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Sample records for biological fibers displaying

  1. Scintillating Optical Fiber Imagers for biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.O.F.I (Scintillating Optical Fiber Imager) is a detector developed to replace the autoradiographic films used in molecular biology for the location of radiolabelled (32P) DNA molecules in blotting experiments. It analyses samples on a 25 x 25 cm2 square area still 25 times faster than autoradiographic films, with a 1.75 and 3 mm resolution for two orthogonal directions. This device performs numerised images with a dynamic upper than 100 which allows the direct quantitation of the analysed samples. First, this thesis describes the S.O.F.I. development (Scintillating Optical Fibers, coding of these fibers and specific electronic for the treatment of the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier signals) and experiments made in collaboration with molecular biology laboratories. In a second place, we prove the feasibility of an automatic DNA sequencer issued from S.O.F.I

  2. Display

    OpenAIRE

    Gaskell, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    The display of religious objects takes many forms. While sculpture on the exterior of religious buildings is visible for the long term, relics, cult images, and masquerades are shown only occasionally. One way of emphasizing the potency of an object is to reveal it infrequently. In many religious systems display is restricted, for some things are dangerous to inappropriate viewers, while others are too powerful to be seen by anyone. When access is possible, viewers value intimate encounter, u...

  3. Voltammetric detection of biological molecules using chopped carbon fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Yugami, Asako; Kojima, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Voltammetric detection of biological molecules was carried out using chopped carbon fibers produced from carbon fiber reinforced plastics that are biocompatible and inexpensive. Because chopped carbon fibers normally are covered with a sizing agent, they are difficult to use as an electrode. However, when the surface of a chopped carbon fiber was treated with ethanol and hydrochloric acid, it became conductive. To evaluate the functioning of chopped carbon fibers, voltammetric measurements of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) were carried out. Redoxes of FAD, ascorbic acid and NADH as biomolecules were recorded using cyclic voltammetry. The sizing agents used to bundle the fibers were epoxy, polyamide and polyurethane resins. The peak currents were the greatest when using the chopped carbon fibers that were created with epoxy resins. When the electrode response of the chopped carbon fibers was compared with that of a glassy carbon electrode, the peak currents and the reversibility of the electrode reaction were sufficient. Therefore, the chopped carbon fibers will be useful as disposable electrodes for the sensing of biomolecules.

  4. Voltammetric detection of biological molecules using chopped carbon fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kazuharu; Yugami, Asako; Kojima, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Voltammetric detection of biological molecules was carried out using chopped carbon fibers produced from carbon fiber reinforced plastics that are biocompatible and inexpensive. Because chopped carbon fibers normally are covered with a sizing agent, they are difficult to use as an electrode. However, when the surface of a chopped carbon fiber was treated with ethanol and hydrochloric acid, it became conductive. To evaluate the functioning of chopped carbon fibers, voltammetric measurements of [Fe(CN)(6)](3-) were carried out. Redoxes of FAD, ascorbic acid and NADH as biomolecules were recorded using cyclic voltammetry. The sizing agents used to bundle the fibers were epoxy, polyamide and polyurethane resins. The peak currents were the greatest when using the chopped carbon fibers that were created with epoxy resins. When the electrode response of the chopped carbon fibers was compared with that of a glassy carbon electrode, the peak currents and the reversibility of the electrode reaction were sufficient. Therefore, the chopped carbon fibers will be useful as disposable electrodes for the sensing of biomolecules. PMID:20953048

  5. [Biological effects of mineral fibers on lymphocytes in vitro. Comparative studies of asbestos and glass fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Y

    1983-09-01

    The biological effects of asbestos and glass fibers on lymphocytes in vitro were investigated. Blastoid transformation and beta 2 microglobulin production of human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) induced by phytohemagglutinin were inhibited by Canadian chrysotile B (Standard sample of the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer; UICC standard sample) but it was not the case for crocidolite (UICC standard sample) and small and large glass fibers (John Manville, Canada). Cytotoxic activities of natural killer and killer cells of PBL were investigated using K562 cells and Chang liver cells as target cells respectively. Chrysotile inhibited the both activities but crocidolite and two kind of glass fibers not. In regard to release of lactic dehydrogenase and beta-glucuronidase from mouse peritoneal macrophages exposed to mineral fibers, chrysotile showed more effective reaction compared to crocidolite and amosite (UICC standard sample), on the other hand large glass fiber showed the similar reaction to chrysotile but small glass fiber and milled amosite did not induce any more enzymatic release than the control. In addition to chemical compositions of mineral fibers, the morphological characteristics were also discussed in relation to their biological effects.

  6. Fiber Optic Sensors For Detection of Toxic and Biological Threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Yuan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Protection of public and military personnel from chemical and biological warfareagents is an urgent and growing national security need. Along with this idea, we havedeveloped a novel class of fiber optic chemical sensors, for detection of toxic and biologicalmaterials. The design of these fiber optic sensors is based on a cladding modificationapproach. The original passive cladding of the fiber, in a small section, was removed and thefiber core was coated with a chemical sensitive material. Any change in the opticalproperties of the modified cladding material, due to the presence of a specific chemicalvapor, changes the transmission properties of the fiber and result in modal powerredistribution in multimode fibers. Both total intensity and modal power distribution (MPDmeasurements were used to detect the output power change through the sensing fibers. TheMPD technique measures the power changes in the far field pattern, i.e. spatial intensitymodulation in two dimensions. Conducting polymers, such as polyaniline and polypyrrole,have been reported to undergo a reversible change in conductivity upon exposure tochemical vapors. It is found that the conductivity change is accompanied by optical propertychange in the material. Therefore, polyaniline and polypyrrole were selected as the modifiedcladding material for the detection of hydrochloride (HCl, ammonia (NH3, hydrazine(H4N2, and dimethyl-methl-phosphonate (DMMP {a nerve agent, sarin stimulant},respectively. Several sensors were prepared and successfully tested. The results showeddramatic improvement in the sensor sensitivity, when the MPD method was applied. In thispaper, an overview on the developed class of fiber optic sensors is presented and supportedwith successful achieved results.

  7. Recognizing biological motion and emotions from point-light displays in autism spectrum disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Nackaerts

    Full Text Available One of the main characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD are problems with social interaction and communication. Here, we explored ASD-related alterations in 'reading' body language of other humans. Accuracy and reaction times were assessed from two observational tasks involving the recognition of 'biological motion' and 'emotions' from point-light displays (PLDs. Eye movements were recorded during the completion of the tests. Results indicated that typically developed-participants were more accurate than ASD-subjects in recognizing biological motion or emotions from PLDs. No accuracy differences were revealed on two control-tasks (involving the indication of color-changes in the moving point-lights. Group differences in reaction times existed on all tasks, but effect sizes were higher for the biological and emotion recognition tasks. Biological motion recognition abilities were related to a person's ability to recognize emotions from PLDs. However, ASD-related atypicalities in emotion recognition could not entirely be attributed to more basic deficits in biological motion recognition, suggesting an additional ASD-specific deficit in recognizing the emotional dimension of the point light displays. Eye movements were assessed during the completion of tasks and results indicated that ASD-participants generally produced more saccades and shorter fixation-durations compared to the control-group. However, especially for emotion recognition, these altered eye movements were associated with reductions in task-performance.

  8. Recognizing biological motion and emotions from point-light displays in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nackaerts, Evelien; Wagemans, Johan; Helsen, Werner; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole; Alaerts, Kaat

    2012-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are problems with social interaction and communication. Here, we explored ASD-related alterations in 'reading' body language of other humans. Accuracy and reaction times were assessed from two observational tasks involving the recognition of 'biological motion' and 'emotions' from point-light displays (PLDs). Eye movements were recorded during the completion of the tests. Results indicated that typically developed-participants were more accurate than ASD-subjects in recognizing biological motion or emotions from PLDs. No accuracy differences were revealed on two control-tasks (involving the indication of color-changes in the moving point-lights). Group differences in reaction times existed on all tasks, but effect sizes were higher for the biological and emotion recognition tasks. Biological motion recognition abilities were related to a person's ability to recognize emotions from PLDs. However, ASD-related atypicalities in emotion recognition could not entirely be attributed to more basic deficits in biological motion recognition, suggesting an additional ASD-specific deficit in recognizing the emotional dimension of the point light displays. Eye movements were assessed during the completion of tasks and results indicated that ASD-participants generally produced more saccades and shorter fixation-durations compared to the control-group. However, especially for emotion recognition, these altered eye movements were associated with reductions in task-performance.

  9. The spontaneous expression of pride and shame: Evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L Tracy; Matsumoto,David

    2008-01-01

    The present research examined whether the recognizable nonverbal expressions associated with pride and shame may be biologically innate behavioral responses to success and failure. Specifically, we tested whether sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals across cultures spontaneously display pride and shame behaviors in response to the same success and failure situations—victory and defeat at the Olympic or Paralympic Games. Results showed that sighted, blind, and congenitally blind ...

  10. Display technology on filamentous phage in the search for anti-infective biological agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Santiago Vispo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex. The phage display technology has been used mainly to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs and peptides directed against cancer or inflammatory disease targets. Today, this technology is recognized as a powerful tool for selecting novel peptides and antibodies that can bind to a wide range of antigens, ranging from whole cells to proteins and lipid targets. In this review, we highlight research that exploits the phage display technology to discover new drugs against infectious diseases, with a focus on antimicrobial peptides and antibodies. Methods: Basic and recent literature review was made, mainly focused on general aspects of phage display technology and the application in the search of new peptides or antibodies of pharmaceutical use to combat the infectious diseases transmitted by bacteria and virus. Results: Updated information on the selected topics is shown, with a guiding and practical approach aimed at researchers in the field of molecular biology to continue deepening the technology with special emphasis in the applications that have been developed in Cuba. Conclusions: Advances in methods of screening, manufacturing, and humanization technologies show that phage display technology can significantly contribute in the fight against clinically important pathogens.

  11. Chitosan fibers with improved biological and mechanical properties for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanna, Mohammad Z; Bou-Akl, Therese H; Blowytsky, Oksana; Walters, Henry L; Matthew, Howard W T

    2013-04-01

    The low mechanical properties of hydrogel materials such as chitosan hinder their broad utility for tissue engineering applications. Previous research efforts improved the mechanical properties of chitosan fiber through chemical and physical modifications; however, unfavorable toxicity effects on cells were reported. In this paper, we report the preparation of chitosan fibers with improved mechanical and biocompatibility properties. The structure-property relationships of extruded chitosan fibers were explored by varying acetic acid (AA) concentration, ammonia concentration, annealing temperature and degree of heparin crosslinking. Results showed that optimizing AA concentration to 2vol% improved fiber strength and stiffness by 2-fold. Extruding chitosan solution into 25wt% of ammonia solution reduced fiber diameters and improved fiber strength by 2-fold and stiffness by 3-fold, due to an increase in crystallinity as confirmed by XRD. Fiber annealing further reduced fiber diameter and improved fiber strength and stiffness as temperature increased. Chitosan fibers crosslinked with heparin had increased diameter but lower strength and stiffness properties and higher breaking strain values. When individual parameters were combined, further improvement in fiber mechanical properties was achieved. All mechanically improved fibers and heparin crosslinked fibers promoted valvular interstitial cells (VIC) attachment and growth over 10 day cultures. Our results demonstrate the ability to substantially improve the mechanical properties of chitosan fibers without adversely affecting their biological properties. The investigated treatments offer numerous advantages over previous physical/chemical modifications and thus are expected to expand the utility of chitosan fibers with tunable mechanical properties in various tissue engineering applications.

  12. Coupled thermal/structural analyses of laser powered glass sealing methods for fiber optic and flat panel display applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, R.S.; Gianoulakis, S.E.

    1996-12-31

    Glasses are used extensively by the electronics industry for packaging and in components. Because glasses have such low fracture toughness, glass components must maintain low tensile stresses to avoid cracking and ensure product stability. Modeling is a key tool for developing designs with low tensile stresses. Thermoelastic analyses are ideal for modeling slow, oven controlled processes where the temperature varies uniformly. Many processing environments, however, involve rapid heating and cooling cycles that produce nonhomogeneous temperature fields causing the volume and stresses in the glass to relax at different rates. This structural relaxation is an important nonlinear material behavior that gives rise to a point-to-point variability in effective properties of the material. To accurately model such stresses, a thermal analysis must be coupled to a structural analysis that employs a viscoelastic model of glass. Laser sealing of glasses is an example of a process where thermal history is an important factor in determining the residual stress state. Recent needs to consider laser sealing methods for fiber optic connectors and flat panel displays have spurred the development of coupled, three-dimensional thermal and structural finite element codes. Analyses of the temperatures and stresses generated in a flat panel display during a laser sealing operation are presented, an the idiosyncrasies and importance of modeling coupled thermal/structural phenomena are discussed.

  13. LIBS system with compact fiber spectrometer, head mounted spectra display and hand held eye-safe erbium glass laser gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michael J.; Myers, John D.; Sarracino, John T.; Hardy, Christopher R.; Guo, Baoping; Christian, Sean M.; Myers, Jeffrey A.; Roth, Franziska; Myers, Abbey G.

    2010-02-01

    LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) systems are capable of real-time chemical analysis with little or no sample preparation. A Q-switched laser is configured such that laser induced plasma is produced on targeted material. Chemical element line spectra are created, collected and analyzed by a fiber spectrometer. Line spectra emission data is instantly viewed on a head mounted display. "Eye-safe" Class I erbium glass lasers provide for insitu LIBS applications without the need for eye-protection goggles. This is due to the fact that Megawatt peak power Q-switched lasers operating in the narrow spectral window between 1.5um and 1.6um are approximately 8000 times more "eye-safe" than other laser devices operating in the UV, visible and near infrared. In this work we construct and demonstrate a LIBS system that includes a hand held eye-safe laser gun. The laser gun is fitted with a micro-integrating sphere in-situ target interface and is designed to facilitate chemical analysis in remote locations. The laser power supply, battery pack, computer controller and spectrophotometer components are packaged into a utility belt. A head mounted display is employed for "hands free" viewing of the emitted line spectra. The system demonstrates that instant qualitative and semi-quantitative chemical analyses may be performed in remote locations utilizing lightweight commercially available system components ergonomically fitted to the operator.

  14. He Throws like a Girl (but Only when He's Sad): Emotion Affects Sex-Decoding of Biological Motion Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kerri L.; McKay, Lawrie S.; Pollick, Frank E.

    2011-01-01

    Gender stereotypes have been implicated in sex-typed perceptions of facial emotion. Such interpretations were recently called into question because facial cues of emotion are confounded with sexually dimorphic facial cues. Here we examine the role of visual cues and gender stereotypes in perceptions of biological motion displays, thus overcoming…

  15. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C N; Whang, L M; Lin, H L

    2008-01-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of TFT-LCD (thin-film transistor liquid crystal display) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. The total amount of wastewater from TFT-LCD manufacturing plants is expected to exceed 200,000 CMD in the near future. Typically, organic solvents used in TFT-LCD manufacturing processes account for more than 33% of the total TFT-LCD wastewater. The main components of these organic solvents are composed of the stripper (dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and monoethanolamine (MEA)), developer (tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH)) and chelating agents. These compounds are recognized as non-or slow-biodegradable organic compounds and little information is available regarding their biological treatability. In this study, the performance of an A/O SBR (anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactor) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater was evaluated. The long-term experimental results indicated that the A/O SBR was able to achieve stable and satisfactory removal performance for DMSO, MEA and TMAH at influent concentrations of 430, 800, and 190 mg/L, respectively. The removal efficiencies for all three compounds examined were more than 99%. In addition, batch tests were conducted to study the degradation kinetics of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under aerobic, anoxic, and anaerobic conditions, respectively. The organic substrate of batch tests conducted included 400 mg/L of DMSO, 250 mg/L of MEA, and 120 mg/L of TMAH. For DMSO, specific DMSO degradation rates under aerobic and anoxic conditions were both lower than 4 mg DMSO/g VSS-hr. Under anaerobic conditions, the specific DMSO degradation rate was estimated to be 14 mg DMSO/g VSS-hr, which was much higher than those obtained under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The optimum specific MEA and TMAH degradation rates were obtained under aerobic conditions with values of 26.5 mg MEA/g VSS-hr and 17.3 mg TMAH/g VSS

  16. Optical manipulation of biological particles using LP21 mode in fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate the optical manipulation of biological particles using a low-order LP21 fiber mode. The focused four-lobed LP21 mode distribution was theoretically and experimentally found to be effective in optical tweezer applications, including selective cellular pick-up, pairing, grouping or separation, as well as rotation of cell dimers and clusters. Our proposed theoretical model estimates both the translational dragging force and rotational torque in good accordance with experimental data. With a simple all-fiber configuration, and low peak irradiation to target bioparticles, the proposed LP21 ‘optical chuck’ system has great application potential in biological test systems. (paper)

  17. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucile, Geoffrey; Di Biase, David; Nahal, Hardeep; La, Garon; Khodabandeh, Shokoufeh; Chen, Yani; Easley, Kante; Christendat, Dinesh; Kelley, Lawrence; Provart, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant) - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org).

  18. ePlant and the 3D data display initiative: integrative systems biology on the world wide web.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fucile

    Full Text Available Visualization tools for biological data are often limited in their ability to interactively integrate data at multiple scales. These computational tools are also typically limited by two-dimensional displays and programmatic implementations that require separate configurations for each of the user's computing devices and recompilation for functional expansion. Towards overcoming these limitations we have developed "ePlant" (http://bar.utoronto.ca/eplant - a suite of open-source world wide web-based tools for the visualization of large-scale data sets from the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana. These tools display data spanning multiple biological scales on interactive three-dimensional models. Currently, ePlant consists of the following modules: a sequence conservation explorer that includes homology relationships and single nucleotide polymorphism data, a protein structure model explorer, a molecular interaction network explorer, a gene product subcellular localization explorer, and a gene expression pattern explorer. The ePlant's protein structure explorer module represents experimentally determined and theoretical structures covering >70% of the Arabidopsis proteome. The ePlant framework is accessed entirely through a web browser, and is therefore platform-independent. It can be applied to any model organism. To facilitate the development of three-dimensional displays of biological data on the world wide web we have established the "3D Data Display Initiative" (http://3ddi.org.

  19. Molecular Biological and Biochemical Studies Reveal New Pathways Important for Cotton Fiber Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xu; Hong-Bin Li; Yu-Xian Zhu

    2007-01-01

    As one of the longest single-celled seed trichomes, fibers provide an excellent model for studying fundamental biological processes such as cell differentiation, cell expansion, and cell wall biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize recent progress in cotton functional genomic studies that characterize the dynamic changes in the transcriptomes of fiber cells. Extensive expression profilings of cotton fiber transcriptomes have provided comprehensive information, as quite a number of transcription factors and enzyme-coding genes have been shown to express preferentially during the fiber elongation period. Biosynthesis of the plant hormone ethylene is found significantly upregulated during the fiber growth period as revealed by both microarray analysis and by biochemical and physiological studies. It is suggested that genetic engineering of the ethylene pathway may improve the quality and the productivity of cotton lint. Many metabolic pathways, such as biosynthesis of celiulose and matrix polysaccharides are preferentially expressed in actively growing fiber cells. Five gene families, including proline-rich proteins (PRP), arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), expansins, tubulins and lipid transfer proteins (LTP) are activated during early fiber development,indicating that they may also be needed for cell elongation. In conclusion, we identify a few areas of future research for cotton functional genomic studies.

  20. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - fiber; Roughage; Bulk ... Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can help with ... Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 213. National Research Council. ... Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids ( ...

  1. Display of Biologically Functional Insecticidal Toxin on the Surface of λ Phage

    OpenAIRE

    Vílchez, Susana; Jacoby, Juliette; Ellar, David J.

    2004-01-01

    The successful use of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxins to control agricultural pests could be undermined by the evolution of insect resistance. Under selection pressure in the laboratory, a number of insects have gained resistance to the toxins, and several cases of resistance in the diamondback moth have been reported from the field. The use of protein engineering to develop novel toxins active against resistant insects could offer a solution to this problem. The display of protein...

  2. Sparse PLS discriminant analysis: biologically relevant feature selection and graphical displays for multiclass problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besse Philippe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variable selection on high throughput biological data, such as gene expression or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, becomes inevitable to select relevant information and, therefore, to better characterize diseases or assess genetic structure. There are different ways to perform variable selection in large data sets. Statistical tests are commonly used to identify differentially expressed features for explanatory purposes, whereas Machine Learning wrapper approaches can be used for predictive purposes. In the case of multiple highly correlated variables, another option is to use multivariate exploratory approaches to give more insight into cell biology, biological pathways or complex traits. Results A simple extension of a sparse PLS exploratory approach is proposed to perform variable selection in a multiclass classification framework. Conclusions sPLS-DA has a classification performance similar to other wrapper or sparse discriminant analysis approaches on public microarray and SNP data sets. More importantly, sPLS-DA is clearly competitive in terms of computational efficiency and superior in terms of interpretability of the results via valuable graphical outputs. sPLS-DA is available in the R package mixOmics, which is dedicated to the analysis of large biological data sets.

  3. Sparse PLS discriminant analysis: biologically relevant feature selection and graphical displays for multiclass problems

    OpenAIRE

    Besse Philippe; Boitard Simon; Lê Cao Kim-Anh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Variable selection on high throughput biological data, such as gene expression or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), becomes inevitable to select relevant information and, therefore, to better characterize diseases or assess genetic structure. There are different ways to perform variable selection in large data sets. Statistical tests are commonly used to identify differentially expressed features for explanatory purposes, whereas Machine Learning wrapper approaches c...

  4. Fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth reconstructed with woven polyethylene fiber posts and biological posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Rodrigues Reis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the fracture strength and mode of endodontically treated teeth with structurally weakened roots reconstructed with woven polyethylene fiber posts and biological posts. Methods: After removing the crowns, 60 endodontically treated maxillary canines were distributed into 4 groups: 1 conventional root canal preparation and reconstruction with polyethylene fiber posts; 2 conventional root canal preparation and reconstruction with biological posts; 3 moderately flared root canals and reconstruction with biological posts; 4 widely flared root canals and reconstruction with biological posts. The posts were cemented with resin cement Enforce (Dentsply Ind. e Com., Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil and the core was constructed with Ti-Core (EssentialDental Systems, S. Hackensack, NJ, USA resin composite. The specimens were tested under compression in a universal testing machine. Results: The following fracture strength values were obtained: Group 1 – 45.46kgf; Group 2 – 53.30kgf; Group 3 – 58.67kgf; Group 4 – 47.91kgf, with statistically significant differences between Groups 1 and 3 (p<0.05. The following fracture modes were observed: Group 1 – predominance of fracture of the coronal portion of the post; Groups 2 and 3 – various fracture patterns; Group 4 – all roots fractured. Conclusion: Both posts were shown to be promising (adequate fracture strength and favorable pattern of fracture. Biological posts appear to be capable of reinforcing the root to some extent; however, fracture occured in all roots with widely flared root canals.

  5. "Rinse and trickle": a protocol for TEM preparation and investigation of inorganic fibers from biological material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigliaturo, Ruggero; Capella, Silvana; Rinaudo, Caterina; Belluso, Elena

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to define a sample preparation protocol that allows inorganic fibers and particulate matter extracted from different biological samples to be characterized morphologically, crystallographically and chemically by transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (TEM-EDS). The method does not damage or create artifacts through chemical attacks of the target material. A fairly rapid specimen preparation is applied with the aim of performing as few steps as possible to transfer the withdrawn inorganic matter onto the TEM grid. The biological sample is previously digested chemically by NaClO. The salt is then removed through a series of centrifugation and rinse cycles in deionized water, thus drastically reducing the digestive power of the NaClO and concentrating the fibers for TEM analysis. The concept of equivalent hydrodynamic diameter is introduced to calculate the settling velocity during the centrifugation cycles. This technique is applicable to lung tissues and can be extended to a wide range of organic materials. The procedure does not appear to cause morphological damage to the fibers or modify their chemistry or degree of crystallinity. The extrapolated data can be used in interdisciplinary studies to understand the pathological effects caused by inorganic materials. PMID:27151190

  6. Lab-on-fiber technology: a new vision for chemical and biological sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Armando; Crescitelli, Alessio; Vaiano, Patrizio; Quero, Giuseppe; Consales, Marco; Pisco, Marco; Esposito, Emanuela; Cusano, Andrea

    2015-12-21

    The integration of microfluidics and photonic biosensors has allowed achievement of several laboratory functions in a single chip, leading to the development of photonic lab-on-a-chip technology. Although a lot of progress has been made to implement such sensors in small and easy-to-use systems, many applications such as point-of-care diagnostics and in vivo biosensing still require a sensor probe able to perform measurements at precise locations that are often hard to reach. The intrinsic property of optical fibers to conduct light to a remote location makes them an ideal platform to meet this demand. The motivation to combine the good performance of photonic biosensors on chips with the unique advantages of optical fibers has thus led to the development of the so-called lab-on-fiber technology. This emerging technology envisages the integration of functionalized materials on micro- and nano-scales (i.e. the labs) with optical fibers to realize miniaturized and advanced all-in-fiber probes, especially useful for (but not limited to) label-free chemical and biological applications. This review presents a broad overview of lab-on-fiber biosensors, with particular reference to lab-on-tip platforms, where the labs are integrated on the optical fiber facet. Light-matter interaction on the fiber tip is achieved through the integration of thin layers of nanoparticles or nanostructures supporting resonant modes, both plasmonic and photonic, highly sensitive to local modifications of the surrounding environment. According to the physical principle that is exploited, different configurations - such as localized plasmon resonance probes, surface enhanced Raman scattering probes and photonic probes - are classified, while various applications are presented in context throughout. For each device, the surface chemistry and the related functionalization protocols are reviewed. Moreover, the implementation strategies and fabrication processes, either based on bottom-up or top

  7. Lab-on-fiber technology: a new vision for chemical and biological sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Armando; Crescitelli, Alessio; Vaiano, Patrizio; Quero, Giuseppe; Consales, Marco; Pisco, Marco; Esposito, Emanuela; Cusano, Andrea

    2015-12-21

    The integration of microfluidics and photonic biosensors has allowed achievement of several laboratory functions in a single chip, leading to the development of photonic lab-on-a-chip technology. Although a lot of progress has been made to implement such sensors in small and easy-to-use systems, many applications such as point-of-care diagnostics and in vivo biosensing still require a sensor probe able to perform measurements at precise locations that are often hard to reach. The intrinsic property of optical fibers to conduct light to a remote location makes them an ideal platform to meet this demand. The motivation to combine the good performance of photonic biosensors on chips with the unique advantages of optical fibers has thus led to the development of the so-called lab-on-fiber technology. This emerging technology envisages the integration of functionalized materials on micro- and nano-scales (i.e. the labs) with optical fibers to realize miniaturized and advanced all-in-fiber probes, especially useful for (but not limited to) label-free chemical and biological applications. This review presents a broad overview of lab-on-fiber biosensors, with particular reference to lab-on-tip platforms, where the labs are integrated on the optical fiber facet. Light-matter interaction on the fiber tip is achieved through the integration of thin layers of nanoparticles or nanostructures supporting resonant modes, both plasmonic and photonic, highly sensitive to local modifications of the surrounding environment. According to the physical principle that is exploited, different configurations - such as localized plasmon resonance probes, surface enhanced Raman scattering probes and photonic probes - are classified, while various applications are presented in context throughout. For each device, the surface chemistry and the related functionalization protocols are reviewed. Moreover, the implementation strategies and fabrication processes, either based on bottom-up or top

  8. Preparation and biological properties of PLLA/{beta}-TCP composites reinforced by chitosan fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jing; Wen Guangwu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Heilongjiang Province, 150001 (China); Qu Lijie; Meng Xiangcai; Gao Jing; Li Hongbo [Provincial Key Laboratory of Biomaterials, Heilongjiang Province, 154007 (China)], E-mail: jmsdxwangjing@163.com

    2008-06-01

    Chitosan fibers were introduced into a poly(L-lactic acid)/{beta}-tricalcium phosphate (PLLA/{beta}-TCP) matrix as reinforcement to prepare scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering with adequate initial strength and a feasible degradation rate. The structure and morphology of the composites were observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The porosity of the composites was tested by Archimedes' method. The mechanical property of the composites was measured. Simulated body fluid (SBF) experiments were conducted to assess the bioactivity of the composites. The chemical components of resultants on surfaces were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The influence of the addition of chitosan fibers on the pH value, mass loss rate and structure of samples during immersion was also discussed. The results show that the initial compressive strength reaches 16.07 MPa when the composites prepared have a porosity of 36%. With the degradation of chitosan fibers, an interconnected structure is earlier formed in situ throughout the scaffolds, which is favorable for new bone ingrowth. The compressive strength of the composite decreases flatly and still maintains at 5.28 MPa after immersion in SBF for 24 days. Meanwhile, the formation of a layer of bone-like apatites on the surfaces of the samples indicates good biological activity. It is concluded that the composites have a promising prospect as bone tissue engineering materials.

  9. Biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method for peripheral nerve injury: regeneration law of nerve fibers in the conduit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-xun Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical effects of 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of the biological conduit to repair peripheral nerve injury are better than in the traditional epineurium suture, so it is possible to replace the epineurium suture in the treatment of peripheral nerve injury. This study sought to identify the regeneration law of nerve fibers in the biological conduit. A nerve regeneration chamber was constructed in models of sciatic nerve injury using 2-mm small gap sleeve bridging of a biodegradable biological conduit. The results showed that the biological conduit had good histocompatibility. Tissue and cell apoptosis in the conduit apparently lessened, and regenerating nerve fibers were common. The degeneration regeneration law of Schwann cells and axons in the conduit was quite different from that in traditional epineurium suture. During the prime period for nerve fiber regeneration (2-8 weeks, the number of Schwann cells and nerve fibers was higher in both proximal and distal ends, and the effects of the small gap sleeve bridging method were better than those of the traditional epineurium suture. The above results provide an objective and reliable theoretical basis for the clinical application of the biological conduit small gap sleeve bridging method to repair peripheral nerve injury.

  10. Detection of biological warfare agents with fiber-optic microsphere-based DNA arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linan; Walt, David R.

    2005-11-01

    Biological warfare agents (BWAs) pose significant threats to both military forces and civilian populations. The increased concern about bioterrorism has promoted the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable detection systems to provide an early warning for detecting the release of BWAs. We have developed a high-density DNA array to detect BWAs in real environmental samples with fast response times and high sensitivity. An optical fiber bundle containing approximately 50,000 individual 3.1 μm diameter fibers was chemically etched to yield an array of microwells and used as the substrate for the array. 50-mer single-stranded DNA probes designed to be specific for target BWAs were covalently attached to 3.1-μm microspheres, and the microspheres were distributed into the microwells to form a randomized high-density DNA array. We demonstrated the applicability of this DNA array for the identification of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, a BWA simulant, in real samples. PCR was used to amplify the sequences, introduce fluorescent labels into the target molecules, and provide a second level of specificity. After hybridization of test solutions to the array, analysis was performed by evaluating the specific responses of individual probes on the array.

  11. The preparation of albumin as a biological drug from human plasma by fiber filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousavi Hosseini K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: In recent years, consumption of whole-blood for the treatment of patients has decreased but use of biological plasma-derived medicines such as albumin, immunoglobulin and coagulation factors have increased instead. Paying attention to albumin molecular structure is important for its isolation from human plasma. Albumin is a single-chain protein consisting of about 585 amino acids and a molecular weight of 66500 Daltons. Albumin is a stable molecule and it is spherical in shape. There are different methods for human albumin preparation. Considering the large consumption of this biological drug in clinical settings, methods with fewer steps in production line are of big advantage in saving time and manufacturing more products."n "nMethods: In this project, we prepared human albumin using hollow fiber cartridges in order to omit the rework on fraction V+VI. Human albumin is usually produced by the application of cold ethanol method, where albumin is obtained from fraction V by doing a rework on fraction V+VI to separate fraction V."n "nResults: In the current work, human albumin was prepared from fraction V+VI by the help of hollow fiber cartridges. With a concentration of 20%, the obtained albumin had 96.5% of monomer and 3.5% of polymer and polymer aggregate."n "nConclusion: Comparing the obtained human albumin with a number of commercial human albumin samples by the use of SDS-page, the results were satisfactory regarding the 3.5 percent polymer and aggregate rate for the prepared albumin.

  12. Ureases display biological effects independent of enzymatic activity: Is there a connection to diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olivera-Severo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ureases are enzymes from plants, fungi and bacteria that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. While fungal and plant ureases are homo-oligomers of 90-kDa subunits, bacterial ureases are multimers of two or three subunit complexes. We showed that some isoforms of jack bean urease, canatoxin and the classical urease, bind to glycoconjugates and induce platelet aggregation. Canatoxin also promotes release of histamine from mast cells, insulin from pancreatic cells and neurotransmitters from brain synaptosomes. In vivo it induces rat paw edema and neutrophil chemotaxis. These effects are independent of ureolytic activity and require activation of eicosanoid metabolism and calcium channels. Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach mucosa, causes gastric ulcers and cancer by a mechanism that is not understood. H. pylori produces factors that damage gastric epithelial cells, such as the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, and a urease (up to 10% of bacterial protein that neutralizes the acidic medium permitting its survival in the stomach. H. pylori whole cells or extracts of its water-soluble proteins promote inflammation, activate neutrophils and induce the release of cytokines. In this paper we review data from the literature suggesting that H. pylori urease displays many of the biological activities observed for jack bean ureases and show that bacterial ureases have a secretagogue effect modulated by eicosanoid metabolites through lipoxygenase pathways. These findings could be relevant to the elucidation of the role of urease in the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal disease caused by H. pylori.

  13. Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fiber-rich sandwich with whole-grain bread, peanut butter, and bananas. Use whole-grain spaghetti and other ... cookies and muffins. Top whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter or low-fat cheese. Go easy on the ...

  14. Characterization and biological depectinization of hemp fibers originating from different stem sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ming; Fernando, Dinesh; Meyer, Anne S.;

    2015-01-01

    The wide variation of mechanical properties of natural fibers limits their applications in matrix compos-ites. The aim of this study is to evaluate the properties of hemp fibers from different stem sections (top,middle and bottom) and to assess fungal retting pretreatment of hemp from different...... stem sections withthe white rot fungi Phlebia radiata Cel 26 and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora. For the untreated hemp fibers,no apparent difference in tensile behavior for fiber bundles from different stem sections was observed,and more than 90% tested samples demonstrated plastic flow behavior. Fiber...... strength and stiffness werehighest for the fibers from the top and middle stem sections. These properties were related to the compositional make up and morphological properties of hemp fibers, notably the secondary fiber cell contents.In fungal retting, there was a strong dependence of depectinization...

  15. Nanostructured Fiber Optic Cantilever Arrays and Hybrid MEMS Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in nano-/micro-scale sensor fabrication and molecular recognition surfaces offer promising opportunities to develop miniaturized hybrid fiber optic and...

  16. Systems Biology of Skeletal Muscle: Fiber Type as an Organizing Principle

    OpenAIRE

    Greising, Sarah M.; Heather M Gransee; Mantilla, Carlos B.; Sieck, Gary C.

    2012-01-01

    Skeletal muscle force generation and contraction are fundamental to countless aspects of human life. The complexity of skeletal muscle physiology is simplified by fiber type classification where differences are observed from neuromuscular transmission to release of intracellular Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the resulting recruitment and cycling of cross-bridges. This review uses fiber type classification as an organizing and simplifying principle to explore the complex interaction...

  17. A Fiber-Tip Label-Free Biological Sensing Platform: A Practical Approach toward In-Vivo Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre François

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The platform presented here was devised to address the unmet need for real time label-free in vivo sensing by bringing together a refractive index transduction mechanism based on Whispering Gallery Modes (WGM in dye doped microspheres and Microstructured Optical Fibers. In addition to providing remote excitation and collection of the WGM signal, the fiber provides significant practical advantages such as an easy manipulation of the microresonator and the use of this sensor in a dip sensing architecture, alleviating the need for a complex microfluidic interface. Here, we present the first demonstration of the use of this approach for biological sensing and evaluate its limitation in a sensing configuration deprived of liquid flow which is most likely to occur in an in vivo setting. We also demonstrate the ability of this sensing platform to be operated above its lasing threshold, enabling enhanced device performance.

  18. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  19. Biological sulfate removal from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater using a two-stage UASB reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Li; Jun Wang; Zhaokun Luan; Zhongguang Ji; Lian Yu

    2012-01-01

    A two-stage UASB reactor was employed to remove sulfate from acrylic fiber manufacturing wastewater.Mesophilic operation (35±0.5℃) was performed with hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 28 and 40 hr.Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS)in the reactor was maintained about 8000 mg/L.The results indicated that sulfate removal was enhanced with increasing the ratio of COD/SO42-.At low COD/SO42-,the growth of the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was carbon-limited.The optimal sulfate removal efficiencies were 75% when the HRT was no less than 38 hr.Sulfidogenesis mainly happened in the sulfate-reducing stage,while methanogenesis in the methane-producing stage.Microbes in sulfate-reducing stage performed granulation better than that in methaneproducing stage.Higher extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content in sulfate-reducing stage helped to adhere and connect the flocculent sludge particles together.SRB accounted for about 31% both in sulfate-reducing stage and methane-producing stage at COD/SO42- ratio of 0.5,while it dropped dramatically from 34% in sulfate-reducing stage to 10% in methane-producing stage corresponding to the COD/SO42- ratio of 4.7.SRB and MPA were predominant in sulfate-reducing stage and methane-producing stage respectively.

  20. Skeletal muscle fiber type: using insights from muscle developmental biology to dissect targets for susceptibility and resistance to muscle disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Jared; Maves, Lisa

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers are classified into fiber types, in particular, slow twitch versus fast twitch. Muscle fiber types are generally defined by the particular myosin heavy chain isoforms that they express, but many other components contribute to a fiber's physiological characteristics. Skeletal muscle fiber type can have a profound impact on muscle diseases, including certain muscular dystrophies and sarcopenia, the aging-induced loss of muscle mass and strength. These findings suggest that some muscle diseases may be treated by shifting fiber type characteristics either from slow to fast, or fast to slow phenotypes, depending on the disease. Recent studies have begun to address which components of muscle fiber types mediate their susceptibility or resistance to muscle disease. However, for many diseases it remains largely unclear why certain fiber types are affected. A substantial body of work has revealed molecular pathways that regulate muscle fiber type plasticity and early developmental muscle fiber identity. For instance, recent studies have revealed many factors that regulate muscle fiber type through modulating the activity of the muscle regulatory transcription factor MYOD1. Future studies of muscle fiber type development in animal models will continue to enhance our understanding of factors and pathways that may provide therapeutic targets to treat muscle diseases. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:518-534. doi: 10.1002/wdev.230 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27199166

  1. A quantitative and qualitative comparative analysis of collagen fibers to determine the role of connective tissue stroma on biological behavior of odontogenic cysts: A histochemical study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Shetty, Devi Charan; Wadhwan, Vijay; Aggarwal, Palak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Intricate relationship between epithelium and connective tissue is believed to play a significant role in pathogenesis of odontogenic lesions. Role of epithelium in its pathogenesis is well established and at the same time role of mesenchyme cannot be underestimated. Aim: To investigate, compare and correlate different types and pattern of collagen fibers in odontogenic cysts using picrosiriusred stain under polarizing microscopy in order to delineate its exact role in biological ...

  2. Display hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To appreciate the limitations and possibilities of computer graphics it is necessary to have some acquaintance with the available technology. The aim of this chapter is to mention briefly the different display types and their 'ball-park' price ranges. It must be stressed that prices change rapidly, and so those quoted here are only intended to give an idea of the cost at the time of writing.

  3. Finite element modeling of finite deformable, biphasic biological tissues with transversely isotropic statistically distributed fibers: toward a practical solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, John Z.; Herzog, Walter; Federico, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of collagen fibers across articular cartilage layers is statistical in nature. Based on the concepts proposed in previous models, we developed a methodology to include the statistically distributed fibers across the cartilage thickness in the commercial FE software COMSOL which avoids extensive routine programming. The model includes many properties that are observed in real cartilage: finite hyperelastic deformation, depth-dependent collagen fiber concentration, depth- and deformation-dependent permeability, and statistically distributed collagen fiber orientation distribution across the cartilage thickness. Numerical tests were performed using confined and unconfined compressions. The model predictions on the depth-dependent strain distributions across the cartilage layer are consistent with the experimental data in the literature.

  4. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  5. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul kalam; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform display architecture to display multiple language digits and general mathematical expressions with higher accuracy and simplicity by using a 18-segment display, which is an improvement over the 16 segment display.

  6. Full-color LED display of traffic guidance fiber transmission system%全彩发光二极管交通诱导屏光纤传输系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爽; 王瑞光; 严飞

    2012-01-01

    An optical fiber transmission system was designed to implement the long-distance and realtime transmission of traffic guidance image data. To overcome the defects of traditional optical terminal machines,a complete system architecture was built according to the needs of the transmission system. The design ideas of a physical layer and a data link layer were analyzed based on Ethernet relative protocol, some design principles of the important modules were also given,then the memory addressing and bandwidth estimation were calculated in details. The test results show that the image data with a maximum resolution of 1 024 pixelX 768 pixel, and refresh rate of 60 Hz can be transferred in a single optical fiber in real-time with a maximum transmission rate of 1. 5 Gbps and the distance of 5 ?10 km. Compared to the original system,the proposed system reduces additional optical equipment and the fiber utilization rate is increased by 80%. Moreover,the cascade function of the receiver end has reduced the laying costs. With reliable performance, the system can implement the transmissiontask of real-time image data from a traffic command center to the guidance LED display in most of the cities.%设计了光纤传输系统以实现交通诱导屏图像数据的远距离实时传输.针对原光端机的诸多缺点,提出了传输系统的设计方案,构建了完整的系统结构.依据以太网相关传输协议对物理层和数据链路层的设计思想进行了分析,给出了系统中重要模块的设计方法,并对内存寻址和带宽估计进行了精确计算.测试结果表明:利用单芯光纤可完成最大分辨率为1 024 pixel×768 pixel,刷新频率为60 Hz的图像源的实时传输,最大传输速率达1.5 Gbps,距离为5~10 km.与原传输方案相比,该方案减少了额外光端机设备,光纤利用率提高了80%,并利用接收端级联减少了光纤铺设成本.系统能够满足城市交通指挥中心对诱导屏实时信号的传输

  7. Biological treatment of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater using aerobic and anoxic/oxic sequencing batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Chin-Nan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chen, Po-Chun

    2010-09-01

    The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater.

  8. Fiber optic data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreve, Steven T.

    1987-01-01

    The Ohio University Avionics Engineering Center is currently developing a fiber optic data bus transmission and reception system that could eventually replace copper cable connections in airplanes. The original form of the system will transmit information from an encoder to a transponder via a fiber optic cable. An altimeter and an altitude display are connected to a fiber optic transmitter by copper cable. The transmitter converts the altimetry data from nine bit parallel to serial form and send these data through a fiber optic cable to a receiver. The receiver converts the data using a cable similar to that used between the altimeter and display. The transmitting and receiving ends also include a display readout. After completion and ground testing of the data bus, the system will be tested in an airborne environment.

  9. Biological oxygen sensing via two-photon absorption by an Ir(III) complex using a femtosecond fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritomo, Hiroki; Fujii, Akinari; Suzuki, Yasutaka; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Tobita, Seiji; Kawamata, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Near-infrared two-photon absorption of the phosphorescent Ir(III) complex (2,4-pentanedionato-κO 2,κO 4)bis[2-(6-phenanthridinyl-κN)benzo[b]thien-3-yl-κC]iridium (BTPHSA) was characterized. It exhibited a 800-1200 nm two-photon absorption band, and thus could be electronically excited by 1030-nm femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Yb-doped fiber lasers. By using BTPHSA, oxygen concentrations in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells were imaged. These results demonstrate two-photon oxygen sensing of live tissues via easily operable excitation sources.

  10. Efficient and Convenient Route for the Synthesis of Some New Antipyrinyl Monoazo Dyes: Application to Polyester Fibers and Biological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Fadda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine variously substituted azo dye derivatives 2–10 of antipyrine were prepared. The effects of the nature and orientation of the substituents on the color and dyeing properties of these dyes for polyester fibers were evaluated. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of elemental analyses and spectral data. On the other hand, the investigated dyes were applied to polyester fabrics and showed good light, washing, heat, and acid perspiration fastness. The remarkable degree of brightness after washings is indicative of the good penetration and the excellent affinity of these dyes for the fabric. The results in general revealed the efficiency of the prepared compounds as new monoazo disperse dyes. The newly synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant and cytotoxic activity against Vitamin C and 5-fluorouracil, respectively. The data showed clearly that most of the compounds exhibited good antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.

  11. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T N Ruckmongathan

    2003-08-01

    Quality of image in a display depends on the contrast, colour, resolution and the number of gray shades. A large number of gray shades is necessary to display images without any contour lines. These contours are due to limited number of gray shades in the display causing abrupt changes in grayness of the image, while the original image has a gradual change in brightness. Amplitude modulation has the capability to display a large number of gray shades with minimum number of time intervals [1,2]. This paper will cover the underlying principle of amplitude modulation, some variants and its extension to multi-line addressing. Other techniques for displaying gray shades in passive matrix displays are reviewed for the sake of comparison.

  12. Preparation of molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug abacavir in environmental and biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzopoulou, Zoi; Papageorgiou, Myrsini; Kyzas, George Z; Bikiaris, Dimitrios N; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A

    2016-03-24

    In the present study, a molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction fiber (MIP-SPMEf) was synthesized and applied for the selective removal and extraction of the antiviral drug, abacavir (ABA). Morphology and structure characterization of fibers were performed by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectra, respectively. The effects on the adsorption behavior of the process parameters were studied and the equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir, Freundlich and Langmuir-Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capability (Qmax) was determined by Langmuir- Freundlich model and was 149 mg/g for MIP-SPMEf. In the next step, SPME methodology followed by liquid desorption and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has been developed and evaluated for the determination of the target compound in environmental and biological matrices (surface waters, wastewaters and urine). Parameters that could influence SPME efficiency were investigated. Then, optimization of stirring speed, extraction time and salt content was carried out by using a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM). A quadratic model between dependent and independent variables was built. Under the optimum conditions (extraction time 40 min, stirring rate 650 rpm and salt content 0.3% NaCl w/v) the validated method presented a high sensitivity and selectivity with LODs and LOQs in the range of 10.1-13.6 and 33.3-43.9 ng/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of ABA in real samples. The percentage extraction efficiency ranged from 88 to 99% revealing good accuracy and absence of matrix effects. PMID:26944990

  13. Fundamentals of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Mikirtychev, Valerii (Vartan)

    2014-01-01

    This book covers the fundamental aspects of fiber lasers and fiber amplifiers, and includes a wide range of material from laser physics fundamentals to state-of-the-art topics in this rapidly growing field of quantum electronics. Emphasis is placed on the nonlinear processes taking place in fiber lasers and amplifiers, their similarities, differences to, and their advantages over other solid-state lasers. The reader will learn basic principles of solid-state physics and optical spectroscopy of laser active centers in fibers, main operational laser regimes, and practical recommendations and suggestions on fiber laser research, laser applications, and laser product development. The book will be useful for students, researchers, and professionals who work with lasers, in the optical communications, chemical and biological industries, etc.

  14. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  15. Application of hollow fiber microfiltration into biological wastcwater treatments. Chuku ito seimitsu roka maku wo riyoshita haisui no seibutsu shori system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujie, K.; Nitta, H.; Urano, K. (Yokohama National Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Izawa, T. (Memtec Japan Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)); Murotani, N. (Sanki Engineering Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan))

    1991-10-10

    Recently, hollow fiber microfiltration film (HMF) has been developed, which has characteristics of removal of film surface pollution articles by aeration. Since almost half of total BOD components are suspended organics in sewage wastewater of urban areas, if these can be removed previously, loads for latter stages can be greatly reduced. Therefore, in order to remove solid articles, two kinds of biological wastewater treatment system providing HMF film, called A and B systems are developed. In this paper, firstly, operation conditions and treatment capability of direct filtrtation of sewage wastewater in urban areas, and of packed bed biofilter (PBF) treatment of filtered wastewater were examined in system A, then, characteristics of HMF treatment of treated wastwater by movable bed biofiltration (MBF) were examined in system B. Moreover, based on the obtained observations, required energy was estimated in both A and B systems, and according to the result of comparing to the standard activated sludge processes, it was confirmed that these systems have excellency in high grade treatments of wastewater. 16 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Automated dynamic hollow fiber liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with capillary electrophoresis for speciation of mercury in biological and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pingjing; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2015-10-01

    A simple home-made automatic dynamic hollow fiber based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction (AD-HF-LLLME) device was designed and constructed for the simultaneous extraction of organomercury and inorganic mercury species with the assistant of a programmable flow injection analyzer. With 18-crown-6 as the complexing reagent, mercury species including methyl-, ethyl-, phenyl- and inorganic mercury were extracted into the organic phase (chlorobenzene), and then back-extracted into the acceptor phase of 0.1% (m/v) 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (MPS) aqueous solution. Compared with automatic static (AS)-HF-LLLME system, the extraction equilibrium of target mercury species was obtained in shorter time with higher extraction efficiency in AD-HF-LLLME system. Based on it, a new method of AD-HF-LLLME coupled with large volume sample stacking (LVSS)-capillary electrophoresis (CE)/UV detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of methyl-, phenyl- and inorganic mercury species in biological samples and environmental water. Under the optimized conditions, AD-HF-LLLME provided high enrichment factors (EFs) of 149-253-fold within relatively short extraction equilibrium time (25min) and good precision with RSD between 3.8 and 8.1%. By combining AD-HF-LLLME with LVSS-CE/UV, EFs were magnified up to 2195-fold and the limits of detection (at S/N=3) for target mercury species were improved to be sub ppb level.

  17. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  18. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  19. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  20. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  1. Management of Pervasive Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiraju, Venkata

    2015-01-01

    Traditional signage is being replaced by digital displays that are directly connected to the Internet and show content from the cloud. These displays increasingly rely on a standard web-browser and HTML5 technologies for rendering rich media content. As the number of these displays increase, it is critical to provide user-friendly and efficient solutions for managing them remotely from the cloud. The remote management of such displays traditionally relies on proprietary native software soluti...

  2. Liquid crystal display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved liquid crystal display device is described which can display letters, numerals and other necessary patterns in the night time using a minimized amount of radioactive material. To achieve this a self-luminous light source is placed in a limited region corresponding to a specific display area. (U.K.)

  3. The dentate mossy fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Morten; Zimmer, Jens

    2007-01-01

    and taking interesting turns, the mossy fibers display a number of unique features with regard to axonal projections, terminal structures and synaptic contacts, development and variations among species and strains, as well as to normal occurring and lesion-induced plasticity and neural transplantation...

  4. Dietary Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  5. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  6. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  7. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems.

  8. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  9. Effective Monitor Display Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)

  10. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  11. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, Ko; Spenkelink, Gerd P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  12. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  13. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  14. Interaction Analysis through Proteomic Phage Display

    OpenAIRE

    Sundell, Gustav N.; Ylva Ivarsson

    2014-01-01

    Phage display is a powerful technique for profiling specificities of peptide binding domains. The method is suited for the identification of high-affinity ligands with inhibitor potential when using highly diverse combinatorial peptide phage libraries. Such experiments further provide consensus motifs for genome-wide scanning of ligands of potential biological relevance. A complementary but considerably less explored approach is to display expression products of genomic DNA, cDNA, open readin...

  15. Defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system (NVIS) compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD market for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 242,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within Service weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern display technologies being developed for civil- commercial markets.

  16. Microlaser-based displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.

    1997-07-01

    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  17. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen;

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  18. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  19. Stainless steel display evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.; Longo, Sam J.; Trissell, Terry L.

    2007-04-01

    Active matrix organic light emitting diode (AMOLED) technology is one candidate to become a low power alternative in some applications to the currently dominant, active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD), technology. Furthermore, fabrication of the AMOLED on stainless steel (SS) foil rather than the traditional glass substrate, while presenting a set of severe technical challenges, opens up the potential for displays that are both lighter and less breakable. Also, transition to an SS foil substrate may enable rollable displays - large when used but small for stowage within gear already worn or carried or installed. Research has been initiated on AMOLED/SS technology and the first 320 x 240 color pixel 4-in. demonstration device has been evaluated in the AFRL Display Test and Evaluation Laboratory. Results of this evaluation are reported along with a research roadmap.

  20. DSC Study on the Polyacrylonitrile Precursors for Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangxi ZHANG; Musen LI

    2005-01-01

    Different polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor fibers that displayed various thermal properties were studied by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results showed that some commercial PAN precursor fibers displayed double separated peaks and these fibers were of high quality because of their process stability during their conversion to carbon fibers of high performance. Some fabrication processes, such as spinning, drawing, could not apparently change the DSC features of a PAN precursor fiber. It was concluded that the thermal properties of a PAN precursor fiber was mainly determined from its comonomer content type and compositions.

  1. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  2. Raster graphics display library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsrud, Anders; Stephenson, Michael B.

    1987-01-01

    The Raster Graphics Display Library (RGDL) is a high level subroutine package that give the advanced raster graphics display capabilities needed. The RGDL uses FORTRAN source code routines to build subroutines modular enough to use as stand-alone routines in a black box type of environment. Six examples are presented which will teach the use of RGDL in the fastest, most complete way possible. Routines within the display library that are used to produce raster graphics are presented in alphabetical order, each on a separate page. Each user-callable routine is described by function and calling parameters. All common blocks that are used in the display library are listed and the use of each variable within each common block is discussed. A reference on the include files that are necessary to compile the display library is contained. Each include file and its purpose are listed. The link map for MOVIE.BYU version 6, a general purpose computer graphics display system that uses RGDL software, is also contained.

  3. Fiber based optofluidic biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lismont, M.; Vandewalle, N.; Joris, B.; Dreesen, L.

    2014-09-01

    Medicinal diagnosis requires the development of innovative devices allowing the detection of small amounts of biological species. Among the large variety of available biosensors, the ones based on fluorescence phenomenon are really promising. Here, we show a prototype of the basic unit of a multi-sensing biosensor combining optics and microfluidics benefits. This unit makes use of two crossed optical fibers: the first fiber is used to carry small probe molecules droplets and excite fluorescence, while the second one is devoted to target molecules droplets transport and fluorescence detection. Within this scheme, the interaction takes place in each fiber node. The main benefits of this detection setup are the absence of fibers functionalization, the use of microliter volumes of target and probe species, their separation before interaction, and a better detection limit compared to cuvettes setups.

  4. A Lightweight Innovative Helmet Airborne Display And Sight (HADAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor, Daniel; Arnon, Oded; Avnur, Arie

    1987-09-01

    The Helmet Airborne Display and Sight (HADAS) system under development, has succeeded in surmounting many of the problems experienced by current, as well as past helmet mounted display and sight designs for operation in fighter aircraft. The goal has been achieved by combination of holographic optical elements and fiber optics for the display function, as well as real-time image processing of the helmet location for the sight function. The integrated system can provide "all aspect head-up display" performance in the cockpit.

  5. Monolithic molecular imprinted polymer fiber for recognition and solid phase microextraction of ephedrine and pseudoephedrine in biological samples prior to capillary electrophoresis analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong-Li; Zhang, Ji-You; Chen, Chen; Hou, Xiao-Ling; Su, Ying-Ying; Wu, Lan

    2012-01-01

    A novel capillary electrophoresis (CE) method coupled with monolithic molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) fiber based solid phase microextraction (SPME) was developed for selective and sensitive determination of ephedrine (E) and pseudoephedrine (PE). With in situ polymerization in a silica capillary mold and E as template, the MIP fibers could be produced in batch reproducibly and each fiber was available for 50 extraction cycles without significant decrease in extraction ability. Using the MIP fiber under optimized extraction conditions, CE detection limits of E and PE were greatly lowered from 0.20 to 0.00096 μg/mL and 0.12 to 0.0011 μg/mL, respectively. Analysis of urine and serum samples by the MIP-SPME-CE method was also performed, with results indicating that E and PE could be selectively extracted. The recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) for sample analysis were found in the range of 91-104% and 3.8-9.1%, respectively.

  6. Phage and Yeast Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Jared; Marasco, Wayne A

    2015-02-01

    Despite the availability of antimicrobial drugs, the continued development of microbial resistance--established through escape mutations and the emergence of resistant strains--limits their clinical utility. The discovery of novel, therapeutic, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) offers viable clinical alternatives in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. Human mAb-based therapies are typically nontoxic in patients and demonstrate high specificity for the intended microbial target. This specificity prevents negative impacts on the patient microbiome and avoids driving the resistance of nontarget species. The in vitro selection of human antibody fragment libraries displayed on phage or yeast surfaces represents a group of well-established technologies capable of generating human mAbs. The advantage of these forms of microbial display is the large repertoire of human antibody fragments present during a single selection campaign. Furthermore, the in vitro selection environments of microbial surface display allow for the rapid isolation of antibodies--and their encoding genes--against infectious pathogens and their toxins that are impractical within in vivo systems, such as murine hybridomas. This article focuses on the technologies of phage display and yeast display, as these strategies relate to the discovery of human mAbs for the treatment and vaccine development of infectious diseases. PMID:26104550

  7. Efficient biological conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and for utilization in bioplastic production by Ralstonia eutropha through the display of an enzyme complex on the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-06-25

    An enzyme complex for biological conversion of CO to CO2 was anchored on the cell surface of the CO2-utilizing Ralstonia eutropha and successfully resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in conversion efficiency. These results suggest that this complexed system may be a promising strategy for CO2 utilization as a biological tool for the production of bioplastics. PMID:26017299

  8. Efficient biological conversion of carbon monoxide (CO) to carbon dioxide (CO2) and for utilization in bioplastic production by Ralstonia eutropha through the display of an enzyme complex on the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-06-25

    An enzyme complex for biological conversion of CO to CO2 was anchored on the cell surface of the CO2-utilizing Ralstonia eutropha and successfully resulted in a 3.3-fold increase in conversion efficiency. These results suggest that this complexed system may be a promising strategy for CO2 utilization as a biological tool for the production of bioplastics.

  9. Fibrillogenesis in Continuously Spun Synthetic Collagen Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Caves, Jeffrey M.; Kumar, Vivek A.; Wen, Jing; Cui, Wanxing; Martinez, Adam; Apkarian, Robert; Coats, Julie E.; Berland, Keith; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2010-01-01

    The universal structural role of collagen fiber networks has motivated the development of collagen gels, films, coatings, injectables, and other formulations. However, reported synthetic collagen fiber fabrication schemes have either culminated in short, discontinuous fiber segments at unsuitably low production rates, or have incompletely replicated the internal fibrillar structure that dictates fiber mechanical and biological properties. We report a continuous extrusion system with an off-li...

  10. The Ultimate Display

    CERN Document Server

    Fluke, C J

    2016-01-01

    Astronomical images and datasets are increasingly high-resolution and multi-dimensional. The vast majority of astronomers perform all of their visualisation and analysis tasks on low-resolution, two-dimensional desktop monitors. If there were no technological barriers to designing the ultimate stereoscopic display for astronomy, what would it look like? What capabilities would we require of our compute hardware to drive it? And are existing technologies even close to providing a true 3D experience that is compatible with the depth resolution of human stereoscopic vision? We consider the CAVE2 (an 80 Megapixel, hybrid 2D and 3D virtual reality environment directly integrated with a 100 Tflop/s GPU-powered supercomputer) and the Oculus Rift (a low- cost, head-mounted display) as examples at opposite financial ends of the immersive display spectrum.

  11. Digital holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheok Peng; Chia, Yong Poo; Singh, Vijay Raj; Asundi, A.; Khoo, Xuan Jie; Tay, Kiat Long; Zhou, Junxiang

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes how a Digital Holographic Projector is designed and implemented to project two-dimension virtual images onto the volumetric display media. In this research, we focus on the method to create 3D models, diffractive algorithm and the display media. A 3D model is generated based on the 360° view with views at every 10° interval from a 3D perspective view software. The hologram interference fringes are re-producing from the Fraunhofer algorithm. In order to make more flexible and portable, a Compact Vision System is introduced to storage multiply interference fringes. At the same time, the fringes are sent out at 30 Hz frame by frame continually to the digital micro-mirror1. With the presence of Nd: YVO4 green laser and various optical components, the 3D 360° hologram images are dynamically reconstructed and projected onto the high speed rotating diffuser forming a 3D model at any viewing angle on the volumetric display media. Both volumetric display media, wet and dry methods are demonstrated to show their feasibility and convenience. Finally, the dry volumetric technique with vertical projection mounting is adopted and as the result shown that the speckle noise is significance reduced.

  12. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  13. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading. PMID:25879973

  14. Water Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Douvidzon, Mark L; Martin, Leopoldo L; Carmon, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Fibers constitute the backbone of modern communication and are used in laser surgeries; fibers also genarate coherent X-ray, guided-sound and supercontinuum. In contrast, fibers for capillary oscillations, which are unique to liquids, were rarely considered in optofluidics. Here we fabricate fibers by water bridging an optical tapered-coupler to a microlensed coupler. Our water fibers are held in air and their length can be longer than a millimeter. These hybrid fibers co-confine two important oscillations in nature: capillary- and electromagnetic-. We optically record vibrations in the water fiber, including an audio-rate fundamental and its 3 overtones in a harmonic series, that one can hear in soundtracks attached. Transforming Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems [MEMS] to Micro-Electro-Capillary-Systems [MECS], boosts the device softness by a million to accordingly improve its response to minute forces. Furthermore, MECS are compatible with water, which is a most important liquid in our world.

  15. Tactile Displays with Parallel Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Kyung, Ki-Uk; Kwon, Dong-Soo

    2008-01-01

    This chapter deals with tactile displays and their mechanisms. We briefly reviewed research history of mechanical type tactile displays and their parallel arrangement. And this chapter mainly describes two systems including tactile displays. The 5x6 pin arrayed tactile display with parallel arrangement of piezoelectric bimorphs has been described in the section 3. The tactile display has been embedded into a mouse device and the performance of the device has been verified from pattern display...

  16. LED projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Young Chol; Sokolov, Kirill; Lee, Hee Joong; Moon, Il

    2004-09-01

    In this paper a new illumination system with high power light emitting diode (LED) sources for projection displays is proposed. The prototype of a rear projection system has been developed by using red, green and blue (RGB) LEDs and three LCD panels. Four LEDs were used for each primary color. Parabola reflectors were used for collimating the LED lights and a new array style of LEDs and collimators were used. Integration rods were directly used between collimators and LCD panels without relay lens for uniform light distribution. A 40" projection display system was made with a light output about 25 lm on the screen and the projection engine was very small comparing to the original engine which uses an arc source.

  17. Unsolicited displays of insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwer, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This study is based on videorecorded interactional data from a specific type of institutional setting which consists of a variety of 'language stimulation activities' for bilingual children in Danish preschools. Bilingual children, with a variety of linguistic backgrounds, take part in these......) learning and contrasts it to the widely studied IRF/IRE pattern in educational contexts. The activities were videotaped, transcribed and analysed according to principles and procedures of Conversation Analysis.......: Unsolicited displays may lead to side sequences, they may lead to a shift in the main business of the talk, or they may be explicitly or implicitly ignored. The paper discusses whether and how these unsolicited displays of understanding then can be thought of as leading to opportunities for (language...

  18. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  19. Irradiation from video display terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Video display terminals (VDT's) are in common use by computer operators. In the last years this group of workers has expressed growing concern about their work environment and possible hazardious effects in connection with radiation emission from VDT's. Radiation types and levels of emission and possible biological effects have been the subject of research activity in Norway and in other countries. This report summarizes the various radiation types and their levels of emission from VDT's. An overview of recent epidemiological studies and animal experiments, and the conclusions given by the research groups are also presented. The conclusions drawn in this report based on the current knowledge are: Radiation, other than low frequency pulsed magnetic fields, have low and negligible emission levels and will not represent any health hazard to VDT-operator or to the foetus of pregnant operators. The biological effects of low frequency pulsed mangetic fields have been the subject of epidemiological studies and animal experiments. Epidemiological studies carried out in Canada, Finland, Sweden and Norway gave no support for any correlation between pregnancy complications and operation of VDT's. From animal experiments it has so far been impossible to assert an effect on pregnancy outcome from low frequency pulsed magnetic fields

  20. Visual Perception and Holographic Displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holographic displays have the potential to reproduce the natural parallax and focusing affordances of real scenes. Although holographic displays are still far from maturity, no other display technologies have the potential to reproduce these affordances as accurately. This paper reviews visual human-factors considerations for current and future holographic displays.

  1. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  2. Book Display as Adult Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Moore

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available 無Book display as an adult service is defined as choosing and positioning adult books from the collection to increase their circulation. The author contrasts bookstore arrangement for sales versus library arrangement for access. The paper considers the library-as-a-whole as a display, examines the right size for an in-library display, and discusses mass displays, end-caps, on-shelf displays, and the Tiffany approach. The author proposes that an effective display depends on an imaginative, unifying theme, and that book displays are part of the joy of libraries.

  3. Analysis of amantadine in biological fluids using hollow fiber-based liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction followed by corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraji, Mohammad; Khayamian, Taghi; Mirmahdieh, Shiva; Bidgoli, Ali Akbar Hajialiakbari

    2011-10-15

    A method based on liquid-liquid-liquid microextraction combined with corona discharge ion mobility spectrometry was developed for the analysis of amantadine in human urine and plasma samples. Amantadine was extracted from alkaline aqueous sample as donor phase through a thin phase of organic solvent (n-dodecane) filling the pores of the hollow fiber wall and then back extracted into the organic acceptor phase (methanol) located in the lumen of the hollow fiber. All variables affecting the extraction of analyte including acceptor organic solvent type, concentration of NaOH in donor phase, ionic strength of the sample and extraction time were studied. The linear range was 20-1000 and 5-250 ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively (r(2)≥0.990). The limits of detection were calculated to be 7.2 and 1.6 ng/mL for plasma and urine, respectively. The relative standard deviation was lower than 8.2% for both urine and plasma samples. The enrichment factors were between 45 and 54. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of amantadine in urine and plasma samples. PMID:21956021

  4. 68Ga-labelled phage-display selected peptides as tracers for positron emission tomography imaging of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-associated infections: Selection, radiolabelling and preliminary biological evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karin M.; Kyneb, Majbritt H.; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen;

    2016-01-01

    as bacteria-specific positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents. Methods: Phage-displayed dodecapeptides were selected using an in vitro grown S. aureus biofilm as target. One cyclic (A8) and two linear (A9, A11) dodecapeptides were custom synthesized with 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane...... as the post-purification method. In vitro bacterial binding was evaluated for 68Ga-A9-K-DOTA and 68Ga-A11-GSGK-DOTA. In vitro stability of 68Ga-A9-K-DOTA was studied in human serum, while the in vivo stability was analysed in mice and pigs plasma using radio-HPLC. Additionally, the whole-body distribution...... evaluation in pigs and mice showed a rapid blood clearance and renal excretion of the 68Ga-A9-K-DOTA. Conclusion: The preliminary in vitro and in vivo studies of the phage-display S. aureus biofilm-selected 68Ga-A9-K-DOTA showed desirable features for a novel bacteria-specific imaging agent, despite...

  5. Radiations from display devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    45 display devices have been analyzed for X-ray emmission and for electrostatic - and low-frequency magnetic fields. 3 have been further analyzed for UV and visible light emmission. No emmissions above established risk levels have been found. For low-frequency magnetic fields very little is known of risks, so the levels have been compared with other commonly used devices. The measured levels correspond roughly to that which occur in the use of an electrical egg-beater, or a small hand electrical drill. Data are presented for the tested devices.(author)

  6. Fiber networks amplify active stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ronceray, Pierre; Broedersz, Chase; Lenz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale force generation is essential for biological functions such as cell motility, embryonic development, and muscle contraction. In these processes, forces generated at the molecular level by motor proteins are transmitted by disordered fiber networks, resulting in large-scale active stresses. While these fiber networks are well characterized macroscopically, this stress generation by microscopic active units is not well understood. Here we theoretically study force transmission in th...

  7. Latest development of display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hong-Yue; Yao, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Pan; Zheng, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Ji-Cheng; Zheng, Hua-Dong; Zeng, Chao; Yu, Ying-Jie; Sun, Tao; Zeng, Zhen-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    In this review we will focus on recent progress in the field of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) display technologies. We present the current display materials and their applications, including organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), flexible OLEDs quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs), active-matrix organic light emitting diodes (AMOLEDs), electronic paper (E-paper), curved displays, stereoscopic 3D displays, volumetric 3D displays, light field 3D displays, and holographic 3D displays. Conventional 2D display devices, such as liquid crystal devices (LCDs) often result in ambiguity in high-dimensional data images because of lacking true depth information. This review thus provides a detailed description of 3D display technologies.

  8. Polymer waveguide technology for flexible display applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Yuuto; Fujieda, Ichiro

    2012-03-01

    We consider applications of wave-guiding technologies for flexible displays. First, a flexible backlight can be constructed by guiding laser light through an optical fiber arranged in a spiral manner. The light leaks out via the grooves fabricated on the optical fiber. For uniform illumination, the probability of light extraction at each groove and the pitch of the grooves are adjusted. Second, a polymer waveguide with successive branches distributes the optical power from a laser to two-dimensional emission points on a plane. The division ratio at each branch is an important design parameter for uniform light output. At each branch and emission point, a mirror is placed for 90-degree optical path redirection. This constitutes a flexible backlight. Third, in a more technically demanding design, a mirror based on the micro-electro-mechanical systems technology scans a laser beam on the entrance surface of the waveguide and each emission point is addressed sequentially. An image can be displayed by intensity modulation of the laser light synchronized to this scanning action. The precision of the waveguide fabrication and the beam scanning accuracy would determine the display resolution. Finally, such a waveguide may be applied for concentrated photovoltaic applications. An array of lenses is stacked on the waveguide so that the optical power is focused on each mirror. The direction of the light propagation is reversed. Now the exit surface of the waveguide is coupled to solar cells. In all these cases, the polymer waveguide technology offers a cost advantage due to its feasibility for the roll-to-roll process.

  9. Determining biological fine structure by differential absorption of soft x-rays. [Ultrastructural studies of nerve fibers using scanning electron microscopy without need for staining or osmication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panessa-Warren, Barbara J.; Warren, John B.

    1979-06-01

    The use of soft x-ray contact microscopy in examining histochemically treated human tissue embedded in plastic and exposed as unstained thin sections is demonstrated. When our preliminary data revealed that we could clearly image not only the histochemical reaction product, but the unstained biological fine structure of the surrounding tissues, we decided to test our hypothesis further and see if we could image unstained biological molecular aggregates as well. For this part of the investigation, we chose to examine hydrated proteoglycan aggregates. Proteoglycans are an essential component of the organic matrix of cartilage, and play a primary role in the retention and maintenance of extracellular water. To avoid any artifacts due to the introduction of exogeneous materials, and examine the proteoglycan aggregates in their hydrated, natural configuration, we made contact x-ray images of isolated proteoglycan aggregates in water.

  10. Display Factors and Subjective Evaluation of Dynamic Text Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Joey C. Y.; Chan, Alan H. S.

    2009-01-01

    Communications technology has exploded in past decades, leading to the question of which display method is the best to deliver electronic text messages. Many of these systems employ cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal displays, gas plasma displays, or light-emitting diodes as the output device. In order to overcome the limitations of screen size of the display units, numerous means of presenting dynamic display on screens have been invented. There are many factors that affect the readability of electronic text. This paper reviews some related empirical studies concerning the various display methods of dynamic text presentation, such as text display type, character type, text display direction, and text/background color combination, highlighting method and validity of highlighting. The subjective evaluation questionnaire is also discussed. According to the readability and preference ratings of the subjects given under different conditions, the best display method and color for comprehending the delivered messages were investigated. General recommendations of displaying dynamic information are made for the large display units which have been widely used for delivering important messages.

  11. Analysis of the Microbial Community in an Acidic Hollow-Fiber Membrane Biofilm Reactor (Hf-MBfR Used for the Biological Conversion of Carbon Dioxide to Methane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Chul Shin

    Full Text Available Hydrogenotrophic methanogens can use gaseous substrates, such as H2 and CO2, in CH4 production. H2 gas is used to reduce CO2. We have successfully operated a hollow-fiber membrane biofilm reactor (Hf-MBfR for stable and continuous CH4 production from CO2 and H2. CO2 and H2 were diffused into the culture medium through the membrane without bubble formation in the Hf-MBfR, which was operated at pH 4.5-5.5 over 70 days. Focusing on the presence of hydrogenotrophic methanogens, we analyzed the structure of the microbial community in the reactor. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE was conducted with bacterial and archaeal 16S rDNA primers. Real-time qPCR was used to track changes in the community composition of methanogens over the course of operation. Finally, the microbial community and its diversity at the time of maximum CH4 production were analyzed by pyrosequencing methods. Genus Methanobacterium, related to hydrogenotrophic methanogens, dominated the microbial community, but acetate consumption by bacteria, such as unclassified Clostridium sp., restricted the development of acetoclastic methanogens in the acidic CH4 production process. The results show that acidic operation of a CH4 production reactor without any pH adjustment inhibited acetogenic growth and enriched the hydrogenotrophic methanogens, decreasing the growth of acetoclastic methanogens.

  12. Digital holography display (3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheok Peng; Zheng, Huadong; Chia, Yong Poo; Cheng, Chee Yuen; Yu, Yang; Yu, Yingjie; Asundi, Anand

    2013-06-01

    This paper is to describe a color digital holographic projector and this system is comprised of RGB lasers, 3 units of Digital Micro-Mirror Device (DMD) and high speed rotating diffuser. In this research, we focused on colorings Digital holograms and synchronized RGB digital holograms versus rotated diffuser. To achieve this phenomenon, three of the holograms optical path need to be aligned to pass through a same beam splitter and eventually combined as one colored holograms output While, this colored hologram will be reconstructed on volumetric screen (rotated diffuser) at the floating manner in free space. To obtain these result 3 key factors is investigated: 1. To configured 1 master and 2 slaves digital micro mirror illumination time 2. To reconstructed holograms orientation angle diffuser versus rotating speed. 3. To synchronize rotating diffuser speed versus DMD frame-rate Last but not least, the team built a prototype Color Digital Holography Display but more developments are required to follow up such as, enhance system's reliability, robustness, compactness and 3D realistic images floating in the free air space.

  13. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  14. Dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madar, Z; Thorne, R

    1987-01-01

    Studies done on dietary fiber (DF) over the past five years are presented in this Review. The involvement of dietary fiber in the control of plasma glucose and lipid levels is now established. Two dietary fiber sources (soybean and fenugreek) were studied in our laboratory and are discussed herein. These sources were found to be potentially beneficial in the reduction of plasma glucose in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects. They are shown to be acceptable by human subjects and are easy to use either in a mixture of milk products and in cooking. The mechanism by which dietary fiber alters the nutrient absorption is also discussed. The effect of DF on gastric emptying, transit time, adsorption and glucose transport may contribute to reducing plasma glucose and lipid levels. DF was found to be effective in controlling blood glucose and lipid levels of pregnant diabetic women. Dietary fiber may also be potentially beneficial in the reduction of exogenous insulin requirements in these subjects. However, increased consumption of DF may cause adverse side effects; the binding capabilities of fiber may affect nutrient availability, particularly that of minerals and prolonged and high DF dosage supplementation must be regarded cautiously. This is particularly true when recommending such a diet for pregnant or lactating women, children or subjects with nutritional disorders. Physiological effects of DF appear to depend heavily on the source and composition of fiber. Using a combination of DF from a variety of sources may reduce the actual mass of fiber required to obtain the desired metabolic effects and will result in a more palatable diet. Previously observed problems, such as excess flatus, diarrhea and mineral malabsorption would also be minimized.

  15. Fiber-optic color synthesizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y; Lee, D; Lee, Jhang W; Oh, K

    2006-07-15

    Full-color synthesis was achieved, for what we believe is the first time, utilizing a novel 3x1 hard polymer-clad fiber coupler along with red, green, and blue (RGB) LED primaries. By using RGB LEDs that are coupled to three input ports, the device rendered full color from the output port with a circular emitting pixel of 135 microm in diameter with an extended color gamut. The proposed fiber-optic color synthesizer can provide a compact waveguide solution for the beam scanning display and the tunable pure white source for LED backlighting.

  16. Unique interactive projection display screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1997-11-01

    Projection systems continue to be the best method to produce large (1 meter and larger) displays. However, in order to produce a large display, considerable volume is typically required. The Polyplanar Optic Display (POD) is a novel type of projection display screen, which for the first time, makes it possible to produce a large projection system that is self-contained and only inches thick. In addition, this display screen is matte black in appearance allowing it to be used in high ambient light conditions. This screen is also interactive and can be remotely controlled via an infrared optical pointer resulting in mouse-like control of the display. Furthermore, this display need not be flat since it can be made curved to wrap around a viewer as well as being flexible.

  17. Display blocks: cubic displays for multi-perspective visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Pla i Conesa, Pol; Maes, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    We propose the design, implementation and evaluation of a set of tangible cubic displays. This novel approach to display technology consists of arranging six organic light emitting diode screens in a cubic form factor. We explore the possibilities that this type of display holds for data visualization, manipulation and exploration. We are especially interested in exploring how the physicality of the screen can be perceived as a cue to better interpret its contents. To this end, we propose a s...

  18. Interaction analysis through proteomic phage display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundell, Gustav N; Ivarsson, Ylva

    2014-01-01

    Phage display is a powerful technique for profiling specificities of peptide binding domains. The method is suited for the identification of high-affinity ligands with inhibitor potential when using highly diverse combinatorial peptide phage libraries. Such experiments further provide consensus motifs for genome-wide scanning of ligands of potential biological relevance. A complementary but considerably less explored approach is to display expression products of genomic DNA, cDNA, open reading frames (ORFs), or oligonucleotide libraries designed to encode defined regions of a target proteome on phage particles. One of the main applications of such proteomic libraries has been the elucidation of antibody epitopes. This review is focused on the use of proteomic phage display to uncover protein-protein interactions of potential relevance for cellular function. The method is particularly suited for the discovery of interactions between peptide binding domains and their targets. We discuss the largely unexplored potential of this method in the discovery of domain-motif interactions of potential biological relevance. PMID:25295249

  19. Interaction Analysis through Proteomic Phage Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav N. Sundell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phage display is a powerful technique for profiling specificities of peptide binding domains. The method is suited for the identification of high-affinity ligands with inhibitor potential when using highly diverse combinatorial peptide phage libraries. Such experiments further provide consensus motifs for genome-wide scanning of ligands of potential biological relevance. A complementary but considerably less explored approach is to display expression products of genomic DNA, cDNA, open reading frames (ORFs, or oligonucleotide libraries designed to encode defined regions of a target proteome on phage particles. One of the main applications of such proteomic libraries has been the elucidation of antibody epitopes. This review is focused on the use of proteomic phage display to uncover protein-protein interactions of potential relevance for cellular function. The method is particularly suited for the discovery of interactions between peptide binding domains and their targets. We discuss the largely unexplored potential of this method in the discovery of domain-motif interactions of potential biological relevance.

  20. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  1. Advanced poly-LED displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Mark; Nisato, Giovanni; Fish, D.; Giraldo, Andrea; Jenkins, A. J.; Johnson, Mark T.

    2003-05-01

    Philips have been actively developing polymer OLED (poly-LED) displays as a future display technology. Their emissive nature leads to a very attractive visual appearance, with wide viewing angle, high brightness and fast response speed. Whilst the first generation of poly-LED displays are likely to be passive-matrix driven, power reduction and resolution increase will lead to the use of active-matrix poly-LED displays. Philips Research have designed, fabricated and characterized five different designs of active-matrix polymer-LED display. Each of the five displays makes use of a distinct pixel programming- or pixel drive-technique, including current programming, threshold voltage measurement and photodiode feedback. It will be shown that hte simplest voltage-programmed current-source pixel suffers from potentially unacceptable brightness non-uniformity, and that advanced pixel circuits can provide a solution to this. Optical-feedback pixel circuits will be discussed, showing that they can be used to improve uniformity and compensate for image burn-in due to polymer-LED material degradation, improving display lifetime. Philips research has also been active in developing technologies required to implement poly-LED displays on flexible substrates, including materials, processing and testing methods. The fabrication of flexible passive-matrix poly-LED displays will be presented, as well as the ongoing work to assess the suitability of processing flexible next-generation poly-LED displays.

  2. Military display market segment: helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2004-09-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of one of its segments: helicopter displays. Parameters requiring special consideration, to include luminance ranges, contrast ratio, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are examined. Performance requirements for rotary-wing displays relative to several premier applications are summarized. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DoD applications across 10 or more platforms, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area sizes across helicopter platforms, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or greater, is illustrated. Rotary-wing displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus Rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military helicopter programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. The military display market study is summarized with breakouts for the helicopter market segment. Our defense-wide study as of March 2004 has documented 1,015,494 direct view and virtual image displays distributed across 1,181 display sizes and 503 weapon systems. Helicopter displays account for 67,472 displays (just 6.6% of DoD total) and comprise 83 sizes (7.0% of total DoD) in 76 platforms (15.1% of total DoD). Some 47.6% of these rotary-wing applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, as per fixed-wing aircraft, the predominant instantiation involves higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  3. OLED displays for military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Janice K.; Brown, Julie J.; Hack, Michael G.; Hewitt, Richard H.; Huffman, David C.

    2000-08-01

    Through the years, there has been a steady evolution of technology to ruggedize displays for harsh military environments. This work has spanned cathode-ray-tubes (CRTs) to present day active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs). Organic light emitting device (OLED) display technology has the potential to solve many of the inherent limitations of today's AMLCD technology and to provide the military system designer with a more cost effective solution. OLED technology offers bright, colorful emissive light with excellent power efficiency, wide viewing angle and video response rates; it is also demonstrating the requisite environmental robustness for a wide variety of display applications. OLED displays also have a very thin and lightweight form factor. Moreover, in full production, OLEDs are projected to be very cost-effective by comparison to AMLCDs. This paper will examine some of these advantages and the opportunities presented by the rapidly emerging OLED display technology for military applications.

  4. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  5. Liquid crystal Fresnel lens display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Qian; Abhishek Kumar, Srivastava; Alwin Tam, Ming-Wai; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Dong; Vladimir, Chigrinov G.; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2016-09-01

    A novel see-through display with a liquid crystal lens array was proposed. A liquid crystal Fresnel lens display (LCFLD) with a holographic screen was demonstrated. The proposed display system has high efficiency, simple fabrication, and low manufacturing cost due to the absence of a polarizer and color filter. Project supported by Partner State Key Laboratory on Advanced Displays and Optoelectronics Technologies HKUST, China, the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61435008 and 61575063), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. WM1514036).

  6. Maintenance Procedure Display: Head Mounted Display (HMD) Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Milrian; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Solem, Jody A.; Holden, Kritina L.; Hoffman, Ronald R.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing maintenance procedures for head mounted displays is shown. The topics include: 1) Study Goals; 2) Near Eye Displays (HMDs); 3) Design; 4) Phase I-Evaluation Methods; 5) Phase 1 Results; 6) Improved HMD Mounting; 7) Phase 2 -Evaluation Methods; 8) Phase 2 Preliminary Results; and 9) Next Steps.

  7. Hollow fiber based-liquid phase microextraction using ionic liquid solvent for preconcentration of lead and nickel from environmental and biological samples prior to determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and effective hollow fiber based-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) technique by using ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C6MIM][PF6], coupled with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for the determination of lead and nickel in environmental and biological samples. Ammonium pyrroldinedithiocarbamate (APDC) was used as chelating agent. Several factors that influence the microextraction efficiency and ETAAS signal, such as pH, APDC concentration extraction time, amounts of ionic liquid, stirring rate, pyrolysis and atomization temperature were investigated and the microextraction conditions were established. In the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limits (3 s) of the method were 0.03 and 0.02 μg L-1, for Ni and Pb, respectively and corresponding relative standard deviations (0.5 μg L-1, n = 6) were 4.2% and 5%. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials and applied to the determination of lead and nickel in real samples.

  8. Updated defense display market assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1999-08-01

    This paper addresses the number, function and size of principal military displays and establishes a basis to determine the opportunities for technology insertion in the immediate future and into the next millennium. Principal military displays are defined as those occupying appreciable crewstation real-estate and/or those without which the platform could not carry out its intended mission. DoD 'office' applications are excluded from this study. The military displays market is specified by such parameters as active area and footprint size, and other characteristics such as luminance, gray scale, resolution, angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility. Funded, future acquisitions, planned and predicted crewstation modification kits, and form-fit upgrades are taken into account. This paper provides an overview of the DoD niche market, allowing both government and industry a necessary reference by which to meet DoD requirements for military displays in a timely and cost-effective manner. The aggregate DoD installed base for direct-view and large-area military displays is presently estimated to be in excess of 313,000. Miniature displays are those which must be magnified to be viewed, involve a significantly different manufacturing paradigm and are used in helmet mounted displays and thermal weapon sight applications. Some 114,000 miniature displays are presently included within future weapon system acquisition plans. For vendor production planning purposes it is noted that foreign military sales could substantially increase these quantities. The vanishing vendor syndrome (VVS) for older display technologies continues to be a growing, pervasive problem throughout DoD, which consequently must leverage the more modern, especially flat panel, display technologies being developed to replace older, especially cathode ray tube, technology for civil-commercial markets. Total DoD display needs (FPD, HMD) are some 427,000.

  9. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye: primary flight display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Paul W.; Saxena, Ragini; Garruba, Jonathan; Tripathi, Sanjay; Blanchard, Randy

    2006-05-01

    This paper is a response to the challenge of providing a large area avionics display for the E-2D AHE aircraft. The resulting display design provides a pilot with high-resolution visual information content covering an image area of almost three square feet (Active Area of Samsung display = 33.792cm x 27.0336 cm = 13.304" x 10.643" = 141.596 square inches = 0.983 sq. ft x 3 = 2.95 sq. ft). The avionics display application, design and performance being described is the Primary Flight Display for the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. This cockpit display has a screen diagonal size of 17 inches. Three displays, with minimum bezel width, just fit within the available instrument panel area. The significant design constraints of supporting an upgrade installation have been addressed. These constraints include a display image size that is larger than the mounting opening in the instrument panel. This, therefore, requires that the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) window, LCD panel and backlight all fit within the limited available bezel depth. High brightness and a wide dimming range are supported with a dual mode Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (CCFT) and LED backlight. Packaging constraints dictated the use of multiple U shaped fluorescent lamps in a direct view backlight design for a maximum display brightness of 300 foot-Lamberts. The low intensity backlight levels are provided by remote LEDs coupled through a fiber optic mesh. This architecture generates luminous uniformity within a minimum backlight depth. Cross-cockpit viewing is supported with ultra-wide field-of-view performance including contrast and the color stability of an advanced LCD cell design supports. Display system design tradeoffs directed a priority to high optical efficiency for minimum power and weight.

  10. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  11. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  12. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' HARA,J.M.; PIRUS,D.; BELTRATCCHI,L.

    2004-09-19

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work.

  13. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified

  14. Low-cost color LCD helmet display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenwever, Roger; Best, Leonard G.; Ericksen, Bryce J.

    1992-10-01

    The goal of this helmet-mounted display (HMD) project was development and demonstration of a low-cost color display incorporating see-through optics. A full field-of-regard visual presentation was to be provided through the use of a head-tracker system and the HMD was to be suitable for use with low-cost cockpit trainers. The color imaging devices selected for the project are commercially available liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. The LCDs are 3.0 inch (diagonal) thin film transistor (TFT) types using a delta format for the red, green, blue (RGB) matrix. Fiber optic light panels mounted behind the LCDs provide a cool light source of greater than 3400 foot-lamberts (ft-L). Approximately 3 percent of the applied light source is emitted by the LCD image source. The video displayed is in a 3:4 format representing a 30 degree(s) vertical by 40 degree(s) horizontal biocular instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) visual image from a graphic image generation system and is controlled in a full field of regard based on positional information from a head-tracker system. The optical elements of the HMD are designed as an exit pupil forming, see-through system and require the eye to be in a 15 mm volume for viewing the scene. The beam splitting function of the optics allows the user to see through the optics for reading cockpit instrumentation, while viewing outside the cockpit reveals the out-the-window (OTW) scene. The optic design allows for the IFOV to be displayed through a set of field lens, relay lens, folding mirror, beam splitter and spherical mirror system. The beam splitters and spherical mirrors for both optical paths are coated for approximately 50 percent transmission and reflectance. This approach, combined with the losses through the rest of the optical path, provides a theoretical maximum of 10.9 percent of the LCD image source intensity arriving at the eye. Initial tests of image intensity at the eye for a full white scene have measured at approximately 11 ft-L.

  15. Cells on foam and fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clyde, R. [Clyde Engineering, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Cells grow on high area foam and, when a screen is put around the foam, it is made heavier so it can be fluidized. When foam is rotated in a half full RBC (rotary biological contactor), drops are formed and mass transfer of oxygen to drops is much faster. Most fungi and some mammalian cells need oxygen. Corrugated fibers with holes in the valleys also produce drops. White rot fungus needs oxygen and it degrades many chlorine compounds, azo dyes, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), and TNT. Old cardboard boxes are readily available and when buried in soil, oxygen is entrapped. In a lake, the boxes expose high area. Celite entrapped in fibers provides even more area. Fibers have high surface area for immobilizing cells and, when the fibers are rotated, fast reactions occur, converting one chemical to another. Sugar has been fermented to alcohol in 10--15 minutes. Ethanol has high octane and does not need lead. Old cars and trucks still use lead, and high levels have been found in the drinking water of several large cities. Bacteria on fibers can remove lead in a few seconds. When an RBC of plain fiber discs is rotated and a light shone in the tope, the light hits a thin moving film to degrade chlorine compounds and sterilize water. Titania can be fused to the fiberglass discs. Microbes and light remove sulfur from oil. Calcium magnesium acetate is a non-corrosive road deicer. Salt on roads causes millions of dollars damage to bridges and cars.

  16. Applications of fiber technique in the x-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiber as a thin glass capillar is used for X-radiation transmission. The measured values of critical angles of total reflection are compared with predictions of the simplified theory. The possibility of X-radiation propagation along curved fibers is displayed

  17. BES monitoring and displaying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BES Monitoring and Displaying System (BESMDS) is projected to monitor and display the running status of DAQ and Slow Control systems of BES through the Web for worldwide accessing. It provides a real-time remote means of monitoring as well as an approach to study the environmental influence upon physical data taking. The system collects real-time data separately from BES Online subsystems by network sockets and stores the data into a database. People can access the system through its web site, which retrieves data on request from the database and can display results in dynamically reacted images. Its web address is http://besmds.ihep.ac.cn/

  18. Different modes of hypertrophy in skeletal muscle fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Angelika C.; Rosenthal, Nadia

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal muscles display a remarkable diversity in their arrangement of fibers into fascicles and in their patterns of innervation, depending on functional requirements and species differences. Most human muscle fascicles, despite their great length, consist of fibers that extend continuously from one tendon to the other with a single nerve endplate band. Other mammalian muscles have multiple endplate bands and fibers that do not insert into both tendons but terminate intrafascicularly. We in...

  19. Application Specific Optical Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Bishnu P.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we have attempted to provide a unified summary description of the most important propagation characteristics of an optical fiber followed by discussion on several variety of special fibers for realizing fiber amplifiers, dispersion compensating fibers, microstructured optical fibers, and so on. Even though huge progress has been made on development of optical fibers for telecom application, a need for developing special fibers, not necessarily for telecom alone, has arisen. Th...

  20. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  1. Ten inch Planar Optic Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiser, L. [Beiser (Leo) Inc., Flushing, NY (United States); Veligdan, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    A Planar Optic Display (POD) is being built and tested for suitability as a high brightness replacement for the cathode ray tube, (CRT). The POD display technology utilizes a laminated optical waveguide structure which allows a projection type of display to be constructed in a thin (I to 2 inch) housing. Inherent in the optical waveguide is a black cladding matrix which gives the display a black appearance leading to very high contrast. A Digital Micromirror Device, (DMD) from Texas Instruments is used to create video images in conjunction with a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser. An anamorphic optical system is used to inject light into the POD to form a stigmatic image. In addition to the design of the POD screen, we discuss: image formation, image projection, and optical design constraints.

  2. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  3. Assessment of PACS Display Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, John E.; Rutledge, John D.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes our experience in reviewing the performance criteria for display systems and how we have implemented a practical approach to the assessment of the workstation environment in a large tertiary care hospital. The acceptance criteria contained in the draft report of Topic Group 18 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) were used as a basis for assessment of primary and secondary displays. A telescopic photometer was used to measure the maximum luminance a...

  4. Implementation of PIC Based LED Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Htet Htet Thit San; Chaw Myat Nwe; Hla Myo Tun

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains the project which is a special kind of LED Display Board for performing dance movement according to the rhythm of music. Nowadays, LED display boards are widely used in advertising and other applications. LED display boards can also be used indoors or outdoors. The objective of this system is to design a display panel by using several dozens of LED matrix display. The display pattern can desire to be changed easily and modified by the user. This LED display...

  5. Mucosal vaccination by adenoviruses displaying reovirus sigma 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Eric A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Camacho, Zenaido T. [Department of Cell Biology, Department of Natural Sciences, Western New Mexico University, Silver City, NM 88062 (United States); Hillestad, Matthew L. [Nephrology Training Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Crosby, Catherine M.; Turner, Mallory A.; Guenzel, Adam J.; Fadel, Hind J. [Virology and Gene Therapy Graduate Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Mercier, George T. [Department of Physics, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Barry, Michael A., E-mail: mab@mayo.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Translational Immunovirology and Biodefense Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States); Department of Immunology and Department of Molecular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55902 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We developed adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vectors displaying the sigma 1 protein from reovirus as mucosal vaccines. Ad5-sigma retargets to JAM-1 and sialic acid, but has 40-fold reduced gene delivery when compared to Ad5. While weaker at transduction, Ad5-sigma generates stronger T cell responses than Ad5 when used for mucosal immunization. In this work, new Ad5-fiber-sigma vectors were generated by varying the number of fiber β-spiral shaft repeats (R) between the fiber tail and sigma. Increasing chimera length led to decreasing insertion of these proteinsAd5 virions. Ad-R3 and R14 vectors effectively targeted JAM-1 in vitro while R20 did not. When wereused to immunize mice by the intranasal route, Ad5-R3-sigma produced higher serum and vaginal antibody responses than Ad5. These data suggest optimized Ad-sigma vectors may be useful vectors for mucosal vaccination. - Highlights: • Constructed adenoviruses (Ads) displaying different reovirus sigma 1 fusion proteins. • Progressively longer chimeras were more poorly encapsidated onto Ad virions. • Ad5-R3-sigma mediated better systemic and mucosal immune responses than Ad5.

  6. Organic transistors in optical displays and microelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.; Nomoto, K.; Anthopoulos, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer unprecedented opportunities for implementation in a broad range of technological applications spanning from large-volume microelectronics and optical displays to chemical and biological sensors. In this Progress Report, we review the application of organic

  7. Silkworm Gut Fiber of Bombyx mori as an Implantable and Biocompatible Light-Diffusing Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenis, Jose Luis; Aznar-Cervantes, Salvador D.; Lozano-Pérez, Antonio Abel; Rojo, Marta; Muñoz, Juan; Meseguer-Olmo, Luis; Arenas, Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    This work describes a new approach to the delivery of light in deeper tissues, through a silk filament that is implantable, biocompatible, and biodegradable. In the present work, silkworm gut fibers (SGFs) of Bombyx mori L., are made by stretching the silk glands. Morphological, structural, and optical properties of the fibers have been characterized and the stimulatory effect of red laser light diffused from the fiber was assayed in fibroblast cultures. SGFs are formed by silk fibroin (SF) mainly in a β-sheet conformation, a stable and non-soluble state in water or biological fluids. The fibers showed a high degree of transparency to visible and infrared radiation. Using a red laser (λ = 650 nm) as source, the light was efficiently diffused along the fiber wall, promoting a significant increment in the cell metabolism 5 h after the irradiation. SGFs have shown their excellent properties as light-diffusing optical fibers with a stimulatory effect on cells. PMID:27438824

  8. Silkworm Gut Fiber of Bombyx mori as an Implantable and Biocompatible Light-Diffusing Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Cenis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a new approach to the delivery of light in deeper tissues, through a silk filament that is implantable, biocompatible, and biodegradable. In the present work, silkworm gut fibers (SGFs of Bombyx mori L., are made by stretching the silk glands. Morphological, structural, and optical properties of the fibers have been characterized and the stimulatory effect of red laser light diffused from the fiber was assayed in fibroblast cultures. SGFs are formed by silk fibroin (SF mainly in a β-sheet conformation, a stable and non-soluble state in water or biological fluids. The fibers showed a high degree of transparency to visible and infrared radiation. Using a red laser (λ = 650 nm as source, the light was efficiently diffused along the fiber wall, promoting a significant increment in the cell metabolism 5 h after the irradiation. SGFs have shown their excellent properties as light-diffusing optical fibers with a stimulatory effect on cells.

  9. BES Monitoring & Displaying System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengWANG; BingyunZHANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    BES1 Monitoring & Displaying System(BESMDS)is projected to monitor and display the running status of DAQ and Slow Control systems of BES through the Web for worldwide accessing.It provides a real-time remote means of monitoring as well as an approach to study the environmental influence upon physical data taking.The system collects real-time data separately from BES online subsystems by network sockets and stores the data into a database.People can access the system through its web site.which retrieves data on request from the database and can display results in dynamically created images.Its web address in http:// besmds,ihep.ac.cn/

  10. Engineering antibodies by yeast display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Eric T; Raeeszadeh-Sarmazdeh, Maryam; Price, J Vincent

    2012-10-15

    Since its first application to antibody engineering 15 years ago, yeast display technology has been developed into a highly potent tool for both affinity maturing lead molecules and isolating novel antibodies and antibody-like species. Robust approaches to the creation of diversity, construction of yeast libraries, and library screening or selection have been elaborated, improving the quality of engineered molecules and certainty of success in an antibody engineering campaign and positioning yeast display as one of the premier antibody engineering technologies currently in use. Here, we summarize the history of antibody engineering by yeast surface display, approaches used in its application, and a number of examples highlighting the utility of this method for antibody engineering.

  11. Cell Attachment to Hydrogel-Electrospun Fiber Mat Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica O. Winter

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogels, electrospun fiber mats (EFMs, and their composites have been extensively studied for tissue engineering because of their physical and chemical similarity to native biological systems. However, while chemically similar, hydrogels and electrospun fiber mats display very different topographical features. Here, we examine the influence of surface topography and composition of hydrogels, EFMs, and hydrogel-EFM composites on cell behavior. Materials studied were composed of synthetic poly(ethylene glycol (PEG and poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (PEGPCL hydrogels and electrospun poly(caprolactone (PCL and core/shell PCL/PEGPCL constituent materials. The number of adherent cells and cell circularity were most strongly influenced by the fibrous nature of materials (e.g., topography, whereas cell spreading was more strongly influenced by material composition (e.g., chemistry. These results suggest that cell attachment and proliferation to hydrogel-EFM composites can be tuned by varying these properties to provide important insights for the future design of such composite materials.

  12. Fiber sensors for molecular detection using Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, highly sensitive optical fiber sensors based on Raman spectroscopy (RS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) are studied with focus on applications in various chemical and biological detections. In particular, two main categories of optical fibers have been used as the sensing platforms: one is the conventional multimode optical fiber and the other is the hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF). For the conventional multimode optical fiber, we've developed two...

  13. Color Video Laser Display Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yue; LIU Wei-qi; HAO Li; LIU Hua; WEI Zhong-lun

    2006-01-01

    The principle and technologies employed in laser color video display are introduced. The characteristics of techniologies and bottlenecks of restricting the development are analyzed .A novel technical approach to eliminating the laser interference, improving the uniformity of optical field, transforming the chromaticity and extending the virtual color is proposed. The principle device of laser display system has been developed on the basis of the blue,green and red diode-pumped solid state lasers .The wavelengths of the blue, green and red are 473nm, 532nm and 671nm, and the output powers of the lasers are 1.3W, 0.32W and 3.5W, respectively.

  14. A novel method for preparing microplastic fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic plastic (microplastic, 0.1 µm–5 mm) is a widespread pollutant impacting upon aquatic ecosystems across the globe. Environmental sampling has revealed synthetic fibers are prevalent in seawater, sediments and biota. However, microplastic fibers are rarely used in laboratory studies as they are unavailable for purchase and existing preparation techniques have limited application. To facilitate the incorporation of environmentally relevant microplastic fibers into future studies, new methods are required. Here, a novel cryotome protocol has been developed. Nylon, polyethylene terephthalate and polypropylene fibers (10–28 μm diameter) were aligned, embedded in water-soluble freezing agent, and sectioned (40–100 μm length) using a cryogenic microtome. Microplastic fibers were prepared to specified lengths (P environment, which could ultimately lead to a better understanding of the biological and ecological effects of microplastic debris in the environment. PMID:27694820

  15. Sapphire optical fiber sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Feth, Shari

    1991-01-01

    Fiber optic sensors offer many advantages over conventional sensors, including; small size, low weight, high strength and durability. Standard silica optical fibers are limited by the material properties of silica. Temperatures above 700°C and other harsh environments are incompatible with standard optical fiber sensors. Sapphire fiber sensors offer another option for fiber optic sensing. Sapphire fibers are limited by the material properties of sapphire, which include high...

  16. Photonic Bandgap Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkou, Stig Eigil; Broeng, Jes; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1999-01-01

    Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility.......Photonic bandgap fibers are describes using a new Kagomé cladding structure. These fibers may potentially guide light in low-index regions. Such fibers offer new dispersion properties, and large design flexibility....

  17. Display standards for commercial flight decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberth, Larry S.; Penn, Cecil W.

    1994-06-01

    SAE display standards are used as guidelines for certifying commercial airborne electronic displays. The SAE document generation structure and approval process is described. The SAE committees that generate display standards are described. Three SAE documents covering flat panel displays (AS-8034, ARP-4256, and ARP-4260) are discussed with their current status. Head-Up Display documents are also in work.

  18. Confocal microscopy via multimode fibers: fluorescence bandwidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loterie, Damien; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2016-03-01

    We recently described a method for confocal reflection imaging through fibers, as a way to increase contrast when imaging unstained biological specimens. Using a transmission matrix, focused spots can be created at the distal end of a fiber. The backscattered field coming back from the sample can be filtered using optical correlation to obtain spatial selectivity in the detection. In this proceedings article, we briefly review the working principle of this method, and we discuss how the scheme could be adapted to confocal fluorescence imaging. In particular, we show simulations of the achievable detection bandwidth when using step-index multimode fibers as imaging devices.

  19. Graphene fibers with predetermined deformation as moisture-triggered actuators and robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huhu; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Yang; Hu, Chuangang; Zhang, Zhipan; Chen, Nan; Jiang, Lan; Qu, Liangti

    2013-09-27

    Enough to make your hair curl! Moisture-responsive graphene (G) fibers can be prepared by the positioned laser reduction of graphene oxide (GO) counterparts. When exposed to moisture, the asymmetric G/GO fibers display complex, well-controlled motion/deformation in a predetermined manner. These fibers can function not only as a single-fiber walking robot under humidity alternation but also as a new platform for woven devices and smart textiles. PMID:23946272

  20. Colour displays for categorical images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glasbey, C.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Toh, V.F.K.; Gray, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method for identifying a set of colours for displaying 2D and 3D categorical images when the categories are unordered labels. The principle is to find maximally distinct sets of colours. We either generate colours sequentially, to maximize the dissimilarity or distance between a new col

  1. Information retrieval and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groover, J. L.; King, W. L.

    1977-01-01

    Versatile command-driven data management system offers users, through simplified command language, a means of storing and searching data files, sorting data files into specified orders, performing simple or complex computations, effecting file updates, and printing or displaying output data. Commands are simple to use and flexible enough to meet most data management requirements.

  2. A novel screening system for claudin binder using baculoviral display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kakutani

    Full Text Available Recent progress in cell biology has provided new insight into the claudin (CL family of integral membrane proteins, which contains more than 20 members, as a target for pharmaceutical therapy. Few ligands for CL have been identified because it is difficult to prepare CL in an intact form. In the present study, we developed a method to screen for CL binders by using the budded baculovirus (BV display system. CL4-displaying BV interacted with a CL4 binder, the C-terminal fragment of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (C-CPE, but it did not interact with C-CPE that was mutated in its CL4-binding region. C-CPE did not interact with BV and CL1-displaying BV. We used CL4-displaying BV to select CL4-binding phage in a mixture of a scFv-phage and C-CPE-phage. The percentage of C-CPE-phage in the phage mixture increased from 16.7% before selection to 92% after selection, indicating that CL-displaying BV may be useful for the selection of CL binders. We prepared a C-CPE phage library by mutating the functional amino acids. We screened the library for CL4 binders by affinity to CL4-displaying BV, and we found that the novel CL4 binders modulated the tight-junction barrier. These findings indicate that the CL-displaying BV system may be a promising method to produce a novel CL binder and modulator.

  3. Centrifugation Effect on the Functional Diversity of Microbial Community in Fallen Leaves Displaying in BIOLOG Micro-Plates%离心操作对 BIOLOG 法测定微生物群落功能多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉梅; 罗明奇; 潘国勇; 陶千冶

    2015-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystem is an important link in the global carbon cycle;however,and the knowledge of this process are still not sufficient.One of the reasons is the lack of a systematical recognition to the changes of microbial community functional diversity during a decomposition of plant litter.Things will get better if the method of BIOLOG micro-plates can be introduced into the initial degradation process of plant litter.Unfortunately,there was no conclusion on how to use this method to the initial degradation,and whether a centrifugal operation should be used during the process of pretreatment.We choose the eluting solution of Beijing birch forest litter as inoculums and consider the effects of centrifugal operation on the BIOLOG micro-plates.The results show that centrifugation can reduce the turbidity (absorbance decreases 0.13 ) and the interference of color to the solution.At the same time,centrifugation could reduce the measured quantity of microbial communities (AWCD value can be reduced by 0.4).The less the quantity of microbial communities in the sample is,the greater the impact on the functional diversity of soil microbial communities is.Therefore,a specific study target should be the judging basis to determine whether a centrifugation is used for its pretreatment.%陆地生态系统的有机质分解是地球系统碳循环的重要环节,但目前人们对这一过程的认知程度尚待提高,原因之一是对植物凋落物分解时微生物群落功能多样性的变化缺乏系统认识。如能将 BI-OLOG 微平板法引入植物凋落物降解初期的研究中,将弥补这一重要环节的缺失。但当前对如何在降解初期研究中应用这一方法、尤其是对于在预处理过程中是否应进行离心操作并无定论。为此,笔者选用北京桦树林区凋落物的淋洗液为接种液,考察离心操作对 BIOLOG 微平板法测定结果的影响。研究发现:离心

  4. Reciprocal Engagement Between a Scientist and Visual Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, Michelle Maria

    In this study the focus of investigation was the reciprocal engagement between a professional scientist and the visual displays with which he interacted. Visual displays are considered inextricable from everyday scientific endeavors and their interpretation requires a "back-and-forthness" between the viewers and the objects being viewed. The query that drove this study was: How does a scientist engage with visual displays during the explanation of his understanding of extremely small biological objects? The conceptual framework was based in embodiment where the scientist's talk, gesture, and body position were observed and microanalyzed. The data consisted of open-ended interviews that positioned the scientist to interact with visual displays when he explained the structure and function of different sub-cellular features. Upon microanalyzing the scientist's talk, gesture, and body position during his interactions with two different visual displays, four themes were uncovered: Naming, Layering, Categorizing, and Scaling . Naming occurred when the scientist added markings to a pre-existing, hand-drawn visual display. The markings had meaning as stand-alone label and iconic symbols. Also, the markings transformed the pre-existing visual display, which resulted in its function as a new visual object. Layering occurred when the scientist gestured over images so that his gestures aligned with one or more of the image's features, but did not touch the actual visual display. Categorizing occurred when the scientist used contrasting categories, e.g. straight vs. not straight, to explain his understanding about different characteristics that the small biological objects held. Scaling occurred when the scientist used gesture to resize an image's features so that they fit his bodily scale. Three main points were drawn from this study. First, the scientist employed a variety of embodied strategies—coordinated talk, gesture, and body position—when he explained the structure

  5. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  6. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  7. Photonic crystal fibers -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Libori, Stig E. Barkou

    2002-01-01

    . Such micro-structured fibers are the ones most often trated in literature concerning micro-structured fibers. These micro-structured fibers offer a whole range of novel wave guiding characteristics, including the possibility of fibers that guide only one mode irrespective of the frequency of light....... The thesis focuses on understanding the basic mechanisms controlling the modal properties of micro-structured fibers. One important sub-class of micro-structured fibers are fibers that guide light by index effects similar to those index effects that ensure guidance of light in standard optical fibers...... complicated to manufacture, compared to micro-structured fibers that guide light by simple index effects, because of stringent requirements concerning the periodicity of the cladding structure of the fibers. The theoretical investigation of these fibers is also more complex, than the investigation of micro...

  8. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  9. Striations in Plasma Display Panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Ji-Ting; CAO Jing; MIAO Jin-Song

    2005-01-01

    @@ The phenomenon of striation has been investigated experimentally in a macroscopic ac-plasma display panel (PDP). The relationship between the characteristics of striation and the operation conditions including voltage, frequency, rib, and electrode configuration, etc is obtained experimentally. The origin of the striations is considered to be the ionization waves in the transient positive column near the dielectric surface in the anode area during the discharge, and the perturbation is caused by resonance kinetic effects in inert gas.

  10. Fibered F-Algebra

    OpenAIRE

    Kleyn, Aleks

    2007-01-01

    The concept of F-algebra and its representation can be extended to an arbitrary bundle. We define operations of fibered F-algebra in fiber. The paper presents the representation theory of of fibered F-algebra as well as a comparison of representation of F-algebra and of representation of fibered F-algebra.

  11. Photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper; Hansen, K P; Nielsen, M D;

    2003-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers having a complex microstructure in the transverse plane constitute a new and promising class of optical fibers. Such fibers can either guide light through total internal reflection or the photonic bandgap effect, In this paper, we review the different types and applications...... of photonic crystal fibers with particular emphasis on recent advances in the field....

  12. High-fiber foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fiber - self-care ... Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can help you ... Grains are another important source of dietary fiber. Eat more: ... Whole-grain breads Brown rice Popcorn High-fiber cereals, such ...

  13. Photonic Crystal Fiber Attenuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joo Beom Eom; Hokyung Kim; Jinchae Kim; Un-Chul Paek; Byeong Ha Lee

    2003-01-01

    We propose a novel fiber attenuator based on photonic crystal fibers. The difference in the modal field diameters of a conventional single mode fiber and a photonic crystal fiber was used. A variable optical attenuator was also achieved by applying macro-bending on the PCF part of the proposed attenuator

  14. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatari, Takeo (Inventor); Gaubis, Philip A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A fiber optic temperature sensor uses a light source which transmits light through an optical fiber to a sensor head at the opposite end of the optical fiber from the light source. The sensor head has a housing coupled to the end of the optical fiber. A metallic reflective surface is coupled to the housing adjacent the end of the optical fiber to form a gap having a predetermined length between the reflective surface and the optical fiber. A detection system is also coupled to the optical fiber which determines the temperature at the sensor head from an interference pattern of light which is reflected from the reflective surface.

  15. Biological clocks: riding the tides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Horacio O; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2013-10-21

    Animals with habitats in the intertidal zone often display biological rhythms that coordinate with both the tidal and the daily environmental cycles. Two recent studies show that the molecular components of the biological clocks mediating tidal rhythms are likely different from the phylogenetically conserved components that mediate circadian (daily) rhythms.

  16. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  17. Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Workplace Plans School Emergency Plans Main Content Biological Threats Biological agents are organisms or toxins that can ... for Disease Control and Prevention . Before a Biological Threat Unlike an explosion, a biological attack may or ...

  18. Fiber Loop Ringdown — a Time-Domain Sensing Technique for Multi-Function Fiber Optic Sensor Platforms: Current Status and Design Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Chuji Wang

    2009-01-01

    Fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) utilizes an inexpensive telecommunications light source, a photodiode, and a section of single-mode fiber to form a uniform fiber optic sensor platform for sensing various quantities, such as pressure, temperature, strain, refractive index, chemical species, biological cells, and small volume of fluids. In FLRD, optical losses of a light pulse in a fiber loop induced by changes in a quantity are measured by the light decay time constants. FLRD measures time to detec...

  19. Computerized measurement of mammographic display image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Dev P.; Sivarudrappa, Mahesh; Roehrig, Hans

    1999-05-01

    Since the video monitor is widely believed to be the weak link in the imaging chain, it is critical, to include it in the total image quality evaluation. Yet, most physical measurements of mammographic image quality are presently limited to making measurements on the digital matrix, not the displayed image. A method is described to quantitatively measure image quality of mammographic monitors using ACR phantom-based test patterns. The image of the test pattern is digitized using a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, and the resulting image file is analyzed by an existing phantom analysis method (Computer Analysis of Mammography Phantom Images, CAMPI). The new method is called CCD-CAMPI and it yields the Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) for an arbitrary target shape (e.g., speck, mass or fiber). In this work we show the feasibility of this idea for speck targets. Also performed were physical image quality characterization of the monitor (so-called Fourier measures) and analysis by another template matching method due to Tapiovaara and Wagner (TW) which is closely related to CAMPI. The methods were applied to a MegaScan monitor. Test patterns containing a complete speck group superposed on a noiseless background were displayed on the monitor and a series of CCD images were acquired. These images were subjected to CCD-CAMPI and TW analyses. It was found that the SNR values for the CCD-CAMPI method tracked those of the TW method, although the latter measurements were considerably less precise. The TW SNR measure was also about 25% larger than the CCD-CAMPI determination. These differences could be understood from the manner in which the two methods evaluate the noise. Overall accuracy of the CAMPI SNR determination was 4.1% for single images when expressed as a coefficient of variance. While the SNR measures are predictable from the Fourier measures the number of images and effort required is prohibitive and it is not suited to Quality Control (QC). Unlike the Fourier

  20. A conformable active matrix LED display

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Ashutosh; Smits, Edsger; van der Steen, Jan-Laurens; Cauwe, Maarten; Verplancke, Rik; Myny, Kris; Maas, Joris; Kusters, Roel; Sabik, Sami; Murata, Mitsuhiro; Tomita, Yoshihiro; Ohmae, Hideki; van den Brand, Jeroen; Gelinck, Gerwin

    2015-01-01

    Conformable and stretchable displays can be integrated on complex surfaces. Such a display can assume the shape of a conformed surface by simultaneous multi-dimensional stretching and bending. Such technology provides new opportunities in the field of display applications, for example wearable displays integrated or embedded in a textile or onto complex surfaces in automotive interiors. In this work we present a conformable active matrix display using LEDs mounted on an amorphous Indium-Galli...

  1. Recent Trend in Development of Olfactory Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Yasuyuki

    An olfactory display is a device that generates scented air with desired concentration of aroma, and delivers it to the user's olfactory organ. In this article, the nature of olfaction is briefly described from the view point of how to configure olfactory displays. Next, component technologies to compose olfactory displays, i.e., making scents and delivering scents, are categorized. Several existing olfactory display systems are introduced to show the current status of research and development of olfactory displays.

  2. GridOrbit public display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Juan David Hincapie; Tabard, Aurélien; Bardram, Jakob;

    2010-01-01

    the research taking place in the biology laboratory. This should promote contribu-tions to the grid, and thereby mediate the appropriation of the grid technology. GridOrbit visualizes the activity in the grid, shows information about the different active projects, and supports a messaging functionality where...

  3. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter;

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  4. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  5. Specialty optical fibers: revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2011-10-01

    The paper contains description of chosen aspects of analysis and design of tailored optical fibers. By specialty optical fibers we understand here the fibers which have complex construction and which serve for the functional processing of optical signal rather than long distance transmission. Thus, they are called also instrumentation optical fibers. The following issues are considered: transmission properties, transformation of optical signal, fiber characteristics, fiber susceptibility to external reactions. The technology of tailored optical fibers offers a wider choice of the design tools for the fiber itself, and then various devices made from these fiber, than classical technology of communication optical fibers. The consequence is different fiber properties, nonstandard dimensions and different metrological problems. The price to be paid for wider design possibilities are bigger optical losses of these fibers and weaker mechanical properties, and worse chemical stability. These fibers find their applications outside the field of telecommunications. The applications of instrumentation optical fibers combine other techniques apart from the photonics ones like: electronic, chemical and mechatronic.

  6. Lambda-Display: A Powerful Tool for Antigen Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gargano

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in 1985, phage display technology has been successfully used in projects aimed at deciphering biological processes and isolating molecules of practical value in several applications. Bacteriophage lambda, representing a classical molecular cloning and expression system has also been exploited for generating large combinatorial libraries of small peptides and protein domains exposed on its capsid. More recently, lambda display has been consistently and successfully employed for domain mapping, antigen discovery and protein interaction studies or, more generally, in functional genomics. We show here the results obtained by the use of large libraries of cDNA and genomic DNA for the molecular dissection of the human B-cell response against complex pathogens, including protozoan parasites, bacteria and viruses. Moreover, by reviewing the experimental work performed in recent investigations we illustrate the potential of lambda display in the diagnostics field and for identifying antigens useful as targets for vaccine development.

  7. IQ Predicts Biological Motion Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, M. D.; Troje, Nikolaus F.

    2012-01-01

    Biological motion is easily perceived by neurotypical observers when encoded in point-light displays. Some but not all relevant research shows significant deficits in biological motion perception among those with ASD, especially with respect to emotional displays. We tested adults with and without ASD on the perception of masked biological motion…

  8. Synergistic stiffening in double-fiber networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombouts, W.H.; Giesbers, M.; Lent, van J.W.M.; Wolf, de F.A.; Gucht, van der J.

    2014-01-01

    Many biological materials are composite structures, interpenetrating networks of different types of fibers. The composite nature of such networks leads to superior mechanical properties, but the origin of this mechanical synergism is still poorly understood. Here we study soft composite networks, ma

  9. Solid-state turn coordinator display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, B. D.; Crouch, R. K.; Kelly, W. L., IV

    1975-01-01

    A solid state turn coordinator display which employs light emitting diodes (LED's) as the display medium was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of such displays for aircraft applications. The input to the display is supplied by a fluidic inertial rate sensor used in an aircraft wing leveler system. The display is composed of the LED radial display face and the electronics necessary to address and drive the individual lines of LED's. Three levels of brightness are provided to compensate for the different amounts of ambient light present in the cockpit.

  10. Exposed-core chalcogenide microstructured optical fibers for chemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troles, Johann; Toupin, Perrine; Brilland, Laurent; Boussard-Plédel, Catherine; Bureau, Bruno; Cui, Shuo; Mechin, David; Adam, Jean-Luc

    2013-05-01

    Chemical bonds of most of the molecules vibrate at a frequency corresponding to the near or mid infrared field. It is thus of a great interest to develop sensitive and portable devices for the detection of specific chemicals and biomolecules for various applications in health, the environment, national security and so on. Optical fibers define practical sensing tools. Chalcogenide glasses are known for their transparency in the infrared optical range and their ability to be drawn as fibers. They are consequently good candidates to be used in biological/chemical sensing. For that matter, in the past decade, chalcogenide glass fibers have been successfully implemented in evanescent wave spectroscopy experiments, for the detection of bio-chemical species in various fields of applications including microbiology and medicine, water pollution and CO2 detection. Different types of fiber can be used: single index fibers or microstructured fibers. Besides, in recent years a new configuration of microstructured fibers has been developed: microstructured exposed-core fibers. This design consists of an optical fiber with a suspended micron-scale core that is partially exposed to the external environment. This configuration has been chosen to elaborate, using the molding method, a chalcogenide fiber for chemical species detection. The sensitivity of this fiber to detect molecules such as propan-2-ol and acetone has been compared with those of single index fibers. Although evanescent wave absorption is inversely proportional to the fiber diameter, the result shows that an exposed-core fiber is much more sensitive than a single index fiber having a twice smaller external diameter.

  11. Biochemical sensing application based on optical fiber evanescent wave sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoyi; Mo, Jiaqing; Xu, Liang; Jia, Zhenhong

    2015-08-01

    We have designed a novel evanescent field fiber optic biosensors with porous silicon dioxide cladding. The pore size of porous silicon dioxide cladding is about 100 nm in diameter. Biological molecules were immobilized to the porous silicon dioxide cladding used APTES and glutaraldehyde. Refractive index of cladding used Bruggemann's effective medium theory. We carried out simulations of changing in light intensity in optical fiber before and after chemical coupling of biomolecules. This novel optical fiber evanescent wave biosensor has a great potential in clinical chemistry for rapid and convenient determination of biological molecule.

  12. Fiber Optics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  13. Fiber optic chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chuck C.; McCrae, David A.; Saaski, Elric W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of the field of fiber optic chemical sensors. Several different types of fiber optic sensors and probes are described, and references are cited for each category discussed.

  14. The Effect of Heat on Structural Characteristics and Water Absorption Behavior of Agave Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Dip

    2008-04-01

    The structural characteristics and water absorptions behavior agave fibers were investigated over a range of temperature by using XRD, IR, TG and gravimetric methods. Three distinct thermal processes were observed during heating the fiber in the temperature range 310-760 K in air, oxygen and nitrogen invariably. The cellulose structures of the fibers were unaffected on heating up to 450 K. The samples showed thermal decomposition processes beyond 500 K. Fibers displayed a two-stage diffusion behavior. The structural parameters and kinetic of water absorption of the fibers at specific temperatures were analyzed.

  15. Rayleigh fiber optics gyroscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kung, A.; Budin, J.; Thévenaz, Luc; Robert, P. A.

    1997-01-01

    A novel kind of fiber-optic gyroscope based on Rayleigh backscattering in a fiber-ring resonator is presented in this letter. Information on the rotation rate is obtained from the composed response of the fiber ring to an optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) instrument. The developed model based on the coherence properties of the Rayleigh scattering yields a polarization-insensitive and low-cost gyroscope

  16. Helical Fiber Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplow, Jeffrey P.; Kliner, Dahy; Goldberg, Lew

    2002-12-17

    A multi-mode gain fiber is provided which affords substantial improvements in the maximum pulse energy, peak power handling capabilities, average output power, and/or pumping efficiency of fiber amplifier and laser sources while maintaining good beam quality (comparable to that of a conventional single-mode fiber source). These benefits are realized by coiling the multimode gain fiber to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode(s).

  17. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  18. ProPath Display Process Overview

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This API displays an overview of the process including the description, goals, associated roles (linked to their detailed information). It also displays all of the...

  19. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  20. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  1. Display-centred applications in ubiquitous computing

    OpenAIRE

    José, Rui; Pinto, Helder

    2006-01-01

    Public displays can play an important enabling role in ubiquitous computing environments. This paper describes an on-going work for a multipurpose, multi-display infrastructure, designed to address the requirements of display-centred applications in ubiquitous computing environments. The system provides an infrastructure in which situated displays can act as portals to the physical space, allowing ubicomp applications to support their association with the physical world by providing them with...

  2. Holographic Helmet-Mounted Display Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, James R., II; Larussa, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Helmet-mounted display unit designed for use in testing innovative concepts for display of information to aircraft pilots. Operates in conjunction with computers generating graphical displays. Includes two ocular subunits containing miniature cathoderay tubes and optics providing 40 degrees vertical, 50 degrees horizontal field of view to each eye, with or without stereopsis. In future color application, each ocular subunit includes trichromatic holographic combiner tuned to red, green, and blue wavelengths of phosphors used in development of miniature color display devices.

  3. Fiber Singular Optics

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Volyar

    2002-01-01

    The present review is devoted to the optical vortex behavior both in free space and optical fibers. The processes of the vortex transformations in perturbed optical fibers are analyzed on the base of the operator of the spin – orbit interaction in order to forecast the possible ways of manufacturing the vortex preserving fibers and their applications in supersensitive optical devices.

  4. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind; P.; Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications, the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the various nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  5. Fiber Nonlinearities: A Tutorial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Govind P. Agrawal

    2003-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearities have long been regarded as being mostly harmful for fiber-optic communication systems. Over the last few years, however, the nonlinear effects are increasingly being used for practical telecommunications applications,the Raman amplification being only one of the recent examples. In this tutorial I review the vario us nonlinear effects occurring in optical fibers from both standpoints..

  6. Resonant filtered fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Laurila, Marko; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent result on utilizing resonant/bandgap fiber designs to achieve high performance ytterbium doped fiber amplifers for achieving diffraction limited beam quality in large mode area fibers, robust bending performance and gain shaping for long wavelength operation...

  7. The Fiber Optic Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  8. Fiber Lasers V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes;

    2008-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser ...

  9. HA/FeCrAl纤维生物功能梯度材料的制备及其性能%Preparation and properties of HA/FeCrAl fibers biological functional gradient materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童晓阳; 邹俭鹏; 阮建明; 杨海林; 节云峰

    2011-01-01

    HA/FeCrAl fiber FGM was fabricated with hot pressing technique. SEM, EDAX and XRD were carried out to characterize its performance and microstructure. The results show that there are gradient changes in the FGM with FeCrAl fiber contents changing as 2.5%-5.0%-7.5%-10.0%-15.0%-20.0% and there is indistinct transition between gradient layers. Both HA and FeCrAl are evenly distributed in the gradient layers and interface fusion of the two phases is excellent. No obvious pores or cracks appear in the FGM. After pretreatment of diluted hydrochloric acid, the depression in fiber surface let fiber and matrix integrate better. Comprehensive bending strength of FGM is 78.89 Mpa. There exist FeCrAl fiber pull-out toughening mechanism and crack deflection toughening mechanism between layers in the FGM. Since only two phase structures with HA and FeCrAl are found in the FGM, no chemical reaction among HA and FeCrAl and hot pressing could takes place.%采用热压技术制备HA/FeCrAl纤维功能梯度材料(FGM),并借助SEM,EDAX和XRD等对HA/FeCrAl纤维FGM的性能和微观结构进行测试及观察。研究结果表明:HA/FeCrAl纤维FGM按FeCrAl纤维体积含量呈2.5%-5.0%-7.5%-10.0%-15.0%-20.0%梯度变化,梯度层之间模糊过渡。梯度层内纤维分布均匀,无明显的孔洞或裂纹等缺陷存在,两相界面融合良好。经稀盐酸预处理后,纤维表面产生的凹陷有利于纤维与基体紧密结合。HA/FeCrAl纤维FGM整体抗弯强度为78.89 MPa,体现出较明显的纤维拔出增强机制及层间裂纹偏转增韧机制。HA/FeCrAl纤维FGM的物相为HA和FeCrAl,无其他杂质相出现,无任何两相间及与热压模具间的反应发生。

  10. Reconfigurable Full-Page Braille Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, H. Douglas

    1994-01-01

    Electrically actuated braille display cells of proposed type arrayed together to form full-page braille displays. Like other braille display cells, these provide changeable patterns of bumps driven by digitally recorded text stored on magnetic tapes or in solid-state electronic memories. Proposed cells contain electrorheological fluid. Viscosity of such fluid increases in strong electrostatic field.

  11. Wet spinning of fibers made of chitosan and chitin nanofibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, Vladimir E; Dobrovolskaya, Irina P; Neelov, Igor M; Dresvyanina, Elena N; Popryadukhin, Pavel V; Ivan'kova, Elena M; Elokhovskii, Vladimir Yu; Kasatkin, Igor A; Okrugin, Boris M; Morganti, Pierfrancesco

    2014-08-01

    Biocompatible and bioresorbable composite fibers consisting of chitosan filled with anisotropic chitin nanofibrils with the length of 600-800 nm and cross section of about 11-12 nm as revealed by SEM and XRD were prepared by coagulation. Both chitin and chitosan components of the composite fibers displayed preferred orientations. Orientation of chitosan molecules induced by chitin nanocrystallites was confirmed by molecular modeling. The incorporation of 0.1-0.3 wt.% of chitin nanofibrils into chitosan matrix led to an increase in strength and Young modulus of the composite fibers. PMID:24751262

  12. Effects of Fiber Reinforcement on Clay Aerogel Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Finlay

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Novel, low density structures which combine biologically-based fibers with clay aerogels are produced in an environmentally benign manner using water as solvent, and no additional processing chemicals. Three different reinforcing fibers, silk, soy silk, and hemp, are evaluated in combination with poly(vinyl alcohol matrix polymer combined with montmorillonite clay. The mechanical properties of the aerogels are demonstrated to increase with reinforcing fiber length, in each case limited by a critical fiber length, beyond which mechanical properties decline due to maldistribution of filler, and disruption of the aerogel structure. Rather than the classical model for reinforced composite properties, the chemical compatibility of reinforcing fibers with the polymer/clay matrix dominated mechanical performance, along with the tendencies of the fibers to kink under compression.

  13. CERN students display their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The first poster session by students working on the LHC experiments, organised by the LPCC, was a great success. Showcasing the talents of over a hundred young physicists from all over the world, it was an opportunity for everyone at CERN to check out the wide range of research work being done by the new generation of physicists at CERN.   At 5.30 p.m. on Wednesday 23 March, the first poster session by CERN students took place in Restaurant No.1, where no fewer than 87 posters went on public display. The students were split into 8 groups according to their research field* and all were on hand to answer the questions of an inquisitive audience. TH Department's Michelangelo Mangano, who is head of the LHC Physics Centre at CERN (LPCC) and is responsible for the initiative, confirms that nothing was left to chance, even the choice of date: "We wanted to make the most of the general enthusiasm around the winter conferences and the meeting of the LHC Experiments Committee to present the stud...

  14. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  15. Fiber optic laser rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, G.F.

    1988-04-13

    A laser rod is formed from a plurality of optical fibers, each forming an individual laser. Synchronization of the individual fiber lasers is obtained by evanescent wave coupling between adjacent optical fiber cores. The fiber cores are dye-doped and spaced at a distance appropriate for evanescent wave coupling at the wavelength of the selected dye. An interstitial material having an index of refraction lower than that of the fiber core provides the optical isolation for effective lasing action while maintaining the cores at the appropriate coupling distance. 2 figs.

  16. Ultrabarrier Flexible Substrates for Flat Panel Displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, Paul E.; Graff, Gordon L.; Gross, Mark E.; Martin, Peter M.; Shi, Ming-Kun; Hall, Michael G.; Mast, Eric S.; Bonham, Charles C.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Sullivan, Michael B.

    2001-05-01

    We describe a flexible, transparent plastic substrate for flat panel display applications. Using roll-coating techniques, we apply a composite thin film barrier to commercially available polymers, which restricts moisture and oxygen permeation to undetectable levels. The barrier film can be capped with a thin film of transparent conductive oxide in the same roll-coater, yielding an engineered substrate (Barix™) for next generation, rugged, lightweight or flexible displays. The substrate is sufficiently impermeable to moisture and oxygen for application to moisture-sensitive display applications, such as organic light emitting displays (OLEDs). This enables, for the first time, lightweight and flexible emissive organic displays.

  17. Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Per

    2004-01-01

    , leading to reduced mode confinement and dispersion flexibility. In this thesis, we treat the nonlinear photonic crystal fiber – a special sub-class of photonic crystal fibers, the core of which has a diameter comparable to the wavelength of the light guided in the fiber. The small core results in a large...... nonlinear coefficient and in various applications, it is therefore possible to reduce the required fiber lengths quite dramatically, leading to increased stability and efficiency. Furthermore, it is possible to design these fibers with zero-dispersion at previously unreachable wavelengths, paving the way...... for completely new applications, especially in and near the visible wavelength region. One such application is supercontinuum generation. Supercontinuum generation is extreme broadening of pulses in a nonlinear medium (in this case a small-core fiber), and depending on the dispersion of the fiber, it is possible...

  18. Investigation on the biological enzyme degumming technology combined with chemical method on hemp fiber%汉麻纤维的生物酶与化学法联合脱胶工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵欣; 赵彦松; 罗晶琨

    2015-01-01

    采用酸性果胶酶和木聚糖酶复配对汉麻纤维进行前处理后,再使用氢氧化钠传统方法对汉麻纤维进行二次脱胶,分析了酶用量、时间、温度、pH和二次脱胶时氢氧化钠用量对煮练效果的影响,并确定最佳工艺条件为:酸性果胶酶9%(omf),木聚糖酶12%(omf),时间120 min,温度50℃,pH=4.6,二次脱胶时使用6 g/L氢氧化钠.与传统煮练法漂白后的大麻纤维相比,联合脱胶漂白后纤维的白度基本保持不变,但后者的失重率、断裂强力和残胶率却均优于前者.%Hemp fibers pretreated with acid pectinase and xylanase were degummed once again with the traditional sodium hydroxide. The influences of the amount of enzyme, treating time and temperature, pH and the dosage of sodium hydroxide in the second degumming on scouring effect were analyzed, and the opti-mum technological conditions were determined as the amount of pectinase was 9%(omf), xylanase dosage was 12%(omf), the time was 120 min, the temperature was 50 ℃, pH was 4.6 and the concentration of sodi-um hydroxide in second degumming was 6 g/L. Compared with bleached hemp fibers with traditional scouring method, the whiteness of the bleached hemp fibers with combined method remain nearly unchanged, the weight loss rate, breaking strength and the residual gum rate was better.

  19. Military display market segment: wearable and portable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2003-09-01

    The military display market (MDM) is analyzed in terms of one of its segments, wearable and portable displays. Wearable and portable displays are those embedded in gear worn or carried by warfighters. Categories include hand-mobile (direct-view and monocular/binocular), palm-held, head/helmet-mounted, body-strapped, knee-attached, lap-born, neck-lanyard, and pocket/backpack-stowed. Some 62 fielded and developmental display sizes are identified in this wearable/portable MDM segment. Parameters requiring special consideration, such as weight, luminance ranges, light emission, viewing angles, and chromaticity coordinates, are summarized and compared. Ruggedized commercial versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted; and a number of custom displays are also found in this MDM category. Display sizes having aggregate quantities of 5,000 units or greater or having 2 or more program applications are identified. Wearable and portable displays are also analyzed by technology (LCD, LED, CRT, OLED and plasma). The technical specifications and program history of several high-profile military programs are discussed to provide a systems context for some representative displays and their function. As of August 2002 our defense-wide military display market study has documented 438,882 total display units distributed across 1,163 display sizes and 438 weapon systems. Wearable and portable displays account for 202,593 displays (46% of total DoD) yet comprise just 62 sizes (5% of total DoD) in 120 weapons systems (27% of total DoD). Some 66% of these wearable and portable applications involve low information content displays comprising just a few characters in one color; however, there is an accelerating trend towards higher information content units capable of showing changeable graphics, color and video.

  20. Fiber-Optic Chemical Sensors and Fiber-Optic Bio-Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pospíšilová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes principles and current stage of development of fiber-optic chemical sensors (FOCS and biosensors (FOBS. Fiber optic sensor (FOS systems use the ability of optical fibers (OF to guide the light in the spectral range from ultraviolet (UV (180 nm up to middle infrared (IR (10 μm and modulation of guided light by the parameters of the surrounding environment of the OF core. The introduction of OF in the sensor systems has brought advantages such as measurement in flammable and explosive environments, immunity to electrical noises, miniaturization, geometrical flexibility, measurement of small sample volumes, remote sensing in inaccessible sites or harsh environments and multi-sensing. The review comprises briefly the theory of OF elaborated for sensors, techniques of fabrications and analytical results reached with fiber-optic chemical and biological sensors.

  1. Display Blocks: a Set of Cubic Displays for Tangible, Multi-Perspective Data Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Pla i Conesa, Pol; Maes, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This paper details the design and implementation of a new type of display technology. Display Blocks are a response to two major limitations of current displays: dimensional compression and physical-digital disconnect. Each Display Block consists of six organic light emitting diode (OLED) screens, arranged in a cubic form factor. We explore the possibilities that this type of display holds for data visualization, manipulation and exploration. To this end, we accompany our design with a set of...

  2. Display elements and gaps: a comparison of flat panel display characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Spenkelink, G.P.J.; Besuijen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The relation between typical flat panel display characteristics and display quality was studied. Subjective preferences were obtained with respect to simulated black-on-white flat panel displays. The displays differed in the sort of separation between the display elements and the shape of these elements. Further, the height/width ratio of the front was studied in relation with a fixed font matrix. The preferences were obtained through a paired comparison of all possible pairs of simulated dis...

  3. Data display with the Q system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Q data-acquisition system for PDP-11 mini-computers at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) provides experimenters with basic tools for on-line data display. Tasks are available to plot one- and two-parameter histograms on Tektronix 4000 series storage-tube terminals. The histograms to be displayed and the display format may be selected with simple keyboard commands. A task is also available to create and display live two-parameter scatter plots for any acquired or calculated quantities. Other tasks in the system manage the display data base, list display parameters and histogram contents on hardcopy devices, and save core histograms on disk or tape for off-line analysis. 8 figures

  4. Laser-driven polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte-black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 200 milliwatt green solid-state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the DLP chip, the optomechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  5. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  6. Spectroradiometric characterization of autostereoscopic 3D displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiño, Manuel; Salas, Carlos; Pozo, Antonio M.; Castro, J. J.; Pérez-Ocón, Francisco

    2013-11-01

    Spectroradiometric measurements have been made for the experimental characterization of the RGB channels of autostereoscopic 3D displays, giving results for different measurement angles with respect to the normal direction of the plane of the display. In the study, 2 different models of autostereoscopic 3D displays of different sizes and resolutions were used, making measurements with a spectroradiometer (model PR-670 SpectraScan of PhotoResearch). From the measurements made, goniometric results were recorded for luminance contrast, and the fundamental hypotheses have been evaluated for the characterization of the displays: independence of the RGB channels and their constancy. The results show that the display with the lower angle variability in the contrast-ratio value and constancy of the chromaticity coordinates nevertheless presented the greatest additivity deviations with the measurement angle. For both displays, when the parameters evaluated were taken into account, lower angle variability consistently resulted in the 2D mode than in the 3D mode.

  7. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...... design method that matches the industrial practice of modular plant design and satisfies the needs of reusability of display design solutions. The main considerations in display design in the industry are to specify the operator's activities in detail, to extract the information the operators need from...... the plant design specification and documentation, and finally to present this information. The form of the display is selected from existing standardized display elements such as trend curves, mimic diagrams, ecological interfaces, etc. Further knowledge is required to invent new display elements. That is...

  8. Electrospun Fibers for Energy, Electronic, & Environmental Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Nicholas M.

    Electrospinning is an established method for creating polymer and bio-polymer fibers of dimensions ranging from ˜10 nanometers to microns. The process typically involves applying a high voltage between a solution source (usually at the end of a capillary or syringe) and a substrate on which the nanofibers are deposited. The high electric field distorts the shape of the liquid droplet, creating a Taylor cone. Additional applied voltage ejects a liquid jet of the polymer solution in the Taylor cone toward the counter electrode. The formation of fibers is generated by the rapid electrostatic elongation and solvent evaporation of this viscoelastic jet, which typically generates an entangled non-woven mesh of fibers with a high surface area to volume ratio. Electrospinning is an attractive alternative to other processes for creating nano-scale fibers and high surface area to volume ratio surfaces due to its low start up cost, overall simplicity, wide range of processable materials, and the ability to generate a moderate amount of fibers in one step. It has also been demonstrated that coaxial electrospinning is possible, wherein the nanofiber has two distinct phases, one being the core and another being the sheath. This method is advantageous because properties of two materials can be combined into one fiber, while maintaining two distinct material phases. Materials that are inherently electrospinable could be made into fibers using this technique as well. The most common applications areas for electrospun fibers are in filtration and biomedical areas, with a comparatively small amount of work done in energy, environmental, and sensor applications. Furthermore, the use of biologically materials in electrospun fibers is an avenue of research that needs more exploration, given the unique properties these materials can exhibit. The research aim of this thesis is to explore the use of electrospun fibers for energy, electrical and environmental applications. For energy

  9. Matrix silicon microcathodes for field emission displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Druzhynin А. A.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The existing and perspective types of flat displays are analyzed. The structure of field emission display pixel cell, materials of microcathodes and technologies of their manufacturing are considered. Matrix silicon microcathodes for field emission displays are offered and the sequence of base operations of their manufacturing on SOI-substrate is developed. The density of field emission current of the matrix microcathode is calculated.

  10. AMOLED as a green solution for display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsin; Hsu, Shih-Feng; Lee, Chung-Chun; Huang, Wei-Pang

    2009-08-01

    AMOLED(active matrix OLED) is known as the next generation display technology due to its better display quality, thin form factor, lower power consumption, etc. With increasing demand of environment-friendly technology, OLED had become a green solution for display. Additionally, due to its simple device structure, extra function could be easily integrated. In this paper, in-cell touch AMOLED is also described briefly.

  11. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes;

    2011-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last 5 years. Many of the traditional manufacturers of gas and solid-state lasers are now pursuing the fiber-based systems, which are displacing the conventional technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser systems...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 100 m single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to megawatt power levels. Furthermore, we describe the novel airclad-based pump combiners and their use in a completely...... monolithic 350 W cw fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. © 2011 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)....

  12. Airclad fiber laser technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes;

    2008-01-01

    High-power fiber lasers and amplifiers have gained tremendous momentum in the last five years, and many of the traditional manufactures of gas and solid-state lasers are pursuing the attractive fiber-based systems, which are now displacing the old technology in many areas. High-power fiber laser...... laser system. We present the latest advancements within airclad fiber technology including a new 70 μm single-mode polarization-maintaining rod-type fiber capable of amplifying to MW power levels. Furthermore we describe the novel airclad based pump combiners and their use in a completely monolithic 350...... W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening and its origin....

  13. Conifer fibers as reinforcing materials for polypropylene-based composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Chengzhi, Chuai; Almdal, Kristoffer;

    2001-01-01

    in improved processing, as well as improvements in the thermal and mechanical properties of the resultant composites compared with the composites filled with untreated conifer fibers. Moreover, MAPP grafting and MAPP treating displayed more obvious benefits than EPDM treating in terms of thermal properties...

  14. Strength measurements of silica optical fibers under severe environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, I.; El Abdi, R.; Poulain, M.

    2007-03-01

    Optical fibers are key components in telecommunication technologies. Apart from optical specifications, optical fibers are expected to keep most of their physical properties for 10-20 years in current operating conditions. The reliability and the expected lifetime of optical links are closely related to action of the chemical environment on the silica network. However, the coating also contributes largely to the mechanical properties of the fibers. The aim of this work was to study the strength and the mechanical behavior of the silica optical fibers in an acid environment and with a permanent deformation. A container with ammonium bifluoride acid salt was plunged into hot water at different temperatures (55 and 75 °C). This emitted acid vapors which attacked the optical fibers for a period of 1-18 days. An aging study was performed on silica optical fibers with standard polyacrylate coating and with hermetic carbon coating. A dynamic two-point bending bench at different faceplate velocities (100, 200, 400 and 800 μm/s) was used. For comparison, the same dynamic measurements were also carried out on non-aged fibers. After acid vapor condensation, salt crystal deposits on the fibers were displayed using an electron scanning microscope. These crystals became visible to the naked eye from the seventh day.

  15. Aging study of silica optical fibers under acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, I.; El Abdi, R.; Poulain, M.

    2005-05-01

    Optical fibers are key components in telecommunication technologies. Apart from optical specifications, optical fibers are expected to keep most of their physical properties for 10 to 20 years in current operating conditions. The reliability and the expected lifetime of optical links are closely related to the action of the chemical environment on the silica network. However, the coating also contributes largely to the mechanical properties of the fibers. The aim of this work was to study the strength and the mechanical behaviour of the silica optical fibers in an acid environment. A container with ammonium bifluoride acid salt was plunged into hot water at different temperatures (55° and 75°C). This emitted acid vapors which attacked the optical fibers for a period of 1 to 18 days. An aging study was performed on silica optical fibers with standard polyacrylate coating and with hermetic carbon coating. A dynamic two-point bending bench at different faceplate velocities (100, 200, 400 and 800 μm/s) was used. For comparison, the same dynamic measurements were also carried out on non-aged fibers. After acid vapor condensation, salt crystal deposits on the fibers were displayed using an electron scanning microscope. These crystals became visible to the naked eye from the 7th day post exposure.

  16. Pengaruh Display Produk pada Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision.

  17. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  18. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  19. Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D. (2011). Energy Awareness Displays - Making the Invisible Visible. Presentation given at the Startbijeenkomst SURFnet Innovatieregeling Duurzaamheid & ICT. May, 13, 2011, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

  20. Optical Sensors Based on Plastic Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilro, Lúcia; Alberto, Nélia; Pinto, João L.; Nogueira, Rogério

    2012-01-01

    The recent advances of polymer technology allowed the introduction of plastic optical fiber in sensor design. The advantages of optical metrology with plastic optical fiber have attracted the attention of the scientific community, as they allow the development of low-cost or cost competitive systems compared with conventional technologies. In this paper, the current state of the art of plastic optical fiber technology will be reviewed, namely its main characteristics and sensing advantages. Several measurement techniques will be described, with a strong focus on interrogation approaches based on intensity variation in transmission and reflection. The potential applications involving structural health monitoring, medicine, environment and the biological and chemical area are also presented. PMID:23112707

  1. Digital confocal microscopy through a multimode fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Loterie, Damien; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Goy, Alexandre; Psaltis, Demetri; Moser, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Acquiring high-contrast optical images deep inside biological tissues is still a challenging issue. Confocal microscopy is an important tool for biomedical imaging since it improves image quality by rejecting background signals. On the other hand, it suffers from low sensitivities in deep tissues due to light scattering. Recently, multimode fibers have provided a new paradigm for minimally invasive endoscopic imaging by controlling light propagation through them. Here we introduce a combined imaging technique where confocal images of a human epithelial cell are acquired through a multimode fiber. We achieve this by digitally engineering the excitation wavefront and then applying a virtual digital pinhole on the collected signal. In this way, we are able to acquire images through the fiber with significantly increased contrast.

  2. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  3. Fiber Lasers V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim P.; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin; Broeng, Jes;

    2008-01-01

    systems require specially designed fibers with large cores and good power handling capabilities – requirements that are all met by the airclad fiber technology. In the present paper we go through many of the building blocks needed to build high-power systems and we show an example of a complete airclad...... W CW fiber laser system with an M2 of less than 1.1. Finally, we briefly touch upon the subject of photo darkening and its origin....

  4. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj, R; A. Patel, S. Chokdeepanich, Ph.D.; G.G. Chase, Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a t...

  5. Fiber composite flywheel rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald E.; Ingham, Kenneth T.

    1987-01-01

    A flywheel 2 comprising a hub 4 having at least one radially projecting disc 6, an annular rim 14 secured to said disc and providing a surface circumferential to said hub, a first plurality of resin-impregnated fibers 22 wound about said rim congruent to said surface, and a shell 26 enclosing said first plurality of fibers and formed by a second plurality of resin-impregnated fibers wound about said rim tangentially to said surface.

  6. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Hulle; Pradyumkumar Kadole; Pooja Katkar

    2015-01-01

    The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant i...

  7. Development of Fiber Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yang; HUANG, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, fiber lasers have been focused as research topic in the field of laser. It is widely applicable in the field of modern optical communication, optical sensing, materials technology, life sciences and precision mechanics, national defence science ,etc. Fiber laser is typical representative of the third generation lasers. Fiber lasers have great ad-vantages compare to any other lasers, such as long lifetime, small size, high efficiency, compact structure, etc. This repor...

  8. Radio over fiber systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ghafoor, Salman

    2012-01-01

    The three main types of Radio Over Fiber (ROF)communication systems, namely analogue ROF, baseband ROF and digitized ROF are investigated. Optical fibers are increasingly replacing copper wires. In long-haul, high-bit-rate communication systems optical fiber has already become the dominant mode of transmission due to its enormous bandwidth and low loss. ROF facilitate the seamless integration of optical and wireless communication systems. Since the RF spectrum is limited, wireless systems rel...

  9. Applications of chalcogenide fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Hewak, D. W.; Khan, K.; Huang, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Chalcogenide glass optical fibers have been extensively studied since 1967, when sulphide based fibers and their potential applications were first proposed. While high quality fiber drawn from alloys containing a variety of chalcogen elements have been realized, their delicate nature, complicated fabrication methodology and expense has restricted widespread application and commercial acceptance. In this paper we describe our current work on the fabrication and application of chalcogenide fibe...

  10. Optical fiber technology 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Romaniuk, Ryszard S.; Wójcik, Waldemar

    2013-01-01

    The Conference on Optical Fibers and Their Applications, Nał˛eczów 2012, in its 14th edition, which has been organized since more than 35 years, has summarized the achievements of the local optical fiber technology community, for the last year and a half. The conference specializes in developments of optical fiber technology, glass and polymer, classical and microstructured, passive and active. The event gathered around 100 participants. There were shown 60 presentations ...

  11. Biological computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lamm, Ehud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction and Biological BackgroundBiological ComputationThe Influence of Biology on Mathematics-Historical ExamplesBiological IntroductionModels and Simulations Cellular Automata Biological BackgroundThe Game of Life General Definition of Cellular Automata One-Dimensional AutomataExamples of Cellular AutomataComparison with a Continuous Mathematical Model Computational UniversalitySelf-Replication Pseudo Code Evolutionary ComputationEvolutionary Biology and Evolutionary ComputationGenetic AlgorithmsExample ApplicationsAnalysis of the Behavior of Genetic AlgorithmsLamarckian Evolution Genet

  12. Agave Americana Leaf Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Hulle

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing environmental problems, the problem of waste disposal and the depletion of non-renewable resources have stimulated the use of green materials compatible with the environment to reduce environmental impacts. Therefore, there is a need to design products by using natural resources. Natural fibers seem to be a good alternative since they are abundantly available and there are a number of possibilities to use all the components of a fiber-yielding crop; one such fiber-yielding plant is Agave Americana. The leaves of this plant yield fibers and all the parts of this plant can be utilized in many applications. The “zero-waste” utilization of the plant would enable its production and processing to be translated into a viable and sustainable industry. Agave Americana fibers are characterized by low density, high tenacity and high moisture absorbency in comparison with other leaf fibers. These fibers are long and biodegradable. Therefore, we can look this fiber as a sustainable resource for manufacturing and technical applications. Detailed discussion is carried out on extraction, characterization and applications of Agave Americana fiber in this paper.

  13. Oriented Fiber Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bharadwaj

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Coalescing filters are widely used throughout industry and improved performance will reduce droplet emissions and operating costs. Experimental observations show orientation of micro fibers in filter media effect the permeability and the separation efficiency of the filter media. In this work two methods are used to align the fibers to alter the filter structure. The results show that axially aligned fiber media improve quality factor on the order of 20% and cutting media on an angle from a thick layered media can improve performance by about 40%. The results also show the improved performance is not monotonically correlated to the average fiber angle of the medium.

  14. Applications of monolithic fiber interferometers and actively controlled fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Rugeland, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to develop applications of monolithic fiber devices and actively controlled fibers. A special twin-core fiber known as a ‘Gemini’ fiber was used to construct equal arm-length fiber interferometers, impervious to temperature and mechanical perturbations. A broadband add/drop multiplexer was constructed by inscribing fiber Bragg gratings in the arms of a Gemini Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A broadband interferometric nanosecond switch was constructed from a micr...

  15. Flatbed-type 3D display systems using integral imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Yuzo; Nagatani, Hiroyuki; Saishu, Tatsuo; Fukushima, Rieko; Taira, Kazuki

    2006-10-01

    We have developed prototypes of flatbed-type autostereoscopic display systems using one-dimensional integral imaging method. The integral imaging system reproduces light beams similar of those produced by a real object. Our display architecture is suitable for flatbed configurations because it has a large margin for viewing distance and angle and has continuous motion parallax. We have applied our technology to 15.4-inch displays. We realized horizontal resolution of 480 with 12 parallaxes due to adoption of mosaic pixel arrangement of the display panel. It allows viewers to see high quality autostereoscopic images. Viewing the display from angle allows the viewer to experience 3-D images that stand out several centimeters from the surface of the display. Mixed reality of virtual 3-D objects and real objects are also realized on a flatbed display. In seeking reproduction of natural 3-D images on the flatbed display, we developed proprietary software. The fast playback of the CG movie contents and real-time interaction are realized with the aid of a graphics card. Realization of the safety 3-D images to the human beings is very important. Therefore, we have measured the effects on the visual function and evaluated the biological effects. For example, the accommodation and convergence were measured at the same time. The various biological effects are also measured before and after the task of watching 3-D images. We have found that our displays show better results than those to a conventional stereoscopic display. The new technology opens up new areas of application for 3-D displays, including arcade games, e-learning, simulations of buildings and landscapes, and even 3-D menus in restaurants.

  16. Soliton mode fiber direction couplers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. L. Andrushko

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of working towards fiber couplers in the nonlinear regime. The results can be used in the design of the main lines on the optical fibers and fiber optic sensors to create physical quantities.

  17. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1". One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  18. A Novel Polarization Maintaining Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin Xue

    2003-01-01

    It introduces a novel elliptical jacket polarization maintaining fiber, whose SAP is like numeral "1" One preform can be drawn over 8km. Fiber's performances show that it is fit for fiber gyroscope and other sensors.

  19. Additive and subtractive transparent depth displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Toet, A.

    2003-01-01

    Image fusion is the generally preferred method to combine two or more images for visual display on a single screen. We demonstrate that perceptual image separation may be preferable over perceptual image fusion for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. In this context image separat

  20. Language Display: Authenticating Claims to Social Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Carol M.; Stein, Roberta F.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses "language display," a language use strategy whereby members of one group lay claims to attributes associated with another, conveying messages of social, professional, ethnic identity. Examples from academia, politics, business, and advertising reveal language display functions as artifact of crossing linguistic boundaries without…

  1. Imager displays free fall in stop action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor-controlled imaging system displays sequence of "frozen" images of free-falling object, using video cameras positioned along fall. Strobe lights flash as object passes each camera's viewfield. Sequence stored on video disk and displayed on television monitor is stop-action record of fall dynamics. With modification, system monitiors other high speed phenomena.

  2. New control system: displays on stations screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setting applications display on control stations screens uses X-WINDOWS and graphic interface MOTIF. Representation of Y=f(x) and of data tables are displayed by the utilization P-GRAPHICS package using simplified functions of GOBE library routines. (A.B.). 1 fig

  3. Monitor displays in radiology: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitor displays play an important role in modern radiology practice. Practicing radiologists need to be familiar with the various performance parameters of medical-grade displays. A certain amount of technical knowledge is useful when making purchasing decisions since the right choice of equipment can have a great impact on the accuracy, efficiency, and speed in the radiology department

  4. Monitor displays in radiology: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitor displays are an integral part of today's radiology work environment, attached to workstations, USG, CT/MRI consoles and PACS terminals. For each modality and method of use, the correct display monitor needs to be deployed. It helps to have a basic understanding of how monitors work and what are the issues involved in their selection

  5. A duality theorem for Dieudonne displays

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Eike

    2008-01-01

    We show that the Zink equivalence between p-divisible groups and Dieudonne displays over a complete local ring with perfect residue field of characteristic p is compatible with duality. The proof relies on a new explicit formula for the p-divisible group associated to a Dieudonne display.

  6. Recent progress in flexible OLED displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Michael G.; Weaver, Michael S.; Mahon, Janice K.; Brown, Julie J.

    2001-09-01

    Organic light emitting device (OLED) technology has recently been shown to demonstrate excellent performance and cost characteristics for use in numerous flat panel display (FPD) applications. OLED displays emit bright, colorful light with excellent power efficiency, wide viewing angle and video response rates. OLEDs are also demonstrating the requisite environmental robustness for a wide variety of applications. OLED technology is also the first FPD technology with the potential to be highly functional and durable in a flexible format. The use of plastic and other flexible substrate materials offers numerous advantages over commonly used glass substrates, including impact resistance, light weight, thinness and conformability. Currently, OLED displays are being fabricated on rigid substrates, such as glass or silicon wafers. At Universal Display Corporation (UDC), we are developing a new class of flexible OLED displays (FOLEDs). These displays also have extremely low power consumption through the use of electrophosphorescent doped OLEDs. To commercialize FOLED technology, a number of technical issues related to packaging and display processing on flexible substrates need to be addressed. In this paper, we report on our recent results to demonstrate the key technologies that enable the manufacture of power efficient, long-life flexible OLED displays for commercial and military applications.

  7. A visual-display and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomworth, D. R.; Moles, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Memory and display device uses cathodochromic material to store visual information and fast phosphor to recall information for display and electronic processing. Cathodochromic material changes color when bombarded with electrons, and is restored to its original color when exposed to light of appropiate wavelength.

  8. Carbon Fibers from UV-Assisted Stabilization of Lignin-Based Precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of high strength carbon fibers from bio-derived precursors is of topical interest. Recently, we reported on dry-spinning of a partially acetylated softwood kraft lignin to produce carbon fibers with superior properties, but the thermo-oxidative stabilization step required a long time due to a slow heating rate needed to prevent the fibers from being heated too rapidly and sticking to each other. Here we report a rapid strategy of dual UV-thermoxidative stabilization (crosslinking of dry-spun lignin fibers that significantly reduces the stabilization time. The fibers undergo reaction close to the surface such that they can be subsequently thermally stabilized at a rapid heating rate without fibers fusing together, which reduces the total stabilization time significantly from 40 to 4 h. Consequently, the glass transition temperature of UV irradiated fibers was about 15 °C higher than that of fibers without UV treatment. Stabilized fibers were successfully carbonized at 1000 °C and resulting carbon fibers displayed a tensile strength of 900 ± 100 MPa, which is amongst the highest reported for carbon fibers derived from softwood lignin-based precursors. These results establish that UV irradiation is a rapid step that can effectively shorten the total stabilization time for production of lignin-derived carbon fibers.

  9. Photonic crystal fiber half-taper probe based refractometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengfei; Ding, Ming; Bo, Lin; Guan, Chunying; Semenova, Yuliya; Sun, Weimin; Yuan, Libo; Brambilla, Gilberto; Farrell, Gerald

    2014-04-01

    A compact single-mode photonic crystal fiber single-mode fiber tip (SPST) refractive index sensor is demonstrated in this Letter. A CO2 laser cleaving technique is utilized to provide a clean-cut fiber tip, which is then coated by a layer of gold to increase reflection. An average sensitivity of 39.1 nm/RIU and a resolvable index change of 2.56×10(-4) are obtained experimentally with a ∼3.2 μm diameter SPST. The temperature dependence of this fiber-optic sensor probe is presented. The proposed SPST refractometer is also significantly less sensitive to temperature and an experimental demonstration of this reduced sensitivity is presented in the Letter. Because of its compactness, ease of fabrication, linear response, low temperature dependency, easy connectivity to other fiberized optical components and low cost, this refractometer could find various applications in chemical and biological sensing. PMID:24686678

  10. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  11. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... of supporting such behavior, we implemented a gesture controlled multiuser game with four pausing techniques. We evaluated them in a field study analyzing 704 users and found that our pausing techniques were eagerly explored, but rarely used with the intention to pause the game. Our study shows...... that interactions with public displays are considerably intermissive, and that users mostly interrupt interaction to socialize and mainly approach public displays in groups. We conclude that, as a typical characteristic of public display interaction, interruptions deserve consideration. However, manual pause modes...

  12. Applications of nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2008-01-01

    * The only book describing applications of nonlinear fiber optics * Two new chapters on the latest developments: highly nonlinear fibers and quantum applications* Coverage of biomedical applications* Problems provided at the end of each chapterThe development of new highly nonlinear fibers - referred to as microstructured fibers, holey fibers and photonic crystal fibers - is the next generation technology for all-optical signal processing and biomedical applications. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to incorporate these key technology developments.The bo

  13. Miniaturized Optical Tweezers Through Fiber-End Microfabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Liberale, Carlo

    2014-07-30

    Optical tweezers represent a powerful tool for a variety of applications both in biology and in physics, and their miniaturization and full integration is of great interest so as to reduce size (towards portable systems), and to minimize the required intervention from the operator. Optical fibers represent a natural solution to achieve this goal, and here we review the realization of single-fiber optical tweezers able to create a purely optical three-dimensional trap. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  14. Identification and Ultrastructural Characterization of a Novel Nuclear Degradation Complex in Differentiating Lens Fiber Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, M Joseph; Brennan, Lisa A; Mohamed, Ashik; Gilliland, Kurt O; Johnsen, Sönke; Kantorow, Marc

    2016-01-01

    An unresolved issue in structural biology is how the encapsulated lens removes membranous organelles to carry out its role as a transparent optical element. In this ultrastructural study, we establish a mechanism for nuclear elimination in the developing chick lens during the formation of the organelle-free zone. Day 12-15 chick embryo lenses were examined by high-resolution confocal light microscopy and thin section transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following fixation in 10% formalin and 4% paraformaldehyde, and then processing for confocal or TEM as described previously. Examination of developing fiber cells revealed normal nuclei with dispersed chromatin and clear nucleoli typical of cells in active ribosome production to support protein synthesis. Early signs of nuclear degradation were observed about 300 μm from the lens capsule in Day 15 lenses where the nuclei display irregular nuclear stain and prominent indentations that sometimes contained a previously undescribed macromolecular aggregate attached to the nuclear envelope. We have termed this novel structure the nuclear excisosome. This complex by confocal is closely adherent to the nuclear envelope and by TEM appears to degrade the outer leaflet of the nuclear envelope, then the inner leaflet up to 500 μm depth. The images suggest that the nuclear excisosome separates nuclear membrane proteins from lipids, which then form multilamellar assemblies that stain intensely in confocal and in TEM have 5 nm spacing consistent with pure lipid bilayers. The denuded nucleoplasm then degrades by condensation and loss of structure in the range 600 to 700 μm depth producing pyknotic nuclear remnants. None of these stages display any classic autophagic vesicles or lysosomes associated with nuclei. Uniquely, the origin of the nuclear excisosome is from filopodial-like projections of adjacent lens fiber cells that initially contact, and then appear to fuse with the outer nuclear membrane. These filopodial

  15. Sources of Dietary Fiber and the Association of Fiber Intake with Childhood Obesity Risk (in 2–18 Year Olds) and Diabetes Risk of Adolescents 12–18 Year Olds: NHANES 2003–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Brauchla; WenYen Juan; Jon Story; Sibylle Kranz

    2012-01-01

    Increased fiber intake has been linked with lower risk of overweight and obesity in adults, but data are sparse for children. To address this issue, NHANES 2003–2006 data was used to evaluate (1) the food sources of fiber in children, (2) the dietary fiber density levels and risk of being classified as overweight/obese, and (3) the association between fiber intake level and impaired glucose metabolism in children. Analyses were restricted to the subsample of children with biological plausible...

  16. Contact fiber bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    We define contact fiber bundles and investigate conditions for the existence of contact structures on the total space of such a bundle. The results are analogous to minimal coupling in symplectic geometry. The two applications are construction of K-contact manifolds generalizing Yamazaki's fiber join construction and a cross-section theorem for contact moment maps

  17. Fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Nieuwland, R.A.; Toet, P.M.; Agovic, K.

    2010-01-01

    A brief overview of fiber Bragg grating based sensor technology from sensor head, read out unit and commercial applications is given. Fiber Bragg grating based sensor systems are becoming mature rapidly. Components for commercial pressure sensors and temperature sensors are available and slowly gett

  18. High-density multicore fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takenaga, K.; Matsuo, S.; Saitoh, K.;

    2016-01-01

    High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber.......High-density single-mode multicore fibers were designed and fabricated. A heterogeneous 30-core fiber realized a low crosstalk of −55 dB. A quasi-single-mode homogeneous 31-core fiber attained the highest core count as a single-mode multicore fiber....

  19. Biomimetic spinning of silk fibers and in situ cell encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Park, DoYeun; Jun, Yesl; Lee, JaeSeo; Hyun, Jinho; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    In situ embedding of sensitive materials (e.g., cells and proteins) in silk fibers without damage presents a significant challenge due to the lack of mild and efficient methods. Here, we report the development of a microfluidic chip-based method for preparation of meter-long silk fibroin (SF) hydrogel fibers by mimicking the silkworm-spinning process. For the spinning of SF fibers, alginate was used as a sericin-like material to induce SF phase separation and entrap liquid SFs, making it possible to shape the outline of SF-based fibers under mild physicochemical conditions. L929 fibroblasts were encapsulated in the fibric hydrogel and displayed excellent viability. Cell-laden SF fibric hydrogels prepared using our method offer a new type of SF-based biomedical device with potential utility in biomedicine.

  20. Biomimetic spinning of silk fibers and in situ cell encapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Park, DoYeun; Jun, Yesl; Lee, JaeSeo; Hyun, Jinho; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2016-07-01

    In situ embedding of sensitive materials (e.g., cells and proteins) in silk fibers without damage presents a significant challenge due to the lack of mild and efficient methods. Here, we report the development of a microfluidic chip-based method for preparation of meter-long silk fibroin (SF) hydrogel fibers by mimicking the silkworm-spinning process. For the spinning of SF fibers, alginate was used as a sericin-like material to induce SF phase separation and entrap liquid SFs, making it possible to shape the outline of SF-based fibers under mild physicochemical conditions. L929 fibroblasts were encapsulated in the fibric hydrogel and displayed excellent viability. Cell-laden SF fibric hydrogels prepared using our method offer a new type of SF-based biomedical device with potential utility in biomedicine. PMID:27296229

  1. Liquid crystal orientation control in photonic liquid crystal fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chychlowski, M. S.; Nowinowski-Kruszelnicki, E.; Woliński, T. R.

    2011-05-01

    Similarly to liquid crystal displays technology in photonic liquid crystal fibers (PLCFs) a molecular orientation control is a crucial issue that influences proper operation of PLCF-based devices. The paper presents two distinct configurations: planar and radial escaped orientation of the LC molecules inside capillaries as well as methods of their application to photonic liquid crystal fibers. Possibilities of LC orientation control influence both: attenuation and transmitting spectra of the PLCF The orienting method is based on creation of an additional orienting layer on the inner surface of the capillary or air hole of the photonic liquid crystal fiber. Aligning materials used in the experiment are commercially available polyimides SE1211 and SE130 which induce liquid crystal homeotropic and planar anchoring conditions. The orienting layer increase an order parameter of the liquid crystal improving propagation properties and stability of photonic liquid crystal fiber-based devices.

  2. Biomimetic fiber mesh scaffolds based on gelatin and hydroxyapatite nano-rods: Designing intrinsic skills to attain bone reparation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartuqui, Javier; Gravina, A Noel; Rial, Ramón; Benedini, Luciano A; Yahia, L'Hocine; Ruso, Juan M; Messina, Paula V

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsic material skills have a deep effect on the mechanical and biological performance of bone substitutes, as well as on its associated biodegradation properties. In this work we have manipulated the preparation of collagenous derived fiber mesh frameworks to display a specific composition, morphology, open macroporosity, surface roughness and permeability characteristics. Next, the effect of the induced physicochemical attributes on the scaffold's mechanical behavior, bone bonding potential and biodegradability were evaluated. It was found that the scaffold microstructure, their inherent surface roughness, and the compression strength of the gelatin scaffolds can be modulated by the effect of the cross-linking agent and, essentially, by mimicking the nano-scale size of hydroxyapatite in natural bone. A clear effect of bioactive hydroxyapatite nano-rods on the scaffolds skills can be appreciated and it is greater than the effect of the cross-linking agent, offering a huge perspective for the upcoming progress of bone implant technology. PMID:27220014

  3. Biomimetic fiber mesh scaffolds based on gelatin and hydroxyapatite nano-rods: Designing intrinsic skills to attain bone reparation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartuqui, Javier; Gravina, A Noel; Rial, Ramón; Benedini, Luciano A; Yahia, L'Hocine; Ruso, Juan M; Messina, Paula V

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsic material skills have a deep effect on the mechanical and biological performance of bone substitutes, as well as on its associated biodegradation properties. In this work we have manipulated the preparation of collagenous derived fiber mesh frameworks to display a specific composition, morphology, open macroporosity, surface roughness and permeability characteristics. Next, the effect of the induced physicochemical attributes on the scaffold's mechanical behavior, bone bonding potential and biodegradability were evaluated. It was found that the scaffold microstructure, their inherent surface roughness, and the compression strength of the gelatin scaffolds can be modulated by the effect of the cross-linking agent and, essentially, by mimicking the nano-scale size of hydroxyapatite in natural bone. A clear effect of bioactive hydroxyapatite nano-rods on the scaffolds skills can be appreciated and it is greater than the effect of the cross-linking agent, offering a huge perspective for the upcoming progress of bone implant technology.

  4. Surface Plasmon Resonance Sensors Based on Polymer Optical Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Sheng Zheng; Yong-Hua Lu; Zhi-Guo Xie; Jun Tao; Kai-Qun Lin; Hai Ming

    2008-01-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is a powerful technique for directly sensing in biological studies, chemical detection and environmental pollution monitoring. In this paper, we present polymer optical fiber application in SPR sensors, including wavelength interrogation surface enhanced Raman scattering SPR sensor and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probe.Long-period fiber gratings are fabricated on single mode polymer optical fiber (POF) with 120 μm period and 50% duty cycle. The polarization characteristic of this kind of birefringent grating is studied. Theoretical analysis shows it will be advantageous in SPR sensing applications.

  5. Effect of the Volume Fraction of Jute Fiber on the Interlaminar Shear Stress and Tensile Behavior Characteristics of Hybrid Glass/Jute Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite Bar for Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Gi Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid glass/jute fiber reinforced polymer (HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured for concrete structures, and their interlaminar shear stress and tensile performance were evaluated. HGJFRP composite bars were manufactured using a combination of pultrusion and braiding processes. Jute fiber was surface-treated with a silane coupling agent. The mixing ratio of the fiber to the vinyl ester used in the HGJFRP composite bars was 7 : 3. Jute fiber was used to replace glass fiber in proportions of 0, 30, 50, 70, and 100%. The interlaminar shear stress decreased as the proportion of jute fiber increased. Fractures appeared due to delamination between the surface-treated component and the main part of the HGJFRP composite bar. Tensile load-strain curves with 50% jute fiber exhibited linear behavior. With a jute fiber volume fraction of 70%, some plastic deformation occurred. A jute fiber mixing ratio of 100% resulted in a display of linear elastic brittle behavior from the fiber; however, when the surface of the fiber was coated with poly(vinyl acetate, following failure, the jute fiber exhibited partial load resistance. The tensile strength decreased as the jute fiber content increased; however, the tensile strength did not vary linearly with jute fiber content.

  6. Green insulation: hemp fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2011-09-15

    Indian hemp (Cannabis indica) is known for its psychotropic values and it is banned in most countries. However, industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa) is known for its tough fibers. Several manufactures in Europe including, small niche players, have been marketing hemp insulation products for several years. Hemp is a low environmental impact material. Neither herbicide nor pesticide is used during the growth of hemp. The fibers are extracted in a waste-free and chemical-free mechanical process. Hemp can consume CO2 during its growth. In addition, hemp fiber can be disposed of harmlessly by composting or incineration at the end of its life. Hemp fibers are processed and treated only minimally to resist rot and fungal activity. There is little health risk when producing and installing the insulation, thanks to the absence of toxic additive. Its thermal resistance is comparable to mineral wool. But the development and marketing of hemp fibers may be restricted in North America.

  7. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  8. Python fiber optic seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

  9. Method for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, and carbon fibers made thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Amit Kumar; Hunt, Marcus Andrew; Saito, Tomonori

    2015-08-04

    Methods for the preparation of carbon fiber from polyolefin fiber precursor, wherein the polyolefin fiber precursor is partially sulfonated and then carbonized to produce carbon fiber. Methods for producing hollow carbon fibers, wherein the hollow core is circular- or complex-shaped, are also described. Methods for producing carbon fibers possessing a circular- or complex-shaped outer surface, which may be solid or hollow, are also described.

  10. The display of portable infrared measuring temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yitao; Gu, Guohua; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    In recent years based on security, quality supervision, inspection and medical for the urgent need of infrared temperature measurement and infrared display technology, coupled with embedded system to achieve rapid development, which is widely used in the electronic products and the field of intelligent instruments and industrial control, this paper has designed a kind of more comprehensive, more efficient and more intuitive infrared thermometer. Unlike previous handheld infrared thermometer, we regard an embedded Linux system as the system, with its open source code, support most mainstream hardware platforms, unified peripheral interface and can be customized, to build an embedded infrared system that has provided strong system support; the pseudocolor techniques and Qt interface display technology make the image more colorful and the picture function more diverse; With ARM microprocessor as the display and temperature measuring platform, it costs reduction and reduce volume and power consumption; the FrameBuffer interface technology and multithreading technology realize the smooth real-time display. And ultimately the display size of real-time infrared image is 640 * 480 at a speed of 25 frames / sec. What is more, display is equipped with the menu option so that thermometer can be required to complete the operation through the button. The temperature display system aims at small volume, easy to use and flexible. I believe this thermometer will have a good application prospect.

  11. Flexible display technology for the objective force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, John M.; Wood, Gary L.; Morton, David C.; Forsythe, Eric W.; Girolamo, Henry J.

    2003-09-01

    The Army has initiated a flexible display research program. This program is part of the Army's strategy to create technologies that will enable revolutionary designs and transformational weapons systems for the Objective Force. The ARL flexible display program is more general than just for the dismounted soldier-it will also have implications for air and vehicular crews, and for the other services, even though it is not a DoD tri-service program per se. "Flexible" is defined in the program as displays that operate under conditions from conformal applications, limited flexing, to rollable displays for compact storage. The Army program will include display manufacturing concepts that enable roll-to-roll processes reduce cost, to tap a strong U.S. domestic industrial strength, and, eventually, to enable fabrication of very large sizes. There is commercial interest in flexible displays for applications ranging from wearable electronics for road-warriors and gamers to large screen 71-in. 1920x1200 color pixel consumer high definition television sets for walls. Industry willingness to cost share will be a key criterion in identifying investment opportunities that are necessary and timely from among all that may be envisioned. Some anticipated military applications and a roadmap are presented that identify the technology barriers at the materials, device and manufacturing levels to the creation of flexible display technology.

  12. SNS online display technologies for EPICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ubiquitousness of web clients from personal computers to cell phones results in a growing demand for web-based access to control system data. At the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) we have investigated different technical approaches to provide read access to data in the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) for a wide variety of web client devices. The core web technology, HTTP, is less than ideal for online control system displays. Appropriate use of Ajax, especially the Long Poll paradigm, can alleviate fundamental HTTP limitations. The SNS Status web uses basic Ajax technology to generate generic displays for a wide audience. The Dashboard uses Long Poll and more client-side Java-Script to offer more customization and faster updates for users that need specialized displays. The Web OPI uses RAP for web access to any BOY display, offering utmost flexibility because users can create their own BOY displays in CSS. These three approaches complement each other. Users can access generic status displays with zero effort, invest time in creating their fully customized displays for the Web OPI, or use the Dashboard as an intermediate solution

  13. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  14. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  15. Brief history of electronic stereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Lenny

    2012-02-01

    A brief history of recent developments in electronic stereoscopic displays is given concentrating on products that have succeeded in the market place and hence have had a significant influence on future implementations. The concentration is on plano-stereoscopic (two-view) technology because it is now the dominant display modality in the marketplace. Stereoscopic displays were created for the motion picture industry a century ago, and this technology influenced the development of products for science and industry, which in turn influenced product development for entertainment.

  16. Adscape: Harvesting and Analyzing Online Display Ads

    OpenAIRE

    Barford, Paul; Canadi, Igor; Krushevskaja, Darja; Ma, Qiang; Muthukrishnan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, advertising has emerged as the primary source of revenue for many web sites and apps. In this paper we report a first-of-its-kind study that seeks to broadly understand the features, mechanisms and dynamics of display advertising on the web - i.e., the Adscape. Our study takes the perspective of users who are the targets of display ads shown on web sites. We develop a scalable crawling capability that enables us to gather the details of display ads including creatives an...

  17. Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Muscle Fiber Composition Under Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Nadia A.

    1999-01-01

    upstream targets for the effects of weightlessness. In the past year we have determined that the expression of E Proteins is restricted to specific fiber types by post-transcriptional mechanisms. By far, the most prevalent mechanism of cellular control for achieving post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression is selective proteolysis -through the ubiquitin -proteasome pathway. Steady-state levels of HEB message are similar in all fast and slow skeletal muscle fiber types, yet the protein is restricted to Type IIX fibers. HEB appears to be a nodal point for regulating fiber-specific transcription, as expression of the transcription factor is regulated at the post-transcriptional level. It is not clear at present whether the regulation is at the level of protein synthesis or degradation. We are now poised to evaluate the biological role of ubiquitination in fiber specific-gene expression by controlling the post-transcriptional expression of E Proteins. The use of metabolic labelling and pharmacological inhibitors of the ubiquitin pathway will be used to identify the mode of regulation of the Type IIX expression pattern. The potential role of specific kinases in effecting the restriction of HEB expression will be examined by using both inhibitors and activators. The results of these studies will provide the necessary information to evaluate the biological role of E proteins in controlling fiber type transitions, and in potentially attenuating the atrophic effects of microgravity conditions. We have also recently shown that ectopic expression of the HEB protein transactivates the Type IIX-specific skeletal a-actin reporter. The 218 bp skeletal a-actin promoter drives transgene expression solely in mature Type IIX fibers. A mouse also carrying the transgene MLCI/HEB (which ectopically expresses the E Protein HEB in Type IIB fibers) forces expression of the skeletal a-actin reporter gene in Type IIB fibers. We can now dissect the composition of this fiber-specific cis

  18. Carbon fiber composite characterization in adverse thermal environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Vasquez, Sylvia; Brown, Alexander L.; Hubbard, Joshua A.; Ramirez, Ciro J.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2011-05-01

    The behavior of carbon fiber aircraft composites was studied in adverse thermal environments. The effects of resin composition and fiber orientation were measured in two test configurations: 102 by 127 millimeter (mm) test coupons were irradiated at approximately 22.5 kW/m{sup 2} to measure thermal response, and 102 by 254 mm test coupons were irradiated at approximately 30.7 kW/m{sup 2} to characterize piloted flame spread in the vertically upward direction. Carbon-fiber composite materials with epoxy and bismaleimide resins, and uni-directional and woven fiber orientations, were tested. Bismaleimide samples produced less smoke, and were more resistant to flame spread, as expected for high temperature thermoset resins with characteristically lower heat release rates. All materials lost approximately 20-25% of their mass regardless of resin type, fiber orientation, or test configuration. Woven fiber composites displayed localized smoke jetting whereas uni-directional composites developed cracks parallel to the fibers from which smoke and flames emanated. Swelling and delamination were observed with volumetric expansion on the order of 100% to 200%. The purpose of this work was to provide validation data for SNL's foundational thermal and combustion modeling capabilities.

  19. Effects of heat treatment on properties of boron nitride fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Duan; ZHANG ChangRui; LI Bin; CAO Feng; WANG SiQing

    2012-01-01

    The boron nitride fibers were heated at the range of 600-1400°C in flowing nitrogen and air,respectively,and the effects of heat treatment on the structure,composition and morphology of BN fibers were studied.The results showed that BN fibers exhibited smooth surfaces,and that t-BN was the main phase with a little B2O3 included.After heat treatment at 1400°C in nitrogen atmosphere,the fibers displayed rough surfaces with little change in mass.Better crystallinity was obtained with the increasing temperature.During heat treatment in air,the fibers were oxidized severely as the temperature went up,especially at 1400°C.The volatilization of B2O3,HBO2 and H3BO3 led to the pores on the surfaces of the fibers,while the boron oxide glaze and nitrogen gas produced during the oxidation process protected the fibers from further oxidation.

  20. Specially fibers and relevant technologies for fiber optic sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiber optic sensing is one of the most important technologies in phonic sensing. Novel specially fibers and relevant technologies have been developed for various application fields, such as avionics, infrastructures, atomic plants and oil and gas industries. In this paper, recent progress in the fiber optic sensing is reviewed with a focus on the specialty fibers. (author)

  1. Continuous Natural Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by Fiber Surface Modification

    OpenAIRE

    Patcharat Wongsriraksa; Kohsuke Togashi; Asami Nakai; Hiroyuki Hamada

    2013-01-01

    Continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials are expected to replace inorganic fiber reinforced thermosetting materials. However, in the process of fabricating the composite, it is difficult to impregnate the thermoplastic resin into reinforcement fiber because of the high melt viscosity. Therefore, intermediate material, which allows high impregnation during molding, has been investigated for fabricating continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite by aligning resin fib...

  2. Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB+/− mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity

  3. Transgenic mice expressing mutant Pinin exhibit muscular dystrophy, nebulin deficiency and elevated expression of slow-type muscle fiber genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hsu-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Yuan [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Wu, Wen-Ai; Hu, Ji-Wei [Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Ouyang, Pin, E-mail: ouyang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Anatomy, Chang Gung University Medical College, Taiwan (China); Transgenic Mouse Core Laboratory, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •Pnn CCD domain functions as a dominant negative mutant regulating Pnn expression and function. •Pnn CCD mutant Tg mice have a muscle wasting phenotype during development and show dystrophic histological features. •Pnn mutant muscles are susceptible to slow fiber type gene transition and NEB reduction. •The Tg mouse generated by overexpression of the Pnn CCD domain displays many characteristics resembling NEB{sup +/−} mice. -- Abstract: Pinin (Pnn) is a nuclear speckle-associated SR-like protein. The N-terminal region of the Pnn protein sequence is highly conserved from mammals to insects, but the C-terminal RS domain-containing region is absent in lower species. The N-terminal coiled-coil domain (CCD) is, therefore, of interest not only from a functional point of view, but also from an evolutionarily standpoint. To explore the biological role of the Pnn CCD in a physiological context, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Pnn mutant in skeletal muscle. We found that overexpression of the CCD reduces endogenous Pnn expression in cultured cell lines as well as in transgenic skeletal muscle fibers. Pnn mutant mice exhibited reduced body mass and impaired muscle function during development. Mutant skeletal muscles show dystrophic histological features with muscle fibers heavily loaded with centrally located myonuclei. Expression profiling and pathway analysis identified over-representation of genes in gene categories associated with muscle contraction, specifically those related to slow type fiber. In addition nebulin (NEB) expression level is repressed in Pnn mutant skeletal muscle. We conclude that Pnn downregulation in skeletal muscle causes a muscular dystrophic phenotype associated with NEB deficiency and the CCD domain is incapable of replacing full length Pnn in terms of functional capacity.

  4. Biological studies and electrical conductivity of paper sheet based on PANI/PS/Ag-NPs nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A M; Mohamed, S A; Abdel-Aziz, M S; Abdel-Aziz, M E; Turky, G; Kamel, S

    2016-08-20

    Polyaniline (PANI) with/without polystyrene (PS), was successfully manufactured in the occurrence of dispersed pulp fibers via the oxidative polymerization reaction of aniline monomer to produce conductive paper sheets containing PANI, PANI/PS composites. Additionally, sliver nitrate (Ag-NO3) was added by varied loadings to the oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer to provide sliver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) emptied into the prepared paper sheets. The prepared paper sheets were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), the mechanical properties of the prepared paper sheets were evaluated. Moreover, the electrical conductivity and biological studies such as cellulases assay, Microorganism & culture condition and detection of the released of Ag-NPs were evaluated. Furthermore, the prepared paper sheets were displayed good antibacterial properties contrary to gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Consequently, the prepared paper sheet may be used as novel materials for packaging applications. PMID:27178939

  5. Biological studies and electrical conductivity of paper sheet based on PANI/PS/Ag-NPs nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, A M; Mohamed, S A; Abdel-Aziz, M S; Abdel-Aziz, M E; Turky, G; Kamel, S

    2016-08-20

    Polyaniline (PANI) with/without polystyrene (PS), was successfully manufactured in the occurrence of dispersed pulp fibers via the oxidative polymerization reaction of aniline monomer to produce conductive paper sheets containing PANI, PANI/PS composites. Additionally, sliver nitrate (Ag-NO3) was added by varied loadings to the oxidative polymerization of aniline monomer to provide sliver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) emptied into the prepared paper sheets. The prepared paper sheets were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR), the mechanical properties of the prepared paper sheets were evaluated. Moreover, the electrical conductivity and biological studies such as cellulases assay, Microorganism & culture condition and detection of the released of Ag-NPs were evaluated. Furthermore, the prepared paper sheets were displayed good antibacterial properties contrary to gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Consequently, the prepared paper sheet may be used as novel materials for packaging applications.

  6. Display depth analyses with the wave aberration for the auto-stereoscopic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Xunbo; Chen, Duo; Chen, Zhidong; Zhang, Wanlu; Yan, Binbin; Yuan, Jinhui; Wang, Kuiru; Yu, Chongxiu; Dou, Wenhua; Xiao, Liquan

    2016-07-01

    Because the aberration severely affects the display performances of the auto-stereoscopic 3D display, the diffraction theory is used to analyze the diffraction field distribution and the display depth through aberration analysis. Based on the proposed method, the display depth of central and marginal reconstructed images is discussed. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analyses. Increasing the viewing distance or decreasing the lens aperture can improve the display depth. Different viewing distances and the LCD with two lens-arrays are used to verify the conclusion.

  7. Study on the visibility of an electroluminescent display for automobiles; Jidoshayo EL display no shininsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, N.; Harada, M.; Idogaki, T. [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    This report explores the visibility of an Electroluminescent (EL) display for automotive use. Displays for automobiles are exposed to the direct rays of the sun and forced to operate in wide temperature range. Therefore, luminous flux density by the lighting on EL display panel and operating environment temperature must be considered for the visibility evaluation. Sensory evaluation on the visibility and physical measurements such as contrast, chromaticity difference in accordance with the viewing angle change indicate that the visibility of the EL display for automobiles is advantageous over other displays. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Comparison of hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction and ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of drugs of abuse in biological samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liang; Zhang, Wenwen; Meng, Pinjia; Zhu, Binling; Zheng, Kefang

    2015-05-01

    Two microextraction techniques based on hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-LDS-DLLME) had been applied for the determination of drugs of abuse (methamphetamine, amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, methcathinone, ketamine, meperidine, and methadone) in urine and blood samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency have been investigated and optimized for both methods. Under the optimum conditions, linearities were observed for all analytes in the range 0.0030-10 μg/ml with the correlation coefficient (R) ranging from 0.9985 to 0.9995 for HF-LPME and in the range 0.0030-10 μg/ml with the R ranging from 0.9985 to 0.9994 for DLLME. The recovery of 79.3-98.6% with RSDs of 1.2-4.5% was obtained for HF-LPME, and the recovery of 79.3-103.4% with RSDs of 2.4-5.7% was obtained for DLLME. The LODs (S/N=3) were estimated to be in the range from 0.5 to 5 ng/ml and 0.5 to 4 ng/ml, respectively. Compared with HF-LPME, the UA-LDS-DLLME technique had the advantages of less extraction time, suitability for batches of sample pretreatment simultaneously, and higher extraction efficiency, while HF-LPME has excellent sample clean-up effect, and is a robust and suitable technique for various sample matrices with better repeatability. Both methods were successfully applied to the analysis of drugs of abuse in real human blood sample.

  9. Comparison of hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction and ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for the determination of drugs of abuse in biological samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Liang; Zhang, Wenwen; Meng, Pinjia; Zhu, Binling; Zheng, Kefang

    2015-05-01

    Two microextraction techniques based on hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-LDS-DLLME) had been applied for the determination of drugs of abuse (methamphetamine, amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, methcathinone, ketamine, meperidine, and methadone) in urine and blood samples by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency have been investigated and optimized for both methods. Under the optimum conditions, linearities were observed for all analytes in the range 0.0030-10 μg/ml with the correlation coefficient (R) ranging from 0.9985 to 0.9995 for HF-LPME and in the range 0.0030-10 μg/ml with the R ranging from 0.9985 to 0.9994 for DLLME. The recovery of 79.3-98.6% with RSDs of 1.2-4.5% was obtained for HF-LPME, and the recovery of 79.3-103.4% with RSDs of 2.4-5.7% was obtained for DLLME. The LODs (S/N=3) were estimated to be in the range from 0.5 to 5 ng/ml and 0.5 to 4 ng/ml, respectively. Compared with HF-LPME, the UA-LDS-DLLME technique had the advantages of less extraction time, suitability for batches of sample pretreatment simultaneously, and higher extraction efficiency, while HF-LPME has excellent sample clean-up effect, and is a robust and suitable technique for various sample matrices with better repeatability. Both methods were successfully applied to the analysis of drugs of abuse in real human blood sample. PMID:25801996

  10. Fiber Pulling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Sue; Adcock, Leonard

    1998-01-01

    The fiber optics industry has grown into a multi-billion marketplace that will continue to grow into the 21st century. Optical fiber communications is currently dominated by silica glass technology. Successful efforts to improve upon the low loss transmission characteristics of silica fibers have propelled the technology into the forefront of the communications industry. However, reaching the theoretical transmission capability of silica fiber through improved processing has still left a few application areas in which other fiber systems can provide an influential role due to specific characteristics of high theoretical transmission in the 2 - 3 micron wavelength region. One of the other major materials used for optical fibers is the systems based upon Heavy Metal Fluoride Glass (HMFG). Commercial interest is driven primarily by the potential for low loss repeaterless infrared fibers. An example of the major communications marketplace which would benefit from the long distance repeaterless capability of infrared fibers is the submarine cables which link the continents. When considering commercial interests, optical fiber systems provide a healthy industrial position which continues to expand. Major investments in the systems used for optical fiber communications have continued to increase each year and are predicted to continue well into the next century. Estimates of 8.5% compounded annually are predicted through 1999 for the North American market and 1 1 % worldwide. The growth for the optical fiber cable itself is expected to continue between 44 and 50 per cent of the optical fiber communications budget through 1999. The total budget in 1999 world-wide is expected to be in the neighborhood of $9 billion. Another survey predicts that long haul telecommunications represents 15% of a world-wide fiber optics market in 1998. The actual amount allotted to cable was not specified. However, another market research had predicted that the cable costs alone represents more

  11. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  12. Predictive displays to improve situation awareness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breda, L. van

    1999-01-01

    Uit een simulator experiment bleek dat bij het varen met een geïntegreerd navigatie display op basis van de voorspelde manoeuvreer-marges de overschrijding van de minimum veiligheidsafstand tot andere verkeersdeelnemers met een factor vier reduceert

  13. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an extravehicular activity (EVA) information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to advance development of a new...

  14. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  15. Three D displays in military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakalo, M.

    2009-05-01

    The evolution to 3D content is considered to be the next quantum leap in the movie industry, and is currently taking place. The prospect of the home entertainment industry adopting 3D is causing display manufacturers to develop 3D compatible products. In the past, 3D displays have often been limited by poor image quality. The current generation of 3D displays can have image quality that approaches that of their 2D counterparts. 3D content has found its way to the cinema and is seeking a way into the home, but will it have a place in the military environment? This paper discusses the current status of 3D display technology and its suitability to the military ground mobile environment. It includes an introduction to 3D visualization and examines issues such as implementation, image quality, and human factors.

  16. Introduction to tactile displays in military environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van; Self, B.P.

    2008-01-01

    Challenging situations, such as those encountered by military pilots, are often a major thrust for ergonomic innovation. Examples include the development of advanced, multimodal, and intuitive interface techniques to counteract the danger of visual, auditory, and cognitive overload. Tactile displays

  17. Night Vision Device and Cockpit Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Night Vision Device and Cockpit Display labevaluates night vision devices and certifies them for use in the fleet. Lab functions supported include: Analysis of...

  18. Are tiled display walls needed for astronomy?

    CERN Document Server

    Meade, Bernard F; Manos, Steven; Sinnott, Richard O

    2014-01-01

    Clustering commodity displays into a Tiled Display Wall (TDW) provides a cost-effective way to create an extremely high resolution display, capable of approaching the image sizes now gen- erated by modern astronomical instruments. Astronomers face the challenge of inspecting single large images, many similar images simultaneously, and heterogeneous but related content. Many research institutions have constructed TDWs on the basis that they will improve the scientific outcomes of astronomical imagery. We test this concept by presenting sample images to astronomers and non- astronomers using a standard desktop display (SDD) and a TDW. These samples include standard English words, wide field galaxy surveys and nebulae mosaics from the Hubble telescope. These experiments show that TDWs provide a better environment for searching for small targets in large images than SDDs. It also shows that astronomers tend to be better at searching images for targets than non-astronomers, both groups are generally better when em...

  19. Recent progress of flexible AMOLED displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Huiqing; Rajan, Kamala; Silvernail, Jeff; Mandlik, Prashant; Ma, Ruiqing; Hack, Mike; Brown, Julie J.; Yoo, Juhn S.; Jung, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Cheol; Byun, Seung-Chan; Kim, Jong-Moo; Yoon, Soo-Young; Kim, Chang-Dong; Hwang, Yong-Kee; Chung, In-Jae; Fletcher, Mark; Green, Derek; Pangle, Mike; McIntyre, Jim; Smith, Randal D.

    2011-03-01

    Significant progress has been made in recent years in flexible AMOLED displays and numerous prototypes have been demonstrated. Replacing rigid glass with flexible substrates and thin-film encapsulation makes displays thinner, lighter, and non-breakable - all attractive features for portable applications. Flexible AMOLEDs equipped with phosphorescent OLEDs are considered one of the best candidates for low-power, rugged, full-color video applications. Recently, we have demonstrated a portable communication display device, built upon a full-color 4.3-inch HVGA foil display with a resolution of 134 dpi using an all-phosphorescent OLED frontplane. The prototype is shaped into a thin and rugged housing that will fit over a user's wrist, providing situational awareness and enabling the wearer to see real-time video and graphics information.

  20. Recent developments in DFD (depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Shiro; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu

    2015-05-01

    We will report our recent developments in DFD (Depth-fused 3D) display and arc 3D display, both of which have smooth movement parallax. Firstly, fatigueless DFD display, composed of only two layered displays with a gap, has continuous perceived depth by changing luminance ratio between two images. Two new methods, called "Edge-based DFD display" and "Deep DFD display", have been proposed in order to solve two severe problems of viewing angle and perceived depth limitations. Edge-based DFD display, layered by original 2D image and its edge part with a gap, can expand the DFD viewing angle limitation both in 2D and 3D perception. Deep DFD display can enlarge the DFD image depth by modulating spatial frequencies of front and rear images. Secondly, Arc 3D display can provide floating 3D images behind or in front of the display by illuminating many arc-shaped directional scattering sources, for example, arcshaped scratches on a flat board. Curved Arc 3D display, composed of many directional scattering sources on a curved surface, can provide a peculiar 3D image, for example, a floating image in the cylindrical bottle. The new active device has been proposed for switching arc 3D images by using the tips of dual-frequency liquid-crystal prisms as directional scattering sources. Directional scattering can be switched on/off by changing liquid-crystal refractive index, resulting in switching of arc 3D image.

  1. Scheme for efficient fiber-based CARS probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balu, Mihaela; Liu, Gangjun; Chen, Zhongping; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Potma, Eric O.

    2010-02-01

    We demonstrate a fiber-based probe for maximum collection of the Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) signal in biological tissues. We discuss the design challenges including capturing the back-scattered forward generated CARS signal in the sample and the effects of fiber nonlinearities on the propagating pulses. Three different biological tissues were imaged in vitro in order to assess the performance of our fiberdelivered probe for CARS imaging, a tool which we consider an important advance towards label-free, in vivo probing of superficial tissues.

  2. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogmo, David G.; Black, Billy D.

    1991-01-01

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed.

  3. Emotional body language displayed by artificial agents

    OpenAIRE

    Beck A; Stevens B.; Bard K.A.; Canamero L.

    2012-01-01

    Complex and natural social interaction between artificial agents (computer generated or robotic) and humans necessitates the display of rich emotions in order to be believable, socially relevant and accepted, and to generate the natural emotional responses that humans show in the context of social interaction, such as engagement or empathy. Whereas some robots use faces to display (simplified) emotional expressions, for other robots such as Nao, body language is the best medium available give...

  4. Covalent cross-links in polyampholytic chitosan fibers enhances bone regeneration in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Paulomi; Rameshbabu, Arun Prabhu; Das, Dipankar; Francis, Nimmy K; Pawar, Harpreet Singh; Subramanian, Bhuvaneshwaran; Pal, Sagar; Dhara, Santanu

    2015-01-01

    Chitosan fibers were prepared in citric acid bath, pH 7.4 and NaOH solution at pH 13, to form ionotropically cross-linked and uncross-linked fibers, respectively. The fibers formed in citric acid bath were further cross-linked via carbodiimide chemistry; wherein the pendant carboxyl moieties of citric acid were used for new amide bond formation. Moreover, upon covalent cross-linking in the ionically gelled citrate-chitosan fibers, incomplete conversion of the ion pairs to amide linkages took place resulting in the formation of a dual network structure. The dual cross-linked fibers displayed improved mechanical property, higher stability against enzymatic degradation, hydrophobicity and superior bio-mineralization compared to the uncross-linked and native citrate cross-linked fibers. Additionally, upon cyclic loading, the ion pairs in the dual cross-linked fibers dissociated by dissipating energy and reformed during the relaxation period. The twin property of elasticity and energy dissipation mechanism makes the dual cross-linked fiber unique under dynamic mechanical conditions. The differences in the physico-chemical characteristics were reflected in protein adsorption, which in turn influenced the cellular activities on the fibers. Compared to the uncross-linked and ionotropically cross-linked fibers, the dual cross-linked fibers demonstrated higher proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the MSCs in vitro as well as better osseous tissue regeneration in a rabbit model. PMID:25483844

  5. Random Fiber Laser

    CERN Document Server

    de Matos, Christiano J S; Brito-Silva, Antônio M; Gámez, M A Martinez; Gomes, Anderson S L; de Araújo, Cid B

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effects of two dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a Rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional RL geometry. Comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an efficiency that is at least two orders of magnitude higher.

  6. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  7. Random Fiber Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Christiano J. S. de Matos; Menezes, Leonardo de S.; Brito-Silva, Antônio M.; Gámez, M. A. Martinez; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; de Araújo, Cid B.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the effects of two dimensional confinement on the lasing properties of a classical random laser system operating in the incoherent feedback (diffusive) regime. A suspension of 250nm rutile (TiO2) particles in a Rhodamine 6G solution was inserted into the hollow core of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) generating the first random fiber laser and a novel quasi-one-dimensional RL geometry. Comparison with similar systems in bulk format shows that the random fiber laser presents an e...

  8. Nanotube composite carbon fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Rao, A. M.; Rantell, T.; Derbyshire, F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, J.; Haddon, R. C.

    1999-08-01

    Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were dispersed in isotropic petroleum pitch matrices to form nanotube composite carbon fibers with enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. We find that the tensile strength, modulus, and electrical conductivity of a pitch composite fiber with 5 wt % loading of purified SWNTs are enhanced by ˜90%, ˜150%, and 340% respectively, as compared to the corresponding values in unmodified isotropic pitch fibers. These results serve to highlight the potential that exits for developing a spectrum of material properties through the selection of the matrix, nanotube dispersion, alignment, and interfacial bonding.

  9. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  10. SES cupola interactive display design environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bang Q.; Kirkhoff, Kevin R.

    1989-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Simulator, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, is tasked with providing a real-time simulator for developing displays and controls targeted for the Space Station Freedom. These displays and controls will exist inside an enclosed workstation located on the space station. The simulation is currently providing the engineering analysis environment for NASA and contractor personnel to design, prototype, and test alternatives for graphical presentation of data to an astronaut while he performs specified tasks. A highly desirable aspect of this environment is to have the capability to rapidly develop and bring on-line a number of different displays for use in determining the best utilization of graphics techniques in achieving maximum efficiency of the test subject fulfilling his task. The Systems Engineering Simulator now has available a tool which assists in the rapid development of displays for these graphic workstations. The Display Builder was developed in-house to provide an environment which allows easy construction and modification of displays within minutes of receiving requirements for specific tests.

  11. Jilin Chemical Fiber Group Launches Its Largest Carbon Fiber Preject

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora

    2011-01-01

    China's carbon fiber precursor production line with 5,000 tons of annual output was put into operation in Jilin Chemical Fiber Group on November 18th this year, creating the maximum production capacity currently in China, for which Jilin Chemical Fiber Group become China's largest carbon fiber precursor production base, The smooth operation of the project has laid a solid foundation for promoting China's carbon fiber industry steady, rapid, and healthy development,

  12. Spatial, contextual and working memory are not affected by the absence of mossy fiber long-term potentiation and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensbroek, R.A.; Kamal, A.; Baars, A.M.; Verhage, M.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    The mossy fibers of the hippocampus display NMDA-receptor independent long-term plasticity. A number of studies addressed the role of mossy fiber long-term plasticity in memory, but have provided contrasting results. Here, we have exploited a genetic model, the rab3A null-mutant, which is characteri

  13. Miniature fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy system using frequency-doubled femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Mills, Arthur K; Zhao, Yuan; Jones, David J; Tang, Shuo

    2016-05-01

    We report on a miniature fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system based on a frequency-doubled femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser. The femtosecond pulses from the laser source are delivered to the miniature fiber-optic probe at 1.58 µm wavelength, where a standard single mode fiber is used for delivery without the need of free-space dispersion compensation components. The beam is frequency-doubled inside the probe by a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. Frequency-doubled pulses at 786 nm with a maximum power of 80 mW and a pulsewidth of 150 fs are obtained and applied to excite intrinsic signals from tissues. A MEMS scanner, a miniature objective, and a multimode collection fiber are further used to make the probe compact. The miniature fiber-optic MPM system is highly portable and robust. Ex vivo multiphoton imaging of mammalian skins demonstrates the capability of the system in imaging biological tissues. The results show that the miniature fiber-optic MPM system using frequency-doubled femtosecond fiber laser can potentially bring the MPM imaging for clinical applications. PMID:27231633

  14. Fiber optic direct Raman imaging system based on a hollow-core fiber bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, S.; Katagiri, T.; Matsuura, Y.

    2015-03-01

    A Raman imaging system which combined a hollow fiber bundle and a direct imaging technique was constructed for high-speed endoscopic Raman imaging. The hollow fiber bundle is fabricated by depositing a silver thin film on the inner surface of pre-drawn glass capillary bundle. It performs as a fiber optic probe which transmits a Raman image with high signal-to-noise ratio because the propagating light is confined into the air core inducing little light scattering. The field of view on the sample is uniformly irradiated by the excitation laser light via the probe. The back-scattered image is collected by the probe and captured directly by an image sensor. A pair of thin film tunable filters is used to select target Raman band. This imaging system enables flexible and high-speed Raman imaging of biological tissues.

  15. High-density fiber optic biosensor arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jason R.; Walt, David R.

    2002-02-01

    Novel approaches are required to coordinate the immense amounts of information derived from diverse genomes. This concept has influenced the expanded role of high-throughput DNA detection and analysis in the biological sciences. A high-density fiber optic DNA biosensor was developed consisting of oligonucleotide-functionalized, 3.1 mm diameter microspheres deposited into the etched wells on the distal face of a 500 micrometers imaging fiber bundle. Imaging fiber bundles containing thousands of optical fibers, each associated with a unique oligonucleotide probe sequence, were the foundation for an optically connected, individually addressable DNA detection platform. Different oligonucleotide-functionalized microspheres were combined in a stock solution, and randomly dispersed into the etched wells. Microsphere positions were registered from optical dyes incorporated onto the microspheres. The distribution process provided an inherent redundancy that increases the signal-to-noise ratio as the square root of the number of sensors examined. The representative amount of each probe-type in the array was dependent on their initial stock solution concentration, and as other sequences of interest arise, new microsphere elements can be added to arrays without altering the existing detection capabilities. The oligonucleotide probe sequences hybridize to fluorescently-labeled, complementary DNA target solutions. Fiber optic DNA microarray research has included DNA-protein interaction profiles, microbial strain differentiation, non-labeled target interrogation with molecular beacons, and single cell-based assays. This biosensor array is proficient in DNA detection linked to specific disease states, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP's) discrimination, and gene expression analysis. This array platform permits multiple detection formats, provides smaller feature sizes, and enables sensor design flexibility. High-density fiber optic microarray biosensors provide a fast

  16. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  17. Comparison between the Direct Dyeing Kinetics of Bamboo and Conventional Viscose Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Ji-liang; TANG Ren-cheng; CHEN Wen-jang

    2010-01-01

    Two direct dyes were applied to conventional viscose(CV)and bamboo viscose(BV)fibers,which were prepared from bamboo cellulose pulps,and the dyeing kinetics of two fibers were compared.Three kinetic equations,namely Chrastil,Cegarra-Puente,and Vickerstaff,were used to fit the experimental dyeing rate points,showing that the best result was obtained by the Chrastil equation.BV fibers displayed slightly higher dyeing rates and dye adsorption values at initial stages,but a bit lower dye adsorption values at equilibrium than CV fibers.Furthermore,the dyeing of BV fibers exhibited lower activation energies and higher dyeing rate constants than that of CV fibers,and therefore showed slightly lower dependence on temperature.

  18. Preparation and characterization of aligned carbon nanotubes/polylactic acid composite fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong Yuxia; Yuan Jie [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Qiu Jun, E-mail: qiujun@tongji.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Education of Ministry, Shanghai 201804 (China)

    2012-07-01

    Aligned functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes/polylactic acid (MWNTs-PCL/PLA) composite fibers were successfully prepared by electrospinning processing. The MWNTs bonded with the polycaprolactone chains exhibited excellent uniform dispersion in PLA solution by comparing with the acid-functionalized MWNTs and amino-functionalized MWNTs. Optical microscopy was used to study the aligned degree of the fibers and to investigate the influences of the electrodes distance on the alignment and structure of the fibers, and results showed that the best quality of aligned fibers with dense structure and high aligned degree were obtained at an electrodes distance of 3 cm. Moreover, the MWNTs embedded inside the MWNTs-PCL/PLA fibers displayed well orientation along the axes of the fibers, which was demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

  19. Fiber optic gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng (Inventor); Buric, Michael P. (Inventor); Swinehart, Philip R. (Inventor); Maklad, Mokhtar S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gas sensor includes an in-fiber resonant wavelength device provided in a fiber core at a first location. The fiber propagates a sensing light and a power light. A layer of a material is attached to the fiber at the first location. The material is able to absorb the gas at a temperature dependent gas absorption rate. The power light is used to heat the material and increases the gas absorption rate, thereby increasing sensor performance, especially at low temperatures. Further, a method is described of flash heating the gas sensor to absorb more of the gas, allowing the sensor to cool, thereby locking in the gas content of the sensor material, and taking the difference between the starting and ending resonant wavelengths as an indication of the concentration of the gas in the ambient atmosphere.

  20. Fiber Optics: No Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School and University, 1983

    1983-01-01

    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  1. Tapered GRIN fiber microsensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Mejía, Felipe; Biazoli, Claudecir R; Cordeiro, Cristiano M B

    2014-12-15

    The sensitivity of an optical fiber microsensor based on inter-modal interference can be considerably improved by tapering a short extension of the multimode fiber. In the case of Graded Index fibers with a parabolic refractive index profile, a meridional ray exhibits a sinusoidal path. When these fibers are tapered, the period of the propagated beam decrease down-taper and increase up-taper. We take advantage of this modulation -along with the enhanced overlap between the evanescent field and the external medium- to substantially increase the sensitivity of these devices by tuning the sensor's maximum sensitivity wavelength. Moreover, the extension of this device is reduced by one order of magnitude, making it more propitious for reduced space applications. Numerical and experimental results demonstrate the success and feasibility of this approach. PMID:25606989

  2. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H

    1997-01-01

    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  3. Fiber optics engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Azadeh, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Covering fiber optics from an engineering perspective, this text emphasizes data conversion between electrical and optical domains. Techniques to improve the fidelity of this conversion (from electrical to optical domain, and vice versa) are also covered.

  4. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Presents procedures, exercises, demonstrations, and information on a variety of biology topics including labeling systems, biological indicators of stream pollution, growth of lichens, reproductive capacity of bulbous buttercups, a straw balance to measure transpiration, interaction of fungi, osmosis, and nitrogen fixation and crop production. (DC)

  5. [Carbohydrates and fiber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, F M; de Menezes, E W; Filisetti-Cozzi, T M

    1988-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrates comprise two fractions that may be classified as digestible, and which are useful as energy sources (simple and complex carbohydrates) and fiber, which is presumed to be of no use to the human body. There are insufficient epidemiologic data on the metabolic effects of simple carbohydrates and it is not advisable to make quantitative recommendations of intake. It is questionable to recommend in developing countries that a fixed proportion of dietary energy be derived from simple sugars, due to the high prevalence of deficient energy intake, cultural habits, and regional differences in food intake and physical activity. In relation to recommendations of complex carbohydrates, it should be considered that their absorption is influenced by many factors inherent to the individual and to the foods. Fiber is defined as a series of different substances derived from tissue structures, cellular residues and undigested chemical substances that may be partially utilized after intestinal bacteria have acted on them. There is not a clear definition of the chemical composition of fiber, but it consists mainly of polysaccharides (such as cellulose, hemicellulose and pectins), lignin and end products of the interactions of various food components. The effects of fiber, such as control of food intake, regulation of gastrointestinal transit, post-prandial blood concentrations of cholesterol, glucose and insulin, flatulence and alterations in nutrient bioavailability are due to various physical properties inherent to its chemical components. Impairment of nutrient absorption may be harmful, mainly among populations whose food intake is lower than their energy needs, and with a high fiber content. This may be particularly important in pregnant women, growing children and the elderly, and should be considered when making nutrient recommendations. A precise knowledge of fiber is also important to calculate the real energy value of foods, mainly for two reasons: 1

  6. Fiber optic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.

    1990-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  7. Electrospun Amplified Fiber Optics

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-01-01

    A lot of research is focused on all-optical signal processing, aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for an efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods, involving high-temperature processes performed in highly pure environment, slow down the fabrication and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, ...

  8. Fiber optics welder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  9. Dark Soliton Fiber Laser

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, H.; Tang, D. Y.; L.M. Zhao; Wu, X; Bao, Q. L.; Loh, K. P.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of stable dark solitons in an all normal dispersion fiber laser. We found experimentally that dark soliton formation is a generic feature of the fiber laser under strong continuous wave (CW) emission. However, only under appropriate pump strength and negative cavity feedback, stable single or multiple dark soliton could be achieved. Furthermore, we show that the features of the observed dark solitons could be well understood based on the nonlinear Sch...

  10. Chiral fiber optical isolator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Victor I.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, Sheng; Genack, Azriel Z.; Neugroschl, Dan

    2009-02-01

    We propose an in-fiber chiral optical isolator based on chiral fiber polarizer technology and calculate its performance by incorporating the magnetic field into the scattering matrix. The design will be implemented in a special preform, which is passed through a miniature heat zone as it is drawn and twisted. The birefringence of the fiber is controlled by adjusted the diameter of a dual-core optical fiber. By adjusting the twist, the fiber can convert linear to circular polarization and reject one component of circular polarization. In the novel central portion of the isolator, the fiber diameter is large. The effective birefringence of the circular central core with high Verdet constant embedded in an outer core of slightly smaller index of refraction is small. The central potion is a non-reciprocal polarization converter which passes forward traveling left circularly polarized (LCP) light as LCP, while converting backward propagating LCP to right circularly polarized (RCP) light. Both polarizations of light traveling backwards are scattered out of the isolator. Since it is an all-glass structure, we anticipate that the isolator will be able to handle several watts of power and will be environmentally robust.

  11. Emergence of fiber supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingshan; Qian, Qihui; Wei, Li; Jiang, Wenchao; Goh, Kunli; Wei, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Yuan

    2015-02-01

    Supercapacitors (SCs) are energy storage devices which have high power density and long cycle life. Conventional SCs have two-dimensional planar structures. As a new family of SCs, fiber SCs utilize one-dimensional cylindrically shaped fibers as electrodes. They have attracted significant interest since 2011 and have shown great application potential either as micro-scale devices to complement or even replace micro-batteries in miniaturized electronics and microelectromechanical systems or as macro-scale devices for wearable electronics or smart textiles. This tutorial review provides an essential introduction to this new field. We first introduce the basics of performance evaluation for fiber SCs as a foundation to understand different research approaches and the diverse performance metrics reported in the literature. Next, we summarize the current state-of-the-art progress in structure design and electrode fabrication of fiber SCs. This is followed by a discussion on the integration of multiple fiber SCs and the combination with other energy harvesting or storage devices. Last, we present our perspectives on the future development of fiber SCs and highlight key technical challenges with the hope of stimulating further research progress. PMID:25420877

  12. Electrospun amplified fiber optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario

    2015-03-11

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  13. Development of Fiber Lasers and Their Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Chong-guang; QU Zhou; LIU Yang; WANG Ji; WANG Li-jun

    2006-01-01

    Development of fiber lasers, especially the latest progress in high power fiber lasers, and the problems of the commercialization of high power fiber lasers, are discussed. Research on other kinds of fiber lasers, such as microstructure fiber laser, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers, Raman fiber lasers are also involved.

  14. Micro-needle electro-tactile display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezuka, Mayuko; Kitamura, Norihide; Miki, Norihisa

    2015-08-01

    Haptic feedback is strongly demanded for high-precision robot-assisted surgery and teleoperation. The haptic feedback consists of force and tactile feedback, however tactile feedback has been little studied and the size and weight of the system poses challenges for practical applications. In this paper we propose a sheet-type wearable electro-tactile display which provides tactile sensations to the user as the feedback at a low voltage and power consumption. The display possesses needle-shaped electrodes, which can penetrate through the high-impedance stratum corneum. We developed the fabrication process and, as the first step, we investigated the tactile sensation that can be created to the fingertip by the display. Rough and smooth surfaces were successfully presented to the user. Then, we characterized the tactile display when used on the forearm, in particular, with respect to the spatial resolution. These tactile displays can be used to inform the user of the surface property of the parts of interest, such as tumor tissues, and to guide him in the manipulation of surgery robots. PMID:26737606

  15. Holographic display with tilted spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozacki, Tomasz

    2011-07-10

    In this paper, we analyze a holographic display system utilizing a phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM) based on liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS). An LCoS SLM works in reflection, and, in some applications, it is convenient to use with an inclined illumination. Even with a highly inclined illumination, the holographic display is capable of good-quality image generation. We show that the key to obtain high-quality reconstructions is the tilt-dependent calibration and algorithms. Typically, an LCoS SLM is illuminated with a plane wave with normal wave vector. We use inclined illumination, which requires development of new algorithms and display characterization. In this paper we introduce two algorithms. The first one is designed to process a digital hologram captured in CCD normal configuration, so it can be displayed in SLM tilted geometry, while the second one is capable of synthetic hologram generation for tilted SLM configuration. The inclined geometry asymmetrically changes the field of view of a holographic display. The presented theoretical analysis of the aliasing effect provides a formula for the field of view as a function of SLM tilt. The incidence angle affects SLM performance. Both elements of SLM calibration, i.e., pixel phase response and wavefront aberrations, strongly depend on SLM tilt angle. The effect is discussed in this paper. All of the discussions are accompanied with experimental results. PMID:21743569

  16. The assembly of C. elegans lamins into macroscopic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Khayat, Maayan; Harapin, Jan; Shoseyov, Oded; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Salman, Ahmad; Medalia, Ohad; Ben-Harush, Kfir

    2016-10-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known mainly by their propensity to form viscoelastic filamentous networks within cells. In addition, IF-proteins are essential parts of various biological materials, such as horn and hagfish slime threads, which exhibit a range of mechanical properties from hard to elastic. These properties and their self-assembly nature made IF-proteins attractive building blocks for biomimetic and biological materials in diverse applications. Here we show that a type V IF-protein, the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear lamin (Ce-lamin), is a promising building block for protein-based fibers. Electron cryo-tomography of vitrified sections enabled us to depict the higher ordered assembly of the Ce-lamin into macroscopic fibers through the creation of paracrystalline fibers, which are prominent in vitro structures of lamins. The lamin fibers respond to tensile force as other IF-protein-based fibers, i.e., hagfish slime threads, and possess unique mechanical properties that may potentially be used in certain applications. The self-assembly nature of lamin proteins into a filamentous structure, which is further assembled into a complex network, can be easily modulated. This knowledge may lead to a better understanding of the relationship in IF-proteins-based fibers and materials, between their hierarchical structures and their mechanical properties.

  17. The assembly of C. elegans lamins into macroscopic fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingerman-Koladko, Irena; Khayat, Maayan; Harapin, Jan; Shoseyov, Oded; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Salman, Ahmad; Medalia, Ohad; Ben-Harush, Kfir

    2016-10-01

    Intermediate filament (IF) proteins are known mainly by their propensity to form viscoelastic filamentous networks within cells. In addition, IF-proteins are essential parts of various biological materials, such as horn and hagfish slime threads, which exhibit a range of mechanical properties from hard to elastic. These properties and their self-assembly nature made IF-proteins attractive building blocks for biomimetic and biological materials in diverse applications. Here we show that a type V IF-protein, the Caenorhabditis elegans nuclear lamin (Ce-lamin), is a promising building block for protein-based fibers. Electron cryo-tomography of vitrified sections enabled us to depict the higher ordered assembly of the Ce-lamin into macroscopic fibers through the creation of paracrystalline fibers, which are prominent in vitro structures of lamins. The lamin fibers respond to tensile force as other IF-protein-based fibers, i.e., hagfish slime threads, and possess unique mechanical properties that may potentially be used in certain applications. The self-assembly nature of lamin proteins into a filamentous structure, which is further assembled into a complex network, can be easily modulated. This knowledge may lead to a better understanding of the relationship in IF-proteins-based fibers and materials, between their hierarchical structures and their mechanical properties. PMID:27341289

  18. Identification of keratinocyte-specific markers using phage display and mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Bak; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Ravn, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    Specific molecular markers for various normal and pathogenic cell states and cell types provide knowledge of basic biological systems and have a direct application in targeted therapy. We describe a proteomic method based on the combination of new and improved phage display antibody technologies...

  19. Quantum Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Sergi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A critical assessment of the recent developmentsof molecular biology is presented.The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptualunderstanding of life and biological systems is defended.Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketchedand its logical circularity avoided by postulatingthe existence of underlying living processes,entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale,with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other.Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces,is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretationof quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so onas quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of includinglong-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them incondensed matter theories of biological processes.Some quantum effects in biology are reviewedand quantum mechanics is acknowledged as conceptually important to biology since withoutit most (if not all of the biological structuresand signalling processes would not even exist. Moreover, it is suggested that long-rangequantum coherent dynamics, including electron polarization,may be invoked to explain signal amplificationprocess in biological systems in general.

  20. Braille display device using soft actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwon; Jung, Kwangmok; Koo, Jachoon; Lee, Sungil; Choi, Hoogon; Jeon, Jaewook; Nam, Jaedo; Choi, Hyoukryeol

    2004-07-01

    Tactile sensation is one of the most important sensory functions along with the auditory sensation for the visually impaired because it replaces the visual sensation of the persons with sight. In this paper, we present a tactile display device as a dynamic Braille display that is the unique tool for exchanging information among them. The proposed tactile cell of the Braille display is based on the dielectric elastomer and it has advantageous features over the existing ones with respect to intrinsic softness, ease of fabrication, cost effectiveness and miniaturization. We introduce a new idea for actuation and describe the actuating mechanism of the Braille pin in details capable of realizing the enhanced spatial density of the tactile cells. Finally, results of psychophysical experiments are given and its effectiveness is confirmed.

  1. Polarity effect in electrovibration for tactile display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Kurt A; Nammi, Krishnakant; Agarwal, Abhishek K; Tyler, Mitchell E; Haase, Steven J; Beebe, David J

    2006-10-01

    Electrovibration is the tactile sensation of an alternating potential between the human body and a smooth conducing surface when the skin slides over the surface and where the current is too small to stimulate sensory nerves directly. It has been proposed as a high-density tactile display method, for example to display pictographic information to persons who are blind. Previous models for the electrovibration transduction mechanism are based on a parallel-plate capacitor in which the electrostatic force is insensitive to polarity. We present experimental data showing that electrovibratory perceptual sensitivity to positive pulses is less than that for negative or biphasic pulses and propose that this disparity may be due to the asymmetric electrical properties of human skin. We furthermore propose using negative pulses for insulated tactile displays based on electrovibration because their sensory thresholds were found to be more stable than for waveforms incorporating positive pulses.

  2. Large color gamut displays with diffraction gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aieta, Francesco; Morovič, Peter; Morovič, Ján; Fiorentino, Marco; Santori, Charles; Fattal, David

    2016-06-01

    The ability to display a broad variety of colors has great benefits not only in the context of entertainment but also as a means to streamline design in prototyping and manufacturing processes. Displays that use RGB filters or backlights cannot span all colors that occur in nature. To improve the accuracy of color reproduction, there have been attempts to include additional color primaries in displays. Existing solutions, however, have an impact on cost, scalability, and spatial resolution and are predominantly applicable to projection systems. We propose an approach based on combining diffraction grating extractors and the HANS imaging pipeline initially developed for printing. This combination offers unprecedented potential to attain large color gamuts with the same backlights commercially used today. PMID:27409441

  3. High performance visual display for HENP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    McGuigan, M; Spiletic, J; Fine, V; Nevski, P

    2001-01-01

    A high end visual display for High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) detectors is necessary because of the sheer size and complexity of the detector. For BNL this display will be of special interest because of STAR and ATLAS. To load, rotate, query, and debug simulation code with a modern detector simply takes too long even on a powerful work station. To visualize the HENP detectors with maximal performance we have developed software with the following characteristics. We develop a visual display of HENP detectors on BNL multiprocessor visualization server at multiple level of detail. We work with general and generic detector framework consistent with ROOT, GAUDI etc, to avoid conflicting with the many graphic development groups associated with specific detectors like STAR and ATLAS. We develop advanced OpenGL features such as transparency and polarized stereoscopy. We enable collaborative viewing of detector and events by directly running the analysis in BNL stereoscopic theatre. We construct enhanced interactiv...

  4. Cellulosic Fibers: Effect of Processing on Fiber Bundle Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Anders; Madsen, Bo; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2011-01-01

    A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding, and cotto......A range of differently processed cellulosic fibers from flax and hemp plants were investigated to study the relation between processing of cellulosic fibers and fiber bundle strength. The studied processing methods are applied for yarn production and include retting, scutching, carding...

  5. FIBER-OPTIC GYROSCOPES BASED ON PHOTONIC-CRYSTAL FIBERS

    OpenAIRE

    Haider, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades optical fibers have been widely deployed in navigation industries owing to their special performance as the best light guidance. Fiber-optic gyroscope is one of the applications of optical fibers dependent mainly on the Sagnac effect. It is of important applications in the field of space navigation. In the Fiber-optic gyroscope, an optical fiber is used as the medium of propagation for the light. A long fiber cable is winded into loops in order to increase the effect...

  6. Fiber-diffraction Interferometer using Coherent Fiber Optic Taper

    OpenAIRE

    Kihm, Hagyong; Lee, Yun-Woo

    2010-01-01

    We present a fiber-diffraction interferometer using a coherent fiber optic taper for optical testing in an uncontrolled environment. We use a coherent fiber optic taper and a single-mode fiber having thermally-expanded core. Part of the measurement wave coming from a test target is condensed through a fiber optic taper and spatially filtered from a single-mode fiber to be reference wave. Vibration of the cavity between the target and the interferometer probe is common to both reference and me...

  7. Electromagnetic interference considerations for cockpit AMLCD displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Gary D.; Prache, Olivier

    1994-06-01

    OIS has developed various active matrix liquid crystal displays for the cockpits of several aircraft. Some of these displays have been tested for and are being designed for compliance with the military electromagnetic interference (EMI) requirements spelled out in MIL-STD- 461. Detailed analysis has also been performed on the addressed cell assembly and the flex circuitry to provide guidelines for EMI design. This paper presents the results of tests performed, steps which were taken to become EMI compliant and the results of the analysis.

  8. Displaying of Details in Subvoxel Accuracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡文立; 陈天洲; 等

    1996-01-01

    Under the volume segmentation in voxel space,a lot of details,some fine and thin objects,are ignored.In order to accurately display these details,this paper has developed a methodology for volume segmentation in subvoxel space.In the subvoxel space,most of the “bridges”between adjacent layers are broken down.Based on the subvoxel space,an automatic segmentation algorithm reserving details is discussed.After segmentation,volume data in subvoxel space are reduced to original voxel space.Thus,the details with width of only one or several voxels are extracted and displayed.

  9. Variable parallax barrier spacing in autostereoscopic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seon Kyu; Khym, Sungwon; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Kyu

    2016-07-01

    In general, multi-view autostereoscopic displays can only provide autostereoscopic images with little crosstalk at the optimum viewing distance (OVD) in the depth direction, limiting the mobility of viewers. Therefore, this paper proposes a method of increasing viewer mobility in the depth direction by varying the distance separating the parallax barrier and the display. Computer simulations and experiments were conducted to verify changes in the OVD resulting from the application of the proposed method. The results showed that the proposed method is effective at changing the OVD with respect to changes in the viewing distance. Therefore this method minimizes changes in the 3D image quality due to the viewer's depth location.

  10. Next-generation head-mounted display

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, James P., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) have been utilized by the military for various applications since the 1980's. In the 1990's, this technology migrated to the consumer market. Most of these early systems suffered the major drawback that they were "look-at" versus "see through" systems, which prevented the user from seeing their environment. This reduced the utility of the devices and could potentially lead to safety issues. This presentation discusses the optical design of a novel see-through High Definition display device with a 40 degree field of view.

  11. Integrated primary flight display: the sky arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgaris, Theodore J.; Metalis, Sam A.; Mobley, R. S.

    1995-05-01

    Flight instrument interpretability has been a key piloting issue because it is directly related to operator performance and inversely related to operator error. To improve interpretability we have developed the Sky Arc, a new symbology initially developed for attitude control, particularly for a helmet-mounted display. It consists of an integrated set of graphic symbols which vary in a continuous, analog fashion with changing flight parameters. The Sky Arc currently integrates, pitch, roll, heading, air speed, and terrain avoidance. The display can be integrated into a head down display, a head up display, or a helmet mounted display. In this preliminary study the usability of the Sky Arc as an attitude indicator was compared to a conventional head-up display pitch ladder symbology. The test involved six test subject pilots and a medium-fidelity simulator. The pilots were asked to fully recover from a series of unusual attitude conditions that were presented on the simulator. The time taken to recover and the correctness of the recovery procedure served as the objective evaluation measures. A Likert-type rating scale and open-ended subject matter expert opinions served as the subjective measures of evaluation. To examine whether there was a relationship between usability of the attitude indicator and difficulty of the unusual attitude, the workload levels involved in performing the unusual attitude recoveries were grouped into three levels, low, medium, and high. At each workload level there were four conditions, for a total of 12 different conditions. Each pilot was asked to recovery twice from each condition, for a total of 24 unusual attitude recovery trials. The test trials were counterbalanced and displayed in a prearranged order. No differences due to difficulty of the unusual attitude were detected. Overall, the study revealed that the Sky Arc led to generally faster recoveries than did the standard display, as well as higher subjective preference ratings

  12. Design for SOP AMOLED display panel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Hai-ying; XU Bu-heng; WU Chun-ya; MENG Zhi-guo; XIONG Shao-zhen; ZHANG Li-zhu

    2005-01-01

    A novel full color SOP(system on panel) AMOLED display based on the MIUC polycrystalline silicon TFT technique, and a new control circuit for the panel, which can deal with both VGA and DVI input signals have been developed.To realize gray-scale a sub-frame technique has been designed and implemented by FPGA device,in which an I2C module has been inserted.Through actual circuit,the whole design has been proven and the advantages of the SOP AMOLED display panel have been confirmed.

  13. Interpretation and display of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It important to properly collect, code, clean and edit the data before interpreting and displaying the research results. Computers play a major role in different phases of research starting from conceptual, design and planning, data collection, data analysis and research publication phases. The main objective of data display is to summarize the characteristics of a data and to make the data more comprehensible and meaningful. Usually data is presented depending upon the type of data in different tables and graphs. This will enable not only to understand the data behaviour, but also useful in choosing the different statistical tests to be applied.

  14. Design for SOP AMOLED display panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Ying; Xu, Bu-Heng; Wu, Chun-Ya; Meng, Zhi-Guo; Xiong, Shao-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Zhu

    2005-07-01

    A novel full color SOP (system on panel) AMOLED display based on the MIUC polycrystalline silicon TFT technique, and a new control circuit for the panel, which can deal with both VGA and DVI input signals have been developed. To realize gray-scale a sub-frame technique has been designed and implemented by FPGA device, in which an I2C module has been inserted. Through actual circuit, the whole design has been proven and the advantages of the SOP AMOLED display panel have been confirmed.

  15. Self Similar Optical Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zheng-Xuan

    This research proposes Self Similar optical fiber (SSF) as a new type of optical fiber. It has a special core that consists of self similar structure. Such a structure is obtained by following the formula for generating iterated function systems (IFS) in Fractal Theory. The resulted SSF can be viewed as a true fractal object in optical fibers. In addition, the method of fabricating SSF makes it possible to generate desired structures exponentially in numbers, whereas it also allows lower scale units in the structure to be reduced in size exponentially. The invention of SSF is expected to greatly ease the production of optical fiber when a large number of small hollow structures are needed in the core of the optical fiber. This dissertation will analyze the core structure of SSF based on fractal theory. Possible properties from the structural characteristics and the corresponding applications are explained. Four SSF samples were obtained through actual fabrication in a laboratory environment. Different from traditional conductive heating fabrication system, I used an in-house designed furnace that incorporated a radiation heating method, and was equipped with automated temperature control system. The obtained samples were examined through spectrum tests. Results from the tests showed that SSF does have the optical property of delivering light in a certain wavelength range. However, SSF as a new type of optical fiber requires a systematic research to find out the theory that explains its structure and the associated optical properties. The fabrication and quality of SSF also needs to be improved for product deployment. As a start of this extensive research, this dissertation work opens the door to a very promising new area in optical fiber research.

  16. Factors Affecting Fiber Design and Selection for Advanced Ceramic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, James A.

    1998-01-01

    Structural Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) have the potential for application in the hot sections of a variety of advanced propulsion and power systems. It is therefore necessary to have a general understanding of the key properties of CMC and Reinforcing Fibers. This need is complicated by the wide variety of application conditions and structural requirements for which CMC's will be used, and the proprietary concerns of the design engineers. CMC's, to be successful, must display properties which are competitive with the currently used high temperature structural materials: (i.e., Iron and Nickel based superalloys, tough monolithic ceramics, and carbon/carbon composites.) Structural CMC offers several areas of competition: (1) performance, (i.e., strength and strength retention, creep resistance, and thermal conductivity), (2) reliability (i.e., environmental durability, and damage tolerance) and (3) processing (i.e., capability for varying sizes and shapes, and cost effective fabrication). The presentation further discusses, and illustrates with fiber and CMC data the key fiber properties and processes which strongly affect each CMC area of competition. The presentation further discusses the current knowledge of the important factors which control the key fiber properties. A design guidelines for the optimum fiber characteristics is developed, and the currently available fibers are compared against those guidelines.

  17. Isolation and characterization of gene sequences expressed in cotton fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciana de Carvalho Coutinho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cotton fiber are tubular cells which develop from the differentiation of ovule epidermis. In addition to being one of the most important natural fiber of the textile group, cotton fiber afford an excellent experimental system for studying the cell wall. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterise the genes expressed in cotton fiber (Gossypium hirsutum L. to be used in future work in cotton breeding. Fiber of the cotton cultivar CNPA ITA 90 II were used to extract RNA for the subsequent generation of a cDNA library. Seventeen sequences were obtained, of which 14 were already described in the NCBI database (National Centre for Biotechnology Information, such as those encoding the lipid transfer proteins (LTPs and arabinogalactans (AGP. However, other cDNAs such as the B05 clone, which displays homology with the glycosyltransferases, have still not been described for this crop. Nevertheless, results showed that several clones obtained in this study are associated with cell wall proteins, wall-modifying enzymes and lipid transfer proteins directly involved in fiber development.

  18. Characterization and antibacterial properties of porous fibers containing silver ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaoyang; Fan, Chenxu; Tang, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jianghui; Song, Yanhua; Shao, Zhongbiao; Xu, Lan

    2016-11-01

    Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular. In the present work, the surface morphology, structure and properties, of electrospun Polylactide Polylactic acid (PLA) porous fibers containing various ratios of silver ions were investigated by a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), universal testing machine, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and et al. The biological activities of the proposed porous fibers were discussed in view of the released silver ions concentration. Antibacterial properties of these porous fibers were studied using two bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results of the antibacterial testing suggested that PLA porous fibers containing silver ions could be used as potent antibacterial wound dressing materials in the biomedical field.

  19. Design and Screening of M13 Phage Display cDNA Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Georgieva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen a steady increase in screening of cDNA expression product libraries displayed on the surface of filamentous bacteriophage. At the same time, the range of applications extended from the identification of novel allergens over disease markers to protein-protein interaction studies. However, the generation and selection of cDNA phage display libraries is subjected to intrinsic biological limitations due to their complex nature and heterogeneity, as well as technical difficulties regarding protein presentation on the phage surface. Here, we review the latest developments in this field, discuss a number of strategies and improvements anticipated to overcome these challenges making cDNA and open reading frame (ORF libraries more readily accessible for phage display. Furthermore, future trends combining phage display with next generation sequencing (NGS will be presented.

  20. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  1. Three-Dimensional Display Technologies for Anatomical Education: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Matthew; Proctor, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Anatomy is a foundational component of biological sciences and medical education and is important for a variety of clinical tasks. To augment current curriculum and improve students' spatial knowledge of anatomy, many educators, anatomists, and researchers use three-dimensional (3D) visualization technologies. This article reviews 3D display technologies and their associated assessments for anatomical education. In the first segment, the review covers the general function of displays employing 3D techniques. The second segment of the review highlights the use and assessment of 3D technology in anatomical education, focusing on factors such as knowledge gains, student perceptions, and cognitive load. The review found 32 articles on the use of 3D displays in anatomical education and another 38 articles on the assessment of 3D displays. The review shows that the majority (74 %) of studies indicate that the use of 3D is beneficial for many tasks in anatomical education, and that student perceptions are positive toward the technology.

  2. Semi-portable full-color electro-holographic display with small size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, Takuo; Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2014-02-01

    Although various 3-D head mounted displays (HMDs) using stereograms have been implemented, extended usage of those systems cause discomfort, fatigue and tiredness because stereogram do not satisfy all 3-D visual cues: accommodation, vergence, and parallax. On the other hand, electro-holography enables observers to view natural 3-D images with minimal discomfort due to satisfying these necessary cues. This time, we fabricated a small sized full-color holographic display system with a type of binocular eyepiece for the base of the wearable system. In this paper, we describe the structure of our system and the proposed calibration method for the arrangement of the optical parts. This calibration plays an important role in the accuracy of the reconstructed images. The main optical parts are combined to a single component to keep the exact arrangement, so this system is semi-portable and can be used everywhere with only a little adjustment. The system has the slide structure between left and right view point like binoculars to eliminate the influence of individual interpupillary distances (PDs). The field sequential color method enables the system to reconstruct full-color images by this display system. The light source is a full-color LED covered with a sharpened fiber and the tip of the fiber works as an almost ideal point light source. The results of the subjective experiments show that reconstructed full-color images are statistically located at the correct depths and satisfy correct accommodation and vergence without the influence of individual PDs.

  3. Quantum Biology

    CERN Document Server

    Sergi, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    A critical assessment of the recent developments of molecular biology is presented. The thesis that they do not lead to a conceptual understanding of life and biological systems is defended. Maturana and Varela's concept of autopoiesis is briefly sketched and its logical circularity avoided by postulating the existence of underlying {\\it living processes}, entailing amplification from the microscopic to the macroscopic scale, with increasing complexity in the passage from one scale to the other. Following such a line of thought, the currently accepted model of condensed matter, which is based on electrostatics and short-ranged forces, is criticized. It is suggested that the correct interpretation of quantum dispersion forces (van der Waals, hydrogen bonding, and so on) as quantum coherence effects hints at the necessity of including long-ranged forces (or mechanisms for them) in condensed matter theories of biological processes. Some quantum effects in biology are reviewed and quantum mechanics is acknowledge...

  4. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Peter B.; Looney, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  5. Fiber-optic technology review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A history of fiber technology is presented. The advantages of fiber optics are discussed (bandwidth, cost, weight and size, nonmetallic construction and isolation). Some aspects of the disadvantages of fiber systems briefly discussed are fiber and cable availability, fiber components, radiation effects, receivers and transmitters, and material dispersion. Particular emphasis over the next several years will involve development of fibers and systems optimized for use at wavelengths near 1.3 μm and development of wavelengths multiplexers for simultaneous system operation at several wavelengths

  6. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F

    2011-01-01

    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  7. 生物活性炭纤维处理小区生活污水的试验研究%Experimental Study of Domestic Sewage Treatment with Biological Activated Carbon Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏栋; 完颜华; 张艳丽; 黄鸽

    2012-01-01

    为了实现小区生活污水再利用,进行以聚丙烯腈活性炭纤维(PAN-ACF)为载体的生物膜法处理小区生活污水的实验研究,以生活污水中COD、NH3-N、SS、浊度、pH等为检测指标来研究反应器的处理效果,实验结果表明该反应器对生活污水中COD、NH3-N、SS、浊度有非常高的去除效率,而且抗冲击负荷能力较强,以上指标出水均符合"城市污水再生利用城市杂用水水质标准"(GB/T18920-2002)中城市绿化规定的水质标准。此外,实验表明聚丙烯腈活性炭纤维(PAN-ACF)作为生物膜载体具有很好的生物亲和性。%In order to realize the reusing of community sewage,an experimental study was conducted by biological membrane method with the polyacrylonitrile activated carbon fiber(PAN-ACF) as the carrier.The treatment results of the reactor were measured by sewage indexes,including COD,NH3-N,SS,turbidity,pH,etc.The experimental results show that the reactor achieved high removal efficiency on COD,NH3-N,SS,turbidity as well as a strong shock resistance capacity,which comply with the water quality standards in city greening provided by Reuse of Recycling Water for Urban Water Quality Standard for Urban Miscellaneous Water Consumption(GB/T18920-2002).In addition,experiments show that the biocompatibility with polyacrylonitrile activated carbon fiber(PAN-ACF) as carrier was favorable.

  8. Continuous fiber thermoplastic prepreg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maywood L. (Inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pultrusion machine employing a corrugated impregnator vessel to immerse multiple, continuous strand, fiber tow in an impregnating material, and an adjustable metered exit orifice for the impregnator vessel to control the quantity of impregnating material retained by the impregnated fibers, is provided. An adjustable height insert retains transverse rod elements within each depression of the corrugated vessel to maintain the individual fiber tows spread and in contact with the vessel bottom. A series of elongated heating dies, transversely disposed on the pultrusion machine and having flat heating surfaces with radiused edges, ensure adequate temperature exposed dwell time and exert adequate pressure on the impregnated fiber tows, to provide the desired thickness and fiber/resin ratio in the prepreg formed. The prepreg passing through the pulling mechanism is wound on a suitable take-up spool for subsequent use. A formula is derived for determining the cross sectional area opening of the metering device. A modification in the heating die system employs a heated nip roller in lieu of one of the pressure applying flat dies.

  9. Congenital fiber type disproportion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissiedu, Juliana; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-04-01

    Type I muscle fiber atrophy in childhood can be encountered in a variety of neuromuscular disorders. Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD) is one such condition which presents as a nonprogressive muscle weakness. The diagnosis is often made after excluding other differential diagnostic considerations. We present a 2-year-9-month-old full term boy who presented at 2 months with an inability to turn his head to the right. Over the next couple of years, he showed signs of muscle weakness, broad based gait and a positive Gower's sign. He had normal levels of creatine kinase and normal electromyography. A biopsy of the vastus lateralis showed a marked variation in muscle fiber type. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-ase stains highlighted a marked type I muscle atrophy with rare scattered atrophic type II muscle fibers. No abnormalities were observed on the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or cytochrome oxidase stained sections. Ragged red fibers were not present on the trichrome stain. Abnormalities of glycogen or lipid deposition were not observed on the periodic acid-Schiff or Oil-Red-O stains. Immunostaining for muscular dystrophy associated proteins showed normal staining. Ultrastructural examination showed a normal arrangement of myofilaments, and a normal number and morphology for mitochondria. A diagnosis of CFTD was made after excluding other causes of type I atrophy including congenital myopathy. The lack of specific clinical and genetic disorder associated with CFTD suggests that it is a spectrum of a disease process and represents a diagnosis of exclusion. PMID:26526626

  10. A fibered interference scanning optical microscope for living cell imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jean-Baptiste~Decombe,; Villard, Catherine; Guillou, Hervé; Chevrier, Joël; Huant, Serge; Fick, Jochen

    2010-01-01

    We report on the 3-dimensional imaging of biological cells including living neurons by a recently developed fibered interferometric Scanning Optical Microscope. The topography and surface structure of mouse fibroblasts and hippocampal neurons are clearly revealed. This straightforward technique allows fast, high resolution observation of samples in liquids without lengthy alignment procedures or costly components.

  11. Computer based human-centered display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, David L. (Inventor); Temme, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A human centered informational display is disclosed that can be used with vehicles (e.g. aircraft) and in other operational environments where rapid human centered comprehension of an operational environment is required. The informational display integrates all cockpit information into a single display in such a way that the pilot can clearly understand with a glance, his or her spatial orientation, flight performance, engine status and power management issues, radio aids, and the location of other air traffic, runways, weather, and terrain features. With OZ the information is presented as an integrated whole, the pilot instantaneously recognizes flight path deviations, and is instinctively drawn to the corrective maneuvers. Our laboratory studies indicate that OZ transfers to the pilot all of the integrated display information in less than 200 milliseconds. The reacquisition of scan can be accomplished just as quickly. Thus, the time constants for forming a mental model are near instantaneous. The pilot's ability to keep up with rapidly changing and threatening environments is tremendously enhanced. OZ is most easily compatible with aircraft that has flight path information coded electronically. With the correct sensors (which are currently available) OZ can be installed in essentially all current aircraft.

  12. Presenting directions with a vibrotactile torso display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2005-01-01

    Vibrotactile displays covering the torso present spatial information in an intuitive way since the stimuli are directly mapped to the body coordinates; left is left, front is front, etc. The present study investigated the direction in the horizontal plane to which a specific torso location is mapped

  13. Converting a Display Screen into a Touchscreen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wang; Jun Cheng; San-Ming Shen; Yi-Jiang Shen; Jian-Xin Pang

    2014-01-01

    A method is presented to convert any display screen into a touchscreen by using a pair of cameras. Most state of art touchscreens make use of special touch-sensitive hardware or depend on infrared sensors in various configurations. We describe a novel computer-vision-based method that can robustly identify fingertips and detect touch with a precision of a few millimeters above the screen. In our system, the two cameras capture the display screen image simultaneously. Users can interact with a computer by the fingertip on the display screen. We have two important contributions:first, we develop a simple and robust hand detection method based on predicted images. Second, we determine whether a physical touch takes places by the homography of the two cameras. In this system, the appearance of the display screen in camera images is inherently predictable from the computer output images. Therefore, we can compute the predicted images and extract human hand precisely by simply subtracting the predicted images from captured images.

  14. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsui, Keiichi

    2000-06-01

    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  15. Supramolecular liquid crystal displays : construction and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, Joannes Theodorus Valentinus

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and pos

  16. Exploring Community Building with an Awareness Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyas, Dhaval; Nijholt, Anton; Eliëns, Anton; Poelman, Wim; Makedon, Fillia

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a field trial of a pervasive system called Panorama that is aimed at supporting social awareness in work environments. Panorama is an intelligent situated display in the staff room of an academic department. It artistically represents non-critical user generated content suc

  17. The staging system: Display and edit module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, E.; Bernier, L.

    1976-01-01

    The Display and Edit (D and E) Module described is one of six major modules being developed for the STAGING (STructural Analysis through Generalized INteractive Graphics) System. Several remarks are included concerning the computer environment and the architecture of the data base. The utility of this module is emphasized.

  18. Electronic Chart Display and Information System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces the most advanced form of electronic chart display and information systems (ECDIS) which complies with the Performance Standards for ECDIS established by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO).It also describes the key features and the important functions of ECDIS.Then the future development of ECDIS in marine is discussed.

  19. Interacting on and around Large Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Anders

    modality for large displays that could have some of the advantages of both touch and mid-air interaction. To assess the potential of this novel interaction modality, Paper 4 presents a tracking solution that was developed and tested as an input method for smart watches. Further studies are needed...

  20. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia: Asia-Pa

  1. Creating Gaze Annotations in Head Mounted Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbeigi, Diako; Qvarfordt, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    To facilitate distributed communication in mobile settings, we developed GazeNote for creating and sharing gaze annotations in head mounted displays (HMDs). With gaze annotations it possible to point out objects of interest within an image and add a verbal description. To create an annota- tion, ...

  2. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstädt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, Proceedings of EC-TEL 2010 (pp. 512-517). LNCS 6383. Berlin, He

  3. Survey of standards for electronic image displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, William A.

    1996-01-01

    Electronic visual displays have been evolving from the 1960s basis of cathode ray tube (CRT) technology. Now, many other technologies are also available, including both flat panels and projection displays. Standards for these displays are being developed at both the national level and the international levels. Standards activity within the United States is in its infancy and is fragmented according to the inclination of each of the standards developing organizations. The latest round of flat panel display technology was primarily developed in Japan. Initially standards arose from component vendor-to-OEM customer relationships. As a result, Japanese standards for components are the best developed. The Electronics Industries Association of Japan (EIAJ) is providing their standards to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for adoption. On the international level, professional societies such as the human factors society (hfs) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) have completed major standards. Human factors society developed the first ergonomic standard hfs-100 and the ISO has developed some sections of a broader ergonomic standard ISO 9241. This paper addresses the organization of standards activity. Active organizations and their areas of focus are identified. The major standards that have been completed or are in development are described. Finally, suggestions for improving this standards activity are proposed.

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  5. Market trends in the projection display industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sweta

    2000-04-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection television segment. But rear LCD (liquid crystal display) and rear reflective (DLP, or Digital Light ProcessingTM) televisions are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are still popular in the high-end home theater market. Front LCD technology and front DLP technology dominate the business market. Traditional light valve technology was the only solution for applications requiring high light outputs, but new three-chip DLP projectors meet the higher light output requirements at a lower price. In the last few years the strongest growth has been in the business market for multimedia presentation applications. This growth was due to the continued increase in display pixel formats, the continued reduction in projector weight, and the improved price/performance ratio. The projection display market will grow at a significant rate during the next five years, driven by the growth in ultraportable (market to digital and HDTV products.

  6. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  7. Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Kelle, Sebastian; Börner, Dirk; KALZ Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Kelle, S., Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). Ambient Displays and Game Design Patterns. In M. Wolpers, P. A. Kirschner, M. Scheffel, S. Lindstädt, & V. Dimitrova (Eds.), Sustaining TEL: From Innovation to Learning and Practice, Proceedings of EC-TEL 2010 (pp. 512-517). LNCS 6383. Berlin, Heidelberg, & New York: Springer.

  8. Amorphous Silicon: Flexible Backplane and Display Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Kalluri R.

    Advances in the science and technology of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H, also referred to as a-Si) and the associated devices including thin-film transistors (TFT) during the past three decades have had a profound impact on the development and commercialization of major applications such as thin-film solar cells, digital image scanners and X-ray imagers and active matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs). Particularly, during approximately the past 15 years, a-Si TFT-based flat panel AMLCDs have been a huge commercial success. a-Si TFT-LCD has enabled the note book PCs, and is now rapidly replacing the venerable CRT in the desktop monitor and home TV applications. a-Si TFT-LCD is now the dominant technology in use for applications ranging from small displays such as in mobile phones to large displays such as in home TV, as well-specialized applications such as industrial and avionics displays.

  9. Automatic Fiber Orientation Detection for Sewed Carbon Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Automatic production and precise positioning of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) require precise detection of the fiber orientations. This paper presents an automatic method for detecting fiber orientations of sewed carbon fibers in the production of FRP. Detection was achieved by appropriate use of regional filling, edge detection operators, autocorrelation methods, and the Hough transformation. Regional filling was used to reduce the influence of the sewed regions, autocorrelation was used to clarify the fiber directions, edge detection operators were used to extract the edge features for the fiber orientations, and the Hough transformation was used to calculate the angles. Results for two kinds of carbon fiber materials show that the method is relatively quick and precise for detecting carbon fiber orientations.

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane fibers for optical fiber sensor of displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martincek, Ivan; Pudis, Dusan; Gaso, Peter

    2013-09-01

    The paper describes the preparation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber integrated on the conventional optical fibers and their use for optical fiber displacement sensor. PDMS fiber was made of silicone elastomer Sylgard 184 (Dow Corning) by drawing from partially cured silicone. Optical fiber displacement sensor using PDMS fiber is based on the measurement of the local minimum of optical signal in visible spectral range generated by intermodal interference of circularly symmetric modes. Position of the local minimum in spectral range varies by stretching the PDMS fiber of 230 μm in the wavelength range from 688 to 477 nm. In the stretched PDMS fiber is possible to determine the longitudinal displacement with an accuracy of approximately 1 micrometer.

  11. Reflective and transflective liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fushan

    Recently transflective liquid crystal displays (LCD) received a lot of attention. A transflective display has a transmissive mode and a reflective mode. It combines the high contrast, high brightness of the transmissive mode with energy-saving of reflective mode and has good performance in various illumination conditions. However, state-of-the-art transflective displays have problems such as different electro-optical properties, difficulty in compatibility and optimization of both modes, low efficiency of light utilization, and complexity in structure. This dissertation focuses on finding new designs of transflective displays that address those problems. One way to do this is to study film compensation of LCD. We first studied film compensation of bistable twisted nematic (BTN) LCD. Starting form the reduced (3x3) Mueller matrices, we derived and simplified the conditions that film compensated BTN can be optimized. Based on these relations, electro-optical properties of some particular configurations, and designs of transflective BTN with high brightness and contrast were given. To confirm and get a better understanding of the results, we use the Poincare sphere to analyze film compensated BTN. The key to this approach is the existence of "fixed points". Compared with the matrix approach, this approach is more simple, elegant, and efficient. We then generalized the Poincare sphere approach to a universal approach of LCD. We applied the universal approach to film compensation of ECB and IPS, and the design of achromatic birefringent filters. We also give two more new designs of transflective displays. In the first design, a dichroic mirror is used to split the visible spectrum into two parts used in transmissive and reflective modes, respectively. Both modes can be optimized. It has a simple structure and good light utilization. A design for a full-color transflective display with good performance is also given. In the second design, each pixel is divided into two

  12. Altered Tnnt3 characterizes selective weakness of fast fibers in mice overexpressing FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancisi, Valentina; Germinario, Elena; Esposito, Alessandra; Morini, Elisabetta; Peron, Samantha; Moggio, Maurizio; Tomelleri, Giuliano; Danieli-Betto, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), a common hereditary myopathy, is characterized by atrophy and weakness of selective muscle groups. FSHD is considered an autosomal dominant disease with incomplete penetrance and unpredictable variability of clinical expression within families. Mice overexpressing FRG1 (FSHD region gene 1), a candidate gene for this disease, develop a progressive myopathy with features of the human disorder. Here, we show that in FRG1-overexpressing mice, fast muscles, which are the most affected by the dystrophic process, display anomalous fast skeletal troponin T (fTnT) isoform, resulting from the aberrant splicing of the Tnnt3 mRNA that precedes the appearance of dystrophic signs. We determine that muscles of FRG1 mice develop less strength due to impaired contractile properties of fast-twitch fibers associated with an anomalous MyHC-actin ratio and a reduced sensitivity to Ca2+. We demonstrate that the decrease of Ca2+ sensitivity of fast-twitch fibers depends on the anomalous troponin complex and can be rescued by the substitution with the wild-type proteins. Finally, we find that the presence of aberrant splicing isoforms of TNNT3 characterizes dystrophic muscles in FSHD patients. Collectively, our results suggest that anomalous TNNT3 profile correlates with the muscle impairment in both humans and mice. On the basis of these results, we propose that aberrant fTnT represents a biological marker of muscle phenotype severity and disease progression. PMID:24305066

  13. Advanced Three-Dimensional Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2005-01-01

    A desktop-scale, computer-controlled display system, initially developed for NASA and now known as the VolumeViewer(TradeMark), generates three-dimensional (3D) images of 3D objects in a display volume. This system differs fundamentally from stereoscopic and holographic display systems: The images generated by this system are truly 3D in that they can be viewed from almost any angle, without the aid of special eyeglasses. It is possible to walk around the system while gazing at its display volume to see a displayed object from a changing perspective, and multiple observers standing at different positions around the display can view the object simultaneously from their individual perspectives, as though the displayed object were a real 3D object. At the time of writing this article, only partial information on the design and principle of operation of the system was available. It is known that the system includes a high-speed, silicon-backplane, ferroelectric-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), multiple high-power lasers for projecting images in multiple colors, a rotating helix that serves as a moving screen for displaying voxels [volume cells or volume elements, in analogy to pixels (picture cells or picture elements) in two-dimensional (2D) images], and a host computer. The rotating helix and its motor drive are the only moving parts. Under control by the host computer, a stream of 2D image patterns is generated on the SLM and projected through optics onto the surface of the rotating helix. The system utilizes a parallel pixel/voxel-addressing scheme: All the pixels of the 2D pattern on the SLM are addressed simultaneously by laser beams. This parallel addressing scheme overcomes the difficulty of achieving both high resolution and a high frame rate in a raster scanning or serial addressing scheme. It has been reported that the structure of the system is simple and easy to build, that the optical design and alignment are not difficult, and that the

  14. Multifunctional and biologically active matrices from multicomponent polymeric solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiick, Kristi L. (Inventor); Yamaguchi, Nori (Inventor); Rabolt, John (Inventor); Casper, Cheryl (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A functionalized electrospun matrix for the controlled-release of biologically active agents, such as growth factors, is presented. The functionalized matrix comprises a matrix polymer, a compatibilizing polymer and a biomolecule or other small functioning molecule. In certain aspects the electrospun polymer fibers comprise at least one biologically active molecule functionalized with low molecular weight heparin.

  15. VLSI design of 3D display processing chip for binocular stereo displays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Chenyang; Zheng Nanning

    2010-01-01

    In order to develop the core chip supporting binocular stereo displays for head mounted display(HMD)and glasses-TV,a very large scale integrated(VLSI)design scheme is proposed by using a pipeline architecture for 3D display processing chip(HMD100).Some key techniques including stereo display processing and high precision video scaling based bicubic interpolation,and their hardware implementations which improve the image quality are presented.The proposed HMD100 chip is verified by the field-programmable gate array(FPGA).As one of innovative and high integration SoC chips,HMD100 is designed by a digital and analog mixed circuit.It can support binocular stereo display,has better scaling effect and integration.Hence it is applicable in virtual reality(VR),3D games and other microdisplay domains.

  16. Release of asbestos fibers from weathered and corroded asbestos cement products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurny, K.R.

    1989-02-01

    The controversy on whether weathered and corroded asbestos cement products are emitting biologically significant asbestos fiber concentrations in ambient air has not been resolved. Nor is it known if the weathered and corroded asbestos cement products release asbestos fibers which have the same carcinogenic potency as standard chrysotile. The purpose of this research project was to develop a method for sampling and measuring asbestos fiber emissions from solid planar surfaces (i.e., roofs and facades) consisting of asbestos cement products and to develop methods for studying the physical and chemical changes and the carcinogenic potency of the emitted fibers. Using this method asbestos fiber emissions in ambient air have been measured in the FRG during 1984/1986. The emissions of asbestos fibers longer than 5 microns were in the range 10(6) to 10(8) fibers/m2.hr. The ambient air concentrations of these asbestos fibers were for the most part less than 10(3) fibers/m3. It was shown that the emitted asbestos fibers were chemically changed and it was shown with animal experiments that their carcinogenic potency did not differ from the carcinogenicity of standard chrysotile fibers.

  17. Enclosed Chambers for Humidity Control And Sample Containment in Fiber Diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Kendall, A.; Tanaka, M.; Weissman, J.S.; Stubbs, G.

    2009-05-26

    A chamber and stretch frame for making fibers for diffraction is described. The chamber is made from a simple plastic cuvette with silicon nitride windows. It is suitable for maintaining constant humidity during fiber drying and data collection, and allows stretching of the fiber and exposure to magnetic fields during sample preparation. If necessary, it provides primary containment for toxic and infectious biological materials. The chamber has been used in fiber diffraction experiments with filamentous plant viruses and a yeast prion protein, and is shown to produce excellent orientation and to maintain hydration and order at the molecular level.

  18. Enclosed chambers for humidity control and sample containment in fiber diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Kendall, A.; Tanaka, M.; Weissman, J.S.; Stubbs, G. (Vanderbilt); (HHMI)

    2008-11-03

    A chamber and stretch frame for making fibers for diffraction is described. The chamber is made from a simple plastic cuvette with silicon nitride windows. It is suitable for maintaining constant humidity during fiber drying and data collection, and allows stretching of the fiber and exposure to magnetic fields during sample preparation. If necessary, it provides primary containment for toxic and infectious biological materials. The chamber has been used in fiber diffraction experiments with filamentous plant viruses and a yeast prion protein, and is shown to produce excellent orientation and to maintain hydration and order at the molecular level.

  19. Optical fiber networks for remote fiber optic sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Montserrat Fernandez-Vallejo; Manuel Lopez-Amo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of optical fiber sensor networks for remote sensing. Firstly, the state of the art of remote fiber sensor systems has been considered. We have summarized the great evolution of these systems in recent years; this progress confirms that fiber-optic remote sensing is a promising technology with a wide field of practical applications. Afterwards, the most representative remote fiber-optic sensor systems are briefly explained, discussing their schemes, challeng...

  20. Fiber Length and Orientation in Long Carbon Fiber Thermoplastic Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Hanhan, Imad; Sullivan, Connor; Sharma, Bhisham; Sangid, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber composites have become popular in aerospace applications because of their lightweight yet strong material properties. The injection molding process can be used to produce discontinuous fiber composites using less time and resources than traditional methods, thereby broadening carbon fiber composites’ applications in different industries. Utilization of longer fibers offers more load carrying capability and superior strength properties for injected molded composites. Since the fib...

  1. Wearable and augmented reality displays using MEMS and SLMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan; Ulusoy, Erdem; Kazempourradi, Seyedmahdi M. K.; Mengu, Deniz; Olcer, Selim; Holmstrom, Sven T.

    2016-03-01

    In this talk, we present the various types of 3D displays, head-mounted projection displays and wearable displays developed in our group using MEMS scanners, compact RGB laser light sources, and spatial light modulators.

  2. Femtosecond Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Katherine J.

    This thesis focuses on research I have done on ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers. These lasers operate in the near infrared region, lasing at 1030 nm. This wavelength is particularly important in biomedical applications, which includes but is not limited to confocal microscopy and ablation for surgical incisions. Furthermore, fiber lasers are advantageous compared to solid state lasers in terms of their cost, form factor, and ease of use. Solid state lasers still dominate the market due to their comparatively high energy pulses. High energy pulse generation in fiber lasers is hindered by either optical wave breaking or by multipulsing. One of the main challenges for fiber lasers is to overcome these limitations to achieve high energy pulses. The motivation for the work done in this thesis is increasing the output pulse peak power and energy. The main idea of the work is that decreasing the nonlinearity that acts on the pulse inside the cavity will prevent optical wave breaking, and thus will generate higher energy pulses. By increasing the output energy, ytterbium-doped femtosecond fiber lasers can be competitive with solid state lasers which are used commonly in research. Although fiber lasers tend to lack the wavelength tuning ability of solid state lasers, many biomedical applications take advantage of the 1030 microm central wavelength of ytterbium-doped fiber lasers, so the major limiting factor of fiber lasers in this field is simply the output power. By increasing the output energy without resorting to external amplification, the cavity is optimized and cost can remain low and economical. During verification of the main idea, the cavity was examined for possible back-reflections and for components with narrow spectral bandwidths which may have contributed to the presence of multipulsing. Distinct cases of multipulsing, bound pulse and harmonic mode-locking, were observed and recorded as they may be of more interest in the future. The third

  3. Carbon Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    HyComp(R), Inc. development a line of high temperature carbon fiber composite products to solve wear problems in the harsh environment of steel and aluminum mills. WearComp(R), self-lubricating composite wear liners and bushings, combines carbon graphite fibers with a polyimide binder. The binder, in conjunction with the fibers, provides the slippery surface, one that demands no lubrication, yet wears at a very slow rate. WearComp(R) typically lasts six to ten times longer than aluminum bronze. Unlike bronze, WearComp polishes the same surface and imparts a self-lube film for years of service. It is designed for continuous operation at temperatures of 550 degrees Fahrenheit and can operate under high compressive loads.

  4. Fiber optic calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bush, J.; Davis, P. [Optiphase, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

    1998-01-01

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using fiber for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian ({mu}rad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% {sup 240}Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium.

  5. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microrad to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 rad of phase shift per mW of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  6. Fiber Optic Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processes to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (microrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  7. Fiber optic calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using fiber for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian (μrad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% 240Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium

  8. Fiber Optic Calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, C.; Bayliss, S.; Bracken, D.; Bush, J.; Davis, P.

    1997-12-12

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processes to allow phase shifts as small as 1 microradian ({micro}rad) to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 radians (rad) of phase shift per milliwatt of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% {sup 240}Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium.

  9. Fiber optic calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy, C.R.; Bayliss, S.C.; Bracken, D.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bush, I.J.; Davis, P.G. [Optiphase, Inc., Van Nuys, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A twin-bridge calorimeter using optical fiber as the sensor element was constructed and tested. This system demonstrates the principle and capability of using optical fibers for heat-flow measurements of special nuclear material. This calorimeter uses piezoelectric-generated phase-carrier modulation with subsequent electronic signal processing to allow phase shifts as small as 1 {micro}rad to be measured. The sensing element consists of 21-m lengths of single-mode optical fiber wrapped around sample and reference chambers. The sensitivity of the calorimeter was determined to be 74 rad of phase shift per mW of thermal power. One milliwatt of thermal power is equivalent to 400 mg of plutonium (6% {sup 240}Pu). The system noise base was about 0.2 rad, equivalent to about 1 mg of plutonium.

  10. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chuck C.; Saaski, Elric W.; McCrae, David A.

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes a novel fiber optic-based hydrogen sensor. The sensor consists of a thin-film etalon, constructed on the distal end of a fiber optic. The exterior mirror of the etalon is palladium or a palladium-alloy, which undergoes an optical change upon exposure to hydrogen. Data is presented on fiber optic sensors constructed with palladium and several alloys of palladium. The linearity of the optical response of these sensors to hydrogen is examined. Etalons made with pure palladium are found to be desirable for sensing low concentrations of hydrogen, or for one-time exposure to high concentrations of hydrogen. Etalons made from palladium alloys are found to be more desirable in applications were repeated cycling in high concentrations of hydrogen occurs.

  11. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  12. Single fiber pullout from hybrid fiber reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markovich, I.; Van Mier, J.G.M.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hybrid fiber reinforcement can be very efficient for improving the tensile response of the composite. In such materials, fibers of different geometries can act as bridging mechanisms over cracks of different widths. The fiber bridging efficiency depends on the interface properties, which makes inter

  13. Monolithic femtosecond Yb-fiber laser with photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate a monolithic stable SESAM-modelocked self-starting Yb-fiber laser. A novel PM all-solid photonic bandgap fiber is used for intra-cavity of dispersion management. The ex-cavity final pulse compression is performed in a spliced-on PM hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The laser...

  14. Autonomic fiber sprouting in the skin in chronic inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Geraldine

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pain is a major symptom associated with chronic inflammation. In previous work from our laboratory, we have shown that in animal models of neuropathic pain there is a sprouting of sympathetic fibers into the upper dermis, a territory normally devoid of them. However, it is not known whether such sympathetic spouting, which is likely trophic factor mediated, also occurs in chronic inflammation and arthritis. In the present study, we used a rat model of chronic inflammation in which a small single dose of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA was injected subcutaneously, unilaterally, into the plantar surface of the hindpaw. This led to a localized long-term skin inflammation and arthritis in all joints of the hindpaw. Animals were perfused with histological fixatives at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after the injection. Experimental animals treated with CFA were compared to saline-injected animals. We then investigated the changes in the pattern of peripheral innervation of the peptidergic nociceptors and sympathetic fibers in rat glabrous hindpaw skin. Antibodies directed towards calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP and dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH were used for the staining of peptidergic and sympathetic fibers, respectively. Immunofluorescence was then used to analyze the different nerve fiber populations of the upper dermis. At 4 weeks following CFA treatment, DBH-immunoreactive (IR fibers were found to sprout into the upper dermis, in a pattern similar to the one we had observed in animals with a chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve in a previous publication. There was also a significant increase in the density of CGRP-IR fibers in the upper dermis in CFA treated animals at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-injection. The increased peptidergic fiber innervation and the ectopic autonomic fibers found in the upper dermis may have a role in the pain-related behavior displayed by these animals.

  15. The Realization of LED Display System Based on the Embedded

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohong Ni; Zhou Yan; Liu Dan; Yanling Zhou

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a design of LED display control system based on ARM and FPGA is proposed, according to module structure characteristics of the RGB three colors LED display and the dynamic scanning display of the LED display which is achieved by FPGA technology, this system uses ARM chip S3C2240 as the control core. with the help of the programmable logic device auxiliary, it completed the data storage and update, display refresh, animation, cycle display; and achieved communication through Eth...

  16. Research Status of Molecular Biology in Flax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Jian-zhong

    2016-01-01

    Flax is a kind of worldwide fiber and oil crops, and it has a very important role in economic crop production in the world. With the development of molecular biology techniques, the research of flax molecular level has a very big breakthrough. But, flax molecular biology researches are less reported due to the later starting. This paper summarized the latest research progress of molecular biology of flax, including molecular marker technology, construction of genetic map, gene engineering and omics researches, in order to provide the reference to understand the development and research status for flax molecular breeding researchers.

  17. Bioferroelectricity and optical properties of biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystrov, Vladimir; Bystrova, Natalia

    2003-08-01

    A bioferroelectric approach to analysis of ferroelectric behavior of biological systems is presented. The optical properties of nerve fibers, biomembrane ion channels, and purple membrane films containing bacteriorhodopsin are analyzed. The features, influence of the proton subsystem and proton transfer on the hydrogen-bonded biomolecular structures are analyzed within the ferroelectric liquid-crystal model and possible biomedical applications discussed. The ferroelectric behavior of biological systems and the set of various bioferroelectric effects are considered within the limits of phenomenological theory of ferroelectrics. The nonlinear response to weak actions under conditions critical to human organism is one of specific features characterizing biological objects on molecular, cell and organism levels.

  18. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind

    2012-01-01

    Since the 4e appeared, a fast evolution of the field has occurred. The 5e of this classic work provides an up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers, the basis of all our telecommunications infastructure as well as being used in the medical field. Reflecting the big developments in research, this new edition includes major new content: slow light effects, which offers a reduction in noise and power consumption and more ordered network traffic-stimulated Brillouin scattering; vectorial treatment of highly nonlinear fibers; and a brand new chapter o

  19. Optical fiber telecommunications IIIb

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Thomas L

    2012-01-01

    Updated to include the latest information on light wave technology, Optical Fiber Telecommunication III, Volumes A & B are invaluable for scientists, students, and engineers in the modern telecommunications industry. This two-volume set includes the most current research available in optical fiber telecommunications, light wave technology, and photonics/optoelectronics. The authors cover important background concepts such as SONET, coding device technology, andWOM components as well as projecting the trends in telecommunications for the 21st century.Key Features* One of the hottest subjects of

  20. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    1991-01-01

    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  1. Optical fiber rotation sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t

  2. Fused-Polished Fiber Couplers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sien; Chi; Shiao-Min; Tseng

    2003-01-01

    We report on fused-polished fiber couplers with a new fabrication method. This structure so fabricated is promising while achieving high-performance all-fiber WDM devices. Potential advantages and prospects of our works are presented.

  3. Fiber MOPA for Ascends Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CO2 sensing using absorption bands near 1570nm is very attractive by taking advantage of the mature fiber-amplifier technology derived from fiber-optic telecom...

  4. Fiber and Prebiotics: Mechanisms and Health Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne Slavin

    2013-01-01

    The health benefits of dietary fiber have long been appreciated. Higher intakes of dietary fiber are linked to less cardiovascular disease and fiber plays a role in gut health, with many effective laxatives actually isolated fiber sources. Higher intakes of fiber are linked to lower body weights. Only polysaccharides were included in dietary fiber originally, but more recent definitions have included oligosaccharides as dietary fiber, not based on their chemical measurement as dietary fiber b...

  5. Boron nitride converted carbon fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseas, Michael; Mickelson, William; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2016-04-05

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to boron nitride converted carbon fiber. In one aspect, a method may include the operations of providing boron oxide and carbon fiber, heating the boron oxide to melt the boron oxide and heating the carbon fiber, mixing a nitrogen-containing gas with boron oxide vapor from molten boron oxide, and converting at least a portion of the carbon fiber to boron nitride.

  6. Tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Svane, Ask Sebastian; Lægsgaard, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate electrically-tunable femtosecond Cherenkov fiber laser output at the visible range. Using an all-fiber, self-starting femtosecond Yb-doped fiber laser as the pump source and nonlinear photonic crystal fiber link as the wave-conversion medium, ultrafast, milliwatt-level, tunable...... and spectral isolated Cherenkov radiation at visible wavelengths are reported. Such a femtosecond Cherenkov laser source is promising for practical biophotonics applications....

  7. Biological Oceanography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, M. R.

    1984-01-01

    Within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles and ocean productivity, there are two areas that will be of particular interest to biological oceanography in the 1990s. The first is the mapping in space time of the biomass and productivity of phytoplankton in the world ocean. The second area is the coupling of biological and physical processes as it affects the distribution and growth rate of phytoplankton biomass. Certainly other areas will be of interest to biological oceanographers, but these two areas are amenable to observations from satellites. Temporal and spatial variability is a regular feature of marine ecosystems. The temporal and spatial variability of phytoplankton biomass and productivity which is ubiquitous at all time and space scales in the ocean must be characterized. Remote sensing from satellites addresses these problems with global observations of mesocale (2 to 20 days, 10 to 200 km) features over a long period of time.

  8. Optimization of the polyplanar optical display electronics for a monochrome B-52 display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSanto, L.

    1998-04-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten-inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a new 200 mW green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments (TI). In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. In order to achieve increased brightness a monochrome digitizing interface was investigated. The operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with the RS-170 video format specific to the B-52 aircraft will be discussed, including the increased brightness of the monochrome digitizing interface. A brief description of the electronics required to drive the new 200 mW laser is also presented.

  9. Super high precision 200 ppi liquid crystal display series; Chokoseido 200 ppi ekisho display series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In mobile equipment, in demand is a high precision liquid crystal display (LCD) having the power of expression equivalent to printed materials like magazines because of the necessity of displaying a large amount of information on a easily potable small screen. In addition, with the spread and high-quality image of digital still cameras, it is strongly desired to display photographed digital image data in high quality. Toshiba Corp., by low temperature polysilicone (p-Si) technology, commercialized the liquid crystal display series of 200 ppi (pixels per inch) precision dealing with the rise of the high-precision high-image quality LCD market. The super high precision of 200 ppi enables the display of smooth beautiful animation comparable to printed sheets of magazines and photographs. The display series are suitable for the display of various information services such as electronic books and electronic photo-viewers including internet. The screen sizes lined up are No. 4 type VGA (640x480 pixels) of a small pocket notebook size and No. 6.3 type XGA (1,024x768 pixels) of a paperback size, with a larger screen to be furthered. (translated by NEDO)

  10. The Biological Effects of Quadripolar Radiofrequency Sequential Application: A Human Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornaglia, Antonia Icaro; Faga, Angela; Scevola, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective: An experimental study was conducted to assess the effectiveness and safety of an innovative quadripolar variable electrode configuration radiofrequency device with objective measurements in an ex vivo and in vivo human experimental model. Background data: Nonablative radiofrequency applications are well-established anti-ageing procedures for cosmetic skin tightening. Methods: The study was performed in two steps: ex vivo and in vivo assessments. In the ex vivo assessments the radiofrequency applications were performed on human full-thickness skin and subcutaneous tissue specimens harvested during surgery for body contouring. In the in vivo assessments the applications were performed on two volunteer patients scheduled for body contouring surgery at the end of the study. The assessment methods were: clinical examination and medical photography, temperature measurement with thermal imaging scan, and light microscopy histological examination. Results: The ex vivo assessments allowed for identification of the effective safety range for human application. The in vivo assessments allowed for demonstration of the biological effects of sequential radiofrequency applications. After a course of radiofrequency applications, the collagen fibers underwent an immediate heat-induced rearrangement and were partially denaturated and progressively metabolized by the macrophages. An overall thickening and spatial rearrangement was appreciated both in the collagen and elastic fibers, the latter displaying a juvenile reticular pattern. A late onset in the macrophage activation after sequential radiofrequency applications was appreciated. Conclusions: Our data confirm the effectiveness of sequential radiofrequency applications in obtaining attenuation of the skin wrinkles by an overall skin tightening. PMID:25244081

  11. Bioactive protein-based nanofibers interact with intestinal biological components resulting in transepithelial permeation of a therapeutic protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boutrup Stephansen, Karen; García-Díaz, María; Jessen, Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    Proteins originating from natural sources may constitute a novel type of material for use in drug delivery. However, thorough understanding of the behavior and effects of such a material when processed into a matrix together with a drug is crucial prior to further development into a drug product....... In the present study the potential of using bioactive electrospun fish sarcoplasmic proteins (FSP) as a carrier matrix for small therapeutic proteins was demonstrated in relation to the interactions with biological components of the intestinal tract. The inherent structural and chemical properties of FSP...... as a biomaterial facilitated interactions with cells and enzymes found in the gastrointestinal tract and displayed excellent biocompatibility. More specifically, insulin was efficiently encapsulated into FSP fibers maintaining its conformation, and subsequent controlled release was obtained in simulated intestinal...

  12. Direct spinning of fiber supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tong; Ding, Xiaoteng; Liang, Yuan; Zhao, Yang; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-06-16

    A direct wet spinning approach is demonstrated for facile and continuous fabrication of a whole fiber supercapacitor using a microfluidic spinneret. The resulting fiber supercapacitor shows good electrochemical properties and possesses high flexibility and mechanical stability. This strategy paves the way for large-scale continuous production of fiber supercapacitors for weavable electronics.

  13. Aerogel-clad optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprehn, Gregory A.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Poco, John F.; Sandler, Pamela H.

    1997-01-01

    An optical fiber is surrounded by an aerogel cladding. For a low density aerogel, the index of refraction of the aerogel is close to that of air, which provides a high numerical aperture to the optical fiber. Due to the high numerical aperture, the aerogel clad optical fiber has improved light collection efficiency.

  14. Fabrication of Optical Fiber Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Miguel V.

    In this paper we present the main research activities of the Laboratorio de Fibras Opticas del Instituto de Ciencia de los Materiales de la Universidad de Valencia. We show some of the main results obtained for devices based on tapered fibers, fiber Bragg gratings, acousto-optic effects and photonic crystal fibers.

  15. Neuroanatomic Fiber Orientation Maps (FOMs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axer, Hubertus; Jantzen, Jan; Grässel, David;

    2002-01-01

    A new neuroanatomic method is described which allows to map the orientation of central nervous fibers in gross histological sections. Polarised light is used to calculate the angle of inclination and direction of the fibers in each pixel. Serial fiber orientation maps (FOMs) can be aligned and 3D...

  16. Microstructured Fibers: Design and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard; Broeng, Jes

    2006-01-01

    Holey fibers, in which airholes are introduced in the cladding region and extended in the axial direction of the fiber, have been known since the early days of silica waveguide research. Early work demonstrated the first low-loss fibers, which featured very small silica cores held in air by thin ...

  17. Photonic-crystal fibers gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muse Haider

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we proposed to use of a photonic crystal fiber with an inner hollow defect. The use of such fibers is not affected by a material medium on the propagation of optical radiation. Photonic crystal fibers present special properties and capabilities that lead to an outstanding potential for sensing applications

  18. Mid-infrared fiber lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollnau, Markus; Jackson, Stuart D.; Sorokina, I.T.; Vodopyanov, K.L.

    2003-01-01

    The current state of the art in mid-infrared fiber lasers is reviewed in this chapter. The relevant fiber-host materials such as silicates, fluorides, chalcogenides, and ceramics, the fiber, pump, and resonator geometries, and the spectroscopic properties of rare-earth ions are introduced. Lasers at

  19. Short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchev, P.G.

    2008-01-01

    The present thesis investigates the potential of short fiber reinforced thermoplastic blends, a combination of an immiscible polymer blend and a short fiber reinforced composite, to integrate the easy processing solutions available for short fiber reinforced composites with the high mechanical perfo

  20. Fiber Optics and Library Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Michael

    1984-01-01

    This article examines fiber optic technology, explains some of the key terminology, and speculates about the way fiber optics will change our world. Applications of fiber optics to library systems in three major areas--linkage of a number of mainframe computers, local area networks, and main trunk communications--are highlighted. (EJS)

  1. Buying Fiber-Optic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickes, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Describes consortia formed by college and university administrators to buy, manage, and maintain their own fiber-optic networks with the goals of cutting costs of leasing fiber-optic cable and planning for the future. Growth capacity is the real advantage of owning fiber-optic systems. (SLD)

  2. Shedding Light on Fiber Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunch, Robert M.

    1994-01-01

    Explains the principles of fiber optics as a medium for light-wave communication. Current uses of fiber systems on college campuses include voice, video, and local area network applications. A group of seven school districts in Minnesota are linked via fiber-optic cables. Other uses are discussed. (MLF)

  3. Use of 3000 Bragg Grating Strain Sensors Distributed on Four Eight-meter Optical Fibers During Static Load Tests of a Composite Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Brooks A.; Froggatt, Mark E.; Allison, Sidney G.; Moore, Thomas C., Sr.; Hare, David A.; Batten, Christopher F.; Jegley, Dawn C.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a fiber optic system to measure strain at thousands of locations along optical fibers where weakly reflecting Bragg gratings have been photoetched. The optical fibers were applied to an advanced composite transport wing along with conventional foil strain gages. A comparison of the fiber optic and foil gage systems used for this test will be presented including: a brief description of both strain data systems; a discussion of the process used for installation of the optical fiber; comparative data from the composite wing test; the processes used for the location and display of the high density fiber optic data. Calibration data demonstrating the potential accuracy of the fiber optic system will also be presented. The opportunities for industrial and commercial applications will be discussed. The fiber optic technique is shown to be a valuable augmentation to foil strain gages providing insight to structural behavior previously requiring reliance on modeling.

  4. Tensor displays: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer displays with directional backlighting

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzstein, Gordon; Lanman, Douglas R.; Hirsch, Matthew Waggener; Raskar, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    We introduce tensor displays: a family of compressive light field displays comprising all architectures employing a stack of time-multiplexed, light-attenuating layers illuminated by uniform or directional backlighting (i.e., any low-resolution light field emitter). We show that the light field emitted by an N-layer, M-frame tensor display can be represented by an Nth-order, rank-M tensor. Using this representation we introduce a unified optimization framework, based on nonnegative tensor fac...

  5. Fiber-Optic Bend Sensor Based on Double Cladding Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, Oleg V.; Alexey A. Chertoriyskiy

    2015-01-01

    We develop and investigate fiber-optic bend sensor, which is formed by a section of double cladding SM630 fiber between standard SMF-28 fibers. The principle of operation of the sensor is based on coupling of the fiber core and cladding modes at the splices of fibers having different refractive index profiles. We use two sources with wavelengths 1328 and 1545 nm to interrogate the sensor. The dependences of transmission on curvature at these wavelengths are significantly different. We show th...

  6. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness......This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... of the matrix and the fibers....

  7. Parallel surface processing system for graphics display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, B.C.

    1990-03-27

    This patent describes a method for generating surface information for a graphics object to be displayed on a graphics display system. It comprises: providing input control points from storage, the control points representing a surface to be processed by a transformation processor that further comprises floating point processors connected in parallel. The input control points including coordinate values and associated weights; processing in parallel, in the transformation processor, the input control points to incrementally generate a plurality of surface patches; performing geometric transform computations, in parallel, on the input control points to derive one transformed coordinate for each vertex of the surface patch from each one of the plurality of floating point processors making up the transformation processor; and providing the transformed coordinates to a next stage floating point processor for generating vectors normal to the surface patches at the vertices of the surface patches.

  8. Next Generation Flight Displays Using HTML5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Human Integrated Vehicles and Environments (HIVE) lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is focused on bringing together inter-disciplinary talent to design and integrate innovative human interface technologies for next generation manned spacecraft. As part of this objective, my summer internship project centered on an ongoing investigation in to building flight displays using the HTML5 standard. Specifically, the goals of my project were to build and demo "flight-like" crew and wearable displays as well as create a webserver for live systems being developed by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. In parallel to my project, a LabVIEW application, called a display server, was created by the HIVE that uses an XTCE (XML (Extensible Markup Language) Telemetry and Command Exchange) parser and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) space packet decoder to translate telemetry items sent by the CFS (Core Flight Software) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It was the webserver's job to receive these UDP messages and send them to the displays. To accomplish this functionality, I utilized Node.js and the accompanying Express framework. On the display side, I was responsible for creating the power system (AMPS) displays. I did this by using HTML5, CSS and JavaScript to create web pages that could update and change dynamically based on the data they received from the webserver. At this point, I have not started on the commanding, being able to send back to the CFS, portion of the displays but hope to have this functionality working by the completion of my internship. I also created a way to test the webserver's functionality without the display server by making a JavaScript application that read in a comma-separate values (CSV) file and converted it to XML which was then sent over UDP. One of the major requirements of my project was to build everything using as little preexisting code as possible, which I accomplished by only using a handful of Java

  9. Virtual displays for 360-degree video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  10. Visual displays and Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); VanHoozer, W.R. [Tranceformations Unlimited, Rigby, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Advancement of computer technology is forthcoming at such a rapid pace that the research concerning the interplay of humans and computer technology is lagging far behind. One area of particular concern is the design of visual displays that are pragmatic, ``user friendly,`` and ``user assisting.`` When engineers design visual displays, they generally do so methodically and logically, but only from within their own individual perspective or ``model of the world.`` They select the human aspects which make sense to them and not necessarily to non-engineers, operators, and others. The model design is what the engineer chooses to relate, based on his or her perspective of reality. These choices limit the model design thereby excluding the users` perspective. A set of techniques which can be used to assist the designers in expanding their choices and include the users` model is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP).

  11. Gas Vesicle Nanoparticles for Antigen Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiladitya DasSarma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms like the halophilic archaeon Halobacterium sp. NRC-1 produce gas-filled buoyant organelles, which are easily purified as protein nanoparticles (called gas vesicles or GVNPs. GVNPs are non-toxic, exceptionally stable, bioengineerable, and self-adjuvanting. A large gene cluster encoding more than a dozen proteins has been implicated in their biogenesis. One protein, GvpC, found on the exterior surface of the nanoparticles, can accommodate insertions near the C-terminal region and results in GVNPs displaying the inserted sequences on the surface of the nanoparticles. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on GVNP structure and biogenesis as well as available studies on immunogenicity of pathogenic viral, bacterial, and eukaryotic proteins and peptides displayed on the nanoparticles. Recent improvements in genetic tools for bioengineering of GVNPs are discussed, along with future opportunities and challenges for development of vaccines and other applications.

  12. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  13. Automated Analysis, Classification, and Display of Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Chiman; Xu, Roger; Mayhew, David; Zhang, Frank; Zide, Alan; Bonggren, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    A computer program partly automates the analysis, classification, and display of waveforms represented by digital samples. In the original application for which the program was developed, the raw waveform data to be analyzed by the program are acquired from space-shuttle auxiliary power units (APUs) at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. The program could also be modified for application to other waveforms -- for example, electrocardiograms. The program begins by performing principal-component analysis (PCA) of 50 normal-mode APU waveforms. Each waveform is segmented. A covariance matrix is formed by use of the segmented waveforms. Three eigenvectors corresponding to three principal components are calculated. To generate features, each waveform is then projected onto the eigenvectors. These features are displayed on a three-dimensional diagram, facilitating the visualization of the trend of APU operations.

  14. Amorphous Silicon Display Backplanes on Plastic Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striakhilev, Denis; Nathan, Arokia; Vygranenko, Yuri; Servati, Peyman; Lee, Czang-Ho; Sazonov, Andrei

    2006-12-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film transistor (TFT) backplanes are very promising for active-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays (AMOLEDs) on plastic. The technology benefits from a large manufacturing base, simple fabrication process, and low production cost. The concern lies in the instability of the TFTs threshold voltage (VT) and its low device mobility. Although VT-instability can be compensated by means of advanced multi-transistor pixel circuits, the lifetime of the display is still dependent on the TFT process quality and bias conditions. A-Si TFTs with field-effect mobility of 1.1 cm2/V · s and pixel driver circuits have been fabricated on plastic substrates at 150 °C. The circuits are characterized in terms of current drive capability and long-term stability of operation. The results demonstrate sufficient and stable current delivery and the ability of the backplane on plastic to meet AMOLED requirements.

  15. Rational design of fiber forming supramolecular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Benjamin K; Kanahara, Satoko M

    2016-01-01

    Recent strides in the development of multifunctional synthetic biomimetic materials through the self-assembly of multi-domain peptides and proteins over the past decade have been realized. Such engineered systems have wide-ranging application in bioengineering and medicine. This review focuses on fundamental fiber forming α-helical coiled-coil peptides, peptide amphiphiles, and amyloid-based self-assembling peptides; followed by higher order collagen- and elastin-mimetic peptides with an emphasis on chemical / biological characterization and biomimicry. PMID:27022140

  16. Rational design of fiber forming supramolecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek A; Wang, Benjamin K; Kanahara, Satoko M

    2016-05-01

    Recent strides in the development of multifunctional synthetic biomimetic materials through the self-assembly of multi-domain peptides and proteins over the past decade have been realized. Such engineered systems have wide-ranging application in bioengineering and medicine. This review focuses on fundamental fiber forming α-helical coiled-coil peptides, peptide amphiphiles, and amyloid-based self-assembling peptides; followed by higher order collagen- and elastin-mimetic peptides with an emphasis on chemical / biological characterization and biomimicry. PMID:27022140

  17. Mobile mediated interaction with pervasive displays

    OpenAIRE

    Seifert, Julian

    2015-01-01

    With the rise of pervasive computing, technology becomes increasingly embedded into our environments. As an effect, the number of available computing devices in our surroundings is increasing substantially. That is, a growing number of different device classes is at the user’s disposal. All these device classes potentially serve as pervasive displays that support users to perform all kinds of tasks. Possibilities based on direct interaction, such as touch, are limited regarding a number ...

  18. Camouflage and Display for Soft Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Morin, Stephen A.; Shepherd, Robert F.; Kwok, Sen Wai; Stokes, Adam A.; Nemiroski, Alex; Whitesides, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic systems cannot easily mimic the color-changing abilities of animals such as cephalopods. Soft machines—machines fabricated from soft polymers and flexible reinforcing sheets—are rapidly increasing in functionality. This manuscript describes simple microfluidic networks that can change the color, contrast, pattern, apparent shape, luminescence, and surface temperature of soft machines for camouflage and display. The color of these microfluidic networks can be changed simultaneously i...

  19. Feature Selection Approaches In Antibody Display

    OpenAIRE

    Polaka, Inese

    2015-01-01

    Molecular diagnostics tools provide specific data that have high dimensionality due to many factors analyzed in one experiment and few records due to high costs of the experiments. This study addresses the problem of dimensionality in melanoma patient antibody display data by applying data mining feature selection techniques. The article describes feature selection ranking and subset selection approaches and analyzes the performance of various methods evaluating selected feature subsets using...

  20. Quantitative evaluation of overall electronic display quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Fetterly, Kenneth A.; Bernatz, Scott N.; Cesar, Laurie J.; Groth, Debra S.; Felmlee, Joel P.

    1998-01-01

    This study indicates that contrast-detail data should be very helpful in providing quantitative measurements of overall electronic display quality. The method would be suitable for new equipment selection, acceptance testing, and quality control. The recommended protocol would only involve observer data obtained using test images with mid-range background pixed values. Improvements to the current linear curve fit may also provide increased levels of measurement precision and sensitivity. To p...

  1. Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays

    OpenAIRE

    Akşit, Kaan; Ölçer, Selim; Ürey, Hakan; Baghsiahi, Hadi; Surman, Phil; Willman, Eero; Selviah, David R.; Day, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic exit pupil trackers for autostereoscopic displays Kaan Akşit,1,* Hadi Baghsiahi,2 Phil Surman,3 Selim Ӧlçer,1 Eero Willman,2 David R. Selviah,2 Sally Day, 2 and Hakan Urey1 1Koç University, Department of Electrical Engineering Istanbul, 34450, Turkey 2University College London, UCL, Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering, WC1E 7JE, London, UK 3De Montfort University, Department of Computer Technology, Leicester, UK * Abstract: This...

  2. Delay in camera-to-display systems

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Today we see an increasing number of time dependent visual computer systems, ranging from interactive video installations, via high definition teleconferencing to the high performance computer vision disciplines for example in industry and robotics. Common for all of these are the requirement for low and predictable delays from the system itself and its components. In this thesis, we look into the delay of camera-to-display computer systems to understand the properties of their delay com...

  3. Electronic control/display interface technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, R. V.; Busquets, A. M.; Murray, R. F.; Hatfield, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    An effort to produce a representative workstation for the Space Station Data Management Test Bed that provides man/machine interface design options for consolidating, automating, and integrating the space station work station, and hardware/software technology demonstrations of space station applications is discussed. The workstation will emphasize the technologies of advanced graphics engines, advanced display/control medias, image management techniques, multifunction controls, and video disk utilizations.

  4. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  5. Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young Choi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic interferometers to sense various physical parameters including temperature, strain, pressure, and refractive index have been widely investigated. They can be categorized into four types: Fabry-Perot, Mach-Zehnder, Michelson, and Sagnac. In this paper, each type of interferometric sensor is reviewed in terms of operating principles, fabrication methods, and application fields. Some specific examples of recently reported interferometeric sensor technologies are presented in detail to show their large potential in practical applications. Some of the simple to fabricate but exceedingly effective Fabry-Perot interferometers, implemented in both extrinsic and intrinsic structures, are discussed. Also, a wide variety of Mach-Zehnder and Michelson interferometric sensors based on photonic crystal fibers are introduced along with their remarkable sensing performances. Finally, the simultaneous multi-parameter sensing capability of a pair of long period fiber grating (LPG is presented in two types of structures; one is the Mach-Zehnder interferometer formed in a double cladding fiber and the other is the highly sensitive Sagnac interferometer cascaded with an LPG pair.

  6. Fiber and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a fiber-rich sandwich with whole-grain bread, peanut butter, and bananas. Serve whole-grain rolls with dinner ... cookies and muffins. Top whole-wheat crackers with peanut butter or low-fat cheese. Offer air-popped popcorn — ...

  7. Drying of fiber webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, David W.

    1997-01-01

    A process and an apparatus for high-intensity drying of fiber webs or sheets, such as newsprint, printing and writing papers, packaging paper, and paperboard or linerboard, as they are formed on a paper machine. The invention uses direct contact between the wet fiber web or sheet and various molten heat transfer fluids, such as liquified eutectic metal alloys, to impart heat at high rates over prolonged durations, in order to achieve ambient boiling of moisture contained within the web. The molten fluid contact process causes steam vapor to emanate from the web surface, without dilution by ambient air; and it is differentiated from the evaporative drying techniques of the prior industrial art, which depend on the uses of steam-heated cylinders to supply heat to the paper web surface, and ambient air to carry away moisture, which is evaporated from the web surface. Contact between the wet fiber web and the molten fluid can be accomplished either by submersing the web within a molten bath or by coating the surface of the web with the molten media. Because of the high interfacial surface tension between the molten media and the cellulose fiber comprising the paper web, the molten media does not appreciately stick to the paper after it is dried. Steam generated from the paper web is collected and condensed without dilution by ambient air to allow heat recovery at significantly higher temperature levels than attainable in evaporative dryers.

  8. A Holographic Displaying System for Gastroscopy Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yukying

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastroscopy is a common procedure for diagnosing the diseases in upper GI tract, in which a large number of localized and sometimes unstructured images on different parts of the upper GI tract are captured. While it is effective, the procedure also requires experienced doctors to carefully exam these images in real time. As a result, errors may occur causing miss and/or false diagnosis. This paper presents a holographic displaying system that can display the images in a 3D structured manner. It consists of four steps. First, the gastroscopy images are acquired from the standard gastroscopy procedure. Second, a 3D image is generated by means of panoramic mapping. Third, the 3D image is transferred into four images. Finally, the images are displayed in a 4-side pseudo 3D holographic system. The new system is capable of showing 3D structured view, based on which the doctor can carry on diagnosis more effectively. With further development, it is expected that the new system will find practical applications in hospital soon.

  9. Assessment of ultrasound monitor image display performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sally C; Munnings, Craig R; Brettle, David S; Evans, J Anthony

    2011-06-01

    The display monitor on an ultrasound scanner is used to make primary diagnoses. In this study, 31 ultrasound systems were assessed against current American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) display standards. Measurements of peak levels (L(max) and L(min)) were generated. Ambient light, L(amb) (cd/m(2)) and room illuminance, L(x) (Lux) were measured. Luminance ratio was calculated (LR' = (L(max)+L(amb))/(L(min)+L(amb))). Initially, only 8/31 systems (26%) passed all the criteria. After adjustment, a further 7/31 (23%) passed making a total of 15/31 passes (48%). A total of 16/31 (52%) were considered overall fails: three due to poor room lighting, 14 due to poor monitor performance. Considering errors this could be as low as 6/31 (19%). Although further work is required to confirm the applicability of these results, it is of concern that three-quarters of ultrasound scanners could be suboptimally adjusted with 19%-55% unable to pass the AAPM criteria. The impact of this on clinical practice is unknown but there is clearly a need to review display quality assurance on ultrasound scanners. PMID:21601138

  10. Crosslinked and Dyed Chitosan Fiber Presenting Enhanced Acid Resistance and Bioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qiong Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of biodegradable chitosan fiber for healthy and hygienic textiles is limited due to its poor acid resistance in wet processing and poor antioxidant activity. In order to prepare chitosan fiber with good acid resistance and high antioxidant activity, chitosan fiber was first crosslinked by a water-soluble aziridine crosslinker, and then dyed with natural lac dye consisting of polyphenolic anthraquinone compounds. The main application conditions and crosslinking mechanism of the aziridine crosslinker, the adsorption mechanism and building-up property of lac dye on the crosslinked fiber, and the effects of crosslinking and dyeing on the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of chitosan fiber were studied. The crosslinked fiber exhibited greatly reduced weight loss in acidic solution, and possessed excellent acid resistance. Lac dye displayed a very high adsorption capability on the crosslinked fiber and a high utilization rate under weakly acidic medium. The Langmuir–Nernst isotherm was the best model to describe the adsorption behavior of lac dye, and Langmuir adsorption had great contribution to total adsorption. Lac dyeing imparted good antioxidant activity to chitosan fiber. Crosslinking and dyeing had no impact on the good inherent antibacterial activity of chitosan fiber.

  11. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Outlines a variety of laboratory procedures, techniques, and materials including construction of a survey frame for field biology, a simple tidal system, isolation and applications of plant protoplasts, tropisms, teaching lung structure, and a key to statistical methods for biologists. (DS)

  12. (Biological dosimetry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston, R.J.

    1990-12-17

    The traveler attended the 1st International Conference on Biological Dosimetry in Madrid, Spain. This conference was organized to provide information to a general audience of biologists, physicists, radiotherapists, industrial hygiene personnel and individuals from related fields on the current ability of cytogenetic analysis to provide estimates of radiation dose in cases of occupational or environmental exposure. There is a growing interest in Spain in biological dosimetry because of the increased use of radiation sources for medical and occupational uses, and with this the anticipated and actual increase in numbers of overexposure. The traveler delivered the introductory lecture on Biological Dosimetry: Mechanistic Concepts'' that was intended to provide a framework by which the more applied lectures could be interpreted in a mechanistic way. A second component of the trip was to provide advice with regard to several recent cases of overexposure that had been or were being assessed by the Radiopathology and Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital General Gregorio Maranon'' in Madrid. The traveler had provided information on several of these, and had analyzed cells from some exposed or purportedly exposed individuals. The members of the biological dosimetry group were referred to individuals at REACTS at Oak Ridge Associated Universities for advice on follow-up treatment.

  13. Biology Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents information on the teaching of nutrition (including new information relating to many current O-level syllabi) and part 16 of a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Also includes a note on using earthworms as a source of material for teaching meiosis. (JN)

  14. The CRT display evaluation: The multidimensional rating of CRT-generated displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getman, D. L.; Blackman, H. S.; Banks, W. W.; Petersen, R. J.

    1982-10-01

    This report is one in a series evaluating various methods for determining the effectiveness of display formats and contains results from multidimensional rating of three cathode ray tube displays. Each display contained information regarding the status of nine safety parameters critical to safe operations the Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Certified LOFT operators evaluated three formats - bars, stars, and meters - as part of a multimethod display evaluation ongoing at INEL. Each of the six cognitive dimensions embedded in the rating scale are discussed in terms of their internal consistency and ability to differentiate between each of the three formats. Preliminary findings suggest that two of the six dimensions, content integration and cognitive processing, were able to discriminate between formats while satisfying the criteria of internal consistency as measured by Cronbach's alpha. Conclusions in this report must be interpreted in light of moderate test-retest reliability.

  15. Quantification of fiber orientation in the canine atrial pacemaker complex using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Christina M.; Fedorov, Vadim V.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Rollins, Andrew M.; Efimov, Igor R.

    2012-07-01

    The atrial pacemaker complex is responsible for the initiation and early propagation of cardiac impulses. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), a nondestructive imaging modality with spatial resolutions of ˜1 to 15 μm, can be used to identify unique fiber orientation patterns in this region of the heart. Functionally characterized canine sinoatrial nodes (SAN) (n=7) were imaged using OCT up to ˜1 mm below the endocardial tissue surface. OCT images were directly compared to their corresponding histological sections. Fiber orientation patterns unique to the crista terminalis (CT), SAN, and surrounding atrial myocardium were identified with dominant average fiber angles of 89±12 deg, 110±16 deg, and 95±35 deg, respectively. Both the CT and surrounding atrial myocardium displayed predominantly unidirectionally based fiber orientation patterns within each specimen, whereas the SAN displayed an increased amount of fiber disarray manifested quantitatively as a significantly greater standard deviation in fiber angle distribution within specimens [33±7 deg versus 23±5 deg, atrium (p=0.02); 18±3 deg, CT (p=0.0003)]. We also identified unique, local patterns of fiber orientation specific to the functionally characterized block zone. We demonstrate the ability of OCT in detecting components of the atrial pacemaker complex which are intimately involved in both normal and abnormal cardiac conduction.

  16. Multimetallic Electrodeposition on Carbon Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger-Hiller, F.; Kleiber, J.; Böttger, T.; Lampke, T.

    2016-03-01

    Efficient lightweight design requires intelligent materials that meet versatile functions. One approach is to extend the range of properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by plating the fiber component. Electroplating leads to metalized layers on carbon fibers. Herein only cyanide-free electrolytes where used. Until now dendrite-free layers were only obtained using current densities below 1.0 A dm-2. In this work, dendrite-free tin and copper coatings were achieved by pre-metalizing the carbon fiber substrates. Furthermore, applying a combination of two metals with different sized thermal expansion coefficient lead to a bimetallic coating on carbon fiber rovings, which show an actuatory effect.

  17. Improved Optical Fiber Chemical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    Calculations, based on exact theory of optical fiber, have shown how to increase optical efficiency sensitivity of active-core, step-index-profile optical-fiber fluorosensor. Calculations result of efforts to improve efficiency of optical-fiber chemical sensor of previous concept described in "Making Optical-Fiber Chemical Sensors More Sensitive" (LAR-14525). Optical fiber chemical detector of enhanced sensitivity made in several configurations. Portion of fluorescence or chemiluminescence generated in core, and launched directly into bound electromagnetic modes that propagate along core to photodetector.

  18. Transmission Properties of Fiber Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Chun-rong; ZHU Sheng-xiang; XIAO Zhi-gang

    2004-01-01

    Transmission properties of tapered fiber including right cone fiber and bend optical fiber are discussed. The transmission efficiency of the tapered fiber is measured. The curve of transmission efficiency versus taper cone angle is given. By the scalar wave equation and Gaussian approximation, transmission properties of the two kinds of tapered fibers are analyzed, the power losses caused by taper cone angle and by the bending are also calculated. From the experiments and theoretical analysis, it could come to a conclusion that the wider the taper cone angle is, the higher the transmission efficiency will be.

  19. Display on Display: Migrating Identities in Contemporary Francophone Literature and Music

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, Katelyn Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    "Display on Display: Migrating Identities in Contemporary Francophone Literature and Music" examines Francophone cultural works of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries that grapple with constructions of sub-Saharan African immigrant identity in France. Its cultural studies methodology responds to a current lacuna in traditional philology-based literary studies that divorces literary expression from its wider cultural context, bringing to the fore questions of corporeality, history, and id...

  20. Enhanced optical fiber fluorometer using a periodic perturbation in the fiber core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiniforooshan, Yasser; Bock, Wojtek J.; Ma, Jianjun

    2013-10-01

    Tracing of the specific chemicals and biological agents in a solution is becoming a vital interest in health, security and safety industries. Although a number of standard laboratory-based testing systems exists for detecting such targets, but the fast, real-time and on-site methods could be more efficient and cost-effective. One of the most common ways to detect a target in the solution is to use the fluorophore molecules which will be selectively attached to the targets and will emit or quench the fluorescence in presence of the target. The fiber-optic fluorometers are developed for inexpensive and portable detection. In this paper, we explain a novel multi-segment fiber structure which uses the periodic perturbation on the side-wall of a highly multi-mode fiber to enhance collecting the fluorescent light. This periodic perturbation is fabricated and optimized on the core of the fiber using a CO2 laser. The theoretical explanation to show the physical principle of the structure is followed by the experimental evidence of its functioning.