012), s. 16-22 ISSN 0379-0738 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Excavation * Field anthropology * Human skeleton * Measuring error Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology Impact factor: 2.307, year: 2012

  16. Problem-based learning through field investigation: Boosting questioning skill, biological literacy, and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwono, Hadi; Wibowo, Agung

    2018-01-01

    Biology learning emphasizes problem-based learning as a learning strategy to develop students ability in identifying and solving problems in the surrounding environment. Problem identification skills are closely correlated with questioning skills. By holding this skill, students tend to deliver a procedural question instead of the descriptive one. Problem-based learning through field investigation is an instruction model which directly exposes the students to problems or phenomena that occur in the environment, and then the students design the field investigation activities to solve these problems. The purpose of this research was to describe the improvement of undergraduate biology students on questioning skills, biological literacy, and academic achievement through problem-based learning through field investigation (PBFI) compared with the lecture-based instruction (LBI). This research was a time series quasi-experimental design. The research was conducted on August - December 2015 and involved 26 undergraduate biology students at the State University of Malang on the Freshwater Ecology course. The data were collected during the learning with LBI and PBFI, in which questioning skills, biological literacy, and academic achievement were collected 3 times in each learning model. The data showed that the procedural correlative and causal types of questions are produced by the students to guide them in conducting investigations and problem-solving in PBFI. The biological literacy and academic achievement of the students at PBFI are significantly higher than those at LBI. The results show that PBFI increases the questioning skill, biological literacy, and the academic achievement of undergraduate biology students.

  17. Static magnetic fields: A summary of biological interactions, potential health effects, and exposure guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-05-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of interaction and the biological effects of static magnetic fields has increased significantly during the past two decades as a result of the growing number of applications of these fields in research, industry and medicine. A major stimulus for research on the bioeffects of static magnetic fields has been the effort to develop new technologies for energy production and storage that utilize intense magnetic fields (e.g., thermonuclear fusion reactors and superconducting magnet energy storage devices). Interest in the possible biological interactions and health effects of static magnetic fields has also been increased as a result of recent developments in magnetic levitation as a mode of public transportation. In addition, the rapid emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a new clinical diagnostic procedure has, in recent years, provided a strong rationale for defining the possible biological effects of magnetic fields with high flux densities. In this review, the principal interaction mechanisms of static magnetic fields will be described, and a summary will be given of the present state of knowledge of the biological, environmental, and human health effects of these fields.

  18. From a word to a world: the current situation in the interdisciplinary field of synthetic biology

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Xiaojun; Rousseau, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Using a carefully designed search query, we describe the field of synthetic biology in terms of leading countries, organizations and funding sources. Besides articles we also paid some attention to patents. The USA is the leading country in this field, followed by China. There is a clear exponential growth in the field of synthetic biology over the latest 14 years. Keywords were analyzed using the notion of year-based h-indices, core gap and relative core gap. We conclude that the term “synth...

  19. Utah Valley University Field Station at Capitol Reef National Park: A Venue for Improved Student Learning and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, K.; Schultz, M.; Williams, B.; Gay, J.; Johnson, S.; Dunn, P.

    2015-12-01

    The unique geo-environment offered in Capitol Reef National Park and its surrounding areas has a long-standing history of inspiring geological scientific exploration. The Capitol Reef Field Station was established in 2008 as part of collaboration between the National Park and Utah Valley University in order to support teaching and research of the natural environment found within the park and on the Colorado Plateau. The facility itself situated deep within the park, well off any public road system offers state of the art alternative energy and sustainable construction and makes extensive use of passive heating and cooling, in order to maintain its status of being "off-grid." The field station is a 6200 square foot complex of classrooms and dormitories supporting university level education and field studies of the Colorado Plateau. The complex includes a classroom and dining area, professional kitchen, and two separate dormitories, which can sleep up to 24 overnight visitors, while the daytime usage can accommodate up to 40 visitors. The vision of the facility is to support teaching and research toward responsible, respectful, and sustainable stewardship of the natural world - including Interdisciplinary learning between arts and sciences Student internships and service learning in collaboration with the National Park Service Field-based scientific research (as well as inventorying and assessing Park ecosystems changes) Field training in scientific research Collaboration between National Park Service scientists and local, regional, and national institutions The park is situated at 38°N 249°E at elevations greater than 2000 m in Southern Utah. In contrast to the more famous neighboring sister parks such as Zion and Bryce Canyon National Parks, which are in relatively close proximity to large road systems and cities, Capitol Reef offers what is believed to be the darkest night sky in the US. The culmination of features creates an ideal location for studies of the

  20. The Role of Field Classes in Education of Prospective Teachers in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fleszar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Field classes are indispensable in education of biology and environment protection students, as they allow a future teacher to carry out teaching material bringing together theory and practice through activity. In the framework of Biology Didactics classes the biology students of the Faculty of Natural Sciences at the University of Szczecin participate actively in the works on didactic nature trail in the Arkoñski Woods prepared by Dr. Ewa Fleszar. During the work on didactic natural path the students make themselves acquainted with: field class objectives; field class tasks; field class programmes, e.g. concerning phenology; flora and fauna species. Writing synopsis of field classes for selected lesson units at different teaching levels they acquire sound knowledge based on the ecological contents. Contacts with nature as well as gaining the experience during field classes allow them to obtain competences for working in the field and to understand the objectives of carrying out such classes. Field classes have an effect on developing interests of participants in the subject, and affect the improvement of teaching performance. Visit to the field forms ecological awareness, which leads to obtaining an ecological culture.

  1. Assessment of the Professional Training Course under Watershed Project at Fatehjang Field Station, Punjab, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M. N.; Hassan, T.; Shah, H.; Abid, S.; Raza, I.; Abbasi, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Watershed Project organizing different professional trainings to create awareness about water saving technologies as solar powered irrigation system, drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, micro catchment, rooftop rainwater harvesting and irrigation scheduling. Therefore, the project activities also include the training of the professionals from the line departments for the demonstrated technologies to foster the process of adoption. For this purpose Climate and Alternate Energy Water Resources Institute, NARC, organized a professional training on Water Rehabilitation and Irrigation Technology Improvements in April, 2014 in collaboration with ICARDA and USDA. Twenty seven professionals from different organizations and departments namely; Al-Mustafa Development Network (ADN), Taleem Foundation, Islamic International University (IIUI) Islamabad, National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), National Centre for Rural Development (NCRD), National Rural Support Programme (NRSP), On-Farm Water Management (OFWM), Water Management (WM), Potohar Organization for Development Advocacy (PODA), Quaid-i-Azam University (QAU) and Environmental Sciences actively participated in the professional training. The post-training assessment showed that it had positive impact on the awareness of professionals. Majority of the participants were strongly and merely agreed upon the training practicality, technologies adoption probability and its advantages at farmer's field. Overall, most of the training participants were satisfied with the knowledge sharing presentations about the specific technologies discussed during the training. (author)

  2. Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.; Kelman, B.J.; Weigel, R.J. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    Although background levels of atmospheric electric and geomagnetic field levels are extremely low, over the past several decades, human beings and other life forms on this planet have been subjected to a dramatically changing electromagnetic milieu. An exponential increase in exposure to electromagnetic fields has occurred, largely because of such technological advances as the growth of electrical power generation and transmission systems, the increased use of wireless communications, and the use of radar. In addition, electromagnetic field generating devices have proliferated in industrial plants, office buildings, homes, public transportation systems, and elsewhere. Although significant increases have occurred in electromagnetic field strenghths spanning all frequency ranges, this symposium addresses only the impact of these fields at static and extremely low frequencies (ELF), primarily 50 and 60 Hz. This volume contains the proceedings of the symposium entitled /open quotes/Interaction of biological systems with static and ELF electric and magnetic fields/close quotes/. The purpose of the symposium was to provide a forum for discussions of all aspects of research on the interaction of static and ELF electromagnetic fields with biological systems. These systems include simple biophysical models, cell and organ preparations, whole animals, and man. Dosimetry, exposure system design, and artifacts in ELF bioeffects research were also addressed, along with current investigations that examine fundamental mechanisms of interactions between the fields and biological processes. Papers are indexed separately.

  3. Characterization of Radiation Fields for Assessing Concrete Degradation in Biological Shields of NPPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remec Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Life extensions of nuclear power plants (NPPs to 60 years of operation and the possibility of subsequent license renewal to 80 years have renewed interest in long-term material degradation in NPPs. Large irreplaceable sections of most nuclear generating stations are constructed from concrete, including safety-related structures such as biological shields and containment buildings; therefore, concrete degradation is being considered with particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the currently available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database is desirable to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants.

  4. Publication Growth in Biological Sub-Fields: Patterns, Predictability and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pautasso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biologists are producing ever-increasing quantities of papers. The question arises of whether current rates of increase in scientific outputs are sustainable in the long term. I studied this issue using publication data from the Web of Science (1991–2010 for 18 biological sub-fields. In the majority of cases, an exponential regression explains more variation than a linear one in the number of papers published each year as a function of publication year. Exponential growth in publication numbers is clearly not sustainable. About 75% of the variation in publication growth among biological sub-fields over the two studied decades can be predicted by publication data from the first six years. Currently trendy fields such as structural biology, neuroscience and biomaterials cannot be expected to carry on growing at the current pace, because in a few decades they would produce more papers than the whole of biology combined. Synthetic and systems biology are problematic from the point of view of knowledge dissemination, because in these fields more than 80% of existing papers have been published over the last five years. The evidence presented here casts a shadow on how sustainable the recent increase in scientific publications can be in the long term.

  5. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Krauss

    Full Text Available Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short

  6. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  7. Do field-free electromagnetic potentials play a role in biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, A; Vincze, G; Andocs, G; Szasz, O

    2009-01-01

    All bio-systems are imperfect dielectrics. Their general properties however cannot be described by conventional simple electrodynamics; the system is more complex. A central question in our present paper is centered on a controversial debate of the possible effect of the zero fields (only potentials exist). We show that the identical use of the "field-free," "curl-free," and "force-free" terminologies is incorrect, there have definitely different meanings. It is shown that the effective electro-dynamical parameters that describe and modify living systems are the potentials and not the fields. We discuss how the potentials have a role in biological processes even in field-free cases.

  8. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Lafferriere, Natalia A; Antelo, Rafael; Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ayarzagüena, José; Ginsberg, Joshua R; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  9. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A Rossi Lafferriere

    Full Text Available The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%, leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela.

  10. Multiple Paternity in a Reintroduced Population of the Orinoco Crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) at the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alda, Fernando; Mårtensson, Dick; Hailer, Frank; Castroviejo-Fisher, Santiago; Ginsberg, Joshua R.; Castroviejo, Javier; Doadrio, Ignacio; Vilá, Carles; Amato, George

    2016-01-01

    The success of a reintroduction program is determined by the ability of individuals to reproduce and thrive. Hence, an understanding of the mating system and breeding strategies of reintroduced species can be critical to the success, evaluation and effective management of reintroduction programs. As one of the most threatened crocodile species in the world, the Orinoco crocodile (Crocodylus intermedius) has been reduced to only a few wild populations in the Llanos of Venezuela and Colombia. One of these populations was founded by reintroduction at Caño Macanillal and La Ramera lagoon within the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. Twenty egg clutches of C. intermedius were collected at the El Frío Biological Station for incubation in the lab and release of juveniles after one year. Analyzing 17 polymorphic microsatellite loci from 335 hatchlings we found multiple paternity in C. intermedius, with half of the 20 clutches fathered by two or three males. Sixteen mothers and 14 fathers were inferred by reconstruction of multilocus parental genotypes. Our findings showed skewed paternal contributions to multiple-sired clutches in four of the clutches (40%), leading to an overall unequal contribution of offspring among fathers with six of the 14 inferred males fathering 90% of the total offspring, and three of those six males fathering more than 70% of the total offspring. Our results provide the first evidence of multiple paternity occurring in the Orinoco crocodile and confirm the success of reintroduction efforts of this critically endangered species in the El Frío Biological Station, Venezuela. PMID:26982578

  11. IEEE Std 383-1974: IEEE standard for type test of Class IE electric cables, field splices, and connections for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This standard provides direction for establishing type tests which may be used in qualifying Class 1E electric cables, field splices, and other connections for service in nuclear power generating stations. General guidelines for qualifications are given in IEEE Std 323-1974, Standard for Qualifying Class IE Electric Equipment for Nuclear Power Generating Stations. Categories of cables covered are those used for power control and instrumentation services. Though intended primarily to pertain to cable for field installation, this guide may also be used for the qualification of internal wiring of manufactured devices. This guide does not cover cables for service within the reactor vessel

  12. Methods for studying and criteria for evaluating the biological effects of electric fields of industrial frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, B.M.; Shandala, M.G.; Nikonova, K.V.; Morozov, Yu.A.

    1978-10-01

    Data are reviewed from a number of USSR research studies on the biological effects of electric power transmission lines of 1150 Kv and above. Effects on man, plants, animals, and terrestrial ecosystems are reported. Existing health standards in the USSR for the exposure of personnel working in electric fields are included. It is concluded that high-voltage electric fields have a harmful effect on man and his environment.

  13. Mechanisms of interaction and biological effects of extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-07-01

    Evidence is mounting, that environmental electric and magnetic fields in the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) band below 300 Hz can influence biological functions by mechanisms that are only poorly understood at the present time. The primary objectives of this paper are to review the physical properties of ELF fields, their interactions with living systems at the tissue, cellular, and subcellular levels, and the key role of cell membranes in the transduction of signals from imposed ELF fields. Topics of discussion include signal-to-noise ratios for single cells and cell aggregates, resonance phenomena involving a combination of static and ELF magnetic fields, and the possible influence of ELF fields on molecular signaling pathways that involve membrane receptors and cytoplasmic second messengers. The implications of these findings for promotion of tumor growth by ELF fields are also reviewed.

  14. The rebirth of the morphogenetic field as an explanatory tool in biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perović Slobodan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I discuss two uses of the concept of the morphogenetic field, a tool of the 19th century biology motivated by particular ontological views of the time, which has been re-emerging and increasingly relevant in explaining microbiological phenomena. I also consider the relation of these uses to the Central Dogma of modern biology as well as Modern Synthesis of Darwinism and genetics. An induced morphogenetic field is determined by a physical (e.g., gravitational field, or it acquires a physical (e.g., visco-elastic field’s characteristics. Such a morphogenetic field presents only a weak challenge to the Central Dogma of Modern Synthesis by indirectly, albeit severely, constraining variability at the molecular level. I discuss explanations that introduce structural inheritance in ciliate protozoa, as well as the experimental evidence on which these arguments are based. The global cellular morphogenetic field is a unit of such inheritance. I discuss relevant cases of structural inheritance in ciliates that bring about internal cellular as well as functional changes and point out that DNA is absent in the cortex and that RNA controls neither intermediary nor the global level of the field. I go on to argue that utilizing knowledge of known physical fields may advance explanations and understanding of the morphogenetic field in ciliates as the unit of both development and inheritance. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179041: Dynamic Systems in nature and society: Philosophical and empirical aspects

  15. Biological effects from electric fields associated with high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Efforts during the past year by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute-funded laboratories to investigate the biological effects from electric fields are described in resume form. Investigations generally have been summarized with objectives, accomplishments of the past year, and some indication of projected studies.

  16. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 2 of a cross-sectional study with measured radio frequency electromagnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Blettner, M; Kowall, B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to continuous low-level radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted from mobile phone base stations was related to various health disturbances. METHODS: For the investigation people living mainly...

  17. Blood Stage Plasmodium falciparum Exhibits Biological Responses to Direct Current Electric Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena M Coronado

    Full Text Available The development of resistance to insecticides by the vector of malaria and the increasingly faster appearance of resistance to antimalarial drugs by the parasite can dangerously hamper efforts to control and eradicate the disease. Alternative ways to treat this disease are urgently needed. Here we evaluate the in vitro effect of direct current (DC capacitive coupling electrical stimulation on the biology and viability of Plasmodium falciparum. We designed a system that exposes infected erythrocytes to different capacitively coupled electric fields in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum. The effect on growth of the parasite, replication of DNA, mitochondrial membrane potential and level of reactive oxygen species after exposure to electric fields demonstrate that the parasite is biologically able to respond to stimuli from DC electric fields involving calcium signaling pathways.

  18. Biological effects of high strength electric fields. Second interim progress report, September 1976--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes progress made on the Project during the period of September 9, 1976 to March 31, 1977 towards the determination of the biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. The efforts to date can be divided into five categories: (1) the design, construction, and testing of a prototype and special studies exposure system; (2) the design and construction of exposure systems for rats and mice; (3) dosimetry; (4) experiments to determine the maximum field strength which does not produce corona discharge, ozone formation, shocks to the animal, hair stimulation, or a behavioral preference by rats to avoid exposure to the field; and (5) preparations for the biological screening experiments.

  19. Assessment of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF Electric and Magnetic Fields in Hamedan High Electrical Power Stations and their Effects on Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Ghorbani Shahna

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Public and occupational exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF electric and magnetic fields induced by electrical equipment is a significant issue in the environment and at the workplace due to their potential health effects on public health. The purpose of this study was assessment of the electric and magnetic fields intensities and determination of mental and psychological effects of occupational exposure in the high voltage electric power stations in the city of Hamadan, Iran. Material and Methods: The intensities of the magnetic and electric fields were measured at eight high voltage electric power stations at three different intervals of sources using an HI-3604 instrument. A two-part questionnaire was used to assess mental and psychological effects of the exposure to these fields. Two groups of control and case workers including 30 samples were selected to determine the exposure effects. Results: The results of field measurements showed the highest average electric field intensity was related to the CVT unit with 3110 V/m at a 2 m distance from the source and the lowest average was related to the control room with 1.35 V/m next to the source. Also, the highest and lowest magnetic field intensities were close to the transformator 2 and the battery room (50.42 and 1.31 mG, respectively. Discussion and Conclusion: The intensities of electric and magnetic fields in the selected stations are lower than the ACGIH and ICNIRP standard levels for occupational exposures. The results obtained indicate that the distribution of these fields was nonlinear around the sources and the effects observed on exposed workers were non-thermal.

  20. Improved Holographic Reconstruction Procedure for Particle Field and Biological Cell Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Abhishek; Maheshwari, Muneesh; Bhandari, S. S.; Panigrahi, P. K.

    2011-10-01

    Digital holography technique has wide range of applications in the field of science and engineering. It consists of two processes i.e. recording and reconstruction. The reconstruction procedure influences the accuracy of the measurement. The present study proposes a novel approach for the reconstruction process based on the superposition principle. The effectiveness of this proposed approach has been presented for 3D distribution of the particle field using both simulated data and experimental data. The 3D particle field has been experimentally generated using the mixture of copper particle and gelatin solution between two glass cover slip. The enhancement of resolution is subsequently achieved by implementing the lens based holographic technique. This technique is capable of providing both 3D geometrical and compositional details of crystals and biological cells etc. A single hologram provides 3D distribution and morphology of the object field.

  1. Do mobile phone base stations affect sleep of residents? Results from an experimental double-blind sham-controlled field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Dorn, Hans; Bornkessel, Christian; Sauter, Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present double-blind, sham-controlled, balanced randomized cross-over study was to disentangle effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and non-EMF effects of mobile phone base stations on objective and subjective sleep quality. In total 397 residents aged 18-81 years (50.9% female) from 10 German sites, where no mobile phone service was available, were exposed to sham and GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications, 900 MHz and 1,800 MHz) base station signals by an experimental base station while their sleep was monitored at their homes during 12 nights. Participants were randomly exposed to real (GSM) or sham exposure for five nights each. Individual measurement of EMF exposure, questionnaires on sleep disorders, overall sleep quality, attitude towards mobile communication, and on subjective sleep quality (morning and evening protocols) as well as objective sleep data (frontal EEG and EOG recordings) were gathered. Analysis of the subjective and objective sleep data did not reveal any significant differences between the real and sham condition. During sham exposure nights, objective and subjective sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and subjective sleep latency were significantly worse in participants with concerns about possible health risks resulting from base stations than in participants who were not concerned. The study did not provide any evidence for short-term physiological effects of EMF emitted by mobile phone base stations on objective and subjective sleep quality. However, the results indicate that mobile phone base stations as such (not the electromagnetic fields) may have a significant negative impact on sleep quality. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Fractional Calculus-Based Modeling of Electromagnetic Field Propagation in Arbitrary Biological Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Bia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of electromagnetic fields and biological tissues has become a topic of increasing interest for new research activities in bioelectrics, a new interdisciplinary field combining knowledge of electromagnetic theory, modeling, and simulations, physics, material science, cell biology, and medicine. In particular, the feasibility of pulsed electromagnetic fields in RF and mm-wave frequency range has been investigated with the objective to discover new noninvasive techniques in healthcare. The aim of this contribution is to illustrate a novel Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD scheme for simulating electromagnetic pulse propagation in arbitrary dispersive biological media. The proposed method is based on the fractional calculus theory and a general series expansion of the permittivity function. The spatial dispersion effects are taken into account, too. The resulting formulation is explicit, it has a second-order accuracy, and the need for additional storage variables is minimal. The comparison between simulation results and those evaluated by using an analytical method based on the Fourier transformation demonstrates the accuracy and effectiveness of the developed FDTD model. Five numerical examples showing the plane wave propagation in a variety of dispersive media are examined.

  3. Ocean cleaning stations under a changing climate: biological responses of tropical and temperate fish-cleaner shrimp to global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Lopes, Ana Rita; Pimentel, Marta; Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Trübenbach, Katja; Narciso, Luis; Dionísio, Gisela; Pegado, Maria Rita; Repolho, Tiago; Calado, Ricardo; Diniz, Mário

    2014-10-01

    Cleaning symbioses play an important role in the health of certain coastal marine communities. These interspecific associations often occur at specific sites (cleaning stations) where a cleaner organism (commonly a fish or shrimp) removes ectoparasites/damaged tissue from a 'client' (a larger cooperating fish). At present, the potential impact of climate change on the fitness of cleaner organisms remains unknown. This study investigated the physiological and biochemical responses of tropical (Lysmata amboinensis) and temperate (L. seticaudata) cleaner shrimp to global warming. Specifically, thermal limits (CTMax), metabolic rates, thermal sensitivity, heat shock response (HSR), lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration], lactate levels, antioxidant (GST, SOD and catalase) and digestive enzyme activities (trypsin and alkaline phosphatase) at current and warming (+3 °C) temperature conditions. In contrast to the temperate species, CTMax values decreased significantly from current (24-27 °C) to warming temperature conditions (30 °C) for the tropical shrimp, where metabolic thermal sensitivity was affected and the HSR was significantly reduced. MDA levels in tropical shrimp increased dramatically, indicating extreme cellular lipid peroxidation, which was not observed in the temperate shrimp. Lactate levels, GST and SOD activities were significantly enhanced within the muscle tissue of the tropical species. Digestive enzyme activities in the hepatopancreas of both species were significantly decreased by warmer temperatures. Our data suggest that the tropical cleaner shrimp will be more vulnerable to global warming than the temperate Lysmata seticaudata; the latter evolved in a relatively unstable environment with seasonal thermal variations that may have conferred greater adaptive plasticity. Thus, tropical cleaning symbioses may be challenged at a greater degree by warming-related anthropogenic forcing, with potential cascading effects on the health

  4. Field Testing of Activated Carbon Injection Options for Mercury Control at TXU's Big Brown Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Christopher Martin; Mark Musich; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-01-07

    The primary objective of the project was to evaluate the long-term feasibility of using activated carbon injection (ACI) options to effectively reduce mercury emissions from Texas electric generation plants in which a blend of lignite and subbituminous coal is fired. Field testing of ACI options was performed on one-quarter of Unit 2 at TXU's Big Brown Steam Electric Station. Unit 2 has a design output of 600 MW and burns a blend of 70% Texas Gulf Coast lignite and 30% subbituminous Powder River Basin coal. Big Brown employs a COHPAC configuration, i.e., high air-to-cloth baghouses following cold-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), for particulate control. When sorbent injection is added between the ESP and the baghouse, the combined technology is referred to as TOXECON{trademark} and is patented by the Electric Power Research Institute in the United States. Key benefits of the TOXECON configuration include better mass transfer characteristics of a fabric filter compared to an ESP for mercury capture and contamination of only a small percentage of the fly ash with AC. The field testing consisted of a baseline sampling period, a parametric screening of three sorbent injection options, and a month long test with a single mercury control technology. During the baseline sampling, native mercury removal was observed to be less than 10%. Parametric testing was conducted for three sorbent injection options: injection of standard AC alone; injection of an EERC sorbent enhancement additive, SEA4, with ACI; and injection of an EERC enhanced AC. Injection rates were determined for all of the options to achieve the minimum target of 55% mercury removal as well as for higher removals approaching 90%. Some of the higher injection rates were not sustainable because of increased differential pressure across the test baghouse module. After completion of the parametric testing, a month long test was conducted using the enhanced AC at a nominal rate of 1.5 lb/Macf. During

  5. Computational Model Prediction and Biological Validation Using Simplified Mixed Field Exposures for the Development of a GCR Reference Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; Rhone, J.; Beitman, A.; Saganti, P.; Plante, I.; Ponomarev, A.; Slaba, T.; Patel, Z.

    2018-01-01

    The yield of chromosomal aberrations has been shown to increase in the lymphocytes of astronauts after long-duration missions of several months in space. Chromosome exchanges, especially translocations, are positively correlated with many cancers and are therefore a potential biomarker of cancer risk associated with radiation exposure. Although extensive studies have been carried out on the induction of chromosomal aberrations by low- and high-LET radiation in human lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and epithelial cells exposed in vitro, there is a lack of data on chromosome aberrations induced by low dose-rate chronic exposure and mixed field beams such as those expected in space. Chromosome aberration studies at NSRL will provide the biological validation needed to extend the computational models over a broader range of experimental conditions (more complicated mixed fields leading up to the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) simulator), helping to reduce uncertainties in radiation quality effects and dose-rate dependence in cancer risk models. These models can then be used to answer some of the open questions regarding requirements for a full GCR reference field, including particle type and number, energy, dose rate, and delivery order. In this study, we designed a simplified mixed field beam with a combination of proton, helium, oxygen, and iron ions with shielding or proton, helium, oxygen, and titanium without shielding. Human fibroblasts cells were irradiated with these mixed field beam as well as each single beam with acute and chronic dose rate, and chromosome aberrations (CA) were measured with 3-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting methods. Frequency and type of CA induced with acute dose rate and chronic dose rates with single and mixed field beam will be discussed. A computational chromosome and radiation-induced DNA damage model, BDSTRACKS (Biological Damage by Stochastic Tracks), was updated to simulate various types of CA induced by

  6. Application of polarization ellipse technique for analysis of ULF magnetic fields from two distant stations in Koyna-Warna seismoactive region, West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dudkin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new approach is developed to find the source azimuth of the ultra low frequency (ULF electromagnetic (EM signals believed to be emanating from well defined seismic zone. The method is test applied on magnetic data procured from the seismoactive region of Koyna-Warna, known for prolonged reservoir triggered seismicity. Extremely low-noise, high-sensitivity LEMI-30 search coil magnetometers were used to measure simultaneously the vector magnetic field in the frequency range 0.001–32 Hz at two stations, the one located within and another ~100 km away from the seismic active zone. During the observation campaign extending from 15 March to 30 June 2006 two earthquakes (EQs of magnitude (ML>4 occurred, which are searched for the presence of precursory EM signals.

    Comparison of polarization ellipses (PE parameters formed by the magnetic field components at the measurement stations, in select frequency bands, allows discrimination of seismo-EM signals from the natural background ULF signals of magnetospheric/ionospheric origin. The magnetic field components corresponding to spectral bands dominated by seismo-EM fields define the PE plane which at any instant contains the source of the EM fields. Intersection lines of such defined PE planes for distant observation stations clutter in to the source region. Approximating the magnetic-dipole configuration for the source, the magnetic field components along the intersection lines suggest that azimuth of the EM source align in the NNW-SSE direction. This direction well coincides with the orientation of nodal plane of normal fault plane mechanism for the two largest EQs recorded during the campaign. More significantly the correspondence of this direction with the tectonic controlled trend in local seismicity, it has been surmised that high pressure fluid flow along the fault that facilitate EQs in the region may also be the source mechanism for EM fields by electrokinetic effect.

  7. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station Payload Safety: Overcoming Differences and Working for Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Ozawa, Masayuki; Takeyasu, Yoshioka; Griffith, Gerald; Goto, Katsuhito; Mitsui, Masami

    2010-09-01

    The importance of international cooperation among the International Space Station(ISS) Program participants is ever increasing as the ISS nears assembly complete. In the field of payload safety assurance, NASA and JAXA have enhanced their cooperation level. The authors describe the evolution of cooperation between the two agencies and the challenges encountered and overcame. NASA and JAXA have been working toward development of a NASA Payload Safety Review Panel(PSRP) franchise panel at JAXA for several years. When the JAXA Safety Review Panel(SRP) becomes a fully franchised panel of the NASA PSRP, the JAXA SRP will have the authority review and approve all JAXA ISS payloads operated on USOS and JEM, although NASA and JAXA joint reviews may be conducted as necessary. A NASA PSRP franchised panel at JAXA will streamline the conventional review process. Japanese payload organizations will not have to go through both JAXA and NASA payload safety reviews, while NASA will be relieved of a certain amount of review activities. The persistent efforts have recently born fruit. For the past two years, NASA and JAXA have increased emphasis on efforts to develop a NASA PSRP Franchised Panel at JAXA with concrete results. In 2009, NASA and JAXA signed Charter and Joint Development Plan. At the end of 2009, NASA PSRP transferred some review responsibility to the JAXA SRP under the franchising charter. Although JAXA had long history of reviewing payloads by their own panel prior to NASA PSRP reviews, it took several years for JAXA to receive NASA PSRP approval for delegation of franchised review authority to JAXA. This paper discusses challenges JAXA and NAXA faced. Considerations were required in developing a franchise at JAXA for history and experiences of the JAXA SRP as well as language and cultural differences. The JAXA panel, not only had its own well-established processes and supporting organizational structures which had some differences from its NASA PSRP counterparts

  8. Biological effects of static and low-frequency electromagnetic fields: an overview of United States literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.

    1977-04-12

    Results are reviewed from a number of studies on the biological effects of static and low frequency electromagnetic fields on animals. Based on a long history of experience with electric fields by the utility industry, it appears that intermittent and repeated exposures to strong 60-Hz electromagnetic fields from present power transmission systems have no obvious adverse effect on the health of man. It has been recognized recently that this belief must be tested by carefully designed and executed experiments under laboratory conditions where precise control can be exercised over coexisting environmental factors. A number of studies have been initiated in response to this need to evaluate possible effects from both acute and chronic exposures. 100 references.

  9. Biological effects of the hypomagnetic field: An analytical review of experiments and theories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir N Binhi

    Full Text Available During interplanetary flights in the near future, a human organism will be exposed to prolonged periods of a hypomagnetic field that is 10,000 times weaker than that of Earth's. Attenuation of the geomagnetic field occurs in buildings with steel walls and in buildings with steel reinforcement. It cannot be ruled out also that a zero magnetic field might be interesting in biomedical studies and therapy. Further research in the area of hypomagnetic field effects, as shown in this article, is capable of shedding light on a fundamental problem in biophysics-the problem of primary magnetoreception. This review contains, currently, the most extensive bibliography on the biological effects of hypomagnetic field. This includes both a review of known experimental results and the putative mechanisms of magnetoreception and their explanatory power with respect to the hypomagnetic field effects. We show that the measured correlations of the HMF effect with HMF magnitude and inhomogeneity and type and duration of exposure are statistically absent. This suggests that there is no general biophysical MF target similar for different organisms. This also suggests that magnetoreception is not necessarily associated with evolutionary developed specific magnetoreceptors in migrating animals and magnetotactic bacteria. Independently, there is nonspecific magnetoreception that is common for all organisms, manifests itself in very different biological observables as mostly random reactions, and is a result of MF interaction with magnetic moments at a physical level-moments that are present everywhere in macromolecules and proteins and can sometimes transfer the magnetic signal at the level of downstream biochemical events. The corresponding universal mechanism of magnetoreception that has been given further theoretical analysis allows one to determine the parameters of magnetic moments involved in magnetoreception-their gyromagnetic ratio and thermal relaxation time

  10. Biological effects of the hypomagnetic field: An analytical review of experiments and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binhi, Vladimir N; Prato, Frank S

    2017-01-01

    During interplanetary flights in the near future, a human organism will be exposed to prolonged periods of a hypomagnetic field that is 10,000 times weaker than that of Earth's. Attenuation of the geomagnetic field occurs in buildings with steel walls and in buildings with steel reinforcement. It cannot be ruled out also that a zero magnetic field might be interesting in biomedical studies and therapy. Further research in the area of hypomagnetic field effects, as shown in this article, is capable of shedding light on a fundamental problem in biophysics-the problem of primary magnetoreception. This review contains, currently, the most extensive bibliography on the biological effects of hypomagnetic field. This includes both a review of known experimental results and the putative mechanisms of magnetoreception and their explanatory power with respect to the hypomagnetic field effects. We show that the measured correlations of the HMF effect with HMF magnitude and inhomogeneity and type and duration of exposure are statistically absent. This suggests that there is no general biophysical MF target similar for different organisms. This also suggests that magnetoreception is not necessarily associated with evolutionary developed specific magnetoreceptors in migrating animals and magnetotactic bacteria. Independently, there is nonspecific magnetoreception that is common for all organisms, manifests itself in very different biological observables as mostly random reactions, and is a result of MF interaction with magnetic moments at a physical level-moments that are present everywhere in macromolecules and proteins and can sometimes transfer the magnetic signal at the level of downstream biochemical events. The corresponding universal mechanism of magnetoreception that has been given further theoretical analysis allows one to determine the parameters of magnetic moments involved in magnetoreception-their gyromagnetic ratio and thermal relaxation time-and so to better

  11. Detectors in Medicine and Biology: Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    Detectors in Medicine and Biology in 'Applications of Detectors in Technology, Medicine and Other Fields', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B2: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 2: Systems and Applications'. This document is part of Part 2 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Section '7.1 Detectors in Medicine and Biology' of Chapter '7 Applications of Detectors in Technology; Medicine and Other Fields' with the content: 7.1 Detectors in Medicine and Biology 7.1.1 Dosimetry and medical imaging 7.1.1.1 Radiotherapy and dosimetry 7.1.1.2 Status of medical imaging 7.1.1.3 Towards in-vivo molecular imaging 7.1.2 X-Ray radiography and computed tomography (CT) 7.1.2.1 Different X-Ray imaging modalities 7.1.2.2 Detec...

  12. Treatment of complex biological mixtures with pulsed electric fields An energy transfer characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrive, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Sewage sludge from waste water treatment plants is a complex biological mixture and a problematic by-product because of valorisation restrictions. In order to limit its production, pulsed electric fields (PEF) were studied because of their biological effects and their potentially physico-chemical action. This work demonstrated a paradoxical phenomenon: cell lysis triggered a respirometric activation followed by a delayed lethality. This phenomenon was related to the leakage of internal compounds which were immediately bio-assimilated. At high energy expense, the plasmic membrane permeabilization led to cell death. Practically, with the technical configuration of the equipment, no hydrolysis was detected. This limitation decreases the interest for excess sludge reduction, but for the same reason, PEF cold sterilization technique can be assessed as a promising process. The representation of the electric energy transfer from electrodes to cell was exchanged by the study of mass transfer from the biological cell to the surrounding media under an electromotive force. Thus, the survival rate was modelled by a Sherwood number taking account of electrical, biological and hydraulic parameters. (author) [fr

  13. Field methods for determining contents of alpha-radiating nuclides on the areas contaminated with depositions after the Chernobyl nuclear power station failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkevich, V.A.; Duba, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    The work is aimed at creating field methods for estimating contents of alpha-radiating nuclides on the areas contaminated with depositions after the Chernobyl' station failure and for measuring the density of alpha-particles flux at various depths of soil. The methods make it possible to estimate the character of migration of isotopes Pu in depth. Instrumental and physical grounding of the methods are given. One can find the results of field measurements of α-active nuclides content in depositions. The results of measurement prove theoretical and practical feasibility of the suggested methods. 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tabs

  14. In vivo robotics: the automation of neuroscience and other intact-system biological fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodandaramaiah, Suhasa B; Boyden, Edward S; Forest, Craig R

    2013-12-01

    Robotic and automation technologies have played a huge role in in vitro biological science, having proved critical for scientific endeavors such as genome sequencing and high-throughput screening. Robotic and automation strategies are beginning to play a greater role in in vivo and in situ sciences, especially when it comes to the difficult in vivo experiments required for understanding the neural mechanisms of behavior and disease. In this perspective, we discuss the prospects for robotics and automation to influence neuroscientific and intact-system biology fields. We discuss how robotic innovations might be created to open up new frontiers in basic and applied neuroscience and present a concrete example with our recent automation of in vivo whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology of neurons in the living mouse brain. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Wide-field four-channel fluorescence imager for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Madhuri; Melnik, Dmitry; Barnett, Heather; Daly, Kevin; Moran, Christine H.; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan; Bucher, Christopher Theodore; Kittrell, Carter; Curl, Robert

    2010-03-01

    A wide-field four-channel fluorescence imager has been developed. The instrument uses four expanded laser beams to image a large section (6 mm×9 mm). An object can be sequentially illuminated with any combination of 408-, 532-, 658-, and 784-nm lasers for arbitrary (down to 1 ms) exposure times for each laser. Just two notch filters block scattered light from all four lasers. The design approach described here offers great flexibility in treatment of objects, very good sensitivity, and a wide field of view at low cost. There appears to be no commercial instrument capable of simultaneous fluorescence imaging of a wide field of view with four-laser excitation. Some possible applications are following events such as flow and mixing in microchannel systems, the transmission of biological signals across a culture, and following simulations of biological membrane diffusion. It can also be used in DNA sequencing by synthesis to follow the progress of the photolytic removal of dye and terminator. Without utilizing its time resolution, it can be used to obtain four independent images of a single tissue section stained with four targeting agents, with each coupled to a different dye matching one of the lasers.

  16. Biological effects of exposure to static electric fields in humans and vertebrates: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Schmiedchen, Kristina; Stunder, Dominik; Dechent, Dagmar; Kraus, Thomas; Bailey, William H; Driessen, Sarah

    2017-04-17

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines are the technology of choice for the transport of large amounts of energy over long distances. The operation of these lines produces static electric fields (EF), but the data reviewed in previous assessments were not sufficient to assess the need for any environmental limit. The aim of this systematic review was to update the current state of research and to evaluate biological effects of static EF. Using the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) recommendations, we collected and evaluated experimental and epidemiological studies examining biological effects of exposure to static EF in humans (n = 8) and vertebrates (n = 40). There is good evidence that humans and animals are able to perceive the presence of static EF at sufficiently high levels. Hair movements caused by electrostatic forces may play a major role in this perception. A large number of studies reported responses of animals (e.g., altered metabolic, immunologic or developmental parameters) to a broad range of static EF strengths as well, but these responses are likely secondary physiological responses to sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the quality of many of the studies reporting physiological responses is poor, which raises concerns about confounding. The weight of the evidence from the literature reviewed did not indicate that static EF have adverse biological effects in humans or animals. The evidence strongly supported the role of superficial sensory stimulation of hair and skin as the basis for perception of the field, as well as reported indirect behavioral and physiological responses. Physical considerations also preclude any direct effect of static EF on internal physiology, and reports that some physiological processes are affected in minor ways may be explained by other factors. While this literature does not support a level of concern about biological effects of exposure to static EF, the conditions

  17. High voltage electric field effects on structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khazaei, J. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agrotechnology, Univ. College of Abouraihan; Aliabadi, E. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Crop Production Horticulture, Univ. College of Aburaihan; Shayegani, A.A. [Tehran Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Univ. College of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Electric biostimulation of seeds is a pre-sowing treatment in which an electric field is applied to seeds to increase germination of non standard seeds. This paper reported on a study that examined the effects of AC electric field and exposure time on the structure and biological characteristics of barley seeds. The objective was to determine the potential to accelerate seed germination, plant growth and root development by the electric field strength and exposure time. Makooei cultivar barley seeds were used in this study. The effect of electric field strength (at 2, 4, 9, and 14 kV/m) and exposure time (at 15, 45, 80, and 150 min) on seed germination was studied along with height of seedling, length or root, height of stem, length of leaves, earliness, dry weight and wet weight of seedling. The treated seeds were stored for a month in a refrigerator at 5 degrees C prior to the germination experiments. The initial germination percent of the seed was 81 per cent. The treatment of barley seeds in an AC electric field had a positive effect on all investigated parameters. The germination percent of the treated seed increased to 94.5 per cent . The seeds exposed for long periods of time (45 to 150 min) showed better germination than the seeds exposed to lower exposure times. Dry and wet weights of seedling increased 143.4 per cent and 45.7 per cent, respectively.

  18. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin

  19. Hyperspectral-Enhanced Dark Field Microscopy for Single and Collective Nanoparticle Characterization in Biological Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Zamora-Perez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We review how the hyperspectral dark field analysis gives us quantitative insights into the manner that different nanoscale materials interact with their environment and how this relationship is directly expressed in an optical readout. We engage classification tools to identify dominant spectral signatures within a scene or to qualitatively characterize nanoparticles individually or in populations based on their composition and morphology. Moreover, we follow up the morphological evolution of nanoparticles over time and in different biological environments to better understand and establish a link between the observed nanoparticles’ changes and cellular behaviors.

  20. Application of the k0-INAA method for analysis of biological samples at the pneumatic station of the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puerta, Daniel C.; Figueiredo, Ana Maria G.; Semmler, Renato; Jacimovic, Radojko

    2013-01-01

    As part of the process of implementation of the k 0 -INAA standardization method at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN-IPEN), Sao Paulo, Brazil, this study presents the results obtained for the analysis of short and medium-lived nuclides in biological samples by k 0 -INAA using the program k 0 -IAEA, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The elements Al, Ba, Br, Na, K, Mn, Mg, Sr and V were determined with respect to gold ( 197 Au) using the pneumatic station facility of the IEA-R1 4.5 MW swimming pool nuclear research reactor, Sao Paulo. Characterization of the pneumatic station was carried out by using the 'bare triple-monitor' method with 197 Au- 96 Zr- 94 Zr. The Certified Reference Material IRMM-530R Al-0.1%Au alloy and high purity zirconium comparators were used. The efficiency curves of the gamma-ray spectrometer used were determined by measuring calibrated radioactive sources at the usually utilized counting geometries. The method was validated by analyzing the reference materials NIST SRM 1547 Peach Leaves, INCT-MPH-2 Mixed Polish Herbs and NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The concentration results obtained agreed with certified, reference and recommended values, showing relative errors (bias, %) less than 30% for most elements. The Coefficients of Variation were below 20%, showing a good reproducibility of the results. The E n -number showed that all results, except Na in NIST SRM 1547 and NIST SRM 1573a and Al in INCT-MPH-2, were within 95% confidence interval. (author)

  1. Enforced Scale Selection in Field Theories of Mechanical and Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Jens Magelund

    The collective motion of driven or self-propelled interacting units is in many natural systems known to produce complex patterns. This thesis considers two continuum field theories commonly used in describing pattern formation and dynamics: The first one, the phase field crystal model, which...... dynamics of single crystals. Secondly, a continuum theory describing mesoscopic turbulence of biological active matter, which is used to study long-range ordered vorticity patterns generated by cell divisions in a endothelial cell layer....... describes the dynamical and equilibrium properties of crystalline material, is used to study the coarsening dynamics of polycrystalline materials in two and three dimensions. A generalization introducing a faster elastic relaxation time scale is then used to study the plastic deformation and dislocation...

  2. Field testing of behavioral barriers for cooling water intake structures -test site 1 - Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, P.H.; McKinley, R.S.; Micheletti, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    A multi-year research program was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute to evaluate the effectiveness of selected behavioral systems for fish exclusion at sites representative of different aquatic environments. The first test site was the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) located on Lake Ontario which represented the Great Lakes environment. A single pneumatic popper, a low frequency, high amplitude sound deterrent, was found to effectively exclude adult alewife, the principal species impinged at Pickering NGS. An air bubble curtain, used either alone or combined with strobe lights, was not a consistent deterrent. Effectiveness of air bubbles was only enhanced when used in association with a popper. Strobe lights were the least effective of the three devices tested. Operation of all three devices together did not surpass the effectiveness of the popper when used alone. Sound deterrents show promise for fish exclusion at generating stations located on the Great Lakes

  3. Convergence of The Nobel Fields of Telomere Biology and DNA Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquerel, Elise; Opresko, Patricia L

    2017-01-01

    The fields of telomere biology and DNA repair have enjoyed a great deal of cross-fertilization and convergence in recent years. Telomeres function at chromosome ends to prevent them from being falsely recognized as chromosome breaks by the DNA damage response and repair machineries. Conversely, both canonical and nonconical functions of numerous DNA repair proteins have been found to be critical for preserving telomere structure and function. In 2009, Elizabeth Blackburn, Carol Greider and Jack Szostak were awarded the Nobel prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of telomeres and telomerase. Four years later, pioneers in the field of DNA repair, Aziz Sancar, Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich were recognized for their seminal contributions by being awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. This review is part of a special issue meant to celebrate this amazing achievement, and will focus in particular on the convergence of nucleotide excision repair and telomere biology, and will discuss the profound implications for human health. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  4. Results of a cross-sectional study on the association of electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phone base stations and health complaints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breckenkamp, Juergen; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Reis, Ursula; Potthoff, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite the fact that adverse health effects are not confirmed for exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RFEMF) levels below the limit values, as defined in the guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, many persons are worried about possible adverse health effects caused by the RF-EMF emitted from mobile phone base stations, or they attribute their unspecific health complaints like headache or sleep disturbances to these fields. Method: In the framework of a cross-sectional study a questionnaire was sent to 4150 persons living in predominantly urban areas. Participants were asked whether base stations affected their health. Health complaints were measured with standardized health questionnaires for sleep disturbances, headache, health complaints and mental and physical health. 3,526 persons responded (85%) to the questionnaire and 1,808 (51%) agreed to dosimetric measurements in their flats. Exposure was measured in 1,500 flats. Results: The measurements accomplished in the bedrooms in most cases showed very low exposure values, most often below sensitivity limit of the dosimeter. An association of exposure with the occurrence of health complaints was not found, but an association between the attribution of adverse health effects to base stations and the occurrence of health complaints. Conclusions: However, concerns about health and the attribution of adverse health effects to these mobile phone base stations should be taken serious and require a risk communication with concerned persons. Future research should focus on the processes of perception and appraisal of RF-EMF risks, and ascertain the determinants of concerns and attributions in the context of RF-EMF. (orig.)

  5. Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on soil fertility and biology under field conditions in subtropical inceptisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S; Singh, Surender

    2013-01-01

    Although there is large-scale adoption of Bt cotton by the farmers because of immediate financial gain, there is concern that Bt crops release Bt toxins into the soil environment which reduces soil chemical and biological activities. However, the majorities of such studies were mainly performed under pot experiments, relatively little research has examined the direct and indirect effects of associated cover crop of peanut with fertilization by combined application of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen under field conditions. We compared soil chemical and biological parameters of Bt cotton with pure crop of peanut to arrive on a valid conclusion. Significantly higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity and KMnO(4)-N content of soil were observed in Bt cotton with cover crop of peanut over pure Bt cotton followed by pure peanut at all the crop growth stages. However, higher microbial population was maintained by pure peanut over intercropped Bt cotton, but these differences were related to the presence of high amount of KMnO(4)-N content of soil. By growing cover crop of peanut between Bt cotton rows, bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes population increased by 60%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, over Bt cotton alone. Bt cotton fertilized by combined application of urea and farm yard manure (FYM) maintained higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity, KMnO(4)-N content of soil and microbial population over urea alone. Significant positive correlations were observed for dry matter accumulation, dehydrogenase enzyme activity, KMnO(4)-N content, and microbial population of soil of Bt cotton, which indicates no harmful effects of Bt cotton on soil biological parameters and associated cover crop. Our results suggest that inclusion of cover crop of peanut and FYM in Bt cotton enhanced soil chemical and biological parameters which can mask any negative effect of the Bt toxin on microbial activity and thus on enzymatic activities.

  6. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  7. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  8. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Dimaki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project....... The presented research is based on this sensor structure and investigates its potential as a versatile biomarker detection platform by evaluating different functionalization approaches. The functionalization of the silicon sensor surface with organic molecules was investigated in detail to determine...... the suitability of different methods for the preparation of organic interfaces for protein attachment. Oxide-free silicon surfaces offer unique possibilities to create highly sensitive sensor surfaces for charge detection due to the lack of an insulating oxide layer, but the highly reactive surface presents...

  9. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea

    This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project....... The presented research is based on this sensor structure and investigates its potential as a versatile biomarker detection platform by evaluating different functionalization approaches. The functionalization of the silicon sensor surface with organic molecules was investigated in detail to determine...... the suitability of different methods for the preparation of organic interfaces for protein attachment. Oxide-free silicon surfaces offer unique possibilities to create highly sensitive sensor surfaces for charge detection due to the lack of an insulating oxide layer, but the highly reactive surface presents...

  10. Best practice for minimising unmanned aerial vehicle disturbance to wildlife in biological field research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jarrod C; Koh, Lian Pin

    2016-05-23

    The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), colloquially referred to as 'drones', for biological field research is increasing [1-3]. Small, civilian UAVs are providing a viable, economical tool for ecology researchers and environmental managers. UAVs are particularly useful for wildlife observation and monitoring as they can produce systematic data of high spatial and temporal resolution [4]. However, this new technology could also have undesirable and unforeseen impacts on wildlife, the risks of which we currently have little understanding [5-7]. There is a need for a code of best practice in the use of UAVs to mitigate or alleviate these risks, which we begin to develop here. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological control of white mold by Trichoderma harzianum in common bean under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Diego Costa Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate Trichoderma harzianum isolates for biological control of white mold in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. Five isolates were evaluated for biocontrol of white mold in 'Perola' common bean under field conditions, in the 2009 and 2010 crop seasons. A commercial isolate (1306 and a control treatment were included. Foliar applications at 2x109 conidia mL-1 were performed at 42 and 52 days after sowing (DAS, in 2009, and at 52 DAS in 2010. The CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 isolates decreased the number of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum apothecia per square meter in comparison to the control, in both crop seasons. CEN287, CEN316, and 1306 decreased white mold severity during the experimental period, when compared to the control.

  12. Managing biodiversity for a competitive ecotourism industry in tropical developing countries: New opportunities in biological fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Luchman

    2017-11-01

    Managing biodiversity for sustainable and competitive ecotourism destinations requires a basic understanding of the principles of biology, which are poorly understood in tropical developing countries, including Indonesia. This paper describes the current status of tourism in Indonesia, identifies environment and biodiversity vulnerability in tourism destinations, and explores the challenges of the biological field in supporting ecotourism development. This review found that tourism, especially nature-based and ecotourism, has grown significantly in Indonesia, and the contribution of Indonesian biodiversity has been identified as significant. Threats to biodiversity, however, are found in nature-based tourism destinations. Issues related to pollution, exotic plant species invasion, habitat changes and degradation, habitat loss, and wildlife disturbance are widely reported, indicating the importance of such issues in destination management. Pollution is found in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Water pollution is an important issue among lakes and rivers. To date, there are few assessments of the impact of tourism activities on aquatic ecosystems, resulting in the management of aquatic ecosystems facing numerous difficulties. These studies identify the invasive plants found, which become a crucial problem in many nature-based tourism destinations, and which significantly contribute to a reduction in the existence of many flora-fauna in a wild habitat. Habitat changes and degradation are mostly influenced by tourism infrastructure development. Massive infrastructure development often leads to habitat loss, which is a crucial step in local biodiversity extinction. Increasing and uncontrolled visitor behaviors influence animal behavior changes, which is recognized as a dangerous phenomenon affecting animal survival in the future. An agenda for future integrative biological research is needed to improve resource management, to increase sustainability and the

  13. Biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim progress report, March 9, 1976--September 8, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.; Decker, J.R.; Hjeresen, D.L.

    1976-09-01

    Progress is reported on a broad and comprehensive series of biological experiments made under strictly controlled laboratory conditions to screen for possible effects of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals. Electric field strengths comparable to and exceeding those under existing and anticipated transmission line designs will be used. Dosimetry studies will complement the animal studies to establish the relationship between tissue dose and any observed biological effects. Information derived from this project will provide a better basis for evaluating potential hazards of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields and help define parameters to be studied in clinical evaluations on humans.

  14. Improvement of Soil Biology Characteristics at Paddy Field by System of Rice Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyatmani Sih Dewi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to test the System of Rice Intensification (SRI method in improving the biological properties of paddy soil. The indicators of improvement were measured by the number of earthworm feces (cast, and the population of some microbial and nutrient content in the cast. The experiments were performed by comparing the three methods, namely: (1 SRI, (2 semi-conventional, and (3 conventional, using Randomized Completely Block Design. Each treatment was repeated nine times. The experiments were performed in the paddy fields belonging to farmers in Sukoharjo, Central Java. The result showed that the SRI (application of 1 tons ha-1 of vermicompost + 50% of inorganic fertilizer dosage tends to increase the number of earthworms cast. It is an indicator of earthworm activity in soil. Earthworms cast contains more phosphate solubilizing bacteria (12.98 x 1010cfu and N content (1.23% compared to its surrounding soil. There is a close functional relation between earthworms cast with total tiller number. SRI method is better than the other two methods to improve the biological characteristics of paddy soil that has the potential to maintain the sustainability of soil productivity.

  15. Automatic Weather Station (AWS Program operated by the University of Wisconsin-Madison during the 2012-2013 field season: Challenges and Successes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Lazzara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This report reviews 2012-2013 field season activities of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS program, summarizes the science that these sites are supporting, and outlines the factors that impact the number of AWS sites serviced in any given field season. The 2012-2013 austral summer season was unusual in the AWS network history. Challenges encountered include, but are not limited to, warmer than normal conditions in the Ross Island area impacting airfield operations, changes to logistical procedures, and competition for shared resources. A flexible work plan provides the best means for taking on these challenges while maximizing AWS servicing efforts under restricted conditions and meeting the need for routine servicing that maintaining an autonomous observing network demands.

  16. Biological and clinical effects of low-frequency magnetic and electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llaurado, J.G.; Sances, A. Jr.; Battocletti, J. (eds.)

    1974-01-01

    The blurb on this book states that it has been written for physicians, biologists, psychologists, engineers and those persons interested in the interaction of low frequency electric and magnetic fields upon animals and man. Certainly, the content of this book--which comprises papers presented by specialists at a symposium on The Effects of Low Frequency Magnetic Fields on Biological Communication Processes held in Aspen, Colorado--does not make simple reading and those lacking the necessary background are unlikely to make much progress. This said, however, the book can be recommended to those with the necessary interest, knowledge and perseverance. The book provides a great deal of information in a convenient manner and all those concerned with its production are to be congratulated on their work. Articles are well set out, illustrated and supported by abstracts, extensive references and discussions. As indicated above, the range of the subjects covered is large and includes such varied items as acupuncture, bird communication and some details of the U.S.A. Navy's extra low frequency communication system known as Project Sanguine. Finally, it is a pleasure to say that the book has been attractively produced and contains an excellent index.

  17. Investigation Biological And Medical Specimen Using X-Ray Dark Field Imagine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanasiriwisawa, Wanwisa; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Maksimenko, Anton; Kazuyuki, Hyodo; Ando, Masami

    2005-10-01

    X-ray dark-field imaging (DFI) and bright-field imaging (BFI) in the Laue geometry has been successfully demonstrated. Using a Bragg-case asymmetric monochromator which produces an x-ray beam with a 0.3 μrad divergence incident onto an object and a Laue geometry analyzer that can simultaneously provide DFI and BFI. The imaging technique of DFI is quite novel one that we did not have before in that the central bright line satisfying the Bragg condition is removed by the analyzer crystal and the background radiation obscuring the image of the object does not come to record film. This is not the case in BFI and the strong background radiation obscures the real image of the object. X-ray optics comprising two Laue case diffraction wafers working at 35 keV has been successfully applied to some biological samples such as ivory, tusk, horn, tooth and a phantom of breast cancer. Images of ivory and others have shown very clear and informative inside structure. All pieces of the breast cancer phantom provide us with very fine images to simulate cancer

  18. International and National Expert Group Evaluations: Biological/Health Effects of Radiofrequency Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The escalated use of various wireless communication devices, which emit non-ionizing radiofrequency (RF fields, have raised concerns among the general public regarding the potential adverse effects on human health. During the last six decades, researchers have used different parameters to investigate the effects of in vitro and in vivo exposures of animals and humans or their cells to RF fields. Data reported in peer-reviewed scientific publications were contradictory: some indicated effects while others did not. International organizations have considered all of these data as well as the observations reported in human epidemiological investigations to set-up the guidelines or standards (based on the quality of published studies and the “weight of scientific evidence” approach for RF exposures in occupationally exposed individuals and the general public. Scientists with relevant expertise in various countries have also considered the published data to provide the required scientific information for policy-makers to develop and disseminate authoritative health information to the general public regarding RF exposures. This paper is a compilation of the conclusions, on the biological effects of RF exposures, from various national and international expert groups, based on their analyses. In general, the expert groups suggested a reduction in exposure levels, precautionary approach, and further research.

  19. Can weighing lysimeter ET represent surrounding field ET well enough to test flux station measurements of daily and sub-daily ET?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Steven R.; Schwartz, Robert C.; Howell, Terry A.; Louis Baumhardt, R.; Copeland, Karen S.

    2012-12-01

    Weighing lysimeters and neutron probes (NP) are both used to determine the change in soil water storage needed to solve for evapotranspiration (ET) using the soil water balance equation. We compared irrigated cotton ET determined using two large (3 × 3 × 2.4-m deep) weighing lysimeters and eight NP soil water profiles located outside the lysimeters in cotton fields during the BEAREX08 field campaign (see [16] Evett et al., 2012). The objectives were to (i) determine if lysimeter-based ET fluxes were representative of those from the fields, designated NE and SE, in which the lysimeters were centered, and (ii) investigate different methods of computing the soil water balance using NP data. Field fluxes were determined from the soil water balance using neutron probe measurements of change in profile water content storage. Fluxes of ET from the SE lysimeter were representative of those from the field throughout the season and can be used with reasonable certainty for comparisons of ET fluxes and energy balance closure derived from Bowen ratio (BR) and eddy covariance (EC) measurements whose footprints lay in the SE field. Comparisons of ET fluxes from EC and BR systems to those from the NE lysimeter should consider that NE lysimeter fluxes were up to 18% larger than those from the NE field during the period of rapid vegetative growth. This was due to plants on the lysimeter having greater height and width than those in the field. Nevertheless, the data from this and companion studies documents substantial underestimation of crop ET by EC stations under the conditions of BEAREX08. Comparison of zero flux plane (ZFP) and simple soil water balance methods of calculating ET from NP data showed them to be equivalent in this study; and for the ZFP method, the depth of the control volume should be determined by the depth at which the hydraulic gradient reverses, not by the depth of calculated minimum flux. If supported by a sufficiently dense and widespread network of deep

  20. The work of the Animal Research Station, Cambridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polge, Chris

    2007-06-01

    This paper traces the history of the Animal Research Station, Cambridge from its establishment in 1932 to its closure in 1986. The author worked there for forty years and was Director from 1979. Originally set up as a field station for Cambridge University's School of Agriculture, the Station was expanded after World War II as the Agricultural Research Council's Unit of Animal Reproduction. Beginning with semen and artificial insemination, research at the Station soon embraced superovulation and embryo transfer in farm animals. Many other technologies were also developed here, including IVF in pigs, cloning by nuclear transplantation of early embryonic cells, and the first genetically modified farm animals in Britain. This account recalls the Directors of the Station and their research teams together with details of their pioneering contribution to reproductive biology.

  1. Impact of internal waves on the acoustic field at a coastal station off Paradeep, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sridevi, B.; Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Murty, V.S.N.

    are predominant than diurnal as well as at other frequencies and its contribution is about 64% towards the total potential energy (E 0 = 3.34 J sup (-2)). Sound velocity perturbations with space and time in the presence of IW field are examined from Garrettt...

  2. Seasonal and magnetic activity variations of ionospheric electric fields above the southern mid-latitude station, Bundoora, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the seasonal, local solar time, and geomagnetic activity variations of the average Doppler velocity measured by an HF digital ionosonde deployed at Bundoora, Australia (145.1° E, 37.7° S, geographic; 49° S magnetic. The Doppler velocities were heavily averaged to suppress the short-term effects (<3 hours of atmospheric gravity waves, and thereby obtain the diurnal variations attributed to the tidally-driven ionospheric dynamo and electric fields generated by magnetic disturbances. The observed seasonal variations in Doppler velocity were probably controlled by variations in the lower thermospheric winds and ionospheric conductivity above Bundoora and in the magnetically conjugate location. The diurnal variations of the meridional (field-perpendicular drifts and their perturbations exhibited a complex structure, and were generally smaller than the variations in the zonal drifts. The latter were basically strongly west-ward during the evening to early morning, and weakly east-ward during the late morning to just past noon. The zonal perturbations were strongly enhanced by increasing geomagnetic activity, and closely resembled the perturbation drifts measured by the incoherent scatter radar (ISR at Millstone Hill (71.5° W, 42.6° N; 57° N. There was also some resemblance between the diurnal variations in the meridional drifts. Overall, the comparisons suggest that with sufficient averaging, Doppler velocities measured with digital ionosondes at mid-latitudes correspond to true ion motions driven by ionospheric electric fields. This is a useful result because apart from the ISRs located in the American-European sector, there are no ground-based instruments capable of measuring electric fields in the mid-latitude ionosphere.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionosphere atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  3. Seasonal and magnetic activity variations of ionospheric electric fields above the southern mid-latitude station, Bundoora, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Parkinson

    Full Text Available We investigate the seasonal, local solar time, and geomagnetic activity variations of the average Doppler velocity measured by an HF digital ionosonde deployed at Bundoora, Australia (145.1° E, 37.7° S, geographic; 49° S magnetic. The Doppler velocities were heavily averaged to suppress the short-term effects (<3 hours of atmospheric gravity waves, and thereby obtain the diurnal variations attributed to the tidally-driven ionospheric dynamo and electric fields generated by magnetic disturbances. The observed seasonal variations in Doppler velocity were probably controlled by variations in the lower thermospheric winds and ionospheric conductivity above Bundoora and in the magnetically conjugate location. The diurnal variations of the meridional (field-perpendicular drifts and their perturbations exhibited a complex structure, and were generally smaller than the variations in the zonal drifts. The latter were basically strongly west-ward during the evening to early morning, and weakly east-ward during the late morning to just past noon. The zonal perturbations were strongly enhanced by increasing geomagnetic activity, and closely resembled the perturbation drifts measured by the incoherent scatter radar (ISR at Millstone Hill (71.5° W, 42.6° N; 57° N. There was also some resemblance between the diurnal variations in the meridional drifts. Overall, the comparisons suggest that with sufficient averaging, Doppler velocities measured with digital ionosondes at mid-latitudes correspond to true ion motions driven by ionospheric electric fields. This is a useful result because apart from the ISRs located in the American-European sector, there are no ground-based instruments capable of measuring electric fields in the mid-latitude ionosphere.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ionosphere atmosphere interactions; mid-latitude ionosphere

  4. Ecological engineering to control bioclogging: an original field study coupling infiltration and biological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gette-bouvarot, Morgane; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Lassabatere, Laurent; Lemoine, Damien; Delolme, Cécile; Volatier, Laurence

    2014-05-01

    Infiltration systems are increasingly used in urban areas for several purposes such as flood prevention and groundwater recharge. However, their functioning is often impacted by clogging that leads to decreases in hydraulic and water treatment performances. These systems are commonly built with sand as infiltration medium, a media subject to rapid clogging by the combined and overlapping processes of pore occlusion by fine particles and biofilm development. In a previous study, we pointed out that the phototrophic component of biofilms developed at the surface layer of infiltration systems (algae, cyanobacteria) could reduce by up to 60-fold the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Consequently, it appears crucial to control biofilm growth to maintain porous infiltration media performances. The present study aimed to test the influence of biotic (addition of animals or macrophytes) and abiotic (light reduction) treatments on biofilm development and associated hydraulic properties in an infiltration device dedicated to aquifer recharge with river water in Lyon Area (France). Twenty-five benthic enclosures were used to test 5 "treatments" on non-manipulated surface layer under field conditions. Three biotic treatments consisted in the introduction of: (i) an invertebrate acting as algae grazer (Viviparus viviparus), (ii) an invertebrate that digs galleries in sediments (Tubifex tubifex), and (iii) a macrophyte that could inhibit benthic biofilm by allelopathic activity (Vallisneria spiralis L). The fourth treatment was designed to simulate shading. The last "treatment" was a control which monitored the evolution of the system during the experiment without manipulation (addition of macro-organisms or shading). Each treatment was replicated five times. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks, and sampling of the surface layer (0-1 cm) was carried out in each enclosure at the beginning (t0) and the end (tf). We coupled biological characterizations (organic matter, algal

  5. [The influence of variable and constant magnetic fields on biota and biological activity of ordinary chernozem soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisova, T V; Kazeev, K Sh

    2007-01-01

    In model experiments on influence variable magnetic fields of industrial frequency (50 Hz) an induction of 1500 and of 6000 mkTl and the constant magnetic field an induction of 6000 mkTl and of 15000 mkTl during 5 days of exposure on biological properties of chernozem ordinary is shown, that the soil microflora is more sensitive to magnetic fields, than enzymes activity. Bacteria are more sensitive, than microscopic mushrooms. Dehydrogenase it is steady against influence of all variants. Constant magnetic field by the induction of 15000 mkTl rendered practically identical authentic overwhelming influence on catalase and saccharase activity - on 51 and 47% accordingly.

  6. Characterisation of radiation field for irradiation of biological samples at nuclear reactor-comparison of twin detector and recombination methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, N; Gryziński, M A; Kowalska, M; Meronka, K; Tulik, P

    2014-10-01

    Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection is involved in achieving scientific project on biological dosimetry. The project includes irradiation of blood samples in radiation fields of nuclear reactor. A simple facility for irradiation of biological samples has been prepared at horizontal channel of the nuclear reactor MARIA in NCBJ in Poland. The radiation field, composed mainly of gamma radiation and thermal neutrons, has been characterised in terms of tissue kerma using twin-detector technique and recombination chambers. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Amtrak Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  8. Research at the interface of physics and biology: bridging the two fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Kamal

    2014-10-08

    I firmly believe that interaction between physics and biology is not only natural, but inevitable. Kamal Shukla provides a personal perspective on working at the interface between the physical and biological sciences.

  9. Seasonal and magnetic activity variations of ionospheric electric fields above the southern mid-latitude station, Bundoora, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, M.L.; Polglase, R.; Dyson, P.L.; Ujmaia, S.M. [La Trobe Univ., Melbourne, Vic. (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Fejer, B.G.; Scherliess, L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences

    2001-05-01

    We investigate the seasonal, local solar time, and geomagnetic activity variations of the average Doppler velocity measured by an HF digital ionosonde deployed at Bundoora, Australia (145.1 E, 37.7 S, geographic; 49 S magnetic). The Doppler velocities were heavily averaged to suppress the short-term effects (<3 hours) of atmospheric gravity waves, and thereby obtain the diurnal variations attributed to the tidally-driven ionospheric dynamo and electric fields generated by magnetic disturbances. The observed seasonal variations in Doppler velocity were probably controlled by variations in the lower thermospheric winds and ionospheric conductivity above Bundoora and in the magnetically conjugate location. The diurnal variations of the meridional (field-perpendicular) drifts and their perturbations exhibited a complex structure, and were generally smaller than the variations in the zonal drifts. The latter were basically strongly westward during the evening to early morning, and weakly eastward during the late morning to just past noon. The zonal perturbations were strongly enhanced by increasing geomagnetic activity, and closely resembled the perturbation drifts measured by the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) at Millstone Hill (71.5 W, 42.6 N; 57 N). There was also some resemblance between the diurnal variations in the meridional drifts. Overall, the comparisons suggest that with sufficient averaging, Doppler velocities measured with digital ionosondes at mid-latitudes correspond to true ion motions driven by ionospheric electric fields. This is a useful result because apart from the ISRs located in the American-European sector, there are no ground-based instruments capable of measuring electric fields in the mid-latitude ionosphere. (orig.)

  10. BIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD FROM MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao TAKI

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile communication devices are sources of radiofrequency (RF electromagnetic field (EMF that are common in daily life and can cause strong exposure to the head. Possible adverse health effects, especially on brain functions, have been of great concern among the general public since the explosive penetration of this technology began in the 1990's. The exposure complies with current safety guidelines. The established knowledge of biological effects of RF does not provide any evidence for anecdotally reported effects such as memory loss or causing brain tumors. However, there is no way to prove the absolute absence of such effects. The enormous efforts have been made to search for such unknown effects and ascertain the safety of this technology. Recent research on the possible effects of RF-EMF on the brain is briefly summarized here to show what is known and what remains unknown. The evidence reported so far indicates few effects that could possibly damage human health seriously. Only slight changes in physiological function in the brain may exist, but variation of the data is too great to believe that the exposure actually has the potential to affect function. The health risk, if any, at an individual level, would be very low in consideration of the available evidence. However, if mobile phone fields were actually hazardous, the very large number of mobile phone users could mean that, even if the individual risk were very low, the impact on public health could be considerable. This is the most important reason why so many efforts are being made in this issue.

  11. Development of a filtered neutron field in KUR. In behalf of biological irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takashi; Utsuro, Masahiko; Utsumi, Hiroshi

    1995-07-01

    Very little direct measurements have been made of the biological effects of neutrons below 100keV. Recently, an iron-filtered 24keV neutron beam of Harwell Materials Testing Reactor, PLUTO, was reported to be highly efficient in inducing chromosome aberrations; the efficiency being comparable to that of fission neutrons. This results could have serious repercussions for radiation protection standards as the ICRP assume a decrease in neutron RBE below 100keV. The investigations reported here have as their primary purpose the production of neutron beams at the 24keV iron window energy, using the B-1 experimental facility of the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) at the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University (KURRI). The filtered neutron filed for biomedical applications is designed to maximized the contributions of neutrons with other energies and gamma-rays. The characteristics of the radiation field were obtained by the simple transmission calculations for Fe(45cm) and Al(35cm) filters, by using the Monte Carlo code MCN P, and by the measurement of nuclear heating for Fe and Al filter pieces. The 24keV neutron flux and gamma-ray dose rate were measured using a proton recoil counter and TLDs, respectively. The measured findings are as follows: The 24keV neutron flux at the irradiation field was approximately 1x10 6 n/cm 2 /s, and the gamma-ray dose rate was 1.0Gy/h at the surface of the B-1 plug. Nuclear heating of the filter materials was 5.2mW/g for Fe and 4mW/g for Al, in maximum. (author)

  12. Systematic review of biological effects of exposure to static electric fields. Part II: Invertebrates and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedchen, Kristina; Petri, Anne-Kathrin; Driessen, Sarah; Bailey, William H

    2018-01-01

    The construction of high-voltage direct current (HVDC) lines for the long-distance transport of energy is becoming increasingly popular. This has raised public concern about potential environmental impacts of the static electric fields (EF) produced under and near HVDC power lines. As the second part of a comprehensive literature analysis, the aim of this systematic review was to assess the effects of static EF exposure on biological functions in invertebrates and plants and to provide the basis for an environmental impact assessment of such exposures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used to guide the methodological conduct and reporting. Thirty-three studies - 14 invertebrate and 19 plant studies - met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. The reported behavioral responses of insects and planarians upon exposure strongly suggest that invertebrates are able to perceive the presence of a static EF. Many other studies reported effects on physiological functions that were expressed as, for example, altered metabolic activity or delayed reproductive and developmental stages in invertebrates. In plants, leaf damage, alterations in germination rates, growth and yield, or variations in the concentration of essential elements, for example, have been reported. However, these physiological responses and changes in plant morphology appear to be secondary to surface stimulation by the static EF or caused by concomitant parameters of the electrostatic environment. Furthermore, all of the included studies suffered from methodological flaws, which lowered credibility in the results. At field levels encountered from natural sources or HVDC lines ( 35kV/m), adverse effects on physiology and morphology, presumably caused by corona-action, appear to be more likely. Higher quality studies are needed to unravel the role of air ions, ozone, nitric oxide and corona current on alterations in physiological functions

  13. Scanning near-field optical microscopy on rough surfaces: applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shear-force apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM with very sharp uncoated tapered waveguides relies on the unexpected enhancement of reflection in the shear-force gap. It is the technique for obtaining chemical (materials contrast in the optical image of “real world” surfaces that are rough and very rough without topographical artifacts, and it is by far less complicated than other SNOM techniques that can only be used for very flat surfaces. The experimental use of the new photophysical effect is described. The applications of the new technique are manifold. Important mechanistic questions in solid-state chemistry (oxidation, diazotization, photodimerization, surface hydration, hydrolysis are answered with respect to simultaneous AFM (atomic force microscopy and detailed crystal packing. Prehistoric petrified bacteria and concomitant pyrite inclusions are also investigated with local RAMAN SNOM. Polymer beads and unstained biological objects (rabbit heart, shrimp eye allow for nanoscopic analysis of cell organelles. Similarly, human teeth and a cancerous tissue are analyzed. Bladder cancer tissue is clearly differentiated from healthy tissue without staining and this opens a new highly promising diagnostic tool for precancer diagnosis. Industrial applications are demonstrated at the corrosion behavior of dental alloys (withdrawal of a widely used alloy, harmless substitutes, improvement of paper glazing, behavior of blood bags upon storage, quality assessment of metal particle preparations for surface enhanced RAMAN spectroscopy, and determination of diffusion coefficient and light fastness in textile fiber dyeing. The latter applications include fluorescence SNOM. Local fluorescence SNOM is also used in the study of partly aggregating dye nanoparticles within resin/varnish preparations. Unexpected new insights are obtained in all of the various fields that cannot be obtained by other techniques.

  14. Short-term exposure to mobile phone base station signals does not affect cognitive functioning or physiological measures in individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltiti, Stacy; Wallace, Denise; Ridgewell, Anna; Zougkou, Konstantina; Russo, Riccardo; Sepulveda, Francisco; Fox, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Individuals who report sensitivity to electromagnetic fields often report cognitive impairments that they believe are due to exposure to mobile phone technology. Previous research in this area has revealed mixed results, however, with the majority of research only testing control individuals. Two studies using control and self-reported sensitive participants found inconsistent effects of mobile phone base stations on cognitive functioning. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether short-term (50 min) exposure at 10 mW/m(2) to typical Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station signals affects attention, memory, and physiological endpoints in sensitive and control participants. Data from 44 sensitive and 44 matched-control participants who performed the digit symbol substitution task (DSST), digit span task (DS), and a mental arithmetic task (MA), while being exposed to GSM, UMTS, and sham signals under double-blind conditions were analyzed. Overall, cognitive functioning was not affected by short-term exposure to either GSM or UMTS signals in the current study. Nor did exposure affect the physiological measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP), heart rate (HR), and skin conductance (SC) that were taken while participants performed the cognitive tasks.

  15. Hybrid finite element method for describing the electrical response of biological cells to applied fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wenjun; Henriquez, Craig S

    2007-04-01

    A novel hybrid finite element method (FEM) for modeling the response of passive and active biological membranes to external stimuli is presented. The method is based on the differential equations that describe the conservation of electric flux and membrane currents. By introducing the electric flux through the cell membrane as an additional variable, the algorithm decouples the linear partial differential equation part from the nonlinear ordinary differential equation part that defines the membrane dynamics of interest. This conveniently results in two subproblems: a linear interface problem and a nonlinear initial value problem. The linear interface problem is solved with a hybrid FEM. The initial value problem is integrated by a standard ordinary differential equation solver such as the Euler and Runge-Kutta methods. During time integration, these two subproblems are solved alternatively. The algorithm can be used to model the interaction of stimuli with multiple cells of almost arbitrary geometries and complex ion-channel gating at the plasma membrane. Numerical experiments are presented demonstrating the uses of the method for modeling field stimulation and action potential propagation.

  16. Tweets from the forest: using Twitter to increase student engagement in an undergraduate field biology course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluk, Lauren; Buddle, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Twitter is a cold medium that allows users to deliver content-rich but small packets of information to other users, and provides an opportunity for active and collaborative communication. In an education setting, this social media tool has potential to increase active learning opportunities, and increase student engagement with course content. The effects of Twitter on learning dynamics was tested in a field biology course offered by a large Canadian University: 29 students agreed to take part in the Twitter project and quantitative and qualitative data were collected, including survey data from 18 students. Students published 200% more public Tweets than what was required, and interacted frequently with the instructor and teaching assistant, their peers, and users external to the course. Almost 80% of students stated that Twitter increased opportunities for among-group communication, and 94% of students felt this kind of collaborative communication was beneficial to their learning. Although students did not think they would use Twitter after the course was over, 77% of the students still felt it was a good learning tool, and 67% of students felt Twitter had a positive impact on how they engaged with course content. These results suggest social media tools such as Twitter can help achieve active and collaborative learning in higher education. PMID:26594328

  17. Biological water contamination in some cattle production fields of Argentina subjected to runoff and erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celio I. Chagas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Grain production has displaced livestock to marginal lands in most of the productive regions in Argentina since 1990. In the fertile Rolling Pampa region, extensive cattle production has been concentrated in lowlands subjected to flooding, salt excess, erosion and sedimentation processes but also in some feedlots recently located in sloping arable lands prone to soil erosion. We studied the concentration of microbiological contamination indicators in runoff water and sediments accumulated in depressions along the tributary network from these lands devoted to cattle production. The aims of this work were: (i to gather a reliable set of data from different monitoring periods and scales, (ii to search for simple and sensible variables to be used as indicators for surface water quality advising purposes and (iii to corroborate previous biological contamination conceptual models for this region. Concentration of pollution indicators in these ponds was related to mean stocking rates from nearby fields and proved to depend significantly on the accumulated water and sediments. Viable mesophiles and total coliforms were found mainly attached to large sediments rather than in the runoff water phase. Seasonal sampling showed that the time period between the last significant runoff event and each sampling date regarding enterococci proved to be a sensible variable for predicting contamination. Enterococci concentration tended to increase gradually until the next extraordinary runoff event washed away contaminants. The mentioned relationship may be useful for designing early warning surface water contamination programs regarding enterococci dynamics and other related microbial pollutants as well.

  18. Tweets from the forest: using Twitter to increase student engagement in an undergraduate field biology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soluk, Lauren; Buddle, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Twitter is a cold medium that allows users to deliver content-rich but small packets of information to other users, and provides an opportunity for active and collaborative communication. In an education setting, this social media tool has potential to increase active learning opportunities, and increase student engagement with course content. The effects of Twitter on learning dynamics was tested in a field biology course offered by a large Canadian University: 29 students agreed to take part in the Twitter project and quantitative and qualitative data were collected, including survey data from 18 students. Students published 200% more public Tweets than what was required, and interacted frequently with the instructor and teaching assistant, their peers, and users external to the course. Almost 80% of students stated that Twitter increased opportunities for among-group communication, and 94% of students felt this kind of collaborative communication was beneficial to their learning. Although students did not think they would use Twitter after the course was over, 77% of the students still felt it was a good learning tool, and 67% of students felt Twitter had a positive impact on how they engaged with course content. These results suggest social media tools such as Twitter can help achieve active and collaborative learning in higher education.

  19. Structured Development and Promotion of a Research Field: Hormesis in Biology, Toxicology, and Environmental Regulatory Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushak, Paul; Elliott, Kevin C

    2015-12-01

    The ability of powerful and well-funded interest groups to steer scientific research in ways that advance their goals has become a significant social concern. This steering ability is increasingly being recognized in the peer-reviewed scientific literature and in findings of deliberative scientific bodies. This paper provides a case study that illustrates some of the major strategies that can be used to structure and advance a controversial research field. It focuses on hormesis, described as a type of dose-response relationship in toxicology and biology showing low-dose stimulation but high-dose inhibition, or the reverse. Hormesis proponents tout its significance, arguing that substances toxic at high doses and beneficial at lower doses should be regulated less stringently. We identify five strategies employed by hormesis proponents to foster its acceptance: (1) creating institutions focused on supporting hormesis; (2) developing terminology, study designs, and data interpretations that cast it in a favorable light; (3) using bibliometric techniques and surveys to attract attention; (4) aggressively advocating for the phenomenon and challenging critics; and (5) working with outside interest groups to apply the hormesis phenomenon in the economic and political spheres. We also suggest a number of oversight strategies that can be implemented to help promote credible and socially responsible research in cases like this one.

  20. Biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Annual report, April 1977--March 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the biological effects on mice and rats of exposure to 60-Hz electric fields. Results are reported on the effects of 30-day and 60-day exposures to 100 kV/m, 60-Hz electric fields on hematologic values, blood chemistry, and organ weights. With the possible exception of elevated blood platelet counts following 60-day exposures, there were no pathological changes observed in either mice or rats.

  1. Permanent magnetic field treatment of nonpenetrating corneal injuries at oil drilling site medical aid stations in Udmurt ASSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaykova, M.V.; Gorkunov, E.S.; Liyaskin, M.I.; Osipov, N.A.; Koshevoy, V.P.; Vlasova, E.F.; Solovev, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Therapeutic trials were conducted with permanent magnetic field magnetotherapy in the management of nonpenetrating corneal injuries. The low intensity fields (10 mTesla) were applied to closed eyelids of 100 workers, 20-30 years of age, injured at oil drilling sites in Udmurtia, with another 100 workers treated in the conventional manner without adjunct magnetotherapy to provide a control group. Treatment consisted of 3-20 half-hour sessions following foreign body removal. In the experimental group 98% of the patients showed recovery of 0.9-1.0 visual acuity, with superficial traumatic keratitis evident in only 2% of the subjects. Full recovery of visual acuity was obtained in only 89% of the control group, with 11% of the patients in that group presenting with traumatic keratitis. In addition, discharge time for the former group was 2.5 days on the average, and 4.5 days for the control group. The severity of complications in the magnetotherapy group was also less pronounced than in the control cohort.

  2. Diversidad de Agaricomycetes clavarioides en la Estación de Biología de Chamela, Jalisco, México Diversity of clavarioid Agaricomycetes at the Chamela Biological Station, Jalisco, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel Ramírez-López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio es una contribución al conocimiento de la diversidad y estructura de los Agaricomycetes clavarioides que se desarrollan en los bosques tropicales de la Estación de Biología de Chamela, Jalisco, México. Las recolecciones se realizaron durante la temporada de lluvias de los años 2005 a 2008; se registraron datos de hábitat y morfología de los basidiomas, tipo de vegetación y sustrato donde se desarrollan, así como del patrón de crecimiento, área de distribución, abundancia y orientación e inclinación de las laderas donde se localizaron. Los 86 ejemplares registrados corresponden a 17 especies, de las cuales Physalacria changensis, P. inflata, Pterula verticillata y Scytinopogon scaber son nuevos registros para México. Scytinopogon pallescens, Pterula sp. 2 y Thelephora sp. fueron las más abundantes y 6 especies se registraron sólo 1 vez. Los datos obtenidos indican que la frecuencia con la que se hallan los basidiomas de los clavarioides en los distintos hábitats no es aleatoria, sino que su producción se da preferentemente en las laderas sur con inclinación de 21° a 30° y en el bosque tropical subperennifolio.This study is a contribution to the biodiversity and community structure of clavarioid Agaricomycetes in the tropical forests of the Chamela Biological Station, in Jalisco, Mexico. The collections were made during the rainy seasons from 2005 to 2008 during which we recorded the morphological and ecological information, including basidiocarp morphology and patterns of growth. Likewise, records were also taken for habitat preferences, types of substrate, orientation, slope inclination, range of distribution and abundance. The 86 specimens recorded, corresponded to 17 different species, from which Physalacria changensis, P. inflata, Pterula verticillata and Scytinopogon scaber are new records for Mexico. The species S. pallescens, Pterula sp. 2 and Thelephora sp. were the most abundant, while other 6 species

  3. [Magnetic resonance imaging : Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high‑frequency electromagnetic fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pophof, B; Brix, G

    2017-07-01

    During the last few years, new studies on biological effects of strong static magnetic fields and on thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were published. Many of these studies have not yet been included in the current safety recommendations. Scientific publications since 2010 on biological effects of static and electromagnetic fields in MRI were researched and evaluated. New studies confirm older publications that have already described effects of static magnetic fields on sensory organs and the central nervous system, accompanied by sensory perceptions. A new result is the direct effect of Lorentz forces on ionic currents in the semicircular canals of the vestibular system. Recent studies of thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields were focused on the development of anatomically realistic body models and a more precise simulation of exposure scenarios. Strong static magnetic fields can cause unpleasant sensations, in particular, vertigo. In addition, they can influence the performance of the medical staff and thus potentially endanger the patient's safety. As a precaution, medical personnel should move slowly within the field gradient. High-frequency electromagnetic fields lead to an increase in the temperature of patients' tissues and organs. This should be considered especially in patients with restricted thermoregulation and in pregnant women and neonates; in these cases exposure should be kept as low as possible.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high-frequency electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pophof, B.; Brix, G.

    2017-01-01

    During the last few years, new studies on biological effects of strong static magnetic fields and on thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were published. Many of these studies have not yet been included in the current safety recommendations. Scientific publications since 2010 on biological effects of static and electromagnetic fields in MRI were researched and evaluated. New studies confirm older publications that have already described effects of static magnetic fields on sensory organs and the central nervous system, accompanied by sensory perceptions. A new result is the direct effect of Lorentz forces on ionic currents in the semicircular canals of the vestibular system. Recent studies of thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields were focused on the development of anatomically realistic body models and a more precise simulation of exposure scenarios. Strong static magnetic fields can cause unpleasant sensations, in particular, vertigo. In addition, they can influence the performance of the medical staff and thus potentially endanger the patient's safety. As a precaution, medical personnel should move slowly within the field gradient. High-frequency electromagnetic fields lead to an increase in the temperature of patients' tissues and organs. This should be considered especially in patients with restricted thermoregulation and in pregnant women and neonates; in these cases exposure should be kept as low as possible. (orig.) [de

  5. Biological effects of high-strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. Interim report, March 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Anderson, L.E.; Kaune, W.T.

    1979-12-01

    Progress is described on a project assessing the biological effects of 60-Hz electric fields on small laboratory animals (rats and mice). The report includes sections on hematology and seram chemistry, immunology, pathology, metabolism, bone growth, endocrinology, cardiovascular function, neurophysiology, growth and development, and animal behavior. (ACR)

  6. Guidelines for Setting Up an Extended Field Trip to Florida and the Florida Keys: An Interactive Experiential Training Field Biology Program Consisting of Pretrip Instruction, Search Image Training, Field Exercises, and Observations of Tropical Habitats and Coral Reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claude D.; And Others

    The importance of experiential aspects of biological study is addressed using multi-dimensional classroom and field classroom approaches to student learning. This document includes a guide to setting up this style of field experience. Several teaching innovations are employed to introduce undergraduate students to the literature, techniques, and…

  7. Campus Eco Tours: An Integrative & Interactive Field Project for Undergraduate Biology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Outdoor areas within or near college campuses offer an opportunity for biology students to observe the natural world and apply concepts from class. Here, I describe an engaging and integrative project where undergraduate non-major biology students work in teams to develop and present professional "eco tours." This project takes place over multiple…

  8. Direct observation of unstained biological specimens in water by the frequency transmission electric-field method using SEM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiko Ogura

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is a powerful tool for the direct visualization of biological specimens at nanometre-scale resolution. However, images of unstained specimens in water using an atmospheric holder exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Here, we present a new form of microscopy, the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE method using SEM, that offers low radiation damage and high-contrast observation of unstained biological samples in water. The wet biological specimens are enclosed in two silicon nitride (SiN films. The metal-coated SiN film is irradiated using a focused modulation electron beam (EB at a low-accelerating voltage. A measurement terminal under the sample holder detects the electric-field frequency signal, which contains structural information relating to the biological specimens. Our results in very little radiation damage to the sample, and the observation image is similar to the transmission image, depending on the sample volume. Our developed method can easily be utilized for the observation of various biological specimens in water.

  9. Molecular change signal-to-noise criteria for interpreting experiments involving exposure of biological systems to weakly interacting electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Timothy E; Weaver, James C

    2005-05-01

    We describe an approach to aiding the design and interpretation of experiments involving biological effects of weakly interacting electromagnetic fields that range from steady (dc) to microwave frequencies. We propose that if known biophysical mechanisms cannot account for an inferred, underlying molecular change signal-to-noise ratio, (S/N)gen, of a observed result, then there are two interpretation choices: (1) there is an unknown biophysical mechanism with stronger coupling between the field exposure and the ongoing biochemical process, or (2) the experiment is responding to something other than the field exposure. Our approach is based on classical detection theory, the recognition that weakly interacting fields cannot break chemical bonds, and the consequence that such fields can only alter rates of ongoing, metabolically driven biochemical reactions, and transport processes. The approach includes both fundamental chemical noise (molecular shot noise) and other sources of competing chemical change, to be compared quantitatively to the field induced change for the basic case that the field alters a single step in a biochemical network. Consistent with pharmacology and toxicology, we estimate the molecular dose (mass associated with field induced molecular change per mass tissue) resulting from illustrative low frequency field exposures for the biophysical mechanism of voltage gated channels. For perspective, we then consider electric field-mediated delivery of small molecules across human skin and into individual cells. Specifically, we consider the examples of iontophoretic and electroporative delivery of fentanyl through skin and electroporative delivery of bleomycin into individual cells. The total delivered amount corresponds to a molecular change signal and the delivery variability corresponds to generalized chemical noise. Viewed broadly, biological effects due to nonionizing fields may include animal navigation, medical applications, and environmental

  10. Can Lucifer Yellow Indicate Correct Permeability of Biological Cell Membrane under An Electric and Magnetic Field?

    OpenAIRE

    Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi, Tahereh; Shankayi, Zeinab; Izadi, Azam; Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic and electric fields, in the range of electroporation and magnetoporation, on Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescence in the absence of cells is studied. Electric-field-induced quenching and magnetic field-induced increase are observed for fluorescence intensity of LY. Regard to the fact that the variation of field-induced fluorescence, even in the absence of cells, can be observed, the application of LY, as a marker, is debatable in electroporation and magnetoporation...

  11. Can Lucifer Yellow Indicate Correct Permeability of Biological Cell Membrane under An Electric and Magnetic Field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi, Tahereh; Shankayi, Zeinab; Izadi, Azam; Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of external magnetic and electric fields, in the range of electroporation and magnetoporation, on Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescence in the absence of cells is studied. Electric-field-induced quenching and magnetic field-induced increase are observed for fluorescence intensity of LY. Regard to the fact that the variation of field-induced fluorescence, even in the absence of cells, can be observed, the application of LY, as a marker, is debatable in electroporation and magnetoporation techniques.

  12. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields | Yalçın | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the possible effects of extra low frequency electromagnetic fields on the public health have become an interesting subject. Generally, electromagnetic fields occur around the high voltage lines. However, electromagnetic fields also occur with some electrical machines use for fun and TV used routinely at our home ...

  13. Thermodynamically consistent force fields for the assembly of inorganic, organic, and biological nanostructures: the INTERFACE force field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Hendrik; Lin, Tzu-Jen; Mishra, Ratan Kishore; Emami, Fateme S

    2013-02-12

    The complexity of the molecular recognition and assembly of biotic-abiotic interfaces on a scale of 1 to 1000 nm can be understood more effectively using simulation tools along with laboratory instrumentation. We discuss the current capabilities and limitations of atomistic force fields and explain a strategy to obtain dependable parameters for inorganic compounds that has been developed and tested over the past decade. Parameter developments include several silicates, aluminates, metals, oxides, sulfates, and apatites that are summarized in what we call the INTERFACE force field. The INTERFACE force field operates as an extension of common harmonic force fields (PCFF, COMPASS, CHARMM, AMBER, GROMACS, and OPLS-AA) by employing the same functional form and combination rules to enable simulations of inorganic-organic and inorganic-biomolecular interfaces. The parametrization builds on an in-depth understanding of physical-chemical properties on the atomic scale to assign each parameter, especially atomic charges and van der Waals constants, as well as on the validation of macroscale physical-chemical properties for each compound in comparison to measurements. The approach eliminates large discrepancies between computed and measured bulk and surface properties of up to 2 orders of magnitude using other parametrization protocols and increases the transferability of the parameters by introducing thermodynamic consistency. As a result, a wide range of properties can be computed in quantitative agreement with experiment, including densities, surface energies, solid-water interface tensions, anisotropies of interfacial energies of different crystal facets, adsorption energies of biomolecules, and thermal and mechanical properties. Applications include insight into the assembly of inorganic-organic multiphase materials, the recognition of inorganic facets by biomolecules, growth and shape preferences of nanocrystals and nanoparticles, as well as thermal transitions and

  14. COMPUTATIONAL MODELING AND SIMULATION IN BIOLOGY TEACHING: A MINIMALLY EXPLORED FIELD OF STUDY WITH A LOT OF POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia López

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a research project that aims to characterize the epistemological, psychological and didactic presuppositions of science teachers (Biology, Physics, Chemistry that implement Computational Modeling and Simulation (CMS activities as a part of their teaching practice. We present here a synthesis of a literature review on the subject, evidencing how in the last two decades this form of computer usage for science teaching has boomed in disciplines such as Physics and Chemistry, but in a lesser degree in Biology. Additionally, in the works that dwell on the use of CMS in Biology, we identified a lack of theoretical bases that support their epistemological, psychological and/or didactic postures. Accordingly, this generates significant considerations for the fields of research and teacher instruction in Science Education.

  15. Development of deepsea geomagnetic and electric fields observation system using submarine cables. 2; Kaitei cable riyo no shinkai chijiki denba kansoku station no kaihatsu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T.; Nakatsuka, T.; Murakami, Y. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Onishi, N.

    1997-10-22

    VENUS Project aims at constructing a deepsea geomagnetic and electric fields observation station to cover the Ryukyu Trench, Philippine Sea, and Mariana Trough, by the reuse of the Okinawa-Guam commercial marine communication cable now out of service. This report deals with a scenario for the development of a geomagnetic/electric observation system as a part of the planned long-term sea bottom observation effort and the installation of equipment therefor. The first stage consists of the towing of a frame mounted with the system equipment and a cable to connect to a data transmission relay and their placement at a specified location on the sea bottom. The cable is extended toward the relay and its leading end is allowed to land near the relay. Next, a manned submersible vessel is used to connect the cable end to the relay, the submersible vessel is next driven along the connection cable toward the system equipment for the determination of the position and orientation of the system equipment, and then electrodes are arrayed at an interval of 20m into an L-letter configuration. The system will be established in March, 1998, on the 4200m-deep continental slope of the Ryukyu Trench approximately 90km southeast of Okinawa. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Biological cell as a soft magnetoelectric material: Elucidating the physical mechanisms underpinning the detection of magnetic fields by animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krichen, S.; Liu, L.; Sharma, P.

    2017-10-01

    Sharks, birds, bats, turtles, and many other animals can detect magnetic fields. Aside from using this remarkable ability to exploit the terrestrial magnetic field map to sense direction, a subset is also able to implement a version of the so-called geophysical positioning system. How do these animals detect magnetic fields? The answer to this rather deceptively simple question has proven to be quite elusive. The currently prevalent theories, while providing interesting insights, fall short of explaining several aspects of magnetoreception. For example, minute magnetic particles have been detected in magnetically sensitive animals. However, how is the detected magnetic field converted into electrical signals given any lack of experimental evidence for relevant electroreceptors? In principle, a magnetoelectric material is capable of converting magnetic signals into electricity (and vice versa). This property, however, is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Indeed, such elements have never been detected in the animals studied so far. In this work we quantitatively outline the conditions under which a biological cell may detect a magnetic field and convert it into electrical signals detectable by biological cells. Specifically, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain-mediated mechanism and show that most biological cells can act as nontrivial magnetoelectric materials provided that the magnetic permeability constant is only slightly more than that of a vacuum. The enhanced magnetic permeability is easily achieved by small amounts of magnetic particles that have been experimentally detected in magnetosensitive animals. Our proposed mechanism appears to explain most of the experimental observations related to the physical basis of magnetoreception.

  17. STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD ON SOME BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ZEA MAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ALADJADJIYAN

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the static magnetic field of 0,15 Т induction on the maize seeds was studied. The germinating energy and seed germination were detected. The fresh weight and the shoot length were measured. The absorption spectra and the specific electroconductivity of the water extract from seeds were registered. It was detected that the magnetic field stimulated the shoot development and led to the increase of the germinating energy, germination, fresh weight and shoot length. The extinction of the samples treated with a magnetic field increased by about 20 %. The highest values of the treated sample parameters were obtained after 10-min exposure in the magnetic field.

  18. Influence of electromagnetic field on soliton-mediated charge transport in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizhik, Larissa

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that electromagnetic fields affect dynamics of Davydov's solitons which provide charge transport processes in macromolecules during metabolism of the system. There is a resonant frequency of the field at which it can cause the transition of electrons from bound soliton states into delocalised states. Such decay of solitons reduces the effectiveness of charge transport, and, therefore, inhibits redox processes. Solitons radiate their own electromagnetic field of characteristic frequency determined by their average velocity. This self-radiated field leads to synchronization of soliton dynamics and charge transport processes, and is the source of the coherence in the system. Exposition of the system to the oscillating electromagnetic field of the frequency, which coincides with the eigen-frequency of solitons can enhance eigen-radiation of solitons, and, therefore, will enhance synchronization of charge transpor, stimulate the redox processes and increase coherence in the system. Electromagnetic oscillating field causes also ratchet phenomenon of solitons, i.e., drift of solitons in macromolecules in the presence of unbiased periodic field. Such additional drift enhances the charge transport processes. It is shown that temperature facilitates the ratchet drift. In particular, temperature fluctuations lead to the lowering of the critical value of the intensity and period of the field, above which the drift of solitons takes place. Moreover, there is a stochastic resonance in the soliton dynamics in external electromagnetic fields. This means, that there is some optimal temperature at which the drift of solitons is maximal.

  19. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station...

  20. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Time Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (µFAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin Shammel

    2015-06-30

    We report the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (µFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The µFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional information of detected features from the measured FAIMS compensation fields and IMS drift times, while also obtaining accurate ion masses. These separations thereby increase the overall separation power, resulting increased information content, and provide more complete characterization of more complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by e.g. improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by “chemical noise” and other interfering peaks.

  1. Enhancing biological analyses with three dimensional field asymmetric ion mobility, low field drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (μFAIMS/IMS-MS) separations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E; Norheim, Randolph V; Monroe, Matthew E; Smith, Richard D; Baker, Erin S

    2015-10-21

    Multidimensional high throughput separations are ideal for analyzing distinct ion characteristics simultaneously in one analysis. We report on the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (μFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The μFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional FAIMS compensation fields, IMS drift times, and accurate ion masses for the detected features. These separations thereby increased the overall measurement separation power, resulting in greater information content and more complete characterization of the complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by interfering peaks.

  2. A biologically inspired model of bat echolocation in a cluttered environment with inputs designed from field Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loncich, Kristen Teczar

    Bat echolocation strategies and neural processing of acoustic information, with a focus on cluttered environments, is investigated in this study. How a bat processes the dense field of echoes received while navigating and foraging in the dark is not well understood. While several models have been developed to describe the mechanisms behind bat echolocation, most are based in mathematics rather than biology, and focus on either peripheral or neural processing---not exploring how these two levels of processing are vitally connected. Current echolocation models also do not use habitat specific acoustic input, or account for field observations of echolocation strategies. Here, a new approach to echolocation modeling is described capturing the full picture of echolocation from signal generation to a neural picture of the acoustic scene. A biologically inspired echolocation model is developed using field research measurements of the interpulse interval timing used by a frequency modulating (FM) bat in the wild, with a whole method approach to modeling echolocation including habitat specific acoustic inputs, a biologically accurate peripheral model of sound processing by the outer, middle, and inner ear, and finally a neural model incorporating established auditory pathways and neuron types with echolocation adaptations. Field recordings analyzed underscore bat sonar design differences observed in the laboratory and wild, and suggest a correlation between interpulse interval groupings and increased clutter. The scenario model provides habitat and behavior specific echoes and is a useful tool for both modeling and behavioral studies, and the peripheral and neural model show that spike-time information and echolocation specific neuron types can produce target localization in the midbrain.

  3. Biologic Effects of Electric and Magnetic Fields Associated with Proposed Project Seafarer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    experiments to the field conditions proposed for Seafarer suggest that the behavioral, neurophysiologic , andi neuro- chemical effects reported occur only at air...mainly derived data. In addition, no independent confirmation of these results has been reported. Neurophysiologic Effects Brain electric rhytlms (EEG...cerebral cortex and decreased activity in deep centers of the hypothalamus 17 (Lott and McCain ). However, the use of those very high field strengths

  4. Sensorless adaptive optics and the effect of field of view in biological second harmonic generation microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Vanbel, Maarten; Verbiest, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In light of the population aging in many developed countries, there is a great economical interest in improving the speed and cost-efficiency of healthcare. Clinical diagnosis tools are key to these improvements, with biophotonics providing a means to achieve them. Standard optical microscopy of in vitro biological samples has been an important diagnosis tool since the invention of the microscope, with well known resolution limits. Nonlinear optical imaging improves on the resolution limits o...

  5. Improvement of Soil Biology Characteristics at Paddy Field by System of Rice Intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Widyatmani Sih Dewi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) method in improving the biological properties of paddy soil. The indicators of improvement were measured by the number of earthworm feces (cast), and the population of some microbial and nutrient content in the cast. The experiments were performed by comparing the three methods, namely: (1) SRI, (2) semi-conventional, and (3) conventional, using Randomized Completely Block Design. Each treatment was repeated nine tim...

  6. Improved biological wastewater treatment and sludge characteristics by applying magnetic field to aerobic granules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Qiang Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Permanent magnets with non-uniform magnetic field and an electromagnet with 3–5 mT uniform magnetic field were applied to investigate their effects on both aerobic granulation and COD and ammonium removal in reactors with less than 7% coverage of magnetic field. It was found that both types of magnets had little influence on the granulation speed and the settling ability of granular sludge at the steady state. However, the maximum specific COD degradation rate and the maximum specific NH4+-N removal rate were increased by 45–54% and 30–50%, respectively, in the magnetic fields. Mean effluent COD with the electromagnet and the permanent magnet field, respectively, at the steady state, was 28 mg l−1 and 6 mg l−1, respectively, lower than the control at a statistical significance level of alpha = 0.05. No statistically significant increase in NH4+-N removal was observed at the steady state probably due to almost complete NH4+-N removal before the end of the cycle. In addition, it was found that extracellular polymeric substances in granular sludge with electromagnet were 77% more while soluble microbial products were much less compared with the control, suggesting a positively changed metabolism of granular sludge at steady state. The results in this study indicated that low-intensity magnetic field has a great potential to be applied in granular sludge for an improved wastewater treatment.

  7. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use.

  8. A field survey of chemicals and biological products used in shrimp farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeslund, S.; Holmstroem, K.; Wahlstroem, A.

    2003-01-01

    This study documented the use of chemicals and biological products in marine and brackish water shrimp farming in Thailand, the world's top producer of farmed shrimp. Interviews were conducted with 76 shrimp farmers in three major shrimp producing regions, the eastern Gulf coast, the southern Gulf coast and the Andaman coast area. Farmers in the study used on average 13 different chemicals and biological products. The most commonly used products were soil and water treatment products, pesticides and disinfectants. Farmers in the southern Gulf coast area used a larger number of products than farmers in the other two areas. In the study, the use of more than 290 different chemicals and biological products was documented. Many of the pesticides, disinfectants and antibiotics used by the farmers could have negative effects on the cultured shrimps, cause a risk for food safety, occupational health, and/or have negative effects on adjacent ecosystems. Manufacturers and retailers of the products often neglected to provide farmers with necessary information regarding active ingredient and relevant instructions for safe and efficient use

  9. Local Ecological Knowledge and Biological Conservation: Post-normal Science as an Intercultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorje Ignacio Zalles

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available From a natural sciences perspective, efforts directed at the conservation of biodiversity are based upon what is known as conservation biology. Given its epistemological assumptions, conservation biology faces obstacles in the incorporation of wisdom originating in local ecological knowledge, that which a local population has gained about the local environment which it is surrounded by and due to its direct contact with this local environment, instead of the result of a product of a positivist scientific inquiry. Post-normal science has emerged in recent decades as an alternative for public management that aims to complement the search for knowledge by means of empirical approaches through the inclusion of understandings based on the everyday experiences and the subjective interpretation of natural phenomena, transcending the compartmentalization associated with scientific traditions born out of modernity. This article discusses the integration of local ecological knowledge and conservation biology from the perspective of post normal science, illustrating different forms of intercultural communication that would make the requisite dialogue of knowledges possible.

  10. Services for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremann, M.; Ryckelynck

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an information as complete as possible about the activities of the french nuclear industry on the export-market. It describes the equipment and services available in the field of services for nuclear power stations [fr

  11. Toward increased concentration sensitivity for continuous wave EPR investigations of spin-labeled biological macromolecules at high fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Likai; Liu, Zhanglong; Kaur, Pavanjeet; Esquiaqui, Jackie M.; Hunter, Robert I.; Hill, Stephen; Smith, Graham M.; Fanucci, Gail E.

    2016-04-01

    High-field, high-frequency electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy at W-(∼94 GHz) and D-band (∼140 GHz) is important for investigating the conformational dynamics of flexible biological macromolecules because this frequency range has increased spectral sensitivity to nitroxide motion over the 100 ps to 2 ns regime. However, low concentration sensitivity remains a roadblock for studying aqueous samples at high magnetic fields. Here, we examine the sensitivity of a non-resonant thin-layer cylindrical sample holder, coupled to a quasi-optical induction-mode W-band EPR spectrometer (HiPER), for continuous wave (CW) EPR analyses of: (i) the aqueous nitroxide standard, TEMPO; (ii) the unstructured to α-helical transition of a model IDP protein; and (iii) the base-stacking transition in a kink-turn motif of a large 232 nt RNA. For sample volumes of ∼50 μL, concentration sensitivities of 2-20 μM were achieved, representing a ∼10-fold enhancement compared to a cylindrical TE011 resonator on a commercial Bruker W-band spectrometer. These results therefore highlight the sensitivity of the thin-layer sample holders employed in HiPER for spin-labeling studies of biological macromolecules at high fields, where applications can extend to other systems that are facilitated by the modest sample volumes and ease of sample loading and geometry.

  12. Biological control of broad-leaved dock infestation in wheat using plant antagonistic bacteria under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Tasawar; Zahir, Zahir Ahmad; Naveed, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair

    2017-06-01

    Conventional weed management systems have produced many harmful effects on weed ecology, human health and environment. Biological control of invasive weeds may be helpful to minimize these harmful effects and economic losses incurred to crops by weeds. In our earlier studies, plant antagonistic bacteria were obtained after screening a large number of rhizobacteria for production of phytotoxic substances and effects on wheat and its associated weeds under laboratory conditions. In this study, five efficient strains inhibitory to broad-leaved dock and non-inhibitory to wheat were selected and applied to broad-leaved dock co-seeded with wheat both in pot trial and chronically infested field trial. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria on the weed and infested wheat were studied at tillering, booting and harvesting stage of wheat. The applied strains significantly inhibited the germination and growth of the weed to variable extent. Similarly, variable recovery in losses of grain and straw yield of infested wheat from 11.6 to 68 and 13 to 72.6% was obtained in pot trial while from 17.3 to 62.9 and 22.4 to 71.3% was obtained in field trial, respectively. Effects of plant antagonistic bacteria were also evident from the improvement in physiology and nutrient contents of infested wheat. This study suggests the use of these plant antagonistic bacteria to biologically control infestation of broad-leaved dock in wheat under field conditions.

  13. A many-body field theory approach to stochastic models in population biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Dodd

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Many models used in theoretical ecology, or mathematical epidemiology are stochastic, and may also be spatially-explicit. Techniques from quantum field theory have been used before in reaction-diffusion systems, principally to investigate their critical behavior. Here we argue that they make many calculations easier and are a possible starting point for new approximations.We review the many-body field formalism for Markov processes and illustrate how to apply it to a 'Brownian bug' population model, and to an epidemic model. We show how the master equation and the moment hierarchy can both be written in particularly compact forms. The introduction of functional methods allows the systematic computation of the effective action, which gives the dynamics of mean quantities. We obtain the 1-loop approximation to the effective action for general (space- translation invariant systems, and thus approximations to the non-equilibrium dynamics of the mean fields.The master equations for spatial stochastic systems normally take a neater form in the many-body field formalism. One can write down the dynamics for generating functional of physically-relevant moments, equivalent to the whole moment hierarchy. The 1-loop dynamics of the mean fields are the same as those of a particular moment-closure.

  14. Lead field theory provides a powerful tool for designing microelectrode array impedance measurements for biological cell detection and observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttrich, Marcel; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2017-06-26

    Our aim is to introduce a method to enhance the design process of microelectrode array (MEA) based electric bioimpedance measurement systems for improved detection and viability assessment of living cells and tissues. We propose the application of electromagnetic lead field theory and reciprocity for MEA design and measurement result interpretation. Further, we simulated impedance spectroscopy (IS) with two- and four-electrode setups and a biological cell to illustrate the tool in the assessment of the capabilities of given MEA electrode constellations for detecting cells on or in the vicinity of the microelectrodes. The results show the power of the lead field theory in electromagnetic simulations of cell-microelectrode systems depicting the fundamental differences of two- and four-electrode IS measurement configurations to detect cells. Accordingly, the use in MEA system design is demonstrated by assessing the differences between the two- and four-electrode IS configurations. Further, our results show how cells affect the lead fields in these MEA system, and how we can utilize the differences of the two- and four-electrode setups in cell detection. The COMSOL simulator model is provided freely in public domain as open source. Lead field theory can be successfully applied in MEA design for the IS based assessment of biological cells providing the necessary visualization and insight for MEA design. The proposed method is expected to enhance the design and usability of automated cell and tissue manipulation systems required for bioreactors, which are intended for the automated production of cell and tissue grafts for medical purposes. MEA systems are also intended for toxicology to assess the effects of chemicals on living cells. Our results demonstrate that lead field concept is expected to enhance also the development of such methods and devices.

  15. Biological experiments in low-flux light-particle fields produced by accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Hermsdorf, D.; Kuehne, H.

    2000-01-01

    An experimental set-up for irradiation of biological material with low-energetic and low-mass ions in an external beam has been designed using the cyclotron U-120 of the Rossendorf Research Centre. The horizontal beam line consists of components for beam spread out and control, for particle spectroscopy and monitoring and for energy and dose rate variation. To prove the performance of the beam line, a first radiobiological experiment has been carried out by exposing of R1 fish liver cells to 8.2 MeV protons

  16. Non-proliferation issues in the field of biological technologies and dual-use materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamadaliev, S.M.; Troitskij, E.N.; Ibraev, R.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the results of the DTRA 01-00-C-0030 'Strengthening of physical and biological protection' project at the Research Agricultural Institute (Kazakhstan) are discussed. The project was directed on the organization of a reliable physical integrity of dangerous pathogens, on the provision reliable protection around the periphery and outside security of the whole object as well as on the exclusion of possibility of pathogens expansion of dangerous infection material out the controlled working conditions. The central section of the protection is storehouse of microorganism culture

  17. A multipurpose hybrid conventional/scanning near-field optical microscope for applications in materials science and biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, G; Girasole, M; Pompeo, G; Generosi, R; Luce, M; Cricenti, A

    2010-01-01

    A hybrid conventional/scanning near-field optical microscope is presented. The instrument is obtained coupling an Olympus IX-70 inverted optical microscope with a SNOM head, to combine the versatility and ease of use of the conventional microscope with the high-resolution and three-dimensional reconstruction achieved by the SNOM. The head can be run in shear or tapping mode and is optimized to characterize soft, biological samples including living cells in physiological environment by including the SNOM in a cylindrical chamber that insulates it from external noise, while maintaining a controlled temperature and atmosphere

  18. Biological Control Of Witch Weed In Fields Of Burkina Faso Using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen Fusarium oxysporum isolates from diseased parasitic weeds (Striga hermonthica plants) were evaluated over two years (1997-98) to identify the most effective isolates for the control of the parasite in infested sorghum fields in Burkina Faso. In both years the fungus was found to reduce Striga infection in sorghum by ...

  19. The biological control of Pomacea canaliculata population by rice-duck mutualism in paddy fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang Liang; Jia-en Zhang; Li Fang; Benliang Zaho; Mingzhu Luo; Prem Parajuli; Ying Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Duck has been used as a non-chemical control method against Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck, but little is known about its principles that underlie the control of snail populations. An indoor experiment was initially used to observe the predation potential of ducks, followed by replicated field trials. In the indoor studies, ducks effectively preyed on...

  20. Field-based detection of biological samples for forensic analysis: Established techniques, novel tools, and future innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jack; Watts, Giles; Hobbs, Glyn; Dawnay, Nick

    2018-02-21

    Field based forensic tests commonly provide information on the presence and identity of biological stains and can also support the identification of species. Such information can support downstream processing of forensic samples and generate rapid intelligence. These approaches have traditionally used chemical and immunological techniques to elicit the result but some are known to suffer from a lack of specificity and sensitivity. The last 10 years has seen the development of field-based genetic profiling systems, with specific focus on moving the mainstay of forensic genetic analysis, namely STR profiling, out of the laboratory and into the hands of the non-laboratory user. In doing so it is now possible for enforcement officers to generate a crime scene DNA profile which can then be matched to a reference or database profile. The introduction of these novel genetic platforms also allows for further development of new molecular assays aimed at answering the more traditional questions relating to body fluid identity and species detection. The current drive for field-based molecular tools is in response to the needs of the criminal justice system and enforcement agencies, and promises a step-change in how forensic evidence is processed. However, the adoption of such systems by the law enforcement community does not represent a new strategy in the way forensic science has integrated previous novel approaches. Nor do they automatically represent a threat to the quality control and assurance practices that are central to the field. This review examines the historical need and subsequent research and developmental breakthroughs in field-based forensic analysis over the past two decades with particular focus on genetic methods Emerging technologies from a range of scientific fields that have potential applications in forensic analysis at the crime scene are identified and associated issues that arise from the shift from laboratory into operational field use are discussed

  1. Biological effects of static magnetic fields: a selective review with emphasis on risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.

    1982-04-01

    Rather than focusing on literature per se, the current study determines the status of magnetic field information that is applicable to risk assessment. Hence, an attempt is made to identify both the literature that is useful to the goal of risk assessment and a framework within which risk assessment methodologies can be derived. From this selected review, it is concluded that three areas exist for which adequate information can be found to begin modelling: disease induction, reproduction and development, and cardiovascular response. The first two are supported by a combination of positive and negative findings and the last by a calculational technique which utilizes the physically well-known principle of flow retardation for a conducting fluid moving through a magnetic field

  2. Biological effects of static magnetic fields: a selective review with emphasis on risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easterly, C. E.

    1982-04-01

    Rather than focusing on literature per se, the current study determines the status of magnetic field information that is applicable to risk assessment. Hence, an attempt is made to identify both the literature that is useful to the goal of risk assessment and a framework within which risk assessment methodologies can be derived. From this selected review, it is concluded that three areas exist for which adequate information can be found to begin modelling: disease induction, reproduction and development, and cardiovascular response. The first two are supported by a combination of positive and negative findings and the last by a calculational technique which utilizes the physically well-known principle of flow retardation for a conducting fluid moving through a magnetic field.

  3. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradation*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remec Igor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants.

  4. Vital analysis: field validation of a framework for annotating biological signals of first responders in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, P; Lopes, B; Coimbra, M

    2012-01-01

    First responders are professionals that are exposed to extreme stress and fatigue during extended periods of time. That is why it is necessary to research and develop technological solutions based on wearable sensors that can continuously monitor the health of these professionals in action, namely their stress and fatigue levels. In this paper we present the Vital Analysis smartphone-based framework, integrated into the broader Vital Responder project, that allows the annotation and contextualization of the signals collected during real action. After a contextual study we have implemented and deployed this framework in a firefighter team with 5 elements, from where we have collected over 3300 hours of annotations during 174 days, covering 382 different events. Results are analysed and discussed, validating the framework as a useful and usable tool for annotating biological signals of first responders in action.

  5. Characterization of Radiation Fields in Biological Shields of Nuclear Power Plants for Assessing Concrete Degradationa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remec, Igor [ORNL; Rosseel, Thomas M [ORNL; Field, Kevin G [ORNL; Le Pape, Yann [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Life extensions of nuclear power plants to 60 and potentially 80 years of operation have renewed interest in long-term material degradation. One material being considered is concrete, with a particular focus on radiation-induced effects. Based on the projected neutron fluence values (E > 0.1 MeV) in the concrete biological shields of the US pressurized water reactor fleet and the available data on radiation effects on concrete, some decrease in mechanical properties of concrete cannot be ruled out during extended operation beyond 60 years. An expansion of the irradiated concrete database and a reliable determination of relevant neutron fluence energy cutoff value are necessary to ensure reliable risk assessment for extended operation of nuclear power plants.

  6. Scanning near-field optical microscopy on rough surfaces: Applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Kaupp, Gerd

    2006-01-01

    Shear-force apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with very sharp uncoated tapered waveguides relies on the unexpected enhancement of reflection in the shear-force gap. It is the technique for obtaining chemical (materials) contrast in the optical image of “real world” surfaces that are rough and very rough without topographical artifacts, and it is by far less complicated than other SNOM techniques that can only be used for very flat surfaces. The ex...

  7. Biological and Human Health Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields. Post-1977 Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    some variations at different clinical facilities. 0 Effects of Induced Pulsing Electromagnetic Fields ( PEMF ). Early studies of the electromagnetic...Bassett, Pilla, and Pawluk 1977). Subsequent larger series of clinical cases have reported success rates for PEMF approaching 90 percent 0 (Bassett...1982), even though Becker (1974, 1984) asserted that all possible risks of PEMF have rot yet been assessed. 0 There is very little support in the

  8. Theoretical description of protein field effects on electronic excitations of biological chromophores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsano, Daniele; Caprasecca, Stefano; Coccia, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Photoinitiated phenomena play a crucial role in many living organisms. Plants, algae, and bacteria absorb sunlight to perform photosynthesis, and convert water and carbon dioxide into molecular oxygen and carbohydrates, thus forming the basis for life on Earth. The vision of vertebrates is accomplished in the eye by a protein called rhodopsin, which upon photon absorption performs an ultrafast isomerisation of the retinal chromophore, triggering the signal cascade. Many other biological functions start with the photoexcitation of a protein-embedded pigment, followed by complex processes comprising, for example, electron or excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes. The optical properties of chromophores in living systems are strongly dependent on the interaction with the surrounding environment (nearby protein residues, membrane, water), and the complexity of such interplay is, in most cases, at the origin of the functional diversity of the photoactive proteins. The specific interactions with the environment often lead to a significant shift of the chromophore excitation energies, compared with their absorption in solution or gas phase. The investigation of the optical response of chromophores is generally not straightforward, from both experimental and theoretical standpoints; this is due to the difficulty in understanding diverse behaviours and effects, occurring at different scales, with a single technique. In particular, the role played by ab initio calculations in assisting and guiding experiments, as well as in understanding the physics of photoactive proteins, is fundamental. At the same time, owing to the large size of the systems, more approximate strategies which take into account the environmental effects on the absorption spectra are also of paramount importance. Here we review the recent advances in the first-principle description of electronic and optical properties of biological chromophores embedded in a protein environment. We show

  9. Theoretical description of protein field effects on electronic excitations of biological chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsano, Daniele; Caprasecca, Stefano; Coccia, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Photoinitiated phenomena play a crucial role in many living organisms. Plants, algae, and bacteria absorb sunlight to perform photosynthesis, and convert water and carbon dioxide into molecular oxygen and carbohydrates, thus forming the basis for life on Earth. The vision of vertebrates is accomplished in the eye by a protein called rhodopsin, which upon photon absorption performs an ultrafast isomerisation of the retinal chromophore, triggering the signal cascade. Many other biological functions start with the photoexcitation of a protein-embedded pigment, followed by complex processes comprising, for example, electron or excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic complexes. The optical properties of chromophores in living systems are strongly dependent on the interaction with the surrounding environment (nearby protein residues, membrane, water), and the complexity of such interplay is, in most cases, at the origin of the functional diversity of the photoactive proteins. The specific interactions with the environment often lead to a significant shift of the chromophore excitation energies, compared with their absorption in solution or gas phase. The investigation of the optical response of chromophores is generally not straightforward, from both experimental and theoretical standpoints; this is due to the difficulty in understanding diverse behaviours and effects, occurring at different scales, with a single technique. In particular, the role played by ab initio calculations in assisting and guiding experiments, as well as in understanding the physics of photoactive proteins, is fundamental. At the same time, owing to the large size of the systems, more approximate strategies which take into account the environmental effects on the absorption spectra are also of paramount importance. Here we review the recent advances in the first-principle description of electronic and optical properties of biological chromophores embedded in a protein environment. We show

  10. Stable organic field-effect transistors for continuous and nondestructive sensing of chemical and biologically relevant molecules in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Minseong; Sharma, Asha; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Hwang, Do Kyung; Dindar, Amir; Singh, Sanjeev; Choi, Sangmoo; Kippelen, Bernard

    2014-02-12

    The use of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) as sensors in aqueous media has gained increased attention for environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics. However, stable operation of OFETs in aqueous media is particularly challenging because of electrolytic hydrolysis of water, high ionic conduction through the analyte, and irreversible damage of organic semiconductors when exposed to water. To date, OFET sensors have shown the capability of label-free sensing of various chemical/biological species, but they could only be used once because their operational stability and lifetime while operating in aqueous environments has been poor, and their response times typically slow. Here, we report on OFETs with unprecedented water stability. These OFETs are suitable for the implementation of reusable chemical/biological sensors because they primarily respond to charged species diluted in an aqueous media by rapidly shifting their threshold voltage. These OFET sensors present stable current baselines and saturated signals which are ideal for detection of low concentration of small or large molecules that alter the pH of an aqueous environment. The overall response of these OFET sensors paves the way for the development of continuous chemical/biological nondestructive sensor applications in aqueous media.

  11. The Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey (GGMFS: challenges and opportunities of a unique, large-scale collaboration for invasion biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colautti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand what makes some species successful invaders, it is critical to quantify performance differences between native and introduced regions, and among populations occupying a broad range of environmental conditions within each region. However, these data are not available even for the world’s most notorious invasive species. Here we introduce the Global Garlic Mustard Field Survey, a coordinated distributed field survey to collect performance data and germplasm from a single invasive species: garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata across its entire distribution using minimal resources. We chose this species for its ecological impacts, prominence in ecological studies of invasion success, simple life history, and several genetic and life history attributes that make it amenable to experimental study. We developed a standardised field survey protocol to estimate population size (area and density, age structure, plant size and fecundity, as well as damage by herbivores and pathogens in each population, and to collect representative seed samples. Across four years and with contributions from 164 academic and non-academic participants from 16 countries in North America and Europe thus far, we have collected 45,788 measurements and counts of 137,811 plants from 383 populations and seeds from over 5,000 plants. All field data and seed resources will be curated for release to the scientific community. Our goal is to establish A. petiolata as a model species for plant invasion biology and to encourage large collaborative studies of other invasive species.

  12. The Role of Anthropogenic Influence on Biological Signal Field (BSF Characteristics of the Wolf, Canis lupus lupus (Canidae, Carnivora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkvyria M. G.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the current research includes studying the biological signal field (BSF characteristics of the wolf (Canis lupus lupus Linnaeus, 1758 at different values of anthropogenic load on territories with conservation (Białowieża National park (Poland and hunting status of the species (Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (Ukraine. The research in Białowieża Primeval Forest was conducted in two stages: study of the BSF characteristics of the wolf and finding correlation between data acquired from Ukraine (the first stage, and over-time study of intensity of the biological signal field (the second stage. In result of the first stage, there was no significant dependence on the characteristics of the territory and the differences between the behavior of wolves in the Białowieża Primeval Forest (conservation status of the species and the Exclusion Zone (game status. During the second stage it was determined that provided variance of the intensity between territory groups was insufficient, the degree of significance to animals of area categories varied with the stages of the pack’s life. It was found that the main factors which govern the character of wolf activity are not the level of the anthropic load and hunting pressure, but periods of the life cycle and spatial structure of groups.

  13. Field trial assessment of biological, chemical, and physical responses of soil to tillage intensity, fertilization, and grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean (Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  14. Autonomy and Fear of Synthetic Biology: How Can Patients' Autonomy Be Enhanced in the Field of Synthetic Biology? A Qualitative Study with Stable Patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Rakic Milenko; Wienand Isabelle; Shaw David; Nast Rebecca; Elger Bernice S

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed stable patients' views regarding synthetic biology in general the medical application of synthetic biology and their potential participation in trials of synthetic biology in particular. The aim of the study was to find out whether patients' views and preferences change after receiving more detailed information about synthetic biology and its clinical applications. The qualitative study was carried out with a purposive sample of 36 stable patients who suffered from diabetes or gou...

  15. Interdisciplinary Workshop on the Physical-Chemical-Biological Processes Affecting Archeological Sites Held in College Station, Texas on May 27-29, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    chemicals, and labor , it is not economically feasible to treat every artifact from a site. The decision as to what to treat or not to treat must be...pp. 135-138. CULTURAL Archaeology, field methodology COREMANS, P., 1968b, Clima ! qnd microciimate. In Conservation of Cultural Property with Special

  16. Evaluation of biological effects of intermediate frequency magnetic field on differentiation of embryonic stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachiko Yoshie

    Full Text Available The embryotoxic effect of intermediate frequency (IF magnetic field (MF was evaluated using murine embryonic stem (ES cells and fibroblast cells based on the embryonic stem cell test (EST. The cells were exposed to 21 kHz IF–MF up to magnetic flux density of 3.9 mT during the cell proliferation process (7 days or the cell differentiation process (10 days during which an embryonic body differentiated into myocardial cells. As a result, there was no significant difference in the cell proliferation between sham- and IF–MF-exposed cells for both ES and fibroblast cells. Similarly, the ratio of the number of ES-derived cell aggregates differentiated to myocardial cells to total number of cell aggregates was not changed by IF–MF exposure. In addition, the expressions of a cardiomyocytes-specific gene, Myl2, and an early developmental gene, Hba-x, in the exposed cell aggregate were not altered. Since the magnetic flux density adopted in this study is much higher than that generated by an inverter of the electrical railway, an induction heating (IH cooktop, etc. in our daily lives, these results suggested that IF–MF in which the public is exposed to in general living environment would not have embryotoxic effect. Keywords: Differentiation, Embryonic stem cell, Gene expression, Intermediate frequency magnetic field

  17. Laboratory and field methods for stable isotope analysis in human biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA; carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen) of human tissues offers a means for assessing diet among living humans. Stable isotope ratios of broad categories of food and drink food vary systematically, and stable isotope ratios in consumer tissues represent a composite of the isotopic ratios of food and drink consumed during an individual's life. Isotopic evidence for diet is independent of errors in informant recall, and accrues during time periods when researchers are absent. Beyond diet reconstruction, tissue stable isotope ratios are sensitive to excursions from homeostasis, such as starvation and rapid growth. Because of their relationship to diet, geographic location, hydration, and nutritional status, stable isotope signatures in human tissues offer a window into human biocultural adaptations, past and present. This article describes methods for SIA that may be usefully applied in studies of living humans, with emphasis placed on carbon and nitrogen. Some of the ecological, physiological, and evolutionary applications of stable isotope data among living humans are discussed. By incorporating SIA in research, human biologists facilitate a productive dialog with bioarchaeologists, who routinely use stable isotope evidence, mingling different perspectives on human biology and behavior. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Bridging the fields of nanoscience and toxicology: nanoparticle impact on biological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosone, A.; Marchesano, V.; Mattera, L.; Tino, A.; Tortiglione, C.

    2011-03-01

    In the emerging area of nanotechnology a key issue is related to the potential impacts of the novel nanomaterials on the environment and human health so that this technology can be used with minimal risk. Specifically designed to combine on a single structure multipurpose tags and properties, nanomaterials need a comprehensive characterization of both chemicophysical properties and toxicological evaluation, which is a challenging endeavor: the in vitro toxicity assays that are employed for nanotoxicity assessments do not accurately predict in vivo response. To overcome these limitations and gain a deeper understanding of nanoparticle-cell interactions, we have employed cnidarian models, in particular the freshwater polyp Hydra vulgaris, not opposed to more complex and evoluted systems, but to add valuable information, at an intermediate level between prokaryotes and vertebrates, on both cytoxicity and on pollution affecting the environment. By testing CdSe/CdS core shell nanocrystals in vivo, at whole animal level, we investigated the impact of their properties on uptake, accumulation, biodistribution, elicitation of behavioural responses. Spanning from animal to cell biology, we provide an analysis on metal based and semiconductor NC, discussing the crucial role played by the synthesis route and chemical surface on the toxicity for living organisms.

  19. Autonomy and Fear of Synthetic Biology: How Can Patients' Autonomy Be Enhanced in the Field of Synthetic Biology? A Qualitative Study with Stable Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic, Milenko; Wienand, Isabelle; Shaw, David; Nast, Rebecca; Elger, Bernice S

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed stable patients' views regarding synthetic biology in general, the medical application of synthetic biology, and their potential participation in trials of synthetic biology in particular. The aim of the study was to find out whether patients' views and preferences change after receiving more detailed information about synthetic biology and its clinical applications. The qualitative study was carried out with a purposive sample of 36 stable patients, who suffered from diabetes or gout. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, translated and fully anonymized. Thematic analysis was applied in order to examine stable patients' attitudes towards synthetic biology, its medical application, and their participation in trials. When patients were asked about synthetic biology in general, most of them were anxious that something uncontrollable could be created. After a concrete example of possible future treatment options, patients started to see synthetic biology in a more positive way. Our study constitutes an important first empirical insight into stable patients' views on synthetic biology and into the kind of fears triggered by the term "synthetic biology." Our results show that clear and concrete information can change patients' initial negative feelings towards synthetic biology. Information should thus be transmitted with great accuracy and transparency in order to reduce irrational fears of patients and to minimize the risk that researchers present facts too positively for the purposes of persuading patients to participate in clinical trials. Potential participants need to be adequately informed in order to be able to autonomously decide whether to participate in human subject research involving synthetic biology.

  20. Biological effects of PEMF (Pulsing Electromagnetic Field): An attempt to modify cell resistance to anticancer agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquinelli, P. (C.R.E.S.A.M., Pisa (Italy)); Petrini, M.; Mattii, L.; Saviozzi, M.; Malvaldi, G. (Univ. of Pisa (Italy)); Galimberti, S. (Scuola di Perfezionamento S. Anna, Pisa (Italy))

    Pulsing Electromagnetic Field (PEMF) effects lead to a modification of the multidrug resistance (MDR) of cells in vitro and in vivo. The murine leukemic doxorubicin-resistant cell line, P388/Dx, subjected to PEMF irradiation in vitro, showed a significant difference in thymidine incorporation when the concentration of doxorubicin reached a level of 1 [mu]g/mL, which corresponds to the inhibition dose 50 (ID[sub 50]). The human lymphoblastic leukemia vinblastine-resistant cell line, CEM/VLB[sub 100], also showed a significant modification under the same experimental conditions at the in vitro ID[sub 50] corresponding to a vinblastine concentration of 100 ng/mL. BDF1 mice transplanted with P388/Dx cells also had an increase in their life span when Doxorubicin was injected intraperitoneally in fractionated doses, while being subjected to PEMF irradiation. 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Biological transfer and loss of 36Cl-labeled DDT in an old-field ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterle, T.J.

    1979-01-01

    An enclosed 10-acre old-field plot treated in June 1969, with chlorine-36 labeled DDT was sampled each year from 1969 through 1974 to monitor the fate of the insecticide in the soil and biota. In order to provide data on compartmentalization of DDT in the vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates inhabiting the plot, sampling was carried out to estimate both body burdens of DDT and biomass of populations. Another aspect of this study, the determination of rates of accumulation of residues by invertebrates and vertebrates, has been reported previously (Forsyth and Peterle 1973; Forsyth et al. 1975; Peterle 1975). This report describes (a) temporal patterns of DDT residues in soil and biota from 1969 through 1974 and (b) quantities of DDT held in the soil and biotic compartments of the ecosystem. Part II of the report is concerned with translocation and accumulation of 14 C-DDT

  2. In-Situ Field Data Gathering Stations, San Francisco Bay-Delta, Salinity Intrusion with Navigation Channels. Appendices 1-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-18

    an abandoned pier, 30’ west of the east edof the pier, 6’ east of Kinnetic Labs station, approximately 1. Smiles east of the Carquinez Bridge on...electons0 asue doie ct plugeie in o mpatewweeiiiy an xtra tigrS5 ogime~~ aeseacthes usth 1163wt ral lnlegho lendthe Mol514 doeiRgure ttral, dalkaln

  3. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic field and wound healing: implication of cytokines as biological mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Mirko; Patruno, Antonia; Speranza, Lorenza; Reale, Marcella

    2013-03-01

    Wound healing is a highly coordinated and complex process involving various cell types, chemical mediators and the surrounding extracellular matrix, resulting in a tightly orchestrated re-establishment of tissue integrity by specific cytokines. It consists of various dynamic processes including a series of overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, re-epithelialization and remodeling. One of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the disturbances in wound healing is an out-of-control inflammatory response that can cause pathological consequences, such as hypertrophic scars, keloids or chronic wounds and ulcers. Recently, several reports have evaluated the effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on tissue repair. In particular, the data analysis supports an anti-inflammatory effect of EMFs by the modulation of cytokine profiles that drive the transition from a chronic pro-inflammatory state to an anti-inflammatory state of the healing process. In this review, we focus on the effect of EMFs on skin wound healing showing emerging details of the anti-inflammatory effects of EMFs, with a view to cytokines as candidate biomarkers. Molecular clarification of the mechanisms involved in the modulation of inflammatory factors following exposure to EMFs will provide a better understanding of the cellular responses induced by EMFs and a potential, additional treatment in non-responding, chronic wounds.

  4. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    2012-10-15

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with {>=} 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  5. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics: focus on collaboration and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, C

    2012-10-01

    Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with ≥ 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted.

  6. Highly cited German research contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics. Focus on collaboration and diversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, C.; Tromsoe Univ.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Tight budgets and increasing competition for research funding pose challenges for highly specialized medical disciplines such as radiation oncology. Therefore, a systematic review was performed of successfully completed research that had a high impact on clinical practice. These data might be helpful when preparing new projects. Methods: Different measures of impact, visibility, and quality of published research are available, each with its own pros and cons. For this study, the article citation rate was chosen (minimum 15 citations per year on average). Highly cited German contributions to the fields of radiation oncology, biology, and physics (published between 1990 and 2010) were identified from the Scopus database. Results: Between 1990 and 2010, 106 articles published in 44 scientific journals met the citation requirement. The median average of yearly citations was 21 (maximum 167, minimum 15). All articles with ≥ 40 citations per year were published between 2003 and 2009, consistent with the assumption that the citation rate gradually increases for up to 2 years after publication. Most citations per year were recorded for meta-analyses and randomized phase III trials, which typically were performed by collaborative groups. Conclusion: A large variety of clinical radiotherapy, biology, and physics topics achieved high numbers of citations. However, areas such as quality of life and side effects, palliative radiotherapy, and radiotherapy for nonmalignant disorders were underrepresented. Efforts to increase their visibility might be warranted. (orig.)

  7. Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrunhosa, Viviane M; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P B; Mermelstein, Claudia S; Costa, Manoel L

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm 2 continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm 2 pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm 2 pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm 2 continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

  8. Biological response in vitro of skeletal muscle cells treated with different intensity continuous and pulsed ultrasound fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrunhosa, Viviane M; Costa-Felix, Rodrigo P B [Laboratory of Ultrasound, Directory of Scientific and Industrial Metrology (DIMCI), National Institute of Metrology, Standardization, and Industrial Quality (Inmetro), Av. Nossa Sra das Gracas, 50 Predio 1, Duque de Caxias, RJ, ZIP 25250-020 (Brazil); Mermelstein, Claudia S; Costa, Manoel L, E-mail: rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br [Laboratory of Muscle Differentiation and Cytoskeleton, Biomedical Sciences Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, ZIP 21949-590 (Brazil)

    2011-02-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound has been used in physiotherapy to accelerate tissue healing. Although the ultrasonic wave is widely used in clinical practice, not much is known about the biological effects of ultrasound on cells and tissues. This study aims to evaluate the biological response of ultrasound in primary cultures of chick myogenic cells. To ensure the metrological reliability of whole measurement process, the ultrasound equipment was calibrated in accordance with IEC 61689:2007. The skeletal muscle cells were divided in four samples. One sample was used as a control group and the others were submitted to different time and intensity and operation mode of ultrasound: 1) 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} continuous for 5 minutes, 2) 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} pulsed for 5 minutes, 3) 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} pulsed for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed with phase contrast optical microscopy before and after the treatment. The results showed alignment of myogenic cells in the sample treated with 0.5 W/cm{sup 2} continuous during 5 minutes when compared with the control group and the other samples. This study is a first step towards a metrological and scientific based protocol to cells and tissues treatment under different ultrasound field exposures.

  9. Analysis of waste management issues arising from a field study evaluating decontamination of a biological agent from a building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, P; Wood, J; Drake, J; Minamyer, S; Silvestri, E; Yund, C; Nichols, T; Ierardi, M; Amidan, B

    2016-01-01

    The Bio-response Operational Testing and Evaluation (BOTE) Project was a cross-government effort designed to operationally test and evaluate a response to a biological incident (release of Bacillus anthracis [Ba] spores, the causative agent for anthrax) from initial public health and law enforcement response through environmental remediation. The BOTE Project was designed to address site remediation after the release of a Ba simulant, Bacillus atrophaeus spp. globigii (Bg), within a facility, drawing upon recent advances in the biological sampling and decontamination areas. A key component of response to a biological contamination incident is the proper management of wastes and residues, which is woven throughout all response activities. Waste is generated throughout the response and includes items like sampling media packaging materials, discarded personal protective equipment, items removed from the facility either prior to or following decontamination, aqueous waste streams, and materials generated through the application of decontamination technologies. The amount of residual contaminating agent will impact the available disposal pathways and waste management costs. Waste management is an integral part of the decontamination process and should be included through "Pre-Incident" response planning. Overall, the pH-adjusted bleach decontamination process generated the most waste from the decontamination efforts, and fumigation with chlorine dioxide generated the least waste. A majority of the solid waste generated during pH-adjusted bleach decontamination was the nonporous surfaces that were removed, bagged, decontaminated ex situ, and treated as waste. The waste during the two fumigation rounds of the BOTE Project was associated mainly with sampling activities. Waste management activities may represent a significant contribution to the overall cost of the response/recovery operation. This paper addresses the waste management activities for the BOTE field test

  10. 1st World Congress on Electroporation and Pulsed Electric Fields in Biology, Medicine and Food & Environmental Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kramar, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the proceedings of the 1st World Congress on Electroporation and Pulsed Electric Fields in Biology, Medicine and Food & Environmental Technologies (WC2015). The congress took place in Portorož, Slovenia, during the week of September 6th to 10th, 2015. The scientific part of the Congress covered different aspects of electroporation and related technologies and included the following main topics:   ·         Application of pulsed electric fields technology in food: challenges and opportunities ·         Electrical impedance measurement for assessment of electroporation yield ·         Electrochemistry and electroporation ·         Electroporation meets electrostimulation ·         Electrotechnologies for food and biomass treatment ·         Food and biotechnology applications ·         In vitro electroporation - basic mechanisms ·         Interfacial behaviour of lipid-assemblies, membranes and cells in electric f...

  11. Three-dimensional temperature fields of the North Patagonian Sea recorded by Magellanic penguins as biological sampling platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Juan E.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Temperature is a primary determinant of biogeographic patterns and ecosystem processes. Standard techniques to study the ocean temperature in situ are, however, particularly limited by their time and spatial coverage, problems which might be partially mitigated by using marine top predators as biological platforms for oceanographic sampling. We used small archival tags deployed on 33 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), and obtained 21,070 geo-localized profiles of water temperature, during late spring of 2008, 2011, 2012 and 2013; in a region of the North Patagonian Sea with limited oceanographic records in situ. We compared our in situ data of sea surface temperature (SST) with those available from satellite remote sensing; to describe the three-dimensional temperature fields around the area of influence of two important tidal frontal systems; and to study the inter-annual variation in the three-dimensional temperature fields. There was a strong positive relationship between satellite- and animal-derived SST data although there was an overestimation by remote-sensing by a maximum difference of +2 °C. Little inter-annual variability in the 3-dimensional temperature fields was found, with the exception of 2012 (and to a lesser extent in 2013) where the SST was significantly higher. In 2013, we found weak stratification in a region which was unexpected. In addition, during the same year, a warm small-scale vortex is indicated by the animal-derived temperature data. This allowed us to describe and better understand the dynamics of the water masses, which, so far, have been mainly studied by remote sensors and numerical models. Our results highlight again the potential of using marine top predators as biological platforms to collect oceanographic data, which will enhance and accelerate studies on the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. In a changing world, threatened by climate change, it is urgent to fill information gaps on the coupled ocean-atmosphere system

  12. Weather Station: Hawaii: Oahu: Coconut Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology (HIMB) automatic weather station (AWS) records hourly measurements of precipitation, air temperature, wind speed and...

  13. Physics Research on the International Space Station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is orbiting Earth at an altitude of around 400 km. It has been manned since November 2000 and currently has a permanent crew of six. On-board ISS science is done in a wide field of sciences, from fundamental physics to biology and human physiology. Many of the experiments utilize the unique conditions of weightlessness, but also the views of space and the Earth are exploited. ESA’s (European Space Agency) ELIPS (European Programme Life and Physical sciences in Space) manages some 150 on-going and planned experiments for ISS, which is expected to be utilized at least to 2020. This presentation will give a short introduction to ISS, followed by an overview of the science field within ELIPS and some resent results. The emphasis, however, will be on ISS experiments which are close to the research performed at CERN. Silicon strip detectors like ALTEA are measuring the flux of ions inside the station. ACES (Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space) will provide unprecedented global ti...

  14. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  15. The effect of within-crop habitat manipulations on the conservation biological control of aphids in field-grown lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirvin, D J; Kravar-Garde, L; Reynolds, K; Wright, C; Mead, A

    2011-12-01

    Within-crop habitat manipulations have the potential to increase the biological control of pests in horticultural field crops. Wildflower strips have been shown to increase the abundance of natural enemies, but there is little evidence to date of an impact on pest populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether within-crop wildflower strips can increase the natural regulation of pests in horticultural field crops. Aphid numbers in plots of lettuce grown adjacent to wildflower strips were compared with those in plots grown in the absence of wildflowers. The presence of wildflower strips led to a decrease in aphid numbers on adjacent lettuce plants during June and July, but had less impact in August and September. The decrease in aphid numbers was greatest close to the wildflower strips and, the decrease in aphid numbers declined with increasing distance from the wildflower strips, with little effect at a distance of ten metres. The main natural enemies found in the crop were those that dispersed aerially, which is consistent with data from previous studies on cereal crops. Analysis and interpretation of natural enemy numbers was difficult due to low recovery of natural enemies, and the numbers appeared to follow changes in aphid abundance rather than being directly linked to the presence of wildflower strips. Cutting the wildflower strips, to remove floral resources, had no impact on the reduction in aphid numbers achieved during June and July, but decreased the effect of the wildflower strips during August and September. The results suggest that wildflower strips can lead to increased natural regulation of pest aphids in outdoor lettuce crops, but more research is required to determine how this is mediated by natural enemies and how the impact of wildflower strips on natural pest regulation changes during the growing season.

  16. Open source software for electric field Monte Carlo simulation of coherent backscattering in biological media containing birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, Andrew J; Rogers, Jeremy D; Capoğlu, Ilker R; Mutyal, Nikhil N; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Backman, Vadim

    2012-11-01

    ABSTRACT. We present an open source electric field tracking Monte Carlo program to model backscattering in biological media containing birefringence, with computation of the coherent backscattering phenomenon as an example. These simulations enable the modeling of tissue scattering as a statistically homogeneous continuous random media under the Whittle-Matérn model, which includes the Henyey-Greenstein phase function as a special case, or as a composition of discrete spherical scatterers under Mie theory. The calculation of the amplitude scattering matrix for the above two cases as well as the implementation of birefringence using the Jones N-matrix formalism is presented. For ease of operator use and data processing, our simulation incorporates a graphical user interface written in MATLAB to interact with the underlying C code. Additionally, an increase in computational speed is achieved through implementation of message passing interface and the semi-analytical approach. Finally, we provide demonstrations of the results of our simulation for purely scattering media and scattering media containing linear birefringence.

  17. Innovative Railway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  18. Development of dark-striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius coreae, as a biological dosimeter in a radio-ecological monitoring system: 2. Survival rates and hematology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Sun; Kim, Chong Soon; Nishmura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Regarding the management of nuclear power plants and the installation of facilities for radiation waste storage: social concerns over radiation safety are increasing. To understand how environmental radiation affects on human beings, the development of an reasonable monitoring system is required. The existing radio-environmental surveillance systems can be classified into physical and biological monitoring systems. The wild small animals and livestocks were reported to be effective biological indicators of environmental radiation This study investigated the possibility of using dark-striped field mice as a biological dosimetric model to assess the effect of radiation on the human environments. For this study, the criteria for the biological dosimeters of environmental radiation were established as the following: first, it should be an animal from a clear background of species; second, it should inhabit a broad range of areas and in considerable numbers; third, it should maintain identical ecological characteristics; fourth, it should be cohabitating with humans; fifth, it should have been consuming food found in their habitat; and finally, it should indicate a clear doseresponse relationship with high sensitivity. Based on such criteria, this study investigated the possibility of using dark-striped field mice as an effective biological dosimeter. Primarily, their species were classified based on their morphological external characteristics and isoenzymic patterns. The taxonomically classified darkstriped field mice, A. agrarius coreae, were then irradiated to investigate their radiation sensitivity based on the survival rate and hematology in this study

  19. [Biogeography: geography or biology?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafanov, A I

    2009-01-01

    General biogeography is an interdisciplinary science, which combines geographic and biological aspects constituting two distinct research fields: biological geography and geographic biology. These fields differ in the nature of their objects of study, employ different methods and represent Earth sciences and biological sciences, respectively. It is suggested therefore that the classification codes for research fields and the state professional education standard should be revised.

  20. Guidelines for Learning Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.; Schulz, Jolene

    Guidelines for designing and planning learning stations for pupils at the elementary grade level include suggestions on how to develop a station that will be successful in meeting the learners' needs. Instructions for the use of tapes at a station and matching pupils with stations are given, as are guidelines on classroom arrangement and record…

  1. Sources of the wind power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudivani, J.; Huettner, L.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with problems of the wind power stations. Describes the basic properties of wind energy. Shows and describes the different types of electrical machines used as a source of electricity in the wind power stations. Shows magnetic fields synchronous generator with salient poles and permanent magnets in the program FEMM. Describes methods for assessing of reversing the effects of the wind power stations on the distribution network. (Authors)

  2. Framework of collagen type I - vasoactive vessels structuring invariant geometric attractor in cancer tissues: insight into biological magnetic field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available In a previous research, we have described and documented self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. This article documents and gathers insights into the magnetic field in cancer tissues and also how it generates an invariant functional geometric attractor constituted for collider partners in their entangled environment. The need to identify this hierarquic attractor was born out of the concern to understand how the vascular net of these complexes are organized, and to determine if the spiral vascular subpatterns observed adjacent to GTCHC complexes and their assembly are interrelational. The study focuses on cancer tissues and all the macroscopic and microscopic material in which GTCHC complexes are identified, which have been overlooked so far, and are rigorously revised. This revision follows the same parameters that were established in the initial phase of the investigation, but with a new item: the visualization and documentation of external dorsal serous vascular bed areas in spatial correlation with the localization of GTCHC complexes inside the tumors. Following the standard of the electro-optical collision model, we were able to reproduce and replicate collider patterns, that is, pairs of left and right hand spin-spiraled subpatterns, associated with the orientation of the spinning process that can be an expansion or contraction disposition of light particles. Agreement between this model and tumor data is surprisingly close; electromagnetic spiral patterns generated were identical at the spiral vascular arrangement in connection with GTCHC complexes in malignant tumors. These findings suggest that the framework of collagen type 1 - vasoactive vessels that structure geometric attractors in cancer tissues with invariant morphology sets generate collider partners in their magnetic domain with opposite biological behavior. If these principles are incorporated

  3. Biological effects of exposure to non-ionising electromagnetic fields and radiation: III radiofrequency and microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, R.D.; Kowalczuk, C.I.; Sienkiewicz, Z.J.

    1991-12-01

    The biological effects of experimental exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave radiation above 100 kHz are reviewed with the intention of providing a summary of effects directly relevant to considerations of the health and safety of exposed people. The biological bases for restricting exposures are also briefly discussed. Studies of the possible effects of electromagnetic field exposure on human populations are described in a separate report. The majority of the biological effects of acute exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave radiation are consistent with responses to induced heating, resulting either from frank rises in tissue or body temperature of about 1 0 C or more, or from responses involved in minimising the total heat load. Most responses have been reported at specific energy absorption rates (SARs) above about 1-2 W kg -1 in different animal species exposed under various environmental conditions. These animal, particularly primate, data indicate the sorts of responses that are likely to occur in humans subject to a sufficient heat load. In addition, most animal and cell culture data indicate that RF and microwave exposure is not mutagenic and so will not result in somatic mutation or in hereditary effects; such exposure is therefore unlikely to initiate cancers. With some exceptions that are described below, restrictions on the acute exposure of humans to RF or microwave radiation should be based on the acute responses to raised body temperature. It seems probable that healthy people can tolerate short-term (minute-hour) rises in body temperature of up to about 1 0 C. This rise is well below the maximum tolerable increase but nevertheless represents a significant thermal load. The evidence suggests that the exposure of resting humans in moderate environments at whole-body SARs of 1 W kg -1 , and up to 4 W kg -1 for short periods, will result in body temperature rises of less than 1 0 C. A restriction of whole-body SAR for healthy people to 0

  4. No effects of power line frequency extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure on selected neurobehavior tests of workers inspecting transformers and distribution line stations versus controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Xiong, De-fu; Liu, Jia-wen; Li, Zi-xin; Zeng, Guang-cheng; Li, Hua-liang

    2014-03-01

    We aimed to evaluate the interference of 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) occupational exposure on the neurobehavior tests of workers performing tour-inspection close to transformers and distribution power lines. Occupational short-term "spot" measurements were carried out. 310 inspection workers and 300 logistics staff were selected as exposure and control. The neurobehavior tests were performed through computer-based neurobehavior evaluation system, including mental arithmetic, curve coincide, simple visual reaction time, visual retention, auditory digit span and pursuit aiming. In 500 kV areas electric field intensity at 71.98% of total measured 590 spots were above 5 kV/m (national occupational standard), while in 220 kV areas electric field intensity at 15.69% of total 701 spots were above 5 kV/m. Magnetic field flux density at all the spots was below 1,000 μT (ICNIRP occupational standard). The neurobehavior score changes showed no statistical significance. Results of neurobehavior tests among different age, seniority groups showed no significant changes. Neurobehavior changes caused by daily repeated ELF-EMF exposure were not observed in the current study.

  5. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from base stations of DECT cordless phones and the risk of glioma and meningioma (Interphone Study Group, Germany)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Böhler, Eva; Schlehofer, Brigitte

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that exposure to continuous low-level radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMFs) increases the risk of glioma and meningioma. Participants in a population-based case-control study in Germany on the risk of brain tumors in relation...

  6. Emission evaluation of CO 2 and CH4 gases in the selected gas pressure booster station in the Bangestan field of the National Iranian Oil Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ahmadi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iran is located in the seventh rank in terms of CO2 emissions resulting from the fuel combustion in the world. Gas compressor booster stations, due to the several sources of contaminants, are causing the release of large amounts of CO2 and CH4, which will cause climate change; therefore, estimating the emissions of the gases from oil and gas, different processing units are necessary. Methods: In this study, the emissions factor method, provided by various organizations, was used for determining emissions of CO2 and CH4 from different sources. Results: According to the results obtained, the total amount of CO2 emissions in selected units is from the selected unit and is a significant contribution to the CH4 emissions, so that the whole amount of CO2 emissions is equal to 7739.027 tons per day and the total amount of CH4 emissions is 4 tons per day. Conclusion: Burner has the highest amount of CO2 emissions among the sources of pollutants in the fixed combustion sources; and, the highest emissions of CH4, among the exit gas sources, belong to the process of removing water. Among the exit gas sources-compressors maintenance activities the highest emissions belong to CH4. The amount of CO2 emissions from indirect sources, including electrical equipment in the studied units, are from natural gas fuel which are much more than those from fuel oils for burning. CH4 gas from volatile sources in the gas compressors have the highest emissions compared to other sources.

  7. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld; Hvitved-Jacobsen, T.

    This report for the 2000 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unique basis for projects dealin...

  8. The Sewer Research Station in Frejlev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    This report for the 1999 activities at the sewer research station in Frejlev. Only few - if any - sewer monitoring stations like the one in Frejlev exist. Without no doubt the field data produced - especially the time series - in the course of time will serve as a unigue basis for projects dealin...

  9. Computational biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Lars Røeboe; Jones, Neil; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    Computation via biological devices has been the subject of close scrutiny since von Neumann’s early work some 60 years ago. In spite of the many relevant works in this field, the notion of programming biological devices seems to be, at best, ill-defined. While many devices are claimed or proved t...

  10. Preliminary Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Results from the Joint Russian and U.S. Pilot Field Test with Planning for the Full Field Test Beginning with the Year Long Intenational Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; Stenger, M. B.; Lee, S. M. C.; Wood, S. J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing collaborative research efforts between NASA's Neuroscience and Cardiovascular Laboratories, and the Institute of Biomedical Problems' (IBMP) Sensory-Motor and Countermeasures Laboratories have been measuring functional sensorimotor, cardiovascular and strength responses following bed rest, dry immersion, short duration (Space Shuttle) and long duration (Mir and International Space Station) space flights. While the unloading paradigms associated with dry immersion and bed rest does serve as acceptable flight analogs, testing of crew responses following the long duration flights previously has not been possible until a minimum of 24 hours after landing. As a result, it is not possible to estimate the nonlinear trend of the early (the full impact of the decrements associated with long duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. sides have implemented testing at landing site. By joint agreement, this research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test (FT). For practical reasons the FT has been divided into two phases: the full FT and a preliminary pilot version (PFT) of the FT that is reduced in both length and scope. The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities in long duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible (one to three immediate follow-up measurements on the day of landing. This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements, including evaluations of NASA's new anti-orthostatic compression garment and the Russian Kentavr garment. Functional sensorimotor measurements will include, but are not limited to, assessment of hand/eye coordination, ability to egress from a seated position, walk normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, ability to discriminate different forces generated with both the hands and legs, recovery from a fall, a coordinated walk involving tandem heel-to-toe placement, and determination of postural ataxia while

  11. Coupling between the thermohaline, chemical and biological fields during summer 2006 in the northeast continental shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Anfuso

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The coupling between the thermohaline, chemical and biological variables on the northeast continental shelf of the Gulf of Cádiz was determined during the Emigas I survey in summer 2006. Samples were collected to chemically characterize the different water types and to analyze the chlorophyll a distribution. Four different water masses were identified: North Atlantic Central Water (NACW, Surface Atlantic Water (SAW, considered a modification of NACW, and South and North Surface Waters. The highest nutrient levels were found in subsurface NACW, while surface waters were almost nutrient-depleted except in the Guadalquivir region. The isopycnal level of 26.3 kg m-3 marked the limit between nutrient-rich NACW and nutrient-poor surface waters. At the offshore stations, the subsurface cholorophyll a maximum was located at the depth of nitracline and associated with the 26.3 kg m-3 isopycnal level rather than with the pycnocline depth. At the inshore stations, chlorophyll a maxima were observed at the bottom, except for the surface maximum in the River Guadalquivir region.

  12. 3-D components of a biological neural network visualized in computer generated imagery. I - Macular receptive field organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Cutler, Lynn; Meyer, Glenn; Lam, Tony; Vaziri, Parshaw

    1990-01-01

    Computer-assisted, 3-dimensional reconstructions of macular receptive fields and of their linkages into a neural network have revealed new information about macular functional organization. Both type I and type II hair cells are included in the receptive fields. The fields are rounded, oblong, or elongated, but gradations between categories are common. Cell polarizations are divergent. Morphologically, each calyx of oblong and elongated fields appears to be an information processing site. Intrinsic modulation of information processing is extensive and varies with the kind of field. Each reconstructed field differs in detail from every other, suggesting that an element of randomness is introduced developmentally and contributes to endorgan adaptability.

  13. Measurements of electric and magnetic fields, in heavy vehicles parking space, in the vicinity of a power station with 150kv to 20kv transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkanatsios, Stavros; Grigorescu, S.; Pliatsios, A.; Gkanatsiou, M.; Panagiotou, E.; Boukouvala, E.; Gavros, K.; Mitropoulos, D.

    2016-11-01

    The present paper investigates the electric and magnetic fields of extremely low frequencies in substations which step down voltage in Kozani, which is a city of about 65.000 inhabitants. In the substation, apart from the presence of voltage distribution transformers there are also power cables of 150 kV generated in pillars as well as power cables of 20 kV and 380V for the power supply of the city. Pillars with high, medium and low voltage power cables cross the parking space of heavy vehicles.

  14. EXTRAPOLATION TECHNIQUES EVALUATING 24 HOURS OF AVERAGE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD EMITTED BY RADIO BASE STATION INSTALLATIONS: SPECTRUM ANALYZER MEASUREMENTS OF LTE AND UMTS SIGNALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossetti, Stefano; de Bartolo, Daniela; Veronese, Ivan; Cantone, Marie Claire; Cosenza, Cristina; Nava, Elisa

    2017-04-01

    International and national organizations have formulated guidelines establishing limits for occupational and residential electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure at high-frequency fields. Italian legislation fixed 20 V/m as a limit for public protection from exposure to EMFs in the frequency range 0.1 MHz-3 GHz and 6 V/m as a reference level. Recently, the law was changed and the reference level must now be evaluated as the 24-hour average value, instead of the previous highest 6 minutes in a day. The law refers to a technical guide (CEI 211-7/E published in 2013) for the extrapolation techniques that public authorities have to use when assessing exposure for compliance with limits. In this work, we present measurements carried out with a vectorial spectrum analyzer to identify technical critical aspects in these extrapolation techniques, when applied to UMTS and LTE signals. We focused also on finding a good balance between statistically significant values and logistic managements in control activity, as the signal trend in situ is not known. Measurements were repeated several times over several months and for different mobile companies. The outcome presented in this article allowed us to evaluate the reliability of the extrapolation results obtained and to have a starting point for defining operating procedures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Combined magnetic vector-scalar potential finite element computation of 3D magnetic field and performance of modified Lundell alternators in Space Station applications. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ren H.

    1991-01-01

    A method of combined use of magnetic vector potential (MVP) based finite element (FE) formulations and magnetic scalar potential (MSP) based FE formulations for computation of three-dimensional (3D) magnetostatic fields is developed. This combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method leads to considerable reduction by nearly a factor of 3 in the number of unknowns in comparison to the number of unknowns which must be computed in global MVP based FE solutions. This method allows one to incorporate portions of iron cores sandwiched in between coils (conductors) in current-carrying regions. Thus, it greatly simplifies the geometries of current carrying regions (in comparison with the exclusive MSP based methods) in electric machinery applications. A unique feature of this approach is that the global MSP solution is single valued in nature, that is, no branch cut is needed. This is again a superiority over the exclusive MSP based methods. A Newton-Raphson procedure with a concept of an adaptive relaxation factor was developed and successfully used in solving the 3D-FE problem with magnetic material anisotropy and nonlinearity. Accordingly, this combined MVP-MSP 3D-FE method is most suited for solution of large scale global type magnetic field computations in rotating electric machinery with very complex magnetic circuit geometries, as well as nonlinear and anisotropic material properties.

  16. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  17. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  18. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  19. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  20. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  1. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  2. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  3. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  4. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  5. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  6. State-of-the-art technologies, current opinions and developments, and novel findings: news from the field of histochemistry and cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Esther; Drenckhahn, Detlev

    2008-12-01

    Investigations of cell and tissue structure and function using innovative methods and approaches have again yielded numerous exciting findings in recent months and have added important data to current knowledge, inspiring new ideas and hypotheses in various fields of modern life sciences. Topics and contents of comprehensive expert reviews covering different aspects in methodological advances, cell biology, tissue function and morphology, and novel findings reported in original papers are summarized in the present review.

  7. HECO annually conducts and reports results of a biological monitoring program for waters receiving effluent from the Kahe Generating Station, O'ahu, Hawai'i from 1977 to 1996 (NODC Accession 9900012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The volume of sand and silt entrained and circulated by operation of the Kahe Generating Station is an environmental parameter of considerable geological and...

  8. Isolasi, Identifikasi, Sifat Fisik, dan Biologi Virus Tetelo yang Diisolasi dari Kasus di Lapangan (ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION, PHISICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTER OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS ISOLATED FROM FIELD CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haryadi Wibowo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available native chicken farm suspected to Newcastle disease (ND virus infection. Specimens were taken andcollected from the lung was further processed. Suspected materials were inoculated into allantoic sacc inspecific pathogenic free of 10 days embryonating egg chicken. The growth of the virus was determined withthe ability to agglutinate the chicken red blood cells or hemaglutination test. Positive hemaglutinationwas performed with hemaglutinatin inhibition test using specific antibody against ND virus. Method forND virus isolation, propagation and identification were based on the standard procedure of serologicalidentification for ND virus serological identification. 13 out of 34 samples were identified as ND viruses.Observation on the course and time of the virus to kill the chicken embryo could be differentiated intomoderate virus patho-type were 10 isolates and a virulent strains were 3 isolates. Further characterizationbased on the elution time observation indicated 11 isolates were not pathogenic strain and 2 isolates werenot virulent strain. Hemagglutinin stability study revealed that 11 isolates were sensitive being heated at560C for 30 minutes while 2 isolates were resistant. Biological characteristic of ND virus to hemagglutinateon various mammalian red blood cells indicating that most isolates were HA negative. Two isolates wereHA positive with cattle, horse and sheep red blood cell, and one isolate indicated positive HA test by usingsheep red blood cell. Control virus was lentogenic patho-type of La Sota strain showed HA and HI testpositive, elution time was 29 minutes, stability on the hemagglutinin after heating was 2 minutes and HApositive with cattle, horse and sheep red blood cell.

  9. First simultaneous lidar observations of sodium layers and VHF radar observations of E-region field-aligned irregularities at the low-latitude station Gadanki

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sridharan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous observations of atmospheric sodium (Na made by a resonance lidar and E-region field-aligned-irregularities (FAI made by the Indian MST radar, both located at Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E and horizontal winds acquired by a SKiYMET meteor radar at Trivandrum (8.5° N, 77° E are used to investigate the relationship among sodium layer, FAI and neutral winds in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region. The altitudes and descent rates of higher altitude (~95 km Na layer and FAI agree quite well. The descending structures of the higher altitude Na layer and FAI are found to be closely related to the diurnal tidal phase structure in zonal winds observed over Trivandrum. At lower altitudes, the descent rate of FAI is larger than that of Na layer and zonal tidal phase. These observations support the hypothesis that the metallic ion layers are formed by the zonal wind shear associated with tidal winds and subsequently get neutralized to manifest in the form of descending Na layers. The descending FAI echoing layers are manifestation of the instabilities setting in on the ionization layer. In the present observations, the altitudes of occurrence of Na layer and FAI echoes being low, we surmise that it is quite possible that the FAI echoes are due to the descent of already formed irregularities at higher altitudes.

  10. Report of the wintering party of the 45th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition, 2004-2005 -Activities at Syowa Station and the coastal area-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Yamagishi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The 45th Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE-45 wintering party, consisting of 40 members and 2 journalists, conducted the third year program of the VIth five-year plan of JARE at Syowa Station and inland Dome Fuji Station. The program included observations in meteorology, upper atmosphere physics, atmospheric sciences, glaciology, geophysics, biology and medical science, as well as logistic activities to support the observations and maintain the station from February 1, 2004 to January 31, 2005. An Intersat satellite station was installed at Syowa Station in this expedition and started various sevices such as data transfer, internet and TV conference system. Due to the unstable sea ice condition around Syowa Station and Ongul Strait, the start of the field activities on sea ice was delayed until early July. However, many teams were engaged in field work in biology, geophysics and atmospheric sciences in the coastal area of east Lutzow-Holm Bay, as well as aeroplane observations. Two journalists at Syowa Station reported on the nature of Antarctica and various activities of the expedition.

  11. GIS-Based Locational Analysis of Petrol Filling Stations in Kaduna

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dogara Sanda Tah

    agencies should take appropriate measures to ensure that filling stations operators comply with the standards. ... petroleum products and filling station are the places were fuel are sold. It has been discovered that, petrol filling stations ... Field visit were made to all the filling stations, and coordinate of the filling stations were ...

  12. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and research groups. Therefore, INTERACT has produced a catalogue of research stations including descriptions of the physical setting, facilities and services offered at the stations. It is our hope that this catalogue will help researchers identify research stations that suit their specific needs. The 2015......INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also...... includes some alpine stations located outside the Arctic. The INTERACT research stations provide an ideal platform for circumarctic research and monitoring. Activities span from small short term research projects to larger long term monitoring programmes. The stations are thus visited by many researchers...

  13. Electrical and Thermal Modulation of Protein Synthesis in Cartilage: A Model for Field Effects on Biological Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-15

    Science, 178:982. [11] Bassett, C.A.L., (1984), The Development and Application of Pulsed Elec- tromagnetic Fields ( PEMFs ) for Ununited Fractures...Electro- magnetic Fields ( PEMFs ) on Cell Migration and Morphology, BEMS Seventh Annual Meeting, June 16-20, San Francisio, CA. [13] Bates, G.P., Schor

  14. Evaluating anaerobic soil disinfestation and other biological soil management methods for open-field tomato production in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), amending the soil with composted poultry litter (CPL) and molasses (M), has been shown to be a potential alternative to chemical soil fumigation for tomato production, however, optimization of ASD and the use of other biologically-based soil management practices ...

  15. Interaction between the biological effects of high- and low-LET radiation dose components in a mixed field exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mason, Anna J.; Giusti, Valerio; Green, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The relative biological effectiveness of two epithermal neutron sources, a reactor based source at Studsvik, Sweden, and a proton accelerator-based source in Birmingham, UK, was studied in relation to the proportional absorbed dose distribution as a function of neutron energy. Evidence for any in...

  16. 77 FR 46373 - Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... of the Soybean Aphid in the Continental United States; Availability of an Environmental Assessment... for the biological control of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the continental United States. We... INFORMATION: Background The soybean aphid, Aphis glycinis, which is native to Asia, was found in North America...

  17. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  18. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  19. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Alsubaie, Yazeed; Almubarak, Zaid; Almutawa, Hisham; AlQasem, Yazeed; Hasanato, Rana Muhammed

    2015-11-13

    Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12-16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12-17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5-6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2 were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22 than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34 (p = 0.007. Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016 relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 6, Field study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 3 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J. M. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Soto, U. I. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Stehouwer, R. C. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center; Yibirin, H. [Ohio State Univ., Wooster, OH (United States). Ohio Agricultural Research Development Center

    1999-04-30

    A variety of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies have been developed to meet environmental restrictions imposed by the federal Clean Air Act and its amendments. These technologies include wet scrubber systems that dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Although such systems are effective, they also produce large volumes of sludge that must be dewatered, stabilized, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives are needed. Wet scrubbing of flue gases with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has the potential to become a leading FGD technology. When combined with aforced oxidation system, the wet sludges resulting from this process can be modified and refined to produce gypsum (CaS04∙2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use in the construction (wallboard) and pharmaceutical industries. The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati can also produce gypsum by-products formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2- Such materials may have value to the agriculture, forestry, and lawn-care industries as soil "conditioners", liming agents, and nutritional supplements capable of supplying calcium (Ca), Mg, and sulfur (S) for plant growth. This report describes three field studies designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg-gypsum from the Zimmer Station power plant as amendments for improving the quality of mine spoils and agricultural soils that were unproductive because of phytotoxic levels of dissolved aluminum (Al) and low pH. The technical literature suggests that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone for ameliorating Al toxicity below the immediate zone of application. Such considerations are important for deep-rooted plant species that attempt to utilize water and nutrients occurring at depth in the spoil/soil.

  2. Biological control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata by Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis in the wild rice, Zizania latifolia field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengzhang Dong

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The wild rice, Zizania latifolia Turcz, used to be one of the important aquatic vegetables cultivated in China. Recently, the golden apple snail - GAS (Pomacea canaliculata (Lamarck was found to be a major invasive pest attacking Z. latifolia. To control efficiently GAS, predation by the Chinese soft-shelled turtles (Pelodiscus sinensis on GAS was evaluated in laboratory and field trials. P. sinensis had a strong predatory capacity and selectivity for GAS both in laboratory and field conditions. All the sizes of P. sinensis prefer to capture smaller snails. The optimum number of P. sinensis released in Z. latifolia field was dependent on the density of over-wintered GAS, and varied between 30 and 50 turtles per 666.7 m². The number of GAS declined in the fields with turtles as compared to turtle-free field. A pattern of releasing P. sinensis in Z. latifolia fields was developed and widely adopted by farmers because of much more benefit besides biologically controlling GAS.

  3. Evaluation of Immunoassays and General Biological Indicator Tests for Field Screening of Bacillus anthracis and Ricin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Arce, Jennifer S.; Engelmann, Heather E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Hofstad, Beth A.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Jarman, Kristin; Melville, Angela M.; Victry, Kristin D.; Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J.

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this testing was to evaluate the ability of currently available commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) biological indicator tests and immunoassays to detect Bacillus anthracis (Ba) spores and ricin. In general, immunoassays provide more specific identification of biological threats as compared to indicator tests [3]. Many of these detection products are widely used by first responders and other end users. In most cases, performance data for these instruments are supplied directly from the manufacturer, but have not been verified by an external, independent assessment [1]. Our test plan modules included assessments of inclusivity (ability to generate true positive results), commonly encountered hoax powders (which can cause potential interferences or false positives), and estimation of limit of detection (LOD) (sensitivity) testing.

  4. Field application of the Numobag as a portable disposable isolation unit and for treating chemical, radiological or biologically induced wounds.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Keith A.; Felton, Robert; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas

    2005-04-01

    Numotech Inc. has developed the Numobag{trademark}, a disposable, lightweight, wound healing device which produces Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT). The Numobag{trademark} is cost effective and has been clinically validated to heal large skin lesions rapidly and has proven to arrest wound advancement from several insidious forms of biological attack including dermal anthrax, small pox, necrotizing fasciitis etc. The Numobag{trademark} can treat mass casualties wounded by chemical/radiological burns or damaging biological exposures. The Numobag{trademark} can be a frontline tool as an isolation unit, reducing cross-contamination and infection of medical personnel. The heightened oxygen content kills organisms on the skin and in the wound, avoids expensive hospital trash disposal procedures, and helps the flesh heal. The Numobag{trademark} requires high purity oxygen. Numotech Inc. is teaming with Sandia National Laboratories and Spektr Conversion in Russia to develop a cost effective, portable, low power oxygen generator.

  5. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  6. Comprehensive biological effects of a complex field poly-metallic pollution gradient on the New Zealand mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum (Gray).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, M; Buronfosse, T; Geffard, O; Coquery, M; Mons, R; Abbaci, K; Giamberini, L; Garric, J

    2011-01-17

    The Lot River is known to be contaminated by metals, mainly cadmium and zinc, due to a former Zn ore treatment plant in the watershed of the Riou-Mort, a tributary of the Lot River. Many studies have been performed to characterize contamination, but few have assessed its consequences on the biological responses of organisms along the gradient. We exposed adult and juvenile New Zealand freshwater mudsnails Potamopyrgus antipodarum at several sites along the gradient of metal contamination for 28 days. Biological responses were monitored at different levels: individual (survival, growth and fecundity), tissue and biochemical (energy status and vertebrate-like sex steroid levels) to better understand the toxicity mechanisms involved. Accumulation of Cd and Zn was high during exposure. Most of the biological effects observed could be linked to this contamination and were concentration-dependent. Histological lesions of the digestive gland were observed, with hypertrophy of calcium cells and vacuolization of digestive cells. Such effects are likely to explain the decrease of energy status (triglycerides and proteins), juvenile growth and adult fecundity observed at the most polluted site. However the magnitude of the fall in fecundity cannot be attributed only to these tissular effects, indicating another mode of action of Cd or possible confounding factors. Steroid accumulation in snails indicated only organic pollution. Histopathological effects proved the most sensitive endpoint to metal (Cd and Zn) contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biological effects of power line fields: New York State Power Lines Project Scientific Advisory Panel: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlbom, A.; Albert, E.N.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.; Grodzinsky, A.J.; Marron, M.T.; Martin, A.O.; Persinger, M.A.; Shelanski, M.L.; Wolpow, E.R.

    1987-07-01

    The New York State Power Lines Project was established to conduct research and to review the scientific literature to determine whether health hazards of electric and magnetic fields are possible. Particular attention was directed to the fields generated by 765-kV overhead transmission lines. The research program provided support to 16 research groups studying human, animal and isolated cell sensitivity to electric and magnetic fields. No effects were found on reproduction, growth or development. Several studies showed no evidence of genetic or chromosomal damage that might lead to inherited effects or cause cancer. While most measurements of behavior and brain function did not demonstrate changes, some did show changes that were small but consistent. Some of these appear to result from changes in body rhythms, and might interfere with normal sleep patterns. There were also changes in pain responses and in the ability of rats to learn. A more serious concern comes from a study of cancer in children suggesting that children with leukemia and brain cancer are more likely to live in homes where there are elevated 60-Hz magnetic field levels. Although much more research is needed before the question whether the magnetic fields actually cause or promote cancer can be resolved, the basis for such an hypothesis is now established. 159 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcioni, L; Bua, L; Tibaldi, E; Lauriola, M; De Angelis, L; Gnudi, F; Mandrioli, D; Manservigi, M; Manservisi, F; Manzoli, I; Menghetti, I; Montella, R; Panzacchi, S; Sgargi, D; Strollo, V; Vornoli, A; Belpoggi, F

    2018-03-07

    In 2011, IARC classified radiofrequency radiation (RFR) as possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). According to IARC, animals studies, as well as epidemiological ones, showed limited evidence of carcinogenicity. In 2016, the NTP published the first results of its long-term bioassays on near field RFR, reporting increased incidence of malignant glial tumors of the brain and heart Schwannoma in rats exposed to GSM - and CDMA - modulated cell phone RFR. The tumors observed in the NTP study are of the type similar to the ones observed in some epidemiological studies of cell phone users. The Ramazzini Institute (RI) performed a life-span carcinogenic study on Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate the carcinogenic effects of RFR in the situation of far field, reproducing the environmental exposure to RFR generated by 1.8 GHz GSM antenna of the radio base stations of mobile phone. This is the largest long-term study ever performed in rats on the health effects of RFR, including 2448 animals. In this article, we reported the final results regarding brain and heart tumors. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed from prenatal life until natural death to a 1.8 GHz GSM far field of 0, 5, 25, 50 V/m with a whole-body exposure for 19 h/day. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart Schwannomas was observed in treated male rats at the highest dose (50 V/m). Furthermore, an increase in the incidence of heart Schwann cells hyperplasia was observed in treated male and female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although this was not statistically significant. An increase in the incidence of malignant glial tumors was observed in treated female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although not statistically significant. The RI findings on far field exposure to RFR are consistent with and reinforce the results of the NTP study on near field exposure, as both reported an increase in the incidence of tumors of the brain and heart in RFR-exposed Sprague

  9. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  10. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  11. Two-point Stokes vector parameters of object field for diagnosis and differentiation of optically anisotropic biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubolazov, O. V.; Trifonyuk, L.; Marchuk, Yu.; Ushenko, Yu. O.; Zhytaryuk, V. G.; Prydiy, O. G.; Kushnerik, L.; Meglinskiy, I.

    2017-08-01

    A new method of Stokes correlometry of polarization-inhomogeneous images of biological layers is presented. Analytic relations are determined for the modulus of complex parameters of the Stokes vector. A technique for measuring the coordinate distributions of the magnitude of the two-point modulus of the Stokes vector is proposed. Objective criteria for differentiating the optical anisotropy of polycrystalline urine films of healthy donors and patients with albuminuria have been found. An excellent level of balanced accuracy of differential diagnostics has been achieved.

  12. Flow characteristics and exchange in complex biological systems as observed by pulsed-field-gradient magnetic-resonance imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, N.; Venne, B.B.; As, van H.

    2010-01-01

    Water flow through model porous media was studied in the presence of surface relaxation, internal magnetic field inhomogeneities and exchange with stagnant water pools with different relaxation behavior, demonstrating how the apparent flow parameters average velocity, volume flow and flow conducting

  13. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X

    2016-10-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young's elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  14. Reproductive biology of the greater bandicoot rat Bandicota indica (Rodentia: Muridae in the rice fields of southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. THITIPRAMOTE

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated some aspects of the reproductive biology of male and female greater bandicoot rats Bandicota indica in southern Thailand from September 2004 to September 2006. In females, body, uterine and preputial gland weights, occurrences of pregnancies and placental scars, and in males, testicular weights and histology, and sizes of accessory sex glands, were recorded. Pregnancies occurred predominantly, but not exclusively, in the wet season, with a higher incidence pregnancies in the second, than in the first, dry season. Uterine and preputial gland weights tended to be lower in the first, but not the second dry season, with placental scars occurring at all times of year. Males tended to have heavier testes in the wet season but some seminiferous tubules contained sperm even in the dry season. Seminal vesicles, but not prostates and preputial glands, tended to be heavier in animals in the wet season. We conclude that the greater bandicoot rat in southern Thailand shows maximal reproductive activity in the wet season with some reproductive activity, albeit variable from year to year, occurring in the dry season depending upon environmental conditions. This study has also shown that females, as well as males, have large preputial glands, and that males invariably have small testes regardless of the time of year. These observations suggest a similar timing of reproduction, but a different breeding biology and perhaps social organisation, from that of the sympatric ricefield rat, Rattus argentiventer [Current Zoology 55(1: 48–55, 2009].

  15. Dose calculation in biological samples in a mixed neutron-gamma field at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Mainz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitz, T.; Blaickner, M.; Schütz, C.

    2010-01-01

    biological effectiveness (RBE) of liver and cancer cells in our mixed neutron and gamma field. We work with alanine detectors in combination with Monte Carlo simulations, where we can measure and characterize the dose. To verify our calculations we perform neutron flux measurements using gold foil activation...... and pin-diodes. Material and methods. When L-α-alanine is irradiated with ionizing radiation, it forms a stable radical which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The value of the ESR signal correlates to the amount of absorbed dose. The dose for each pellet is calculated using...... of the mixed neutron and gamma field of the TRIGA Mainz is possible in order to characterize the neutron behavior in the thermal column. Currently we also speculate on sensitizing alanine to thermal neutrons by adding boron compounds....

  16. Space Station Freedom cupola definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Laurie A.; Lauger, John

    1989-01-01

    Following the realization that adequate Space Station Freedom viewing could not be achieved without breaking the plane of the modules, a conceptual design phase for the development of a cupola progressed from the idea of a small, bubble-type canopy to a much larger, two crewmember cupola. The evolving cupola conceptual designs were each evaluated against the requirements for providing a large field-of-view, a complete proximity control workstation with flexible and relocatable restraints, and sufficient volume for two, 95th percentile crewmembers to operate while still maintaining reasonable weight and size restrictions. As the SS Freedom program Preliminary Design Review draws closer, the cupola development phase shifts toward evaluation of viewing and operational capability. The appropriate balance of viewing, structures and operations must be achieved before the program can place confidence in a cupola design providing SS Freedom with a direct viewing workstation capable of supporting the great variety of tasks projected for the life of the station.

  17. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solito, J.

    1978-04-01

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n 0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed [pt

  18. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  19. Ondergronds Station Blijdorp, Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266562426; Cohen, K.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374

    2014-01-01

    Het is in de herfst van 2005. Een lief meisje, Marieke, rijdt op haar vouwfiets door Rotterdam. Bij het Centraal Station is het al tijden een grote bouwplaats. Onder de nieuwe hal komt een veel groter metrostation en ook onder de Statenweg in Blijdorp is een grote bouwput voor een nieuw station.

  20. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  1. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  2. Long-term and real-time monitoring of chondrocyte behavior synthesizing extracellular matrix with biologically coupled field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Hiroto; Saito, Akiko; Mizuno, Shuichi; Kajisa, Taira; Sakata, Toshiya

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report the differential measurement method of accurately monitoring cellular metabolism with a semiconductor-based field effect transistor (FET), focusing on the proliferation potency of chondrocytes utilized in the field of orthopedics. By adding growth factors to chondrocytes on the gate, cellular activity was induced and continuously monitored as a change in pH during a cellular respiration for ten days using the FET biosensor. Moreover, the electrical signal of the FET device reflected the reproduction property of chondrocytes to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM). A platform based on the FET device is suitable as a noninvasive, real-time and long-term monitoring system for cellular functions; it will contribute to the elucidation of the mechanism of ECM synthesis by chondrocytes.

  3. The Roman stational liturgy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Mieczkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The papal stational liturgy in Rome was a particular kind of worship service from the Christian Antiquity to the XIV century. Its essential elements are four. Its always took place under the leadership of the pope or his representative. This form of liturgy was mobile: it was celebrated in different basilicas or churches of Rome. Third, the choice of church depended on the feast, liturgical seasons or commemoration being celebrated. Fourth, the stational liturgy was the urban liturgical celebration of the day. The highpoint of this system was Lent. Throughout the entire system Church of Rome manifested its own unity. The station was usually the Pope’s solemn mass in the stational church for the whole city. But on certain days in the year the Pope went in another church (collecta, from which a solemn procession was made to the stational church.

  4. [STEM on Station Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  5. Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F.; Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [es

  6. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  7. Field-controlled electron transfer and reaction kinetics of the biological catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongki Choi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Controlled reaction kinetics of the bio-catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide has been achieved using an electrostatic technique. The technique allowed independent control of 1 the thermodynamics of the system using electrochemical setup and 2 the quantum mechanical tunneling at the interface between microperoxidase-11 and the working electrode by applying a gating voltage to the electrode. The cathodic currents of electrodes immobilized with microperoxidase-11 showed a dependence on the gating voltage in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, indicating a controllable reduction reaction. The measured kinetic parameters of the bio-catalytic reduction showed nonlinear dependences on the gating voltage as the result of modified interfacial electron tunnel due to the field induced at the microperoxidase-11-electrode interface. Our results indicate that the kinetics of the reduction of hydrogen peroxide can be controlled by a gating voltage and illustrate the operation of a field-effect bio-catalytic transistor, whose current-generating mechanism is the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water with the current being controlled by the gating voltage.

  8. Description of chemical and biological soil characteristics of two fields subjected to different agricultural management under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore M. Meli

    Full Text Available Several factors such as soil pollution and intensive agricultural management continuously damage the sustainability of agricultural production, with potentially adverse effects on soil quality. It is important to create applicable and valid soil quality indicators in order to both identify areas with potential productivity problems and monitor soil quality changes due to a range of perturbations. In this work we compared several chemical and biological variables between a Mediterranean soil characterized by intensive horticulture that has been irrigated for 20 years with moderately saline waters (IM and an adjacent soil, subjected to a sustainable agricultural production management and irrigated with plain water (SM. Soil sampling was repeated three times during a year in both sites. IM soil had lower pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen compared to SM soil at all sampling times, while its electrical conductivity was significantly higher at two sampling times only. Potentially mineralizable nitrogen pointed out significant differences only at the first sampling time, with lower levels in the SM soil. β-sitosterol, cholesterol and ergosterol varied significantly with sampling time and were influenced also by management. Statistical approach by Principal Component Analysis highlighted a contrast between two groups of soil variables: potentially mineralizable nitrogen and sterols mainly weighted on the first axis, while chemical properties, weighted on the second one. Moreover, the second axis separated the soil subjected to a sustainable agricultural production system from that subjected to intensive practice management, while the first axis separated the third sampling data from the first two.

  9. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  10. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 4: growth, reproduction, and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    Swine were exposed to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric fields for 20 hours/day, 7 days/week. The parental generation (F/sub 0/ gilts) was bred after 4 months on study; some were killed for teratologic study at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced a first-generation (F/sub 1/) of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters was similar in the exposed and sham-exposed groups. The F/sub 0/ females, which produced the F/sub 1/ generation, were rebred after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg: malformation incidence in exposed litters (75%) was significantly greater than in sham-exposed litters (29%). Types of malformations were not dissimilar between the two groups. The F/sub 1/ gilts were bred at 18 months of age; there were indications of impaired copulatory behavior and decreased fertility in the exposed animals. Defective offspring were found in significantly more of the exposed litters (71%) than in sham-exposed litters (33%). The F/sub 1/ sows were bred again 10 months later, and teratologic evaluations were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the exposed and sham-exposed groups (70 and 73%, respectively). The change in malformation incidences between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it difficult to unequivocally conclude that chronic exposure to a strong electric field caused developmental effects in swine, although it appears there may be an association. It is also possible that other factors, such as housing, inbreeding, disease or its treatment may have contributed to the results. 22 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  11. Molecular and biological characterisation of two novel pomo-like viruses associated with potato (Solanum tuberosum) fields in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Jose Fernando; Adams, Ian; Boonham, Neil; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2016-06-01

    Potato is the fourth most important crop worldwide that is used as a staple food, after rice, wheat and maize. The crop can be affected by a large number of pathogens, including fungi, oomycetes, bacteria and viruses. Diseases caused by viruses are among the most important factors contributing to reduced quality and yield of the crop. Potato mop-top virus (genus Pomovirus) induces necrotic flecks in the tuber flesh and skin of potato in temperate countries. Spongospora subterranea is the vector of PMTV. Both the virus and its vector cause disease in potato. In Colombia, PMTV has been detected throughout the country together with a novel pomo-like virus in the centre (Cundinamarca and Boyacá) and south west (Nariño) of the country. We studied the molecular and biological characteristics of this novel virus. Its genome resembles those of members of the genus Pomovirus, and it is closely related to PMTV. It induces mild systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana (mosaic, branch curling), but no symptoms in N. tabacum, N. debneyi and Chenopodium amaranticolor. The proposed name for the virus is "Colombian potato soil-borne virus" (CPSbV). Additionally, another pomo-like virus was identified in Nariño. This virus induces severe systemic stem declining and mild mosaic in N. benthamiana. The tentative name "soil-borne virus 2" (SbV2) is proposed for this virus. No vectors have been identified for these viruses despite several attempts. This work focused on the characterisation of CPSbV. The risk posed by these viruses if they are introduced into new territories is discussed.

  12. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  13. MCFRS Incidents by Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset contains the monthly summary data indicating incident occurred in each fire station response area. The summary data is the incident count broken down by...

  14. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  15. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  16. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  17. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  18. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  19. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  20. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end......Stations do have other challenges regarding capacity than open lines as it is here the traffic is dispatched. The UIC 406 capacity method that can be used to analyse the capacity consumption can be exposed in different ways at stations which may lead to different results. Therefore, stations need...

  1. Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Standard/Legacy MSHR, formally identified as the DSI-9767 dataset, is the legacy dataset/report sorted by NCDC Station ID and period of record. This...

  2. ASOS Station Photos

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The images contained in this library are of stations in the Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) network. These images were taken between 1998-2001 for the ASOS...

  3. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  4. Multiple Craft Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Mary Sue

    1980-01-01

    Described are three craft stations (claywork, papermaking, and stamp designing) for intermediate grade students, to correlate with their classroom study which focused on Ohio: its history, geography, cities, industries, products and famous natives. (KC)

  5. Signal Station Inspection Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Handwritten reports resulting from detailed inspections of US Army Signal Service Stations, 1871-1889. Features reported included instrument exposure and condition,...

  6. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

  7. Forest and field abundance of Scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae in the São Donato Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius da Costa Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to compare the species richness, abundance and diversity of Scarabaeidae beetles in two types of habitats (field and forest, and to assess whether their seasonal variation is related to climatic variables. This study was conducted in the São Donato Biological Reserve, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil (Pampa biome. Beetles were collected using pitfall traps between January 2012 and January 2013. A total of 125 individuals were collected, of which six genera and 11 species from four subfamilies of Scarabaeidae were identified. 54 individuals of five species were collected from the field, and 71 individuals of eight species were collected from the forest. The most abundant species were Ataenius picinus Harold, 1868, Canthon lividus Blanchard, 1845 and Leucothyreus lavipes Eschscholtz, 1822, which together accounted for 86.4% of all individuals captured. The highest total number of individuals was collected in summer (78, and the highest number of species was collected in spring (9. Differences in environmental structure (and associated climate and food resource availability may be decisive and limiting factors for beetle occurrence in forest versus field areas, as various species were restricted to a specific habitat type or season.

  8. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  9. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.

    1982-06-01

    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  10. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  11. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  12. Pseudomonas canadensis sp. nov., a biological control agent isolated from a field plot under long-term mineral fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambong, James T; Xu, Renlin; Bromfield, Eden S P

    2017-04-01

    The bacterial strain 2-92T, isolated from a field plot under long-term (>40 years) mineral fertilization, exhibited in vitro antagonistic properties against fungal pathogens. A polyphasic approach was undertaken to verify its taxonomic status. Strain 2-92T was Gram-reaction-negative, aerobic, non-spore-forming, motile by one or more flagella, and oxidase-, catalase- and urease-positive. The optimal growth temperature of strain 2-92T was 30 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis demonstrated that the strain is related to species of the genus Pseudomonas. Phylogenetic analysis of six housekeeping genes (dnaA, gyrB, recA, recF, rpoB and rpoD) revealed that strain 2-92T clustered as a distinct and well separated lineage with Pseudomonassimiae as the most closely related species. Polar lipid and fatty acid compositions corroborated the taxonomic position of strain 2-92T in the genus Pseudomonas. Phenotypic characteristics from carbon utilization tests could be used to differentiate strain 2-92T from closely related species of the genus Pseudomonas. DNA-DNA hybridization values (wet laboratory and genome-based) and average nucleotide identity data confirmed that this strain represents a novel species. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, it is concluded that this strain represents a separate novel species for which the name Pseudomonas canadensis sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain 2-92T (=LMG 28499T=DOAB 798T). The DNA G+C content is 60.30 mol%.

  13. Control of the surface radioactive contamination in the field of biological research; Control de la contaminacion radiactiva superficial en el ambito de la investigacion biologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S.; Encina, A. de la; Gaspar, J.; Macias, M. T.; Sanchez, A.; Usera, F.

    2012-11-01

    The manipulation of unsealed sources in biomedical research involves significant risk of radioactive contamination. the aim of this study has been to analyze the radioactive contamination occurring in the field of biomedical research, assessing its magnitude, identifying the equipment that can be contaminated with higher probability and monitoring the evolution of the contaminations production taking into account the radioisotopes and the activities uses, and the radiation protection control applied. The data used for this study correspond to a very lengthy period of time and it have been collected in the radioactive facility, of the Centro Nacional de Biotecnologia (CSIC), a very large biological research centre that can be used perfectly as a reference for this area. The results obtained show a gradual and significant decrease in the incidence of the radioactive contamination. This is due to the optimization of radiation protection standards applied and the implementation or a systematic operational radiation protection program. (Author) 13 refs.

  14. Field-analysis of potable water quality and ozone efficiency in ozone-assisted biological filtration systems for surface water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanacic, Enisa; Stavrinides, John; McMartin, Dena W

    2016-11-01

    Potable water treatment in small communities is challenging due to a complexity of factors starting with generally poor raw water sources, a smaller tax and consumption base that limit capital and operating funds, and culminating in what is typically a less sophisticated and robust water treatment plant for production and delivery of safe, high quality potable water. The design and optimization of modular ozone-assisted biological filtration systems can address some of these challenges. In surface water treatment, the removal of organic matter (e.g., dissolved organic carbon - DOC), inorganic nutrients and other exposure-related contaminants (e.g., turbidity and dissolved solids) from the raw water source is essential. Thus, a combination of chemical and biological oxidation processes can produce an effective and efficient water treatment plant design that is also affordable and robust. To that end, the ozone-assisted biological filtration water treatment plants in two communities were evaluated to determine the efficacy of oxidation and contaminant removal processes. The results of testing for in-field system performance indicate that plant performance is particularly negatively impacted by high alkalinity, high organics loading, and turbidity. Both bicarbonate and carbonate alkalinity were observed to impede ozone contact and interaction with DOC, resulting in lower than anticipated DOC oxidation efficiency and bioavailability. The ozone dosage at both water treatment plants must be calculated on a more routine basis to better reflect both the raw water DOC concentration and presence of alkalinities to ensure maximized organics oxidation and minimization of trihalomethanes production. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene expression in normal-appearing tissue adjacent to prostate cancers are predictive of clinical outcome: evidence for a biologically meaningful field effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Maddala, Tara; Falzarano, Sara Moscovita; Cherbavaz, Diana B.; Zhang, Nan; Knezevic, Dejan; Febbo, Phillip G.; Lee, Mark; Lawrence, Hugh Jeffrey; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated gene expression in histologically normal-appearing tissue (NT) adjacent to prostate tumor in radical prostatectomy specimens, assessing for biological significance based on prediction of clinical recurrence (cR - metastatic disease or local recurrence). Results A total of 410 evaluable patients had paired tumor and NT. Fortysix genes, representing diverse biological pathways (androgen signaling, stromal response, stress response, cellular organization, proliferation, cell adhesion, and chromatin remodeling) were associated with cR in NT (FDR < 20%), of which 39 concordantly predicted cR in tumor (FDR < 20%). Overall GPS and its stromal response and androgen-signaling gene group components also significantly predicted time to cR in NT (RM-corrected HR/20 units = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.56; P = 0.024). Experimental Design Expression of 732 genes was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately in tumor and adjacent NT specimens from 127 patients with and 374 without cR following radical prostatectomy for T1/T2 prostate cancer. A 17-gene expression signature (Genomic Prostate Score [GPS]), previously validated to predict aggressive prostate cancer when measured in tumor tissue, was also assessed using pre-specified genes and algorithms. Analysis used Cox proportional hazards models, Storey's false discovery rate (FDR) control, and regression to the mean (RM) correction. Conclusions Gene expression profiles, including GPS, from NT adjacent to tumor can predict prostate cancer outcome. These findings suggest that there is a biologically significant field effect in primary prostate cancer that is a marker for aggressive disease. PMID:27121323

  16. Effect of human serum on the electrical detection of amyloid-β fibrils in biological environments using azo-dye immobilized field effect transistor (FET biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Hideshima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As amyloid-β peptide 1–42 (Aβ42 was found to be an emerging and important biomarker for Alzheimer's disease, the detection of this peptide in biological samples such as human serum (HS has become very important for evaluating the potential disease state and determining the appropriate treatment. In this study, we developed an electrical analysis strategy based on a field effect transistor (FET biosensor as a simple and reliable technique for confirming the presence of Aβ42 aggregates (fibrils in biological samples. By utilizing Congo red immobilized on the FET gate surface as a biorecognition element, we observed remarkable sensitivity and specificity for detecting Aβ42 fibrils. Furthermore, we optimized the procedure to minimize the interference of abundant human serum albumin for the detection system using HS samples. The optimized system of Congo red-immobilized FET enables measurement of Aβ42 fibrils in the 100-pM level in HS samples, which is lower than its clinical concentration. The FET device can be applied as a biosensing system for mass and routine screening of peptide biomarkers related to Alzheimer's disease.

  17. Analysis of specific absorption rate and internal electric field in human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil-type transcutaneous energy transmission transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Kenji; Zulkifli, Nur Elina Binti; Ishioka, Yuji

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0.3-1.5 MHz. The transmitting power was 15 W, and the load resistance was 38.4 Ω. The results showed that the E values were below the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.9 and 1.5 MHz, and SAR values were well below the limit prescribed by the ICNIRP for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.3 and 1.2 MHz.

  18. Wide-field time-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM): Molecular snapshots of metabolic function in biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sud, Dhruv

    2008-12-01

    Steady-state fluorescence imaging is routinely employed to obtain physiological information but is susceptible to artifacts such as absorption and photobleaching. FLIM provides an additional source of contrast oblivious to these but is affected by factors such as pH, gases, and temperature. Here we focused on developing a resolution-enhanced FLIM system for quantitative oxygen sensing. Oxygen is one of the most critical components of metabolic machinery and affects growth, differentiation, and death. FLIM-based oxygen sensing provides a valuable tool for biologists without the need of alternate technologies. We also developed novel computational approaches to improve spatial resolution of FLIM images, extending its potential for thick tissue studies. We designed a wide-field time-domain UV-vis-NIR FLIM system with high temporal resolution (50 ps), large temporal dynamic range (750 ps -- 1 mus), short data acquisition/processing times (15 s) and noise-removal capability. Lifetime calibration of an oxygen-sensitive, ruthenium dye (RTDP) enabled in vivo oxygen level measurements (resolution = 8 muM, range = 1 -- 300 muM). Combining oxygen sensing with endogenous imaging allowed for the study of two key molecules (NADH and oxygen) consumed at the termini of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway in Barrett's adenocarcinoma columnar (SEG-1) cells and Esophageal normal squamous cells (HET-1). Starkly higher intracellular oxygen and NADH levels in living SEG-1 vs. HET-1 cells were detected by FLIM and attributed to altered metabolic pathways in malignant cells. We performed FLIM studies in microfluidic bioreactors seeded with mouse myoblasts. For these systems, oxygen concentrations play an important role in cell behavior and gene expression. Oxygen levels decreased with increasing cell densities and were consistent with simulated model outcomes. In single bioreactor loops, FLIM detected spatial heterogeneity in oxygen levels as high as 20%. We validated our calibration

  19. ILRS Station Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Carey E.; Pearlman, Michael Reisman; Torrence, Mark H.

    2013-01-01

    Network stations provided system configuration documentation upon joining the ILRS. This information, found in the various site and system log files available on the ILRS website, is essential to the ILRS analysis centers, combination centers, and general user community. Therefore, it is imperative that the station personnel inform the ILRS community in a timely fashion when changes to the system occur. This poster provides some information about the various documentation that must be maintained. The ILRS network consists of over fifty global sites actively ranging to over sixty satellites as well as five lunar reflectors. Information about these stations are available on the ILRS website (http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/network/stations/index.html). The ILRS Analysis Centers must have current information about the stations and their system configuration in order to use their data in generation of derived products. However, not all information available on the ILRS website is as up-to-date as necessary for correct analysis of their data.

  20. Assessing the performance of windowed 1H CRAMPS methods, on biological solids, at high-field and MAS up to 35 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafra, Luís; Coelho, Cristina; Siegel, Renée; Rocha, João

    2009-03-01

    The performance of various high-resolution 1D 1H CRAMPS pulse schemes at moderate and high static magnetic fields (400 MHz and 800 1H Larmor frequencies) and spinning rates up to 35 kHz, using state-of-the-art electronics is compared. The performance of the 1H windowed acquisition decoupling schemes, wDUMBO, wPMLG3 and wSAM3 is investigated using their effective z-rotation variants on glycine and other small biological molecules, tripeptide reduced glutathione and nucleoside uridine. 1H CRAMPS spectra, recorded with windowed 1H- 1H decoupling methods and fast MAS (35 kHz) and high-field are reported for the first time. 1H spectra exhibiting outstanding resolution and completely free from any artifact are also shown. The effect on spectra quality of the decoupling rf cycle and rotor periods ratio ( τC/τR) and the power requirements needed for each windowed 1H CRAMPS methods are discussed.

  1. Telephony Earth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adrian J.; Kay, Stan

    The Telephony Earth Station (TES), a digital full-mesh SCPC (single channel per carrier) system designed for satellite voice and data transmission is described. As compared to companded FM, the advanced speech compression and forward error correction techniques used by TES better achieve the quality, power, and bandwidth ideal for each application. In addition, the TES offers a fully demand-assigned voice call setup, handles point-to-point data channels, supports a variety of signaling schemes, and does not require any separate pilot receivers at the station, while keeping costs low through innovative technology and packaging. The TES can be used for both C-band and Ku-band (domestic or international) applications, and is configurable either as an VSAT (very small aperture terminal) using an SSPA, or as a larger station depending on the capacity requirements. A centralized DAMA processor and network manager is implemented using a workstation.

  2. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... satellite collection vehicles to large compacting vehicles that cannot effectively travel small streets and alleys within the inner city or in residential communities with narrow roads. However, mobile transfer is not dealt with in this chapter, which focuses on stationary transfer stations. This chapter...

  3. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  4. Evaluation of the Modern State of Water Ecosystems and the Issues with Protecting Biological Resources During Development of the Kruzenshternskoye Gas Condensate Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Dmitrievich Bogdanov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the studies of the present state of freshwater ecosystems and their biotic components in the western part of the Yamal Peninsula are presented. Based on the evaluation of the structure of the communities of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and whitefishes, the range of the problems related to the protection of biological resources at the development of the Kruzenshternskoye gas field is defined. Data on species composition and quantitative indicators of hydrobionts of different types of waterbodies and watercourses in the lower reaches of the Mordyyakha and Naduyyakha rivers basins are the basis for environmental monitoring of water objects at development and exploitation of the Kruzenshternskoye gas field. According to the monitoring program, evaluation of the fish fauna state and their food base on the territory of the Kruzenshternskoye gas condensate field (GCF, is present. The zones of rivers deltas are the most important areas of the salmonid and whitefishes valuable fish species feeding at the territory of Kruzenshternskoye GCF. In the cases where complete demolish of waterbodies and watercourses for construction of facilities for GCF does not occur, changes of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of communities of hydrobionts after cease of works are reversible. River ecosystems are restored within a more short period of time in comparison to lacustrine ones. On the basis of conducted comprehensive studies, the proposals for the protection of fisheries resources and monitoring of aquatic ecosystems are reported. Recommendations for reducing the anthropogenic impact on aquatic ecosystems in the development period are presented. The results of the investigation were used in the designing the environmental protection part of the Kruzenshternskoye deposit project. At present, the disturbances in the territory of Kruzenshternskoye deposit of gas does not impact the aquatic ecosystems

  5. Space Station cupola definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Laurie A.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of a Space Station cupola has evolved from a small bubble-type viewport into the primary location for proximity operations requiring direct unobstructed viewing. Derived from a viewing analysis conducted by the Man-Systems Division at the Johnson Space Center, the cupola represents a solution for out-of-plane viewing which cannot be provided by windows placed in the shell of the habitation and/or laboratory modules. An extended Man-Systems design study resulted in several cupola configurations, each illustrating an alternate solution to the required balance between viewing, projected Space Station operations, and human/machine interface issues.

  6. Extension of life of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideaki

    1991-01-01

    At the time of designing nuclear power stations, as their service life, generally 40 years are taken, and the basic design specifications of machinery and equipment are determined. In USA where atomic energy has been developed, the new construction of nuclear power stations is cased for a while, however, if this situation continues as it is, since old power stations reach the service life of 40 years and are retired in near future, it is feared that the circumstance of the total amount of power generation becoming short will occur. As one of the countermeasures to this, the research on the extension of life of nuclear power stations has been carried out in many fields in USA, and it is expected that the application for extending the life for the power stations constructed in the initial period of development is submitted in 1991. The researches that have been carried out for solving the technical problems in this extension of life and the situation in Japan are reported. The NEC of USA decided that the operation period of nuclear power stations in USA, which is considered to be 40 years so far, can be extended up to the limit of 20 years. The background and circumstances of this problem in USA, Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Plant Life Extension Program and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  7. Activity transport in nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, A.B.

    1975-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give a basic understanding of the operational limitations caused by radiation fields in the present design of CANDU-PHW reactors. A simple model of activity transport is described, and the significance of various radioisotopes identified. The impact which radiation fields have at the Divisional, Station Manager and Operation levels, is outlined in the context of typical work situations. (author)

  8. Improved field experimental designs and quantitative evaluation of aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Thomas, J.M.

    1984-05-01

    The paired-station concept and a log transformed analysis of variance were used as methods to evaluate zooplankton density data collected during five years at an electrical generation station on Lake Michigan. To discuss the example and the field design necessary for a valid statistical analysis, considerable background is provided on the questions of selecting (1) sampling station pairs, (2) experimentwise error rates for multi-species analyses, (3) levels of Type I and II error rates, (4) procedures for conducting the field monitoring program, and (5) a discussion of the consequences of violating statistical assumptions. Details for estimating sample sizes necessary to detect changes of a specified magnitude are included. Both statistical and biological problems with monitoring programs (as now conducted) are addressed; serial correlation of successive observations in the time series obtained was identified as one principal statistical difficulty. The procedure reduces this problem to a level where statistical methods can be used confidently. 27 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.

  9. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Topical Report is a synopsis of the decontamination of plant components and structures at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document the preparation activities in support of the shipment of radioactive wastes and the unconditional release of the site and structural materials. 1 ref., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  11. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up...

  12. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  13. Avoiding Service Station Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.; Burton, John R.

    1982-01-01

    High school students are warned against service station fraud. A problem-solving section is designed to help students calculate consumer costs for various fraudulent transactions. Several ways of reducing fraud or of lessening the chances of problems are noted. (MP)

  14. The Service Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to encourage the primary student to expand his or her awareness of jobs within the community. The role of the service station worker is examined, with emphasis on the goods and services provided. Subject areas for which the materials in this guide have potential are social studies, art, and language. Each set…

  15. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  16. Space Station Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  17. International Space Station Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  18. Space Station Energy Sizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A general schematic for a space station power system is described. The major items of interest in the power system are the solar array, transfer devices, energy storage, and conversion equipment. Each item will have losses associated with it and must be utilized in any sizing study, and can be used as a checklist for itemizing the various system components.

  19. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-27

    of 5.5 mT (Bmax) were generated by a doughnut -shaped annular electromagnet device. A rabbit in a holder was placed into the annular electromagnets...powerful tools to stimulate a range of benefits for society, in addition to economic development. However, technological progress in the broadest sense...disease is one of the biggest, if not the biggest problem and challenge, economically as well as in terms of animal welfare and environmental pressure

  20. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: a pilot-scale investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-04-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32-306.03 μg m(-3)) were much higher than those as compressor off (0-13.31 μg m(-3)). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m(-3) as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter-photocatalytic (BTF-PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF-PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  2. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  3. Safety and immunogenicity of Onderstepoort Biological Products’ Rift Valley fever Clone 13 vaccine in sheep and goats under field conditions in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modou M. Lo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This blinded field safety study was conducted in Senegal to assess safety and immunogenicity of administration of the registered dose of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV Clone 13 vaccine (Onderstepoort Biological Products to sheep and goats of West African breeds under natural conditions. A total of 267 small ruminants (220 sheep, 47 goats were included; half received RVFV Clone 13 vaccine at the recommended dose and half received the diluent (as placebo only. The study was performed on three commercial farms in the northern and eastern region of Senegal in accordance with veterinary good clinical practices. The animals were observed daily for 3 days after vaccination, and then weekly for 1 year. In both sheep and goats vaccinated against RVFV seroconversion rates above 70% were recorded. No seroconversion related to RVFV was observed in placebo-treated animals. No statistically significant differences were determined between placebo and vaccinated groups for mean rectal temperatures for the first 3 days after administration (p > 0.05. No abnormal clinical signs related to treatment were noted, and only one slight injection site reaction was observed in one vaccinated animal for 2 days after vaccination. Out of 176 births assessed over 1 year (93 from the vaccinated group, 83 from the placebo group, 9 were abnormal in the placebo group and 3 in the vaccinated group (p > 0.05. The frequency of adverse events was similar in the placebo and vaccinated groups. RVFV Clone 13 vaccine administered according to the manufacturer’s instructions was safe and well tolerated in West African breeds of sheep and goats, including animals of approximately 6 months of age and pregnant females, under field conditions in Senegal. Antibody levels persisted up to 1 year after vaccination.

  4. Biological Control of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma infestans with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana Combined with an Aggregation Cue: Field, Laboratory and Mathematical Modeling Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Forlani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current Chagas disease vector control strategies, based on chemical insecticide spraying, are growingly threatened by the emergence of pyrethroid-resistant Triatoma infestans populations in the Gran Chaco region of South America.We have already shown that the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has the ability to breach the insect cuticle and is effective both against pyrethroid-susceptible and pyrethroid-resistant T. infestans, in laboratory as well as field assays. It is also known that T. infestans cuticle lipids play a major role as contact aggregation pheromones. We estimated the effectiveness of pheromone-based infection boxes containing B. bassiana spores to kill indoor bugs, and its effect on the vector population dynamics. Laboratory assays were performed to estimate the effect of fungal infection on female reproductive parameters. The effect of insect exuviae as an aggregation signal in the performance of the infection boxes was estimated both in the laboratory and in the field. We developed a stage-specific matrix model of T. infestans to describe the fungal infection effects on insect population dynamics, and to analyze the performance of the biopesticide device in vector biological control.The pheromone-containing infective box is a promising new tool against indoor populations of this Chagas disease vector, with the number of boxes per house being the main driver of the reduction of the total domestic bug population. This ecologically safe approach is the first proven alternative to chemical insecticides in the control of T. infestans. The advantageous reduction in vector population by delayed-action fungal biopesticides in a contained environment is here shown supported by mathematical modeling.

  5. Omics Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an orbiting laboratory whose goals include advancing science and technology research. Completion of ISS assembly ushered a new era focused on utilization, encompassing multiple disciplines such as Biology and Biotechnology, Physical Sciences, Technology Development and Demonstration, Human Research, Earth and Space Sciences, and Educational Activities. The research complement planned for upcoming ISS Expeditions 45&46 includes several investigations in the new field of omics, which aims to collectively characterize sets of biomolecules (e.g., genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic products) that translate into organismic structure and function. For example, Multi-Omics is a JAXA investigation that analyzes human microbial metabolic cross-talk in the space ecosystem by evaluating data from immune dysregulation biomarkers, metabolic profiles, and microbiota composition. The NASA OsteoOmics investigation studies gravitational regulation of osteoblast genomics and metabolism. Tissue Regeneration uses pan-omics approaches with cells cultured in bioreactors to characterize factors involved in mammalian bone tissue regeneration in microgravity. Rodent Research-3 includes an experiment that implements pan-omics to evaluate therapeutically significant molecular circuits, markers, and biomaterials associated with microgravity wound healing and tissue regeneration in bone defective rodents. The JAXA Mouse Epigenetics investigation examines molecular alterations in organ specific gene expression patterns and epigenetic modifications, and analyzes murine germ cell development during long term spaceflight. Lastly, Twins Study ("Differential effects of homozygous twin astronauts associated with differences in exposure to spaceflight factors"), NASA's first foray into human omics research, applies integrated analyses to assess biomolecular responses to physical, physiological, and environmental stressors associated

  6. Pollution profiles, health risk of VOCs and biohazards emitted from municipal solid waste transfer station and elimination by an integrated biological-photocatalytic flow system: A pilot-scale investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guiying; Zhang, Zhengyong; Sun, Hongwei; Chen, Jiangyao; An, Taicheng; Li, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► VOCs and biohazards emitted during garbage compressing process were monitored. ► BTF–PC integrated reactor was employed for VOCs and biohazards removal. ► Health risk of target VOCs and biohazards were assessed before and after treatment. -- Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and biohazards air pollution in municipal solid waste transfer station were investigated. As compressor working, the concentrations of almost all quantified 14 VOCs (0.32–306.03 μg m −3 ) were much higher than those as compressor off (0–13.31 μg m −3 ). Comparatively, only 3 VOCs with extremely low concentrations could be detected at control area. Total microorganism was 7567 CFU m −3 as compressor working, which was 1.14 and 6.22 times higher than that of compressor off and control area, respectively. Bacteria were the most abundant microorganism at all three sampling places. At pilot-scale, during whole 60-day treatment, for VOCs, the average removal efficiencies were over 92% after biotrickling filter–photocatalytic (BTF–PC) treatment. Although non-cancer and cancer risks of some VOCs were over the concern level before treatment, almost all VOCs were removed substantially and both potential risks were below the concern after BTF–PC treatment. Additionally, biohazard concentrations decreased dramatically and air quality was purified from polluted to cleanness after PC treatment. All results demonstrated that the integrated technology possessed high removal capacity and long stability for the removal of VOCs and biohazards at a pilot scale

  7. Risk Perception and Occupational Accidents: A Study of Gas Station Workers in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Vaz, Joana Cezar; Cardoso, Letícia Silveira

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the perceptions of gas station workers about physical, chemical, biological and physiological risk factors to which they are exposed in their work environment; identify types of occupational accidents involving gas station workers and; report the development of a socioenvironmental intervention as a tool for risk communication to gas station workers. A quantitative study was performed with 221 gas station workers in southern Brazil between October and Decem...

  8. Field assessment of the mid winter mass kills of trophic fishes at Mariotteya stream, Egypt: chemical and biological pollution synergistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, A E; Tharwat, N A; Zaki, M M

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic Candida albicans was isolated from water and fish samples collected during an emergent event of mass mortalities among the juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Sharp toothed catfish (Clarias gariepinus) along the stream of Mariotteya drainage. Investigations indicated that fish mortalities were confined to the area of Shubramant and Aboul Noumros (North to Sakara 7 drainage). C. albicans was isolated from the lesions associated with multiple skin ulcers in both Nile tilapia juveniles and Sharp toothed catfish. Assessment of the field and laboratory data has indicated that Mariotteya environmental disaster was a multifactorial problem. The fish mass kills were initially flared up through the dumping of the improperly treated nasty organic and inorganic chemicals from Elhawamdia sugar factory and municipal sewage. The physical stagnation of the stream, high levels of ammonia, phenol and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO) were all incriminated as the initial stimulus behind biological invasion of pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescence) and yeast (C. albicans). Pathologically, fishes were dying from both respiratory and osmoregulatory failure induced by the severe damage of both gills and skin. It has been implied that such environmental pollutants have direct damaging effects on gills, skin and fins with consequent suppression of the skin's natural innate components. The adversely confronted immunological barriers were further exacerbated by the possible synergistic interactions of P. fluorescence dermotropic toxins followed by the secondary invasion of the pathogenic C. albicans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adenosine Receptors as a Biological Pathway for the Anti-Inflammatory and Beneficial Effects of Low Frequency Low Energy Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Varani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies explored the biological effects of low frequency low energy pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs on human body reporting different functional changes. Much research activity has focused on the mechanisms of interaction between PEMFs and membrane receptors such as the involvement of adenosine receptors (ARs. In particular, PEMF exposure mediates a significant upregulation of A2A and A3ARs expressed in various cells or tissues involving a reduction in most of the proinflammatory cytokines. Of particular interest is the observation that PEMFs, acting as modulators of adenosine, are able to increase the functionality of the endogenous agonist. By reviewing the scientific literature on joint cells, a double role for PEMFs could be hypothesized in vitro by stimulating cell proliferation, colonization of the scaffold, and production of tissue matrix. Another effect could be obtained in vivo after surgical implantation of the construct by favoring the anabolic activities of the implanted cells and surrounding tissues and protecting the construct from the catabolic effects of the inflammatory status. Moreover, a protective involvement of PEMFs on hypoxia damage in neuron-like cells and an anti-inflammatory effect in microglial cells have suggested the hypothesis of a positive impact of this noninvasive biophysical stimulus.

  10. Correlation between γ-ray-induced DNA double-strand breakage and cell killing after biologically relevant doses: analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, D.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the degree of correlation between γ-ray-induced lethality and DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) after biologically relevant doses of radiation. Radiation lethality was modified by treating 14 C-labelled Chinese hamster ovary cells with either of two aminothiols (WR-1065 or WR-255591) and the associated effect on dsb induction was determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The use of phosphorimaging to analyse the distribution of 14 C-activity in the gel greatly improved the low-dose resolution of the PFGE assay. Both WR-1065 and WR-255591 protected against dsb induction and lethality to a similar extent after low doses of radiation. although this correlation broke down when supralethal doses were used to induce dsbs. Thus, the level of dsbs induced in these cells as measured by PFGE after survival-curve doses of γ-radiation is consistently predictive of the degree of lethality obtained, implying a cause-effect relationship between these two parameters and confirming previous results obtained using the neutral filter elution assay for dsbs. (author)

  11. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assido, H.; Shemesh, Y.; Mazor, T.; Tal, N.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  12. The US Space Station programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Manned Space Station (MSS) involves NASA, and other countries, in the operation, maintenance and expansion of a permanent space facility. The extensive use of automation and robotics will advance those fields, and experimentation will be carried out in scientific and potentially commercial projects. The MSS will provide a base for astronomical observations, spacecraft assembly, refurbishment and repair, transportation intersection, staging for interplanetary exploration, and storage. Finally, MSS operations will be performed semi-autonomously from ground control. Phase B analysis is nearing completion, and precedes hardware development. Studies are being performed on generic advanced technologies which can reliably and flexibly be incorporated into the MSS, such as attitude control and stabilization, power, thermal, environmental and life support control, auxiliary propulsion, data management, etc. Guidelines are also being formulated regarding the areas of participation by other nations.

  13. ACSSB land mobile earth station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Shinichi; Ikegami, Tetsushi; Suzuki, Ryutaro; Suzuki, Shoichi; Kawahara, Hideki; Tada, Shun-Ichi

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes the performance of the land mobile earth station using the Amplitude Companded Single Sideband (ACSSB) modulation technique developed for mobile satellite communications and results of the field experiments which were conducted in rural, suburban, and urban areas. This ACSSB system uses a 3-kHz pilot tone, and the voice frequency band is from 300 to 2500 Hz. The experiments show that the required C/N0 for voice communications is 40 dBHz and the required C/N0 for pilot signal tracking is 34 dBHz. Voice quality in rural and suburban areas was degraded slightly. In urban areas shadowings due to the presence of large buildings and trees caused signal losses. A comparison of the ACSSB system with the conventional narrow-band frequency-modulation system indicates that the ACSSB system can transmit voice signals more efficiently.

  14. Robotic dissolution station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beugelsdijk, T.J.; Hollen, R.M.; Temer, D.J.; Haggart, R.J.; Erkkila, T.H.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a robotic station for dissolving active metals in acid in an automated fashion. A vessel with cap, containing the active metal is placed onto a shuttle which retracts to a point at which it is directly beneath a cap removing and retaining mechanism. After the cap is removed, a tube carrying an appropriate acid is inserted into the vessel, and the acid is introduced. The structure of the station forms an open hood which is swept of gases generated by the dissolution and the air removed to a remote location for scrubbing. After the reaction is complete, the shuttle extends and the vessel may be removed by a robot arm.

  15. Biological Age Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Jylh?v?, Juulia; Pedersen, Nancy L.; H?gg, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The search for reliable indicators of biological age, rather than chronological age, has been ongoing for over three decades, and until recently, largely without success. Advances in the fields of molecular biology have increased the variety of potential candidate biomarkers that may be considered as biological age predictors. In this review, we summarize current state-of-the-art findings considering six potential types of biological age predictors: epigenetic clocks, telomere length, transcr...

  16. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stote, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

  17. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plettner, B.

    1987-04-01

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG) [de

  18. Summit Station Skiway Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    determine its usefulness for enhancing runway performance. We docu- mented the snow strength with a Rammsonde Cone Penetrometer and de- termined the... Penetrometer and delivered it to Summit during the Phase III turnover in February 2011 so that it would be available for testing during spring skiway...discussed current maintenance practices with the Station Manager, trained staff on proper use of the Rammsonde Cone Penetrometer , inspected current

  19. Estación Biológica Senda Darwin: Investigación ecológica de largo plazo en la interfase ciencia-sociedad Senda Darwin Biological Station: Long-term ecological research at the interface between science and society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTÍN R CARMONA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available La Estación Biológica Senda Darwin (EBSD constituye un centro de investigación inmerso en el paisaje rural del norte de la Isla de Chiloé (42º S, donde fragmentos del bosque siempreverde original coexisten con praderas de uso ganadero, turberas de Sphagnum, matorrales sucesionales, plantaciones de Eucalyptus y otras formaciones de origen antropogénico. Desde 1994 hemos realizado estudios de largo plazo centrados en algunas especies de plantas (e.g., Pilgerodendron uviferum D. Don y animales (e.g., Aphrastura spinicauda Gmelin, Dromiciops gliroides [Thomas] catalogados como amenazados o escasamente conocidos y en ecosistemas nativos de importancia regional y global (e.g., turberas de Sphagnum, bosque Valdiviano y Nordpatagónico. Las investigaciones han considerado las respuestas de las especies y de los ecosistemas frente al cambio antropogénico del paisaje y cambio climático, así como los efectos de diferentes formas de manejo. Este escenario es semejante al de otras regiones de Chile y Latinoamérica lo que da generalidad a nuestros resultados y modelos. En este período, investigadores asociados a la EBSD han producido más de un centenar de publicaciones en revistas nacionales e internacionales y 30 tesis de pre y postgrado. Entendiendo el papel clave de los seres humanos en los procesos ecológicos de la zona rural, la EBSD ha desarrollado un programa de educación ecológica y vinculación del avance científico con la sociedad local y nacional. La integración de la EBSD a la naciente red de Sitios de Estudios Socio-Ecológicos de Largo Plazo en Chile consolidará y fortalecerá la investigación básica y aplicada que realizamos para proyectarla hacia la siguiente década.Senda Darwin Biological Station (SDBS is a field research center immersed in the rural landscape of northern Chiloé island (42º S, where remnant patches of the original evergreen forests coexist with open pastures, secondary successional shrublands, Sphagnum

  20. Deployment of Autonomous GPS Stations in Marie Byrd Land, Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, A.; Luyendyk, B.; Smith, M.; Dace, G.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1998-1999 Antarctic field season, we installed three autonomous GPS stations in Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica to measure glacio-isostatic rebound and rates of spreading across the West Antartic Rift System.

  1. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  2. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  3. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  4. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  5. Passive Detection of Biological Aerosols in the Atmosphere with a Fourier Transform Instrument (FTIR)—the Results of the Measurements in the Laboratory and in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błęcka, M. I.; Rataj, M.; Szymański, G.

    2012-06-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful methods for the detection of gaseous constituents, aerosols, and dust in planetary atmospheres. Infrared spectroscopy plays an important role in searching for biomarkers, organics and biological substances in the Universe. The possibility of detection and identifications with FTIR spectrometer of bio-aerosol spores ( Bacillus atrophaeus var. globigii=BG) in the atmosphere is discussed in this paper. We describe the results of initial spectral measurements performed in the laboratory and in the field. The purpose of these experiments was to detect and to identify bio-aerosol spores in two conditions: 1) In a closed chamber where the thermal contrast between the background and aerosols was large, and 2) In open air where the thermal contrast between the background and aerosols was small. The extinction spectrum of BG spores was deduced by comparing our measurements with models, and other measurements known from the literature. Our theoretical and experimental studies indicate that, during passive remote sensing measurements, it is difficult—but possible to detect and to identify bio-aerosol clouds by their spectral signatures. The simple spectral analysis described in the paper can be useful for the detection of various kinds of trace aerosols—not only in the Earth's atmosphere, but also during planetary missions in the environments of other astronomical objects such as planets, comets etc. We expect that the interpretation of data from spectrometric sounding of Venus and Mars during the current missions Mars and Venus Express, and later during the Rosetta mission will benefit from our experimental work and numerical modelling.

  6. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  7. Designing Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An overview of preparations for the construction of Space Station Freedom (SSF) is presented. The video includes footage of astronauts testing materials for erectable structures in space both in the Shuttle bay while in orbit and in a neutral buoyancy tank at McDonald Douglas' Underwater Test Facility. Also shown are footage of robot systems that will assist the astronauts in building SSF, a computer simulation of an Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle, solar dynamic mirrors that will power SSF, and mockups of the living quarters of the SSF.

  8. Comparison of the effectiveness of real and virtual field trips in biology and ecology classes in lower secondary school based on the example of the Maribor island natural educational trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhek, Miro

    The present doctoral thesis presents a case study within the scope of which real and virtual field trips have been compared. The emphasis of the study was on determining the levels of knowledge gain effectiveness in the fields of biology and ecology in the final triad (third) of lower secondary school education. The analysis included students completing various tasks along the Maribor Island natural education trail, which had been digitized and inserted into Geopedia. The study was conducted in autumn of 2011 and included 464 students (enrolled in grades from 6 to 9) from 11 lower secondary schools located in the Maribor area. The results have generally shown minute differences between the levels of knowledge acquisition effectiveness between both field trips. During the real field trip, the majority of the students included in the study achieved better results particularly at tasks where they were able to benefit from first-hand experience. During the virtual field trip, individual students were more successful at tasks where they were allowed to access a computer in order to obtain additional information. Within the scope of the study, we had also surveyed lower secondary and secondary school teachers on the frequency of including field trips in the curriculum, on the obstacles that the teachers faced with regard to including field work in it, and on their views on real and virtual field trips. The survey included a total of 386 teachers, the majority whom were teaching the subjects of biology, geography, and natural science. The results have shown that the surveyed teachers regard field trips as a very important educational method that particularly encourages experience-based learning in nature. The views of the teachers on virtual field trips were generally positive, but only when regarded and applied as a supplemental teaching tool and not as a substitute for real field trips.

  9. Informing biological design by integration of systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolke, Christina D; Silver, Pamela A

    2011-03-18

    Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology faster and more predictable. In contrast, systems biology focuses on the interaction of myriad components and how these give rise to the dynamic and complex behavior of biological systems. Here, we examine the synergies between these two fields. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear hydrogen power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eroshov, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    Short information about investigations on hydrogen energetics being carried out in the USSR as well as a review of the world literature on this subject are given. Combined cycles of thermochemical and electrochemical reactions applied for hydrogen and oxigen production from water are shown to be of interest, as a number of reactions in a cycle may be reduced to two, and the temperature of processes may be decreased to the temperature range specific to modern reactors. Construction features of nuclear-hydrogen power stations producing hydrogen through the use of thermo-electro-chemical cycles are considered. It is shown that at this stage it is possible to reduce time and expenses needed for realization of hydrogen production on a wide scale as compared to other reaction cycles requiring high temperatures and consequently, construction of high-temperature reactors. The conditions of energy and water transport at great distances by using hydrogen lines and the possibilities of development of desert and arid lands by using this mode of operation are considered. Possible ecological effect of hydrogen energetics development on the environment is pointed out, in particular, when power complexes are concentrated on a limited area. It is shown that it is reasonable to locate nuclear-hydrogen stations on shores

  11. Nuclear hydrogen power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eroshov, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    Short information about investigations on hydrogen energetics being carried out in the USSR as well as a review of the world literature on this subject are given. Combined cycles of thermochemical and electrochemical reactions applied for hydrogen and oxygen production from water are shown to be of interest, as a number of reactions in a cycle may be reduced to two, and the temperature of processes may be decreased to the temperature range specific to modern reactors. Construction features of nuclear-hydrogen power stations producing hydrogen through the use of thermo-electrochemical cycles are considered. It is shown that at this stage it is possible to reduce time and expenses needed for realization of hydrogen production on a wide scale as compared to other reaction cycles requiring high temperatures and consequently, construction of high-temperature reactors. The conditions of energy and water transport at great distances by using hydrogen lines and the possibilities of development of desert and arid lands by using this mode of operation are considered. Possible ecological effect of hydrogen energetics development on the environment is pointed out, in particular, when power complexes are concentrated on a limited area. It is shown that it is reasonable to locate nuclear-hydrogen stations on shores

  12. A new approach to predict the biological activity of molecules based on similarity of their interaction fields and the logP and logD values: application to auxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertosa, Branimir; Kojić-Prodić, Biserka; Wade, Rebecca C; Ramek, Michael; Piperaki, Stavroula; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Tomić, Sanja

    2003-01-01

    The activity of a biological compound is dependent both on specific binding to a target receptor and its ADME (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Excretion) properties. A challenge to predict biological activity is to consider both contributions simultaneously in deriving quantitative models. We present a novel approach to derive QSAR models combining similarity analysis of molecular interaction fields (MIFs) with prediction of logP and/or logD. This new classification method is applied to a set of about 100 compounds related to the auxin plant hormone. The classification based on similarity of their interaction fields is more successful for the indole than the phenoxy compounds. The classification of the phenoxy compounds is however improved by taking into account the influence of the logP and/or the logD values on biological activity. With the new combined method, the majority (8 out of 10) of the previously misclassified derivatives of phenoxy acetic acid are classified in accord with their bioassays. The recently determined crystal structure of the auxin-binding protein 1 (ABP1) enabled validation of our approach. The results of docking a few auxin related compounds with different biological activity to ABP1 correlate well with the classification based on similarity of MIFs only. Biological activity is, however, better predicted by a combined similarity of MIFs + logP/logD approach.

  13. Estudo da contaminação biológica por Pinus spp. em três diferentes áreas na Estação Ecológica de Itirapina (SP, Brasil. Study on Pinus spp. biological contamination in three different areas within the Itirapina Ecological Station (São Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise ZANCHETTA

    2006-12-01

    spp.contamination process. It was identified that Pinuselliottii is the most invasive species of all and thatthe main source of this invasion is located into theExperimental Station. It is concluded that the wetareas of the Ecological Station are the mostaffected sites, still having the Pinus elliottii as thespecies with the highest population density. The resultssuggest the need for a biological barrier betweenboth Stations, looking to minimize the seeddissemination from the closest forest blocks, besidesthe mechanical cutting of the trees already installedin this restricted protection Conservation Unit.

  14. Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sheets Fact files Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Electromagnetic fields and public health: mobile phones Fact sheet N° ... Electromagnetic fields: base stations and wireless technologies Electromagnetic fields: electromagnetic ... research agenda for electromagnetic fields You ...

  15. Systems biology in animal sciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woelders, H.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Bannink, A.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Smits, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems biology is a rapidly expanding field of research and is applied in a number of biological disciplines. In animal sciences, omics approaches are increasingly used, yielding vast amounts of data, but systems biology approaches to extract understanding from these data of biological processes

  16. Railway Station Facilities in Rural and Urban Services Based on Observation and User Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Masirin Mohd Idrus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport is one of the facilities available in Malaysia. Overwhelming demand from the community has demanded public transport as an alternative for some people to do their daily activities. The increasing of Malaysian population brought many problems to the environment especially traffic congestion problem. The Government spends a lot of money to overcome this problem [10]. Public transport has been upgraded to ensure user comfort. Most people in the city are more interested in using railway transport as traffic congestion and travel time accuracy is better than other public transport [1, 5]. To influence public demand, the facilities available at the train station should be complete [3, 5]. The choice of location for the study are Batu Gajah station (station 1 and Kluang station (station 2 for rural services while Bandar Tasik Selatan station (station 3 and KL Central station (station 4 for urban services. The results of this study showed that, based on data and information obtained from field survey work and the feedback questionnaires from users, basic facilities at railway stations surveyed for urban and rural services can be identified and listed. An analysis of the status of the facilities at railway stations can be established through the safety of passengers and observations in the field. The facilities available at the urban service station are more complete than in rural service station. Facilities at railway station should be improved to attract people using the facilities.

  17. Development trend of radiation biology research-systems radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui

    2010-01-01

    Radiation biology research has past 80 years. We have known much more about fundamentals, processes and results of biology effects induced by radiation and various factors that influence biology effects wide and deep, however many old and new scientific problems occurring in the field of radiation biology research remain to be illustrated. To explore and figure these scientific problems need systemic concept, methods and multi dimension view on the base of considerations of complexity of biology system, diversity of biology response, temporal and spatial process of biological effects during occurrence, and complex feed back network of biological regulations. (authors)

  18. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  19. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of EDISON Work Package 4.1 is the evaluation of possible Central (charging) Stations design options for making possible the public charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs). A number of scenarios for EVs are assessed, with special emphasis on the options of Fast Charging and Battery Swapping....... With the 3-phase AC quick charging options of 11, 22 kW and 43 kW, (IEC 62196, EN60038, EN 61851) both the Danish and Bornholm environments offer a good chance for EV integration [1]. Dealing with Fast Charging, the study determined that 300kW Fast Charging, which corresponds to 10 minutes charging for a 50...... charging, rated at 50 kW, fast charging would be easier in both Denmark and Bornholm scenarios. For each scenario and charging power level, the possible number of EVs is estimated and finally architectural design options are proposed. Technical assessment is performed for evaluating the benefits...

  20. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  1. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Duddingtonia flagrans: controle biológico de nematodeos de bovinos a campo Duddingtonia flagrans: biological control of cattle nematodes in the field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bañolas Jobim

    2008-11-01

    counts and collection of pasture to larvae counting. Temperature and rainfall data were registered daily. The FEC reduced around 56.8% in the last three months of the experiment, with a variation between 40.4 and 67.1% in the treated group (P<0.001. The faecal cultures demonstrated that the main nematodes found in both the groups were Cooperia and Haemonchus. Larvae counting in the pasture showed a reduction percentage around 77.1% in treated group at the end of experiment (P<0.01. It could be concluded with this study, that Duddingtonia flagrans has an important role in the reduction of FEC and significant reduction of larvae in the pasture. Therefore, this nematophagous fungus is efficient as a biological tool to be used in an integrated nematodes control of bovine raised in the field.

  3. Oil pollution and the significant biological resources of Puget Sound : final report field survey from 16 July 1974 to 01 September 1976 (NODC Accession 7601556)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Biological and chemical data were collected using sediment sampler and other instruments in the PUGET Sound, which is in the Northwest coastal waters of Washington....

  4. Fluorescent biological aerosol particles measured with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor WIBS-4: laboratory tests combined with a one year field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Toprak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper bioaerosol measurements conducted with the Waveband Integrated Bioaerosol Sensor mark 4 (WIBS-4 are presented. The measurements comprise aerosol chamber characterization experiments and a one-year ambient measurement period at a semi-rural site in South Western Germany. This study aims to investigate the sensitivity of WIBS-4 to biological and non-biological aerosols and detection of biological particles in the ambient aerosol. Several types of biological and non-biological aerosol samples, including fungal spores, bacteria, mineral dust, ammonium sulphate, combustion soot, and fluorescent polystyrene spheres, were analyzed by WIBS-4 in the laboratory. The results confirm the sensitivity of the ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF method to biological fluorophores and show the good discrimination capabilities of the two excitation wavelengths/detection wavebands method applied in WIBS-4. However, a weak cross-sensitivity to non-biological fluorescent interferers remains and is discussed in this paper.

    All the laboratory studies have been undertaken in order to prepare WIBS-4 for ambient aerosol measurements. According to the one-year ambient aerosol study, number concentration of fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP show strong seasonal and diurnal variability. The highest number concentration of FBAP was measured during the summer term and decreased towards the winter period when colder and drier conditions prevail. Diurnal FBAP concentrations start to increase after sunset and reach maximum values during the late night and early morning hours. On the other hand, the total aerosol number concentration was almost always higher during daytime than during nighttime and a sharp decrease after sunset was observed. There was no correlation observed between the FBAP concentration and the meteorological parameters temperature, precipitation, wind direction and wind speed. However, a clear correlation was

  5. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  6. Biological detector and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillerud, Laurel; Alam, Todd M; McDowell, Andrew F

    2013-02-26

    A biological detector includes a conduit for receiving a fluid containing one or more magnetic nanoparticle-labeled, biological objects to be detected and one or more permanent magnets or electromagnet for establishing a low magnetic field in which the conduit is disposed. A microcoil is disposed proximate the conduit for energization at a frequency that permits detection by NMR spectroscopy of whether the one or more magnetically-labeled biological objects is/are present in the fluid.

  7. Bagasse-fired steam boiler station for Kenana Sugar in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The equipment and operation of the bagasse fired steam boiler station of the Kenana Sugar factory in Sudan are described. The station consists of six bagasse-fired, steam boilers with individual capacities of 113 tonnes per hour which provide steam for a 40 MN power station. During the off-season it serves as a regional power station which also operates irrigation facilities to the cane fields. The bagasse handling and feeding system is also described.

  8. Ground control station software design for micro aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walendziuk, Wojciech; Oldziej, Daniel; Binczyk, Dawid Przemyslaw; Slowik, Maciej

    2017-08-01

    This article describes the process of designing the equipment part and the software of a ground control station used for configuring and operating micro unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). All the works were conducted on a quadrocopter model being a commonly accessible commercial construction. This article contains a characteristics of the research object, the basics of operating the micro aerial vehicles (MAV) and presents components of the ground control station model. It also describes the communication standards for the purpose of building a model of the station. Further part of the work concerns the software of the product - the GIMSO application (Generally Interactive Station for Mobile Objects), which enables the user to manage the actions and communication and control processes from the UAV. The process of creating the software and the field tests of a station model are also presented in the article.

  9. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  10. Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific contributions in the field of freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One issue is published annually but this number may be increased. Original research papers and short communications on any aspect of tropical freshwater ...

  11. Biological Effects of EM Radiations from Mobile Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A. Ali

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct health effects could result following exposure to RF by thermal (heating effects. Recent Studies have shown that there are public fears on effects that can be caused mainly by holding mobile phones close to the body, or as a result of possible non-thermal effects from both phones and base stations.  This paper offers an overview on the biological effects of electromagnetic radiation caused by mobile phones. Exposures of individuals to RF radiation from these sources will depend upon their proximity and may be above those from mobile phone base stations, although still well below guidelines. From a review of the scientific literature, it is concluded that there were no established health effects from exposure to the RF fields from mobile phones. However, there are gaps in knowledge requiring further research, but current knowledge suggests that RF exposure to levels below the guidelines were not a risk to health.

  12. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The station history of the Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria seismic station has been carried out. A total of two hundred and thirty (230) events at epicentral distances between 24o and 180o were selected from recordings covering the period January 1985 to December 1992. Dominants in the selected events are events from ...

  13. MISS- Mice on International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcetti, G. C.; Schiller, P.

    2005-08-01

    The use of rodents for scientific research to bridge the gap between cellular biology and human physiology is a new challenge within the history of successful developments of biological facilities. The ESA funded MISS Phase A/B study is aimed at developing a design concept for an animal holding facility able to support experimentation with mice on board the International Space Station (ISS).The MISS facility is composed of two main parts:1. The MISS Rack to perform scientific experiments onboard the ISS.2. The MISS Animals Transport Container (ATC) totransport animals from ground to orbit and vice- versa.The MISS facility design takes into account guidelines and recommendations used for mice well-being in ground laboratories. A summary of the MISS Rack and MISS ATC design concept is hereafter provided.

  14. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  15. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  16. Base Station Antenna Pattern Distortion in Practical Urban Deployment Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2014-01-01

    In real urban deployments, base station antennas are typically not placed in free space conditions. Therefore, the radiation pattern can be affected by mounting structures and nearby obstacles located in the proximity of the antenna (near-field), which are often not taken into consideration. Also...... presents a combination of near-field and far-field simulations aimed to provide an overview of the distortion experienced by the base station antenna pattern in two different urban deployment scenarios: rooftop and telecommunications tower. The study illustrates how, in comparison with the near...

  17. Numerical flow analysis of hydro power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    For the hydraulic engineering and design of hydro power stations and their hydraulic optimisation, mainly experimental studies of the physical submodel or of the full model at the hydraulics laboratory are carried out. Partially, the flow analysis is done by means of computational fluid dynamics based on 2D and 3D methods and is a useful supplement to experimental studies. For the optimisation of hydro power stations, fast numerical methods would be appropriate to study the influence of a wide field of optimisation parameters and flow states. Among the 2D methods, especially the methods based on the shallow water equations are suitable for this field of application, since a lot of experience verified by in-situ measurements exists because of the widely used application of this method for the problems in hydraulic engineering. As necessary, a 3D model may supplement subsequently the optimisation of the hydro power station. The quality of the results of the 2D method for the optimisation of hydro power plants is investigated by means of the results of the optimisation of the hydraulic dividing pier compared to the results of the 3D flow analysis.

  18. Environmental radioactivity at Machu Picchu Scientific Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, S.; Osores, J.; Jara, R.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on environmental radioactivity at the Peruvian Scientific Station were carried out in the last two austral summer periods. The main objective of this study is to establish an environmental radiological monitoring program for evaluating environmental components and achieving a baseline study related to artificial and natural radioactivity levels. For this purpose, samples such as seaweeds, mosses, lichens, soil seawater, ice, marine sediment and underground water were collected from the area surrounding the station starting from Punta Crepin to Playa Inca and Playa Naylamp; then they were pre-conditioned in Machu Picchu Station and were sent to the Environmental Radioactivity laboratory of 'Racso' Peruvian Nuclear Center to conduct beta and gamma spectrometry. The Obtained results showed the presence of Cs-137 in geological components (soil and sediment) and in biological components (lichens and mosses). Nevertheless, those levels seem to be in a range of normal fluctuations after atmospheric nuclear testing and they are not considered to be dangerous to the ecosystem of the Antarctic Region. On the other hand, high concentration of Be-7 has been detected in seaweed and lichens. Other natural radionuclide detected were Ra-226, Bi-214 and K-40

  19. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  20. Controversial power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    When information on plans to build a power station in Trebisov first appeared reactions differed. A 40-billion investment in a town with more than 20% unemployment seemed attractive. But some people did not like the idea of having a power plant located in the town. Around one year after the investment was officially announced TREND returned to Trebisov. In the meantime the investor has managed to overcome one of the biggest obstacles on its way to building a new power plant. The ministry responsible gave the environmental study a positive rating. But objectors are still not sure that everything is fine. They claim that the study misinterprets data and that the ministry did not show expertise when evaluating it. 'Is it possible that a coal power plant located in a town would have twice as many positive effects on peoples' health than negative ones? Why don't we build them everywhere?'asked the chairman of the civic society, Trebisov nahlas, Gejza Gore. The developer of the project, Ceskoslovenska energeticka spolocnost (CES), Kosice is fighting back and claims that their counterpart lacks professional arguments. In the meantime it is preparing for area management proceedings. Trebisov is also involved in the discussion and claims that the town planning scheme does not include such a project. The Ministry of Construction has a different opinion. In the opinion of the Ministry the town planning scheme allows a 885-megawatt power plant to be built only a few hundred meters away from housing estates. (author)

  1. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  2. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  3. Biological effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.

    1973-01-01

    Following an introduction into the field of cellular radiation effect considering the most important experimental results, the biological significance of the colony formation ability is brought out. The inactivation concept of stem cells does not only prove to be good, according to the present results, in the interpretation of the pathogenesis of acute radiation effects on moult tissue, it also enables chronicle radiation injuries to be interpreted through changes in the fibrous part of the organs. Radiation therapy of tumours can also be explained to a large extent by the radiation effect on the unlimited reproductiveness of tumour cells. The more or less similar dose effect curves for healthy and tumour tissue in practice lead to intermittent irradiation. The dependence of the intermittent doses and intervals on factors such as Elkind recovery, synchronisation, redistribution, reoxygenation, repopulation and regeneration are reviewed. (ORU/LH) [de

  4. Mussel beds are biological power stations on intertidal flats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engel, Friederike G.; Alegria, Javier; Andriana, Rosyta; Donadi, Serena; Gusmao, Joao B.; van Leeuwe, Maria A.; Matthiessen, Birte; Eriksson, Britas Klemens

    2017-01-01

    Intertidal flats are highly productive areas that support large numbers of invertebrates, fish, and birds. Benthic diatoms are essential for the function of tidal flats. They fuel the benthic food web by forming a thin photosynthesizing compartment in the top-layer of the sediment that stretches

  5. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions to Authors The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology (Cameroon J. Exp. Biol.) welcomes contributions in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, toxicology, pathology, environmental biology, microbiology, parasitology, phytochemistry, food ...

  6. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  7. Comparison of biological effects of electromagnetic fields with pulse frequencies of 8 and 50 Hz on gastric smooth muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynyuk, Victor; Melnyk, Mariia; Artemenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The influence of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) with rectangular pulse frequencies of 8 and 50 Hz and flux density of 25 µT on contraction, nitric oxide/nitrite synthesis, and intracellular calcium concentration in the gastric smooth muscles of rats was investigated. An approximately 8-Hz field reduced the fast component of contraction induced by KCl depolarization and slowed down the time to reach the maximum of the slow component of contraction, whereas the 50-Hz field increased the fast and slow components and accelerated the time to reach the maximum of the slow component of contraction. After turning off the EMF, the force and character of contraction returned to the control values. In addition, the 8-Hz field increased nitric oxide/nitrite synthesis in the excited smooth muscle tissue with KCl depolarization, while the 50-Hz field had no significant effect. 8- and 50-Hz fields had no significant effects on nitric oxide/nitrite production in non-stimulated tissue. However, the 50-Hz field significantly increased the basic intracellular calcium concentration in smooth muscle cells (SMC) in a time-dependent manner, whereas the 8-Hz field only slightly increased calcium levels. Thus, we showed that responses of gastric smooth muscles to EMFs are pulse-frequency dependent.

  8. Nucleotide variability of Ťahyňa virus (Bunyaviridae, Orthobunyavirus) small (S) and medium (M) genomic segments in field strains differing in biological properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kilian, P.; Růžek, Daniel; Danielová, V.; Hypša, Václav; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 149, č. 1 (2010), s. 119-123 ISSN 0168-1702 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tahyna virus * Bunyavirus * california group * genetic variability * virulence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.905, year: 2010

  9. Operating experience with cooling towers in French nuclear power stations: hydrobiology - aquatic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprosi, G.; Bidard, F.; Nepveu de Villemarceau, C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper summarizes the difficulties encountered because of biological contaminants polluting the cooling towers of nuclear power stations. Then one describes the measures planned to reduce these phenomena [fr

  10. Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rassoul, G; El-Fateh, O Abou; Salem, M Abou; Michael, A; Farahat, F; El-Batanouny, M; Salem, E

    2007-03-01

    There is a general concern on the possible hazardous health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations (RFR) emitted from mobile phone base station antennas on the human nervous system. To identify the possible neurobehavioral deficits among inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on (85) inhabitants living nearby the first mobile phone station antenna in Menoufiya governorate, Egypt, 37 are living in a building under the station antenna while 48 opposite the station. A control group (80) participants were matched with the exposed for age, sex, occupation and educational level. All participants completed a structured questionnaire containing: personal, educational and medical histories; general and neurological examinations; neurobehavioral test battery (NBTB) [involving tests for visuomotor speed, problem solving, attention and memory]; in addition to Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ). The prevalence of neuropsychiatric complaints as headache (23.5%), memory changes (28.2%), dizziness (18.8%), tremors (9.4%), depressive symptoms (21.7%), and sleep disturbance (23.5%) were significantly higher among exposed inhabitants than controls: (10%), (5%), (5%), (0%), (8.8%) and (10%), respectively (Pmobile phone base station antennas in Menoufiya governorate were less than the allowable standard level. Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.

  11. Of repeat stations and tectonic regionalization of Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delipetrev, Marjan; Doneva, Blagitsa; Delipetrov, Todor; Rasson, L. Jean

    2010-01-01

    Geomagnetic field is vector sum of causes deep in the Earth's interior and their influence can be felt in the whole Earth. There are sources of magnetic fields which are characterized for larger regions and local anomalous geomagnetic fields. When selecting the location of base station, regions where local geomagnetic anomalies are present, should be avoided, with aim to receive measured results which gives the geomagnetic field characteristic for that region. The territory of the Republic of Macedonia has complex relief, and also has complex geological structure and these features have high influence on the regional geomagnetic field. Bearing in mind the complex relief and geological structure, strict procedure of geomagnetic field observations were conducted for every selected location for repeat station. Maps from the measurements in 2004 are also presented in this paper. (Author)

  12. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Systems biology seeks to study biological systems as a whole, contrary to the reductionist approach that has dominated biology. Such a view of biological systems emanating from strong foundations of molecular level understanding of the individual components in terms of their form, function and interactions is promising to ...

  13. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  14. Torness: proposed nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The need for and desirability of nuclear power, and in particular the proposed nuclear power station at Torness in Scotland, are questioned. Questions are asked, and answered, on the following topics: position, appearance and cost of the proposed Torness plant, and whether necessary; present availability of electricity, and forecast of future needs, in Scotland; energy conservation and alternative energy sources; radiation hazards from nuclear power stations (outside, inside, and in case of an accident); transport of spent fuel from Torness to Windscale; radioactive waste management; possibility of terrorists making a bomb with radioactive fuel from a nuclear power station; cost of electricity from nuclear power; how to stop Torness. (U.K.)

  15. Space station neutral external environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, H.; Leger, L.

    1988-01-01

    Molecular contamination levels arising from the external induced neutral environment of the Space Station (Phase 1 configuration) were calculated using the MOLFLUX model. Predicted molecular column densities and deposition rates generally meet the Space Station contamination requirements. In the doubtful cases of deposition due to materials outgassing, proper material selection, generally excluding organic products exposed to the external environment, must be considered to meet contamination requirements. It is important that the Space Station configuration, once defined, is not significantly modified to avoid introducing new unacceptable contamination sources.

  16. Paracellular barrier and channel functions of TJ claudins in organizing biological systems: advances in the field of barriology revealed in knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2014-12-01

    Claudin was first identified as a four-transmembrane protein in the tight junctions (TJs) between epithelial cells. The claudin family has 27 members, which are specifically expressed depending on the epithelial cell type. Accumulating evidence has revealed that claudins are responsible for the paracellular barrier that prevents molecules from passing through epithelial cell sheets. In addition, the extracellular domains of some claudins enable them to act as a permselective paracellular channel for specific molecules, including ions and/or non-ionic solutes. Recent studies using claudin knockout mice revealed that the loss of claudins' specific paracellular barrier and/or channel functions affects specific biological functions and leads to pathological states. In this review, considering recent findings in vivo, we describe how, sometimes in concert with canonical transporters and channels, the paracellular barrier and channel functions of claudins sophisticatedly organize biological systems. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Building biological foundries for next-generation synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ran; Yuan, YongBo; Zhao, HuiMin

    2015-07-01

    Synthetic biology is an interdisciplinary field that takes top-down approaches to understand and engineer biological systems through design-build-test cycles. A number of advances in this relatively young field have greatly accelerated such engineering cycles. Specifically, various innovative tools were developed for in silico biosystems design, DNA de novo synthesis and assembly, construct verification, as well as metabolite analysis, which have laid a solid foundation for building biological foundries for rapid prototyping of improved or novel biosystems. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art technologies for synthetic biology and discusses the challenges to establish such biological foundries.

  18. Distribuição da brioflora em diferentes fisionomias de cerrado da Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brasil Distribution of the brioflora in the different cerrado physiognomies of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Visnadi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho refere-se à distribuição da brioflora ocorrente no cerrado Reserva Biológica e Estação Experimental de MogiGuaçu. Este bioma apresenta fisionomias que variam de florestas a campos. As coletas foram realizadas entre 1993 e 1995, na casca de 15 espécies de forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos, ao longo de um transecto, passando por cinco fisionomias diferentes de cerrado. Estudaramse 1.345 exsicatas de 49 gêneros e 92 espécies de briófitas. A brioflora está relacionada às fisionomias de cerrado e não aos forófitos arbustivo-arbóreos. As fisionomias são mais semelhantes quanto à flora de musgos do que em relação à flora de hepáticas. As briófitas distribuem-se em três grupos de fisionomias: cerrado sentido restrito, campo cerrado e transição / cerrado sentido restrito de Myrsine / campo cerrado queimado.This paper refers to the distribution of the brioflora in the cerrado vegetation of the Biological Reserve and of the Experimental Station of Mogi-Guaçu. This biome includes forests to grassland physiognomies. Collects of bryophytes was made between 1993 and 1995 on bark of 15 shrubby-arboreous phorophytes species along a transect, through five different physiognomies of the cerrado vegetation. The studied material totalized 1,345 numbers from 49 genera and 92 species of bryophytes. The brioflora is not related to the shrubby-arboreous phorophytes, but to the cerrado physiognomies. Similarity between physiognomies is higher due to mosses than hepatics distribution. Bryophytes are distributed in three physiognomic groups: cerrado 'stricto sensu', cerrado grassland and transition / cerrado 'stricto sensu' of Myrsine / burned cerrado grassland.

  19. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  20. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  1. VT Data - Electric Charging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Locations of Electric Charging Stations provided by the NREL national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy....

  2. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  3. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  4. Space Station Human Factors Research Review. Volume 3: Space Station Habitability and Function: Architectural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marc M. (Editor); Eichold, Alice (Editor); Heers, Susan (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Articles are presented on a space station architectural elements model study, space station group activities habitability module study, full-scale architectural simulation techniques for space stations, and social factors in space station interiors.

  5. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  6. Internationalization of the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottmann, R. V.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to the NASA Space Station system elements whose production is under consideration by potential foreign partners. The ESA's Columbus Program declaration encompasses studies of pressurized modules, unmanned payload carriers, and ground support facilities. Canada has expressed interest in construction and servicing facilities, solar arrays, and remote sensing facilities. Japanese studies concern a multipurpose experimental module concept. Each of these foreign investments would expand Space Station capabilities and lay the groundwork for long term partnerships.

  7. Radiation level survey of a mobile phone base station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, M.C.; Schaffer, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic field (E.M.F.) evaluations were carried out in the surroundings of a roof-top mobile-phone radio-base station (R.B.S.). Four of its sector-panel antennas are installed on two parallel vertical masts, each supporting two panels in a vertical collinear-array. The geometry is such that the vertical plane containing both masts is about 10 meters distant and parallel to the backside of an educational institution. This proximity provoked great anxiety among the local community members regarding potential health hazards.1. Introduction: To keep up with the expansion of the mobile-phone services, the number of Radio-Base Stations (R.B.S.) installations is increasing tremendously in Brazil. Efficient control and radiation monitoring to assess R.B.S. compliance to existing regulations are still lacking and particularly in big cities, clearly non - compliant R.B.S. can be seen which represent potentially hazardous E.M.F. sources to the nearby population. This first survey of an irregular R.B.S. revealed significant E-field strengths outside, as well as inside a classroom of an educational building where an usually prolonged stay is necessary. These results confirm that this problem deserves further attention, moreover, if one considers that public and occupational exposure limits set by I.C.N.I.R.P. (also adopted in Brazil) are exclusively based on the immediate thermal effects of acute exposure, disregarding any potential health risk from prolonged exposure to lower level radiation. Research activities focusing on quantitative aspects of electromagnetic radiation from R.B.S., as well as on biological and adverse health effects are still at a very incipient level, urging for immediate actions to improve this scenario in our country. 2. Material, methods and results Measurements were carried out with a broadband field strength monitor, E.M.R.-300 (W and G) coupled to an isotropic E-field probe (100 khz to 3 GHz). Preliminary measurements helped locating

  8. 46 CFR 28.395 - Embarkation stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING... least one designated survival craft embarkation station and any additional embarkation stations.... Each embarkation station must be arranged to allow the safe boarding of survival craft. ...

  9. Non-Coop Station History (Unindexed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Documents should be compared with those in the Non-Coop Station History...

  10. Advances in power station construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about power stations - specifically about the construction of modern power stations by the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales over the past decade. It describes the work of the CEGB's Generation Development and Construction Division, perhaps better known throughout the world as simply 'Barnwood' where it has its Headquarters in Gloucester, UK. Barnwood was formed in the early 1970s to concentrate the CEGB's then dispersed engineering construction resources to cope with the smaller number but greatly increased size and complexity of modern power station projects. Perhaps uniquely over the ten years since its formation Barnwood has managed the construction of all types of station; coal-fired, oil-fired, nuclear, pumped storage and hydro. This book tells the story of these various projects and gives detailed descriptions of the respective stations. However, it is not intended as a comprehensive description of power station technology. Rather it is intended to convey the scale of such projects and the many decisions and compromises which have to be made in the course of managing their construction

  11. European activities in space radiation biology and exobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horneck, G.

    1996-01-01

    In view of the space station era, the European Space Agency has initiated a review and planning document for space life sciences. Radiation biology includes dosimetry of the radiation field and its modification by mass shielding, studies on the biological responses to radiation in space, on the potential impact of space flight environment on radiation effects, and assessing the radiation risks and establishing radiation protection guidelines. To reach a better understanding of the processes leading to the origin, evolution and distribution of life, exobiological activities include the exploration of the solar system, the collection and analysis of extraterrestrial samples and the utilization of space as a tool for testing the impact of space environment on organics and resistant life forms. (author)

  12. Physical degradation assessment of generator station cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stonkus, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary studies of fossil-fired and nuclear generator station cables indicate that the low voltage PVC insulated cables are in relatively good condition. The insulation is flexible and in the case of nuclear cables can withstand a design basis event after nearly 15 years of service. Cables insulated with styrene butadiene rubber have been found embrittled and cables insulated with SBR should be closely inspected in any plant assurance program. Thermal analysis using oxidative induction technique shows promise to indicate cable insulation degradation. Long term reliability assurance and plant life extension studies are being actively pursued at Ontario Hydro. A major study is currently underway to extend the life of the oldest operating fossil-fuel station, the 8-unit, 2400 MW Lakeview TGS in operation since the 1960s. Plant life assurance programs have been initiated at the 2000 MW Lambton TGS in operation since 1969, and for the oldest operating nuclear plant, Pickering NGS A in operation since the early 1970s. As cables are considered one of the critical components in a generator station due to the extreme difficulty and cost of cable replacement, test programs have been initiated to evaluate the physical degradation of the cables and relate the results to electrical diagnostic tests and to chemical changes. The decommissioning of two small nuclear stations, the 20 MW Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) and the 200 MW Douglas Point NGS, which were placed in service in 1962 and 1967 respectively, will provide an opportunity to perform destructive electrical and physical evaluation on field aged cables

  13. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  14. Hybrid Ground Station Technology for RF and Optical Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz; Hoppe, D.; Charles, J.; Vilnrotter, V.; Sehic, A.; Hanson, T.; Gam, E.

    2012-01-01

    To support future enhancements of NASA's deep space and planetary communications and tracking services, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a hybrid ground station that will be capable of simultaneously supporting RF and optical communications. The main reason for adding optical links to the existing RF links is to significantly increase the capacity of deep space communications in support of future solar system exploration. It is envisioned that a mission employing an optical link will also use an RF link for telemetry and emergency purposes, hence the need for a hybrid ground station. A hybrid station may also reduce operations cost by requiring fewer staff than would be required to operate two stations. A number of approaches and techniques have been examined. The most promising ones have been prototyped for field examination and validation.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging. Recent studies on biological effects of static magnetic and high-frequency electromagnetic fields; Magnetresonanztomographie. Neuere Studien zur biologischen Wirkung statischer Magnetfelder und hochfrequenter elektromagnetischer Felder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pophof, B. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Abteilung fuer Wirkungen und Risiken ionisierender und nichtionisierender Strahlung, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany); Brix, G. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Abteilung fuer medizinischen und beruflichen Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim/Neuherberg (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    During the last few years, new studies on biological effects of strong static magnetic fields and on thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were published. Many of these studies have not yet been included in the current safety recommendations. Scientific publications since 2010 on biological effects of static and electromagnetic fields in MRI were researched and evaluated. New studies confirm older publications that have already described effects of static magnetic fields on sensory organs and the central nervous system, accompanied by sensory perceptions. A new result is the direct effect of Lorentz forces on ionic currents in the semicircular canals of the vestibular system. Recent studies of thermal effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields were focused on the development of anatomically realistic body models and a more precise simulation of exposure scenarios. Strong static magnetic fields can cause unpleasant sensations, in particular, vertigo. In addition, they can influence the performance of the medical staff and thus potentially endanger the patient's safety. As a precaution, medical personnel should move slowly within the field gradient. High-frequency electromagnetic fields lead to an increase in the temperature of patients' tissues and organs. This should be considered especially in patients with restricted thermoregulation and in pregnant women and neonates; in these cases exposure should be kept as low as possible. (orig.) [German] In den letzten Jahren wurden neue Studien zu biologischen Wirkungen starker statischer Magnetfelder und zu thermischen Effekten hochfrequenter elektromagnetischer Feldern, wie sie bei der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) verwendet werden, publiziert. Viele dieser Studien sind noch nicht in aktuelle Sicherheitsempfehlungen eingeflossen. Wissenschaftliche Publikationen ab dem Jahr 2010 zur biologischen Wirkung statischer und elektromagnetischer Felder

  16. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed on...

  17. Customer exposure to gasoline vapors during refueling at service stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkola, M A; Saarinen, L H

    2000-09-01

    Gasoline is a volatile complex mixture of hydrocarbon compounds that is easily vaporized during handling under normal conditions. Modern reformulated gasoline also contains oxygenates to enhance octane number and reduce ambient pollution. This study measured the difference in the exposure of customers to gasoline and oxygenate vapors during refueling in service stations with and without vapor recovery systems. Field measurements were carried out at two self-service stations. One was equipped with Stage I and the other with Stage II vapor recovery systems. At Stage I stations there is vapor recovery only during delivery from road tanker, and at Stage II stations additional vapor recovery during refueling. The exposure of 20 customers was measured at both stations by collecting air samples from their breathing zone into charcoal tubes during refueling with 95-octane reformulated gasoline. Each sample represented two consecutive refuelings. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography using mass-selective detection for vapor components. The Raid vapor pressure of gasoline was 70 kPa and an oxygen content 2 wt%. Oxygenated gasoline contained 7 percent methyl tert-butyl ether (MtBE) and 5 percent methyl tert-amyl ether (MtAE). The geometric mean concentrations of hydrocarbons (C3-C11) in the customers' breathing zone was 85 mg/m3 (range 2.5-531 mg/m3) at the Stage I service station and 18 mg/m3 (range service station. The geometric mean of the exposure of customers to MtBE during refueling at the Stage I service station was 15.3 mg/m3 (range 1.8-74 mg/m3), and at the Stage II service station 3.4 mg/m3 (range 0.2-16 mg/m3). The differences in exposure were statistically significant (p station. The measurements were done on consecutive days at the various service stations. The temperature ranged from 10 to 17 degrees C, and wind velocity was 2-4 m/s. The climatic conditions were very similar on the measurement days. Based on this study it was found

  18. Illuminating Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center awarded Ciencia, Inc., a Small Business Innovation Research contract to develop the Cell Fluorescence Analysis System (CFAS) to address the size, mass, and power constraints of using fluorescence spectroscopy in the International Space Station's Life Science Research Facility. The system will play an important role in studying biological specimen's long-term adaptation to microgravity. Commercial applications for the technology include diverse markets such as food safety, in situ environmental monitoring, online process analysis, genomics and DNA chips, and non-invasive diagnostics. Ciencia has already sold the system to the private sector for biosensor applications.

  19. Assessment of biological half life using in silico QSPkR approach: a self organizing molecular field analysis (SOMFA) on a series of antimicrobial quinolone drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Honey; Sinha, V R; Thareja, Suresh; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Kumar, Manoj

    2011-08-30

    The quinolones belong to a family of synthetic potent broad-spectrum antibiotics and particularly active against gram-negative organisms, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A 3D-QSPkR approach has been used to obtain the quantitative structure pharmacokinetic relationship for a series of quinolone drugs using SOMFA. The series consisting of 28 molecules have been investigated for their pharmacokinetic performance using biological half life (t(1/2)). A statistically validated robust model for a diverse group of quinolone drugs having flexibility in structure and pharmacokinetic profile (t(1/2)) obtained using SOMFA having good cross-validated correlation coefficient r(cv)(2) (0.6847), non cross-validated correlation coefficient r(2) values (0.7310) and high F-test value (33.9663). Analysis of 3D-QSPkR models through electrostatic and shape grids provide useful information about the shape and electrostatic potential contributions on t(1/2). The analysis of SOMFA results provide an insight for the generation of novel molecular architecture of quinolones with optimal half life and improved biological profile. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The ANSS Station Information System: A Centralized Station Metadata Repository for Populating, Managing and Distributing Seismic Station Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Acharya, P.; Jaramillo, J.; Chowdhury, F.

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining and archiving accurate site metadata is critical for seismic network operations. The Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Station Information System (SIS) is a repository of seismic network field equipment, equipment response, and other site information. Currently, there are 187 different sensor models and 114 data-logger models in SIS. SIS has a web-based user interface that allows network operators to enter information about seismic equipment and assign response parameters to it. It allows users to log entries for sites, equipment, and data streams. Users can also track when equipment is installed, updated, and/or removed from sites. When seismic equipment configurations change for a site, SIS computes the overall gain of a data channel by combining the response parameters of the underlying hardware components. Users can then distribute this metadata in standardized formats such as FDSN StationXML or dataless SEED. One powerful advantage of SIS is that existing data in the repository can be leveraged: e.g., new instruments can be assigned response parameters from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Nominal Response Library (NRL), or from a similar instrument already in the inventory, thereby reducing the amount of time needed to determine parameters when new equipment (or models) are introduced into a network. SIS is also useful for managing field equipment that does not produce seismic data (eg power systems, telemetry devices or GPS receivers) and gives the network operator a comprehensive view of site field work. SIS allows users to generate field logs to document activities and inventory at sites. Thus, operators can also use SIS reporting capabilities to improve planning and maintenance of the network. Queries such as how many sensors of a certain model are installed or what pieces of equipment have active problem reports are just a few examples of the type of information that is available to SIS users.