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Sample records for biological esteem module

  1. Biological modulation of tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, N. H.; Bird, D. K.

    2008-12-01

    Photosynthesis has had geologic consequences over the Earth's history. In addition to modifying Earth's atmosphere and ocean chemistry, it has also modulated tectonic processes through enhanced weathering and modification of the nature and composition of sedimentary rocks within fold mountain belts and convergent margins. Molecular biological studies indicate that bacterial photosynthesis evolved just once and that most bacterial clades descend from this photosynthetic common ancestor. Iron-based photosynthesis (ideally 4FeO + CO2 + H2O = 2Fe2O3 + CH2O) was the most bountiful anoxygenic niche on land. The back reaction provided energy to heterotrophic microbes and returned FeO to the photosynthetic microbes. Bacterial land colonists evolved into ecosystems that effectively weathered FeO-bearing minerals and volcanic glass. Clays, sands, and dissolved cations from the weathering process entered the ocean and formed our familiar classes sedimentary rocks: shales, sandstones, and carbonates. Marine photosynthesis caused organic carbon to accumulate in black shales. In contrast, non-photosynthetic ecosystems do not cause organic carbon to accumulate in shale. These evolutionary events occurred before 3.8 Ga as black shales are among the oldest rock types (Rosing and Frei, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 217, 237-244, 2004). Thick sedimentary sequences deformed into fold mountain belts. They remelted at depth to form granitic rocks (Rosing et al., Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 232, 99-11, 2006). Regions of outcropping low-FeO rocks including granites, quartzites, and some shales were a direct result. This dearth of FeO favored the evolution of oxic photosynthesis of cyanobacteria from photosynthetic soil bacteria. Black shales have an additional modulation effect on tectonics as they concentrate radioactive elements, particularly uranium (e.g. so that the surface heat flow varies by a factor of ca. 2). Thick sequences of black shales at continental rises of passive margins are

  2. Self-esteem modulates amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex connectivity in response to mortality threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Kuniaki; Abe, Nobuhito; Kashima, Emiko S; Nomura, Michio

    2016-03-01

    Reminders of death often elicit defensive responses in individuals, especially among those with low self-esteem. Although empirical evidence indicates that self-esteem serves as a buffer against mortality threats, the precise neural mechanism underlying this effect remains unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that self-esteem modulates neural responses to death-related stimuli, especially functional connectivity within the limbic-frontal circuitry, thereby affecting subsequent defensive reactions. As predicted, individuals with high self-esteem subjected to a mortality threat exhibited increased amygdala-ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) connectivity during the processing of death-related stimuli compared with individuals who have low self-esteem. Further analysis revealed that stronger functional connectivity between the amygdala and the VLPFC predicted a subsequent decline in responding defensively to those who threaten one's beliefs. These results suggest that the amygdala-VLPFC interaction, which is modulated by self-esteem, can reduce the defensiveness caused by death-related stimuli, thereby providing a neural explanation for why individuals with high self-esteem exhibit less defensive reactions to mortality threats. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: evidence from event-related brain potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jie; Shui, Qing; Zhong, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends) while...

  4. Self-esteem modulates automatic attentional responses to self-relevant stimuli: Evidence from event-related brain potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have widely shown that self-esteem modulates the attention bias towards social rejection or emotion-related information. However, little is known about the influences of self-esteem on attention bias towards self-relevant stimuli. We aimed to investigate neural correlates that underlie the modulation effect of self-esteem on self-relevant processing. Event-related potentials were recorded for subjects’ own names and close others’ names (the names of their friends while subjects performed a three-stimulus oddball task. The results showed larger P2 amplitudes for one’s own name than for close-other’s name in the low self-esteem group, whereas this P2 effect were not observed in the high self-esteem group. In addition, one’s own name elicited equivalent N250 amplitudes and larger P3 amplitudes compared with close-other’s name in both high and low self-esteem groups. However, no interaction effects were observed between self-esteem and self-relevant processing in the N250 and P3 components. Thus, we found that the modulation effects of self-esteem on self-relevant processing occurred at the early P2 stage, but not at the later N250 and P3 stages. These findings reflect that individuals with low self-esteem demonstrate automatic attention towards their own names.

  5. Counterfactual reasoning for regretted situations involving controllable versus uncontrollable events: the modulating role of contingent self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Meredith R; Ball, Linden J; Alford, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person's sense of self-worth is based on self and others' expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future.

  6. Counterfactual Reasoning for Regretted Situations Involving Controllable Versus Uncontrollable Events: The Modulating Role of Contingent Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Meredith R.; Ball, Linden J.; Alford, David

    2015-01-01

    We report a study that examined the modulating impact of contingent self-esteem on regret intensity for regretted outcomes associated with controllable versus uncontrollable events. The Contingent Self-Esteem Scale (e.g., Kernis & Goldman, 2006) was used to assess the extent to which a person’s sense of self-worth is based on self and others’ expectations. We found that there was an influence of self-esteem contingency for controllable but not for uncontrollable regret types. For controllable regret types individuals with a high contingent (i.e., unstable) self-esteem reported greater regret intensity than those with a low contingent (i.e., stable) self-esteem. We interpret this finding as reflecting a functional and adaptive role of high contingent self-esteem in terms of mobilizing the application of counterfactual reasoning and planning mechanisms that can enable personal expectations to be achieved in the future. PMID:25883697

  7. Dense module enumeration in biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Koji; Georgii, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of large networks is a central topic in various research fields including biology, sociology, and web mining. Detection of dense modules (a.k.a. clusters) is an important step to analyze the networks. Though numerous methods have been proposed to this aim, they often lack mathematical rigorousness. Namely, there is no guarantee that all dense modules are detected. Here, we present a novel reverse-search-based method for enumerating all dense modules. Furthermore, constraints from additional data sources such as gene expression profiles or customer profiles can be integrated, so that we can systematically detect dense modules with interesting profiles. We report successful applications in human protein interaction network analyses.

  8. Modulation of self-esteem in self- and other-evaluations primed by subliminal and supraliminal faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Past research examining implicit self-evaluation often manipulated self-processing as task-irrelevant but presented self-related stimuli supraliminally. Even when tested with more indirect methods, such as the masked priming paradigm, participants' responses may still be subject to conscious interference. Our study primed participants with either their own or someone else's face, and adopted a new paradigm to actualize strict face-suppression to examine participants' subliminal self-evaluation. In addition, we investigated how self-esteem modulates one's implicit self-evaluation and validated the role of awareness in creating the discrepancy on past findings between measures of implicit self-evaluation and explicit self-esteem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants' own face or others' faces were subliminally presented with a Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS paradigm in Experiment 1, but supraliminally presented in Experiment 2, followed by a valence judgment task of personality adjectives. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in each experiment. Results from Experiment 1 showed a typical bias of self-positivity among participants with higher self-esteem, but only a marginal self-positivity bias and a significant other-positivity bias among those with lower self-esteem. However, self-esteem had no modulating effect in Experiment 2: All participants showed the self-positivity bias. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide direct evidence that self-evaluation manifests in different ways as a function of awareness between individuals with different self-views: People high and low in self-esteem may demonstrate different automatic reactions in the subliminal evaluations of the self and others; but the involvement of consciousness with supraliminally presented stimuli may reduce this dissociation.

  9. Modulation of self-esteem in self- and other-evaluations primed by subliminal and supraliminal faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Zhang, Shen; Li, Qi; Geng, Haiyan

    2012-01-01

    Past research examining implicit self-evaluation often manipulated self-processing as task-irrelevant but presented self-related stimuli supraliminally. Even when tested with more indirect methods, such as the masked priming paradigm, participants' responses may still be subject to conscious interference. Our study primed participants with either their own or someone else's face, and adopted a new paradigm to actualize strict face-suppression to examine participants' subliminal self-evaluation. In addition, we investigated how self-esteem modulates one's implicit self-evaluation and validated the role of awareness in creating the discrepancy on past findings between measures of implicit self-evaluation and explicit self-esteem. Participants' own face or others' faces were subliminally presented with a Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) paradigm in Experiment 1, but supraliminally presented in Experiment 2, followed by a valence judgment task of personality adjectives. Participants also completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in each experiment. Results from Experiment 1 showed a typical bias of self-positivity among participants with higher self-esteem, but only a marginal self-positivity bias and a significant other-positivity bias among those with lower self-esteem. However, self-esteem had no modulating effect in Experiment 2: All participants showed the self-positivity bias. Our results provide direct evidence that self-evaluation manifests in different ways as a function of awareness between individuals with different self-views: People high and low in self-esteem may demonstrate different automatic reactions in the subliminal evaluations of the self and others; but the involvement of consciousness with supraliminally presented stimuli may reduce this dissociation.

  10. Biological and Ecological Factors in the Expression of Adolescent Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquish, Gail A.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1981-01-01

    The relationship between self-esteem and pubertal maturation is examined based on results of the first two years of a six-year naturalistic longitudinal study of the ecology of self-esteem during adolescence. Results are discussed in terms of the onset and timing of pubertal maturation and its influence on self-esteem. (Author/GK)

  11. Self-esteem modulates the time course of self-positivity bias in explicit self-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Yang, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that certain individuals may show a self-positivity bias, rating themselves as possessing more positive personality traits than others. Previous evidence has shown that people evaluate self-related information in such a way as to maintain or enhance self-esteem. However, whether self-esteem would modulate the time course of self-positivity bias in explicit self-evaluation has never been explored. In the present study, 21 participants completed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and then completed a task where they were instructed to indicate to what extent positive/negative traits described themselves. Behavioral data showed that participants endorsed positive traits as higher in self-relevance compared to the negative traits. Further, participants' self-esteem levels were positively correlated with their self-positivity bias. Electrophysiological data revealed smaller N1 amplitude and larger late positive component (LPC) amplitude to stimuli consistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-high self-relevant stimuli) when compared to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Moreover, only in individuals with low self-esteem, the latency of P2 was more pronounced in processing stimuli that were consistent with the self-positivity bias (negative-low self-relevant stimuli) than to stimuli that were inconsistent with the self-positivity bias (positive-low self-relevant stimuli). Overall, the present study provides additional support for the view that low self-esteem as a personality variable would affect the early attentional processing.

  12. An integrative approach to inferring biologically meaningful gene modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kai

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to construct biologically meaningful gene networks and modules is critical for contemporary systems biology. Though recent studies have demonstrated the power of using gene modules to shed light on the functioning of complex biological systems, most modules in these networks have shown little association with meaningful biological function. We have devised a method which directly incorporates gene ontology (GO annotation in construction of gene modules in order to gain better functional association. Results We have devised a method, Semantic Similarity-Integrated approach for Modularization (SSIM that integrates various gene-gene pairwise similarity values, including information obtained from gene expression, protein-protein interactions and GO annotations, in the construction of modules using affinity propagation clustering. We demonstrated the performance of the proposed method using data from two complex biological responses: 1. the osmotic shock response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and 2. the prion-induced pathogenic mouse model. In comparison with two previously reported algorithms, modules identified by SSIM showed significantly stronger association with biological functions. Conclusions The incorporation of semantic similarity based on GO annotation with gene expression and protein-protein interaction data can greatly enhance the functional relevance of inferred gene modules. In addition, the SSIM approach can also reveal the hierarchical structure of gene modules to gain a broader functional view of the biological system. Hence, the proposed method can facilitate comprehensive and in-depth analysis of high throughput experimental data at the gene network level.

  13. A Project-Based Biologically-Inspired Robotics Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, R. M.; Zauner, K.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The design of any robotic system requires input from engineers from a variety of technical fields. This paper describes a project-based module, "Biologically-Inspired Robotics," that is offered to Electronics and Computer Science students at the University of Southampton, U.K. The overall objective of the module is for student groups to…

  14. Self-esteem Modulates the P3 Component in Response to the Self-face Processing after Priming with Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Zhao, Yufang; Wang, Yige; Chen, Yujie; Yang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The self-face processing advantage (SPA) refers to the research finding that individuals generally recognize their own face faster than another's face; self-face also elicits an enhanced P3 amplitude compared to another's face. It has been suggested that social evaluation threats could weaken the SPA and that self-esteem could be regarded as a threat buffer. However, little research has directly investigated the neural evidence of how self-esteem modulates the social evaluation threat to the SPA. In the current event-related potential study, 27 healthy Chinese undergraduate students were primed with emotional faces (angry, happy, or neutral) and were asked to judge whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Electrophysiological results showed that after priming with emotional faces (angry and happy), self-face elicited similar P3 amplitudes to friend-face in individuals with low self-esteem, but not in individuals with high self-esteem. The results suggest that as low self-esteem raises fears of social rejection and exclusion, priming with emotional faces (angry and happy) can weaken the SPA in low self-esteem individuals but not in high self-esteem individuals.

  15. Self-esteem Modulates the P3 Component in Response to the Self-face Processing after Priming with Emotional Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Guan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The self-face processing advantage (SPA refers to the research finding that individuals generally recognize their own face faster than another’s face; self-face also elicits an enhanced P3 amplitude compared to another’s face. It has been suggested that social evaluation threats could weaken the SPA and that self-esteem could be regarded as a threat buffer. However, little research has directly investigated the neural evidence of how self-esteem modulates the social evaluation threat to the SPA. In the current event-related potential study, 27 healthy Chinese undergraduate students were primed with emotional faces (angry, happy, or neutral and were asked to judge whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger was familiar or unfamiliar. Electrophysiological results showed that after priming with emotional faces (angry and happy, self-face elicited similar P3 amplitudes to friend-face in individuals with low self-esteem, but not in individuals with high self-esteem. The results suggest that as low self-esteem raises fears of social rejection and exclusion, priming with emotional faces (angry and happy can weaken the SPA in low self-esteem individuals but not in high self-esteem individuals.

  16. Pengembangan Modul Bimbingan dan Konseling yang dapat digunakan Guru Bimbingan dan Konseling atau Konselor untuk Peningkatkan Self-Esteem (Penghargaan terhadap Diri Sendiri Siswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarleni Rhepon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to reveal whether the Guidance and Counseling module designed for increasing the students’ self-esteem had been proper in terms of content and appearance, and to describe the usability level of the Guidance and Counseling module to increase the students’ self-esteem. This research applied ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation model. The subjects of the research consisted of 6 experts to see the properness of the module and 3 Guidance and Counseling teachers to see the usability level of the module. This research was conducted by trying out the product and through Focus Group Discussion (FGD. The data of the research were analyzed by using descriptive statistic analysis and inferensial statistic. Based on these results, in general, the prototype of Guidance and Counseling module designed for increasing the students’ self-esteem had been proper and could be used by the Guidance and Counseling teachers to increase the students’ self-esteem.

  17. Self-esteem Modulates the P3 Component in Response to the Self-face Processing after Priming with Emotional Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Lili Guan; Lili Guan; Yufang Zhao; Yige Wang; Yujie Chen; Juan Yang

    2017-01-01

    The self-face processing advantage (SPA) refers to the research finding that individuals generally recognize their own face faster than another’s face; self-face also elicits an enhanced P3 amplitude compared to another’s face. It has been suggested that social evaluation threats could weaken the SPA and that self-esteem could be regarded as a threat buffer. However, little research has directly investigated the neural evidence of how self-esteem modulates the social evaluation threat to the ...

  18. Self-esteem modulates dorsal medial prefrontal cortical response to self-positivity bias in implicit self-relevant processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Dedovic, Katarina; Guan, Lili; Chen, Yu; Qi, Mingming

    2014-11-01

    Processing self-related material recruits similar neural networks regardless of whether the self-relevance is made explicit or not. However, when considering the neural mechanisms that distinctly underlie cognitive and affective components of self-reflection, it is still unclear whether the same mechanisms are involved when self-reflection is explicit or implicit, and how these mechanisms may be modulated by individual personality traits, such as self-esteem. In the present functional MRI study, 25 participants were exposed to positive and negative words that varied with respect to the degree of self-relevance for each participant; however, the participants were asked to make a judgment about the color of the words. Regions-of-interest analysis showed that medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex were associated with gauging the self-relevance of information. However, no main effect of valence or an interaction effect between self-relevance and valence was observed. Further, positive correlations were observed between levels of self-esteem and response within dorsal mPFC (dmPFC) both in the contrast positive-high in self-relevance trials vs positive-low in self-relevance trials and in the contrast negative-low in self-relevance trials vs positive-low in self-relevance trials. These results suggested that the activation of dmPFC may be particularly associated with the processes of self-positivity bias. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Mathematical biology modules based on modern molecular biology and modern discrete mathematics.

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    Robeva, Raina; Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to introduce students to mathematical methods beyond the interface of biology with calculus. Based on ongoing research, and designed to use the project-based-learning approach, the modules highlight applications of modern discrete mathematics and algebraic statistics to pressing problems in molecular biology. For the majority of projects, calculus is not a required prerequisite and, due to the modest amount of mathematical background needed for some of the modules, the materials can be used for an early introduction to mathematical modeling. At the same time, most modules are connected with topics in linear and abstract algebra, algebraic geometry, and probability, and they can be used as meaningful applied introductions into the relevant advanced-level mathematics courses. Open-source software is used to facilitate the relevant computations. As a detailed example, we outline a module that focuses on Boolean models of the lac operon network.

  20. Mathematical Biology Modules Based on Modern Molecular Biology and Modern Discrete Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robin; Hodge, Terrell; Enyedi, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    We describe an ongoing collaborative curriculum materials development project between Sweet Briar College and Western Michigan University, with support from the National Science Foundation. We present a collection of modules under development that can be used in existing mathematics and biology courses, and we address a critical national need to introduce students to mathematical methods beyond the interface of biology with calculus. Based on ongoing research, and designed to use the project-based-learning approach, the modules highlight applications of modern discrete mathematics and algebraic statistics to pressing problems in molecular biology. For the majority of projects, calculus is not a required prerequisite and, due to the modest amount of mathematical background needed for some of the modules, the materials can be used for an early introduction to mathematical modeling. At the same time, most modules are connected with topics in linear and abstract algebra, algebraic geometry, and probability, and they can be used as meaningful applied introductions into the relevant advanced-level mathematics courses. Open-source software is used to facilitate the relevant computations. As a detailed example, we outline a module that focuses on Boolean models of the lac operon network. PMID:20810955

  1. Nanomaterials modulate stem cell differentiation: biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

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    Wei, Min; Li, Song; Le, Weidong

    2017-10-25

    Stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation into more specialized cell types. The chemical and physical properties of surrounding microenvironment contribute to the growth and differentiation of stem cells and consequently play crucial roles in the regulation of stem cells' fate. Nanomaterials hold great promise in biological and biomedical fields owing to their unique properties, such as controllable particle size, facile synthesis, large surface-to-volume ratio, tunable surface chemistry, and biocompatibility. Over the recent years, accumulating evidence has shown that nanomaterials can facilitate stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and great effort is undertaken to explore their possible modulating manners and mechanisms on stem cell differentiation. In present review, we summarize recent progress in the regulating potential of various nanomaterials on stem cell differentiation and discuss the possible cell uptake, biological interaction and underlying mechanisms.

  2. Bacterial microcompartments as metabolic modules for plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Esquer, C Raul; Newnham, Sarah E; Kerfeld, Cheryl A

    2016-07-01

    Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are megadalton-sized protein assemblies that enclose segments of metabolic pathways within cells. They increase the catalytic efficiency of the encapsulated enzymes while sequestering volatile or toxic intermediates from the bulk cytosol. The first BMCs discovered were the carboxysomes of cyanobacteria. Carboxysomes compartmentalize the enzyme ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) with carbonic anhydrase. They enhance the carboxylase activity of RuBisCO by increasing the local concentration of CO2 in the vicinity of the enzyme's active site. As a metabolic module for carbon fixation, carboxysomes could be transferred to eukaryotic organisms (e.g. plants) to increase photosynthetic efficiency. Within the scope of synthetic biology, carboxysomes and other BMCs hold even greater potential when considered a source of building blocks for the development of nanoreactors or three-dimensional scaffolds to increase the efficiency of either native or heterologously expressed enzymes. The carboxysome serves as an ideal model system for testing approaches to engineering BMCs because their expression in cyanobacteria provides a sensitive screen for form (appearance of polyhedral bodies) and function (ability to grow on air). We recount recent progress in the re-engineering of the carboxysome shell and core to offer a conceptual framework for the development of BMC-based architectures for applications in plant synthetic biology. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. I like Me if You like Me: On the Interpersonal Modulation and Regulation of Preadolescents' State Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaes, Sander; Reijntjes, Albert; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Bushman, Brad J.; Poorthuis, Astrid; Telch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This experiment tested whether peer approval and disapproval experiences can cause immediate change in children's state self-esteem. Children's narcissistic traits and evaluator perceived popularity were examined as potential moderators. A total of 333 preadolescents (M = 10.8 years) completed personal profiles on the Internet that were ostensibly…

  4. Mining Functional Modules in Heterogeneous Biological Networks Using Multiplex PageRank Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Patrick X

    2016-01-01

    Identification of functional modules/sub-networks in large-scale biological networks is one of the important research challenges in current bioinformatics and systems biology. Approaches have been developed to identify functional modules in single-class biological networks; however, methods for systematically and interactively mining multiple classes of heterogeneous biological networks are lacking. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm (called mPageRank) that utilizes the Multiplex PageRank approach to mine functional modules from two classes of biological networks. We demonstrate the capabilities of our approach by successfully mining functional biological modules through integrating expression-based gene-gene association networks and protein-protein interaction networks. We first compared the performance of our method with that of other methods using simulated data. We then applied our method to identify the cell division cycle related functional module and plant signaling defense-related functional module in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results demonstrated that the mPageRank method is effective for mining sub-networks in both expression-based gene-gene association networks and protein-protein interaction networks, and has the potential to be adapted for the discovery of functional modules/sub-networks in other heterogeneous biological networks. The mPageRank executable program, source code, the datasets and results of the presented two case studies are publicly and freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/MPageRank/.

  5. Prototype Biology-Based Radiation Risk Module Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald G.; Patel, Zarana; Hu, Shaowen; Huff, Janice

    2015-01-01

    Biological effects of space radiation and risk mitigation are strategic knowledge gaps for the Evolvable Mars Campaign. The current epidemiology-based NASA Space Cancer Risk (NSCR) model contains large uncertainties (HAT #6.5a) due to lack of information on the radiobiology of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and lack of human data. The use of experimental models that most accurately replicate the response of human tissues is critical for precision in risk projections. Our proposed study will compare DNA damage, histological, and cell kinetic parameters after irradiation in normal 2D human cells versus 3D tissue models, and it will use a multi-scale computational model (CHASTE) to investigate various biological processes that may contribute to carcinogenesis, including radiation-induced cellular signaling pathways. This cross-disciplinary work, with biological validation of an evolvable mathematical computational model, will help reduce uncertainties within NSCR and aid risk mitigation for radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  6. Cultural and biological factors modulate spatial biases over development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, Luisa; Marinelli, Chiara Valeria; Grossi, Giuseppe; Arduino, Lisa S

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence supports the contribution of both biological and cultural factors to visuospatial processing. The present study adds to the literature by exploring the interplay of perceptual and linguistic mechanisms in determining visuospatial asymmetries in adults (Experiment 1) and children (Experiment 2). In particular, pre-schoolers (3 and 5 year-olds), school-aged children (8 year-old), and adult participants were required to bisect different types of stimuli, that is, lines, words, and figure strings. In accordance with the literature, results yielded a leftward bias for lines and words and a rightward bias for figure strings, in adult participants. More critically, different biases were found for lines, words, and figure strings in children as a function of age, reflecting the impact of both cultural and biological factors on the processing of different visuospatial materials. Specifically, an adult-like pattern of results emerged only in the older group of children (8 year-old), but not in pre-schoolers. Results are discussed in terms of literacy, reading habits exposure, and biological maturation.

  7. Online interactive teaching modules enhance quantitative proficiency of introductory biology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Katerina V; Nelson, Kären C; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Keller, Michael; Fagan, William F

    2010-01-01

    There is widespread agreement within the scientific and education communities that undergraduate biology curricula fall short in providing students with the quantitative and interdisciplinary problem-solving skills they need to obtain a deep understanding of biological phenomena and be prepared fully to contribute to future scientific inquiry. MathBench Biology Modules were designed to address these needs through a series of interactive, Web-based modules that can be used to supplement existing course content across the biological sciences curriculum. The effect of the modules was assessed in an introductory biology course at the University of Maryland. Over the course of the semester, students showed significant increases in quantitative skills that were independent of previous math course work. Students also showed increased comfort with solving quantitative problems, whether or not they ultimately arrived at the correct answer. A survey of spring 2009 graduates indicated that those who had experienced MathBench in their course work had a greater appreciation for the role of mathematics in modern biology than those who had not used MathBench. MathBench modules allow students from diverse educational backgrounds to hone their quantitative skills, preparing them for more complex mathematical approaches in upper-division courses.

  8. PENGEMBANGAN MODUL EVOLUSI PRIMATA INDONESIA BERDASARKAN HASIL PENELITIAN BAGI MAHASISWA S1 PENDIDIKAN BIOLOGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparno Putera Makkadafi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop a module based on research for undergraduate students in Biology Education Mulawarman University. Result of development is a module from design phase and validate by subject expert, instructional media expert, and small group test. Validation result from subject expert is 84,38%, in valid enough category and result from instructional media expert is 94,16% in valid category. Small group test result is 82% in valid ebough category. Validation results in qualitative and quantitative data is used to revised module. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan produk berupa modul berdasarkan hasil penelitian untuk mahasiswa S1 Pendidikan Biologi Universitas Mulawarman. Hasil pengembangan berupa draft modul hasil tahap desain kemudian divalidasi oleh ahli materi, ahli media pembelajaran, serta dilakukan uji kelompok kecil. Hasil validasi ahli materi adalah sebesar  84,38% dan masuk dalam kategori cukup valid, sedangkan hasil dari validasi ahli media pembelajaran sebesar 94,16% dengan kategori valid. Selanjutnya uji coba kelompok kecil memperoleh hasil 82% dengan kategori cukup valid. Hasil validasi berupa data kuantitatif dan kualitatif digunakan untuk merevisi modul sehingga modul semakin baik.

  9. Modulation of radiosensitivity of biological systems by medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    The global environmental pollution is responsible for the exposure of living beings to the influence of various technogenic factors, including ionizing radiation. Exposure to such radiation represents a genuine, increasing threat to mankind and our environment. The steadily increasing applications of radiation in clinical practice, industrial and agricultural activities, residual radio-activity resulting from nuclear test explosions, have a measurable impact contributing to significant radiation hazards in humans. Further, the proliferation of terrorism and asymmetric warfare in the 21st century has rendered the modern world a dangerous place to live and work. With the realization of deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, a need was felt to protect human beings against these harmful effects by using physical and/or chemical means. Many chemical compounds have been tested for radio protective action but their practical applicability remained limited owing to their inherent toxicity at the optimum dose level. Various plants have been used for various ailments in humans since time immemorial, and herbal preparations have usually been considered safe and less toxic than the synthetic compounds. Therefore, screening of natural products present a major avenue for the discovery of new radio protective drugs and such products have drawn the attention of investigators during the last two decades. The Indian system of medicine employs a large number of plants and some of these herbals viz. The extracts of certain medicinal plant like Amla (Emblica officinalis), Rosemary (Rosemary officinalis), Methi (Trigonella foenum graecum) sapthaparna (Alstonia scholaris), Bael (Aegle inarmelos), Bhumi amla (Phyllanthus niruri), Jamun (Syzgium cumini), Gloe (Tinospora cordifolia) have been trialed in this laboratory for their radio protective action in various biological systems of mammals. The extracts of various parts of such plants have appreciable DRF on the basis of survival

  10. Cooperative Learning and Group Educational Modules: Effects on Cognitive Achievement of High School Biology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott B.

    1991-01-01

    Reports a study examining the effects of cooperative learning and self-instructional packets--"Group Educational Modules" (GEM)--on the achievement of biology students. Significant differences in achievement (as compared to control groups) were found for students using GEM materials and students in cooperative learning situations. (PR)

  11. Reflections on Supporting a Visually Impaired Student Complete a Biological Psychology Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Lucy R.; Cross, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    While there are a number of technologies that have been used, with varying levels of success, to support visually impaired students, the purpose of this article is to reflect upon the authors' experiences of supporting a visually impaired student through a nine-month level two undergraduate biological psychology module. The authors developed a…

  12. Introducing Systems Biology to Bioscience students through mathematical modelling. A practical module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor V. Torres Darias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems Biology, one of the current approaches to the understanding of living things, aims to understand the behaviour of living systems through the creation of mathematical models that integrate the available knowledge of the system’s component parts and the relations among them. Accordingly, model building should play a central part in any biology degree program. One difficulty that we face when confronted with this task, however, is that the mathematical background of undergraduate students is very often deficient in essential concepts required for dynamic mathematical modelling. In this practical module, students are introduced to the basic techniques of mathematical modelling and computer simulation from a Systems Biology perspective.

  13. A cohort study evaluating the implications of biology, weight status and socioeconomic level on global self-esteem competence among female African-American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S

    2013-07-01

    The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development.

  14. A Cohort Study Evaluating the Implications of Biology, Weight Status and Socioeconomic Level on Global Self-Esteem Competence Among Female African-American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell-Young, Yolanda M.; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Sothern, Melinda S.

    2014-01-01

    The link between obesity and self-esteem among minority youth has received minimal empirical evaluation. This study aims to describe the magnitude of risk that body mass index, household income, and transitional age have on global self-esteem levels among African-American adolescents. These analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data obtained from 264 urban-dwelling African-American females between 14 and 18 years of age. Survey data on global self-esteem levels, transitory age, and socioeconomic levels were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Measured height and weight values were used to calculate and categorize weight status according to body mass index. Logistic regression models examined the probability of reporting less than average levels of global self-esteem. Adolescent African-American females residing in low-income households were 10 times more likely to report lower global self-esteem scores than those individuals from more affluent households (95% CI: 1.94, 60.19, p self-esteem among participants in this study. Household income appears to be the greatest predictor of global self-esteem levels. Further research in this area is needed to fully elucidate precursors for psychological health vulnerability and facilitate intervention development. PMID:24218867

  15. Development and Assessment of Modules to Integrate Quantitative Skills in Introductory Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kathleen; Leupen, Sarah; Dowell, Kathy; Kephart, Kerrie; Leips, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Redesigning undergraduate biology courses to integrate quantitative reasoning and skill development is critical to prepare students for careers in modern medicine and scientific research. In this paper, we report on the development, implementation, and assessment of stand-alone modules that integrate quantitative reasoning into introductory biology courses. Modules are designed to improve skills in quantitative numeracy, interpreting data sets using visual tools, and making inferences about biological phenomena using mathematical/statistical models. We also examine demographic/background data that predict student improvement in these skills through exposure to these modules. We carried out pre/postassessment tests across four semesters and used student interviews in one semester to examine how students at different levels approached quantitative problems. We found that students improved in all skills in most semesters, although there was variation in the degree of improvement among skills from semester to semester. One demographic variable, transfer status, stood out as a major predictor of the degree to which students improved (transfer students achieved much lower gains every semester, despite the fact that pretest scores in each focus area were similar between transfer and nontransfer students). We propose that increased exposure to quantitative skill development in biology courses is effective at building competency in quantitative reasoning. PMID:27146161

  16. Development and Assessment of Modules to Integrate Quantitative Skills in Introductory Biology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kathleen; Leupen, Sarah; Dowell, Kathy; Kephart, Kerrie; Leips, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Redesigning undergraduate biology courses to integrate quantitative reasoning and skill development is critical to prepare students for careers in modern medicine and scientific research. In this paper, we report on the development, implementation, and assessment of stand-alone modules that integrate quantitative reasoning into introductory biology courses. Modules are designed to improve skills in quantitative numeracy, interpreting data sets using visual tools, and making inferences about biological phenomena using mathematical/statistical models. We also examine demographic/background data that predict student improvement in these skills through exposure to these modules. We carried out pre/postassessment tests across four semesters and used student interviews in one semester to examine how students at different levels approached quantitative problems. We found that students improved in all skills in most semesters, although there was variation in the degree of improvement among skills from semester to semester. One demographic variable, transfer status, stood out as a major predictor of the degree to which students improved (transfer students achieved much lower gains every semester, despite the fact that pretest scores in each focus area were similar between transfer and nontransfer students). We propose that increased exposure to quantitative skill development in biology courses is effective at building competency in quantitative reasoning. © 2016 K. Hoffman, S. Leupen, et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  17. Biological design principles of complex feedback modules in the E. coli ammonia assimilation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Koichi; Maeda, Kazuhiro; Kurata, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    To synthesize natural or artificial life, it is critically important to understand the design principles of how biochemical networks generate particular cellular functions and evolve complex systems in comparison with engineering systems. Cellular systems maintain their robustness in the face of perturbations arising from environmental and genetic variations. In analogy to control engineering architectures, the complexity of modular structures within a cell can be attributed to the necessity of achieving robustness. To reveal such biological design, the E. coli ammonia assimilation system is analyzed, which consists of complex but highly structured modules: the glutamine synthetase (GS) activity feedback control module with bifunctional enzyme cascades for catalyzing reversible reactions, and the GS synthesis feedback control module with positive and negative feedback loops. We develop a full-scale dynamic model that unifies the two modules, and we analyze its robustness and fine tuning with respect to internal and external perturbations. The GS activity control is added to the GS synthesis module to improve its transient response to ammonia depletion, compensating the tradeoffs of each module, but its robustness to internal perturbations is lost. These findings suggest some design principles necessary for the synthesis of life.

  18. [Comparison of biological functional assessment in intensity-modulated radiotherapy: two-dimensional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejean, C; Lemosquet, A; Lefkopoulos, D; Touboul, E

    2001-12-01

    Modulated intensity dose distributions are obtained by inverse planning. It requires an inversion algorithm and an objective function that can be physical or biological. The biological objective functions aim at quantifying the probability of the favourable end of the treatment. The inversion algorithm used is analytical and is based on the mathematical analysis of the singular values decomposition. It proposes as many solutions as there are elementary beams. From the Tumour Control Probability, Normal Tissue Complication Probabilities and complication free tumour control, three biological assessment functions of the proposed solutions are compared with the least square difference between the prescribed and obtained dose distributions. We used a simplified irradiation configuration: Brahme's dose prescription (2D modelling of a prostate) and 9 beams (1D). The choice by mean of biological criterion of the optimal solution makes it possible to increase the average dose in the tumour, so as its homogeneity compared to physical optimisation. Conversely, the organs at risk are then less protected. The laying down of relevant constraints makes it possible to obtain satisfactory dose distributions. Concerning the validity of the models and data used, some limitations appear. At present time, it seems to exclude the use in clinical routine of an only biological optimisation. The future availability of new biological data will allow the development and in particular the clinical use of biological optimisation.

  19. Assessing an effective undergraduate module teaching applied bioinformatics to biology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madlung, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Applied bioinformatics skills are becoming ever more indispensable for biologists, yet incorporation of these skills into the undergraduate biology curriculum is lagging behind, in part due to a lack of instructors willing and able to teach basic bioinformatics in classes that don't specifically focus on quantitative skill development, such as statistics or computer sciences. To help undergraduate course instructors who themselves did not learn bioinformatics as part of their own education and are hesitant to plunge into teaching big data analysis, a module was developed that is written in plain-enough language, using publicly available computing tools and data, to allow novice instructors to teach next-generation sequence analysis to upper-level undergraduate students. To determine if the module allowed students to develop a better understanding of and appreciation for applied bioinformatics, various tools were developed and employed to assess the impact of the module. This article describes both the module and its assessment. Students found the activity valuable for their education and, in focus group discussions, emphasized that they saw a need for more and earlier instruction of big data analysis as part of the undergraduate biology curriculum.

  20. Using Mouse Mammary Tumor Cells to Teach Core Biology Concepts: A Simple Lab Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlrath, Victoria; Trye, Alice; Aguanno, Ann

    2015-06-18

    Undergraduate biology students are required to learn, understand and apply a variety of cellular and molecular biology concepts and techniques in preparation for biomedical, graduate and professional programs or careers in science. To address this, a simple laboratory module was devised to teach the concepts of cell division, cellular communication and cancer through the application of animal cell culture techniques. Here the mouse mammary tumor (MMT) cell line is used to model for breast cancer. Students learn to grow and characterize these animal cells in culture and test the effects of traditional and non-traditional chemotherapy agents on cell proliferation. Specifically, students determine the optimal cell concentration for plating and growing cells, learn how to prepare and dilute drug solutions, identify the best dosage and treatment time course of the antiproliferative agents, and ascertain the rate of cell death in response to various treatments. The module employs both a standard cell counting technique using a hemocytometer and a novel cell counting method using microscopy software. The experimental procedure lends to open-ended inquiry as students can modify critical steps of the protocol, including testing homeopathic agents and over-the-counter drugs. In short, this lab module requires students to use the scientific process to apply their knowledge of the cell cycle, cellular signaling pathways, cancer and modes of treatment, all while developing an array of laboratory skills including cell culture and analysis of experimental data not routinely taught in the undergraduate classroom.

  1. The modulation of motor control by imitating non-biological motions: a study about motor resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Yu; Yamamoto, Taisei

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] Sensorimotor experience modulates motor resonance, such as motor interference, which occurs when observing others' movements; however, it is unclear how motor resonance is modulated by intentionally imitating others' movements. This study examined the effects of imitation experience on subsequent motor resonance. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven healthy participants performed horizontal arm movements while observing non-biological, incongruent (vertical) movements of a visual stimulus (triangle object) in pre- and post-test procedures. Thirteen participants in the imitation group imitated vertical movements (non-biological motion) of the triangle object between pre- and post-test procedures and fourteen participants in the non-imitation group observed that. [Results] Variance in the executed movements was measured as an index of motor resonance. Although there was no significant difference in the non-imitation group, there was a significantly smaller variance for post-test compared to pre-test in the imitation group. [Conclusion] Motor resonance was inhibited by intentionally imitating non-biological motions. Imitating movements different from one's own motor property might inhibit subsequent motor resonance. This finding might be applied to selectively using motor resonance as a form of rehabilitation.

  2. Aloe vera: Potential candidate in health management via modulation of biological activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H.; Aldebasi, Yousef H.; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A.; Aly, Salah M.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment based on natural products is rapidly increasing worldwide due to the affordability and fewer side effects of such treatment. Various plants and the products derived from them are commonly used in primary health treatment, and they play a pivotal role in the treatment of diseases via modulation of biochemical and molecular pathways. Aloe vera, a succulent species, produces gel and latex, plays a therapeutic role in health management through antioxidant, antitumor, and anti-inflammatory activities, and also offers a suitable alternative approach for the treatment of various types of diseases. In this review, we summarize the possible mechanism of action and the therapeutic implications of Aloe vera in health maintenance based on its modulation of various biological activities. PMID:26392709

  3. Tactile input and empathy ability modulate the perception of ambiguous biological motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörmetjan eYiltiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has shown that task-irrelevant auditory cues can bias perceptual decisions regarding directional information associated with biological motion, as indicated in perceptual tasks using point-light walkers (PLWs (Brooks et al., 2007. In the current study, we extended the investigation of cross-modal influences to the tactile domain by asking how tactile input resolves perceptual ambiguity in visual apparent motion, and how empathy ability plays a role in this cross-modal interaction. In Experiment 1, we simulated the tactile feedback on the observers’ fingertips when the (upright or inverted PLWs (comprised of either all red or all green dots were walking (leftwards or rightwards. The temporal periods between tactile events and critical visual events (the PLW’s feet hitting the ground were manipulated so that the tap could lead, synchronize, or lag with the visual foot-hitting-ground event. We found that the temporal structures between tactile (feedback and visual (hitting events systematically modulate the directional perception for upright PLWs, making either leftwards or rightwards more dominant. However, this temporal modulation effect was absent for inverted PLWs. In Experiment 2, we examined how empathy ability modulates cross-modal capture. Instead of generating tactile feedback on participant’s fingertips, we gave taps on their ankles and presented the PLWs with motion directions of approaching (facing towards observer/receding (facing away from observer to resemble normal walking postures. With the same temporal structure, we found that individuals with higher empathic ability were more subject to perceptual bias in the presence of tactile feedback. Taken together, our findings showed that task-irrelevant tactile input can resolve the otherwise ambiguous perception of the directional information of biological motion, whereas cross-modal modulation was mediated by higher level social-cognitive factors, including empathic

  4. Biological-based optimization and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Timmerman, Robert; Miften, Moyed

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe biological-based optimization and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculation-based treatment planning for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) delivery of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in lung, liver, and prostate patients. Methods: Optimization strategies and VMAT planning parameters using a biological-based optimization MC planning system were analyzed for 24 SBRT patients. Patients received a median dose of 45 Gy [range, 34-54 Gy] for lung tumors in 1-5 fxs and a median dose of 52 Gy [range, 48-60 Gy] for liver tumors in 3-6 fxs. Prostate patients received a fractional dose of 10 Gy in 5 fxs. Biological-cost functions were used for plan optimization, and its dosimetric quality was evaluated using the conformity index (CI), the conformation number (CN), the ratio of the volume receiving 50% of the prescription dose over the planning target volume (Rx/PTV50). The quality and efficiency of the delivery were assessed according to measured quality assurance (QA) passing rates and delivery times. For each disease site, one patient was replanned using physical cost function and compared to the corresponding biological plan. Results: Median CI, CN, and Rx/PTV50 for all 24 patients were 1.13 (1.02-1.28), 0.79 (0.70-0.88), and 5.3 (3.1-10.8), respectively. The median delivery rate for all patients was 410 MU/min with a maximum possible rate of 480 MU/min (85%). Median QA passing rate was 96.7%, and it did not significantly vary with the tumor site. Conclusions: VMAT delivery of SBRT plans optimized using biological-motivated cost-functions result in highly conformal dose distributions. Plans offer shorter treatment-time benefits and provide efficient dose delivery without compromising the plan conformity for tumors in the prostate, lung, and liver, thereby improving patient comfort and clinical throughput. The short delivery times minimize the risk of patient setup and intrafraction motion errors often associated with long SBRT treatment

  5. Aesthetic self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2015-01-01

    The concept of aesthetic self-esteem was explored for utilization in the medical spa environment. The aims and purposes of the analysis were outlined. The literature review identified various uses of the self-esteem concept as well as published definitions of the word. Defining attributes were also explored and examined, including positive and negative connotations of self-esteem. Two tools were utilized to help aesthetic nurse specialists assess patients for self-esteem and assess for a possible mental illness that may present as low self-esteem. A culturally sensitive theoretical definition of self-esteem was constructed to fit the needs and environment of medical spas. A model case of this definition, as well as a borderline and contrary case, was presented. Antecedents and consequences, as well as empirical referents of the concept, were explored.

  6. Dancers' Body Esteem, Fitness Esteem, and Self-Esteem in Three Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zelst, Laura; Clabaugh, Alison; Morling, Beth

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-two college-aged, ballet and modern dancers evaluated their bodies and themselves in different dance and non-dance settings. In a self-report survey design, dancers' body esteem, fitness esteem, and self-esteem (an overall self-evaluation) were measured in three different contexts. Dancers rated their body esteem, fitness esteem, and…

  7. Nanobody-Based Biologics for Modulating Purinergic Signaling in Inflammation and Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Menzel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenosine triphosphate (ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ are released as danger signals from cells during infection and sterile inflammation. In the extracellular compartment ATP is converted by CD39, CD73, and other ecto-enzymes into metabolites that modulate the activity of T cells and macrophages. While ATP mediates pro-inflammatory signals via P2X7 and other P2 receptors, adenosine triggers anti-inflammatory signaling via the adenosine 2a receptor (Adora2a and other P1 receptors. The latter also plays a role in maintaining an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. NAD+ is converted by CD38, CD203 and other ecto-enzymes to the Ca2+ mobilizing messengers cyclic ADP-ribose and ADP-ribose, and to adenosine. Recent findings on the roles of CD38, CD39, CD73, CD203, P2X7, and Adora2a in inflammation and immunity underscore the potential of these proteins as drug targets. However, available small molecule inhibitors often lack specificity and mediate unwanted off-target toxicity. Nanobodies – single domain antibodies derived from heavy chain antibodies that naturally occur in camelids – display a propensity to bind functional epitopes not accessible to conventional antibodies. Like conventional antibodies, nanobodies and nanobody-based biologics are highly specific and have well-understood, tunable in vivo pharmacodynamics with little if any toxicity. Nanobodies thus represent attractive alternatives to small molecule inhibitors for modulating purinergic signaling in inflammation and immunity. Here we review recent progress made in developing nanobodies against key targets of purinergic signaling.

  8. Nanobody-Based Biologics for Modulating Purinergic Signaling in Inflammation and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Stephan; Schwarz, Nicole; Haag, Friedrich; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2018-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) are released as danger signals from cells during infection and sterile inflammation. In the extracellular compartment ATP is converted by CD39, CD73, and other ecto-enzymes into metabolites that modulate the activity of T cells and macrophages. While ATP mediates pro-inflammatory signals via P2X7 and other P2 receptors, adenosine triggers anti-inflammatory signaling via the adenosine 2a receptor (Adora2a) and other P1 receptors. The latter also plays a role in maintaining an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. NAD + is converted by CD38, CD203 and other ecto-enzymes to the Ca 2+ mobilizing messengers cyclic ADP-ribose and ADP-ribose, and to adenosine. Recent findings on the roles of CD38, CD39, CD73, CD203, P2X7, and Adora2a in inflammation and immunity underscore the potential of these proteins as drug targets. However, available small molecule inhibitors often lack specificity and mediate unwanted off-target toxicity. Nanobodies - single domain antibodies derived from heavy chain antibodies that naturally occur in camelids - display a propensity to bind functional epitopes not accessible to conventional antibodies. Like conventional antibodies, nanobodies and nanobody-based biologics are highly specific and have well-understood, tunable in vivo pharmacodynamics with little if any toxicity. Nanobodies thus represent attractive alternatives to small molecule inhibitors for modulating purinergic signaling in inflammation and immunity. Here we review recent progress made in developing nanobodies against key targets of purinergic signaling.

  9. JAK/STAT signalling--an executable model assembled from molecule-centred modules demonstrating a module-oriented database concept for systems and synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blätke, Mary Ann; Dittrich, Anna; Rohr, Christian; Heiner, Monika; Schaper, Fred; Marwan, Wolfgang

    2013-06-01

    Mathematical models of molecular networks regulating biological processes in cells or organisms are most frequently designed as sets of ordinary differential equations. Various modularisation methods have been applied to reduce the complexity of models, to analyse their structural properties, to separate biological processes, or to reuse model parts. Taking the JAK/STAT signalling pathway with the extensive combinatorial cross-talk of its components as a case study, we make a natural approach to modularisation by creating one module for each biomolecule. Each module consists of a Petri net and associated metadata and is organised in a database publically accessible through a web interface (). The Petri net describes the reaction mechanism of a given biomolecule and its functional interactions with other components including relevant conformational states. The database is designed to support the curation, documentation, version control, and update of individual modules, and to assist the user in automatically composing complex models from modules. Biomolecule centred modules, associated metadata, and database support together allow the automatic creation of models by considering differential gene expression in given cell types or under certain physiological conditions or states of disease. Modularity also facilitates exploring the consequences of alternative molecular mechanisms by comparative simulation of automatically created models even for users without mathematical skills. Models may be selectively executed as an ODE system, stochastic, or qualitative models or hybrid and exported in the SBML format. The fully automated generation of models of redesigned networks by metadata-guided modification of modules representing biomolecules with mutated function or specificity is proposed.

  10. Tactile input and empathy modulate the perception of ambiguous biological motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiltiz, Hörmetjan; Chen, Lihan

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has shown that task-irrelevant auditory cues can bias perceptual decisions regarding directional information associated with biological motion, as indicated in perceptual tasks using point-light walkers (PLWs) (Brooks et al., 2007). In the current study, we extended the investigation of cross-modal influences to the tactile domain by asking how tactile input resolves perceptual ambiguity in visual apparent motion, and how empathy plays a role in this cross-modal interaction. In Experiment 1, we simulated the tactile feedback on the observers' fingertips when the (upright or inverted) PLWs (comprised of either all red or all green dots) were walking (leftwards or rightwards). The temporal periods between tactile events and critical visual events (the PLW's feet hitting the ground) were manipulated so that the tap could lead, synchronize, or lag the visual foot-hitting-ground event. We found that the temporal structures between tactile (feedback) and visual (hitting) events systematically biases the directional perception for upright PLWs, making either leftwards or rightwards more dominant. However, this effect was absent for inverted PLWs. In Experiment 2, we examined how empathy modulates cross-modal capture. Instead of giving tactile feedback on participants' fingertips, we gave taps on their ankles and presented the PLWs with motion directions of approaching (facing toward observer)/receding (facing away from observer) to resemble normal walking postures. With the same temporal structure, we found that individuals with higher empathy were more subject to perceptual bias in the presence of tactile feedback. Taken together, our findings showed that task-irrelevant tactile input can resolve the otherwise ambiguous perception of the direction of biological motion, and this cross-modal bias was mediated by higher level social-cognitive factors, including empathy.

  11. Spinal cordd biological safety comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xilinbaoleri; Xu Wanlong; Chen Gang; Liu Hao; Wang Ruozheng; Bai Jingping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the spine intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and the conventional radiation therapy on the beagle spinal cord neurons, in order to prove the biological safety of IMRT of the spinal cord. Methods: Twelve selected purebred beagles were randomly divided into 2 groups. A beagle clinical model of tumor was mimiced in the ninth and tenth thoracic vertebrae. Then the beagles were irradiated by 2 different models of intensity modulated radiotherapy and conventional radiation therapy, with the total irradiation doses of 50 and 70 Gy. The samples of spinal cord were taken out from the same position of the nine and tenth thoracic vertebrae at the third month after radiation.All the samples were observed by the electron microscope, and the Fas and HSP70 expression in spinal cord neurons were evaluated by immunohistochemistry method. Terminal deoxynucleatidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick and labeling (TUNEL) technique was used to examine the apoptotic cells in the spinal cord. Results: The neurons in the spinal cord of IMRT group were mainly reversible injury, and those in the conventional radiation therapy were mainly apoptosis. Compared with the conventional radiation therapy group [50 Gy group, (7.3 ± 1.1)%; 70 Gy group, (11.3 ± 1.4)%], the apoptosis rate of the spinal cord neurons of the intensity modulated radiotherapy group [50 Gy group, (1.2 ± 0.7)%; 70 Gy group (2.5 ± 0.8)%] was much lower[(50 Gy group, t=0.022, P<0.05; 70 Gy group, t=0.017, P<0.05)]. The expression levels of Fas in the IMPT group (50 Gy group, 4.6 ± 0.8; 70 Gy group, 7.4 ± 1.1) were also much lowerthan those in the other group (50 Gy group, 15.1 ± 6.4; 70 Gy group, 19.3 ± 7.6. 50 Gy group, t=0.231, P<0.05; 70 Gy group, t=0.457, P<0.05), while the expression levels of HSP70 in the IMPT group (50 Gy group, 9.1 ± 0.8; 70 Gy group, 7.3 ± 1.4)were much higher than those in the conventional radiation therapy group (50 Gy group, 2.1 ± 0.9; 70 Gy group, 1.7 ± 0

  12. Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper examines self-esteem, what contributes to it, why it is important, and ways to build it in children, especially those with disabilities. Definitions of four basic terms (self-esteem, body image, unconditional acceptance, and active-reflective listening) are offered. Guidelines for teachers and parents are then offered in the form of…

  13. Situated Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigman, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Pervasive though it is in modern life, the concept of self-esteem is often viewed with distrust. This paper departs from an idea that was recently aired by Richard Smith: that we might be better off without this concept. The meaning of self-esteem is explored within four homes: the self-help industry, social science, therapy and education. It is…

  14. Justified Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a thread of argument from previous contributions to this journal by Richard Smith and Ruth Cigman about the educational salience of self-esteem. It is argued--contra Smith and Cigman--that the social science conception of self-esteem does serve a useful educational function, most importantly in undermining the inflated…

  15. Space biology initiative program definition review. Trade study 6: Space Station Freedom/spacelab modules compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, L. Neal; Crenshaw, John, Sr.; Davidson, William L.; Blacknall, Carolyn; Bilodeau, James W.; Stoval, J. Michael; Sutton, Terry

    1989-01-01

    The differences in rack requirements for Spacelab, the Shuttle Orbiter, and the United States (U.S.) laboratory module, European Space Agency (ESA) Columbus module, and the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of Space Station Freedom are identified. The feasibility of designing standardized mechanical, structural, electrical, data, video, thermal, and fluid interfaces to allow space flight hardware designed for use in the U.S. laboratory module to be used in other locations is assessed.

  16. Story on Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Kids / Self-Esteem Print en español Sobre la autoestima What Is Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is a way of thinking and ...

  17. Radiation efficacy and biological risk from whole-breast irradiation via intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, David M.

    Radiotherapy is an established modality for women with breast cancer. During the delivery of external beam radiation to the breast, leakage, scattered x-rays from the patient and the linear accelerator also expose healthy tissues and organs outside of the breast, thereby increasing the patient's whole-body dose, which then increases the chance of developing a secondary, radiation-induced cancer. Generally, there are three IntensityModulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) delivery techniques from a conventional linear accelerator; forward planned (FMLC), inverse planned 'sliding window' (DMLC), and inverse planned 'step-and-shoot' (SMLC). The goal of this study was to determine which of these three techniques delivers an optimal dose to the breast with the least chance of causing a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer. A conventional, non-IMRT, 'Wedge' plan also was compared. Computerized Tomography (CT) data sets for both a large and small sized patient were used in this study. With Varian's Eclipse AAA algorithm, the organ doses specified in the revised ICRP 60 publication were used to calculate the whole-body dose. Also, an anthropomorphic phantom was irradiated with thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) at each organ site for measured doses. The risk coefficient from the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report of 4.69 x 10-2 deaths per Gy was used to convert whole-body dose to risk of a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer. The FMLC IMRT delivered superior tumor coverage over the 3D conventional plan and the inverse DMLC or SMLC treatment plans delivered clinically equivalent tumor coverage. However, the FMLC plan had the least likelihood of inadvertently causing a fatal, secondary, radiation-induced cancer compared to the inverse DMLC, SMLC, and Wedge plans.

  18. Biological profile and bioavailability of imidazoline compounds on morphine tolerance modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Mammoli, Valerio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Sagratini, Gianni; Ubaldi, Massimo; Domi, Esi; Mennuni, Laura; Sabatini, Chiara; Galimberti, Chiara; Ferrari, Flora; Milia, Chiara; Comi, Eleonora; Lanza, Marco; Giannella, Mario; Pigini, Maria; Del Bello, Fabio

    2015-12-15

    Tolerance to opioid administration represents a serious medical alert in different chronic conditions. This study compares the effects of the imidazoline compounds 1, 2, and 3 on morphine tolerance in an animal model of inflammatory pain in the rat. 1, 2, and 3 have been selected in that, although bearing a common scaffold, preferentially bind to α2-adrenoceptors, imidazoline I2 receptors, or both systems, respectively. Such compounds have been tested in vivo by measuring the paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical pressure after complete Freund's adjuvant injection. To determine the ligand levels in rat plasma, an HPLC-mass spectrometry method has been developed. All the compounds significantly reduced the induction of morphine tolerance, showing different potency and duration of action. Indeed, the selective imidazoline I2 receptor interaction (2) restored the analgesic response by maintaining the same time-dependent profile observed after a single morphine administration. Differently, the selective α2C-adrenoceptor activation (1) or the combination between α2C-adrenoceptor activation and imidazoline I2 receptor engagement (3) promoted a change in the temporal profile of morphine analgesia by maintaining a mild but long lasting analgesic effect. Interestingly, the kinetics of compounds in rat plasma supported the pharmacodynamic data. Therefore, this study highlights that both peculiar biological profile and bioavailability of such ligands complement each other to modulate the reduction of morphine tolerance. Based on these observations, 1-3 can be considered useful leads in the design of new drugs able to turn off the undesired tolerance induced by opioids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Full Monte Carlo-Based Biologic Treatment Plan Optimization System for Intensity Modulated Carbon Ion Therapy on Graphics Processing Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Nan; Shen, Chenyang; Tsai, Min-Yu; Pinto, Marco; Tian, Zhen; Dedes, Georgios; Pompos, Arnold; Jiang, Steve B; Parodi, Katia; Jia, Xun

    2018-01-01

    One of the major benefits of carbon ion therapy is enhanced biological effectiveness at the Bragg peak region. For intensity modulated carbon ion therapy (IMCT), it is desirable to use Monte Carlo (MC) methods to compute the properties of each pencil beam spot for treatment planning, because of their accuracy in modeling physics processes and estimating biological effects. We previously developed goCMC, a graphics processing unit (GPU)-oriented MC engine for carbon ion therapy. The purpose of the present study was to build a biological treatment plan optimization system using goCMC. The repair-misrepair-fixation model was implemented to compute the spatial distribution of linear-quadratic model parameters for each spot. A treatment plan optimization module was developed to minimize the difference between the prescribed and actual biological effect. We used a gradient-based algorithm to solve the optimization problem. The system was embedded in the Varian Eclipse treatment planning system under a client-server architecture to achieve a user-friendly planning environment. We tested the system with a 1-dimensional homogeneous water case and 3 3-dimensional patient cases. Our system generated treatment plans with biological spread-out Bragg peaks covering the targeted regions and sparing critical structures. Using 4 NVidia GTX 1080 GPUs, the total computation time, including spot simulation, optimization, and final dose calculation, was 0.6 hour for the prostate case (8282 spots), 0.2 hour for the pancreas case (3795 spots), and 0.3 hour for the brain case (6724 spots). The computation time was dominated by MC spot simulation. We built a biological treatment plan optimization system for IMCT that performs simulations using a fast MC engine, goCMC. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that full MC-based IMCT inverse planning has been achieved in a clinically viable time frame. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Using a Module-Based Laboratory to Incorporate Inquiry into a Large Cell Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, David R.; Miskowski, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Because cell biology has rapidly increased in breadth and depth, instructors are challenged not only to provide undergraduate science students with a strong, up-to-date foundation of knowledge, but also to engage them in the scientific process. To these ends, revision of the Cell Biology Lab course at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse was…

  1. Self-esteem in action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandell, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Self-esteem research has been in “crisis” during the last decade, due to the lack of strong, consistent correlations between self-esteem and behavioral outcomes. Some researchers have interpreted this as indicating that self-esteem is inconsequential in many important areas of life. However......, the model of direct causality used in correlational research, between a general self-esteem trait and specific behaviors, may be unrealistic. In contrast, this paper develops a model of self-esteem-motivated behaviour as originating from past, current or future (desired) self-concepts. This model shows how...... an interaction of catalytic factors determines how self-esteem influences behaviour. That is, what “self-esteem” actually “does.” By clarifying the different ways in which self-esteem affects behavior, the model shows that construing self-esteem as a passive variable with direct causal influence on behavior...

  2. SpaCEM3: a software for biological module detection when data is incomplete, high dimensional and dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignes, Matthieu; Blanchet, Juliette; Leroux, Damien; Forbes, Florence

    2011-03-15

    Among classical methods for module detection, SpaCEM(3) provides ad hoc algorithms that were shown to be particularly well adapted to specific features of biological data: high-dimensionality, interactions between components (genes) and integrated treatment of missingness in observations. The software, currently in its version 2.0, is developed in C++ and can be used either via command line or with the GUI under Linux and Windows environments. The SpaCEM(3) software, a documentation and datasets are available from http://spacem3.gforge.inria.fr/.

  3. Neural correlates underlying change in state self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Sugawara, Sho K; Hamano, Yuki H; Kitada, Ryo; Nakagawa, Eri; Kochiyama, Takanori; Sadato, Norihiro

    2018-01-29

    State self-esteem, the momentary feeling of self-worth, functions as a sociometer involved in maintenance of interpersonal relations. How others' appraisal is subjectively interpreted to change state self-esteem is unknown, and the neural underpinnings of this process remain to be elucidated. We hypothesized that changes in state self-esteem are represented by the mentalizing network, which is modulated by interactions with regions involved in the subjective interpretation of others' appraisal. To test this hypothesis, we conducted task-based and resting-state fMRI. Participants were repeatedly presented with their reputations, and then rated their pleasantness and reported their state self-esteem. To evaluate the individual sensitivity of the change in state self-esteem based on pleasantness (i.e., the subjective interpretation of reputation), we calculated evaluation sensitivity as the rate of change in state self-esteem per unit pleasantness. Evaluation sensitivity varied across participants, and was positively correlated with precuneus activity evoked by reputation rating. Resting-state fMRI revealed that evaluation sensitivity was positively correlated with functional connectivity of the precuneus with areas activated by negative reputation, but negatively correlated with areas activated by positive reputation. Thus, the precuneus, as the part of the mentalizing system, serves as a gateway for translating the subjective interpretation of reputation into state self-esteem.

  4. Isoprenoids responsible for protein prenylation modulate the biological effects of statins on pancreatic cancer cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gbelcová, H.; Rimpelová, S.; Knejzlík, Z.; Šáchová, Jana; Kolář, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Repiska, V.; D'Acunto, C.W.; Ruml, T.; Vítek, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, zima (2017), č. článku 250. ISSN 1476-511X R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT13112 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Farmesyl pyrophosphate * Gene expression * Geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate * HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors * Isoprenoids * K-Ras oncogene * Mevalonate * Pncreatic cancer * Prenylation * Statins Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 2.073, year: 2016

  5. Biological Modulation of Upper Ocean Physics: Simulating the Biothermal Feedback Effect in Monterey Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-08

    Biological Model The biological model integrated into COAMPS is a four-component nutrient-phytoplankton-detritus ( NPD ) model. Nitrate is initialized...in nitrogen [Kahler and Koeve, 2001], and require additional sets of state variables and parameterizations than those presented within our simple NPD ...cycles, Photosynth. Res., 39, 235–258. Franks, P. J. S., J. S. Wroblewski, and G. R. Flierl (1986), Behavior of a simple plankton model with food -level

  6. Self-Esteem: A Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffenhagen, R. A.

    Alfred Adler's Individual Psychology theory is actually a theory of self-esteem psychology. For Adler the most important motivating force for behavior is a striving for superiority. A self-esteem theory of deviance was developed with the underlying proposition being that low self-esteem is the basic psychodynamic mechanism underlying deviance. For…

  7. What Is Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branden, Nathaniel

    By "self-esteem" is meant more than an innate sense of self-worth that presumably is a human birthright. Self-esteem is individuals' experience that they are appropriate to life and to the requirements of life. More specifically, self-esteem is confidence in the ability to think; confidence in the ability to cope with the challenges of life; and…

  8. Phase microscopy of technical and biological samples through random phase modulation with a difuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Gundu, Phanindra Narayan

    2010-01-01

    A technique for phase microscopy using a phase diffuser and a reconstruction algorithm is proposed. A magnified specimen wavefront is projected on the diffuser plane that modulates the wavefront into a speckle field. The speckle patterns at axially displaced planes are sampled and used......) 2010 Optical Society of America...

  9. Basic Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeter, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Training employees in basic skills necessitates sensitivity to their self-esteem. This can be achieved if the organizational culture supports training, the program is voluntary, it uses the group's strengths, it challenges them on an adult level, it does not resemble traditional schooling, and it builds in quick success. (SK)

  10. Exploring Cystic Fibrosis Using Bioinformatics Tools: A Module Designed for the Freshman Biology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaorong

    2011-01-01

    We incorporated a bioinformatics component into the freshman biology course that allows students to explore cystic fibrosis (CF), a common genetic disorder, using bioinformatics tools and skills. Students learn about CF through searching genetic databases, analyzing genetic sequences, and observing the three-dimensional structures of proteins…

  11. Moving Away from Dogmatic Knowledge Dissemination in a Cell Biology Module: Examples from Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Foong May

    2012-01-01

    A surge in the amount of information in the discipline of Cell Biology presents a problem to the teaching of undergraduates under time constraints. In most textbooks and during lectures, students in Singapore are often taught in a dogmatic manner where concepts and ideas are expounded to them. The students in turn passively receive the materials…

  12. Deciphering the biological effects of acupuncture treatment modulating multiple metabolism pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2016-02-16

    Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that is widely used to treat various diseases. However, detailed biological interpretation of the acupuncture stimulations is limited. We here used metabolomics and proteomics technology, thereby identifying the serum small molecular metabolites into the effect and mechanism pathways of standardized acupuncture treatments at 'Zusanli' acupoint which was the most often used acupoint in previous reports. Comprehensive overview of serum metabolic profiles during acupuncture stimulation was investigated. Thirty-four differential metabolites were identified in serum metabolome and associated with ten metabolism pathways. Importantly, we have found that high impact glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism were acutely perturbed by acupuncture stimulation. As such, these alterations may be useful to clarify the biological mechanism of acupuncture stimulation. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified and such effects of acupuncture stimulation were found to play a role in transport, enzymatic activity, signaling pathway or receptor interaction. Pathway analysis further revealed that most of these proteins were found to play a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple metabolism pathways. It demonstrated that the metabolomics coupled with proteomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in understanding the biological effects of acupuncture stimulation.

  13. Synthesis and Biological Activity of 6-Selenocaffeine: Potential Modulator of Chemotherapeutic Drugs in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês L. Martins

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the development of a new microwave-based synthetic methodology mediated by Woollins’ reagent that allowed an efficient conversion of caffeine into 6-selenocaffeine. A preliminary evaluation on the modulation of antioxidant activity upon selenation of caffeine, using the DPPH assay, indicated a mild antioxidant activity for 6-selenocaffeine, contrasting with caffeine, that exhibited no antioxidant activity under the same experimental conditions. Interestingly, whereas 6-selenocaffeine has revealed to have a low cytotoxic potential in both MCF10A and MCF-7 breast cells (24 h, up to 100 µM, MTT assay, a differential effect was observed when used in combination with the anticancer agents doxorubicin and oxaliplatin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The co-treatment of doxorubicin (1 µM and 6-selenocaffeine (100 µM resulted in a slight decrease in cellular viability when compared to doxorubicin (1 µM alone. Conversely, the seleno-caffeine derivative at the same concentration markedly increased the viability of oxaliplatin (100 µM-treated cells (p < 0.01. Overall, this work highlights an emerging methodology to synthesize organoselenium compounds and points out the differential roles of 6-selenocaffeine in the modulation of the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents.

  14. Significant Modules and Biological Processes between Active Components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Depside Salt and Aspirin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine and compare the similarities and differences between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin using perspective of pharmacological molecular networks. Active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin’s related genes were identified via the STITCH4.0 and GeneCards Database. A text search engine (Agilent Literature Search 2.71 and MCODE software were applied to construct network and divide modules, respectively. Finally, 32, 2, and 28 overlapping genes, modules, and pathways were identified between active components of S. miltiorrhiza depside salt and aspirin. A multidimensional framework of drug network showed that two networks reflected commonly in human aortic endothelial cells and atherosclerosis process. Aspirin plays a more important role in metabolism, such as the well-known AA metabolism pathway and other lipid or carbohydrate metabolism pathways. S. miltiorrhiza depside salt still plays a regulatory role in type II diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, and adipocytokine signaling pathway. Therefore, this study suggests that aspirin combined with S. miltiorrhiza depside salt may be more efficient in treatment of CHD patients, especially those with diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia. Further clinical trials to confirm this hypothesis are still needed.

  15. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala

    2013-01-01

    This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996),Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985) and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 2...

  16. Physical and biological pretreatment quality assurance of the head and neck cancer plan with the volumetric modulated arc therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Soo; Lee, Yun-Hee; Lee, Seu-Ran; Kim, Min-Ju; Suh, Tae-Suk

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate both the physical and the biological quality assurance (QA) aspects as pretreatment QA of the head and neck (H&N) cancer plan for the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Ten H&N plans were studied. The COMPASS® dosimetry analysis system and the tumor control probability (TCP) and the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) calculation free program were used as the respective measurement and calculation tools. The reliability of these tools was verified by a benchmark study in accordance with the TG-166 report. For the physical component of QA, the gamma passing rates and the false negative cases between the calculated and the measured data were evaluated. The biological component of QA was performed based on the equivalent uniform dose (EUD), TCP and NTCP values. The evaluation was performed for the planning target volumes (PTVs) and the organs at risks (OARs), including the eyes, the lens, the parotid glands, the esophagus, the spinal cord, and the brainstem. All cases had gamma passing rates above 95% at an acceptance tolerance level with the 3%/3 mm criteria. In addition, the false negative instances were presented for the PTVs and OARs. The gamma passing rates exhibited a weak correlation with false negative cases. For the biological QA, the physical dose errors affect the EUD and the TCP for the PTVs, but no linear correlation existed between them. The EUD and NTCP for the OARs were shown the random differences that could not be attributed to the dose errors from the physical QA. The differences in the EUD and NTCP between the calculated and the measured results were mainly demonstrated for the parotid glands. This study describes the importance and the necessity of improved QA to accompany both the physical and the biological aspects for accurate radiation treatment.

  17. Modulation of tissue tropism and biological activity of exosomes and other extracellular vesicles: New nanotools for cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, Sander A A; Schiffelers, Raymond M; Zarovni, Natasa; Vago, Riccardo

    2016-09-01

    Exosomes are naturally secreted nanovesicles that have recently aroused a great interest in the scientific and clinical community for their roles in intercellular communication in almost all physiological and pathological processes. These 30-100nm sized vesicles are released from the cells into the extracellular space and ultimately into biofluids in a tightly regulated way. Their molecular composition reflects their cells of origin, may confer specific cell or tissue tropism and underlines their biological activity. Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles (EVs) carry specific sets of proteins, nucleic acids (DNA, mRNA and regulatory RNAs), lipids and metabolites that represent an appealing source of novel noninvasive markers through biofluid biopsies. Exosome-shuttled molecules maintain their biological activity and are capable of modulating and reprogramming recipient cells. This multi-faceted nature of exosomes hold great promise for improving cancer treatment featuring them as novel diagnostic sensors as well as therapeutic effectors and drug delivery vectors. Natural biological activity including the therapeutic payload and targeting behavior of EVs can be tuned via genetic and chemical engineering. In this review we describe the properties that EVs share with conventional synthetic nanoparticles, including size, liposome-like membrane bilayer with customizable surface, and multifunctional capacity. We also highlight unique characteristics of EVs, which possibly allow them to circumvent some limitations of synthetic nanoparticle systems and facilitate clinical translation. The latter are in particular correlated with their innate stability, ability to cross biological barriers, efficiently deliver bioactive cargos or evade immune recognition. Furthermore, we discuss the potential roles for EVs in diagnostics and theranostics, and highlight the challenges that still need to be overcome before EVs can be applied to routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2016

  18. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Katsuji; Miyawaki, Toshio; Hitaka, Takenori; Imai, Yumi N; Hara, Takahito; Miyazaki, Junichi; Yamaoka, Masuo; Kusaka, Masami; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Tasaka, Akihiro; Shiraishi, Mitsuru; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-05-15

    To develop effective drugs for hypogonadism, sarcopenia, and cachexia, we designed, synthesized, and evaluated selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that exhibit not only anabolic effects on organs such as muscles and the central nervous system (CNS) but also neutral or antagonistic effects on the prostate. Based on the information obtained from a docking model with androgen receptor (AR), we modified a hit compound A identified through high-throughput screening. Among the prepared compounds, 1-(4-cyano-1-naphthyl)-2,3-disubstituted pyrrolidine derivatives 17h, 17m, and 17j had highly potent AR agonistic activities in vitro and good tissue selectivity in vivo. These derivatives increased the weight of the levator ani muscle without influencing the prostate and seminal vesicle. In addition, these compounds induced sexual behavior in castrated rats, indicating that the compounds could also act as agonists on the CNS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of self-esteem and sex on stress reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Lydia; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Metzler, Hannah; Thaler, Hanna; Boubela, Roland N; Pruessner, Jens C; Kryspin-Exner, Ilse; Gur, Ruben C; Windischberger, Christian; Moser, Ewald; Habel, Ute; Derntl, Birgit

    2017-12-08

    Positive self-evaluation is a major psychological resource modulating stress coping behavior. Sex differences have been reported in self-esteem as well as stress reactions, but so far their interactions have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated sex-specific associations of self-esteem and stress reaction on behavioral, hormonal and neural levels. We applied a commonly used fMRI-stress task in 80 healthy participants. Men compared to women showed higher activation during stress in hippocampus, precuneus, superior temporal gyrus (STG) and insula. Furthermore, men outperformed women in the stress task and had higher cortisol and testosterone levels than women after stress. Self-esteem had an impact on precuneus, insula and STG activation during stress across the whole group. During stress, men recruit regions associated with emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control more strongly than women. Self-esteem affects stress processing, however in a sex-independent fashion: participants with lower self-esteem show higher activation of regions involved in emotion and stress regulation, self-referential processing and cognitive control. Taken together, our data suggest that men are more engaged during the applied stress task. Across women and men, lower self-esteem increases the effort in emotion and stress processing and cognitive control, possibly leading to self-related thoughts in stressful situations.

  20. High-contrast FFT acousto-optical tomography of biological tissues with a frequency-chirped modulation of the ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forget, Benoit C.; Atlan, Michael; Selb, Juliette; Pottier, Lionel; Ramaz, Francois; Boccara, Albert C.

    2003-06-01

    Although tumors can show important contrast in their optical properties at an early stage of development, they are difficult to image optically due the diffusive nature of biological tissues. Such tumors can also be detected by "classical" ultrasound (US) imaging, but the acoustic constrast is often weak at early stages. Acousto-optical (AO) imaging combines light and ultrasound : light carries the desired information and ultrasound provides the spatial resolution. Based on a previous work made by the group of L.V. Wang, we present AO images obtained with chirped US. This modulation of the US frequency allows to encode a spatial region of the medium in the frequency spectrum of the AO signal. We can then obtain the optical contrast along the US path with improved resolution. The technique was apply to the imaging of buried objects in phantoms and to the vizualization of the "virtual source".

  1. [Self esteem : concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doré, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Self-esteem is an inner attitude at the base of the construction of personality and psychic balance in addition to be responsible of adaptive processes over the course of life. The concept of self-esteem is commonly used in several disciplines however, it seems that the consensus on its conceptualization and its operationalization is not yet reached. In this context, the concept analysis allows to address a phenomenon and to understand its use and its evolution from a unique disciplinary perspective. The aim of this article is therefore to analyze the concept of self esteem from a nursing perspective to identify : definitions of the term and related terms, attributes, model and limit cases proposed here within the community of mental health nurses, antecedents and consequents as well as the empirical references using the Walker and Avant method. The attributes identified allowing a deeper understanding of the concept are : the self-value, the self-acceptance, the self-efficacy, attitude towards oneself and finally, self-respect.

  2. Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I am particularly happy that the Academy is bringing out this document by Professor M S. Valiathan on Ayurvedic Biology. It is an effort to place before the scientific community, especially that of India, the unique scientific opportunities that arise out of viewing Ayurveda from the perspective of contemporary science, its tools ...

  3. Self-Esteem and Earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Drago, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    Recent research in economics suggests a positive association between self-esteem and earnings. A major problem in this literature is that from simple cross-sectional wage regressions it is not possible to conclude that self-esteem has a causal impact on earnings. While classical measurement error leads to an attenuation bias, reverse causality and omitted variable are likely to drive the OLS coefficient on self-esteem upward. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) that adminis...

  4. Modulation of the molecular arrangement in artificial and biological membranes by phospholipid-shelled microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carugo, Dario; Aron, Miles; Sezgin, Erdinc; Bernardino de la Serna, Jorge; Kuimova, Marina K; Eggeling, Christian; Stride, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    The transfer of material from phospholipid-coated microbubbles to cell membranes has been hypothesized to play a role in ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. In this study, we employed quantitative fluorescence microscopy techniques to investigate this phenomenon in both artificial and biological membrane bilayers in an acoustofluidic system. The results of the present study provide strong evidence for the transfer of material from microbubble coatings into cell membranes. Our results indicate that transfer of phospholipids alters the organization of molecules in cell membranes, specifically the lipid ordering or packing, which is known to be a key determinant of membrane mechanical properties, protein dynamics, and permeability. We further show that polyethylene-glycol, used in many clinical microbubble formulations, also has a major impact on both membrane lipid ordering and the extent of lipid transfer, and that this occurs even in the absence of ultrasound exposure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Using phosphine ligands with a biological role to modulate reactivity in novel platinum complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverri, Marcelo; Alvarez-Valdés, Amparo; Navas, Francisco; Perles, Josefina; Sánchez-Pérez, Isabel; Quiroga, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    Three platinum complexes with cis and trans configuration cis-[Pt(TCEP)2Cl2], cis-[Pt(tmTCEP)2Cl2] and trans-[Pt(TCEP)2Cl2], where TCEP is tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine, have been synthesized and fully characterized by usual techniques including single-crystal X-ray diffraction for trans-[Pt(TCEP)2Cl2] and cis-[Pt(tmTCEP)2Cl2]. Here, we also report on an esterification process of TCEP, which takes place in the presence of alcohols, leading to a platinum complex coordinated to an ester tmTCEP (2-methoxycarbonylethyl phosphine) ligand. The stability in solution of the three compounds and their interaction with biological models such as DNA (pBR322 and calf thymus DNA) and proteins (lysozyme and RNase) have also been studied.

  6. Validation of two conceptualizations of fragile self-esteem: Contingent high self-esteem and incongruent high self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Bodroža, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to validate two aspects of fragile high self-esteem: a combination of contingent and high (explicit) self-esteem and a combination of high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (i.e. incongruent high self-esteem), as well as to examine the relationship between these aspects of fragile self-esteem and narcissism. No convergence was found between contingent high and incongruent high self-esteem. The result was consistent regardles...

  7. Implementation of a Service-learning Module in Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology Classes at an Undergraduate Liberal Arts University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios-Sanz, Maia; Simmons, Alexandra D; Bagnall, Ruth Ann; Rosell, Rosemarie C

    2011-01-01

    Here we discuss the implementation of a service-learning module in two upper-division biology classes, Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology. This exciting hands-on learning experience provided our students with an opportunity to extend their learning of in-class topics to a real-life scenario. Students were required to volunteer their time (a minimum of 10 hours in a semester) at an under-served clinic in Houston, Texas. As they interacted with the personnel at the clinic, they were asked to identify the most prevalent disease (infectious for Medical Microbiology, and cellular-based for Cell) seen at the clinic and, working in groups, come up with educational material in the form of a display or brochure to be distributed to patients. The material was meant to educate patients about the disease in general terms, as well as how to recognize (symptoms), prevent and treat it. Students were required to keep a reflective journal in the form of a blog throughout the semester, and present their final materials to the class orally. Students were surveyed about their opinion of the experience at the end of the semester. The vast majority of student participants felt that the project was a positive experience and that it helped them develop additional skills beyond what they learn in the classroom and understand how lecture topics relate to every day life.

  8. Culturally relevant inquiry-based laboratory module implementations in upper-division genetics and cell biology teaching laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siritunga, Dimuth; Montero-Rojas, María; Carrero, Katherine; Toro, Gladys; Vélez, Ana; Carrero-Martínez, Franklin A

    2011-01-01

    Today, more minority students are entering undergraduate programs than ever before, but they earn only 6% of all science or engineering PhDs awarded in the United States. Many studies suggest that hands-on research activities enhance students' interest in pursuing a research career. In this paper, we present a model for the implementation of laboratory research in the undergraduate teaching laboratory using a culturally relevant approach to engage students. Laboratory modules were implemented in upper-division genetics and cell biology courses using cassava as the central theme. Students were asked to bring cassava samples from their respective towns, which allowed them to compare their field-collected samples against known lineages from agricultural stations at the end of the implementation. Assessment of content and learning perceptions revealed that our novel approach allowed students to learn while engaged in characterizing Puerto Rican cassava. In two semesters, based on the percentage of students who answered correctly in the premodule assessment for content knowledge, there was an overall improvement of 66% and 55% at the end in the genetics course and 24% and 15% in the cell biology course. Our proposed pedagogical model enhances students' professional competitiveness by providing students with valuable research skills as they work on a problem to which they can relate.

  9. LRP5 regulates human body fat distribution by modulating adipose progenitor biology in a dose- and depot-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Nellie Y; Neville, Matt J; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Hardcastle, Sarah A; Fielding, Barbara A; Duncan, Emma L; McCarthy, Mark I; Tobias, Jonathan H; Gregson, Celia L; Karpe, Fredrik; Christodoulides, Constantinos

    2015-02-03

    Common variants in WNT pathway genes have been associated with bone mass and fat distribution, the latter predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Rare mutations in the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 are similarly associated with bone and cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the role of LRP5 in human adipose tissue. Subjects with gain-of-function LRP5 mutations and high bone mass had enhanced lower-body fat accumulation. Reciprocally, a low bone mineral density-associated common LRP5 allele correlated with increased abdominal adiposity. Ex vivo LRP5 expression was higher in abdominal versus gluteal adipocyte progenitors. Equivalent knockdown of LRP5 in both progenitor types dose-dependently impaired β-catenin signaling and led to distinct biological outcomes: diminished gluteal and enhanced abdominal adipogenesis. These data highlight how depot differences in WNT/β-catenin pathway activity modulate human fat distribution via effects on adipocyte progenitor biology. They also identify LRP5 as a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aggression and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischmann, Otakar

    2008-01-01

    In the research we focus on problems of self-esteem and aggress. The aim was to discover and describe if by university students an important relation between self-esteem and aggress exists, if there are some differences in self-esteem and aggress between women and men and individuals with pedagogical and non-pedagogical professional polarization. The self-esteem was followed on different levels- general, low, medium and high level as well as aggress levels. Besides general aggress we followed...

  11. Dietary Polyphenols as Modulators of Brain Functions: Biological Actions and Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Their Beneficial Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vauzour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that diet and lifestyle can play an important role in delaying the onset or halting the progression of age-related health disorders and to improve cognitive function. In particular, polyphenols have been reported to exert their neuroprotective actions through the potential to protect neurons against injury induced by neurotoxins, an ability to suppress neuroinflammation, and the potential to promote memory, learning, and cognitive function. Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of polyphenols, they are still mistakenly regarded as simply acting as antioxidants. However, recent evidence suggests that their beneficial effects involve decreases in oxidative/inflammatory stress signaling, increases in protective signaling and neurohormetic effects leading to the expression of genes that encode antioxidant enzymes, phase-2 enzymes, neurotrophic factors, and cytoprotective proteins. Specific examples of such pathways include the sirtuin-FoxO pathway, the NF-κB pathway, and the Nrf-2/ARE pathway. Together, these processes act to maintain brain homeostasis and play important roles in neuronal stress adaptation and thus polyphenols have the potential to prevent the progression of neurodegenerative pathologies.

  12. Micro modules for mobile shape, color and spectral imaging with smartpads in industry, biology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Dietrich; Dittrich, Paul-Gerald; Düntsch, Eric; Kraus, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Aim of the paper is the demonstration of a paradigm shift in shape, color and spectral measurements in industry, biology and medicine as well as in measurement education and training. Innovative hardware apps (hwapps) and software apps (swapps) with smartpads are fundamental enablers for the transformation from conventional stationary working places towards innovative mobile working places with in-field measurements and point-of-care (POC) diagnostics. Mobile open online courses (MOOCs) are transforming the study habits. Practical examples for the application of innovative photonic micro shapemeters, colormeters and spectrometers will be given. The innovative approach opens so far untapped enormous markets for measurement science, engineering and training. These innovative working conditions will be fast accepted due to their convenience, reliability and affordability. A highly visible advantage of smartpads is the huge number of their distribution, their worldwide connectivity via Internet and cloud services, the standardized interfaces like USB and HDMI and the experienced capabilities of their users for practical operations, learned with their private smartpads.

  13. Cerium oxide nanozyme modulate the ‘exercise’ redox biology of skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Aditya; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Gangwar, Anamika; Bhargava, Neelima; Dubey, Amarish; Roy, Manas; Srivastava, Gaurav; Singh, Sushil Kumar; Das, Mainak; Bhargava, Kalpana

    2017-05-01

    ‘Exercise’ is a double-edged sword for the skeletal muscle. Small amount of ROS generated during mild exercise, is essential for normal force generation; whereas large quantity of ROS generated during intense exercise, may cause contractile dysfunction, resulting in muscle weakness and fatigue. One of the key question in skeletal muscle physiology is ‘could antioxidant therapy improve the skeletal muscle endurance? A question, which has resulted in contradictory experimental findings till this date. This work has addressed this ‘very question’ using a synthetic, inorganic, antioxidant nano-material viz., ‘cerium oxide nanozyme’ (CON). It has been introduced in the rat by intramuscular injection, and the skeletal muscle endurance has been evaluated. Intramuscular injections of CON, concurrent with exercise, enhanced muscle mass, glycogen and ATP content, type I fiber ratio, thus resulting in significantly higher muscle endurance. Electron microscope studies confirmed the presence of CON in the vicinity of muscle mitochondria. There was an increase in the number and size of the muscle mitochondria in the CON treated muscle, following exercise, as compared to the untreated group with only exercised muscle. Quantitative proteomics data and subsequent biological network analysis studies, identified higher levels of oxidative phosphorylation, TCA cycle output and glycolysis in CON supplemented exercised muscle over only exercised muscle. This was further associated with significant increase in the mitochondrial respiratory capacity and muscle contraction, primarily due to higher levels of electron transport chain proteins like NDUFA9, SDHA, ATP5B and ATP5D, which were validated by real-time PCR and western blotting. Along with this, persistence of CON in muscle was evaluated with ICP-MS analysis, which revealed clearance of the particles after 90 d, without exhibiting any inflammation or adverse affects on the health of the experimental animals. Thus a

  14. The use of biologically related model (Eclipse for the intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning of nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica W K Kan

    Full Text Available Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT is the most common treatment technique for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. Physical quantities such as dose/dose-volume parameters are used conventionally for IMRT optimization. The use of biological related models has been proposed and can be a new trend. This work was to assess the performance of the biologically based IMRT optimization model installed in a popular commercial treatment planning system (Eclipse as compared to its dose/dose volume optimization model when employed in the clinical environment for NPC cases.Ten patients of early stage NPC and ten of advanced stage NPC were selected for this study. IMRT plans optimized using biological related approach (BBTP were compared to their corresponding plans optimized using the dose/dose volume based approach (DVTP. Plan evaluation was performed using both biological indices and physical dose indices such as tumor control probability (TCP, normal tissue complication probability (NTCP, target coverage, conformity, dose homogeneity and doses to organs at risk. The comparison results of the more complex advanced stage cases were reported separately from those of the simpler early stage cases.The target coverage and conformity were comparable between the two approaches, with BBTP plans producing more hot spots. For the primary targets, BBTP plans produced comparable TCP for the early stage cases and higher TCP for the advanced stage cases. BBTP plans reduced the volume of parotid glands receiving doses of above 40 Gy compared to DVTP plans. The NTCP of parotid glands produced by BBTP were 8.0 ± 5.8 and 7.9 ± 8.7 for early and advanced stage cases, respectively, while those of DVTP were 21.3 ± 8.3 and 24.4 ± 12.8, respectively. There were no significant differences in the NTCP values between the two approaches for the serial organs.Our results showed that the BBTP approach could be a potential alternative approach to the DVTP approach for NPC.

  15. Cyberbullying and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchin, Justin W.; Hinduja, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    Background: This article examines the relationship between middle school students' experience with cyberbullying and their level of self-esteem. Previous research on traditional bullying among adolescents has found a relatively consistent link between victimization and lower self-esteem, while finding an inconsistent relationship between offending…

  16. Implementation of a Service-Learning Module in Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology Classes at an Undergraduate Liberal Arts University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Larios-Sanz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we discuss the implementation of a service-learning module in two upper-division biology classes, Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology. This exciting hands-on learning experience provided our students with an opportunity to extend their learning of in-class topics to a real-life scenario. Students were required to volunteer their time (a minimum of 10 hours in a semester at an under-served clinic in Houston, Texas. As they interacted with the personnel at the clinic, they were asked to identify the most prevalent disease (infectious for Medical Microbiology, and cellular-based for Cell seen at the clinic and, working in groups, come up with educational material in the form of a display or brochure to be distributed to patients. The material was meant to educate patients about the disease in general terms, as well as how to recognize (symptoms, prevent and treat it. Students were required to keep a reflective journal in the form of a blog throughout the semester, and present their final materials to the class orally. Students were surveyed about their opinion of the experience at the end of the semester. The vast majority of student participants felt that the project was a positive experience and that it helped them develop additional skills beyond what they learn in the classroom and understand how lecture topics relate to every day life. Here we discuss the implementation of a service-learning module in two upper division biology classes, Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology. This exciting hands-on learning experience provided our students with an opportunity to extend their learning of in-class topics into a real life scenario. Students were required to volunteer their time (a minimum of 10 hours in a semester at an under-served clinic in Houston, Texas. As they interacted with the personnel at the clinic, they were asked to identify the most prevalent disease (infectious for Medical Microbiology, and cellular-based for Cell seen at the

  17. Factors associated with self-esteem following acquired brain injury in adults: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curvis, William; Simpson, Jane; Hampson, Natalie

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem is potentially a key factor in psychological and psychosocial well-being following acquired brain injury (ABI). The current review aimed to identify, synthesise and appraise all existing quantitative empirical studies on predictors or correlates of self-esteem following ABI in adulthood. In total, 27 papers met the inclusion criteria. A range of clinical factors were related to self-esteem after ABI, including the degree of physical and functional impairment. It is unclear if cognitive impairment is related to high or low self-esteem. Additionally, psychological variables such as coping styles, adjustment and perception of problems or rehabilitation are related to self-esteem following ABI. Depression is strongly associated with low self-esteem, alongside anxiety, psychological distress and quality of life. Limitations of the available research and recommendations for clinical practice and further research are discussed. In particular, there is a need to engage with contemporary theoretical understandings of self-esteem, integrated with and supported by developments in how self-esteem is conceptualised and measured over time in an ABI population. The findings of the review suggest that self-esteem is an important factor to consider following ABI, particularly in the context of developing individualised, formulation-driven rehabilitation interventions that take into account biological, social and psychological factors.

  18. Improving Self-Esteem in General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Mara E.

    2016-01-01

    Positive self-esteem helps students succeed in and outside of music classrooms. High self-esteem is associated with a positive self-image and fine musicianship. Conversely, low self-esteem is associated with a negative self-image and poorer musicianship. Because students' self-esteem may affect their participation in music classes, the music…

  19. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y D; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-21

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  20. Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem Among Adolescents: An Interventional Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shraddha Sharma; Surila Agarwala

    2015-01-01

    Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965) and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992) were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural interve...

  1. Self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P G; Clough, D H; Wallerstedt, C

    1995-01-01

    To explore patterns and levels of self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. A descriptive prospective study to describe the self-esteem of pregnant substance abusers. Subjects (N = 31) were abusing and dependent on three or more legal and/or illegal substances. Subjects were asked one open-ended question regarding their self-esteem, then the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (RSI) was administered. Subjects gave 46 responses to the open-ended question. Overall, they used a single word to describe self-esteem. The most frequent response on the RSI was "low" for self-esteem, 23 subjects used positive terms, 20 used negative terms, and 3 reported a neutral term. The RSI confirmed the aspects of low self-esteem. Problems with low self-esteem were evident. Intervention strategies need to be developed to increase self-esteem in pregnant substance abusers.

  2. Co-expression module analysis reveals biological processes, genomic gain, and regulatory mechanisms associated with breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derow Catherine K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression signatures are typically identified by correlating gene expression patterns to a disease phenotype of interest. However, individual gene-based signatures usually suffer from low reproducibility and interpretability. Results We have developed a novel algorithm Iterative Clique Enumeration (ICE for identifying relatively independent maximal cliques as co-expression modules and a module-based approach to the analysis of gene expression data. Applying this approach on a public breast cancer dataset identified 19 modules whose expression levels were significantly correlated with tumor grade. The correlations were reproducible for 17 modules in an independent breast cancer dataset, and the reproducibility was considerably higher than that based on individual genes or modules identified by other algorithms. Sixteen out of the 17 modules showed significant enrichment in certain Gene Ontology (GO categories. Specifically, modules related to cell proliferation and immune response were up-regulated in high-grade tumors while those related to cell adhesion was down-regulated. Further analyses showed that transcription factors NYFB, E2F1/E2F3, NRF1, and ELK1 were responsible for the up-regulation of the cell proliferation modules. IRF family and ETS family proteins were responsible for the up-regulation of the immune response modules. Moreover, inhibition of the PPARA signaling pathway may also play an important role in tumor progression. The module without GO enrichment was found to be associated with a potential genomic gain in 8q21-23 in high-grade tumors. The 17-module signature of breast tumor progression clustered patients into subgroups with significantly different relapse-free survival times. Namely, patients with lower cell proliferation and higher cell adhesion levels had significantly lower risk of recurrence, both for all patients (p = 0.004 and for those with grade 2 tumors (p = 0.017. Conclusions The ICE

  3. Narcissistic self-esteem or optimal self-esteem? A Latent Profile Analysis of self-esteem and psychological entitlement

    OpenAIRE

    Stronge, Sam; Cichocka, Aleksandra; Sibley, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into the relationship between self-esteem and narcissism has produced conflicting results, potentially caused by hidden subpopulations that exhibit distinct positive or negative associations. This research uses Latent Profile Analysis to identify profiles within a national panel study (N = 6,471) with differing relationships between psychological entitlement and self-esteem. We identified a narcissistic self-esteem profile (9%) characterised by high entitlement and high self-esteem, ...

  4. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE). Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality) was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The 'Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN) to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Self esteem in terms of competency (COM), global self esteem (GSE), moral and self esteem (MSE), social esteem (SET), family self esteem (FSE), body and physical appearance (BPA), and the lie scale (LIS) were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ). The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly (P > 0.05 independent samples t-test). There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups (P self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  5. Body esteem and self-esteem in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olchowska-Kotala, Agnieszka

    2017-04-28

    The aims of the study were (a) to identify predictors of body esteem and (b) to expand on previous research by examining the link between global self-esteem and body esteem in a community-based sample of women in midlife. We found that body esteem in midlife women was predicted by body mass index (BMI), optimism, self-esteem, and menopausal symptoms. Although BMI was the main predictor of body esteem in middle-aged women, global self-esteem was more strongly related to feelings about appearance and physical condition than feelings about body size.

  6. Effect of self-esteem on social interactions during the Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, V; Nicolaisen-Sobesky, E; Collado, E; Horta, S; Rey, C; Rivero, M; Berriolo, P; Díaz, M; Otón, M; Pérez, A; Fernández-Theoduloz, G; Cabana, Á; Gradin, V B

    2017-06-01

    Self-esteem is an attitude formed by self-evaluation based on positive and negative aspects of oneself. Low self-esteem is a risk factor for psychiatric disorders and is especially associated with social difficulties. Recently, behavioral economics has allowed the quantitative study of social interactions. We investigated the association between self-esteem and interpersonal problems and whether self-esteem modulates behavior and emotions during an economic task, the Ultimatum Game (UG). In this task participants accept or reject fair/unfair monetary offers from others. Low (LSE, n=40) and high (HSE, n=45) self-esteem participants were assessed in their interpersonal problems and psychiatric symptoms using self-reported questionnaires, and were compared on their decision making and emotional response during the UG. LSE was associated with depression and anxiety symptoms. In addition, LSE was associated with interpersonal problems, especially in the domains of socially inhibited, nonassertive, overly accommodating, self-sacrificing and cold/distant. During the UG, LSE women reported more anger towards unfair offers than HSE women. Our findings suggest that low self-esteem individuals experience high distress by interpersonal problems in several domains. Importantly, low self-esteem in women seems to be associated with an accentuated emotional response to unfair social exchanges. These results may contribute to treat social difficulties in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-esteem and Individual Wealth

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Swarn; Finke, Michael; Harness, Nathaniel

    2008-01-01

    Self-esteem measures confidence in one’s abilities. Prior literature has shown that higher self-esteem can also affect individual financial decision making through an increased willingness to invest in risky assets and motivation to enhance self image through wealth accumulation. However, self-esteem can also lead to wealth-destroying investment behaviors due to overconfidence and an unwillingness to accept inevitable losses. Using the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale included in the National Long...

  8. Benarkah Self Esteem Mempengaruhi Prestasi Akademik?

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Satrio Budi

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem determines a person's overall mental development, it can even affect human behavior. The debate arose when researchers try to explain, whether student achievement is influenced by self-esteem? The author conducted a meta-analysis studies in attempt to clarify the relationship between the variables of self-esteem with academic achievement variable. This research analyzed over sixteen research journals, in which there are 29 studies that examine a relationship between self-esteem an...

  9. Androgyny, Masculinity, and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundy, Allan; Rosenberg, Judy A.

    1987-01-01

    Administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Bem Sex Role Inventory to 194 adults. Found androgyny scale emphasizing masculinity was most predictive of self-esteem, due to strong correlation found between masculinity and self-esteem. Found no effects due to femininity, interaction of femininity and masculinity, or sex. (Author/NB)

  10. Self-Esteem and Classroom Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas L.; Thomas, M. Duane

    1975-01-01

    According to the subscale of the Coopersmith Inventory specifically related to school self-esteem, college students with low self-esteem (1) say less in class, (2) contribute a smaller portion of their thoughts to class discussion, and (3) sit farther back in the classroom than the students with high self-esteem. (RC)

  11. Self-Esteem: Justifying Its Existence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Sue; Isaacs, Madelyn

    1998-01-01

    The role of self-esteem as a professional and personality construct has been obscured by its panacea role. Definitions of self-esteem and related terms are distinguished. Self-esteem is discussed as a developmental construct, a personality construct, and as a therapeutic goal. Therapeutic, educational, and counseling implications are discussed.…

  12. Measuring Self-Esteem in Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary

    1985-01-01

    Methods for investigating self-esteem may not reveal the factors on which a person's self-esteem rests. Twelve- to fourteen-year-olds identified aspects of the self which were important to them, and evaluated the degree of importance. Results of this study reveal age and gender differences in self-esteem factors. (Author/BL)

  13. The Educational Importance of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkany, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Some philosophers of education have recently argued that educators can more or less ignore children's global self-esteem without failing them educationally in any important way. This paper draws on an attachment theoretic account of self-esteem to argue that this view is mistaken. I argue that understanding self-esteem's origins in attachment…

  14. Life Esteem: Quantitative and Qualitative Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Robert J.

    The development of humanistic psychology has stimulated research that supports the importance of life esteem, or the way people view meaning and purpose in their lives. The Life Esteem survey is a self-report questionnaire designed to measure the four components of life esteem (framework, perspective, commitment, quality) and to assess the…

  15. A Brief Primer on Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Since the construct of "self-esteem" was first introduced over 100 years ago, a wealth of knowledge has been accumulated. Several conclusions about the nature of self-esteem can be reached that provide a foundation for future practice and research. In general, research shows that high self-esteem is associated with the behaviors, goals, and coping…

  16. Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Parents / Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... their ability to do well at things Why Self-Esteem Matters When children feel good about themselves, it ...

  17. The effect of fasting during Ramadan on parameters of the haematological and steroidal modules of the athletes biological passport - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, K; Voss, S C; Kraiem, S; Alwahaibi, A; Alyazedi, S; Dbes, N; Goebel, R; Mohamed-Ali, V; Alsowaidi, S; Seyam, A M; Bashraheel, A S; Alsayrafi, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Ramadan on the haematological and steroid module of the Athletes Biological Passport (ABP) of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). Nine healthy physically active subjects were tested in the morning and afternoon for two days before and three days during Ramadan. Sample collection and all analyses were performed according to WADA technical documents. Although there were significant changes in the haemoglobin concentration during Ramadan, especially during the first fasting week, none of the subjects in this study exceeded the individually calculated thresholds of the ABP. No significant effects on testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio were observed but only the afternoon specific gravity (SG) of the urine was elevated. Thus, when urinary steroid concentrations are required, SG corrections need to be performed. The haematological and the steroid module of the ABP can be reliably applied during Ramadan as the observed changes are only marginal. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Modulation analysis in spatial phase shifting electronic speckle pattern interferometry and application for automated data selection on biological specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoche, Sabine; Kemper, Björn; Wernicke, Günther; von Bally, Gert

    2007-02-01

    In electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI), for a fast and objective analysis of measurement data which occur with a high repetition rate, an automated data processing is of particular advantage. For this reason, investigations were carried out to determine if the modulation of speckle interferograms can be applied as a quality parameter for the selection of suitable interferogram data for further evaluation e.g. phase unwrapping when spatial phase shifting (SPS) is performed. Six methods for determining the modulation of speckle interferograms are characterised and compared. The applicability of the speckle interferogram modulation as a parameter for mask generation in the unwrapping process of the phase difference is demonstrated by the evaluation of measurement data obtained from experiments with a spatial phase shifting endoscopic ESPI system on a technical surface and on a human gastrectomy specimen.

  19. Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem Among Adolescents: An Interventional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Sharma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Present research was conducted with the purpose to study the effectiveness of behavioural intervention program in enhancing the self-esteem and collective self-esteem among adolescents. The research was conducted on 74 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years. Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSE; Rosenberg, 1965 and Collective self-esteem scale developed by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measure self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. A self-structured behavioural intervention program was administered for three months to enhance low level of self-esteem and low level of collective self-esteem among subjects. In the interventional program, teachers and parents were requested to cooperate. Pre- and post-test design was used. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was applied to test the significance of difference between pre-intervention scores and post-intervention scores of self-esteem and collective self-esteem. The results showed that the mean self-esteem score in pre-measure was 11.31, which increased to 17.42 in post measure and Z value was -7.51 that was significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention self-esteem score and post-intervention self-esteem score. Further, the results showed that the mean collective self-esteem score was 34.73 in pre-intervention measure which increased to 53.47 in post-intervention measure. The obtained Z value for collective self-esteem was -7.57 that was also significant at .01 level. It suggests that there is significant difference between pre-intervention collective self-esteem scores and post-intervention collective self-esteem scores. Thus, the results proved the effectiveness of interventional program in enhancing self-esteem and collective self-esteem.

  20. Synthesis and biological evaluation of triazole-containing N-acyl homoserine lactones as quorum sensing modulators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacy, Danielle M.; Le Quement, Sebastian T.; Hansen, Casper L.

    2013-01-01

    . These compounds were evaluated for their ability to activate or inhibit two QS receptors from two prevalent pathogens – LasR from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and AbaR from Acinetobacter baumannii – using bacterial reporter strains. Several triazole derivatives were identified that were capable of strongly modulating...

  1. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 16-substituted 4-azasteroids as tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Helen J; Dankulich, William P; Hartman, George D; Prueksaritanont, Thomayant; Schmidt, Azriel; Vogel, Robert L; Bai, Chang; McElwee-Witmer, Sheila; Zhang, Hai Z; Chen, Fang; Leu, Chih-Tai; Kimmel, Donald B; Ray, William J; Nantermet, Pascale; Gentile, Michael A; Duggan, Mark E; Meissner, Robert S

    2009-08-13

    A novel series of 16-substituted-4-azasteroids has been identified as potential tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators. These ligands display potent hAR binding and agonist activity, low virilizing potential, and good pharmacokinetic profiles in dogs. On the basis of its in vitro profile, 21 was evaluated in the OVX and ORX rat models and exhibited an osteoanabolic, tissue-selective profile.

  2. Low Fidelity Imitation of Atypical Biological Kinematics in Autism Spectrum Disorders Is Modulated by Self-Generated Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Spencer J.; Andrew, Matthew; Elliott, Digby; Gowen, Emma; Bennett, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether adults with autism had difficulty imitating atypical biological kinematics. To reduce the impact that higher-order processes have on imitation we used a non-human agent model to control social attention, and removed end-state target goals in half of the trials to minimise goal-directed attention. Findings showed that only…

  3. Contribution of Self-Esteem and Collective Self-Esteem in Predicting Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the purpose to examine the relationship among self-esteem, collective self-esteem and depression. Anotherobjective was to study the contribution of self-esteem and collective self-esteem in predicting depression. Beck Depression Inventory (1996,Rosenberg Self-Esteem Inventory (1985 and Collective Self-Esteem Inventory by Luhtanen and Crocker (1992 were used to measuredepression, self-esteem and collective self-esteem respectively. Study was carried out on 200 subjects in the age range of 17-23 years,selected from Agra city. The results of the research showed that there was significant positive relationship between self-esteem and collectiveself-esteem (p < .01, significant negative relationship between self-esteem and depression (p < .01. It was also found that collective self-esteemwas a significant predictor of depression. This research implies that an optimum level of self-esteem and high collective self-esteem not onlyprevents depression but also enhances the positive aspects of personality.

  4. Self-Esteem And Self-Estimates Of Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Three measures of self-esteem were used to test the hypothesis that college students with low self-esteem would predict getting lower grades on an examination than high-self esteem subjects. The hypothesis was confirmed for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory but not for the Ziller Social Self-Esteem scale or for the subscale of the Coopersmith…

  5. Body Image and Self-Esteem (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Body Image and Self-Esteem KidsHealth / For Teens / Body Image and Self-Esteem ... your self-esteem . Why Are Self-Esteem and Body Image Important? Self-esteem is all about how much you feel you ...

  6. Novel aquatic modules for bioregenerative life-support systems based on the closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (c.e.b.a.s.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluem, Volker; Paris, Frank

    2002-06-01

    The closed equilibrated biological aquatic system (C.E.B.A.S) is a man-made aquatic ecosystem which consists of four subcomponents: an aquatic animal habitat, an aquatic plant bioreactor, an ammonia oxidizing bacteria filter and a data acquisition/control unit. It is a precursor for different types of fish and aquatic plant production sites which are disposed for the integration into bioregenerative life-support systems. The results of two successful spaceflights of a miniaturized C.E.B.A.S version (the C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE) allow the optimization of aquatic food production systems which are already developed in the ground laboratory and open new aspects for their utilization as aquatic modules in space bioregenerative life support systems. The total disposition offers different stages of complexity of such aquatic modules starting with simple but efficient aquatic plant cultivators which can be implemented into water recycling systems and ending up in combined plant/fish aquaculture in connection with reproduction modules and hydroponics applications for higher land plants. In principle, aquaculture of fishes and/or other aquatic animals edible for humans offers optimal animal protein production under lowered gravity conditions without the tremendous waste management problems connected with tetrapod breeding and maintenance. The paper presents details of conducted experimental work and of future dispositions which demonstrate clearly that aquaculture is an additional possibility to combine efficient and simple food production in space with water recycling utilizing safe and performable biotechnologies. Moreover, it explains how these systems may contribute to more variable diets to fulfill the needs of multicultural crews.

  7. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Holden, Christopher J; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Velotti, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to extend previous knowledge concerning the link between self-esteem and aggression by examining the mediating role of emotion dysregulation among offenders and community participants. A sample of 153 incarcerated violent offenders and a community sample of 197 individuals completed self-report measures of self-esteem level, emotion dysregulation, and trait aggression. Offenders reported lower levels of self-esteem than community participants, as well as greater levels of emotional nonacceptance and hostility. Bootstrapping analyses were performed to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the association between self-esteem level and aggression. In the offender sample, mediation models were significant for three of the four aspects of trait aggression that were considered. Emotion dysregulation fully mediated the links that low self-esteem had with physical aggression, anger, and hostility. The same pattern (with the addition of full mediation for verbal aggression) was confirmed in the community sample. Our findings suggest that emotion dysregulation may play an important role in the connection between low self-esteem and aggression. Alternative models of the associations among these variables were tested and discussed. As a whole, the present results are consistent with those of other studies and suggest that it may be beneficial to include emotion regulation modules as part of prevention and treatment programs for violent offenders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2016-02-04

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one's own personality traits and of others' opinion about one's own personality traits. We scanned 25 college students using functional MRI during evaluation of oneself or evaluation of social feedback. Trait self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale after scanning. Whole-brain regression analyses revealed that trait self-esteem was associated with the bilateral orbitofrontal activity during evaluation of one's own positive traits but with activities in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortices during evaluation of positive social feedback. Our findings suggest that trait self-esteem modulates the degree of both affective processes in the orbitofrontal cortex during self-reflection and cognitive processes in the medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of social feedback.

  9. Trait self-esteem and neural activities related to self-evaluation and social feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Xu, Xiaofan; Chen, Yu; Shi, Zhenhao; Han, Shihui

    2016-01-01

    Self-esteem has been associated with neural responses to self-reflection and attitude toward social feedback but in different brain regions. The distinct associations might arise from different tasks or task-related attitudes in the previous studies. The current study aimed to clarify these by investigating the association between self-esteem and neural responses to evaluation of one’s own personality traits and of others’ opinion about one’s own personality traits. We scanned 25 college students using functional MRI during evaluation of oneself or evaluation of social feedback. Trait self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg self-esteem scale after scanning. Whole-brain regression analyses revealed that trait self-esteem was associated with the bilateral orbitofrontal activity during evaluation of one’s own positive traits but with activities in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and occipital cortices during evaluation of positive social feedback. Our findings suggest that trait self-esteem modulates the degree of both affective processes in the orbitofrontal cortex during self-reflection and cognitive processes in the medial prefrontal cortex during evaluation of social feedback. PMID:26842975

  10. Body esteem in adolescent hair pullers

    OpenAIRE

    ALTENBURGER, ERIN M.; TUNG, ESTHER S.; KEUTHEN, NANCY J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Trichotillomania (TTM) often first presents in adolescence, a developmental period marked by vulnerability in body image. To date, no one has studied the relationship between this disorder and body esteem. Methods: 49 adolescents with DSM-IV TTM or chronic hair pulling (HP) and 23 control adolescents were administered diagnostic assessments and self-report measures of hair pulling and body esteem. Results: HP youth vs. controls reported lower levels of body esteem on all ...

  11. SELF SYSTEMS, ANOMIE AND SELF ESTEEM,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perceived social self and the ratings of the Dymond Scale were used as measures of selfesteem. As hypothesized, on both measures of self - esteem System...3, 4 and 2. Thus persons functioning in terms of the more abstract level of System 4 were higher in self - esteem than were Ss of the other systems...addition to showing that self - esteem does not depend on internalization of or adherence to dominant social norms, these results were interpreted as

  12. The Paradox of Japanese Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, R. A.

    2005-01-01

    Self-Esteem, both high and low, has been linked with a wide variety of desirable and undesirable conditions and consequences, including happiness, mental health, and even physiological functioning in general.Most studies have been conducted in North America, and the few that have been conductedelsewhere tend to yield anomalous results. Specifically, measurements of Japanese samples invariably indicate low self-esteem. The present essay argues that apparently low Japanese self-esteem is the re...

  13. Contingent Self-Esteem and Race: Implications for the Black Self-Esteem Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2007-01-01

    Previous research has found that despite being aware of negative stereotypes about their group and experiencing prejudice and discrimination, Blacks tend to report higher levels of self-esteem than Whites. Despite the robust nature of the Black self-esteem advantage, an adequate explanation for the higher self-esteem of Blacks relative to Whites…

  14. Separating narcissism from self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Sedikides, C.

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled narcissism as “an exaggerated form of high self-esteem,” “inflated self-esteem,” and “defensive high self-esteem.” We review research that challenges this belief by showing that narcissism differs m...

  15. SELF ESTEEM OF PROSPECTIVE SECONDARY TEACHERS

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Jeyanthy Victoria; Dr. G. Subramonian

    2017-01-01

    Self-esteem is an important aspect in the happy and peaceful living of individuals. It is a feeling of ‘being good’ of one’s own self. The current study explored the level of self-esteem and significant difference in self-esteem among the prospective secondary teachers with regard to gender, locality and nature of the teacher training institute. The prospective secondary teachers (N=665) studying in the teacher training institutes were surveyed using Self Esteem Scale constructed and standard...

  16. Body esteem in adolescent hair pullers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Erin M; Tung, Esther S; Keuthen, Nancy J

    2014-06-01

    Trichotillomania (TTM) often first presents in adolescence, a developmental period marked by vulnerability in body image. To date, no one has studied the relationship between this disorder and body esteem. 49 adolescents with DSM-IV TTM or chronic hair pulling (HP) and 23 control adolescents were administered diagnostic assessments and self-report measures of hair pulling and body esteem. HP youth vs. controls reported lower levels of body esteem on all Body-Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA) subscales (appearance, attribution and weight satisfaction). HP contributed to lowered body esteem, independent of comorbid anxiety or depression. As expected, HP youth with vs. without comorbid anxiety or depression reported lowered levels of body esteem. Further, greater HP severity and distress were significantly associated with lower levels of body esteem. HP severity alone but not distress/impairment predicted lower levels of body esteem, independent of comorbid anxiety and depression. Both hair pulling and comorbid anxiety and depression can independently impact body esteem in adolescent hair pullers.

  17. Thermal expansion of the cryoprotectant cocktail DP6 combined with synthetic ice modulators in presence and absence of biological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David P; Taylor, Michael J; Rabin, Yoed

    2012-10-01

    This study explores physical effects associated with the application of cryopreservation via vitrification using a class of compounds which are defined here as synthetic ice modulators (SIMs). The general classification of SIMs includes molecules that modulate ice nucleation and growth, or possess properties of stabilizing the amorphous state, by virtue of their chemical structure and at concentrations that are not explained on a purely colligative basis. A sub-category of SIMs, referred to in the literature as synthetic ice blockers (SIBs), are compounds that interact directly with ice nuclei or crystals to modify their structure and/or rate of growth. The current study is part of an ongoing effort to characterize thermo-mechanical effects during vitrification, with emphasis on measuring the physical property of thermal expansion-the driving mechanism to thermo-mechanical stress. Materials under investigation are the cryoprotective agent (CPA) cocktail DP6 in combination with one of the following SIMs: 12% polyethylene glycol 400, 6% 1,3 cyclohexanediol, and 6% 2,3 butanediol. Results are presented for the CPA-SIM cocktail in the absence and presence of bovine muscle and goat artery specimens. This study focuses on the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range, where the CPA behaves as a fluid for all practical applications. Results of this study indicate that the addition of SIMs to DP6 allows lower cooling rates to ensure vitrification and extends the range of measurements. It is demonstrated that the combination of SIM with DP6 increases the thermal expansion of the cocktail, with implications for the likelihood of fracture formation-the most dramatic outcome of thermo-mechanical stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Dissection of Biological Property of Chinese Acupuncture Point Zusanli Based on Long-Term Treatment via Modulating Multiple Metabolic Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has a history of over 3000 years and is a traditional Chinese medical therapy that uses hair-thin metal needles to puncture the skin at specific points on the body to promote wellbeing, while its molecular mechanism and ideal biological pathways are still not clear. High-throughput metabolomics is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and can potentially provide a more accurate snap shot of the actual physiological state. We hypothesize that acupuncture-treated human would produce unique characterization of metabolic phenotypes. In this study, UPLC/ESI-HDMS coupled with pattern recognition methods and system analysis were carried out to investigate the mechanism and metabolite biomarkers for acupuncture treatment at “Zusanli” acupoint (ST-36 as a case study. The top 5 canonical pathways including alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, d-glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, citrate cycle, alanine, aspartate, and glutamate metabolism, and vitamin B6 metabolism pathways were acutely perturbed, and 53 differential metabolites were identified by chemical profiling and may be useful to clarify the physiological basis and mechanism of ST-36. More importantly, network construction has led to the integration of metabolites associated with the multiple perturbation pathways. Urine metabolic profiling might be a promising method to investigate the molecular mechanism of acupuncture.

  20. Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... desktop! more... Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem Article Chapters Orthodontics Align Crooked Teeth and Boost Self- esteem print full article print this chapter email this ...

  1. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larg...

  2. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias Altmann; Marcus Roth

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studie...

  3. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcoff, Nancy L; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E; Vickery, Sarah A; House, David M

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  4. Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy L Etcoff

    Full Text Available Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural, to moderate (professional, to dramatic (glamorous. Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important

  5. Cosmetics as a Feature of the Extended Human Phenotype: Modulation of the Perception of Biologically Important Facial Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcoff, Nancy L.; Stock, Shannon; Haley, Lauren E.; Vickery, Sarah A.; House, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Research on the perception of faces has focused on the size, shape, and configuration of inherited features or the biological phenotype, and largely ignored the effects of adornment, or the extended phenotype. Research on the evolution of signaling has shown that animals frequently alter visual features, including color cues, to attract, intimidate or protect themselves from conspecifics. Humans engage in conscious manipulation of visual signals using cultural tools in real time rather than genetic changes over evolutionary time. Here, we investigate one tool, the use of color cosmetics. In two studies, we asked viewers to rate the same female faces with or without color cosmetics, and we varied the style of makeup from minimal (natural), to moderate (professional), to dramatic (glamorous). Each look provided increasing luminance contrast between the facial features and surrounding skin. Faces were shown for 250 ms or for unlimited inspection time, and subjects rated them for attractiveness, competence, likeability and trustworthiness. At 250 ms, cosmetics had significant positive effects on all outcomes. Length of inspection time did not change the effect for competence or attractiveness. However, with longer inspection time, the effect of cosmetics on likability and trust varied by specific makeup looks, indicating that cosmetics could impact automatic and deliberative judgments differently. The results suggest that cosmetics can create supernormal facial stimuli, and that one way they may do so is by exaggerating cues to sexual dimorphism. Our results provide evidence that judgments of facial trustworthiness and attractiveness are at least partially separable, that beauty has a significant positive effect on judgment of competence, a universal dimension of social cognition, but has a more nuanced effect on the other universal dimension of social warmth, and that the extended phenotype significantly influences perception of biologically important signals at first

  6. Evaluation of the Biological Activity of Opuntia ficus indica as a Tissue- and Estrogen Receptor Subtype-Selective Modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Byoung Ha; Jeong, Hyesoo; Zhou, Wenmei; Liu, Xiyuan; Kim, Soolin; Jang, Chang Young; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Sohn, Johann; Park, Hye-Jin; Sung, Na-Hye; Hong, Cheol Yi; Chang, Minsun

    2016-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) with potential for use in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to relieve peri/postmenopausal symptoms. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the SERM properties of the extract of Korean-grown Opuntia ficus-indica (KOFI). The KOFI extract induced estrogen response element (ERE)-driven transcription in breast and endometrial cancer cell lines and the expression of endogenous estrogen-responsive genes in breast cancer cells. The flavonoid content of different KOFI preparations affected ERE-luciferase activities, implying that the flavonoid composition likely mediated the estrogenic activities in cells. Oral administration of KOFI decreased the weight gain and levels of both serum glucose and triglyceride in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Finally, KOFI had an inhibitory effect on the 17β-estradiol-induced proliferation of the endometrial epithelium in OVX rats. Our data demonstrate that KOFI exhibited SERM activity with no uterotrophic side effects. Therefore, KOFI alone or in combination with other botanical supplements, vitamins, or minerals may be an effective and safe alternative active ingredient to HRTs, for the management of postmenopausal symptoms. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Implementation of a Service-learning Module in Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology Classes at an Undergraduate Liberal Arts University †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios-Sanz, Maia; Simmons, Alexandra D.; Bagnall, Ruth Ann; Rosell, Rosemarie C.

    2011-01-01

    Here we discuss the implementation of a service-learning module in two upper-division biology classes, Medical Microbiology and Cell Biology. This exciting hands-on learning experience provided our students with an opportunity to extend their learning of in-class topics to a real-life scenario. Students were required to volunteer their time (a minimum of 10 hours in a semester) at an under-served clinic in Houston, Texas. As they interacted with the personnel at the clinic, they were asked to identify the most prevalent disease (infectious for Medical Microbiology, and cellular-based for Cell) seen at the clinic and, working in groups, come up with educational material in the form of a display or brochure to be distributed to patients. The material was meant to educate patients about the disease in general terms, as well as how to recognize (symptoms), prevent and treat it. Students were required to keep a reflective journal in the form of a blog throughout the semester, and present their final materials to the class orally. Students were surveyed about their opinion of the experience at the end of the semester. The vast majority of student participants felt that the project was a positive experience and that it helped them develop additional skills beyond what they learn in the classroom and understand how lecture topics relate to every day life. PMID:23653736

  8. Self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety in a college sample: the moderating role of weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between self-esteem, body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and social anxiety, as well as to examine the moderating role of weight between exogenous variables and social anxiety, 520 university students completed the self-report measures. Structural equation modeling revealed that individuals with low self-esteem, body-esteem, and emotional intelligence were more likely to report social anxiety. The findings indicated that obese and overweight individuals with low body-esteem, emotional intelligence, and self-esteem had higher social anxiety than others. Our results highlight the roles of body-esteem, self-esteem, and emotional intelligence as influencing factors for reducing social anxiety.

  9. Self-Esteem and Reading Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Anne E.; Burbach, Harold J.

    This study investigated the directionality of the relationship between self-esteem and reading achievement in 286 students in Lynchburg, Virginia. During the first year of the three-year study, subjects were fourth, fifth, and sixth graders. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the SRA Achievement Series subscales were administered; sex and…

  10. Adolescent Self-Esteem, Attachment and Loneliness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhal, Anubha; Bhatia, Sangeeta; Sharma, Vidhi; Gupta, Priyanka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To assess self-esteem, loneliness and attachment styles among adolescents and examine their association with each other and with age and gender. Method: Adolescents (55 males and 55 females) from a public school in Delhi, aged 10-13 years were administered Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (School Form), Attachment Scale and UCLA…

  11. Adolescent Self-Esteem and the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Keith B.

    This book was written to help schools and educators in their efforts to raise the self-esteem of adolescent students. The first chapter presents the layout of the book. Chapter 2 explains Coopersmith's (1967) model of self-esteem, emphasizing the model's relevance to secondary education. Experiences leading to feelings of significance, competence,…

  12. Self-Esteem of Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annette L.

    While self-esteem develops after life's primary needs have been satisfied, other factors can influence its development. This thesis investigates the self-esteem of high school and college athletes. The independent variables investigated were gender, athletic participation, family structure, and reported grades. The dependent variables were the…

  13. The Politics of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Before analysts can assess self-esteem as a goal for policy and practice, they must consider the ideological orientations of those who use the term and the cultural norms that shape the debate. Explicit attention to the politics surrounding self-esteem is needed to evaluate the use of the term in policy contexts. (Author/SLD)

  14. The Costly Pursuit of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer; Park, Lora E.

    2004-01-01

    Researchers have recently questioned the benefits associated with having high self-esteem. The authors propose that the importance of self-esteem lies more in how people strive for it rather than whether it is high or low. They argue that in domains in which their self-worth is invested, people adopt the goal to validate their abilities and…

  15. Should We Raise Pupils' Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclellan, Effie

    2005-01-01

    This article argues that the teacher is not well served by relying on the construct of self-esteem. Although an important idea in psychological health, self-esteem is not of direct importance to the teacher. More useful constructs would be those of self-concept and self-efficacy; both of which can be related directly to academic achievement.

  16. Is Self-Esteem a Masculine Characteristic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Susan

    1983-01-01

    Examines measurement scales used in different studies of the relationship between masculinity, femininity, or androgyny, and self esteem. Suggests that findings of a high positive association between masculinity and self-esteem may be due to the fact that the most commonly used measurement scales do, in fact, endorse masculine characteristics.…

  17. Parenting and Adolescent Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; And Others

    Research has shown variables of parental nurturance (acceptance, encouragement, support) of their children to be positively correlated with their children's self-esteem. This study investigated the effects of parental nurturance and the use of permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative parental discipline upon the self-esteem of college…

  18. Self-Esteem and Sexual Permissiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Edward S.; Goodwin, Marilyn Shirley

    1979-01-01

    Studied were 486 single females aged 13-20 attending ten birth control centers. In this liberal sample, high self-esteem subjects were accepting of premarital intercourse with affection, were more willing to take sexual initiative, and felt less guilt. Those endorsing sexual abstinence had lower self-esteem. (Editor/SJL)

  19. Sorting Out the Self-Esteem Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Educators should stop seeing self-esteem only in individualistic terms and move toward an integrated view of self and social relations. To enhance self-esteem, schools must value authentic participation, collaborative action, a problem-centered curriculum, and interdependent diversity and banish tracking, autocratic procedures, unicultural…

  20. Life course body mass index and adolescent self-esteem: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2015-02-01

    Self-esteem is an important determinant of adolescent mental health. Prior adiposity may be a factor in the development of self-esteem. However, the association of adiposity with self-esteem is inconsistent, perhaps because adiposity and self-esteem tend to be socially patterned, making it unclear whether observed associations are biologically based or contextually specific. Multivariable partial least squares regression was used to assess the adjusted association of birth weight and childhood body mass index (BMI) z-score at 3 and 9 months and at 3, 7, 9 and 11 years and changes in BMI z-score with self-esteem at ∼11 years, assessed from the self-reported Culture Free Self-Esteem Inventory in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort, which has little social patterning of adiposity. Whether the associations varied by sex also was assessed. Self-esteem score was available for 6,520 girls and boys (78.5% follow-up). Birth weight z-score, BMI z-scores at 3 and 9 months and at 3, 7, 9, and 11 years, and successive BMI z-score changes had little association with self-esteem at ∼11 years, adjusted for socio-economic position. In a developed, non-Western setting, life course BMI does not appear to be a factor in the development of self-esteem in early adolescence, suggesting that observed associations to date may be contextually specific rather than biologically based. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  1. Arrays of microLEDs and astrocytes: biological amplifiers to optogenetically modulate neuronal networks reducing light requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinguer-Palmini, Rolando; Narducci, Roberto; Merhan, Kamyar; Dilaghi, Arianna; Moroni, Flavio; Masi, Alessio; Scartabelli, Tania; Landucci, Elisa; Sili, Maria; Schettini, Antonio; McGovern, Brian; Maskaant, Pleun; Degenaar, Patrick; Mannaioni, Guido

    2014-01-01

    In the modern view of synaptic transmission, astrocytes are no longer confined to the role of merely supportive cells. Although they do not generate action potentials, they nonetheless exhibit electrical activity and can influence surrounding neurons through gliotransmitter release. In this work, we explored whether optogenetic activation of glial cells could act as an amplification mechanism to optical neural stimulation via gliotransmission to the neural network. We studied the modulation of gliotransmission by selective photo-activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) and by means of a matrix of individually addressable super-bright microLEDs (μLEDs) with an excitation peak at 470 nm. We combined Ca2+ imaging techniques and concurrent patch-clamp electrophysiology to obtain subsequent glia/neural activity. First, we tested the μLEDs efficacy in stimulating ChR2-transfected astrocyte. ChR2-induced astrocytic current did not desensitize overtime, and was linearly increased and prolonged by increasing μLED irradiance in terms of intensity and surface illumination. Subsequently, ChR2 astrocytic stimulation by broad-field LED illumination with the same spectral profile, increased both glial cells and neuronal calcium transient frequency and sEPSCs suggesting that few ChR2-transfected astrocytes were able to excite surrounding not-ChR2-transfected astrocytes and neurons. Finally, by using the μLEDs array to selectively light stimulate ChR2 positive astrocytes we were able to increase the synaptic activity of single neurons surrounding it. In conclusion, ChR2-transfected astrocytes and μLEDs system were shown to be an amplifier of synaptic activity in mixed corticalneuronal and glial cells culture.

  2. Arrays of microLEDs and astrocytes: biological amplifiers to optogenetically modulate neuronal networks reducing light requirement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Berlinguer-Palmini

    Full Text Available In the modern view of synaptic transmission, astrocytes are no longer confined to the role of merely supportive cells. Although they do not generate action potentials, they nonetheless exhibit electrical activity and can influence surrounding neurons through gliotransmitter release. In this work, we explored whether optogenetic activation of glial cells could act as an amplification mechanism to optical neural stimulation via gliotransmission to the neural network. We studied the modulation of gliotransmission by selective photo-activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 and by means of a matrix of individually addressable super-bright microLEDs (μLEDs with an excitation peak at 470 nm. We combined Ca2+ imaging techniques and concurrent patch-clamp electrophysiology to obtain subsequent glia/neural activity. First, we tested the μLEDs efficacy in stimulating ChR2-transfected astrocyte. ChR2-induced astrocytic current did not desensitize overtime, and was linearly increased and prolonged by increasing μLED irradiance in terms of intensity and surface illumination. Subsequently, ChR2 astrocytic stimulation by broad-field LED illumination with the same spectral profile, increased both glial cells and neuronal calcium transient frequency and sEPSCs suggesting that few ChR2-transfected astrocytes were able to excite surrounding not-ChR2-transfected astrocytes and neurons. Finally, by using the μLEDs array to selectively light stimulate ChR2 positive astrocytes we were able to increase the synaptic activity of single neurons surrounding it. In conclusion, ChR2-transfected astrocytes and μLEDs system were shown to be an amplifier of synaptic activity in mixed corticalneuronal and glial cells culture.

  3. Self-esteem and counterfactual thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roese, N J; Olson, J M

    1993-07-01

    Two studies examined the relation between self-esteem and counterfactual thinking (consideration of "might-have-been" alternatives to reality). Ss imagined themselves in scenarios with another actor that resulted in either success or failure. Ss then "undid" the outcome by altering events that preceded the outcome. Following success, high self-esteem (HSE) Ss were more likely than low self-esteem (LSE) Ss to mutate their own actions. Following failure, LSE Ss were more likely than HSE Ss to mutate their own actions. Also, the structure of counterfactuals was influenced by outcome valence but not by self-esteem: Subtractive structures (in which antecedents are removed) were elicited by success, whereas additive structures (in which antecedents are added) were elicited by failure. The importance of the self and individual differences in self-esteem to counterfactual thinking is discussed.

  4. Self-esteem and delusion proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warman, Debbie M; Lysaker, Paul H; Luedtke, Brandi; Martin, Joel M

    2010-06-01

    The present study was an examination of global self-esteem and various types of unusual beliefs in a nonclinical population. Individuals with no history of psychotic disorder (N = 121) completed a measure of delusion-proneness and also a measure of self-esteem. Results indicated high delusion prone individuals had lower self-esteem than low delusion prone individuals (p = 0.044). In addition, higher levels of paranoid ideation and suspiciousness were associated with lower self-esteem (p low self-esteem and higher levels of beliefs related to thought disturbances, catastrophic ideation/thought broadcasting, and ideation of reference/influence. The significance of these findings as they relate to theories of delusion formation is discussed.

  5. [Alcohol consumption and self esteem in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, Alicia Alvarez; Alonso Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of levels of self esteem and alcohol consumption in adolescents, by carrying out a transversal, descriptive study, in a college of nursing of Queretaro in Mexico, in the month of July 2008, with a sample of 109 adolescents, between 17 and 20 years old. For attainment of the data two instruments were applied: AUDIT and the Rosemberg self esteem scale. The majority of the participating adolescents had high self esteem (94.5%) and none presented low self esteem. Of the adolescents in the study 80.7% did not consume alcohol hazardously. It was concluded that the adolescents presented high self esteem and low alcohol consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive programs related to alcohol consumption and to identify the protective factors to guarantee the maintenance of healthy habits for the adolescents.

  6. Student self-esteem and academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nikoleta M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing belief that academic achievement is the product of a complex network of teacher-student relations, where the identity of successful and unsuccessful student is developing with high, moderate or low self-esteem level. Self-esteem is most often defined as a conscious cognitive-affective expression of self-evaluation which is one of the most immediate indicators of self-concept integration degree. A number of authors view high self-esteem level as an important prerequisite for high academic achievement. In contrast, academic achievement and other experiences related to teaching and learning are considered to exert significant influence on self-esteem and a student should be successful at school first so as to develop a positive self-image and his academic abilities. The debate on what comes first - self-esteem or academic achievement - is in its character more academic than practical. This claim is supported by an increasing number of studies indicating the dynamism and reciprocity of correlation between academic achievement and self-esteem. The paper gives recommendations for educational practice to promote self-esteem and development of personal and social responsibility, which contributes to better student academic achievement. It is pointed out that teacher education in the field is necessary and that self-esteem and responsibility must become essential segments of curricula. Teacher is expected to become sensitive to the needs of students who are at risk to be unsuccessful and to largely apply cooperative learning methods. Findings demonstrate that cooperative learning either sustain or increase student self-esteem, whereas traditional teaching methods, in general, lead to its decline. Cooperative relations improve student self-image in respect of academic abilities and social interactions. Positive feedback, peer support, more frequent experience of learning achievement leads mainly to general increase in self-esteem and

  7. Contribution of the modulation of intensity and the optimization to deliver a dose adapted to the biological heterogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubs, F.

    2007-10-01

    The recent progress in functional imaging by Positron Emission Tomography (TEP) opens new perspectives in the delineation of target volumes in radiotherapy. The functional data is major; we can intend to adapt the irradiation doses on the tumor activity (TA) and to perform a dose escalation. Our objectives were (i) to characterize the TEP threshold, by quantifying the uncertainties of the target volume contour according to the lesion size and the threshold contour level, (ii) to set up the geometry suited to perform a high-precision irradiation based on the TA, (iii) to estimate the dosimetric impact of this new protocol and (iv) to verify that dosimetry is perfectly distributed. Three original phantoms were specially created to satisfy the constraints met, as well as two virtual phantoms containing 3 dose levels (dose level 3 = TA). Our results showed the importance of the effect threshold-volume on the planning in radiotherapy. To use this irradiation method, the diameter of 1 cm for the third level was able to be reached. A dose escalation of 20 Gy was possible between the second (70 Gy) and the third level (90 Gy). The dosimetric impact estimated on two real cases was suitable - increase of COIN (conformal index) from 0.6 to 0.8 and decrease of NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) of a factor 5 -. In absolute and relative dosimetry, the clinical tolerances were respected. So all the treatment process, going from the diagnosis with the TEP to reveal the TA, to the patient treatment made beforehand on phantom, and going through the ballistic and the dose calculation, was estimated and validated according to our objective to adapt the irradiation to the biological heterogeneities. However such high doses should be carefully estimated before being prescribed clinically and progress is also expected in imaging, because the minimal size which we can irradiate is on the limit of the resolution TEP. (author)

  8. Oxygen Modulates the Effectiveness of Granuloma Mediated Host Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a Multi-scale Computational Biological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl L. Sershen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In several mammalian hosts, including non-human primates, Mycobacterium tuberculosis granulomas are often hypoxic, although this has not been observed in wild type murine infection models. Mtb associated granuloma formation can be viewed as a structural immune response that can contain and halt the spread of the pathogen. While a presumed consequence, the structural contribution of the granuloma to oxygen limitation and the concomitant impact on Mtb metabolic viability and persistence remains to be fully explored.We develop a multi-scale computational model to test to what extent in vivo Mtb granulomas become hypoxic, and investigate the effects of hypoxia on host immune response efficacy and mycobacterial persistence. Our study integrates a model of oxygen dynamics in the extracellular space of alveolar tissue, an agent-based model of cellular immune response, and a systems biology-based model of Mtb metabolic dynamics. Our theoretical studies suggest that the dynamics of granuloma organization mediates oxygen availability and illustrates the immunological contribution of this structural host response to infection outcome. Furthermore, our integrated model demonstrates the link between structural immune response and mechanistic drivers influencing Mtb's adaptation to its changing microenvironment and the qualitative infection outcome scenarios: clearance, containment, dissemination, and a newly observed theoretical outcome of transient containment. We observed hypoxic regions in the containment granuloma similar in size to granulomas found in mammalian in vivo models of Mtb infection. In the case of the containment outcome, our model uniquely demonstrates that immune response mediated hypoxic conditions help foster the shift down of bacteria through the two stages of adaptation similar to thein vitro non-replicating persistence (NRP observed in the Wayne model of Mtb dormancy. The adaptation in part contributes to the ability of Mtb to remain

  9. Oxygen Modulates the Effectiveness of Granuloma Mediated Host Response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Multiscale Computational Biology Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sershen, Cheryl L.; Plimpton, Steven J.; May, Elebeoba E.

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis associated granuloma formation can be viewed as a structural immune response that can contain and halt the spread of the pathogen. In several mammalian hosts, including non-human primates, Mtb granulomas are often hypoxic, although this has not been observed in wild type murine infection models. While a presumed consequence, the structural contribution of the granuloma to oxygen limitation and the concomitant impact on Mtb metabolic viability and persistence remains to be fully explored. We develop a multiscale computational model to test to what extent in vivo Mtb granulomas become hypoxic, and investigate the effects of hypoxia on host immune response efficacy and mycobacterial persistence. Our study integrates a physiological model of oxygen dynamics in the extracellular space of alveolar tissue, an agent-based model of cellular immune response, and a systems biology-based model of Mtb metabolic dynamics. Our theoretical studies suggest that the dynamics of granuloma organization mediates oxygen availability and illustrates the immunological contribution of this structural host response to infection outcome. Furthermore, our integrated model demonstrates the link between structural immune response and mechanistic drivers influencing Mtbs adaptation to its changing microenvironment and the qualitative infection outcome scenarios of clearance, containment, dissemination, and a newly observed theoretical outcome of transient containment. We observed hypoxic regions in the containment granuloma similar in size to granulomas found in mammalian in vivo models of Mtb infection. In the case of the containment outcome, our model uniquely demonstrates that immune response mediated hypoxic conditions help foster the shift down of bacteria through two stages of adaptation similar to thein vitro non-replicating persistence (NRP) observed in the Wayne model of Mtb dormancy. The adaptation in part contributes to the ability of Mtb to remain dormant

  10. Self-esteem as a mediator between personality traits and body esteem: path analyses across gender and race/ethnicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Skorek

    Full Text Available Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18-21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five, self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems.

  11. Self-esteem as a mediator between personality traits and body esteem: path analyses across gender and race/ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V; Dunham, Yarrow

    2014-01-01

    Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18-21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems.

  12. Self-Esteem as a Mediator between Personality Traits and Body Esteem: Path Analyses across Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V.; Dunham, Yarrow

    2014-01-01

    Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18–21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship between three personality traits and body esteem: higher levels of conscientiousness, emotional stability, and extraversion were associated with higher self-esteem and consequently higher body esteem. Once self-esteem was included in the model the relationships between personality traits and body esteem were not significant, suggesting full mediation. In addition, the analyses revealed several racial/ethnic differences. In Asian American participants, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between emotional stability and body esteem. In Hispanic Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between conscientiousness and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. And in Caucasian Americans, self-esteem mediated the relationship between emotional stability and body esteem and between extraversion and body esteem. The most important contribution of this study is evidence for an indirect relationship between personality traits and body esteem, with this relationship being mediated by self-esteem. This has important implications for the study of personality and eating disorders in young adults, most particularly implying a need for more emphasis on self-esteem as a predictor of body image problems. PMID:25375238

  13. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Sudheer

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18-71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, notional correction, and devotional sessions. The comparison group practised mild to moderate physical exercises (PE. Both groups had supervised practices for one hour daily, six days a week, for eight weeks. Guna (personality was assessed before and after eight weeks using the self-administered "The ′Gita" Inventory of Personality" (GIN to assess Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas . Self esteem in terms of competency (COM, global self esteem (GSE, moral and self esteem (MSE, social esteem (SET, family self esteem (FSE, body and physical appearance (BPA, and the lie scale (LIS were assessed using the self esteem questionnaire (SEQ. Results: The baseline scores for all domains for both the groups did not differ significantly ( P > 0.05 independent samples t-test. There were significant pre-post improvements in all domains in both groups ( P < 0.001 paired t-test. The number of persons who showed improvement in Sattva and decrease in Tamas was significant in the Y but not in the PE group (McNemar test. The effect size for self esteem in the Y group is greater than for the PE group in three out of seven domains. Conclusions: This randomized controlled study has shown the influence of Yoga on Gunas and self esteem in comparison to physical exercise.

  14. Self-Esteem and Emotional Maturity in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jupian J.; Sand, Margaret C.

    1981-01-01

    Determined if self-esteem is related to emotional maturity. Scores from 200 male and female college students on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory and on the Washburne Social-Adjustment Inventory were correlated. Students high in self-esteem were found to be more emotionally mature than students low in self-esteem. (Author)

  15. How Low Self-Esteem Affects Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    Defines global self-esteem (sense of efficacy, purpose, responsibility, self-acceptance) and trait self-esteem (confidence in specific abilities or talents). Gives examples of how low self-esteem impedes participation in learning and how learning can raise self-esteem. (SK)

  16. Vocational Crystallization and Self Esteem in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Harvey; And Others

    1970-01-01

    A positive relationship between vocational crystallization and self esteem was assessed by observing differences on two measures of vocational crystallization in students high and low in self esteem scores. No differences according to self esteem were observed. Differences were observed in the certainty of high and low self esteem students. The…

  17. The Relation between Self-Esteem, Sexual Activity, and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Rachel B.; Frank, Deborah I.

    1994-01-01

    Examined self-esteem and sexuality in 141 male and 172 female adolescents. Found no differences in self-esteem of males versus females. Sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem for either gender. Pregnant teenagers did not have different self-esteem levels from nonpregnant. Males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem…

  18. Self-Esteem and Adolescent Problems: Modeling Reciprocal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Morris; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores the reciprocal relationships between self-esteem and the following three problems of youth: (1) juvenile delinquency; (2) poor school performance; and (3) psychological depression. Findings include the following: (1) low self-esteem fosters delinquency, which may enhance self-esteem; (2) school performance affects self-esteem; and (3)…

  19. Psychosocial support and parents' social life determine the self-esteem of orphan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erango MA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Markos Abiso Erango,1 Zikie Ataro Ayka2 1School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, Department of Applied Statistics, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2Department of Biology, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, Ethiopia Abstract: Parental death affects the life of children in many ways, one of which is self-esteem problems. Providing psychosocial support and equipping orphans play a vital role in their lifes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 7–18-year-old orphans at 17 local districts of Gamo Gofa Zone, Southern Regional State of Ethiopia. From a total of 48,270 orphans in these areas, 4,368 were selected using stratified simple random sampling technique. Data were collected with a designed questionnaire based on the Rosenberg's rating scale to measure their self-esteem levels. Self-esteem with a score less than or equal to an average score was considered to be low self-esteem in the analysis. Binary logistic regression model was used to analyze the data using the SPSS software. The results of the study revealed that the probability of orphans suffering from low self-esteem was 0.59. Several risk factors were found to be significant at the level of 5%. Psychosocial support (good guidance, counseling and treatment, physical protection and amount of love shared, financial and material support, and fellowship with other children, parents living together before death, strong relationship between parents before death, high average monthly income, voluntary support, and consideration from the society are some of the factors that decrease the risk of being low in self-esteem. There are many orphans with low self-esteem in the study areas. The factors negatively affecting the self-esteem of orphans include the lack of psychosocial support, poor social life of parents, and death of parents due to AIDS. Society and parents should be aware of the consequences of these factors which can influence their children's future self-esteem

  20. Self-Esteem, Adolescence, and Pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzel Silva-Escorcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-esteem in teenagers is a very important matter first for teenagers, second for their educational process, and finally for education itself, as educated individuals are productive for society.  Self-esteem is the element that can significantly increase students’ academic motivation as well as a favorable emotional state to achieve adequate school performance and educational development, as an individual and as a collective subject aiming towards fulfillment.  It is very important that teachers know the self-reference elements that shape and nurture self-esteem in order to work with them as educational processes and thus fortify their holistic pedagogical task.  

  1. Depressive symptoms in university freshmen : Longitudinal relations with contingent self-esteem and level of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, S.; Duriez, B.; Luykx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Colpin, H.; Soenens, B.; Verschueren, K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested longitudinal relations between depressive symptoms and two aspects of self-esteem in university freshmen: (1) students’ level of self-esteem, and (2) the degree to which students’ self-esteem is dependent on meeting particular standards (i.e., contingent self-esteem). Using

  2. SELF-ESTEEM OF DISABLED AND ABLED : A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Anjana Bhattacharjee; Khousbo Chhetri

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to compare the self-esteem of disabled and non-disabled persons of Tripura. Fifty disabled and fifty non-disabled persons were participated in the study. Self esteem Inventory was used to collect data from the participants. The results showed that disabled person possessed low self esteem (both personally perceived self esteem and socially perceived self esteem) than their normal counterparts. The findings revealed no significant difference among male and female disable...

  3. [assessment Of Self-esteem In Pregnant Women Using Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale].

    OpenAIRE

    Maçola, Ligia; do Vale, Ianê Nogueira; Carmona, Elenice Valentim

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this descriptive, cross-sectional study was to evaluate the self-esteem of 127 pregnant women seen in a prenatal care program conducted in a public school hospital. Data collection was performed using the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale; unsatisfactory self-esteem was related to socio-demographic and health variables of the pregnant woman, and to the presence or absence of support systems. Descriptive and univariate statistical analysis were used to assess possible associations...

  4. Self-esteem in Children with Psychosomatic Symptoms: Examination of Low Self-esteem and Prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hosogi, Mizuho; Okada, Ayumi; Yamanaka, Eriko; Ootyou, Keiko; Tsukamoto, Chiaki; Morishima, Tsuneo

    2007-01-01

    Self-esteem is the evaluative feelings one holds for oneself and the sense that one has essential worth. It is evaluated as the difference between the actual self and the ideal self. Healthy self-esteem supports psychological stability and positive social activity and is an essential element in the psychological development of children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate self-esteem in children with psychosomatic symptoms and elucidate a strategy for using such evaluations in therapy. ...

  5. Pedagogical and psychological reflections on the development of self-esteem in adolescents with mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Zenaida Díaz-Rodríguez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period of life characterized by biological changes that affect the physical and psychological development of individuals, the self-esteem plays an important role in interpersonal relations established between the peers in this stage, all special education professional must perform comprehensive diagnostic that allows you to determine the characteristics of each of their trainees and the factors that may influence in a negative or positive way in self-esteem them. The material presented provides a set of recommendations that can be used by the teacher to influence the development of self-esteem. Making it possible to have the perspective to adopt the decisions and measures that allow the satisfaction of these needs, the stimulation of potentialities, and correction and compensation for the difficulties that may arise.

  6. "I'm not gay. . . . I'm a real man!": Heterosexual Men's Gender Self-Esteem and Sexual Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel; Mugny, Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Five studies examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men, but not heterosexual women, endorse negative attitudes toward homosexuality (i.e., sexual prejudice) in order to maintain a positive gender-related identity that is unambiguously different from a homosexual identity. Studies 1 and 2 showed that men's (but not women's) gender self-esteem (but not personal self-esteem) was positively related to sexual prejudice: The more positive heterosexual men's gender self-esteem, the more negative their attitude toward homosexuality. Studies 3 and 4 showed that this link appears specifically among men motivated to maintain psychological distance from gay men. Study 5 experimentally manipulated the perceived biological differences between homosexual and heterosexual men. The previously observed link between men's gender self-esteem and sexual prejudice appeared in the control and no-differences conditions but disappeared in the differences condition. These findings are discussed in terms of men's attitudes as a defensive function against threat to masculinity.

  7. Self-Esteem as a Mediator between Personality Traits and Body Esteem: Path Analyses across Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    OpenAIRE

    Skorek, Małgorzata; Song, Anna V.; Dunham, Yarrow

    2014-01-01

    Prior literature examines the direct relationship between personality traits and body esteem. This article explores the possibility that self-esteem mediates this relationship. 165 undergraduate women and 133 men (age 18-21; 42.6% Hispanic, 28.9% Asian, 28.5% Caucasian) completed items measuring personality traits (Big Five), self-esteem, and body esteem. Path analyses were used to test for mediation. The analyses confirmed that in both men and women self-esteem mediated the relationship betw...

  8. Chemical dependency and adolescent self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, D; Anderson, M A

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study is to determine whether self-esteem differs between chemically dependent adolescents and adolescents from the general high school population. The Self-Esteem Inventory (Coopersmith, 1987) was completed by 119 adolescents (31 inpatient, 31 aftercare, and 57 general high school students) aged 13 to 18. Findings suggest that inpatient, chemically dependent adolescents have lower self-esteem than the other two groups. For the chemically dependent adolescent, nursing case management with communication among and between health care providers, school professionals, and family may facilitate successful, long-term recovery. For adolescents at risk for development of chemical dependence, nursing health promotion behaviors, such as early assessment and implementation of self-esteem-building activities, may assist in prevention of chemical dependency.

  9. Self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Nusrat; Chaudhry, Imran; Raza-ur-Rehman; Ahmed, Ghazal Riaz

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between self-esteem and obsessive compulsive disorder in a low-income country, and to conduct an in-depth analysis into the said relationship by identifying any confounding variables that might exist. The cross-sectional study was conducted at the psychiatry out-patient clinic of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to March 2008, and comprised 65 patients diagnosed with obsessive compulsive disorder and 30 healthy controls. The participatnts completed the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale and the Rosenberg Self-esteem scale. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Significantly different scores were reported on both measures of self-esteem between the patients and the controls (pself-esteem in the patients compared to the controls. Data replicated earlier findings from populations in high-income countries.

  10. Pengembangan Self Esteem Melalui Pembelajaran Kooperatif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robingatin Robingatin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Children with high self esteem are characterized by positive views towards themselves in some dimensions such as physical, academic, and social competence as the basis of their confidence, to make children appreciate themselves, bring sense of secure, and accepted by their friends or others. Children with high self esteem will judge their friends or others same as they are. Self esteem development by a teacher is done to serve children with respect, to help them success in school, to serve children without discrimination, threat, humiliation, and discouragement. Children self esteem development can be done through cooperative learning that teach cooperative principles and skills, establish community in the class, develop positive relationship among friends, tolerance towards the differences which simultaneously develop academic competence.

  11. The foundation of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph A

    2003-05-01

    Self-esteem is a simplistic term for varied and complex mental states pertaining to how one views oneself. It takes but little research in the voluminous literature to see the vagueness and inconsistencies in its various definitions. Even more problematic is the uncertainty concerning its foundational components. The importance of having a solid definition and specific ideas about the foundational components of self-esteem is that both pave the way to recognizing its causes; to predicting effects from those causes; and to organizing the trouble-shooting process for locating those philosophical flaws or psychological scars which lead to low self-esteem. The purpose of this paper is to offer a common ground for thinking about self-esteem at its most basic level. In order to distinguish the "basic level" from the rest of the components of self-esteem, let us liken it to a skyscraper building. Here, the focus is on the building's "underground foundation" and the base upon which that foundation rests. The base is a definition that allows for the assessment of the foundation. The underground foundation itself consists of the mental building blocks called self-meaning, self-identity, self-image, and self-concepts. To help illustrate their interactions, a few of the "masks" and "faces" of self-esteem will be mentioned. What is not being addressed is the "above ground structure"--those theories and manifestations dealt with by most mental health specialists.

  12. Husband's Esteem Predicts his Mate Retention Tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Holden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available delity or prevent their defection from the relationship. These tactics include low-risk acts that render the current relationship more attractive by bestowing benefits on the woman, as well as cost-inflicting acts that render defection from the relationship risky or dangerous for her. Previous research has linked men's mate retention behavior with men's mate value (value as a current or potential partner using women's reports. The current research addresses limitations of that research using self-reports and cross-spousal reports from 107 married couples concerning their self-esteem and their esteem for their partner. The results indicate that the level of esteem that wives have for their husbands is positively associated with their perception of their husband's use of positive inducements and negatively associated with their husband's self-reported use of cost-inflicting mate retention behaviors (i.e., Direct Guarding, Intersexual Negative Inducements, and Intrasexual Negative Inducements. The level of self-esteem reported by men was negatively associated with their self-reported direct guarding behavior. Discussion explores the possibility that esteem—both self-esteem and esteem from one's partner—functions as an internal gauge of relative mate value.

  13. An Implicit Theory of Self-Esteem: The Consequences of Perceived Self-Esteem for Romantic Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill; Erin M. Myers

    2011-01-01

    The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem...

  14. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: Academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia eSchöne; Sarah Simona Tandler; Joachim eStiensmeier-Pelster

    2015-01-01

    Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE) predicts depressive symptoms, two studies were c...

  15. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosogi, Mizuho; Okada, Ayumi; Fujii, Chikako; Noguchi, Keizou; Watanabe, Kumi

    2012-03-20

    Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders.

  16. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. PMID:23565101

  17. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem) was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.

  18. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosogi Mizuho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders.

  19. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for adult include Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Janis-Field Feeling of Inadequacy Scale, and these for children include Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, Pope's 5-Scale Test of Self-Esteem for children, and Kid- KINDL®. Other methods include Ziller Social Self-Esteem Scale and Implicit Association Test. The development of children's self-esteem is heavily influenced by their environment, that is, their homes, neighborhoods, and schools. Children with damaged self-esteem are at risk of developing psychological and social problems, which hinders recovery from low self-esteem. Thus, to recover low self-esteem, it is important for children to accumulate a series of successful experiences to create a positive concept of self. Evaluating children's self-esteem can be an effective method for understanding their past and present circumstances, and useful to treat for children with psychosomatic disorders. PMID:22433387

  20. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan eCreemers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation and loneliness were examined. Participants were 95 young female adults (M= 21.2 years, SD = 1.88 enrolled in higher education. We administered the IAT to assess implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to measure explicit self-esteem while psychological problems were assessed through self-reports. Results showed that discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem were positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, the direction of the discrepancy was specifically relevant: damaged self-esteem (i.e., high implicit self-esteem and low explicit self-esteem was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In contrast, defensive or fragile self-esteem (i.e., low implicit and high explicit self-esteem was solely associated with loneliness. These findings provide further support that specifically damaged self-esteem is an important vulnerability marker for depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness.

  1. Interpersonal consequences of seeking self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer

    2005-11-01

    This study examines the interactive effects of self-esteem, contingencies of self-worth, and ego threat on supportiveness and liking. Targets high or low in self-esteem and academic contingency receive failure test feedback or no evaluative feedback. Then, targets interact with another participant who discloses a personal problem; afterward, both participants complete questionnaires assessing targets' supportiveness and liking. High self-esteem, highly contingent targets feel less supportive and like partners less after interacting under threat than under no threat. Partners, in turn, perceive these targets to be less supportive and less likeable. Low self-esteem, highly contingent targets show the reverse pattern, although these findings do not reach statistical significance. Further analyses reveal that the interpersonal effects of ego threat were caused by threats in a specific domain of contingency (e.g., academics) rather than being a contingent person in general or having external or internal contingent self-worth. Implications for self-esteem and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  2. Self-esteem in severely burned adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran Haider Zaidi, Syed Muhammad; Yaqoob, Nazia; Noreen, Sidra

    2017-12-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the level of and gender difference in self-esteem among adult victims of severe burn injuries. Severely burned adults aged 20 to 40 years participated in this investigation from March 2015 to April 2016 in five hospitals of Faisalabad and Lahore. Purposive sampling technique was used and a self-esteem scale was used to assess different dimensions of self-esteem. Out of 40 patients, there were 25 men (62.5%) and 15 women (37.5%) with mean age of 28.28±4.60 years (range: 20-40 years). A significant positive relationship between subscales of self-esteem scale were found: self-acceptance and self-competence r=0.55, pself-acceptance and academic self-competence r=0.47, pself-acceptance and social and physical acceptance r=0.57, pself-competence and academic self-competence r=0.48, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.50, pself-competence and social and physical acceptance r=0.45, pdifference between self-competence among severely burned men and women (t=2.18; pgender difference indicated higher affected levels specifically in the self-competency component of self-esteem among women victims.

  3. Neural and computational processes underlying dynamic changes in self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Robb B; Moutoussis, Michael; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-01-01

    Self-esteem is shaped by the appraisals we receive from others. Here, we characterize neural and computational mechanisms underlying this form of social influence. We introduce a computational model that captures fluctuations in self-esteem engendered by prediction errors that quantify the difference between expected and received social feedback. Using functional MRI, we show these social prediction errors correlate with activity in ventral striatum/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, while updates in self-esteem resulting from these errors co-varied with activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We linked computational parameters to psychiatric symptoms using canonical correlation analysis to identify an ‘interpersonal vulnerability’ dimension. Vulnerability modulated the expression of prediction error responses in anterior insula and insula-vmPFC connectivity during self-esteem updates. Our findings indicate that updating of self-evaluative beliefs relies on learning mechanisms akin to those used in learning about others. Enhanced insula-vmPFC connectivity during updating of those beliefs may represent a marker for psychiatric vulnerability. PMID:29061228

  4. Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy, and Resources in Adults With ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newark, Patricia Elizabeth; Elsässer, Marina; Stieglitz, Rolf-Dieter

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to shed light on therapy-relevant factors, such as self-esteem, self-efficacy, and resources in adults with ADHD in comparison with a healthy control group. A total of 43 adults who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR) criteria for ADHD in adulthood were matched with a nonclinical sample in terms of age and gender. All participants (N = 86) were assessed with self-ratings: Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and Dick's Resources Checklist. Adults with ADHD showed lower levels of self-esteem and self-efficacy when compared with the control group. The authors found some, but not all, of the resources of adults with ADHD to be reduced. In other words, people with ADHD seem to possess specific resources. Our results have important implications for the treatment of adult ADHD and suggest that specific therapy programs should include resources-oriented modules for enhancing self-esteem, self-efficacy, and fostering strengths. © The Author(s) 2012.

  5. The relation between self-esteem, sexual activity, and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, R B; Frank, D I

    1994-01-01

    This study examined self-esteem in relation to sexual behaviors which often result in teen pregnancy. A sample of 141 male and 172 female adolescents of racial diversity was surveyed to elicit levels of self-esteem, sexual activity, pregnancy and fatherhood status. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory was used as well to elicit qualitative data about self-esteem, demographics, and sexual activity. Analysis revealed no differences in the self-esteem of males vs. females. Further, sexual activity or virginity was not related to self-esteem in either males or females. Pregnant teens did not have different levels of self-esteem from the nonpregnant. However, males who had fathered a child had lower self-esteem than did nonfathers. The findings support a multifocused approach to sex education for pregnancy prevention and also emphasize a need to include males in both pregnancy prevention efforts as well as in further research on teen pregnancy.

  6. Self-Esteem and Children's Human Figure Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, J. Thomas; Vale, Helen L.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and fifteen students in Grade 5 made human figure drawings which were compared with their scores on the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and on teachers' ratings of the students' self-esteem. (Author)

  7. Gender differences in body esteem among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Patricia L; Hayslip, Bert

    2006-01-01

    Ninety-five adults aged 60-91 completed measures of Body-as-Object Esteem (BOE) (i.e., appearance) and Body-as-Process Esteem (BPE) (i.e., function) to explore gender differences in body esteem among older adults. As hypothesized, a significant age by gender interaction revealed that men become more disparaging of the appearance and function of their bodies in their last decades of life, while women do not. Level of physical disability was negatively correlated with BOE, particularly for disabled women. Furthermore, as is seen across the lifespan, self-esteem is a significant predictor of BOE. Disabled participants who were older than 74 years had disproportionately low BPE scores and similarly poor global self-esteem. Whether working with older adults or studying body esteem in this population, it is vital that both dimensions of body esteem are assessed along with the impact of disability status, gender, self-esteem, and age.

  8. Attributional Communication, Situational Involvement, Self-Esteem and Interpersonal Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Charles R.

    1973-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted which assumed that persons with extremely high or low self-esteem would be more defensive than moderate self-esteem persons when receiving ego-threatening communication. (Editor)

  9. Effectiveness of chemotherapy counselling on self-esteem and psychological affects among cancer patients in Malaysia: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Sidik, Sherina; Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Periasamy, Ummavathy; Rampal, Lekhraj; Fadhilah, Siti Irma; Mahmud, Rozi

    2018-01-05

    The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate the outcomes of chemotherapy counselling based on the "Managing Patients on Chemotherapy" module on self-esteem and psychological affect (anxiety, depression) of cancer patients by pharmacists in ten selected government hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia. A randomized control trial was conducted among 2120 cancer patients from April 2016 to January 2017 in ten selected government hospitals in Peninsular Malaysia. Cancer patients were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received chemotherapy counselling by pharmacists based on the "Managing Patients on Chemotherapy" module. The outcomes were assessed at baseline, 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow-ups after counselling. In the course of data analysis; independent sample t-test, chi-square and two-way repeated measures ANOVA were conducted. Mean scores of self-esteem in the intervention group had significant difference in comparison with those of the control group in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd follow-ups after counselling (P self-esteem and psychological affect of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy in Peninsular Malaysia. This module can be used for all Malaysian cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy to improving self-esteem and psychological affect. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Sexual Orientation Modulates Endocrine Stress Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster, Robert-Paul; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Mendrek, Adrianna; Pfaus, James G.; Smith, Nathan Grant; Johnson, Philip Jai; Lefebvre-Louis, Jean-Philippe; Raymond, Catherine; Marin, Marie-France; Sindi, Shireen; Lupien, Sonia J.; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Biological sex differences and sociocultural gender diversity influence endocrine stress reactivity. Although numerous studies have shown that men typically activate stronger stress responses than women when exposed to laboratory-based psychosocial stressors, it is unclear whether sexual orientation further modulates stress reactivity. Given that lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals frequently report heightened distress secondary to stigma-related stressors, we investigated whether cortisol stress reactivity differs between LGB individuals and heterosexual individuals in response to a well-validated psychosocial stressor. METHODS The study population comprised 87 healthy adults (mean age, 25 years) who were grouped according to their biological sex and their gendered sexual orientation: lesbian/bisexual women (n = 20), heterosexual women (n = 21), gay/bisexual men (n = 26), and heterosexual men (n = 20). Investigators collected 10 salivary cortisol samples throughout a 2-hour afternoon visit involving exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test modified to maximize between-sex differences. RESULTS Relative to heterosexual women, lesbian/bisexual women showed higher cortisol stress reactivity 40 min after exposure to the stressor. In contrast, gay/bisexual men displayed lower overall cortisol concentrations throughout testing compared with heterosexual men. Main findings were significant while adjusting for sex hormones (estradiol-to-progesterone ratio in women and testosterone in men), age, self-esteem, and disclosure status (whether LGB participants had completed their “coming out”). CONCLUSIONS Our results provide novel evidence for gender-based modulation of cortisol stress reactivity based on sexual orientation that goes beyond well-established between-sex differences. This study raises several important avenues for future research related to the physiologic functioning of LGB populations and gender diversity more broadly. PMID:25444167

  11. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  12. The Self-Esteem Test for Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Caso Niebla

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study intended to explore construct validity of the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents and update psychometric properties found in previous studies. 1581 Mexican students (850 women and 731 men of a public high school in Mexico City responded to the scale. The sample was split randomly in half. EFA was applied using one sample´s data, and CFA to the other sample´s data. The model, assumed to underlie responses to the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents, satisfactorily fit the data, confirming a structure of 4 factors: self-cognitions, competence cognitions, family relations and rage. Results of the present study corroborate previous data concerning content, criterion-related and construct validity of the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents.

  13. [Self-esteem of nursing undergraduate students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Lucila Amaral; Bomfim, Graziela Fernanda; Chicone, Gisele

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates the self-esteem of undergraduate students of nursing, that through a workshop developed mechanisms for improving their self-esteem, considering that this is the most propitious time for students to multiply health care actions. the research was carried out with 156 undergraduate students of the third year. Socio-drama techniques of Neurolinguistics were used and the evaluation was done according to Minayo. It was possible to observe that students usually confuse self-esteem and self-image, and that both are stereotyped for for men and women. As nurses are always worried about the client/patient's life quality, they neglect themselves. In this case, the Workshops were essential for the students to rescue interior knowledge about themselves, and to realize that in order to take good care of clients/patients, they must be physically and psychologically healthy.

  14. STUDENTS’ SELF ESTEEM IN SPEAKING ABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Rosyida MR

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of principle of communicative competence is the students know how to uselanguage according to the setting and the participants. Actually, to be able to speaktarget language, the students ar not only expected to have a great ability in grammar,vocabulary, or writing, but how brave they express their idea and use target languageto others. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate students’ self esteem to theirspeaking ability This study was carried out at Hadist major at the fourth semester ofIAIN Raden Intan Lampung. The researcher used questionnaire, test, and interview.The data collected were analyzed quantitatively, and described to know clearly theprocess which was occurred during the research. The results indicate that students’self esteem influence their speaking ability.Key Words: speaking, self esteem, communicative competence

  15. Preterm Infants and Parents’ self-esteem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    Background: Little is known about parents to preterm infants and their self-esteem. The care of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is in accordance with the principles of Family Centered Care. Previously, focus has mainly been on the mother-infant-dyad. Current research has...... shown that involving the father at an early stage improves the psychological dynamic of fatherhood and encourages bonding with the infant. The self-esteem of parents appears to be negatively affected after preterm birth. Objective: To get more knowledge and a deeper understanding of the preterm parents......’ experiences of their self-esteem during admission to the NICU and later eight months after discharge. Method and data collection: A qualitative semi-structured interview was conducted in two phases: 1) Three weeks after giving birth to a preterm infant and eight months after discharge. Parents were...

  16. Self-esteem: models and implications for management

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Manfred R.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. This thesis presents a literature review of self-esteem, primarily as it relates to organizations and management. Based on this literature review, self-esteem is defined as the emotional valuation individuals have of themselves and the degree of certainty of this valuation. Several models of self-esteem are presented. The relationship of coping and avoidance to self-esteem is considered. Coping is presented as being one of the primary so...

  17. Self-esteem, political efficacy, and perceived parental attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Okçu, Tuba Nur; Okcu, Tuba Nur

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes to test the following three hypotheses: perceived political efficacy positively correlates with self-esteem; self-esteem positively correlates with perceived democratic parental attitude; and, lastly, self-esteem negatively correlates with perceived protective-demanding and perceived authoritarian parental attitudes. Two questionnaires (Q1 and Q2), each measure perceived political efficacy, selfesteem,and perceived parental attitudes. In Q2, the items of self-esteem and p...

  18. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children

    OpenAIRE

    Hosogi Mizuho; Okada Ayumi; Fujii Chikako; Noguchi Keizou; Watanabe Kumi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Self-esteem is the "feeling of self-appreciation" and is an indispensable emotion for people to adapt to society and live their lives. For children, in particular, the environment in which they are raised contributes profoundly to the development of their self-esteem, which in turn helps them to adapt better to society. Various psychologists have provided definitions of self-esteem, and examined methods of objectively evaluating self-esteem. Questionnaire-style assessment methods for...

  19. Little League Baseball and Players' Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Donna B.; Gruber, Joseph J.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of a season of little league baseball on the self-esteem of 94 pre-adolescent players was investigated. The Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and a newly devised Baseball-Self scale were administered. Significant improvements in players' total Self-esteem, Home-Parents and School-Academic scores were found. (Author/PN)

  20. Self-Esteem and Suicide Ideation in Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Sunil; Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; Brown, Gregory; Beck, Aaron T.

    2008-01-01

    Depression, hopelessness, and low self-esteem are implicated as vulnerability factors for suicide ideation. The association of self-esteem with suicide ideation after controlling for depressed mood and hopelessness was examined. Adult psychiatric outpatients (N = 338) completed measures of self-esteem, suicide ideation, hopelessness, and…

  1. Behavioral Referents of Presented Self-Esteem in Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltiwanger, Jane

    In two studies which were designed to identify behavioral manifestations of self-esteem, experienced teachers were asked to perform a criterion sort of an 84-item behavioral Q-set, with high and low self-esteem as the criteria. Aims included: (1) identification of classroom behaviors of preschool children associated with self-esteem; (2)…

  2. Relationships between Self-Esteem and Smoking Experimentation in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Alexandra; Woods, Susan E.

    2009-01-01

    There have been mixed results concerning any association between self-esteem and smoking prevalence in young people. The aim of this paper was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between self-esteem and the uptake of smoking in childhood, and how various sub-components of self-esteem are related to smoking. A sample of…

  3. Correlates of Self Esteem in Adolescents with Spina Bifida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. L.

    The study examined correlates of self-esteem in 54 adolescents and young adults (ages 12-22) with spina bifida. Core issues identified were the relationships of global self-esteem and perceived competencies in specific areas, perceptions of control, and identification with the physically handicapped. Relationships of self-esteem to age, gender,…

  4. Exercise and Self-esteem: Recommendations for Expository Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonstroem, Robert J.

    1981-01-01

    A review of selected research in the area of exercise and self-esteem illustrates recommendations made for improving research in this area. Studies concerning self-esteem theory and static and dynamic relationships between exercise and self-esteem are reported. (CJ)

  5. The Self-Esteem Complex and Youth Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Kenneth R.

    1988-01-01

    The article outlines recent theoretical developments in self-esteem research that have not yet been applied to the youth fitness problem, including concepts of self-esteem multidimensionality and hierarchical structuring, and personalization processes. Programmatical implications related to self-esteem promotion and exercise motivation are…

  6. Corporal punishment, academic performance and self-esteem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show no significant differences between corporal punishment and academic performance and self-esteem of the students. Whereas self-esteem and academic performance were found to be positively related, there was no significant variation in self-esteem across gender. The implications of the findings are ...

  7. Alcohol Use and Self-Esteem of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitic, Wayne R.

    1980-01-01

    Results revealed that regular users possessed significantly higher mean scores in overall self-esteem as compared to all other drinking categories. Potential problem drinkers obtained significantly lower scores in academic self-esteem. Educators should consider self-esteem building activities when devising alcohol education programs for teenagers.…

  8. Maternal self-esteem after successful treatment for infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sara Jane; Glazebrook, Cris; Sheard, Charlotte; Ndukwe, George; Oates, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    To [1] investigate self-esteem during pregnancy after previous infertility and [2] establish the relationship among self-esteem, anxiety during pregnancy, and parenting self-efficacy. Limited prospective study. A regional infertility clinic and antenatal clinic. Seventy women who had conceived through assisted reproductive technology and 111 women who had conceived naturally. Measures of self-esteem, anxiety, and parenting self-efficacy. Self-esteem, anxiety, and parenting self-efficacy. Women who had conceived through IVF treatment did not differ in terms of self-esteem during pregnancy from those who had conceived naturally. All of the women in the present study displayed levels of self-esteem that were within the normal range. Self-esteem increased as pregnancy progressed. Self-esteem was negatively correlated with anxiety during pregnancy. As self-esteem increased, anxiety decreased. Self-esteem at the start of pregnancy (18 weeks) and anxiety in the early stages of parenthood (6 weeks postpartum) predicted parenting self-efficacy. Self-esteem in the early stages of pregnancy, for both women who conceived through IVF and women who conceived naturally, is related to self-reported levels of parenting efficacy. Coaching and mentoring through antenatal clinics in the early stages of pregnancy should be tailored to incorporate advice regarding self-esteem in addition to management of pregnancy and psychological well-being.

  9. Enhancing Children's Self-Esteem: Illusion and Possibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beane, James A.

    1991-01-01

    Current efforts to enhance children's self-esteem are critiqued, and an alternative direction is proposed that is based on the notion of self-esteem as a crucial aspect of human dignity. This approach connects self-esteem to both cultural and social conditions and works toward the reconstruction of school and society. (LB)

  10. Differences In Self Esteem Between Adopted and Looked After ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the differences in self-esteem development between adopted and looked after orphans in Dar es Salaam. The relationship between psychosocial support and self esteem development, as well as the effects of social demographic variables to self esteem were also assessed. Qualitative and quantitative ...

  11. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in remitted depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeijers, D.; Vrijsen, J.N.; Oostrom, I.I. van; Isaac, L.; Speckens, A.E.M.; Becker, E.S.; Rinck, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the

  12. Stress, Self-Esteem, and Suicidal Ideation in Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, Victor R.; Smith, Delores E.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships among stress, self-esteem, and suicidal ideation in late adolescents were examined in a group of college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that both stress and self-esteem were significantly related to suicidal ideation; low self-esteem and stressful life events significantly predicted suicidal ideation. The…

  13. Enhancing Self-Esteem through Self-Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valett, Robert E.

    Self-esteem, well managed, is a powerful force for effective learning. Research has shown that good self-esteem is associated with analytical thinking, persistence, creative ability, social independence, stability and high expectations, and that the antecedents of positive self-esteem are found in parental models who provide firm guidance in the…

  14. EXAMINING BADMINTON ATHLETES’ SELF-ESTEEM

    OpenAIRE

    EYLEM GENCER; Ekrem Levent İLHAN

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine badminton athletes’ self-esteem according to some variables. The research was carried out in Badminton Turkey Clubs Championship where 12 clubs and 87 athletes participated in 2009. 42 national and 14 non-national totaly 56 badminton athletes whose mean age 18.78±3.46 that participated in Badminton Turkey Clubs Championship in 2009 constitute our research sample. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, that was developed by Rosenberg (1963) and adapted to Turkish ...

  15. The Self-Esteem Test for Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquín Caso Niebla; Laura Hernández-Guzmán; Manuel González-Montesinos

    2011-01-01

    The present study intended to explore construct validity of the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents and update psychometric properties found in previous studies. 1581 Mexican students (850 women and 731 men) of a public high school in Mexico City responded to the scale. The sample was split randomly in half. EFA was applied using one sample´s data, and CFA to the other sample´s data. The model, assumed to underlie responses to the Self-esteem Test for Adolescents, satisfactorily fit the data, co...

  16. Body after baby: a pilot survey of genital body image and sexual esteem following vaginal birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinski R

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Ruth Zielinski,1 Lisa Kane Low,1–3 Abigail R Smith,4 Janis M Miller1,3 1Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Women’s Studies, College of Literature, Science and the Arts, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 4Arbor Research Collaborative for Health, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to determine acceptability of the Vaginal Changes Sexual and Body Esteem (VSBE scale for women post childbirth and explore the association between childbirth events and sexual/body esteem.Design: This is a cross-sectional study within the Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery study.Setting: This study was conducted in a community setting.Population: The study was conducted in women post first vaginal birth with birth events that posed risk factors for levator ani muscle tears.Methods: Survey, magnetic resonance images of levator ani, and physical examination were the data collected 8 months postpartum. Birth variables were collected by hospital chart review. Descriptive analysis of VSBE response rates and distribution of responses was conducted. An exploratory analysis of the potential association of demographic, birth, clinical, and magnetic resonance image characteristics with VSBE scores was conducted.Main outcome measures: The outcome measure used in this study is VSBE scale.Results: The majority of participants (97% completed the scale, with responses to most questions skewed toward positive sexual/body esteem, with the exception of sexual enjoyment, where 38% indicated some interference due to genital changes. The scale showed high internal consistency (alpha =0.93. In the exploratory analysis of potential characteristics associated with VSBE, women with episiotomies had lower sexual/body esteem compared to those who did not (median

  17. The relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commendador, Kathleen

    2007-11-01

    To examine the relationship between female adolescent self-esteem, decision making, and contraceptive behavior in multiethnic, 14- to 17-year-olds, residing on the Big Island of Hawaii. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey design using a convenience sample of 98 female adolescents aged 14-17 who came to five different clinics on the Big Island of Hawaii for health care. Along with a brief demographic questionnaire, global self-esteem was measured by Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, decision making was measured by the Flinders Adolescent Decision Making Questionnaire, and sexual activity and contraception use was measured by a nonnormed Sexual History and Contraceptive Use Questionnaire developed for this study. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression, and correlations were used to analyze associations and correlations between age, global self-esteem, decision self-esteem, decision coping (vigilant and maladaptive), and contraceptive use for sexually active female adolescents. No significant associations or correlations were found between age, global self-esteem, decision self-esteem, decision coping (vigilance), and the decision to use contraception in sexually active adolescent females. There was, however, significant negative correlation (p sexually active female adolescents. This suggests that sexually active adolescent females with higher maladaptive scores are less likely to use contraception. There was also significant association (p sexually active female adolescents. For every one unit increase on the maladaptive scale, the odds of using contraception were estimated to decrease by 7%. Adolescence is a period of transition that involves biological, cognitive, psychological, and social changes. During the vulnerable transition period of adolescence, decisions relating to contraception may occur. Interventions focused on improving decision-making skills and stimulating thinking around not only sexual issues but also on relationship and communication

  18. Sweets, sex, or self-esteem? Comparing the value of self-esteem boosts with other pleasant rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bushman, B.J.; Moeller, S.J.; Crocker, J.

    2011-01-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than

  19. Eating behaviors, body image, perfectionism, and self-esteem in a sample of Portuguese girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maria D; Pereira, Ana T; Marques, Mariana V; Saraiva, Jorge M; Macedo, António F de

    2016-02-05

    Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339), socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175), self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211), and low self-esteem (r = -0.292) (all p Self-oriented perfectionism partially mediated the relation between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. In this sample, dysfunctional eating behaviors appeared to correlate strongly with body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.

  20. Eating behaviors, body image, perfectionism, and self-esteem in a sample of Portuguese girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Teixeira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls. It is well known that biological, psychosocial, and family-related factors interact in the development of this group of disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between these variables are still poorly understood, especially in Portuguese adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between eating behaviors, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, and perfectionism in a sample of Portuguese girls. Method: A community sample of 575 Portuguese girls attending secondary school, answered self-report questionnaires including data on weight, height, and the Portuguese versions of the Contour Figures Rating Scale, the Child and Adolescent Perfectionism Scale, the Children Eating Attitudes Test, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. SPSS version 20.0 for Windows was used for statistical analyses. Results: High scores in the Children Eating Attitudes Test were associated with significantly higher levels of body dissatisfaction (r = 0.339, socially prescribed perfectionism (r = 0.175, self-oriented perfectionism (r = 0.211, and low self-esteem (r = -0.292 (all p < 0.001. Self-oriented perfectionism partially mediated the relation between body dissatisfaction and disordered eating behaviors. Conclusion: In this sample, dysfunctional eating behaviors appeared to correlate strongly with body dissatisfaction, low self-esteem, and perfectionism in girls. These themes should be addressed among female adolescents in the community.

  1. Self-esteem and Arab-American elementary students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Haitham M; Abushihab, Eiman F

    2014-12-01

    This study assessed self-esteem and the relation between self-esteem and academic achievement in a sample of Arab-American elementary students who completed the What I Think About Myself Self-esteem Inventory. 123 students' (M age = 8.7 yr., 65 boys and 58 girls) self-esteem scores were associated with their academic achievement. Alpha internal consistency reliability was acceptable (Cronbach's α = .85) for the inventory. The results also indicated that the participants tended to have healthy self-esteem.

  2. Humor styles, self-esteem, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao Dong; Liu, Katy Wing-Yin; Jiang, Feng; Hiranandani, Neelam Arjan

    2014-10-01

    Summary.-This study examined how humor styles could mediate the effect of self-esteem on subjective happiness. 227 Hong Kong undergraduate students completed the Humor Styles Questionnaire, the Roxsenberg Self-esteem Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed adaptive humor styles (affiliative humor and self-enhancing humor) significantly predicted self-esteem and subjective happiness and mediated the relationship between self-esteem and subjective happiness. Maladaptive humor styles (aggressive humor and self-defeating humor) did not strongly predict self-esteem or subjective happiness. The mediation effects of humor styles found in the present research provided useful suggestions for future studies.

  3. Self-Esteem: A Resource Notebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Dianna; Cohn, Joanne

    This handbook brings together a variety of resources for the implementation of strategies and programs to promote self-esteem in children/students of all ages. The book begins with an explanation of the principles of motivation which facilitate learning, and a discussion of responsibility, structure, motivation, and persistence as functions of…

  4. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  5. Self-Esteem of Taiwanese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Ju; Smith, Delores E.

    1997-01-01

    Assessed gender and age differences in self-esteem of Taiwanese children in grades four through six. Found that boys exceeded girls in confidence in physical abilities, but were less satisfied with their conduct; confidence in scholastic and athletic competence and global self-worth declined with age. Found that scholastic competence, physical…

  6. A Multidimensional Construct of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem-Hebeisen, Ardyth A.

    1976-01-01

    Evidence for construct validity of this multi-dimensional concept of self esteem includes the relative congruence of the factor structure with the theoretical construct, the stability of the structure when subjected to a series of empirical tests, increasingly positive self-referent responses with increasing age, willingness to become more…

  7. Separating narcissism from self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Sedikides, C.

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled

  8. Esteem Construct Generality and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, C. Kenneth; Boyle, David

    1975-01-01

    Measures of global, specific, and task-specific self-esteem were administered to male and female college students and related to predicted and actual performance on a midterm examination. Significant correlations were found between global and specific measures and between specific and task measures, but not between global and task measures.…

  9. Separating Narcissism From Self-Esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, Eddie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337238529; Thomaes, Sander|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/303776528; Sedikides, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    Narcissism is a personality trait characterized by a sense of superiority and a desire for respect and admiration from others. A common belief, both in psychology and in popular culture, is that narcissism represents a form of excessive self-esteem. Psychologists, including ourselves, have labeled

  10. Alexithymia and its relationships with eating behavior, self esteem, and body esteem in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Keiko; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Hishimoto, Akitoyo

    2011-03-10

    The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence rate of alexithymia and eating disorder (ED) as well as to explore the relationships between alexithymia and eating behavior, self esteem, and body esteem in non-clinical college women. A total of 313 Japanese college women were asked to make entries of age, height, and body weight, and to answer the full items in the Japanese version of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Eating Attitude Test (EAT-26), Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES), and Body Esteem Scale (BES). The frequency of alexithymics who scored 61 points or more of the TAS-20 was 28.7%, and the frequency of students with potential ED who scored 20 points or more of the EAT-26 was 8.7%. The prevalence of potential ED in the alexithymics (14.0%) was significantly higher than that in the non-alexithymics (6.5%). The mean values of the RSES and BES scores were significantly different between the alexithymic and non-alexithymic groups. The TAS-20 scores were unrelated to the age and body mass index, but were significantly correlated to the EAT-26 (total score (r = 0.12, p = 0.04), bulimia and food preoccupation (r = 0.14, p = 0.01)), the RSES (r = -0.44, p self esteem and body esteem and that may influence eating behavior.

  11. Continuity and Change in Self-Esteem During Emerging Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joanne M.; Robins, Richard W.; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Noftle, Erik E.; Roberts, Brent W.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the development of self-esteem in a sample of emerging adults (N = 295) followed longitudinally over 4 years of college. Six waves of self-esteem data were available. Participants also rated, at the end of their 4th year, the degree to which they thought their self-esteem had changed during college. Rank-order stability was high across all waves of data (Mdn disattenuated correlation = .87). On average, self-esteem levels dropped substantially during the 1st semester (d =−.68), rebounded by the end of the 1st year (d = .73), and then gradually increased over the next 3 years, producing a small (d = .16) but significant mean-level increase in self-esteem from the beginning to the end of college. Individuals who received good grades in college tended to show larger increases in self-esteem. In contrast, individuals who entered college with unrealistically high expectations about their academic achievement tended to show smaller increases in self-esteem, despite beginning college with relatively high self-esteem. With regard to perceived change, 67% reported that their self-esteem increased during college, whereas 12% reported that it declined; these perceptions tended to correspond with actual increases and decreases in their self-esteem scale scores (β= .56). Overall, the findings support the perspective that self-esteem, like other personality characteristics, can change in systematic ways while exhibiting continuity over time. PMID:24377355

  12. Self-esteem and optimism in rural youth: gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, Kathryn R; Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Ren, Dianxu; Haley, Tammy M; Tark, Kirsti Hetager; Switala, Joann; Siemon, Linda

    2010-01-01

    To identify and describe gender-related differences in the self-esteem and optimism levels of rural adolescents. Self-esteem and optimism have been broadly examined and are associated with health-practices, social interaction, attachment, resiliency, and personal identity. Information describing the relationship of self-esteem and optimism as it relates to gender is limited. Using a cross-sectional survey design, students (N = 193) from three high-schools in rural Pennsylvania, USA completed the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Optimism Scale-Life Orientation Test-Revised as part of a National Institute of Health, National Institute of Nursing Research funded study. Both instruments' mean scores were in the range of average for this population, with females scoring lower than males in both self-esteem (p self-esteem and optimism. Attention to self-esteem and optimism in female youth is recommended.

  13. Children's self-esteem based on their sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Serrano Muñoz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The following study proposes describing the levels of self-esteem in children and analyzing whether there are differences based on their sex. The sample consists of 1,757 children aged from 3 to 7. For self-esteem assessment, the EDINA questionnaire was administrated, which shows an appropriate reliability rate (0.803. The self-esteem of girls and boys studied is high. Statistical analyzes showed: a significantly higher scores on self-esteem of girls; b a decrease on self-esteem associated to age of children; c significant differences depending on the socioeconomic status; and d higher level of self-esteem in children when they have a woman as advisor of class group. In future researches, we suggest the need to study in depth the evolution of sex differences in relation to self-esteem.

  14. "Cancer Cell Biology:" A Student-Centered Instructional Module Exploring the Use of Multimedia to Enrich Interactive, Constructivist Learning of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockholt, Susanne M.; West, J. Paige; Bollenbacher, Walter E.

    2003-01-01

    Multimedia has the potential of providing bioscience education novel learning environments and pedagogy applications to foster student interest, involve students in the research process, advance critical thinking/problem-solving skills, and develop conceptual understanding of biological topics. "Cancer Cell Biology," an interactive, multimedia,…

  15. Polish normalization of the Body Esteem Scale

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    Małgorzata Lipowska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Physical attractiveness plays an important part in one’s social functioning. The interest in one’s own appearance have been documented as widespread among the female population, but over the recent years it is more and more often emphasized that concentrating on body appearance concerns men as well. Franzoi and Shields (1984 created the Body Esteem Scale which allows to qualify the subject’s attitude towards his or her own body. The aim of the study was to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale along with the norms for age and sex clusters. Participants and procedure The normalization sample consisted of 4298 participants: 1865 women aged 16 to 80 (M = 29.92; SD = 12.85 and 2433 men aged 16 to 78 (M = 28.74; SD = 11.50. Education levels among the participants were also controlled for. In order to create a Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, translation was adopted as the adaptation strategy. Like the original one, the Polish scale comprises 35 items grouped into three gender specific subscales. The subscales for women include Sexual Attractiveness, Weight Concern, and Physical Condition, whereas the body esteem of is examined with regards to Physical Attractiveness, Upper Body Strength, and Physical Condition. Results Reliability of subscales was high both for females (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.80 to 0.89 and males (Cronbach’s alpha from 0.85 to 0.88. The given coefficients of reliability cover the original division into subscales adopted by the authors of BES. Conclusions We confirmed high reliability of the Polish version of the Body Esteem Scale, thus we recommend it as a diagnostic tool. Created norms allowed to refer results obtained in the course of research carried out on people with various disorders (e.g. eating disorders or body dysmorphic disorder with population data for corresponding age brackets.

  16. Does abdominoplasty have a positive influence on quality of life, self-esteem, and emotional stability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Staffler, Vera; Mirceva, Vesna; Henrich, Gerhard; Papadopoulos, Othon N; Kovacs, Laszlo; Herschbach, Peter; Machens, Hans-Günther; Biemer, Edgar

    2012-06-01

    In a previous prospective study, the authors evaluated the quality of life in patients undergoing aesthetic surgery. In this survey, the authors split up the operative indication and analyzed quality of life, self-esteem, and emotional stability after abdominoplasty alone. Sixty-three patients participated in the study. The testing instrument consisted of a self-developed questionnaire to collect demographic and socioeconomic data and a postoperative complication questionnaire developed especially for abdominoplasties. In addition, a standardized self-assessment test on satisfaction and quality of life (Questions on Life Satisfaction), the Rosenberg Self -Esteem Questionnaire, and the Freiburg Personality Inventory were used. Significantly increasing values in some items of the standardized self-assessment test on satisfaction and quality of life were found: sum scores of the General Life Satisfaction showed a significant improvement (p = 0.004) and the scores of the items housing/living conditions (p = 0.000) and family life/children (p = 0.000). Within the Satisfaction with Health module, a significant improvement in the items mobility (p = 0.02) and independence from assistance (p = 0.01) was found. Values in the module Satisfaction with Appearance (Body Image) increased regarding satisfaction with the abdomen (p = 0.001). Over 84 percent were very satisfied with the aesthetic result, 93.4 percent would undergo the same treatment again, and 88.9 percent would further recommend the operation. Data revealed that participants' self-esteem was very high and their emotional stability was very well balanced. This study demonstrates that abdominoplasty increases most aspects of quality of life, particularly family life, living conditions, mobility, and independency from assistance. Also, patient self-esteem and emotional stability ratings are very high postoperatively.

  17. An Implicit Theory of Self-Esteem: The Consequences of Perceived Self-Esteem for Romantic Desirability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgil Zeigler-Hill

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The provision of information appears to be an important property of self-esteem as evidenced by previous research concerning the status-tracking and status-signaling models of self-esteem. The present studies examine whether there is an implicit theory of self-esteem that leads individuals to assume targets with higher levels of self-esteem possess more desirable characteristics than those with lower levels of self-esteem. Across 6 studies, targets with ostensibly higher levels of self-esteem were generally rated as more attractive and as more desirable relationship partners than those with lower levels of self-esteem. It is important to note, however, that this general trend did not consistently emerge for female targets. Rather, female targets with high self-esteem were often evaluated less positively than those with more moderate levels of self-esteem. The present findings are discussed in the context of an extended informational model of self-esteem consisting of both the status-tracking and status-signaling properties of self-esteem.

  18. A social work study on the effects of self-esteem games on elementary female self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Moein

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians from many disciplines are interested in learning more about the effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and it is associated with well-being throughout life, significantly. What individuals choose to do and the way they do it in part may depend on their self-esteem and it can also fulfill the aims of mental health. This paper presents an investigation to determine the effect of play on children’s self-esteem and surveys appropriate interventions in this area. This study was semi experimental and the sample was 3rd grade elementary students who were randomly assigned into control (n=15 and experimental (n=15 groups. The instrument was Rosenberg self-esteem scale [Rosenberg, M. (1965. Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSE. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. Measures Package, 61.]. Independent variable was 12 group sessions of self-esteem games executed among experimental group. Data was analyzed with univariate analysis of covariance. Results showed that self-esteem games in α ≤ 0.05 were affected on self-esteem of children. Self-esteem game can be effective intervention for children self-esteem that with them control of factors such as time and children interactions with parent and teachers in future investigations could lead to greater confidence in its effectiveness discussed.

  19. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.

  20. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS) for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Tobias; Roth, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS), a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826), we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism) and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings) through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability. PMID:29487551

  1. The Self-esteem Stability Scale (SESS for Cross-Sectional Direct Assessment of Self-esteem Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Altmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Self-esteem stability describes fluctuations in the level of self-esteem experienced by individuals over a brief period of time. In recent decades, self-esteem stability has repeatedly been shown to be an important variable affecting psychological functioning. However, measures of self-esteem stability are few and lacking in validity. In this paper, we present the Self-Esteem Stability Scale (SESS, a unidimensional and very brief scale to directly assess self-esteem stability. In four studies (total N = 826, we describe the development of the SESS and present evidence for its validity with respect to individual outcomes (life satisfaction, neuroticism, and vulnerable narcissism and dyadic outcomes (relationship satisfaction in self- and partner ratings through direct comparisons with existing measures. The new SESS proved to be a stronger predictor than the existing scales and had incremental validity over and above self-esteem level. The results also showed that all cross-sectional measures of self-esteem stability were only moderately associated with variability in self-esteem levels assessed longitudinally with multiple administrations of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. We discuss this validity issue, arguing that direct and indirect assessment approaches measure relevant, yet different aspects of self-esteem stability.

  2. Measuring self-esteem in context: the importance of stability of self-esteem in psychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernis, Michael H

    2005-12-01

    In this article, I report on a research program that has focused on the joint roles of stability and level of self-esteem in various aspects of psychological functioning. Stability of self-esteem refers to the magnitude of short-term fluctuations that people experience in their current, contextually based feelings of self-worth. In contrast, level of self-esteem refers to representations of people's general, or typical, feelings of self-worth. A considerable amount of research reveals that self-esteem stability has predictive value beyond the predictive value of self-esteem level. Moreover, considering self-esteem stability provides one way to distinguish fragile from secure forms of high self-esteem. Results from a number of studies are presented and theoretical implications are discussed.

  3. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B.; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1–5), but CSE was not (Studies 2–5). Implications are discussed. PMID:28841716

  4. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; King, Ronnel B; Chi, Peilian

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE), relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE), and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE). The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847), we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5), but CSE was not (Studies 2-5). Implications are discussed.

  5. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfei Du

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that self-esteem is an important predictor of subjective well-being. However, the majority of research has focused on self-esteem at the individual and the collective level, but has mostly ignored self-esteem at the relational level. According to social identity theory, individuals can maintain and enhance self-esteem through personal traits (personal self-esteem, PSE, relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem, RSE, and relationships with larger groups (collective self-esteem, CSE. The current research investigated whether RSE and CSE can predict subjective well-being beyond PSE among Chinese college students. With four cross-sectional studies and one longitudinal study (N = 847, we found that, when controlling for PSE, RSE was associated with greater life satisfaction, positive affect, meaning in life, happiness, and subjective vitality (Studies 1-5, but CSE was not (Studies 2-5. Implications are discussed.

  6. Body image and self-esteem in somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertoz, Ozen O; Doganavsargil, Ozge; Elbi, Hayriye

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine dissatisfaction with body appearance and bodily functions and to assess self-esteem in somatizing patients. Body image and self-esteem were investigated in 128 women; 34 of those had diagnosed somatoform disorders, 50 were breast cancer patients with total mastectomy surgery alone, and 44 were healthy subjects. Body image and self-esteem were assessed using the Body Cathexis Scale and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The two clinical groups did not differ from one another (z = -1.832, P = 0.067), but differed from healthy controls in terms of body image (somatizing patients vs healthy controls, z = -3.628, P self-esteem (z = -0.936, P = 0.349) when depressive symptoms were controlled. No statistically significant difference was observed between total mastectomy patients and healthy controls in terms of self-esteem (z = -1.727, P = 0.084). The lower levels of self-esteem in somatizing patients were largely mediated by depressive symptoms. Depressed and non-depressed somatizing patients differed significantly from healthy controls with respect to their self-esteem and body image. Somatizing patients who were dissatisfied with their bodily functions and appearance had lower levels of self-esteem and high comorbidity of depression. In clinical practice it is suggested that clinicians should take into account psychiatric comorbidity, self-esteem, and body image in somatizing patients when planning treatment approaches.

  7. Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Cheng, H

    2000-10-01

    This study set out to determine to what extent recalled parental rearing styles (authoritarian, authoritativeness, permissiveness), personality (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, lie), and self-esteem predicted self-rated happiness in a normal, nonclinical, population of young people in their late teens and early 20s. Each participant completed a few questionnaires: the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (revised), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Parental Authority Questionnaire and the Oxford Happiness Inventory. It was predicted that sex, extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem and both maternal and paternal authoritativeness would be significant predictors of happiness. Regressional and path analysis showed self-esteem to be the most dominant and powerful predictor of happiness. The effect of sex on happiness was moderated by neuroticism, which related to self-esteem, which directly influenced happiness. Stability, extraversion and maternal authoritativeness were significant predictors of self-esteem accounting for one-third of the variance. The results are considered in terms of the distinct literature on the relation between personality and happiness and on the relation between parental styles and self-esteem. Self-esteem was both a direct and a moderator variable for young people's self-reported happiness. Extraversion had both direct and indirect predictive power of happiness, whereas neuroticism predicted happiness mediating through self-esteem. Maternal authoritativeness was the only direct predictor of happiness when paternal and maternal rearing styles were examined together, suggesting that a reasonable discipline exercised by mothers towards their children was particularly beneficial in enhancing the offsprings' self-esteem.

  8. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in remitted depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeijers, Danique; Vrijsen, Janna N; van Oostrom, Iris; Isaac, Linda; Speckens, Anne; Becker, Eni S; Rinck, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Low self-esteem is a symptom of depression and depression vulnerability. Prior research on self-esteem has largely focused on implicit (ISE) and explicit self-esteem (ESE) as two separate constructs, missing their interaction. Therefore, the current study investigated the interaction between ISE and ESE in a depression-vulnerable group (remitted depressed patients; RDs), compared to never-depressed controls (ND). Seventy-five RDs and 75 NDs participated in the study. To measure ESE, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Preference Task (NLPT) were used to assess ISE. RDs reported lower ESE than NDs. However, the two groups did not differ on ISE. RDs exhibited a damaged self-esteem or a low-congruent self-esteem, similar to what has been found in currently depressed patients. Moreover, damaged self-esteem was associated with residual depressive symptoms. The results need to be interpreted with care because the IAT and NLPT did not reveal the same associations with the clinical measures. Implicit and explicit self-esteem may be different constructs in depression and studying the combination is important. The present study provides evidence indicating that damaged self-esteem may be more detrimental than low congruent self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Relationship between Counselors' and Students' Self-Esteem as Related to Counseling Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, James D.; Giles, Therese A.

    1984-01-01

    Assigned high or low self-esteem counselors (N=8) to high or low self-esteem sixth-grade students (N=16), who completed the Self-Esteem Inventory after four counseling sessions. Results showed students assigned to high self-esteem counselors showed greater gains in self-esteem. (JAC)

  10. Drama, Performance Ethnography, and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Antonelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-esteem affects learning, performance, self-worth, and quality of life, particularly in persons with dyslexia, or rather how students with dyslexia are mis/understood and supported. Dyslexia does not only affect literacy but also affects emotional well-being. Webb concludes that for children to feel successful, they need to become aware of their unique learning strengths to apply them effectively to strengthen weaknesses. Drama and Performance Ethnography (PE can be support strategies. Workshops were carried out with a group of adolescent youngsters with dyslexia. The aim was to provide a safe environment where they could find their voice and gain self-confidence through drama and PE to provide opportunities to address self-esteem and to provide insights for policies and practice. This article intends to listen to these youngsters’, also co-authors, and their parents’ narratives of this experience.

  11. [Coping with overweight strategies, self-esteem and body-esteem in the context of transactional analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak-Sosnowska, Monika; Naworska, Beata; Owczarek, Aleksander; Chudek, Jerzy; Skrzypulec-Plinta, Violetta; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the ego-state of obese people in terms of transactional analysis and to determine the relationship between coping with overweight strategies, Ego-structure, global self-esteem, and body self-esteem levels. One-hundred-seventy-one overweight and obese adult females were examined by a general practitioner and a specialist in obesity management. The ego-state, global self-esteem, and body self-esteem were assessed using the Ego State Questionnaire (ESQ), the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, and the Body-Esteem Scale, respectively. Participants were divided into three subgroups: A--no attempts at weight loss currently (35.1%), B--self-attempted weight loss (33.9%), C--professional obesity treatment (31.0%). Age, education level, professional status, marital status, and number of children, along with the onset of being overweight/obese were similar in all subgroups. Subgroups B and C statistically and significantly made frequent attempts at weight loss (p self-esteem, sexual attractiveness, weight concern, physical condition and ego-states were similar in all study subgroups. Structure of the Ego-states, self-esteem and body-esteem did not influence the strategies of coping with overweight. Self-esteem is related to spontaneous Ego-child and Ego-adult levels, while the sense of sexual attractiveness is affected only by Ego-spontaneous child.

  12. College dropout and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Höschler, Peter; Backes-Gellner, Uschi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of finishing versus dropping out of college on selfesteem. Using data spanning three decades from the U.S. National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that dropping out of a four-year college significantly decreases selfesteem compared to graduating. In addition, two- and four-year college graduates have significant higher self-esteem than high school graduates never enrolled in college. However, individuals dropping out of a two- or a four-year college m...

  13. Self-Esteem Deficits Among Psychiatric Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. After a detailed literature review, it was hypothesized that there would be a significant difference in the level of self-esteem among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls. The sample of the present study consisted of 260 participants, who were further divided into two groups: clinical group (n = 140 and normal controls (n = 120. The age range of the participants in both the samples were 18 to 25 years (with the mean age of 22.14 years for psychiatric patients and 21.18 years for normal controls, and they belonged to middle socioeconomic status. The clinical group consisted of diagnosed psychiatric patients according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR criteria and further divided into four subgroups, including patients of (a schizophrenia (n = 40, (b major depressive disorder (n = 40, (c obsessive-compulsive disorder (n = 40, and (d opioid dependence disorder (n = 20. The semi-structured interview form of Institute of Clinical Psychology, University of Karachi, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale were used. Descriptive Statistics and one-way ANOVA were applied to analyze and interpret the data in statistical terminology. Results indicate significant differences among patients with psychiatric disorders and normal controls on the variable of self-esteem (F = 30.513, df = 4, 255, p< .05. The finding has implications for clinical interventions and also suggests avenues for future research.

  14. Self-esteem and social respect within the high school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelsma, P; Yelsma, J

    1998-08-01

    A sample of 596 students in a Michigan high school completed 2 measures of self-esteem (S. Coopersmith, 1967; M. Rosenberg, 1979) and the English translation of the Social Behaviors Scale (M. Loranger, M. Poirier, D. Gauthier, & J. Talon, 1982). Factor analysis of the 36-item Social Behaviors Scale revealed 5 factors appropriate for assessing social respect. Regression analyses revealed that scores for total self-esteem and global self-esteem were significant predictors of total social respect. The scores for total self-esteem were also significantly associated with respect for teachers and for appropriate language. The females reported more respect for teachers, others, appropriate language, and physical property than the males did. The seniors reported more respect for appropriate language, teachers, and others than the freshmen did. Total self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for waiting and listening. Global self-esteem was significantly and negatively associated with respect for physical property.

  15. Kontribusi Pengasuhan Orangtua dan Self Esteem terhadap Perilaku Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raudah Zaimah Dalimunthe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying behavior is influenced by many factors. This study purpose to describe: 1 Parenting, Self-Esteem and bullying behavior, 2 Parenting and Self-esteem either individually or collectively contributed to the bullying behavior. The population of study is focus in students of SMP Negeri 6 Percut Sei Tuan, with a sample 193 of students, by using multistage random sampling technique. The instrument in this study used a Likert Scale model and inventory (CFSEI. The results of reliability test on parenting 0901 and 0938 for bullying behavior. The validity of instrument on parenting and self-esteem is 0361 and 0.361 for self- esteem. These results indicate that parenting is in good enough category and self-esteem is at a low category, bullying in middle category, and parenting and self-esteem either singly or collectively that contribute to bullying behavior.

  16. Urgensi Peranan Keluarga bagi Perkembangan Self-esteem Remaja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmarijal Nikmarijal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is the period of interest due to their properties and its role in determining the life of society. The one that affects its development is self-esteem. Self-esteem is formed through the interaction of individuals with their environment. One family environment, if the environment providing something fun, self-esteem would be positive, but if its not fun and self-esteem will be negative, further support parents, parental control, and relationship to each other between the parents give a direct influence on the development of adolescent self-esteem. This article will expose further the importance of the role of the family in developing the self-esteem of teenage.

  17. Self-esteem Among Young Bisexual Women in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buer, Liliana; Anderssen, Norman; Malterud, Kirsti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between self-esteem, perception of social acceptance and feeling of loneliness in a sample of young bisexual, lesbian and heterosexual women, including assessing self-esteem longitudinally across 13 years. The analyses were based on self......-completed questionnaires from the longitudinal study “Young in Norway” (13 years follow-up, 1992-2005). N=1,598 female participants at baseline and follow-up (45 bisexual women, 21 lesbian women, 1,532 heterosexual women), age 25-32 years at follow-up. At baseline, there were no differences in self-esteem, but at follow......-up bisexual women reported lower self-esteem, lower levels of perceived acceptance, and higher levels of loneliness. For bisexual women, self-esteem did not increase from adolescence to adulthood. At follow-up, loneliness had a stronger connection with self-esteem among bisexual women compared to lesbian...

  18. Impact of emotional maltreatment on self esteem among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Sadia; Kaiser, Aneeqa

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the impact of emotional maltreatment on self-esteem among adolescents, and to see if gender makes a difference in this context. The cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2014, and comprised adolescents in the age range of 14 to 18 years who were selected using purposive sampling from various government and private schools and colleges of Sargodha, Punjab. The questionnaire on seven dimensions of emotional maltreatment at home and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used. There were 400 subjects; 200(50%) boys and as many girls. The overall mean age was 16.14±1.36 years (range: 14-18 years). Correlation coefficient indicated significant negative relationship between emotional maltreatment and self-esteem (degrading r= -0.33, pself-esteem (isolating?= -0.12, pself-esteem. Emotional maltreatment strongly predicted negative self-esteem among adolescents. Gender was a significant factor in the domain of degrading.

  19. A randomized control trial of the effect of yoga on Gunas (personality) and Self esteem in normal healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande, Sudheer; Nagendra, H R; Nagarathna, Raghuram

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aims: To study the efficacy of yoga on Gunas (personality) and self esteem in normal adults through a randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Of the 1228 persons who attended motivational lectures, 226 subjects aged 18–71 years, of both sexes, who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated into two groups. The Yoga (Y) group practised an integrated yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, me...

  20. Self-esteem among nursing assistants: reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Tara; Resnick, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    To establish the reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) when used with nursing assistants (NAs). Testing the RSES used baseline data from a randomized controlled trial testing the Res-Care Intervention. Female NAs were recruited from nursing homes (n = 508). Validity testing for the positive and negative subscales of the RSES was based on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) using structural equation modeling and Rasch analysis. Estimates of reliability were based on Rasch analysis and the person separation index. Evidence supports the reliability and validity of the RSES in NAs although we recommend minor revisions to the measure for subsequent use. Establishing reliable and valid measures of self-esteem in NAs will facilitate testing of interventions to strengthen workplace self-esteem, job satisfaction, and retention.

  1. Damaged Self-Esteem is Associated with Internalizing Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Creemers, Daan H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Specifically, the relationship between the size and the direction of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneli...

  2. Transitions in romantic relationships and development of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Eva C; Orth, Ulrich

    2017-02-01

    Research suggests that self-esteem increases during late adolescence and young adulthood, but that there is large interindividual variability in this development. However, little is known about the factors accounting for these findings. Using propensity score matching, we tested whether important transitions in the domain of romantic relationships (i.e., beginning a relationship, marrying, and breaking up) explain why individuals differ in the particular self-esteem trajectory they follow. Data came from a longitudinal German study with a large sample of 3 nationally representative cohorts of late adolescents and young adults (total N = 9,069). The analyses were based on 4 assessments across a 3-year period. Using matched samples, the results showed that beginning a relationship increased self-esteem and that the increase persisted when the relationship held at least for 1 year. Experiencing a relationship break-up decreased self-esteem, but the effect disappeared after 1 year, even if the participant stayed single. Marrying did not influence self-esteem. Additionally, we tested for selection effects of self-esteem on the later occurrence of relationship transitions. High self-esteem predicted the beginning of a relationship and low self-esteem predicted relationship break-up. All findings held across gender, age, and migration background. Furthermore, relationship quality mediated the effect of self-esteem on relationship break-up and the effect of beginning a longer versus a short relationship on self-esteem. The findings have significant implications because they show that self-esteem influences whether important transitions occur in the relationship domain and that, in turn, experiencing these transitions influences the further development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. EVALUATION OF VOCATIONAL SELF ESTEEM LEVELS OF THE TURKISH COACHES

    OpenAIRE

    Yunus YILDIRIM; Hüseyin KIRIMOĞLU; Gülşen FİZLAZOĞLU ÇOKLUK

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to evaluate vocational self esteem levels of the coaches of individual sports or team sports. We tried to investigate whether there was a significant difference between vocational self esteem levels and such variables as age, gender, employment status, professional-working-time, educational status and sport type.“Vocational Self Esteem Scale” developed by Arıcak (1999) and “Personal Information Form” developed by the researcher were used in order to determi...

  4. Self-Esteem: Models and Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    image . In developing an understanding of self - esteem , we find the history and the magnitude of the task to be complex...Allport (1961) examined the development process of self - esteem . He proposed that the self develops " body awareness" in the first year of life; a sense...of continuity of identity over time in the second year; and a sense of self - esteem beginning in the third year. The self - image and a 14

  5. Dental aesthetics and self-esteem in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ginna Mabel Muñoz; David Alexander Barrera; Nubia Rocío Sánchez; Edwin Gerardo Luna; Ana Cristina Mafla

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental aesthetics and self-esteem inadolescents.Methods: The sample was 387 randomly selected high school adolescents between 13 and 16 years of age. A clinicalexamination to evaluate dental aesthetics was conducted using the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI). Self-esteem was assessedwith the Rosenberg’s Self-esteem Scale. The statistical analysis included a descriptive analysis and means comparison, whichwas made through...

  6. Physical education candidate teachers' beliefs about vocational self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    CANPOLAT, A.; OZSAKER, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine epistemological belief and vocational self-esteem physical education candidate teachers of Physical Education and Sports Department in 3 different universities, and also to examine effect of epistemological beliefs on vocational self-esteem. A total of 346 candidate teacher respondents (137 female and 209 male) participated in the study. Epistemological Beliefs and Vocational Self-Esteem Scale were used to determine candidate teachers’ epistemologica...

  7. Accuracy of Self-Esteem Judgments at Zero Acquaintance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmüller, Sarah; Schmukle, Stefan C; Krause, Sascha; Back, Mitja D; Egloff, Boris

    2018-04-01

    Perceptions of strangers' self-esteem can have wide-ranging interpersonal consequences. Aiming to reconcile inconsistent results from previous research that had predominantly suggested that self-esteem is a trait that can hardly be accurately judged at zero acquaintance, we examined unaquainted others' accuracy in inferring individuals' actual self-esteem. Ninety-nine target participants (77 female; M age  = 23.5 years) were videotaped in a self-introductory situation, and self-esteem self-reports and reports by well-known informants were obtained as separate accuracy criteria. Forty unacquainted observers judged targets' self-esteem on the basis of these short video sequences (M = 23s, SD = 7.7). Results showed that both self-reported (r = .31, p = .002) and informant-reported self-esteem (r = .21, p = .040) of targets could be inferred by strangers. The degree of accuracy in self-esteem judgments could be explained with lens model analyses: Self- and informant-reported self-esteem predicted nonverbal and vocal friendliness, both of which predicted self-esteem judgments by observers. In addition, observers' accuracy in inferring informant-reported self-esteem was mediated by the utilization of targets' physical attractiveness. Besides using valid behavioral information to infer strangers' self-esteem, observers inappropriately relied on invalid behavioral information reflecting nonverbal, vocal, and verbal self-assuredness. Our findings show that strangers can quite accurately detect individuals' self-reported and informant-reported self-esteem when targets are observed in a public self-presentational situation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Parenting and Adolescents’ Self-Esteem: The Portuguese Context

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Yara; Veiga, Feliciano; Fuentes, María C.; García, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationships between parenting styles and adolescent’s psychosocial adjustment (self-esteem) in the Portuguese culture. The sample was of 517 adolescents, 214 males (41.39 %), and aged 11 to 18 years. We used the Parental Socialization Scale (ESPA29) to assess the parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent and negligent), and the Multidimensional Self-esteem Scale Form-5 (AF5) that assesses five dimensions of self-esteem: academic, social, emotional, fa...

  9. Biologic Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alessandra; Naranjo, Juan Diego; Londono, Ricardo; Badylak, Stephen F

    2017-09-01

    Biologic scaffold materials composed of allogeneic or xenogeneic extracellular matrix are commonly used for the repair and functional reconstruction of injured and missing tissues. These naturally occurring bioscaffolds are manufactured by the removal of the cellular content from source tissues while preserving the structural and functional molecular units of the remaining extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanisms by which these bioscaffolds facilitate constructive remodeling and favorable clinical outcomes include release or creation of effector molecules that recruit endogenous stem/progenitor cells to the site of scaffold placement and modulation of the innate immune response, specifically the activation of an anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. The methods by which ECM biologic scaffolds are prepared, the current understanding of in vivo scaffold remodeling, and the associated clinical outcomes are discussed in this article. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  10. Synthetic biology of polyketide synthases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Backman, Tyler W.H.; Keasling, Jay D.

    2018-01-01

    ). The modules are composed of enzymatic domains that share sequence and functional similarity across all known PKSs. We have used the nomenclature of synthetic biology to classify the enzymatic domains and modules as parts and devices, respectively, and have generated detailed lists of both. In addition, we...... realize the potential that synthetic biology approaches bring to this class of molecules....

  11. Self-esteem and injury in competitive field hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolt, G S; Roberts, P D

    1998-08-01

    A volunteer sample of 50 competitive field hockey players completed the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory at pre- and postseason and prospectively collected injury data over a 20-wk. season. Multiple regression analysis showed no relationship between scores on Self-esteem and the number of injuries, the participation time affected due to injury, and sex of players. Further multiple regression analysis showed that frequency of the more severe injuries significantly predicted scores on Self-esteem. This finding can be interpreted as evidence of the relationship between low self-esteem and injury in sport.

  12. Self-esteem and evaluative beliefs in paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, Carmen; Cantero, Dolores; Sánchez, Alvaro; Provencio, María; Wickham, Sophie

    2014-06-01

    Psychological models have implicated negative self-esteem as an important factor underlying paranoia. However, research investigating the role of self-esteem in paranoia suffers from poor conceptual and methodological understanding, resulting in conflicting findings. Central to this problem is the use of measures investigating global self-esteem and self-evaluative beliefs interchangeably. In the present study we aimed to analyze differences in self-esteem domains and self-evaluation. The present study used interviews and questionnaires to compare a clinical sample of participants who were currently paranoid (n = 55) with healthy controls (n = 57) on global self-esteem domains and negative evaluative beliefs, in order to investigate the multi-faceted role of "the self". There was no significant difference in self-esteem domains between groups, highlighting that self-esteem is preserved in currently paranoid individuals. However, the paranoid group had significantly more negative evaluative beliefs. Interestingly, our global measures of self-esteem and measures of negative evaluative beliefs were uncorrelated, highlighting the importance of understanding the differences underlying these concepts. This study does not address dynamic aspects of self-esteem and self-evaluation. The present study provides undeniable evidence to investigate self-concept dimensions separately. These findings must be considered by researchers interested in the role of the self in the onset and maintenance of paranoia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Self-Esteem and Friendship Networks in Female College Students

    OpenAIRE

    吉山, 尚裕; Naohiro, Yoshiyama

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the correlations of trait self-esteem, real size of, and subjective size of interpersonal networks with same-sex peers and opposite-sex friends. Respondents were two hundred and twenty-five female college students (mean age=19.7). Results showed (1) self-esteem correlated with the degree to which respondents felt accepted by same-sex peers, (2) self-esteem was paralleled with the number of close same-sex peers, and (3) high self-esteem respondents have...

  14. The role of self-esteem in safer sexual practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, F L

    1997-01-01

    Self-esteem appears in the literature as a variable that influences the practice of risky sexual behaviors. It is often assumed that higher levels of self-esteem are associated with safer sexual behaviors, especially those that prevent the spread of HIV. The research literature was reviewed to examine the relationship between self-esteem and the practice of safer sexual behaviors. Research indicates that higher levels of self-esteem are found in adolescents who practice risky sexual behaviors and have more sexual partners. Research and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Franck

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as high congruent validity. Overall, these findings support the usefulness of the Dutch RSES as a measure for global self-esteem.

  16. Evaluation of adolescents' self-esteem through the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory and graphometric analysis of students' handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellingham-Jones, P

    1987-10-01

    Self-esteem has long been considered an essential component of good mental health. Coopersmith's Self-esteem Inventory and Wellingham-Jones Self-esteem Values List applied to handwritings were given to 15- to 19-yr.-old students to explore the former's usefulness in designing programs to enhance self-esteem. Students were from 4 high schools representing the socioeconomic range of a small rural California city. Handwritings of the 25 students scoring highest and the 25 scoring lowest on self-esteem were graphometrically evaluated. Chi squared showed total agreement between the two tests in 62% of the cases, partial agreement in 30%, complete disagreement in 8%. This suggests Coopersmith's inventory may be a useful tool for school administrators, provided its limitations are understood. Similarities and differences between and within the high and low self-esteem groups were discussed.

  17. Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part I – The relationship between low self-esteem and psychiatric diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstone, Peter H; Salsali, Mahnaz

    2003-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence and the degree of lowered self-esteem across the spectrum of psychiatric disorders. Method The present study was carried out on a consecutive sample of 1,190 individuals attending an open-access psychiatric outpatient clinic. There were 957 psychiatric patients, 182 cases with conditions not attributable to a mental disorder, and 51 control subjects. Patients were diagnosed according to DSM III-R diagnostic criteria following detailed assessments. At screening, individuals completed two questionnaires to measure self-esteem, the Rosenberg self-esteem scale and the Janis and Field Social Adequacy scale. Statistical analyses were performed on the scores of the two self-esteem scales. Results The results of the present study demonstrate that all psychiatric patients suffer some degree of lowered self-esteem. Furthermore, the degree to which self-esteem was lowered differed among various diagnostic groups. Self-esteem was lowest in patients with major depressive disorder, eating disorders, and substance abuse. Also, there is evidence of cumulative effects of psychiatric disorders on self-esteem. Patients who had comorbid diagnoses, particularly when one of the diagnoses was depressive disorders, tended to show lower self-esteem. Conclusions Based on both the previous literature, and the results from the current study, we propose that there is a vicious cycle between low self-esteem and onset of psychiatric disorders. Thus, low self-esteem increases the susceptibility for development of psychiatric disorders, and the presence of a psychiatric disorder, in turn, lowers self-esteem. Our findings suggest that this effect is more pronounced with certain psychiatric disorders, such as major depression and eating disorders. PMID:12620127

  18. Hubungan antara Kebiasaan Berpikir Negatif Tentang Tubuh dengan Body Esteem dan Harga Diri

    OpenAIRE

    Herabadi, Astrid Gisela

    2007-01-01

        A considerable body of research has acknowledge the relationship between body esteem and the more general self esteem, however not much has been revealed concerning the dynamic process of self esteem development.The following research was intended to: (1) identify the predictors of low body esteem, and (2) how these predictors and body esteem itself consequently contribute to low self esteem. Participants were 458 college students in Atma Jaya Catholic University Jakarta (2...

  19. Is self-esteem a "double edged sword"? Self-esteem and the onset of adolescent sexual activity

    OpenAIRE

    Favara, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Self-esteem has been conceptualized as a "social vaccine". The belief is that high self-esteem can inoculate young people, against vulnerability to a wide range of social illnesses. This study gives a contribution in the understanding of the causal relation between self-esteem and sexual behaviour among American adolescents. I analyzes the impact of different levels of early self-esteem on a wide set of risky sexual behaviours. I use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Hea...

  20. The Lifespan Self-Esteem Scale: Initial Validation of a New Measure of Global Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A; Donnellan, M Brent; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces the Lifespan Self-Esteem Scale (LSE), a short measure of global self-esteem suitable for populations drawn from across the lifespan. Many existing measures of global self-esteem cannot be used across multiple developmental periods due to changes in item content, response formats, and other scale characteristics. This creates a need for a new lifespan scale so that changes in global self-esteem over time can be studied without confounding maturational changes with alterations in the measure. The LSE is a 4-item measure with a 5-point response format using items inspired by established self-esteem scales. The scale is essentially unidimensional and internally consistent, and it converges with existing self-esteem measures across ages 5 to 93 (N = 2,714). Thus, the LSE appears to be a useful measure of global self-esteem suitable for use across the lifespan as well as contexts where a short measure is desirable, such as populations with short attention spans or large projects assessing multiple constructs. Moreover, the LSE is one of the first global self-esteem scales to be validated for children younger than age 8, which provides the opportunity to broaden the field to include research on early formation and development of global self-esteem, an area that has previously been limited.

  1. Explicit self-esteem mediates the relationship between implicit self-esteem and memory biases in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Nuria; Sanchez, Alvaro; Vázquez, Carmelo; Valiente, Carmen

    2016-08-30

    This study examines the relationships between explicit and implicit self-esteem and self-referent memory biases in depression. We specifically tested the hypothesis that implicit self-esteem would influence depression-related memory biases via its association with explicit self-esteem. Self-esteem was assessed in patients with a current Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n=38) and in a control group of participants who had never experienced depression (ND; n=40) by using explicit (Rosenberg Self-esteem Questionnaire) and implicit (Go/No-go Association Task) measures. A self-referent processing task of negative and positive adjectives was used to assess memory bias. Our analyses revealed that participants diagnosed with MDD showed lower levels of both explicit and implicit self-esteem in comparison to ND participants. MDD compared to ND participants also recalled a greater number of depressed self-referent adjectives and lower recall of positive self-referent information. Mediation analyses showed an indirect effect of explicit self-esteem on the relationship between implicit self-esteem and depression-related memory biases in the MDD group. These findings suggest an association between implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression that may result in negative cognitive processing, as reflected by self-referent memory biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sweets, Sex, or Self-Esteem? Comparing the Value of Self-Esteem Boosts with Other Pleasant Rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Bushman, Brad J.; Moeller, Scott J.; Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and s...

  3. Investigating self-esteem in individuals with schizophrenia: relevance of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc; Laisné, François

    2006-06-30

    Studies investigating self-esteem in individuals with severe mental illness, either as a treatment goal, outcome or correlate to other variables, have increased over the past few years. One of the main difficulties in assessing self-esteem is the assessment itself, often measuring global and stable self-esteem as in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, or requiring extensive training and long interviews. The present article aims at demonstrating the relevance of the French and English versions of the Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form with individuals with severe mental illness. The instrument's reliability and validity were investigated in a sample of 250 French Canadian college students, 247 British college students and three samples of English- or French-speaking individuals with severe mental illness (N=254, N=150 and N=171). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that a shorter version of the instrument (20 items), with a positive and a negative self-esteem factor, had a great validity for all the samples studied. The Self-Esteem Rating Scale-Short Form, with its positive and negative self-esteem subscales, appears to be a valid and reliable self-esteem measure for individuals with mental health problems. Limitations of this study and future directions are discussed.

  4. COMPARISON OF LEVELS OF SELF-ESTEEM BY SEX AND LEVEL OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN TWO GROUPS OF SENIOR ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Rodríguez Méndez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to observe whether there are differences in the self-esteem score, depending on the level of physical activity (active-sedentary in a sample of senior adults. Twenty-six senior adults participated in the study with an average of 73 ± 9 years of age. The sedentary group (n = 12 belonged to the Santo Domingo Nursing Home in Heredia, Costa Rica, while the active group belonged to the project entitled Modulation of the Aging Process of the Movement for Life Program. Results: No significant differences were found in scores by level of physical activity (t = 0.931, p = 0.363; however, there were significant differences in self-esteem scores by gender (t = -2.255, p = 0.034. It was concluded that the level of physical activity does not affect self-esteem and that men’s level of self-esteem is higher than women’s.

  5. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND SELF ESTEEM IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Suvitha; Dr. M. Navaneetha; Dr. Nappinai; Dr. Sridevy; Dr. E. Premila

    2017-01-01

    Back Ground: In India use of alcohol is higher in deprived communities contributing to thirty Percent of use to the male population and five percent of use to female population .And in recent years the alcohol use of young people is increased and as their age increases their quantity and frequency of intake has also been increased. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the level of self esteem and alcohol consumption in male adolescents. Materials and Methods: A descriptive design with qua...

  6. Church attendance and self-esteem among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; Francis, Leslie J.; Williams, Emyr

    2007-01-01

    A total of 279 young people (123 males and 156 females) aged between 12 and 16 years of age attending one school in Wales completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory alongside a measure of frequency of church attendance. The data indicate a small positive correlation (r = .18) between self-esteem and church attendance.

  7. Parental contexts of adolescent self-esteem: A developmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberg, R S; Hauser, S T; Jacobson, A M; Powers, S I; Noam, G; Weiss-Perry, B; Follansbee, D

    1988-02-01

    Relationships between parental behaviors and adolescent self-esteem were analyzed in a group of 95 early adolescents from multiple settings. The study was designed to investigate hypotheses regarding associations between observed parental interactions (e.g., accepting and devaluing) and adolescent self-esteem. Parents' verbal interactions with their adolescents were assessed through application of the constraining and enabling coding system to transcribed family discussions, generated through a revealed differences procedure. Adolescent self-esteem was measured with the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Parent interaction-self-esteem associations were examined in the pooled sample, as well as in specific sub-groups based on gender, health, and ego development (measured by the Washington University Sentence Completion Test). Boys had more numerous associations between their self-esteem and parental interactions than girls, and psychiatrically ill boys had particularly high associations. Parental interactions were found to be most strongly related to adolescent self-esteem for adolescents at the lowest levels of ego development. Our findings are consistent with the view that increasing individuation in self-esteem regulation occurs during adolescent development, such that adolescents at higher levels of ego development evaluate themselves more independently of parental feedback than do their less mature peers.

  8. Self-esteem and hopefulness in adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, M A

    2001-02-01

    Increased survivorship in childhood cancer has raised questions about adolescents' psychosocial functioning during the treatment experience and long-term adaptation as cancer survivors. This descriptive correlation study examines the relationships among the stages of adolescence, gender, self-esteem, and hopefulness in a sample of 45 adolescents with cancer. The perceived level of self-esteem was measured by using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory; the amount of hopefulness was measured by using the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Mean scores for self-esteem and hopefulness were comparable to normative data reported for healthy adolescents on each scale. Perceived level of self-esteem and hopefulness did not significantly differ between boys and girls overall; early, middle, and late adolescents; or between boys and girls within each stage of adolescence. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed self-esteem and the early stage of adolescence accounted for 27.3% (R2 = .306) of the variance in hopefulness scores. Self-esteem was the most significant predictor (F = 12.456, p = .001), explaining 20.7% of the variance (R2 = .225, p = .001). This study contributes to nursing the knowledge of the psychosocial response and the treatment experience in adolescents with cancer. These results can be used in future research to develop and test nursing actions that can influence a perceived sense of self-esteem and hopefulness and potentially allow for continued psychosocial development and effective coping among these adolescents during treatment and into survivorship.

  9. Maternal self-esteem, exposure to lead, and child neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O

    2008-03-01

    The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers' self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance.

  10. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Robert S; Heatherton, Todd F

    2015-03-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Self-Esteem and Coping Strategies among Deaf Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta

    2005-01-01

    Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with…

  12. Romanticism and Self-Esteem among Teen Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medora, Nilufer P.; von der Hellen, Cheryl

    1997-01-01

    Examined teen mothers' (N=94) romanticism and self-esteem so as to investigate these variables' relationships among ten independent variables, (e.g., age and sexual activity). Results indicate that five variables were significantly related to romanticism (previous abortion, etc.), whereas two variables were connected to self-esteem (age and birth…

  13. The Egocentricity Index and Self-Esteem in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael; Tegtmeyer, Paul F.

    1982-01-01

    Testing whether pairs and reflections on a Rorschach protocol were related to self-esteem, egocentricity indices were correlated with two self-report esteem measures. No significant relationships between variables or differences between normal and abnormal indices were found. (Author/CM)

  14. I'm Positive: Growing Up with Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document presents "I'm Positive: Growing Up With Self-Esteem," an informal, personal study course designed to strengthen the reader's ability to nurture self-esteem in children from birth through adolescence. Special emphasis is given to four parenting skills: acceptance, encouragement, empowerment, and love. Weekly activities are provided…

  15. Teachers' Definitions of Self-Esteem When Rating Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Female teachers rated 107 preschool boys and girls on their self-esteem and on a sex role rating scale. Although the validity of such ratings remains an issue, it appears that children rated high in self-esteem by their teachers are those perceived as assertive, active, athletic--stereotypically masculine traits. (Author/SJL)

  16. Gender Differences in the Meaning of Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrick, Patricia

    It has been found that the sexes differ as to social/affective versus instrumental/competence orientation, with females oriented more towards the social domain and males oriented more towards the instrumental domain. Because it has been suggested that the sexes also differ as to the source of self-esteem, with males deriving esteem from task…

  17. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and Student Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterbin, Allan; Rakow, Ernest

    The direct effects of locus of control and self-esteem on standardized test scores were studied. The relationships among the standardized test scores and measures of locus of control and self-esteem for 12,260 students from the National Education Longitudinal Study 1994 database were examined, using the same definition of locus of control and…

  18. Low Self-Esteem of Psychotherapy Patients: A Qualitative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Jacob D.; Cronje, Elsje M.; Payze, Catharine

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the story of 11 male psychotherapeutic patients with low self-esteem is told within the context of the research process. The literature suggests that the concept of "self-esteem" has a significant influence on the way an individual experiences his/her world. Therefore, the meaning that the psychotherapeutic patients…

  19. Do Improved Communication Skills Lead to Increased Self-Esteem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Robert J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Results suggest that children's communication skills can be increased with a relatiionship enhancement curriculum of relatively short duration. But self-esteem and communication skills are relatively independent phenomena. Teachers interested in increasing self-esteem need to include exercises specifically aimed at self-enhancement. (Author)

  20. Psychosocial Predictors of Taiwanese Secondary Students' Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; Lawrenz, Frances

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between psychosocial factors and self-esteem for 1,672 Taiwanese senior high school students (779 boys, 893 girls). Students from Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, completed a Chinese version of the Secondary Student Questionnaire (SSQ), which measures self-esteem, depression, anxiety, stereotyped thinking,…

  1. Trajectories of Global Self-Esteem Development during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Melkevik, Ole; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente

    2012-01-01

    Based on data from a 17-year longitudinal study of 1083 adolescents, from the ages of 13 to 30 years, the average development of self-reported global self-esteem was found to be high and stable during adolescence. However, there is considerable inter-individual variance in baseline and development of global self-esteem. This study used latent…

  2. Social Support and Self-Esteem in Unemployed University Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationships between length of unemployment time, self-esteem and general life satisfaction of university graduates (n=98). Also examined the function of social support during the period of unemployment. Results indicated length of unemployment, contrary to previous findings, was not related to self-esteem and general life…

  3. Implicit self-esteem in recurrently depressed patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risch, A.K.; Bubal, A.; Birk, U.; Morina, N.; Steffens, M.C.; Stangier, U.

    2010-01-01

    Negative self-esteem is suggested to play an important role in the recurrence of depressive episodes. This study investigated whether repeated experiences of a negative view of the self within a recurrent course of depression might cause implicit self-esteem to be impaired and negative

  4. Special Delivery Systems. Self-Esteem Exercises. Learning Disabilities Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Carol

    This publication contains self-esteem exercises and a learning disabilities (LD) curriculum for students with LD in adult basic education programs. The 37 student exercises are designed to build the self-esteem of students with LD. They include self-evaluations, profiles, and checklists. Topics covered are success, decision making, problem…

  5. Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale: Two Factors or Method Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Jose M.; Oliver, Amparo

    1999-01-01

    Results of a study with 640 Spanish high school students suggest the existence of a global self-esteem factor underlying responses to Rosenberg's (M. Rosenberg, 1965) Self-Esteem Scale, although the inclusion of method effects is needed to achieve a good model fit. Method effects are associated with item wording. (SLD)

  6. The Contribution of Significant Others to Adolescents' Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; Dekovic, Maja

    1990-01-01

    Examined evaluations by mothers, fathers, teachers, and friends and adolescent self-esteem. Results from 399 adolescents revealed that adolescents differed in their self-esteem with regard to sex and age: girls evaluated themselves more positively than did boys and younger adolescents more positively than older ones. Relative contribution of…

  7. Multimodal frontostriatal connectivity underlies individual differences in self-esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherton, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    A heightened sense of self-esteem is associated with a reduced risk for several types of affective and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety and eating disorders. However, little is known about how brain systems integrate self-referential processing and positive evaluation to give rise to these feelings. To address this, we combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test how frontostriatal connectivity reflects long-term trait and short-term state aspects of self-esteem. Using DTI, we found individual variability in white matter structural integrity between the medial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum was related to trait measures of self-esteem, reflecting long-term stability of self-esteem maintenance. Using fMRI, we found that functional connectivity of these regions during positive self-evaluation was related to current feelings of self-esteem, reflecting short-term state self-esteem. These results provide convergent anatomical and functional evidence that self-esteem is related to the connectivity of frontostriatal circuits and suggest that feelings of self-worth may emerge from neural systems integrating information about the self with positive affect and reward. This information could potentially inform the etiology of diminished self-esteem underlying multiple psychiatric conditions and inform future studies of evaluative self-referential processing. PMID:24795440

  8. Employed Mothers: Job Satisfaction and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinacore-Guinn, Ada L.

    1998-01-01

    Examines how certain demographic variables affect job satisfaction and self-esteem in a sample of 138 employed mothers from a major U.S. city. Results indicate that age, race, and employment status were significantly related to job satisfaction and self-esteem, whereas time, education level, number and age of children, and marital status were not.…

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease and self-esteem in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindfred, H; Saalman, R; Nilsson, S; Reichenberg, K

    2008-02-01

    To compare the self-esteem of adolescents suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with that of healthy adolescents, and to identify factors affecting self-esteem in the presence of IBD. A self-assessment questionnaire, 'I think I am' (ITIA), was completed by 71 (41 boys) out of 77 adolescents (10-16 years) with IBD. Of the participating adolescents, 23 had Crohn's disease, 44 had ulcerative colitis and 4 had indeterminate colitis. The self-esteem of adolescents with IBD was compared with that of 1037 school children. In this population-based study, children with IBD estimated their self-esteem in the same range as healthy adolescents. Using a multiple regression analysis, the self-esteem of adolescents with IBD was related to disease course severity and cohabitation status of parents. Children with severe disease and children of single parents were found to be most at risk of low self-esteem. This study shows that, as a group, adolescents with IBD have self-esteem in the same range as their healthy peers, but that there are some adolescents with IBD who are at risk of low self-esteem. Special attention should be given to adolescents with a severe disease course and to those with separated parents.

  10. Global Self-Esteem: Cognitive Interpretation in an Academic Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    Researchers have assumed that global self-esteem (often labeled as general self-concept), being a general aggregate of perceptions of the self, is content free. Recent research has, however, shown that responses to self-esteem survey items are influenced by the context in which the respondents are asked to make their responses--a chameleon effect.…

  11. Damaged self-esteem is associated with internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, D.H.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Prinstein, M.J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    Implicit and explicit self-esteem are assumed to be important factors in understanding the onset and maintenance of psychological problems. The current study aims to examine the association between implicit and explicit self-esteem and their interaction with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation,

  12. Self-esteem recognition based on gait pattern using Kinect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bingli; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Xingyun; Hu, Bin; Zhu, Tingshao

    2017-10-01

    Self-esteem is an important aspect of individual's mental health. When subjects are not able to complete self-report questionnaire, behavioral assessment will be a good supplement. In this paper, we propose to use gait data collected by Kinect as an indicator to recognize self-esteem. 178 graduate students without disabilities participate in our study. Firstly, all participants complete the 10-item Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSS) to acquire self-esteem score. After completing the RRS, each participant walks for two minutes naturally on a rectangular red carpet, and the gait data are recorded using Kinect sensor. After data preprocessing, we extract a few behavioral features to train predicting model by machine learning. Based on these features, we build predicting models to recognize self-esteem. For self-esteem prediction, the best correlation coefficient between predicted score and self-report score is 0.45 (pself-esteem with a fairly good criterion validity. The gait predicting model can be taken as a good supplementary method to measure self-esteem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical Activity and Self-Esteem: "Jonny's Story"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Kristy; Bowen, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has proposed that physical exercise can raise self-esteem. This paper will examine the extent to which physical activity interventions, within one case study primary school supported the development of self-esteem of a (junior) year 5 child over a period of five months. Jonny was 10 years old when the physical activity…

  14. Building Self-Esteem: A Self-Help Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building Self-esteem A Self-Help Guide Foreword It contains information, ideas, and strategies that people from all over the ... 20857 SMA-3715 Table of Contents Foreword Introduction Self-esteem, Depression and Other Illnesses Things You Can Do ...

  15. Self-Esteem and Future Orientation Predict Adolescents' Risk Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Danielle M.; MacPhee, David

    2017-01-01

    This study's purpose was to examine the relations among future orientation, self-esteem, and later adolescent risk behaviors, and to compare two mediational models involving self-esteem versus future orientation as mediators. An ethnically diverse sample of 12- to 14-year-olds (N = 862, 54% female, 53% ethnic minority) was assessed longitudinally.…

  16. [Athletic performance, self-esteem and temperamental profile : Which relationship?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masmoudi, Jawaher; Trigui, Dorsa; Feki, Ines; Bâati, Imen; Jaoua, Abdelaziz

    2015-03-01

    Several authors emphasize the close relationship between self-esteem and athletic performance; such a relationship may raise the following question: by saying "strong" or "without any physical condition", is it a fair presentation of the individual's abilities or he reveals the most fundamental aspects of his personality, such as emotional temperament? To evaluate self-esteem, physical self and temperamental profile in a group of sportsmen, and to look for a relationship between these variables and athletic performance. We performed a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic study in 80 young handball players of the "senior" category. We assessed self-esteem using the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, physical self-using the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI), and temperamental profile using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Paris and San Diego Auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A). Athletic performance was evaluated by the team coach by means of a score ranging from 1 to 10. High self-esteem was correlated to female gender (p=0.03), to an early start of physical activity (pself-esteem (pself-esteem (p=0.001). Good athletic performance was associated with hyperthymic (pself-esteem might help to achieve better athletic performance. In this intervention, the individual temperamental profile should be taken into account.

  17. Utility of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Clare; Kellett, Stephen; Beail, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) continues to be used to purportedly measure self-esteem of people with intellectual disabilities, despite the lack of sound evidence concerning its validity and reliability when employed with this population. The psychometric foundations of the RSES were analyzed here with a sample of 219 participants with…

  18. Situating adolescent gender and self-esteem with personal memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, A; Michaelieu, Q

    1996-08-01

    To identify social schemas that are associated with self-esteem in adolescence, the contents of approximately 1,400 memories from a longitudinal sample of 41 males and 43 females were correlated with a Q-sort measure of self-esteem. Each memory concerned an important or problematic encounter, and was coded for social motive, affect, and identity of significant other. For young women, memories about wanting to help female friends were associated with chronically high and increasingly high levels of self-esteem from ages 14 to 23. For young men, memories about successfully asserting oneself with male friends were associated with chronically high and increasingly high levels of self-esteem. Low self-esteem in women, both chronic as well as decreasing, was associated with memories about failing to get approval from friends. Decreasing self-esteem for males was associated with memories about wanting love from female friends. The results confirm and refine prior findings that adolescent self-esteem is localized in relationships with peers rather than parents, and is based on different relational schemas for females than for males. The findings may help to identify contexts for preventative interventions to enhance adolescent self-esteem.

  19. Marriage, Money, and African American Mothers' Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Johnston, Jamie S.; Murray, Carolyn B.; Varner, Fatima

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status and family income on the self-esteem of 292 African American mothers. Counter to previous studies with European American mothers, family income moderated the effects of marital status. Those mothers with higher family income had higher self-esteem, regardless of their marital status. For those with…

  20. The role of self-esteem in the misinformation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Previous research using the Gudjonnson suggestibility scale has suggested a role for self-esteem in suggestibility, with participants low in self-esteem being more suggestible than participants high in self-esteem. Four experiments are presented examining the role of self-esteem in the misinformation effect and whether enhanced suggestibility effects in participants low in self-esteem reflect genuine memory impairment. In Experiments 1 and 4 participants completed a standard recognition test. In Experiment 2 participants completed the modified recognition test. In Experiment 3 participants completed a free recall test. In Experiments 1 and 4 participants low in self-esteem demonstrated greater misinformation effects than participants high in self-esteem. In Experiment 3 a 3-day retention interval was employed with the modified test and no differences were found between the two groups on the reporting of the new item. The findings suggest that participants low in self-esteem are particularly sensitive to demand characteristics and post-event suggestion but do not suffer from genuine memory impairment.

  1. Self-esteem among college students from four Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M; Korayem, Adel Shokry; El-Nayal, Mayssah A

    2012-02-01

    This study had three objectives: (a) to compare undergraduates from four Arab countries on self-esteem, (b) to explore the sex-related differences in self-esteem in these four Arab countries, and (c) to examine the association of self-esteem with both per-capita income and unemployment rate. Four samples of 2,643 students were recruited from Egypt (n = 576), Kuwait (n = 674), Lebanon (n = 826), and Oman (n = 567). They responded to the Arabic version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Kuwaiti and Omani men had a significantly higher mean score on self-esteem than did Egyptian and Lebanese men. Egyptian women scored significantly lower than the Omani women, but the effect size was small. Regarding the sex-related differences in self-esteem, Kuwaiti men had a significantly higher mean score than did their female peers, but the effect size was small, whereas there were no significant sex differences in the other samples. The sex-related difference in self-esteem is a controversial result and it may not be replicable in different countries. It was suggested that self-esteem is associated with high per-capita income and low unemployment rate.

  2. Organizational justice and self-esteem as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study sought to discern the relationship between organizational justice, self-esteem and organizational citizenship behaviour, (OCB), voluntary acts beyond the role specifications, self-esteem,educational background and gender among employees of the Nigerian breweries.The study was achored on the ...

  3. Figure Drawing as an Expression of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Stanley; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Results of the study show that several features of figure drawing identify the children who differ in self esteem. These differentiating features are associated with behavioral expressions of esteem rather than with self-appraisals of personal worth. (Author/DEP)

  4. Assessment of Self-Esteem and Satisfaction in Amputee Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, C. D.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The study involving six single and multiple amputee children (10 to 14 years old) was conducted to provide information on how situations affect the self esteem of amputee children, how situations affect satisfaction with their prostheses, and the relationship between amputee self esteem and their satisfaction with their prosthetic device.…

  5. Area Specific Self-Esteem, Values, and Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Joseph; Young, Michael; Pearson, Rebecca; Penhollow, Tina M.; Hernandez, Aida

    2008-01-01

    The use of illicit and licit drugs continues to be a major public health concern. Many prevention and drug education programs address this issue by attempting to enhance self-esteem. The idea is that increased levels of self-esteem will serve as a protective factor in decreasing the motivation and increasing the resistance to use drugs. This study…

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). Part II: Optimization of 4-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzonitrile derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Moriteru; Hitaka, Takenori; Imada, Takashi; Yamada, Masami; Morimoto, Megumi; Shinohara, Hiromi; Hara, Takahito; Yamaoka, Masuo; Santou, Takashi; Nakayama, Masaharu; Imai, Yumi; Habuka, Noriyuki; Yano, Jason; Wilson, Keith; Fujita, Hisashi; Hasuoka, Atsushi

    2017-05-01

    We recently reported a class of novel tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs), represented by a naphthalene derivative A. However, their pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles were poor due to low metabolic stability. To improve the PK profiles, we modified the hydroxypyrrolidine and benzonitrile substituents of 4-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)benzonitrile derivative B, which had a comparable potency as that of compound A. This optimization led us to further modifications, which improved metabolic stability while maintaining potent androgen agonistic activity. Among the synthesized compounds, (2S,3S)-2,3-dimethyl-3-hydroxylpyrrolidine derivative 1c exhibited a suitable PK profile and improved metabolic stability. Compound 1c demonstrated significant efficacy in levator ani muscle without increasing the weight of the prostate in an in vivo study. In addition, compound 1c showed agonistic activity in the CNS, which was detected using sexual behavior induction assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Social relations and the self-esteem of older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G R; Shehan, C L

    1989-12-01

    This study employs survey data from a sample of persons 55 years of age and older to examine the antecedents of self-esteem. Hypotheses are derived from a theoretical orientation that hinges on the ability of the individual to terminate relations that might be productive of negative reflected appraisals. Consistent with hypotheses, friendship interaction is positively related to self-esteem, whereas kinship interaction is not. Marital satisfaction also affects self-esteem positively; among men, this effect is stronger for the retired than for the employed. Finally, never-married and nonemployed older women have lower self-esteem than other women have. Implications are drawn regarding the importance and role of self-esteem in theories of psychological well-being among older persons.

  8. Self-esteem in later life: a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, L B

    1985-10-01

    Self-esteem provides a measure for the quality of life of the elderly in long-term care. This article defines self-esteem in relation to self-concept and identifies the antecedents that affect its development. Elements of labeling theory, activity theory, and social exchange theory are explored to account for a potential decline in self-esteem among the elderly. According to this electric theoretical framework, stigmatization, decreased social interaction, and loss of control over the environment are all negatively correlated with self-esteem. Institutionalization intensifies the effect of these forces. Nursing is in a unique position to promote self-esteem by combating ageism, promoting social interaction, and maximizing the control and participation of elderly residents.

  9. HIV/AIDS knowledge and self-esteem among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxley, G M

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of HIV/AIDS is rapidly increasing among adolescents and young adults with some studies linking sexual risk taking and self-esteem. A convenience sample of 39 ethnically diverse adolescents, ages 14-18, participated in a pilot study designed to assess HIV/AIDS knowledge and to build self-esteem. Adolescents selected from two centers in California completed the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Student Health Questionnaire (SHQ) before beginning and after completing a program of six 2-hour educational sessions. These sessions focused on HIV/AIDS knowledge and building self-esteem. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission increased by 2096 from pretest to posttest. Practitioners addressing the needs of adolescents should focus on in-depth information regarding HIV/AIDS, especially in the area of prevention strategies and cultural factors influencing levels of self-esteem.

  10. Figure drawing as an expression of self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, S; Sakai, D; Beardslee, B; Coopersmith, A

    1976-08-01

    Figure drawings were obtained from 97 preadolescent males who differed in self and behavioral assessments of self-esteem. These subjects had been selected from a much larger sample and represented five different types of self-esteem. The figure drawings were scored for 15 variables, dealing with formal characteristics, content, and global-interpretations of the total drawings. Five significant differences were obtained, with the content and global-interpretative categories proving more differentiating between self-esteem groups than did the formal characteristics. Behavioral expressions of self-esteem were more associated with figure drawing characteristics than were subjective evaluations. Discussion focuses on the nature of self-concept and self-esteem in children as a sensorimotor rather than symbolic expression.

  11. Self-Esteem and the Reproduction of Social Class*

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Spencer L.; Amato, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self-esteem in this process. Method Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,952), we employed structural equation models to examine the relationship between parenting practices and attitudes, socioeconomic status, offspring's self-esteem, and the likelihood of offspring college attendance. Results Self-esteem was positively related to the likelihood of offspring's college attendance. Additionally, self-esteem was found to be a modest mediator of the relationship between parental educational expectations and parental income, respectively, and the likelihood of offspring completing or being currently enrolled in college. Conclusion Self-esteem may constitute one previously unconsidered mechanism for reproducing the class structure in the United States. PMID:25568500

  12. INTERNET ADDICTION, SELF-ESTEEM, AND RELATIONAL PATTERNS IN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Perrella

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We examined the relationships between Internet addiction symptoms, specific relational patterns, and self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. We hypothesized that Internet addiction symptoms were related to low self-esteem, dysfunctional thoughts about the self and the world, and inadequate internalized relational configurations. Method: The sample included 153 adolescents, ranging in age between 14 and 17 years old. All the participants filled questionnaires on internet use/abuse, self-esteem, and object relation models. Results: We found an inverse relationship between self-esteem and Internet addiction scores. We did not find significant associations between problematic Internet use and specific object relation models. Conclusions: It seems appropriate that psychodynamic research on problematic Internet use should focus on variables that may have a negative impact on self-esteem (e.g., real life experiences and that may foster problematic Internet use among adolescents.

  13. Self-Esteem and the Reproduction of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Spencer L; Amato, Paul R

    2013-12-01

    Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self-esteem in this process. Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households ( N = 1,952), we employed structural equation models to examine the relationship between parenting practices and attitudes, socioeconomic status, offspring's self-esteem, and the likelihood of offspring college attendance. Self-esteem was positively related to the likelihood of offspring's college attendance. Additionally, self-esteem was found to be a modest mediator of the relationship between parental educational expectations and parental income, respectively, and the likelihood of offspring completing or being currently enrolled in college. Self-esteem may constitute one previously unconsidered mechanism for reproducing the class structure in the United States.

  14. Fathers and Daughters: Using a Multivariate Analysis through Multiple Regression to Help Predict a Daughter's Self-Esteem as Experienced by College-Age Women in Rural Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshaler, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout her life, a woman makes decisions about behaviors, relationships, academic accomplishments, and achievements. What propels women to make these choices may be driven by an image of self. This feeling of self-worth or self-esteem is developed early in life with the help of her primary caregivers as found in her biological mother and…

  15. Self-Esteem and Academic Stress among Nursing Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya Pandey, R; Chalise, H N

    2015-01-01

    Stress and self-esteem are common issues that everyone has to cope with at some time in their lives and they could also affect other things going on in a persons' life. Academic stress is psychological condition often experienced by college students as, to some extent, being multidimensional variables. Among others are self-esteem and psychological well-being which are considered to have influences in explaining why college students experience stress. Objective The objective of this study was to assess the self-esteem level and academic stress among the nursing students. Method This is a cross-sectional study carried out in 2012. Total respondents were 190 nursing students selected randomly from Kathmandu University. Academic stress was assed using 30-item Scale for Assessing Academic Stress (SAAS) and Self esteem was assessed using 10 item Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. Information was collected through the self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 16 software. Simple statistics measurement, percentage, means, correlation was used for the data analysis. Result This study shows mean age of the respondent's was 20.44±2.67 years. Majority (88%) of students getting financial support of less than NRs 6000 per month and 64% have low perceived family support. This study found mean score of self esteem and academic stress was 11.9 and 18.4 respectively. Further nearly 78% students have low self esteem and 74% have high academic stress. Significant variable for high academic stress and low self esteem were lower the age, lower the education and low perceived family support. Lower financial support has also high academic stress. Conclusion Nursing students have low self esteem and high academic stress. Intervention to lower the academic stress and increase the self esteem should be carried out so that the learning of students will be efficient.

  16. Effects of trauma and religiosity on self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiland, Sarah; Lauterbach, Dean

    2008-06-01

    Self-esteem is often lower among persons who have experienced trauma, but religiosity may ameliorate these psychological effects. The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationships among religiosity, self-esteem, and childhood exposure to trauma, utilizing data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a large (N = 8,098) nationally representative population survey in the 48 contiguous states of the USA that assessed religious practices, self-esteem, and exposure to trauma. Exposure to trauma in childhood was assessed through self-report of presence or absence of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect. Religiosity was assessed as the sum of responses to 4 self-report items (religious service attendance, use of religion for comfort and guidance, and importance of religion). Self-esteem was assessed on 9 self-report items adapted from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Analysis of variance compared scores for persons who reported exposure to childhood abuse and differed in the value they placed on various religious practices on self-esteem. Persons who reported physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect in childhood had significantly lower mean self-esteem than those who did not report these events. There was also a main effect for religiosity in a comparison of persons who reported childhood sexual abuse with those who reported none. The High Religiosity group had higher mean self-esteem than the Medium and Low Religiosity groups. There was a significant interaction as those who reported childhood sexual abuse had lower mean self-esteem than peers who reported none in the Low and Medium Religiosity groups. Mean self-esteem for those who reported childhood sexual abuse was comparable to that of those who reported none in the High Religiosity group.

  17. Self-Esteem Challenges of Nursing Students: An Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Self-esteem among nursing students is important in providing high-quality serviceto clients, yet each study in this field has described only a portion of existing relevant knowledge.Integrative review studies are the best practice for identification of existing nursing knowledge.The purpose of this study was to determine self-esteem challenges among nursing students. Methods: An integrative review was conducted in this study. The databases ProQuest, Medlineon PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and Iran Medix were used for the review. The articleswere retrieved in three steps, including searching by search terms, reviewing the proceedingsbased on inclusion criteria and final retrieval and assessment of the available full texts. We used alist of keywords, including nursing, self-esteem and challenges and mixed them with "AND" and"OR" as a search strategy. Papers were included and eligible if they were associated with problemsrelated to nursing students’ self-esteem. Those studies that focused only on the self-esteem ofregistered nurses or patients were excluded. Search results were limited to the years 1960-2014. Results: Our findings showed three major challenges, including challenges associated withinconsistency in determining the level of students’ self-esteem, self-esteem associated challengesin professionalism of students, and the psychosocial challenges pertaining to the consequences oflow self-esteem. Conclusion: The findings suggest there is a need for more qualitative research to explore thefactors that contribute to self-esteem in nursing students with a particular focus on the factorsthat increase or decrease self-esteem. In addition, strategies to maintain and increase self-esteemneed to be designed, implemented and evaluated.

  18. [Three types of self-esteem: its characteristic differences of contingency and contentment of sources of self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Masaya; Kawasaki, Naoki; Kodama, Masahiro

    2011-02-01

    Previous research and theory (Crocker & Wolfe, 2001; Kernis, 2003) suggests that adaptive self-esteem stems from just being oneself, and is characterized by a sense of authenticity (SOA). Maladaptive self-esteem is derived from meeting external standards and social comparisons, and is characterized by a sense of superiority (SOS). Thus, the qualitative difference between SOA and SOS depends on the sources of self-esteem. We hypothesized that SOA is related to internal sources of self-esteem, while SOS is related to external sources. In order to control for covariance, global self-esteem was also examined in a questionnaire survey of self-esteem that was administered to 273 university students. The results of a partial correlation analysis showed that SOA was positively correlated with internal sources of self-esteem such as committed activities and efforts for self-development. In contrast, SOS was positively correlated with external sources of self-esteem such as approval from others and appearance. These results mainly support our hypotheses.

  19. Global Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy Correlates: Relation of Academic Achievement and Self-Esteem among Emirati Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afari, Ernest; Ward, Graeme; Khine, Myint Swe

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the relationships between global self-esteem, academic self-efficacy and academic performance among a sample of 255 college students in the United Arab Emirates. The widely used Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965) and an academic self-efficacy scale, modified from (Jinks and Morgan, 1999) were used to assess…

  20. Body-Esteem Mediates the Relationship between Self-Esteem and Social Anxiety: The Moderating Roles of Weight and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Abbas; Abu Talib, Mansor; Reza Vakili Mobarakeh, Mohammad; Momtaz, Vahid; Kavian Mobarake, Roya

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of social anxiety during adolescence is high, and it is necessary that we increase our knowledge on the related factors that contribute to social anxiety. The present study sought to examine the relationships among self-esteem, body-esteem, and social anxiety among adolescent students, as well as to examine the mediating role of…

  1. A masked negative self-esteem? : Implicit and explicit self-esteem in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2016-01-01

    The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on

  2. Sweets, Sex, or Self-Esteem? Comparing the Value of Self-Esteem Boosts with Other Pleasant Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J.; Moeller, Scott J.; Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and seeing a best friend. Both studies found that people who highly valued self-esteem engaged in laboratory tasks to boost their self-esteem. Finally, personality variables interacted with these value ratings. Entitled people thought they were more deserving of all pleasant rewards, even though they did not like them all that much (both studies); and people who highly value self-esteem pursue potentially maladaptive self-image goals, presumably to elevate their self-esteem (Study 2). PMID:21950264

  3. The Effect of Acute Weight Loss on Body Composition, Self-Esteem and Appearance Esteem before Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Gülsüm; Özdemir, Mehmet; Tanir, Halil; Salim, Emrullah

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss in human body accompanies physical and psychological differences. In this study, it was aimed to see whether acute weight loss (dehydration) affected self-esteem and appearance esteem in the elite wrestlers before competitions. 38 professional wrestlers who had international competition experiences and were required to be in a lower…

  4. Sweets, sex, or self-esteem? Comparing the value of self-esteem boosts with other pleasant rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Moeller, Scott J; Crocker, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Many people ascribe great value to self-esteem, but how much value? Do people value self-esteem more than other pleasant activities, such as eating sweets and having sex? Two studies of college students (Study 1: N=130; Study 2: N=152) showed that people valued boosts to their self-esteem more than they valued eating a favorite food and engaging in a favorite sexual activity. Study 2 also showed that people valued self-esteem more than they valued drinking alcohol, receiving a paycheck, and seeing a best friend. Both studies found that people who highly valued self-esteem engaged in laboratory tasks to boost their self-esteem. Finally, personality variables interacted with these value ratings. Entitled people thought they were more deserving of all pleasant rewards, even though they did not like them all that much (both studies), and people who highly value self-esteem pursued potentially maladaptive self-image goals, presumably to elevate their self-esteem (Study 2). © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2011, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Self-Concept, Self-Esteem and Academic Achievement: Strategies for Maintaining Self-Esteem in Students Experiencing Academic Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Francisco; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research into the relationship between self-esteem and academic achievement shows that despite differences in academic self-evaluation, students' global self-representations do not differ as a result of their grades at school. In this study, we will analyse the strategies that underachievers used to maintain their self-esteem at an…

  6. Do Parents Foster Self-Esteem? Testing the Prospective Impact of Parent Closeness on Adolescent Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A; Gruenenfelder-Steiger, Andrea E; Ferrer, Emilio; Donnellan, M Brent; Allemand, Mathias; Fend, Helmut; Conger, Rand D; Trzesniewski, Kali H

    2015-02-23

    Close parent-child relationships are viewed as important for the development of global self-esteem. Cross-sectional research supports this hypothesis, but longitudinal studies provide inconsistent prospective effects. The current study uses data from Germany (N = 982) and the United States (N = 451) to test longitudinal relations between parent-child closeness and adolescent self-esteem. The authors used self-, parent-, and observer-reported parent-child closeness and self-reported self-esteem from ages 12 to 16. Results replicated concurrent correlations found in the literature, but six longitudinal models failed to show prospective relations. Thus, the longitudinal effect of parent-child closeness and self-esteem is difficult to detect with adolescent samples. These findings suggest the need for additional theorizing about influences on adolescent self-esteem development and longitudinal research with younger samples. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Genetics and Molecular Biology of Epstein-Barr Virus-Encoded BART MicroRNA: A Paradigm for Viral Modulation of Host Immune Response Genes and Genome Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Dreyfus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus, a ubiquitous human herpesvirus, is associated through epidemiologic evidence with common autoimmune syndromes and cancers. However, specific genetic mechanisms of pathogenesis have been difficult to identify. In this review, the author summarizes evidence that recently discovered noncoding RNAs termed microRNA encoded by Epstein-Barr virus BARF (BamHI A right frame termed BART (BamHI A right transcripts are modulators of human immune response genes and genome stability in infected and bystander cells. BART expression is apparently regulated by complex feedback loops with the host immune response regulatory NF-κB transcription factors. EBV-encoded BZLF-1 (ZEBRA protein could also regulate BART since ZEBRA contains a terminal region similar to ankyrin proteins such as IκBα that regulate host NF-κB. BALF-2 (BamHI A left frame transcript, a viral homologue of the immunoglobulin and T cell receptor gene recombinase RAG-1 (recombination-activating gene-1, may also be coregulated with BART since BALF-2 regulatory sequences are located near the BART locus. Viral-encoded microRNA and viral mRNA transferred to bystander cells through vesicles, defective viral particles, or other mechanisms suggest a new paradigm in which bystander or hit-and-run mechanisms enable the virus to transiently or chronically alter human immune response genes as well as the stability of the human genome.

  8. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Addiction in Chinese College Students: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of Meaning in Life and Self-Esteem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available Internet addiction (IA has increasingly been recognized as a serious psychological malady among college students. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated to addictive behaviors, also to IA, and that the purpose of the study is to investigate whether or not there are variables modulating the relation between impulsivity and IA. "Meaning in life" is regarded as a desirable attribute, with positive mental health outcomes. "Self-esteem" is often regarded as an important component of psychological health which has relation to IA. Therefore, we examined meaning in life and self-esteem's possible effects in this relationship. A total of 1068 Chinese college students ranging in age from 18 to 25 years were recruited for this cross-sectional survey study. Correlations and multivariate regressions were used to calculate the possible mediation and moderation relationship among the variables of meaning in life, self-esteem, impulsivity, and IA. In the analyses that we conducted, IA was shown to be prevalent among Chinese university students. The relationship between impulsivity and IA was partially mediated by meaning in life, and the relationship between meaning in life and IA was moderated by self-esteem. Our findings demonstrate that meaning in life and self-esteem can be useful buffers to IA for highly impulsive individuals. Further randomized trials to confirm these results are needed.

  9. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Addiction in Chinese College Students: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of Meaning in Life and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Mei, Songli; Li, Li; Chai, Jingxin; Li, Jiaomeng; Du, Hongyang

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has increasingly been recognized as a serious psychological malady among college students. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated to addictive behaviors, also to IA, and that the purpose of the study is to investigate whether or not there are variables modulating the relation between impulsivity and IA. "Meaning in life" is regarded as a desirable attribute, with positive mental health outcomes. "Self-esteem" is often regarded as an important component of psychological health which has relation to IA. Therefore, we examined meaning in life and self-esteem's possible effects in this relationship. A total of 1068 Chinese college students ranging in age from 18 to 25 years were recruited for this cross-sectional survey study. Correlations and multivariate regressions were used to calculate the possible mediation and moderation relationship among the variables of meaning in life, self-esteem, impulsivity, and IA. In the analyses that we conducted, IA was shown to be prevalent among Chinese university students. The relationship between impulsivity and IA was partially mediated by meaning in life, and the relationship between meaning in life and IA was moderated by self-esteem. Our findings demonstrate that meaning in life and self-esteem can be useful buffers to IA for highly impulsive individuals. Further randomized trials to confirm these results are needed.

  10. Contribution of the modulation of intensity and the optimization to deliver a dose adapted to the biological heterogeneities; Apport de la modulation d'intensite et de l'optimisation pour delivrer une dose adaptee aux heterogeneites biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubs, F

    2007-10-15

    The recent progress in functional imaging by Positron Emission Tomography (TEP) opens new perspectives in the delineation of target volumes in radiotherapy. The functional data is major; we can intend to adapt the irradiation doses on the tumor activity (TA) and to perform a dose escalation. Our objectives were (i) to characterize the TEP threshold, by quantifying the uncertainties of the target volume contour according to the lesion size and the threshold contour level, (ii) to set up the geometry suited to perform a high-precision irradiation based on the TA, (iii) to estimate the dosimetric impact of this new protocol and (iv) to verify that dosimetry is perfectly distributed. Three original phantoms were specially created to satisfy the constraints met, as well as two virtual phantoms containing 3 dose levels (dose level 3 = TA). Our results showed the importance of the effect threshold-volume on the planning in radiotherapy. To use this irradiation method, the diameter of 1 cm for the third level was able to be reached. A dose escalation of 20 Gy was possible between the second (70 Gy) and the third level (90 Gy). The dosimetric impact estimated on two real cases was suitable - increase of COIN (conformal index) from 0.6 to 0.8 and decrease of NTCP (normal tissue complication probability) of a factor 5 -. In absolute and relative dosimetry, the clinical tolerances were respected. So all the treatment process, going from the diagnosis with the TEP to reveal the TA, to the patient treatment made beforehand on phantom, and going through the ballistic and the dose calculation, was estimated and validated according to our objective to adapt the irradiation to the biological heterogeneities. However such high doses should be carefully estimated before being prescribed clinically and progress is also expected in imaging, because the minimal size which we can irradiate is on the limit of the resolution TEP. (author)

  11. Teachers Need Self-Esteem Too: A Counseling Workshop for Elementary School Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Mary Finn

    1992-01-01

    This article is based on rationale that teacher self-esteem is crucial to learning environment and to development of self-esteem in children. Discusses teacher self-esteem and describes a workshop designed to enhance the self-esteem of elementary school teachers. Examples of activities in the counselor-run workshop are provided. (NB)

  12. Self-Esteem: Exploring Its Dimensions and Its Life-Span Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dianne Elaine

    In the field of adult education, self-esteem is a concept worthy of exploration, for it is a crucial component of much that happens in the educational setting. However, although many studies have explored self-esteem in children, little has been written about adult self-esteem. Self-esteem has been defined as a component of self and has many…

  13. Self-Esteem Check: Too Low, Too High or Just Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deserving the respect of others. When you have low self-esteem, you put little value on your opinions and ... to recognize the extremes of your self-esteem: Low self-esteem. When you have low or negative self-esteem, ...

  14. Instability in self-esteem and paranoia in a general population sample

    OpenAIRE

    Thewissen, Viviane; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Bentall, Richard; de Graaf, Ron; Vollebergh, Wilma; van Os, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Research on the association between paranoia and self-esteem has yielded inconsistent findings. Some studies have indicated an association between paranoia and low self-esteem, while other studies have shown an association with high self-esteem. A plausible explanation for these inconsistencies is that self-esteem is unstable in paranoid individuals.

  15. Cutural Predictors of Self-Esteem: A Study of Chinese American Female and Male Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ying, Yu-Wen; Lee, Peter Allen

    2001-01-01

    Domains of cultural orientation such as language, social affiliation, and cultural pride, were examined in Chinese American college students (N=353) to see how they related to self-esteem. Cultural orientation significantly predicted self-esteem differences. Cultural predictors of self-esteem varied by gender; self-esteem was mainly related to…

  16. Adaptation and Validation of Aricak's Professional Self-Esteem Scale for Use in the Pakistani Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Hafiz Muhammad; Bibi, Fariha; Gul, Asma

    2016-01-01

    One of the characteristics of teachers having great bearing upon students' learning is their professional self-esteem. Various instruments are available for measuring general self-esteem and professional self-esteem of teachers. For the present study it was deemed appropriate to use a Turkish professional self-esteem scale developed by Aricak…

  17. The Influence of Discrimination and Fairness on Collective Self-Esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, Daan; Spears, Russell; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Doosje, Bertjan

    This article examines the influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem. Whereas social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis emphasizes that discrimination can enhance self-esteem, the authors contend that this self-esteem advantage will actually reverse when groups are

  18. A New Measure to Assess Linguistic Self-Esteem in Adolescent Latino Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Sabina Rak

    2011-01-01

    Present conceptualizations and measures of self-esteem do not account for linguistic self-esteem, an aspect of the self specifically relevant for bilingual students. This study examines the utility of a newly developed measure of linguistic self-esteem. This novel measure is compared with a commonly used self-esteem measure, two standardized…

  19. The influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, D.; Spears, R.; Manstead, A.S.R.; Doosje, B.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the influence of discrimination and fairness on collective self-esteem. Whereas social identity theory's self-esteem hypothesis emphasizes that discrimination can enhance self-esteem, the authors contend that this self-esteem advantage will actually reverse when groups are

  20. Cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women: Appearance esteem, weight esteem, and fear of negative appearance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaev, Jamie L; Schulz, Jessica L; Markey, Charlotte N

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has examined factors thought to influence individuals' interest in cosmetic surgery, yet few studies have examined these issues among midlife women. This study examines predictors of cosmetic surgery attitudes among midlife women ( N = 114; age = 45-65 years; M age  = 53.7) and considers a previously unexplored variable: fear of negative appearance evaluation. Results indicated that lower weight and appearance esteem were associated with more positive cosmetic surgery attitudes and greater fear of negative appearance evaluation. Furthermore, fear of negative appearance evaluation mediated the relationship between appearance and weight esteem and cosmetic surgery attitudes. We conclude that fear of negative appearance evaluation is an important factor to consider in examining cosmetic surgery attitudes.

  1. Effect of lower blepharoplasty on self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Giovanni André Pires; Osaki, Midori Hentona; Nishi, Mauro

    2010-08-01

    Cosmetic surgery is an increasingly common medical procedure whose benefits to patients have not been quantified objectively. Although physicians historically have focused on minimizing side effects and optimizing the physical outcome, a broad spectrum of patient needs also factors in treatment success. Unfortunately, few data are available regarding the effects of cosmetic procedures on patient's self-esteem. To prospectively examine long-term self-esteem outcomes for patients undergoing lower blepharoplasty at São Paulo Federal University between April 2005 and May 2007. The self-esteem of 50 patients undergoing blepharoplasty at São Paulo Federal University was compared with that of 25 age-matched volunteers from the general population. The parameters of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) were determined preoperatively and at 6-month intervals postoperatively. The data from the instrument were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. Self-esteem scores improved from a baseline preoperative mean level+/-standard deviation of 5.1+/-4.1 to 3.6+/-3.5 6 months after surgery (p=.001). The self-esteem of 31 (62%) subjects improved after the surgery. Marked improvement in self-esteem, evaluated using RSES at 6-month follow-up, was observed in patients undergoing blepharoplasty.

  2. Self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaigordobil, Maite; Pérez, José Ignacio; Mozaz, María

    2008-02-01

    This study has two objectives: 1) to analyse the characteristics of self-concept, self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms in accordance with age and gender in a representative sample from the Basque Country; and 2) to explore the relationships of self-concept and self-esteem with psychopathological symptoms. The sample is made up of 1,579 participants, aged 12 to 65, of whom 732 are males (46.4%) and 847 are females (53.6%). The study uses a descriptive and correlational methodology. For the measurement of psychopathological symptoms, self-concept and self-esteem, three assessment instruments are applied. The ANOVAs indicated significant differences associated with age in self-concept, self-esteem, and quantity of psychopathological symptoms. As regards gender, no significant differences were found for self-concept and self-esteem, but there were differences in psychopathological symptoms, with females scoring higher in various disorders (somatization, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, and total quantity of symptoms). The results of the correlational analyses confirmed significant inverse relationships between self-concept/self-esteem and psychopathological symptoms. The discussion considers the potential role of intervention programmes that promote self-concept and self-esteem in the prevention of psychopathological problems.

  3. Family factors of self-esteem stability in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Jelisaveta A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of investigations was to examine what upbringing styles and socio-economic parameters correlate with adolescents’ unstable self-esteem. Self-esteem is an evaluative measure of self-concept whose stability in time reflects personality’s autonomy and integrity. Using the sample of 280 secondary school students, the SSES scale was administered twice, at a 30-day interval, the EMBU scale of upbringing styles, a questionnaire with general data on respondents and socioeconomic parameters. It proved that upbringing style and parental tenderness (of both father and mother correlate with unstable self-esteem in adolescents. Significant correlation between upbringing styles and unstable self-esteem was also found in inconsistency, low control and protection on the part of father. Stable self-esteem is significantly negatively correlated with inconsistency of mother. Of diverse socioeconomic parameters, educational level of father and his profession are of critical importance for stable self-esteem. Upbringing styles produce greater influence on self-esteem level than socio-economic parameters do.

  4. Effect of malocclusion on the self-esteem of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibah, Salwa Mahmoud; Al-Hummayani, Fadia Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Esthetics plays an essential role in orthodontic treatment. The psychological effects of malocclusion are an inspiration to improve one's esthetics and seek treatment. This study aimed to assess relationships between self-esteem and malocclusion severity and type in adolescents using a self-esteem measurement scale and the index of treatment need (IOTN) and to investigate the influence of age, sex, and school type in these relationships. Adolescent students aged 12-19 years randomly selected from four private and two governmental schools were enrolled for this study. After completing the self-esteem questionnaire, participants were examined by researchers to evaluate malocclusion severity and type using the IOTN. The sample consisted of 886 participants: 558 females (62.9%) and 328 males (37.1%) with a mean age of 16 years. Chi-square analysis showed that 17.1% of males and 31% of females showed low levels of self-esteem, with a statistically significant difference ( P self-esteem ( P = 0.018) compared with single-category malocclusion. Anterior teeth spacing, crowding, and overjet malocclusion showed the highest percentages of low self-esteem. The present study supports that malocclusion has negative effects on self-esteem; multiple malocclusions with spacing, crowding, and overjet had the greatest effects.

  5. Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents With Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D. Warner-Czyz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years. Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002 and attention (r = .45, p = .001 temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p < .0001. No significant correlations emerged between self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population.

  6. Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents With Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = − .60, p self-esteem and demographic factors, communication skills, or social engagement. Because successful communication abilities do not always co-occur with excellent quality of life, clinicians and professionals working with children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. PMID:25755025

  7. Pathways between self-esteem and depression in couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D; Galambos, Nancy L; Finn, Christine; Neyer, Franz J; Horne, Rebecca M

    2017-04-01

    Guided by concepts from a relational developmental perspective, this study examined intra- and interpersonal associations between self-esteem and depressive symptoms in a sample of 1,407 couples surveyed annually across 6 years in the Panel Analysis of Intimate Relations and Family Dynamics (pairfam) study. Autoregressive cross-lagged model results demonstrated that self-esteem predicted future depressive symptoms for male partners at all times, replicating the vulnerability model for men (low self-esteem is a risk factor for future depression). Additionally, a cross-partner association emerged between symptoms of depression: Higher depressive symptoms in one partner were associated with higher levels of depression in the other partner one year later. Finally, supportive dyadic coping, the support that partners reported providing to one another in times of stress, was tested as a potential interpersonal mediator of pathways between self-esteem and depression. Female partners' higher initial levels of self-esteem predicted male partners' subsequent reports of increased supportive dyadic coping, which, in turn, predicted higher self-esteem and fewer symptoms of depression among female partners in the future. Male partners' initially higher symptoms of depression predicted less frequent supportive dyadic coping subsequently reported by female partners, which was associated with increased feelings of depression in the future. Couple relations represent an important contextual factor that may be implicated in the developmental pathways connecting self-esteem and symptoms of depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Contingent self-esteem and vulnerability to depression: Academic contingent self-esteem predicts depressive symptoms in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eSchöne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Low self-esteem has been established as a vulnerability factor for depression. In line with recent research, we suggest that a full understanding of the role of self-esteem in depression requires consideration of contingent self-esteem as well. For most people, competence is an important source of self-esteem. Students in particular link their self-esteem to academic competence. To test the hypothesis that academic contingent self-esteem (aCSE predicts depressive symptoms, two studies were conducted. Preceding the investigation of our hypothesis, the first purpose of Study 1 was to describe the development of aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms in adolescence in a sample of German students aged 10–16 (N = 1888 in order to provide a foundation for further analyses. Then, to address the main question, age and gender differences in aCSE, self-esteem level, and depressive symptoms as well as their relations were investigated. The results show that (1 gender differences emerged after the age of 10/11. Girls scored higher on aCSE and depressive symptoms and lower on self-esteem level than did boys, and aCSE and depressive symptoms decreased and self-esteem level increased over time in boys, while the rather disadvantageous pattern in girls remained stable. (2 After controlling for self-esteem level and aCSE, the effects of gender and age × gender interaction on depressive symptoms disappeared, suggesting an influence of aCSE on depressive symptoms. (3 aCSE predicted depressive symptoms over and above self-esteem level.Since the results of Study 1 did not allow for causal conclusions, a longitudinal study (N = 160 was conducted to further investigate the causal role of aCSE. According to the diathesis-stress model, aCSE was expected to serve as a diathesis for developing depressive symptoms in the face of academic stress (daily hassles during an academic semester at university. The results of Study 2 revealed that aCSE interacted with

  9. Social Functioning and Self-Esteem of Substance Abuse Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöğütçü, Filiz; Karakaş, Sibel Asi

    2016-10-01

    This descriptive study was conducted to examine the levels of social functioning and self-esteem in individuals diagnosed with substance abuse. The study was conducted at the AMATEM (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Treatment Center) service of a psychiatry clinic in the Elazığ province in eastern Turkey between September 1, 2014 and February 1, 2015. The population is comprised of 249 patients being treated in this clinic, and the sample included 203 patients who comply with the research criteria and agreed to participate in the study. A Socia-Demographic Questionnaire, Coopersmith Self-esteem Scale (CSI) and Social Functioning Scale (SFS) were used for data collection. Percentages, averages, standard deviations and Pearson's correlation were used for data analysis. This study found that the patients' mean sore on the Self-esteem Scale is 50.97±18.01. Their score on the Social Functioning Scale is 115.76±22.41. A significant correlation between the patients' self-esteem and the age of first substance use was detected (p=0.001). A significant correlation was detected between their social functioning and the duration of their substance use (pself-esteem (pself-esteem and social functioning. A significant positive correlation between social functioning and self-esteem was found. It was also found that the age of first substance use and self-esteem are directly correlated. Counseling to increase patients' levels of self-esteem and improve their social functioning is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics associated with low self-esteem among US adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Kingsbury, John; Gerrard, Meg; Sargent, James D

    2010-01-01

    Low self-esteem in adolescents has been associated with a number of risk and protective factors in previous studies, but results have been mixed. Our objective was to examine characteristics associated with low self-esteem in a large national sample of young adolescents. We conducted a population-based correlational study. A sample of 6522 adolescents aged 12 to 16 years was surveyed by phone as part of a national study of media and substance use. Self-esteem was measured with 3 questions that assessed global self-worth and physical appearance. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between self-esteem and sociodemographics, child personality characteristics,weight status, daily TV time, parenting style, school performance,and team sports participation. Interactions among gender, race, and weight status were examined. In multivariate analysis, female gender, Hispanic race, overweight and obesity, sensation seeking, rebelliousness, and daily TV time were each independently associated with lower self-esteem. Teens of black race, with higher parental responsiveness and demandingness, better school performance, or involvement in team sports were less likely to report low self-esteem. Black females were at lower risk and Hispanic males were at higher risk for low esteem than peers of similar gender of other races. Low self-esteem was associated with a number of modifiable risk factors, including obesity, TV time, team sports participation, school performance, and parenting style, that should be discussed with teens and parents at health supervision visits. Further research examining race and gender-specific factors that serve to moderate risk for poor self-esteem in adolescents is warranted.

  11. Discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem: implications for mate retention strategies and perceived infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fulton, Jessica J; McLemore, Chandler

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the association between explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes was moderated by implicit self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 210 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships to complete measures of their explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, mate retention strategies, and likelihood of future infidelity. Implicit self-esteem was found to moderate the association between high explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes for male participants such that men with discrepant high self-esteem (i.e., high explicit self-esteem but low implicit self-esteem) reported less use of mate retention strategies and perceived a greater likelihood of future infidelity in their relationships during the next year. These findings provide additional support for the idea that fragile self-esteem may have consequences for the manner in which individuals perceive their relationships.

  12. Peran Experienced Stigma terhadap Self Esteem pada Suku Nias

    OpenAIRE

    Hutauruk, Lucy Gabriella

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the role of experienced stigma against self esteem in Nias ethnic. The study involved 151 people of Nias ethnic who lived in Medan. Sampling was done by incidental sampling and processed by simple linear regression test with an SPSS 17.0 Software Program. The instrument in this research are the scale of experienced stigma and self-esteem scale developed by the researchers.These results indicate there is the role of experienced stigma against self esteem in Nias et...

  13. KETERKAITAN SELF EFFICACY DAN SELF ESTEEM TERHADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofwan Adiputra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aims to measure the relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem on student achievement. The research was conducted using quantitative descriptive analysis by the method of field research, which is conducted by survey to respondents. To analyze the data using correlational analysis techniques and multiple regression analysis techniques. The conclusion from this study showed that the relationship of self-efficacy and self-esteem on learning achievement. Keywords: Self Efficacy, Self Esteem, Achievement

  14. [Self-esteem and giftedness: a Rorschach Comprehensive System study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostogianni, N; Andronikof, A

    2014-02-01

    According to empirical literature, low self-esteem is highly correlated to behavioural and emotional problems in gifted children and adolescents. Since self-esteem is an indicator of social and emotional adjustment, it would be interesting to better understand the meaning of this construct, as it is evaluated explicitly with the use of self-report questionnaires. In order to explore the psychological processes underlying the explicit self-esteem, we studied the relation of a self-report questionnaire and an indirect measure of self and interpersonal perception using the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). The participants were 93 children, aged between 9 and 15 years old, with an IQ≥130. They were attending regular classes (no curriculum difference). Self-esteem was evaluated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI). We used the Rorschach CS measures of self and interpersonal perception. The results showed no significant correlation between self-esteem and high IQ. A negative correlation between self-esteem evaluated on the SEI and the Rorschach Vista responses was found, which reflected self-critical introspection and painful self-appraisal. Then a positive correlation was observed between self-esteem and reflection answers on the Rorschach (Fr+rF>0), which are related to narcissistic-like features of personality. We also found a positive correlation between self-esteem and the Rorschach egocentricity index (EGO), which provides an estimate of self-concern. Finally, the strongest correlation was found between self-esteem and the dominance of good over poor human representations (GHR>PHR), which reveals effective interpersonal behaviour. The psychological processes which seem to be related to low self-esteem in gifted children and adolescents are maladaptive interpersonal behaviours, painful experience of introspection focusing on perceived negative aspects of the self, absence of narcissistic-like features of the personality and low self-concern. These

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; Barbez, Catherine; Rosseel, Yves

    2008-01-01

    Interest in self-esteem has been fuelled by the suggestion that level of self-esteem is associated with psychological well-being. In the present study, we translated the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) into the Dutch language and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sample of 442 adults. The results of both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses confirmed that a single-factor solution provides the best fit. In addition, the Dutch RSES showed high internal consistency as well as...

  16. Trial-by-Trial Modulation of Associative Memory Formation by Reward Prediction Error and Reward Anticipation as Revealed by a Biologically Plausible Computational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer C; Müller, Julia; Schwartz, Sophie

    2017-01-01

    Anticipation and delivery of rewards improves memory formation, but little effort has been made to disentangle their respective contributions to memory enhancement. Moreover, it has been suggested that the effects of reward on memory are mediated by dopaminergic influences on hippocampal plasticity. Yet, evidence linking memory improvements to actual reward computations reflected in the activity of the dopaminergic system, i.e., prediction errors and expected values, is scarce and inconclusive. For example, different previous studies reported that the magnitude of prediction errors during a reinforcement learning task was a positive, negative, or non-significant predictor of successfully encoding simultaneously presented images. Individual sensitivities to reward and punishment have been found to influence the activation of the dopaminergic reward system and could therefore help explain these seemingly discrepant results. Here, we used a novel associative memory task combined with computational modeling and showed independent effects of reward-delivery and reward-anticipation on memory. Strikingly, the computational approach revealed positive influences from both reward delivery, as mediated by prediction error magnitude, and reward anticipation, as mediated by magnitude of expected value, even in the absence of behavioral effects when analyzed using standard methods, i.e., by collapsing memory performance across trials within conditions. We additionally measured trait estimates of reward and punishment sensitivity and found that individuals with increased reward (vs. punishment) sensitivity had better memory for associations encoded during positive (vs. negative) prediction errors when tested after 20 min, but a negative trend when tested after 24 h. In conclusion, modeling trial-by-trial fluctuations in the magnitude of reward, as we did here for prediction errors and expected value computations, provides a comprehensive and biologically plausible description of

  17. Implicit and explicit self-esteem as concurrent predictors of suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Daan H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Wiers, Reinout W

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether explicit and implicit self-esteem, the interaction between these two constructs, and their discrepancy are associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Participants were 95 young female adults (M = 21.2 years, SD = 1.88) enrolled in higher education. We administered the Name Letter Task to measure implicit self-esteem, and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale to assess explicit self-esteem. The results indicated that explicit but not implicit self-esteem was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. The interaction of implicit and explicit self-esteem was associated with suicidal ideation, indicating that participants with high implicit self-esteem combined with a low explicit self-esteem showed more suicidal ideation. Furthermore, the size of the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem was positively associated with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. In addition, results showed that the direction of the discrepancy is an important: damaged self-esteem (high implicit self-esteem combined with low explicit self-esteem) was consistently associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness, while defensive or fragile self-esteem (high explicit and low implicit self-esteem) was not. Together, these findings provide new insights into the relationship of implicit and explicit self-esteem with depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and loneliness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-esteem, body esteem and body image: Exploring effective solutions for ‘at risk’ young women

    OpenAIRE

    Tirlea, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Low self-esteem and dissatisfaction with weight and looks is common amongst young people. Particularly for girls, low self-esteem and poor body image have been identified to be risk factors for development of eating disorders. This thesis sought to answer two broad aims. The first aim was to explore if a specific group based intervention (“Girls on the Go!” program), led by health professionals and delivered from a community setting increased self-esteem and related self-per...

  19. A social work study on the effects of self-esteem games on elementary female self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Samaneh Moein; Mohammad Reza Abedi; Iran Baghban

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians from many disciplines are interested in learning more about the effects of self-esteem. Self-esteem affects motivation, functional behavior, and life satisfaction, and it is associated with well-being throughout life, significantly. What individuals choose to do and the way they do it in part may depend on their self-esteem and it can also fulfill the aims of mental health. This paper presents an investigation to determine the effect of play on children’s self-estee...

  20. Self-esteem: a closer look at clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisenhelder, J B

    1985-01-01

    Self-esteem, a positive regard for oneself, is a universal need for every human being and a key component in restoring and maintaining mental and physical health. Yet, this important concept is remarkably neglected in nursing literature and easily overlooked in clinical practice. This article examines the existing research on the antecedents of self-esteem and compiles a list of factors which can facilitate the nurse's therapeutic effect on her client's positive self-concept. From this list, specific nursing interventions are provided for raising and maintaining a client's self-esteem. Since the impact of nursing interventions varies with clinical circumstances, the nursing actions are correlated with their most effective health care settings. This article provides a global and practical approach to the enhancement of clients' self-esteem.

  1. Grade Level Differences in Factors of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokenes, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory, using approximately 1500 elementary school students. Also investigated grade level differences in preadolescent and adolescent children. (Author/ED)

  2. Relation of physical activity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbio, Andrea

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between self-esteem appraisal and physical activity testing a convenience sample of 211 individuals, ages 19 to 35 years and selected from the general population after a brief structured interview. They were grouped by sport habits into three distinct groups named Athletes, Nonathletes, and Sedentary people, and then were examined for significant differences in self-esteem scores measured via the Heatherton and Polivy State Self-esteem Scale which assesses three correlated factors, respectively, Performance, Social, and Appearance. As hypothesized, self-esteem scores between-groups differences emerged for the Appearance factor only, and the Sedentary group scored comparatively lower than the other two groups.

  3. When Parents’ Praise Inflates, Children's Self-Esteem Deflates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, Eddie; Nelemans, Stefanie A.; Thomaes, Sander; Orobio De Castro, Bram

    2017-01-01

    Western parents often give children overly positive, inflated praise. One perspective holds that inflated praise sets unattainable standards for children, eventually lowering children's self-esteem (self-deflation hypothesis). Another perspective holds that children internalize inflated praise to

  4. Self esteem, academic achievement motivation and personality as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    viz: self-esteem, personality trait, academic achievement), on the sexual behaviour of 384 randomly selected Nigerian adolescents. Four research questions were answered using 0.05 level of significance as point of judgment of findings on ...

  5. Obesity, self-esteem and fitness in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Delgado-Floody

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Obesity in school-aged children reveals alterations associated with physical performance, fat mass and negative trends on self-esteem. Despite developing at an early stage, the consequences associated with this condition can already be seen.

  6. Compare Self-Esteem and Social Support among Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khodaabakhshi-Koolaee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the self-esteem and social support of the elderly residing in boarding centers and living in their homes. Materials and Methods: In this causal-comparative study, 120 elderly individuals residing in boarding facilities and living he their homes in the city of Shiraz were selected through available sampling and responded to demographic, social support, and self-esteem questionnaires.Results: The findings show that there was a significant difference between self-esteem and social support in both groups of the elderly residing in their homes and those living in boarding centers.Conclusion: The elderly living at home have greater self-esteem and social support than the elderly residing in boarding facilities.

  7. Self-Esteem in Learning-Disabled Children with ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2000-01-01

    The level of self-esteem was measured, using the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale, in 143 special education students at high risk for ADHD in the school year 1995, at a school district in Northern Florida.

  8. PENINGKATAN SELF ESTEEM SISWA KORBAN BULLYING MELALUI TEKNIK ASSERTIVE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujiyati Mujiyati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on students’ problem who undergone the decreasing of self-esteem due to bullying that students receive in their environment. The long-term goal which going to be achieved is related to self esteem problem of students bullying victims that is capable to solve problem by using effective and tested product through counseling with assertive training technique. This study used research and development method. The steps are: (1 preliminary research; (2 designing model; (3 developing model; (4 testing model restrictively; (5 analysing model; (6 revising model; (7 testing model widely; (8 dissemination of model; and (9 recommending tested model. The result of study showed that the model of counseling through assertive training was empirically proven effective to improve self esteem of students bullying victims.Keywords: Self Esteem, Bullying, Assertive Training

  9. Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -esteem with the degree of consideration given to certain contextual elements of the moral dilemmas presented. One research question guided the study. The sample consisted of 130 respondents comprising 60 second year students and 70 ...

  10. Patients' self-esteem before and after chemical peeling procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouris, Anargyros; Platsidaki, Eftychia; Christodoulou, Christos; Efstathiou, Vasiliki; Markantoni, Vasiliki; Armyra, Kalliopi; Potouridou, Irene; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios; Kontochristopoulos, Georgios

    2017-12-29

    Chemical peeling is a safe method, widely used to treat a variety of skin conditions and reduce the aging effects. This study aims to evaluate self-esteem among adolescents who undergo chemical peelings. One hundred and twenty six patients constituted the study group. Sixty seven individuals had undergone chemical peeling for therapeutic reasons and 59 individuals for cosmetic reasons. To assess patients' self-esteem, the Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale (RSES) was used before and after treatment. The control group included 71 healthy, age- and sex-matched volunteers from the general population. They were also asked to complete the RSES, after the same time interval as the patients. The healthy controls (23.01 ± 3.12) presented statistically significantly higher self-esteem than both the groups of individuals who would be submitted to chemical peeling. Furthermore, patients who would undergo peeling for therapeutic reasons (21.58 ± 3.20) had statistically significantly higher self-esteem than those who would undergo the procedure for cosmetic reasons (18.97 ± 3.36). After the chemical peeling sessions, the self-esteem of patients treated for therapeutic reasons (23.48 ± 2.43) and of patients treated for cosmetic reasons (22.83 ± 3.34) improved statistically significantly, while the self-esteem of the healthy controls remained stable, as expected. Patients who undergo chemical peelings tend to have low levels of self-esteem. Although facial lesions in skin diseases such as acne, acne scars, rosacea, and melasma seem to have negative effect on individuals' self-consciousness, patients who would be submitted to chemical peeling in order to treat wrinkles, loss of radiance, and skin tone clarity have even lower self-esteem. Chemical peelings were shown to favorably affect patient's self-esteem since all patients showed an increase in self-esteem after treatment, while the control group experienced no change.

  11. What constitutes vulnerable self-esteem? Comparing the prospective effects of low, unstable, and contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowislo, Julia Friederike; Orth, Ulrich; Meier, Laurenz L

    2014-11-01

    A growing body of longitudinal studies suggests that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. However, it is unclear whether other characteristics of self-esteem, besides its level, explain incremental or even greater variance in subsequent depression. We examined the prospective effects of self-esteem level, instability (i.e., the degree of variability in self-esteem across short periods), and contingency (i.e., the degree to which self-esteem fluctuates in response to self-relevant events) on depressive symptoms in 1 overarching model, using data from 2 longitudinal studies. In Study 1, 372 adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 months, including 40 daily diary assessments at Wave 1. In Study 2, 235 young adults were assessed at 2 waves over 6 weeks, including about 6 daily diary assessments at each wave. Self-esteem contingency was measured by self-report and by a statistical index based on the diary data (capturing event-related fluctuations in self-esteem). In both studies self-esteem level, but not self-esteem contingency, predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Self-esteem instability predicted subsequent depressive symptoms in Study 2 only, with a smaller effect size than self-esteem level. Also, level, instability, and contingency of self-esteem did not interact in the prediction of depressive symptoms. Moreover, the effect of self-esteem level held when controlling for neuroticism and for all other Big Five personality traits. Thus, the findings provide converging evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem level, tentative evidence for a smaller vulnerability effect of self-esteem instability, and no evidence for a vulnerability effect of self-esteem contingency.

  12. Changes of explicitly and implicitly measured self-esteem in the treatment of major depression: evidence for implicit self-esteem compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Ingo; Geiser, Franziska; Alfter, Susanne; Mierke, Jan; Imbierowicz, Katrin; Kleiman, Alexandra; Koch, Anne Sarah; Conrad, Rupert

    2015-04-01

    Self-esteem has been claimed to be an important factor in the development and maintenance of depression. Whereas explicit self-esteem is usually reduced in depressed individuals, studies on implicitly measured self-esteem in depression exhibit a more heterogeneous pattern of results, and the role of implicit self-esteem in depression is still ambiguous. Previous research on implicit self-esteem compensation (ISEC) revealed that implicit self-esteem can mirror processes of self-esteem compensation under conditions that threaten self-esteem. We assume that depressed individuals experience a permanent threat to their selves resulting in enduring processes of ISEC. We hypothesize that ISEC as measured by implicit self-esteem will decrease when individuals recover from depression. 45 patients with major depression received an integrative in-patient treatment in the Psychosomatic University Hospital Bonn, Germany. Depression was measured by the depression score of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-D). Self-esteem was assessed explicitly using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and implicitly by the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Name Letter Test (NLT). As expected for a successful treatment of depression, depression scores declined during the eight weeks of treatment and explicit self-esteem rose. In line with our hypothesis, both measures of implicit self-esteem decreased, indicating reduced processes of ISEC. It still remains unclear, under which conditions there is an overlap of measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. The results lend support to the concept of ISEC and demonstrate the relevance of implicit self-esteem and self-esteem compensation for the understanding of depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Factor Analysis of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Güloğlu, Berna; Aydın, Gül

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the factor structure of the Turkish version of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results showed that the inventory had a 21-factor highly complex factor structure. However of the empirically found 21 factors only 10 seemed theoretically meaningful. The results were discussed in comparison to the fndings obtained from the studies that were carried out with the original version of the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory.

  14. Body Image Perception and Self-esteem During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Sema Inanir; Bulent Cakmak; Mehmet Can Nacar; Askin Evren Guler; Ahmet Inanir

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the change in body image perception (BIP) and evaluate self-esteem levels during pregnancy. Material and Methods: This study includes totally 180 females having similar demographic features, i.e. 30 non-pregnant (control group) and 50 pregnant women from each trimester (first, second and third trimester groups) at an Obstetrics Outpatient Department of a university hospital. BIP and self-esteem scores have been compared among the groups. Dat...

  15. INTERNET ADDICTION, SELF-ESTEEM, AND RELATIONAL PATTERNS IN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Perrella; Giorgio Caviglia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We examined the relationships between Internet addiction symptoms, specific relational patterns, and self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. We hypothesized that Internet addiction symptoms were related to low self-esteem, dysfunctional thoughts about the self and the world, and inadequate internalized relational configurations. Method: The sample included 153 adolescents, ranging in age between 14 and 17 years old. All the participants filled questionnaires on internet use/abus...

  16. Bullying and self-esteem in adolescents from public schools

    OpenAIRE

    Camila C. Brito; Marluce T. Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: to perform a situational analysis of bullying and self-esteem in municipal school units, by estimating the prevalence of bullying, according to gender, age, and role in bullying situations; and to identify the level of self-esteem of students by gender and role in bullying situations and correlate with the involvement in bullying situations. Methods: this was a cross-sectional study with 237 students in the ninth grade of middle school from public schools participating in the S...

  17. Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents With Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D.; Loy, Betty A.; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty chil...

  18. Keterkaitan Self Efficacy Dan Self Esteem Terhadap Prestasi Belajar Mahasiswa

    OpenAIRE

    Adiputra, Sofwan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to measure the relationship between self-efficacy and self-esteem on student achievement. The research was conducted using quantitative descriptive analysis by the method of field research, which is conducted by survey to respondents. To analyze the data using correlational analysis techniques and multiple regression analysis techniques. The conclusion from this study showed that the relationship of self-efficacy and self-esteem on learning achievement.

  19. Kontribusi Pengasuhan Orangtua dan Self Esteem terhadap Perilaku Bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Raudah Zaimah Dalimunthe; Marjohan Marjohan; Syahniar Syahniar

    2016-01-01

    Bullying behavior is influenced by many factors. This study purpose to describe: 1) Parenting, Self-Esteem and bullying behavior, 2) Parenting and Self-esteem either individually or collectively contributed to the bullying behavior. The population of study is focus in students of SMP Negeri 6 Percut Sei Tuan, with a sample 193 of students, by using multistage random sampling technique. The instrument in this study used a Likert Scale model and inventory (CFSEI). The results of reliabilit...

  20. Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Saari, Antti J.; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) at the age of 16 (n = 1,072). Respondents' smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% (n = 813) of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Res...

  1. Self Esteem and Adolescent Sexual Attitudes and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Roger B.

    1985-01-01

    This study was designed to determine; (1) if adolescent self esteem is related to premarital sexual attitudes and intercourse behavior; (2) if religious affiliation and church attendance affect the relationship between adolescent self esteem and premarital sexual attitudes and behavior. Approximately 2400 adolescents residing in California, New Mexico, and Utah comprised the sample. Adolescents who attended church services more often reported less sexually permissive attitudes and behavior...

  2. An Analysis of Futsal Players' Self-Esteem Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocak, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the self-esteem levels of futsal players according to certain variables. The samples of the study constituted 119 females and 96 males; a total of 215 players with an average age of 21.57 ± 2.20 years. The research was carried out with the end of "Rosenberg self-esteem Scale" developed by…

  3. Relationship among resilience, self-esteem, depression, and coping

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Chiaki; Kodama, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Relationship among resilience, self-esteem, depression, and coping was investigated. University students (n = 277) completed four questionnaires that measured the above variables. Resilience means a psychological trait for maintaining mental health during stressful events. Results indicated the following. (1) There was no gender difference in resilience. (2) There was a positive correlation between resilience and self-esteem. (3) There was a negative correlation between resilience and depress...

  4. Genetic influences on level and stability of self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Neiss, Michelle; Sedikides, Constantine; Stevenson, Jim

    2006-01-01

    We attempted to clarify the relation between self-esteem level (high vs. low) and perceived self-esteem stability (within-person variability) by using a behavioral genetics approach. We tested whether the same or independent genetic and environmental influences impact on level and stability. Adolescent twin siblings (n = 183 pairs) completed level and stability scales at two time points. Heritability for both was substantial. The remaining variance in each was attributable to non-shared envir...

  5. The neural sociometer: brain mechanisms underlying state self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, Naomi I; Inagaki, Tristen K; Muscatell, Keely A; Byrne Haltom, Kate E; Leary, Mark R

    2011-11-01

    On the basis of the importance of social connection for survival, humans may have evolved a "sociometer"-a mechanism that translates perceptions of rejection or acceptance into state self-esteem. Here, we explored the neural underpinnings of the sociometer by examining whether neural regions responsive to rejection or acceptance were associated with state self-esteem. Participants underwent fMRI while viewing feedback words ("interesting," "boring") ostensibly chosen by another individual (confederate) to describe the participant's previously recorded interview. Participants rated their state self-esteem in response to each feedback word. Results demonstrated that greater activity in rejection-related neural regions (dorsal ACC, anterior insula) and mentalizing regions was associated with lower-state self-esteem. Additionally, participants whose self-esteem decreased from prescan to postscan versus those whose self-esteem did not showed greater medial prefrontal cortical activity, previously associated with self-referential processing, in response to negative feedback. Together, the results inform our understanding of the origin and nature of our feelings about ourselves.

  6. The Relationship between Critical Thinking Disposition and Self-Esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Iranfar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 289 medical students were selected through stratified random sampling method in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing 3 parts: demographic data, California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results were analyzed by SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, Chi-Square and Fisher exact test. Results: Results showed that 98.6% (285 of students had deficiency, 1.4% (4 ambivalence and nobody had positive critical thinking disposition. There was a significantly negative correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem (r=-0.462, P<0.001. Also, there was no a significant relationship between two groups of low self-esteem , high self-esteem , negative and ambivalent Critical Thinking Disposition. Conclusion: It seems that Critical Thinking Disposition, like other psychological variables, is influenced by social factors and social environment plays a role in promoting or undermining it. So, similar studies are recommended to investigate the factors affecting Critical Thinking in medical students.

  7. Leadership styles and its relationship with subordinates' self-esteem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudabeh Morshedian Rafiee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Leadership plays an essential role in managing different organizations. These days, different organizations attempt to resolve any existing conflicts through adapting an appropriate leadership strategy. During the past few years, there are increasing interests in examining the relationship between management style and self-esteem. The proposed study of this paper performs an empirical study to find the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The proposed study distributed a questionnaire among 80 managers and 150 regular employees of an organization in Iran. We have used Pearson correlation test, t-student and Freedman tests to verify the relationship between leadership style and self-esteem. The investigation of this survey considers four groups of leadership style including autocratic-charity, autocratic-exploitation, management consulting and participative and their effects on self-esteem. The results of our survey indicate that there is a positive and strong relationship between participative leadership management style and self-esteem. The results also indicate that there is strong relationship between educational background and self-esteem.

  8. Family Impacts on Self-Esteem in Chinese College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingyu; Wang, Lu; Yao, Yuhong; Su, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Chen, Fazhan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of family function and family-related factors, such as being an only child, grandparenting, income, and family relationship on the self-esteem in college students who are in the transitional period from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. The participants were 2001 Chinese college freshmen with the age from 16 to 20 years. Data were collected by using the family assessment device (FAD), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and self-report of family information. Comparison analysis indicated that the students from one child families, harmonious families, from families with higher income, or raised by their parents without the experience of grandparenting are more likely to show high self-esteem than their counterparts. Moreover, a multiple regression showed that dimensions of FAD such as role, communication, behavioral control, and problem solving predicted level of self-esteem of the college students, ranging from 13.2 to 17.9% variance. The results of this study showed that the self-esteem of the college freshmen is highly correlated with their family's performance. Therefore, the program focusing on improving family functioning is needed, in order to enhance the self-esteem of the young people and hence contribute to promoting the mental health of them.

  9. Self-esteem in children and adolescents with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner-Czyz, Andrea D; Loy, Betty A; Evans, Christine; Wetsel, Ashton; Tobey, Emily A

    2015-03-09

    Children with hearing loss are at risk for lower self-esteem due to differences from hearing peers relative to communication skills, physical appearance, and social maturity. This study examines the influence of generic factors unrelated to hearing loss (e.g., age, gender, temperament) and specific factors associated with hearing loss (e.g., age at identification, communication skills) on how children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids appraise self-esteem. Fifty children with hearing loss wearing cochlear implants or hearing aids participated (Mean age: 12.88 years; mean duration of device use: 3.43 years). Participants independently completed online questionnaires to assess communication skills, social engagement, self-esteem, and temperament. Children with hearing loss rated global self-esteem significantly more positively than hearing peers, t = 2.38, p = .02. Self-esteem ratings attained significant positive correlations with affiliation (r = .42, p = .002) and attention (r = .45, p = .001) temperaments and a significant negative association with depressive mood (r = - .60, p children with hearing loss need to understand components contributing to self-esteem to improve identification, counseling, and external referrals for children in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Family Impacts on Self-Esteem in Chinese College Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Shi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of family function and family-related factors, such as being an only child, grandparenting, income, and family relationship on the self-esteem in college students who are in the transitional period from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. The participants were 2001 Chinese college freshmen with the age from 16 to 20 years. Data were collected by using the family assessment device (FAD, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and self-report of family information. Comparison analysis indicated that the students from one child families, harmonious families, from families with higher income, or raised by their parents without the experience of grandparenting are more likely to show high self-esteem than their counterparts. Moreover, a multiple regression showed that dimensions of FAD such as role, communication, behavioral control, and problem solving predicted level of self-esteem of the college students, ranging from 13.2 to 17.9% variance. The results of this study showed that the self-esteem of the college freshmen is highly correlated with their family’s performance. Therefore, the program focusing on improving family functioning is needed, in order to enhance the self-esteem of the young people and hence contribute to promoting the mental health of them.

  11. Does abortion reduce self-esteem and life satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, M A; Upadhyay, Ushma D; Steinberg, Julia R; Foster, Diana G

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of obtaining an abortion versus being denied an abortion on self-esteem and life satisfaction. We present the first 2.5 years of a 5-year longitudinal telephone-interview study that follows 956 women who sought an abortion from 30 facilities across the USA. We examine the self-esteem and life satisfaction trajectories of women who sought and received abortions just under the facility's gestational age limit, of women who sought and received abortions in their first trimester of pregnancy, and of women who sought abortions just beyond the facility gestational limit and were denied an abortion. We use adjusted mixed effects linear regression analyses to assess whether the trajectories of women who sought and obtained an abortion differ from those who were denied one. Women denied an abortion initially reported lower self-esteem and life satisfaction than women who sought and obtained an abortion. For all study groups, except those who obtained first trimester abortions, self-esteem and life satisfaction improved over time. The initially lower levels of self-esteem and life satisfaction among women denied an abortion improved more rapidly reaching similar levels as those obtaining abortions at 6 months to one year after abortion seeking. For women obtaining first trimester abortions, initially higher levels of life satisfaction remained steady over time. There is no evidence that abortion harms women's self-esteem or life satisfaction in the short term.

  12. Association between television viewing and self-esteem in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Ho, Daniel Sai Yin; Mak, Kwok Hang; Wan, Ka Leung; Lam, Tai Hing

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have examined the effect of excess television (TV) viewing on specific mental health outcomes, such as self-esteem. We explored the cross-sectional association between TV viewing hours and self-esteem in young children. A total of 70,210 primary 4 (US grade 4) participants of the Department of Health Student Health Service, Hong Kong, in 1998-2000 reported TV viewing hours in a standardized questionnaire. Self-esteem was assessed using the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventories for Children (SEI) with 4 subscales. Multivariate linear regression yielded beta coefficients (β) for SEI subscale scores by TV hours, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, lifestyle characteristics, and highest parental education and occupational status. Only 10.9% of children watched >4 hours per day, while 45.3% watched TV for 1 to ≤2 hours per day. Compared with children who watched 2 hours of TV per day had lower SEI scores than those who watched <1 hour per day in all 4 subscales. An inverted J-shaped relation was observed between TV viewing hours and self-esteem among young children. The development of self-esteem among children who report little or excessive TV viewing should be further studied.

  13. Self-esteem among eunuchs of Hazara Division, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi, Sajid Mehmood; Turabi, Maleeka Rubab; Ali, Syeda Ayat-E-Zainab; Irfan, Muhammad Shoaib; Afridi, Maryam; Shah, Asghar Ali

    2018-02-01

    Self-esteem among eunuchs is highly influenced by a variety of factors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the differences in self-esteem of eunuchs on the basis of education, income, age and marital status. The study was conducted at the University of Haripur, Pakistan, from December 2015 to November 2016. A sample of 140 eunuchs was collected from different areas of Hazara division, through purposive and snowball sampling technique. A self-esteem scale with four sub-scales was used to measure the self-esteem of eunuchs. One-way analysis of variance was used to determine education level differences. The t-test was applied to find out the impact of demographics differences such as marital status, income level, and age on self-esteem of eunuchs. The scale used was found to be quite reliable with alpha coefficient of 0.85. The outcomes are significant and showed that educated, higher income, younger and unmarried eunuchs had higher self-esteem (p<0.05).

  14. Parenting styles and adolescents' self-esteem in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Isabel; García, José Fernando; Yubero, Santiago

    2007-06-01

    This study explored the relationship between parenting styles and self-esteem among 1,239 11- to 15-yr.-old Brazilian adolescents (54% girls; M age= 13.4 yr., SD= 1.4). Teenagers' families were classified into 1 of 4 groups (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, or Neglectful) based on adolescents' answers to the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Scale. Participants completed the AF5 Multidimensional Self-Esteem Scale which appraises five dimensions: Academic, Social, Emotional, Family, and Physical. Analyses showed that Brazilian adolescents from Indulgent families scored equal (Academic and Social) or higher (Family) in Self-esteem than adolescents from Authoritative families. Adolescents from Indulgent families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in four Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, Family, and Physical. Adolescents from Authoritative families scored higher than adolescents from Authoritarian and Neglectful families in three Self-esteem dimensions, Academic, Social, and Family. These results suggest that Authoritative parenting is not associated with optimum self-esteem in Brazil.

  15. Role of shame and body esteem in cortisol stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M

    2016-04-01

    Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes.

  16. Family Impacts on Self-Esteem in Chinese College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingyu; Wang, Lu; Yao, Yuhong; Su, Na; Zhao, Xudong; Chen, Fazhan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of family function and family-related factors, such as being an only child, grandparenting, income, and family relationship on the self-esteem in college students who are in the transitional period from late adolescence to emerging adulthood. The participants were 2001 Chinese college freshmen with the age from 16 to 20 years. Data were collected by using the family assessment device (FAD), the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, and self-report of family information. Comparison analysis indicated that the students from one child families, harmonious families, from families with higher income, or raised by their parents without the experience of grandparenting are more likely to show high self-esteem than their counterparts. Moreover, a multiple regression showed that dimensions of FAD such as role, communication, behavioral control, and problem solving predicted level of self-esteem of the college students, ranging from 13.2 to 17.9% variance. The results of this study showed that the self-esteem of the college freshmen is highly correlated with their family’s performance. Therefore, the program focusing on improving family functioning is needed, in order to enhance the self-esteem of the young people and hence contribute to promoting the mental health of them. PMID:29312013

  17. Multiple social identifications and adolescents' self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish-Weisman, Maya; Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Möllering, Anna; Knafo-Noam, Ariel

    2015-10-01

    The research examined the relationship between multiple social identifications and self-esteem. Early adolescents (M = 11.4, SD = .95) and mid-adolescents (M = 15.9, SD = 1.18) from Germany and Israel (n = 2337) were studied. Respondents described their social identification as students, family members, and as members of the majority national group and reported self-esteem. A longitudinal, cross-sectional and cross-cultural design revealed, as predicted, multiple social identifications related positively to self-esteem concurrently; they also related positively to self-esteem longitudinally over the course of a year. Moreover, multiple social identifications were found to be antecedent to self-esteem, not vice versa. Finally, multiple social identifications were found to decrease over time. The article discusses the contribution of multiple social identifications to self-esteem at different ages and in various contexts. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-esteem in patients treated for anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpowicz, Ewa; Skärsäter, Ingela; Nevonen, Lauri

    2009-10-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) mainly affects girls or women between 13 and 45 years of age. According to previous studies, one of the reasons for the desire to be thin is low self-esteem. The purpose of the study was to examine the self-esteem of 38 female patients with AN between 16 and 25 years of age, before and after 3 months of treatment at a specialist ward for eating disorders in Göteborg, Sweden. A quantitative pre- and post-assessment based on two self-rating questionnaires, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE-S) and three subscales (weight phobia, body dissatisfaction, and ineffectiveness) of Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), together with body mass index (BMI), were used in the study, which was conducted between June 2005 and March 2008. The results reveal that self-esteem, BMI, weight phobia, and body dissatisfaction improved significantly between pre- and post-treatment. The RSE-S and EDI-2 ineffectiveness correlate highly with one another, which lends support to convergent validity, and the internal consistency was high for both the RSE-S and EDI-2 ineffectiveness. The results indicate that the treatment was effective, as both patients' self-esteem and BMI increased after completed treatment, which was the primary goal of the treatment at this ward. Future studies should focus on follow up and the way self-esteem manifests itself at different points in time within an individual.

  19. Should We Be Targeting Self-Esteem in Treatment for Offenders: Do Gender and Race Matter in whether Self-Esteem Matters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dana J.

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem has long been a subject of discussion regarding its effects on problem behaviors including crime and recidivism. The current literature suggests that low self-esteem is not related to crime for male offenders and perhaps it is inflated self-esteem that is to blame for violence and crime. The literature on females and crime still…

  20. Adoptees Do Not Lack Self-Esteem: A Meta-Analysis of Studies on Self-Esteem of Transracial, International, and Domestic Adoptees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffer, Femmie; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2007-01-01

    Do adopted children show lower self-esteem than nonadopted peers, and do transracial adoptees show lower self-esteem than same-race adoptees? Adopted children are hypothesized to be at risk of low self-esteem. They may suffer from the consequences of neglect, abuse, and malnutrition in institutions before adoption. They have to cope with their…

  1. Attending to the Role of Identity Exploration in Self-Esteem: Longitudinal Associations between Identity Styles and Two Features of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Berzonsky, Michael D.; Papini, Dennis R.

    2016-01-01

    Although research suggests an interplay between identity development and self-esteem, most studies focused on the role of identity commitment and measured only level of self-esteem. This study examined longitudinal associations between Berzonsky's (2011) styles of identity exploration and two distinct features of self-esteem: level of self-esteem…

  2. Relation between Self-Esteem and Socially Desirable Responding and the Role of Socially Desirable Responding in the Relation between Self-Esteem and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2013-01-01

    This investigation examines the relation between self-esteem and socially desirable responding by integrating previous findings via a meta-analysis. In 55 studies containing 73 independent samples (N?=?11,901), the correlation between self-esteem and Impression Management was weak, that between self-esteem and Self-Deceptive Enhancement was from…

  3. Validity and reliability of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version as compared to the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Aroonpongpaisal, Suwanna; Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Rongbutsri, Somchit; Maneeganondh, Somchit; Pimpanit, Wijitra

    2011-07-01

    To compare the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale with the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was translated into Thai and its content-validity checked by bacA translation. The reliability of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale compared with the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale was ther tested between February and March 2008 on 270 volunteers, including 135 patients with psychiatric illness and 135 normal volunteers. The authors analyzed the internal consistency and factor structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version and the correlation between it and the Visual Analog Scale. The Cronbach's Alpha for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale-Thai version was 0.849 and the Pearson's correlation between it and the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale 0.618 (p = 0.01). Two factors, viz, the positively and negatively framea items, from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version accounted for 44.04% and 12.10% of the variance, respectively. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version has acceptable reliability. The Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale provides an effective measure of self-esteem.

  4. Implicit and explicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals with and without suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Erik; De Raedt, Rudi; Dereu, Mieke; Van den Abbeele, Dirk

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we have further explored implicit self-esteem in currently depressed individuals. Since suicidal ideation is associated with lower self-esteem in depressed individuals, we measured both implicit and explicit self-esteem in a population of currently depressed (CD) individuals, with and without suicidal ideation (SI), and in a group of non-depressed controls (ND). The results indicate that only CD individuals with SI show a discrepancy between their implicit and explicit self-esteem: that is, they exhibit high implicit and low explicit self-esteem. CD individuals without SI exhibit both low implicit and low explicit self-esteem; and ND controls exhibit both normal implicit and normal explicit self-esteem. These results provide new insights in the study of implicit self-esteem and the combination of implicit and explicit self-esteem in depression.

  5. Images of the Self and Self-Esteem: Do Positive Self-Images Improve Self-Esteem in Social Anxiety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Natalie; Hirsch, Colette; Stopa, Lusia

    2012-01-01

    Negative self-images play an important role in maintaining social anxiety disorder. We propose that these images represent the working self in a Self-Memory System that regulates retrieval of self-relevant information in particular situations. Self-esteem, one aspect of the working self, comprises explicit (conscious) and implicit (automatic) components. Implicit self-esteem reflects an automatic evaluative bias towards the self that is normally positive, but is reduced in socially anxious individuals. Forty-four high and 44 low socially anxious participants generated either a positive or a negative self-image and then completed measures of implicit and explicit self-esteem. Participants who held a negative self-image in mind reported lower implicit and explicit positive self-esteem, and higher explicit negative self-esteem than participants holding a positive image in mind, irrespective of social anxiety group. We then tested whether positive self-images protected high and low socially anxious individuals equally well against the threat to explicit self-esteem posed by social exclusion in a virtual ball toss game (Cyberball). We failed to find a predicted interaction between social anxiety and image condition. Instead, all participants holding positive self-images reported higher levels of explicit self-esteem after Cyberball than those holding negative self-images. Deliberate retrieval of positive self-images appears to facilitate access to a healthy positive implicit bias, as well as improving explicit self-esteem, whereas deliberate retrieval of negative self-images does the opposite. This is consistent with the idea that negative self-images may have a causal, as well as a maintaining, role in social anxiety disorder. PMID:22439697

  6. Complex Biological Systems Analysis of Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis: I. The essential roles of modifications in the c-Myc, TP53/p53, p27 and hTERT modules in Cancer Initiation and Progression

    CERN Document Server

    Prisecaru, V I

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to the integration of results from a modular, complex biological systems analysis of nonlinear dynamics in cell cycling network transformations that are leading to carcinogenesis is proposed. Carcinogenesis is a complex process that involves dynamically inter-connected biomolecules in the intercellular, membrane, cytosolic, nuclear and nucleolar compartments that form numerous inter-related pathways referred to as networks. One such network module contains the cell cyclins whose functions are essential to cell cycling and division. Cyclins are proteins that also link to several critical pro-apoptotic and other cell cycling/division components, such as: c-Myc, p27, the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and its product-- the p53 protein with key roles in controlling DNA repair, inducing apoptosis and activating p21 (which can depress cell cyclins if activated), mdm2(with its biosynthesis activated by p53 and also, in its turn, inhibiting p53), p21, the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen(T- antigen),Rb,Bax, Ba...

  7. The dynamics of mood and coping in bipolar disorder: longitudinal investigations of the inter-relationship between affect, self-esteem and response styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlickova, Hana; Varese, Filippo; Smith, Angela; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Turnbull, Oliver H; Emsley, Richard; Bentall, Richard P

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48) reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally) instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction) was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on subsequent mood but some of these effects are modulated by

  8. The dynamics of mood and coping in bipolar disorder: longitudinal investigations of the inter-relationship between affect, self-esteem and response styles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Pavlickova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has suggested that the way bipolar patients respond to depressive mood impacts on the future course of the illness, with rumination prolonging depression and risk-taking possibly triggering hypomania. However, the relationship over time between variables such as mood, self-esteem, and response style to negative affect is complex and has not been directly examined in any previous study--an important limitation, which the present study seeks to address. METHODS: In order to maximize ecological validity, individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (N = 48 reported mood, self-esteem and response styles to depression, together with contextual information, up to 60 times over a period of six days, using experience sampling diaries. Entries were cued by quasi-random bleeps from digital watches. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated, with mood and self-esteem as predictors of subsequent response styles. Similar models were then estimated with response styles as predictors of subsequent mood and self-esteem. Cross-sectional associations of daily-life correlates with symptoms were also examined. RESULTS: Cross-sectionally, symptoms of depression as well as mania were significantly related to low mood and self-esteem, and their increased fluctuations. Longitudinally, low mood significantly predicted rumination, and engaging in rumination dampened mood at the subsequent time point. Furthermore, high positive mood (marginally instigated high risk-taking, and in turn engaging in risk-taking resulted in increased positive mood. Adaptive coping (i.e. problem-solving and distraction was found to be an effective coping style in improving mood and self-esteem. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to directly test the relevance of response style theory, originally developed to explain unipolar depression, to understand symptom changes in bipolar disorder patients. The findings show that response styles significantly impact on

  9. The Relationship between Impulsivity and Internet Addiction in Chinese College Students: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of Meaning in Life and Self-Esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ying; Mei, Songli; Li, Li; Chai, Jingxin; Li, Jiaomeng; Du, Hongyang

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has increasingly been recognized as a serious psychological malady among college students. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated to addictive behaviors, also to IA, and that the purpose of the study is to investigate whether or not there are variables modulating the relation between impulsivity and IA. "Meaning in life" is regarded as a desirable attribute, with positive mental health outcomes. "Self-esteem" is often regarded as an important component of psycholo...

  10. The development of global and domain-specific self-esteem from age 13 to 31.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Wichstrøm, Lars; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the development of global self-esteem and self-esteem in 6 specific domains across adolescence and young adulthood. Using a cohort-sequential design, we analyzed longitudinal data on 3,116 Norwegian men and women from 13 to 31 years of age by means of growth curve modeling. Questionnaire data provided information on global self-esteem and self-esteem in social, academic, athletic, and appearance domains. Data on important life outcomes was provided by register linkages. Results showed increasing levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in most domains with increasing age. Being male, higher parental education, and reported higher levels of parental care were related to higher levels of global self-esteem and self-esteem in several domains. Self-esteem in the appearance domain showed high and stable correlations with global self-esteem, whereas in social domains, correlations with global self-esteem increased over age, with a particularly steep increase for romantic appeal self-esteem. As to the prospective relationship between self-esteem and important life outcomes, results showed that participants high in academic self-esteem attained higher education levels and higher income, but most of the relationship was explained by covariates such as parents' socioeconomic status and school grades. Low global self-esteem predicted later prescription of antidepressants, even after controlling for covariates. This study is the first to provide a comprehensive picture of the development of global and domain-specific self-esteem throughout adolescence and young adulthood using long-term longitudinal data. The results underscore the importance of examining development of self-esteem in specific domains in addition to global self-esteem. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Myopia, contact lens use and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Lynette; Manny, Ruth E; Weissberg, Erik; Fern, Karen D

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate whether contact lens (CL) use was associated with self-esteem in myopic children originally enrolled in the Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial (COMET), that after 5 years continued as an observational study of myopia progression with CL use permitted. Usable data at the 6-year visit, one year after CL use was allowed (n = 423/469, age 12-17 years), included questions on CL use, refractive error measurements and self-reported self-esteem in several areas (scholastic/athletic competence, physical appearance, social acceptance, behavioural conduct and global self-worth). Self-esteem, scored from 1 (low) to 4 (high), was measured by the Self-Perception Profile for Children in participants under 14 years or the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, in those 14 years and older. Multiple regression analyses were used to evaluate associations between self-esteem and relevant factors identified by univariate analyses (e.g., CL use, gender, ethnicity), while adjusting for baseline self-esteem prior to CL use. Mean (±S.D.) self-esteem scores at the 6-year visit (mean age = 15.3 ± 1.3 years; mean refractive error = -4.6 ± 1.5 D) ranged from 2.74 (± 0.76) on athletic competence to 3.33 (± 0.53) on global self-worth. CL wearers (n = 224) compared to eyeglass wearers (n = 199) were more likely to be female (p self-esteem or CL use. COMET participants who chose to wear CLs after 5 years of eyeglass use had higher self-esteem compared to those who remained in glasses both preceding and following CL use. This suggests that self-esteem may influence the decision to wear CLs and that CLs in turn are associated with higher self-esteem in individuals most likely to wear them. © 2013 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  12. Self-Esteem, Social Phobia and Depression Status in Patients with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Ayşe; Gökçe, Gökçen; Büyükburgaz, Ülkü; Selekler, Macit; KOMŞUOğLU, Sezer

    2013-12-01

    The increased risk for psychiatric disorders in epilepsy can be related to a number of clinical, psychosocial and biological factors. Due to the unpredictability of seizures and the possibility that they may occur at any time and in any place, patients with epilepsy may develop social phobia and may have feelings of worthlessness and stigma. These factors decrease their psychosocial function, self-efficacy, and quality of life and even increase the suicide rate. Considering the above-mentioned scientific data, the present study was designed to investigate phobia, self-esteem and depression status in patients with epilepsy. One hundred thirty-two patients (aged 21-52 years) and age- and gender-matched control group of 61 subjects (aged 25-60 years) were included in this study. All patients in both groups were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean ages of the patient group and the healthy controls were 29.66±11.3 and 32.16±7.99, respectively. There was no statistical significance between the two groups in terms of age and sex (p>0.05). BDI, LSAS and CSEI scores in the patient group were statistically significantly different than in the control group (pself-esteem and depression are important comorbid conditions in epileptic patients. Psychiatric disorders are usually underrecognized and undertreated in patients with epilepsy. Therefore, it is very important to identify and treat the psychiatric comorbid conditions in epilepsy because of their significant burden on patients' quality of life.

  13. Self-esteem and functional capacity outcomes following reduction mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino Neto, Miguel; Demattê, Maria Fernanda; Freire, Marcia; Garcia, Elvio Bueno; Quaresma, Marina; Ferreira, Lydia M

    2008-01-01

    Both physical health and psychosocial outcomes are important issues in the evaluation of medical treatment. Women with breast hypertrophy may suffer from low self-esteem and reduced functional capacity because of the size of their breasts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of reduction mammaplasty on self-esteem and functional capacity in patients with breast hypertrophy. One hundred patients with breast hypertrophy who ranged in age from 18 to 55 years and who had undergone no previous mammary surgery were selected from the Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinic of the Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP-EPM). They were randomly allocated into two groups (A and B) of 50 patients each. Patients from group A were submitted for reduction mammaplasty while those from group B were placed on the waiting list and used as a control group. At the beginning of the study, all patients were interviewed to collect clinical and demographic data and to have their self-esteem and functional capacity measured. Two Brazilian-validated versions of quality of life measurement instruments were chosen: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Rolland-Morris (to assess functional capacity). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain intensity. Six months after the beginning of the study, these instruments were again administered to both groups. Forty-six out of 50 patients from each group (A and B) completed the study. The mean age of group A was 31.6 years (SD, 11 yrs), and that of group B was 32.3 years (SD, 10 yrs). The mean weight of removed breast tissue from group A patients was 1052 g (SD, 188 g). A decrease on the score of Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale of patients from group A indicated an improvement of self-esteem (P self-esteem and functional capacity and relieved pain in the lower back region in patients with breast hypertrophy.

  14. When friends make you blue: the role of friendship contingent self-esteem in predicting self-esteem and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, M Janelle; Acitelli, Linda K; Steinberg, Lynne

    2010-03-01

    This research examines the role of friendship contingent self-esteem (FCSE), or self-esteem that is dependent on the quality of one's friendships, in predicting depressive symptoms. In Study 1, the authors developed a measure of FCSE. Both FCSE and others' approval correlated with self-esteem and depressive symptoms, but when entered simultaneously in a regression equation, only FCSE significantly predicted self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Study 2 showed that dependency and close friendship competence predicted depressive symptoms only for those high in FCSE. In Study 3, a diary study, FCSE predicted self-esteem instability. Self-esteem instability, in turn, predicted depressive symptoms. Furthermore, a three-way interaction of rumination, FCSE, and the valence of the event predicted momentary self-esteem. Findings are discussed with regard to the importance of considering FCSE when investigating interpersonal risk for depression.

  15. Terror management theory and self-esteem revisited: the roles of implicit and explicit self-esteem in mortality salience effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Gailliot, Matthew T; Filardo, Emily-Ana; McGregor, Ian; Gitter, Seth; Baumeister, Roy F

    2009-05-01

    Three studies tested the roles of implicit and/or explicit self-esteem in reactions to mortality salience. In Study 1, writing about death versus a control topic increased worldview defense among participants low in implicit self-esteem but not among those high in implicit self-esteem. In Study 2, a manipulation to boost implicit self-esteem reduced the effect of mortality salience on worldview defense. In Study 3, mortality salience increased the endorsement of positive personality descriptions but only among participants with the combination of low implicit and high explicit self-esteem. These findings indicate that high implicit self-esteem confers resilience against the psychological threat of death, and therefore the findings provide direct support for a fundamental tenet of terror management theory regarding the anxiety-buffering role of self-esteem. Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Crossing Boundaries in Undergraduate Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderklein, Dirk; Munakata, Mika; McManus, Jason

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to make mathematics relevant to biology students, the authors developed two modules that sought to integrate mathematics and ecology instruction to differing degrees. The modules were developed by a team of biology and mathematics educators and were implemented in an ecology course using three different instructional methods for three…

  17. Towards Logical Designs In Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Towards Logical Designs in Biology. Garima Agarwal. General Article Volume 12 Issue 2 February 2007 pp 29-38. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/012/02/0029-0038. Keywords. Synthetic biology; logic gates; regulatory modules; gene circuits. Author Affiliations.

  18. Self-esteem stability in relation to narcissism and psychological well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zorjan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of self-esteem stability has an important role in the understanding of interpersonal and psychological functioning of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-esteem stability, narcissism and psychological well-being. A total of 178 participants (77% female participated in this study. The average age of the participants was 20, with the ages ranging from 18 to 26 years. The participants completed the following scales and questionnaires: Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI, Psychological Well-being Scales (PWBS, Instability of Selfesteem scale (ISES and Rosenberg Self-esteem scale (RSES. The Rosenberg Self-esteem scale was used to measure both self-esteem level and self-esteem stability, which was defined as dispersion of self-esteem level in time. For the purpose of obtaining data on self-esteem stability, the participants were required complete the Rosenberg self-esteem scale for a sequence of 14 days, other measures were completed during the first day of participation in the study. The main effects for self-esteem level emerged for narcissism and psychological well-being, in both cases higher levels of self-esteem was associated to higher levels of narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability additionally explained a significant proportion of variability in narcissism and psychological well-being. Self-esteem stability was negatively associated with higher levels of narcissism and positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being, above and beyond the effect of self-esteem level. When comparing two different measures of self-esteem stability, the results revealed that people with higher level of narcissism tend to overestimate their self-esteem stability. The results were consistent with our hypotheses. The importance of considering both level and stability of self-esteem, limitations of the present study and possibilities for further research are

  19. Impact of early adolescent anxiety disorders on self-esteem development from adolescence to young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Lizmarie; Huang, Yangxin; Chen, Ren; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association between early adolescent anxiety disorders and self-esteem development from early adolescence to young adulthood. Methods Self-esteem was measured at mean ages 13, 16 and 22 for 821 participants from the Children in the Community Study, a population-based longitudinal cohort. Anxiety disorders were measured at mean age 13 years. Multilevel growth models were employed to analyze the change in self-esteem from early adolescence to young adulthood and to evaluate whether adolescent anxiety disorders predict both average and slope of self-esteem development. Results Self-esteem increased during adolescence and continued to increase in young adulthood. Girls had lower average self-esteem than boys, but this difference disappeared when examining the effect of anxiety. Adolescents with anxiety disorder had lower self-esteem, on average, compared with healthy adolescents (effect size (ES) =−0.35, pself-esteem (ES=−0.30, pself-esteem from adolescence to young-adulthood ( =−0.1, pself-esteem development. Conclusions All but one of the assessed adolescent anxiety disorders were related to lower self-esteem, with social phobia having the greatest impact. OCD predicted a decline in self-esteem trajectory with age. The importance of raising self-esteem in adolescents with anxiety and other mental disorders is discussed. PMID:23648133

  20. Refining the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression: Disentangling the effects of genuine self-esteem and narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Meier, Laurenz L; Conger, Rand D

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression, which states that low self-esteem is a risk factor for depression. The goal of the present research was to refine the vulnerability model, by testing whether the self-esteem effect is truly due to a lack of genuine self-esteem or due to a lack of narcissistic self-enhancement. For the analyses, we used data from 6 longitudinal studies consisting of 2,717 individuals. In each study, we tested the prospective effects of self-esteem and narcissism on depression both separately for each construct and mutually controlling the constructs for each other (i.e., a strategy that informs about effects of genuine self-esteem and pure narcissism), and then meta-analytically aggregated the findings. The results indicated that the effect of low self-esteem holds when narcissism is controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.26, controlled effect = -.27). In contrast, the effect of narcissism was close to zero when self-esteem was controlled for (uncontrolled effect = -.06, controlled effect = .01). Moreover, the analyses suggested that the self-esteem effect is linear across the continuum from low to high self-esteem (i.e., the effect was not weaker at very high levels of self-esteem). Finally, self-esteem and narcissism did not interact in their effect on depression; that is, individuals with high self-esteem have a lower risk for developing depression, regardless of whether or not they are narcissistic. The findings have significant theoretical implications because they strengthen the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex on implicit self-esteem is mediated by rumination after criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Raedt, Rudi; Remue, Jonathan; Loeys, Tom; Hooley, Jill M; Baeken, Chris

    2017-12-01

    It has been proposed that a crucial link between cognitive (i.e., self-schemas) and biological vulnerability is prefrontal control. This is because decreased control leads to impaired ability to inhibit ruminative thinking after the activation of negative self-schemas. However, current evidence is mainly correlational. In the current experimental study we tested whether the effect of neurostimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on self-esteem is mediated by momentary ruminative self-referential thinking (MRST) after the induction of negative self-schemas by criticism. We used a single, sham-controlled crossover session of anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) applied to the left DLPFC (cathode over the right supraorbital region) in healthy female individuals. After receiving tDCS/sham stimulation, we measured MRST and exposed the participants to critical audio scripts, followed by another MRST measurement. Subsequently, all participants completed two Implicit Relational Assessment Procedures to implicitly measure actual and ideal self-esteem. Our behavioral data indicated a significant decrease in MRST after real but not sham tDCS. Moreover, although there was no immediate effect of tDCS on implicit self-esteem, an indirect effect was found through double mediation, with the difference in MRST from baseline to after stimulation and from baseline to after criticism as our two mediators. The larger the decrease of criticism induced MRST after real tDCS, the higher the level of actual self-esteem. Our results show that tDCS can influence cognitive processes such as rumination, and subsequently self-esteem, but only after the activation of negative self-schemas. Rumination and negative self-esteem characterize different forms of psychopathology, and these data expand our knowledge of the role of the prefrontal cortex in controlling these self-referential processes, and the mechanisms of action of tDCS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

  2. Adaptive disengagement buffers self-esteem from negative social feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Jordan B; Hehman, Eric; Deegan, Matthew P; Jones, James M

    2014-11-01

    The degree to which self-esteem hinges on feedback in a domain is known as a contingency of self-worth, or engagement. Although previous research has conceptualized engagement as stable, it would be advantageous for individuals to dynamically regulate engagement. The current research examined whether the tendency to disengage from negative feedback accounts for variability in self-esteem. We created the Adaptive Disengagement Scale (ADS) to capture individual differences in the tendency to disengage self-esteem from negative outcomes. Results demonstrated that the ADS is reliable and valid (Studies 1 and 2). Furthermore, in response to negative social feedback, higher scores on the ADS predicted greater state self-esteem (Study 3), and this relationship was mediated by disengagement (Study 4). These findings demonstrate that adaptive disengagement protects self-esteem from negative outcomes and that the ADS is a valid measure of individual differences in the implementation of this process. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. [Physical activity, obesity and self-esteem in chilean schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita-Ortega, Félix; Castro-Sánchez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Fernández, Sonia; Cofré-Boladós, Cristian; Chacón-Cuberos, Ramón; Martínez-Martínez, Asunción; Muros-Molina, José Joaquín

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic disease and a problem for the Chilean society. To analyze the relationship between physical condition, body mass index (BMI), level of physical activity and self-esteem. Material ad Methods: Questionnaires to assess self-esteem (Rosemberg scale) and levels of physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for older Children, PAQ-C) were answered by 515 children aged 10.5 ± 0.5 years from 27 schools of Santiago de Chile. BMI was calculated. Course-Navette test was carried out, vertical jump and hand dynamometry were measured. For statistical analysis, structural equations were used. An acceptable goodness of fit for the models was found. There was a positive relationship between BMI and hand dynamometry, as well as a negative relationship between BMI and maximal oxygen consumption, jumping ability, physical activity and self-esteem. Finally, self-esteem was positively related to physical activity engagement. In these children, self-esteem was related to physical activity variables.

  4. Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti J. Saari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. Methods. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ at the age of 16 n=1,072. Respondents’ smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% n=813 of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Response rate at follow-up was 46.2% n=376. Results. Weaker self-esteem (LAWSEQ score ≥ 3 during the adolescence was not significantly associated with smoking in adulthood. However, those respondents who had weaker self-esteem in adolescence had increased risk of having been smoking regularly (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1–3.0 although not all of them were smokers at the time of the follow-up. Conclusions. Those with weaker self-esteem in adolescence are more likely to smoke regularly in adulthood.

  5. Perception of overweight and self-esteem during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Eliana M; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Field, Alison E; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-07-01

    To examine sex- and race/ethnicity-specific relationships between adolescents' self-esteem and weight perception. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression of Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,427 males, 6,574 females; ages 11-21) examined associations between low self-esteem and perceived overweight within body mass index (BMI) percentile categories, controlling for sociodemographics and stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. 25.1% and 8% of normal weight females and males, respectively, perceived themselves as overweight, with variation by race/ethnicity. Low self-esteem was most strongly associated with misperceived overweight in moderate BMI percentile categories (males: OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.60-3.41; females: OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.82, 3.16). Odds of correctly perceived overweight were higher for low (versus high) self-esteem in white and black females but not males of any race/ethnicity. Understanding subgroup differences by race/ethnicity in perceived overweight-self-esteem relationships may inform eating disorders' prevention strategies. 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Experiences of self-esteem among parents to preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Madsen, Mette Kold

    2014-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows that involvem......Background: The knowledge of parents’ of preterm infants' self-esteem is limited. The nursing of the preterm infants is based on the principles of family centered care. The dyad between the mother and the infant was the primary focus in earlier investigations. Current research shows...... that involvement of the father increases the fatherhood and thereby the bonding to the child. The parents’ self-esteem seems to be affected negatively by the premature birth. Objective: To gain further knowledge and a deeper understanding of the parents’ experience of their self-esteem during the admission...... phases: 1) Three weeks from birth and 2) eight months after discharge. Results: The findings of the research are based on a theoretical frame concerning self-esteem from a psychological point of view. The data from the first phase three weeks after birth show that, individual, relational and structural...

  7. Perception of Overweight and Self-esteem During Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Field, Alison E.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine sex- and race/ethnicity-specific relationships between adolescents' self-esteem and weight perception. Method Descriptive analysis and logistic regression of Wave II of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 6,427 males, 6,574 females; ages 11–21) examined associations between low self-esteem and perceived overweight within body mass index (BMI) percentile categories, controlling for socio-demographics and stratified by sex and race/ethnicity. Results 25.1% and 8% of normal weight females and males, respectively, perceived themselves as overweight, with variation by race/ethnicity. Low self-esteem was most strongly associated with misperceived overweight in moderate BMI percentile categories (males: OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.60–3.41; females: OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.82, 3.16). Odds of correctly perceived overweight were higher for low (versus high) self-esteem in white and black females but not males of any race/ethnicity. Discussion Understanding subgroup differences by race/ethnicity in perceived overweight-self-esteem relationships may inform eating disorders' prevention strategies. PMID:19536882

  8. Weaker Self-Esteem in Adolescence Predicts Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti J; Kentala, Jukka; Mattila, Kari J

    2015-01-01

    To study whether weaker self-esteem in adolescence is connected with smoking behavior in adulthood. An age cohort born in 1979 responded to the Lawrence Self-Esteem Questionnaire (LAWSEQ) at the age of 16 (n = 1,072). Respondents' smoking behavior was monitored annually during adolescence and 75.3% (n = 813) of them remained nonsmokers during adolescence. A follow-up questionnaire eliciting smoking behavior was sent to the adolescent nonsmokers at the age of 29 years. Response rate at follow-up was 46.2% (n = 376). Weaker self-esteem (LAWSEQ score ≥ 3) during the adolescence was not significantly associated with smoking in adulthood. However, those respondents who had weaker self-esteem in adolescence had increased risk of having been smoking regularly (adjusted OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-3.0) although not all of them were smokers at the time of the follow-up. Those with weaker self-esteem in adolescence are more likely to smoke regularly in adulthood.

  9. Self-esteem and interpersonal functioning in psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørkvik, Jofrid; Biringer, Eva; Eikeland, Ole-Johan; Nielsen, Geir Høstmark

    2009-06-01

    This study explored associations between self-esteem and interpersonal functioning in a one-year clinic cohort of psychiatric outpatients (n= 338). At intake, patients completed questionnaires measuring self-esteem, interpersonal problems, interpersonal style, and general symptomatic distress. They were also diagnosed according to the ICD-10. Interpersonal behaviour was measured along the agency and communion dimensions of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex [IIP-C]. The results show that lower self-esteem was associated with higher levels of interpersonal problems in general. Further, lower self-esteem was first and foremost linked to frustrated agentic motives, as measured by the IIP-C. Hence, the study concludes that fostering patient agency should be considered as an important goal in psychotherapy. Furthermore, the analyses revealed an interaction effect of agency and communion on self-esteem, indicating a need for balancing the two motive dimensions. Finally, some questions are raised concerning the interpretation of the IIP-C subscales in general.

  10. Predictors of disability-related attitudes: considering self-esteem, communication apprehension, contact, and geographic location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Tetteh, Dinah; Lee, Yen-I

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' attitudes about persons with disability (PwD) strongly affect differently-abled persons' quality of life and position in society. Some research offers support for the ability of systematic, supported, longitudinal contact between different groups of individuals to improve attitudes. College campuses, in particular, offer a potentially useful arena in which to facilitate this type of contact. This study explored contextual factors (eg, geographic region, biological sex) and predictors of disability-related attitudes among a college student population to determine strategies for course-based intervention design (eg, as community-engaged or service-learning initiatives). Surveying participants from universities in two regions of the United States, we found that self-esteem, audience-based communication apprehension, and contact with PwD explain more than 50% of the variance in disability-related attitudes. Further, we found that geographic location affects both self-esteem and audience-based communication apprehension (communicating/interacting with PwD). We discuss the implications for community engagement and/or service learning and highlight the importance of partnerships among relevant community stakeholders, including university faculty, students, and staff.

  11. Neural Correlates of Biased Responses: The Negative Method Effect in the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale Is Associated with Right Amygdala Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinan; Kong, Feng; Huang, Lijie; Liu, Jia

    2016-10-01

    Self-esteem is a widely studied construct in psychology that is typically measured by the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). However, a series of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that a simple and widely used unidimensional factor model does not provide an adequate explanation of RSES responses due to method effects. To identify the neural correlates of the method effect, we sought to determine whether and how method effects were associated with the RSES and investigate the neural basis of these effects. Two hundred and eighty Chinese college students (130 males; mean age = 22.64 years) completed the RSES and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Behaviorally, method effects were linked to both positively and negatively worded items in the RSES. Neurally, the right amygdala volume negatively correlated with the negative method factor, while the hippocampal volume positively correlated with the general self-esteem factor in the RSES. The neural dissociation between the general self-esteem factor and negative method factor suggests that there are different neural mechanisms underlying them. The amygdala is involved in modulating negative affectivity; therefore, the current study sheds light on the nature of method effects that are related to self-report with a mix of positively and negatively worded items. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Predicting Environmental Conditions from Biological Observations (PECBO Appendix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of PECBO Module, using scripts to infer environmental conditions from biological observations, statistically estimating species-environment relationships, methods for inferring environmental conditions, statistical scripts in module.

  13. Self-Esteem among Boys with and without Specific Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Grace

    1980-01-01

    The self-esteem of 120 males with and without specific learning disabilities, at each of two levels of development (preadolescent and adolescent) was measured using Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory. (MP)

  14. Relational self-esteem, psychological well-being, and social support in children affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongfei; Li, Xiaoming; Chi, Peilian; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2015-12-01

    Self-esteem can be derived from the relationships with significant others (relational self-esteem). However, it is unclear what the importance of relational self-esteem is for mental health and whether social support from others promotes relational self-esteem. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between relational self-esteem and a multitude of indicators of psychological well-being among children affected by HIV. We also examined how social support from others would affect relational self-esteem. Results indicated that relational self-esteem was positively associated with psychological well-being. Support from significant others rather than others predicted increased relational self-esteem. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Aerobic Running as a Counseling Technique for Undergraduates with Low Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, David; Wigtil, James

    1985-01-01

    Examined the effects of aerobic running on the self-esteem of undergraduates (N=20). Results showed that only those running with facilitators improved physically, and none improved in self-esteem. (BH)

  16. SELF-ESTEEM REMAJA PEREMPUAN DAN KAITANNYA DENGAN PENGASUHAN PENERIMAAN-PENOLAKAN IBU DAN INTERAKSI SAUDARA KANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotmauli Adina Riska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is development transitional developmental period between childhood and adulthood which includes biological change, cognitive, and social changes. The changes have a direct impact on their evaluation about themselves the attitudes and behavior of adolescents. The purpose of this research was to analyze the influence of self-esteem of girls who as second children and its correlation with parental acceptance-rejection (PAR of the mother, and sibling interaction, and self-esteem among second-born adolescent girl. Samples of this research were 60 adolescent girls (30 with an older sister and 30 with an older brother. This was a cross-sectional study with purposive sampling. The result of this study showed that warmth dimension of sibling interaction of girl who has an older sister was higher than the girl who has an older brother. There was the positive correlation between girl’s age and mother’s education with acceptance dimension of PAR. Meanwhile, rejection dimension of PAR had a positive correlation with the relative power dimension of sibling interaction. Furthermore, hostility and rejection dimension of PAR had a positive correlation with conflict dimension of sibling interaction. Meanwhile, hostility, neglect, and rejection dimension of PAR had a negative correlation with sibling rivalry dimension of sibling interaction. Correlation test found that self-esteem of girls only correlated significantly with the entire dimension of PAR.

  17. A masked negative self-esteem? Implicit and explicit self-esteem in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marissen, Marlies A E; Brouwer, Marlies E; Hiemstra, Annemarie M F; Deen, Mathijs L; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2016-08-30

    The mask model of narcissism states that the narcissistic traits of patients with NPD are the result of a compensatory reaction to underlying ego fragility. This model assumes that high explicit self-esteem masks low implicit self-esteem. However, research on narcissism has predominantly focused on non-clinical participants and data derived from patients diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) remain scarce. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to test the mask model hypothesis of narcissism among patients with NPD. Male patients with NPD were compared to patients with other PD's and healthy participants on implicit and explicit self-esteem. NPD patients did not differ in levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem compared to both the psychiatric and the healthy control group. Overall, the current study found no evidence in support of the mask model of narcissism among a clinical group. This implicates that it might not be relevant for clinicians to focus treatment of NPD on an underlying negative self-esteem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do depression, self-esteem, body-esteem, and eating attitudes vary by BMI among African American adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Dawn; Latta, Laura; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M

    2013-11-01

    To examine how psychosocial factors vary by body weight and gender among African-American adolescents. A community sample of 235 low-income, predominantly African-American adolescents completed measures of depression, self-esteem, body-esteem, and eating attitudes. Measured weight and height were converted to body mass index (kg/m(2)) age and gender-adjusted z-scores. Data were analyzed using 2-factor multivariate analysis of variance. Obese youths had significantly worse scores on all psychosocial domains than normal weight youths, with no differences between overweight and normal weight youths. Obese youths had significantly worse scores than overweight youths on body-esteem and self-esteem. Female adolescents had significantly worse scores than males on depressed mood, body-esteem, and eating attitudes. Among a community sample of predominantly African-American adolescents, obesity, not overweight, was associated with poor psychosocial health. Findings suggest that overweight may be perceived as normative, and that weight-related programs consider adolescents' psychosocial functioning.

  19. Racial differences in adolescent coping and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, P L; Mullis, R L

    2000-06-01

    Racial differences in coping strategies and self-esteem were examined for 361 male and female adolescents in Grades 7-12. Coping strategies were assessed with the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (J. M. Patterson & H. I. McCubbin, 1986). Self-esteem was assessed by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (S. Coopersmith, 1987). Multivariate analysis revealed racial differences in adolescent coping strategies of ventilating feelings, seeking diversions, developing self-reliance, avoiding problems, seeking spiritual support, investing in close friends, engaging in demanding activities, solving family problems, and relaxing. In particular, African American adolescents reported using diversions, self-reliance, spiritual support, close friends, demanding activities, family problems, and relaxation more frequently than Caucasian adolescents did. Implications for professionals and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  20. Parental authority, nurturance, and two-dimensional self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafarodi, Romin W; Wild, Nicole; Ho, Caroline

    2010-08-01

    This study examined the relations of parental permissiveness, authoritativeness, authoritarianism, and nurturance with two dimensions of self-esteem - self-liking and self-competence. In a sample of 207 two-parent families, university students and both their parents provided independent reports on all the above variables. Covariance structure analysis was used to eliminate reporter-specific bias and unreliability in predicting student self-esteem from parenting behavior. The results revealed highly redundant positive associations of mothers' and fathers' authoritativeness and nurturance with both self-liking and self-competence. The pattern of these associations suggests that the significance of parental authoritativeness for the child's self-esteem is due mainly to the nurturance it provides. Contrary to expectation, mothers' and fathers' authoritarianism was also positively associated with self-liking. As discussed, however, this is likely to be an artifact of the specific measures and testing methods used.

  1. Sibship and self-esteem in children with asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concetta Polizzi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study has explored the valence of sibship that may empower the self-esteem of children with asthma at the interpersonal, environmental control competence, emotionality management, and body-image levels. It has been assumed that the relationship between siblings may have a moderating effect on the negative impact that asthma has on child’s development. Seventy children suffering from chronic asthma have been involved: 40 children with siblings (experimental group and 30 sibling-free children (control group. The children with asthma have exhibited higher levels of self-esteem in comparison with the sibling-free children. The results of the study, at the clinical significance level, highlight how meaningful could be the involvement of healthy siblings to support the development, and to ease the compliance of children suffering from asthma. The outcomes have confirmed the supportive valence of sibship for the self-esteem of the children with asthma.

  2. Gender differences in self-esteem: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, K C; Hyde, J S; Showers, C J; Buswell, B N

    1999-07-01

    Two analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in global self-esteem. In analysis I, a computerized literature search yielded 216 effect sizes, representing the testing of 97,121 respondents. The overall effect size was 0.21, a small difference favoring males. A significant quadratic effect of age indicated that the largest effect emerged in late adolescence (d = 0.33). In Analysis II, gender differences were examined using 3 large, nationally representative data sets from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). All of the NCES effect sizes, which collectively summarize the responses of approximately 48,000 young Americans, indicated higher male self-esteem (ds ranged from 0.04 to 0.24). Taken together, the 2 analyses provide evidence that males score higher on standard measures of global self-esteem than females, but the difference is small. Potential reasons for the small yet consistent effect size are discussed.

  3. The self-esteem of adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, J; Hurlbut, N

    1986-06-01

    This paper examined the self-esteem of 22 adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) (11 girls, 11 boys) who were matched by sex, school, age, and IQ with 22 nondisabled adolescents. Subjects completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS), the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale II (FACES II), and a demographic questionnaire. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the girls with CP scored significantly lower than the boys with CP, the nondisabled boys, and nondisabled girls on physical self-esteem, and the nondisabled girls and boys with CP on social self-esteem. The scores of the boys with CP were similar to those of the nondisabled groups. This differential effect of disability on males and females is discussed in terms of the interactionist theory and the implications for occupational therapy.

  4. Trajectories of global self-esteem development during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Marianne Skogbrott; Melkevik, Ole; Holsen, Ingrid; Wold, Bente

    2012-02-01

    Based on data from a 17-year longitudinal study of 1083 adolescents, from the ages of 13 to 30 years, the average development of self-reported global self-esteem was found to be high and stable during adolescence. However, there is considerable inter-individual variance in baseline and development of global self-esteem. This study used latent growth mixture modelling to characterize three trajectory classes of global self esteem between ages 14 and 23 years: consistently high, chronically low, and U-shaped. The respondents in three classes showed statistically significant different levels of life satisfaction, depressive mood, somatic complaints and insomnia at age 30. Attempts to predict trajectories from age 13 were only partially successful, with body image, relations with parents and frequency of physical activity as the significant predictors. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. NILAI EKONOMI ANAK, MOTIVASI, DAN SELF-ESTEEM PEKERJA ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robi Rizkianto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of influence of the child’s economic value and motivation on self-esteem of child labor in one of the business center in Bogor District was the goal of this research. The study involved 40 child laborers and their parents that were selected by snowball. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test and multiple linear regression test. The results showed that parents' perceptions of child labor related future of child’s economic value and the child’s economic value currently in the moderate category. Motivation of child labors (intrinsic and extrinsic and self-esteem were also in the moderate category. Self-esteem of child labor increased by increasing length of child to attend formal education and decreased in children who was dropping outs of school. Selfesteem of child labor was also decreased with decreasing extrinsic motivation.

  6. Physical attractiveness, happiness, neuroticism, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, E W; Kahn, A

    1975-05-01

    The hypotheses that physical attractiveness is positively correlated with happiness, psychological health, and self-esteem was tested with 211 men and women undergraduates. Physical attractiveness was measured by judges' ratings, while happiness, psychological health (neuroticism), and self-esteem were measured by self-report inventories. Physical attractiveness was found to correlate positively with happiness (r equals .37), negatively with neuroticism (r equals minus.22), and positively with self-esteem (r equals .24) for women but not for men (corresponding rs equals .09, .03, and minus.04, respectively). These results were accounted for by the suggestion that physical attractiveness "buys" more for women than for men, and the most prominent outcomes obtained by physical attractiveness--friends and dates--are of greater value to women undergraduates than men. The superior outcomes obtained by the attractive women made them happy, psychologically healthy, and proud of themselves.

  7. The Effect of Self-esteem on Corrupt Intention: The Mediating Role of Materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Liang; Li Liu; Xuyun Tan; Zhenwei Huang; Jianning Dang; Wenwen Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The present set of studies aimed to explore the effect of self-esteem on corrupt intention and the mediating role of materialism in generating this effect. In Study 1, we used questionnaires to investigate the correlation among self-esteem, materialism, and corrupt intention. In Study 2, we manipulated self-esteem to explore the causal effect of self-esteem on materialism and corrupt intention. In Study 3, we manipulated materialism to examine whether inducing materialism can reduce the relat...

  8. Obesity in Children and the ?Myth of Psychological Maladjustment?: Self-Esteem in the Spotlight

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review There are contrasting views regarding the psychological well-being of children with obesity. Responding to limitations of existing evidence, Jane Wardle in 2005 argued for a ?myth of psychological maladjustment?. This review looks again at self-esteem. Recent Findings The different characterisations of self-esteem each offer value. Global self-esteem is reduced in nearly all studies of youth with obesity. Dimensional self-esteem reveals physical appearance, athletic and soci...

  9. How sustainable is pupil self-esteem as an educational objective for religious minorities?

    OpenAIRE

    Thanissaro, Phra Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Although the importance of self-esteem in educational achievement is contested, it remains a significant touchstone of multicultural religious education. This study set out to establish differences in demographics and attitudes between high self-esteem and low self-esteem Buddhist teenagers who are a small religious minority in Britain. Low self-esteem teens expressed less well-being, more worry in relationships with their family and friends, low motivation in school, more supernatural belief...

  10. Validation of the Croatian Version of the Social Self-Esteem Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Margareta Jelić

    2009-01-01

    Within the frame of Social Identity Theory (SIT) self-esteem was given a central role in explaining intergroup discrimination. Furthermore, SIT emphasized the difference between personal and social identity and thus tried to avoid explaining group process and intergroup relations in terms of personal characteristics. However, social identity theory hypotheses are largely tested using measures of personal self-esteem due to the lack of social self-esteem measures. The Collective Self-Esteem Sc...

  11. Low and decreasing self-esteem during adolescence predict adult depression two decades later

    OpenAIRE

    Steiger Andrea E.; Allemand Mathias; Robins Richard W.; Fend Helmut A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that low self-esteem is prospectively associated with depression. However, self-esteem has been shown to change over time. We thus hypothesized that not only level but also change in self-esteem affect depression. Using data from a 23-year longitudinal study (N = 1,527), we therefore examined the prospective effects of global and domain-specific self-esteem (physical attractiveness, academic competence) level and change on depressive symptoms 2 decades later. Self-es...

  12. Creation and Validation of the Self-esteem/Self-image Female Sexuality (SESIFS) Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Maria C.O. Lordello; Carolina C. Ambrogini; Ana L. Fanganiello; Teresa R. Embiruçu; Marina M. Zaneti; Laise Veloso; Livia B. Piccirillo; Bianca L. Crude; Mauro Haidar; Ivaldo Silva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Self-esteem and self-image are psychological aspects that affect sexual function. AIMS To validate a new measurement tool that correlates the concepts of self-esteem, self-image, and sexuality. Methods A 20-question test (the self-esteem/self-image female sexuality [SESIFS] questionnaire) was created and tested on 208 women. Participants answered: Rosenberg's self-esteem scale, the female sexual quotient (FSQ), and the SESIFS questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient was u...

  13. When paranoia fails to enhance self-esteem: explicit and implicit self-esteem and its discrepancy in patients with persecutory delusions compared to depressed and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesting, Marie-Luise; Mehl, Stephanie; Rief, Winfried; Lindenmeyer, Johannes; Lincoln, Tania M

    2011-04-30

    The hypothesis that persecutory delusions function to enhance self-esteem implies that patients will show normal explicit, but low implicit self-esteem. As evidence for this has been inconsistent, our study assessed delusional state, explicit and implicit self-esteem and depression in a large sample (n=139) of schizophrenia patients with acute persecutory delusions (n=28), patients with remitted persecutory delusions (n=31), healthy controls (n=59), and depressed controls (n=21). Patients with delusions and patients with depression both showed decreased levels of explicit, but normal levels of implicit self-esteem when compared to healthy controls. The direct comparison of levels of explicit and implicit self-esteem within each group revealed that healthy controls had higher explicit than implicit self-esteem, while the converse pattern was found for depressed controls. No discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem was found for acute deluded or remitted patients with schizophrenia. Although these findings do not support the hypothesis that delusions serve to enhance self-esteem, they underline the relevance of low self-esteem in patients with persecutory delusions and point to the necessity of enhancing self-esteem in therapy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bullying and self-esteem in adolescents from public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Camila C; Oliveira, Marluce T

    2013-01-01

    To perform a situational analysis of bullying and self-esteem in municipal school units, by estimating the prevalence of bullying, according to gender, age, and role in bullying situations; and to identify the level of self-esteem of students by gender and role in bullying situations and correlate with the involvement in bullying situations. This was a cross-sectional study with 237 students in the ninth grade of middle school from public schools participating in the School Health Program in the city of Olinda (PE). The questionnaire used in the study was divided into three blocks: a sociodemographic block; a block on bullying, validated by Freire, Simão, and Ferreira (2006); and a block to assess self-esteem, by Rosenberg (1989). The prevalence of bullying was 67.5%. The study population consisted of adolescents, mostly female (56.4%), aged 15-19 years (51.3%), of black ethnicity (69.1%). Most students lived with four or more people (79.7%) in their family-owned homes (83.8%), which had five or more rooms (79.1%). Observing bullying or being bullied were the most often reported situations (59.9% and 48.9%, respectively); when the roles of bullying are associated with self-esteem in relation to gender, it was observed that in the group of victims/aggressors and aggressors (p = 0.006 and 0.044, respectively), males had higher statistically significant self-esteem scores when compared to females. The findings indicate a large number of students involved in the several roles of bullying, identifying an association between these characteristics and sex/gender and self-esteem of those involved. The present study has identified the need for further studies on the nature of the event. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. [Relationships between explicit/implicit self-esteem discrepancy and measures of depression, loneliness, and in-group favoritism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tsutomu

    2014-04-01

    The present study focused on the discrepancy between explicit self-esteem and implicit self-esteem, using the Name Letter Task with 86 graduate students. In line with suggestions from previous research, participants high in explicit self-esteem but low implicit self-esteem (called "defensive high self-esteem") showed higher in-group favoritism than participants who had high explicit and implicit self-esteem (called "secure high self-esteem"). Participants with defensive self-esteem reported higher levels of depression than secure self-esteem participants. These results strengthen the generalizability for the conceptualizations of "defensive" and "secure" high self-esteem. However, participants with low self-esteem did not show significant interactions with any variables.

  16. Spatial Terahertz Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenwei; Wang, Xinke; Ye, Jiasheng; Feng, Shengfei; Sun, Wenfeng; Akalin, Tahsin; Zhang, Yan

    2013-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) technology is a developing and promising candidate for biological imaging, security inspection and communications, due to the low photon energy, the high transparency and the broad band properties of the THz radiation. However, a major encountered bottleneck is lack of efficient devices to manipulate the THz wave, especially to modulate the THz wave front. A wave front modulator should allow the optical or electrical control of the spatial transmission (or reflection) of an input THz wave and hence the ability to encode the information in a wave front. Here we propose a spatial THz modulator (STM) to dynamically control the THz wave front with photo-generated carriers. A computer generated THz hologram is projected onto a silicon wafer by a conventional spatial light modulator (SLM). The corresponding photo-generated carrier spatial distribution will be induced, which forms an amplitude hologram to modulate the wave front of the input THz beam. Some special intensity patterns and vortex beams are generated by using this method. This all-optical controllable STM is structure free, high resolution and broadband. It is expected to be widely used in future THz imaging and communication systems.

  17. The Use of Peer Facilitators To Enhance Self-Esteem Levels of At-Risk Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Joann B.

    This practicum addressed the problems of low self-esteem levels of at-risk students in kindergarten and in grades three and five by implementing a peer facilitator program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the OUNCE Attitude Scale, and a Kindergarten Checklist of Low Self-Esteem Characteristics were used to determine the students'…

  18. A Factor Analytic Study of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokenes, Barbara

    1978-01-01

    Assesses the construct validity of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory using a variation of Thurstone's Orthogonal Rotation technique. Also attempted to obtain data on the sources of self-esteem which contribute to global self-esteem. It was hoped that data would reflect the comparative importance of the home, peers, and the school to the global…

  19. Generalizing about Sex Role and Self-Esteem: Results or Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the relationship between sex role and self-esteem, different results were obtained with two different self-esteem measures (the Texas Social Behavior Inventory and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory). The findings emphasize the need for caution in interpreting research results beyond the limits of procedures used. (Author/MJL)

  20. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Comparisons of Adolescent Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullis, Ann K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined self-esteem of adolescents over three years of high school. Ninth graders (n=270) completed Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory for each of three years. Found grade level significantly related to self-esteem in longitudinal but not cross-sectional design. Mediational effects of gender and socioeconomic status were found to be minimal.…