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Sample records for biological effects independent

  1. Ureases display biological effects independent of enzymatic activity: Is there a connection to diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Olivera-Severo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Ureases are enzymes from plants, fungi and bacteria that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. While fungal and plant ureases are homo-oligomers of 90-kDa subunits, bacterial ureases are multimers of two or three subunit complexes. We showed that some isoforms of jack bean urease, canatoxin and the classical urease, bind to glycoconjugates and induce platelet aggregation. Canatoxin also promotes release of histamine from mast cells, insulin from pancreatic cells and neurotransmitters from brain synaptosomes. In vivo it induces rat paw edema and neutrophil chemotaxis. These effects are independent of ureolytic activity and require activation of eicosanoid metabolism and calcium channels. Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach mucosa, causes gastric ulcers and cancer by a mechanism that is not understood. H. pylori produces factors that damage gastric epithelial cells, such as the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, and a urease (up to 10% of bacterial protein that neutralizes the acidic medium permitting its survival in the stomach. H. pylori whole cells or extracts of its water-soluble proteins promote inflammation, activate neutrophils and induce the release of cytokines. In this paper we review data from the literature suggesting that H. pylori urease displays many of the biological activities observed for jack bean ureases and show that bacterial ureases have a secretagogue effect modulated by eicosanoid metabolites through lipoxygenase pathways. These findings could be relevant to the elucidation of the role of urease in the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal disease caused by H. pylori.

  2. Ureases display biological effects independent of enzymatic activity: is there a connection to diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Severo, D; Wassermann, G E; Carlini, C R

    2006-07-01

    Ureases are enzymes from plants, fungi and bacteria that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide. While fungal and plant ureases are homo-oligomers of 90-kDa subunits, bacterial ureases are multimers of two or three subunit complexes. We showed that some isoforms of jack bean urease, canatoxin and the classical urease, bind to glycoconjugates and induce platelet aggregation. Canatoxin also promotes release of histamine from mast cells, insulin from pancreatic cells and neurotransmitters from brain synaptosomes. In vivo it induces rat paw edema and neutrophil chemotaxis. These effects are independent of ureolytic activity and require activation of eicosanoid metabolism and calcium channels. Helicobacter pylori, a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach mucosa, causes gastric ulcers and cancer by a mechanism that is not understood. H. pylori produces factors that damage gastric epithelial cells, such as the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, the cytotoxin-associated protein CagA, and a urease (up to 10% of bacterial protein) that neutralizes the acidic medium permitting its survival in the stomach. H. pylori whole cells or extracts of its water-soluble proteins promote inflammation, activate neutrophils and induce the release of cytokines. In this paper we review data from the literature suggesting that H. pylori urease displays many of the biological activities observed for jack bean ureases and show that bacterial ureases have a secretagogue effect modulated by eicosanoid metabolites through lipoxygenase pathways. These findings could be relevant to the elucidation of the role of urease in the pathogenesis of the gastrointestinal disease caused by H. pylori.

  3. Independent and Combined Effects of Sex and Biological Maturation on Motor Coordination and Performance in Prepubertal Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G O; Cumming, Sean P; Duarte, João P; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Almeida, Maria J; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides; Padez, Cristina; Carmo, Bruno Cleiton M; Santos, Rute; Seabra, André; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J

    2016-04-01

    Sex differences and maturation-associated variation in fitness and motor coordination were examined in children aged 8-9 years (n = 128, 67 girls). Assessments included stature and body mass, two-component body composition, percentage of predicted adult stature (as an index of biological maturation), and motor performance and coordination (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder). Compared to girls, boys were less advanced in maturation status, possessed larger fat mass, demonstrated superior performances in six tests of fitness, and obtained one superior score on the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. After controlling for somatic maturation, sex differences persisted in the two multivariate domains: motor performance and motor coordination.

  4. Quantum Effects in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Omar, Yasser; Engel, Gregory S.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2014-08-01

    List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Quantum biology: introduction Graham R. Fleming and Gregory D. Scholes; 2. Open quantum system approaches to biological systems Alireza Shabani, Masoud Mohseni, Seogjoo Jang, Akihito Ishizaki, Martin Plenio, Patrick Rebentrost, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Jianshu Cao, Seth Lloyd and Robert Silbey; 3. Generalized Förster resonance energy transfer Seogjoo Jang, Hoda Hossein-Nejad and Gregory D. Scholes; 4. Multidimensional electronic spectroscopy Tomáš Mančal; Part II. Quantum Effects in Bacterial Photosynthetic Energy Transfer: 5. Structure, function, and quantum dynamics of pigment protein complexes Ioan Kosztin and Klaus Schulten; 6. Direct observation of quantum coherence Gregory S. Engel; 7. Environment-assisted quantum transport Masoud Mohseni, Alàn Aspuru-Guzik, Patrick Rebentrost, Alireza Shabani, Seth Lloyd, Susana F. Huelga and Martin B. Plenio; Part III. Quantum Effects in Higher Organisms and Applications: 8. Excitation energy transfer in higher plants Elisabet Romero, Vladimir I. Novoderezhkin and Rienk van Grondelle; 9. Electron transfer in proteins Spiros S. Skourtis; 10. A chemical compass for bird navigation Ilia A. Solov'yov, Thorsten Ritz, Klaus Schulten and Peter J. Hore; 11. Quantum biology of retinal Klaus Schulten and Shigehiko Hayashi; 12. Quantum vibrational effects on sense of smell A. M. Stoneham, L. Turin, J. C. Brookes and A. P. Horsfield; 13. A perspective on possible manifestations of entanglement in biological systems Hans J. Briegel and Sandu Popescu; 14. Design and applications of bio-inspired quantum materials Mohan Sarovar, Dörthe M. Eisele and K. Birgitta Whaley; 15. Coherent excitons in carbon nanotubes Leonas Valkunas and Darius Abramavicius; Glossary; References; Index.

  5. A density-independent glass transition in biological tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Bi, Dapeng; Schwarz, J M; Manning, M Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Cells must move through tissues in many important biological processes, including embryonic development, cancer metastasis, and wound healing. In these tissues, a cell's motion is often strongly constrained by its neighbors, leading to glassy dynamics. Recent work has demonstrated the existence of a non-equilibrium glass transition in self-propelled particle models for active matter, where the transition is driven by changes in density. However, this may not explain liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues, where there are no gaps between cells and the packing fraction remains fixed and equal to unity. Here we demonstrate the existence of a different type of glass transition that occurs in the well-studied vertex model for confluent tissue monolayers. In this model, the onset of rigidity is governed by changes to single-cell properties such as cell-cell adhesion, cortical tension, and volume compressibility, providing an explanation for a liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues.

  6. A density-independent rigidity transition in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Dapeng; Lopez, J. H.; Schwarz, J. M.; Manning, M. Lisa

    2015-12-01

    Cell migration is important in many biological processes, including embryonic development, cancer metastasis and wound healing. In these tissues, a cell’s motion is often strongly constrained by its neighbours, leading to glassy dynamics. Although self-propelled particle models exhibit a density-driven glass transition, this does not explain liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues, where there are no gaps between cells and therefore the density is constant. Here we demonstrate the existence of a new type of rigidity transition that occurs in the well-studied vertex model for confluent tissue monolayers at constant density. We find that the onset of rigidity is governed by a model parameter that encodes single-cell properties such as cell-cell adhesion and cortical tension, providing an explanation for liquid-to-solid transitions in confluent tissues and making testable predictions about how these transitions differ from those in particulate matter.

  7. Viewpoint-independent contextual cueing effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    taiga etsuchiai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We usually perceive things in our surroundings as unchanged despite viewpoint changes caused by self-motion. The visual system therefore must have a function to process objects independently of viewpoint. In this study, we examined whether viewpoint-independent spatial layout can be obtained implicitly. For this purpose, we used a contextual cueing effect, a learning effect of spatial layout in visual search displays known to be an implicit effect. We compared the transfer of the contextual cueing effect between cases with and without self-motion by using visual search displays for 3D objects, which changed according to the participant’s assumed location for viewing the stimuli. The contextual cueing effect was obtained with self-motion but disappeared when the display changed without self-motion. This indicates that there is an implicit learning effect in spatial coordinates and suggests that the spatial representation of object layouts or scenes can be obtained and updated implicitly. We also showed that binocular disparity play an important role in the layout representations.

  8. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Since the last decade the study of quantum mechanical phenomena in biological systems has become a vibrant field of research. Initially sparked by evidence of quantum effects in energy transport that is instrumental for photosynthesis, quantum biology asks the question of how methods and models from quantum theory can help us to understand fundamental mechanisms in living organisms. This approach entails a paradigm change challenging the related disciplines: The successful framework of quantum theory is taken out of its low-temperature, microscopic regimes and applied to hot and dense macroscopic environments, thereby extending the toolbox of biology and biochemistry at the same time. The Quantum Effects in Biological Systems conference is a platform for researchers from biology, chemistry and physics to present and discuss the latest developments in the field of quantum biology. After meetings in Lisbon (2009), Harvard (2010), Ulm (2011), Berkeley (2012), Vienna (2013), Singapore (2014) and Florence (2015),...

  9. Biological Effectiveness of Antiproton Annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggiore, C.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, N.;

    2004-01-01

    from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The background, description, and status...

  10. Biological Effects of Acoustic Cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    rectified diffusion. 56 III. STABLE CAVITATION A. Introduction There are manv areas associated with the biological effects of ultrasound in which the...used said as cavitation indicators. Further, if clinical ultrasound systems are found to be inducing cavitation , either stable or transient, it will...O BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ACOUSTIC CAVITATION by Lawrence A. Crum -- Physical Acoustics Research Laboratory Department of Physics and Astronomy ’ CTE

  11. Biological insights from topology independent comparison of protein 3D structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh N; Madhusudhan, M S

    2011-08-01

    Comparing and classifying the three-dimensional (3D) structures of proteins is of crucial importance to molecular biology, from helping to determine the function of a protein to determining its evolutionary relationships. Traditionally, 3D structures are classified into groups of families that closely resemble the grouping according to their primary sequence. However, significant structural similarities exist at multiple levels between proteins that belong to these different structural families. In this study, we propose a new algorithm, CLICK, to capture such similarities. The method optimally superimposes a pair of protein structures independent of topology. Amino acid residues are represented by the Cartesian coordinates of a representative point (usually the C(α) atom), side chain solvent accessibility, and secondary structure. Structural comparison is effected by matching cliques of points. CLICK was extensively benchmarked for alignment accuracy on four different sets: (i) 9537 pair-wise alignments between two structures with the same topology; (ii) 64 alignments from set (i) that were considered to constitute difficult alignment cases; (iii) 199 pair-wise alignments between proteins with similar structure but different topology; and (iv) 1275 pair-wise alignments of RNA structures. The accuracy of CLICK alignments was measured by the average structure overlap score and compared with other alignment methods, including HOMSTRAD, MUSTANG, Geometric Hashing, SALIGN, DALI, GANGSTA(+), FATCAT, ARTS and SARA. On average, CLICK produces pair-wise alignments that are either comparable or statistically significantly more accurate than all of these other methods. We have used CLICK to uncover relationships between (previously) unrelated proteins. These new biological insights include: (i) detecting hinge regions in proteins where domain or sub-domains show flexibility; (ii) discovering similar small molecule binding sites from proteins of different folds and (iii

  12. Biological effects of electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrì, M. A.; Di Luzio, Sr.; Di Luzio, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays, concerns about hazards from electromagnetic fields represent an alarming source for human lives in technologically developed countries. We are surrounded by electromagnetic fields everywhere we spend our working hours, rest or recreational activities. The aim of this review is to summarize the biological effects due to these fields arising from power and transmission lines, electrical cable splices, electronic devices inside our homes and work-places, distribution networks and associated devices such as cellular telephones and wireless communication tower, etc. Special care has been reserved to study the biological effects of electromagnetic fields on cell lines of the mammalian immune system about which our research group has been working for several years.

  13. Independent component analysis reveals new and biologically significant structures in micro array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerla Srinivas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An alternative to standard approaches to uncover biologically meaningful structures in micro array data is to treat the data as a blind source separation (BSS problem. BSS attempts to separate a mixture of signals into their different sources and refers to the problem of recovering signals from several observed linear mixtures. In the context of micro array data, "sources" may correspond to specific cellular responses or to co-regulated genes. Results We applied independent component analysis (ICA to three different microarray data sets; two tumor data sets and one time series experiment. To obtain reliable components we used iterated ICA to estimate component centrotypes. We found that many of the low ranking components indeed may show a strong biological coherence and hence be of biological significance. Generally ICA achieved a higher resolution when compared with results based on correlated expression and a larger number of gene clusters with significantly enriched for gene ontology (GO categories. In addition, components characteristic for molecular subtypes and for tumors with specific chromosomal translocations were identified. ICA also identified more than one gene clusters significant for the same GO categories and hence disclosed a higher level of biological heterogeneity, even within coherent groups of genes. Conclusion Although the ICA approach primarily detects hidden variables, these surfaced as highly correlated genes in time series data and in one instance in the tumor data. This further strengthens the biological relevance of latent variables detected by ICA.

  14. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Holzscheiter, Michael H.; Bassler, Niels; Beyer, Gerd; De Marco, John J.; Doser, Michael; Ichioka, Toshiyasu; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Knudsen, Helge V.; Landua, Rolf; Maggiore, Carl; McBride, William H.; Møller, Søren Pape; Petersen, Jorgen; Smathers, James B.; Skarsgard, Lloyd D.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Uggerhøj, Ulrik I.; Withers, H.Rodney; Vranjes, Sanja; Wong, Michelle; Wouters, Bradly G.

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in “biological dose” in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current status of the experiment are given.

  15. Biological effectiveness of antiproton annihilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holzscheiter, M.H.; Agazaryan, N.; Bassler, Niels;

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment designed to determine whether or not the densely ionizing particles emanating from the annihilation of antiprotons produce an increase in ‘‘biological dose’’ in the vicinity of the narrow Bragg peak for antiprotons compared to protons. This experiment is the first direct...... measurement of the biological effects of antiproton annihilation. The experiment has been approved by the CERN Research Board for running at the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) as AD-4/ACE (Antiproton Cell Experiment) and has begun data taking in June of 2003. The background, description and the current...

  16. Calcium-independent phospholipases A2 and their roles in biological processes and diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ramanadham, Sasanka; Ali, Tomader; Ashley, Jason W.; Bone, Robert N.; Hancock, William D.; Lei, Xiaoyong

    2015-01-01

    Among the family of phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) are the Ca2+-independent PLA2s (iPLA2s) and they are designated group VI iPLA2s. In relation to secretory and cytosolic PLA2s, the iPLA2s are more recently described and details of their expression and roles in biological functions are rapidly emerging. The iPLA2s or patatin-like phospholipases (PNPLAs) are intracellular enzymes that do not require Ca2+ for activity, and contain lipase (GXSXG) and nucleotide-binding (GXGXXG) consensus sequences. T...

  17. Decavanadate effects in biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aureliano, Manuel; Gândara, Ricardo M C

    2005-05-01

    Vanadium biological studies often disregarded the formation of decameric vanadate species known to interact, in vitro, with high-affinity with many proteins such as myosin and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump and also to inhibit these biochemical systems involved in energy transduction. Moreover, very few in vivo animal studies involving vanadium consider the contribution of decavanadate to vanadium biological effects. Recently, it has been shown that an acute exposure to decavanadate but not to other vanadate oligomers induced oxidative stress and a different fate in vanadium intracellular accumulation. Several markers of oxidative stress analyzed on hepatic and cardiac tissue were monitored after in vivo effect of an acute exposure (12, 24 h and 7 days), to a sub-lethal concentration (5 mM; 1 mg/kg) of two vanadium solutions ("metavanadate" and "decavanadate"). It was observed that "decavanadate" promote different effects than other vanadate oligomers in catalase activity, glutathione content, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial superoxide anion production and vanadium accumulation, whereas both solutions seem to equally depress reactive oxygen species (ROS) production as well as total intracellular reducing power. Vanadium is accumulated in mitochondria in particular when "decavanadate" is administered. These recent findings, that are now summarized, point out the decameric vanadate species contributions to in vivo and in vitro effects induced by vanadium in biological systems.

  18. Structural characterization and biological evaluation of a clioquinol-ruthenium complex with copper-independent antileukaemic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobec, Martina; Kljun, Jakob; Sosič, Izidor; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Uršič, Matija; Gobec, Stanislav; Turel, Iztok

    2014-06-28

    In this study, we present the synthesis, biological characterization, and first crystal structure of an organometallic-clioquinol complex. Combining ruthenium with the established apoptotic agent and 8-hydroxyquinoline derivative, clioquinol, resulted in a complex that induces caspase-dependent cell death in leukaemia cells. This activity is copper independent and is improved compared to the parent compound, clioquinol. The study of the mode of action reveals that this clioquinol-ruthenium complex does not intercalate between DNA base pairs. Additionally, this clioquinol-ruthenium complex shows proteasome-independent inhibition of the NFκB signalling pathway, with no effects on cell-cycle distribution. These data suggest a mechanism of action that involves a target profile that is different from that for clioquinol alone.

  19. Mechanistic pathways and biological roles for receptor-independent activators of G-protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer, Joe B; Smrcka, Alan V; Lanier, Stephen M

    2007-03-01

    Signal processing via heterotrimeric G-proteins in response to cell surface receptors is a central and much investigated aspect of how cells integrate cellular stimuli to produce coordinated biological responses. The system is a target of numerous therapeutic agents and plays an important role in adaptive processes of organs; aberrant processing of signals through these transducing systems is a component of various disease states. In addition to G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR)-mediated activation of G-protein signaling, nature has evolved creative ways to manipulate and utilize the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer or Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits independent of the cell surface receptor stimuli. In such situations, the G-protein subunits (Galpha and Gbetagamma) may actually be complexed with alternative binding partners independent of the typical heterotrimeric Galphabetagamma. Such regulatory accessory proteins include the family of regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins that accelerate the GTPase activity of Galpha and various entities that influence nucleotide binding properties and/or subunit interaction. The latter group of proteins includes receptor-independent activators of G-protein signaling (AGS) proteins that play surprising roles in signal processing. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge regarding AGS proteins. AGS proteins are indicative of a growing number of accessory proteins that influence signal propagation, facilitate cross talk between various types of signaling pathways, and provide a platform for diverse functions of both the heterotrimeric Galphabetagamma and the individual Galpha and Gbetagamma subunits.

  20. Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sisir

    2014-07-01

    The debates about the trivial and non-trivial effects in biological systems have drawn much attention during the last decade or so. What might these non-trivial sorts of quantum effects be? There is no consensus so far among the physicists and biologists regarding the meaning of "non-trivial quantum effects". However, there is no doubt about the implications of the challenging research into quantum effects relevant to biology such as coherent excitations of biomolecules and photosynthesis, quantum tunneling of protons, van der Waals forces, ultrafast dynamics through conical intersections, and phonon-assisted electron tunneling as the basis for our sense of smell, environment assisted transport of ions and entanglement in ion channels, role of quantum vacuum in consciousness. Several authors have discussed the non-trivial quantum effects and classified them into four broad categories: (a) Quantum life principle; (b) Quantum computing in the brain; (c) Quantum computing in genetics; and (d) Quantum consciousness. First, I will review the above developments. I will then discuss in detail the ion transport in the ion channel and the relevance of quantum theory in brain function. The ion transport in the ion channel plays a key role in information processing by the brain.

  1. Integration of 3D structure from disparity into biological motion perception independent of depth awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Images projected onto the retinas of our two eyes come from slightly different directions in the real world, constituting binocular disparity that serves as an important source for depth perception - the ability to see the world in three dimensions. It remains unclear whether the integration of disparity cues into visual perception depends on the conscious representation of stereoscopic depth. Here we report evidence that, even without inducing discernible perceptual representations, the disparity-defined depth information could still modulate the visual processing of 3D objects in depth-irrelevant aspects. Specifically, observers who could not discriminate disparity-defined in-depth facing orientations of biological motions (i.e., approaching vs. receding) due to an excessive perceptual bias nevertheless exhibited a robust perceptual asymmetry in response to the indistinguishable facing orientations, similar to those who could consciously discriminate such 3D information. These results clearly demonstrate that the visual processing of biological motion engages the disparity cues independent of observers' depth awareness. The extraction and utilization of binocular depth signals thus can be dissociable from the conscious representation of 3D structure in high-level visual perception.

  2. A data-independent acquisition workflow for qualitative screening of new psychoactive substances in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyua, Juliet; Negreira, Noelia; Ibáñez, María; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Hernández, Félix; Covaci, Adrian; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2015-11-01

    Identification of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is challenging. Developing targeted methods for their analysis can be difficult and costly due to their impermanence on the drug scene. Accurate-mass mass spectrometry (AMMS) using a quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) analyzer can be useful for wide-scope screening since it provides sensitive, full-spectrum MS data. Our article presents a qualitative screening workflow based on data-independent acquisition mode (all-ions MS/MS) on liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to QTOFMS for the detection and identification of NPS in biological matrices. The workflow combines and structures fundamentals of target and suspect screening data processing techniques in a structured algorithm. This allows the detection and tentative identification of NPS and their metabolites. We have applied the workflow to two actual case studies involving drug intoxications where we detected and confirmed the parent compounds ketamine, 25B-NBOMe, 25C-NBOMe, and several predicted phase I and II metabolites not previously reported in urine and serum samples. The screening workflow demonstrates the added value for the detection and identification of NPS in biological matrices.

  3. Cloning-independent markerless gene editing in Streptococcus sanguinis: novel insights in type IV pilus biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Ishwori; Berry, Jamie-Lee; Hall, Alexander M J; Pelicic, Vladimir

    2016-11-29

    Streptococcus sanguinis, a naturally competent opportunistic human pathogen, is a Gram-positive workhorse for genomics. It has recently emerged as a model for the study of type IV pili (Tfp)-exceptionally widespread and important prokaryotic filaments. To enhance genetic manipulation of Streptococcus sanguinis, we have developed a cloning-independent methodology, which uses a counterselectable marker and allows sophisticated markerless gene editing in situ We illustrate the utility of this methodology by answering several questions regarding Tfp biology by (i) deleting single or mutiple genes, (ii) altering specific bases in genes of interest, and (iii) engineering genes to encode proteins with appended affinity tags. We show that (i) the last six genes in the pil locus harbouring all the genes dedicated to Tfp biology play no role in piliation or Tfp-mediated motility, (ii) two highly conserved Asp residues are crucial for enzymatic activity of the prepilin peptidase PilD and (iii) that pilin subunits with a C-terminally appended hexa-histidine (6His) tag are still assembled into functional Tfp. The methodology for genetic manipulation we describe here should be broadly applicable.

  4. [Biological effect of wood dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewska, A; Wojtczak, J; Bielichowska-Cybula, G; Domańska, A; Dutkiewicz, J; Mołocznik, A

    1993-01-01

    The biological effect of exposure to wood dust depends on its composition and the content of microorganisms which are an inherent element of the dust. The irritant and allergic effects of wood dust have been recognised for a long time. The allergic effect is caused by the wood dust of subtropical trees, e.g. western red cedar (Thuja plicata), redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), obeche (Triplochiton scleroxylon), cocabolla (Dalbergia retusa) and others. Trees growing in the European climate such as: larch (Larix), walnut (Juglans regia), oak (Quercus), beech (Fagus), pine (Pinus) cause a little less pronounced allergic effect. Occupational exposure to irritative or allergic wood dust may lead to bronchial asthma, rhinitis, alveolitis allergica, DDTS (Organic dust toxic syndrome), bronchitis, allergic dermatitis, conjunctivitis. An increased risk of adenocarcinoma of the sinonasal cavity is an important and serious problem associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. Adenocarcinoma constitutes about half of the total number of cancers induced by wood dust. An increased incidence of the squamous cell cancers can also be observed. The highest risk of cancer applies to workers of the furniture industry, particularly those dealing with machine wood processing, cabinet making and carpentry. The cancer of the upper respiratory tract develops after exposure to many kinds of wood dust. However, the wood dust of oak and beech seems to be most carcinogenic. It is assumed that exposure to wood dust can cause an increased incidence of other cancers, especially lung cancer and Hodgkin's disease. The adverse effects of microorganisms, mainly mould fungi and their metabolic products are manifested by alveolitis allergica and ODTS. These microorganisms can induce aspergillomycosis, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and allergic dermatitis.

  5. Biological effects of drilling wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranford, P. J. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    An argument is made for the point of view that economic realities require that a sustainable fishery must co-exist with the offshore petroleum industry, and therefore to sustain the fishery comprehensive studies are needed to identify and minimize the impact of operational drilling wastes on fishery resources. Moreover, laboratory and field studies indicate that operational drilling platforms impact on fisheries at great distances, therefore studies should not be limited to the immediate vicinity of drilling sites. Studies on long-term exposure of resident organisms to low level contaminants and the chronic lethal and sublethal biological effects of production drilling wastes must be conducted under environmentally relevant conditions to ensure the validity of the results. Studies at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography on sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) shows them to be highly sensitive to impacts from drilling wastes. Results of these studies, integrated with toxicity data and information on the distribution and transport of drilling wastes have been used by regulatory agencies and industrial interests to develop scientifically sound and justifiable regulations. They also led to the development of practical, sensitive and cost-effective technologies that use resident resource species to detect environmental impacts at offshore production sites. 1 fig.

  6. SIX2 Effects on Wilms Tumor Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janene Pierce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor (WT blastema retains gene expression profiles characteristic of the multipotent nephron progenitor pool, or cap mesenchyme (CM, in the developing kidney. As a result, WT blastema and the CM are believed to represent contextual analogues of one another. Sine oculis homeobox 2 (SIX2 is a transcription factor expressed specifically in the CM, provides a critical mechanism for CM self-renewal, and remains persistently active in WT blastema, although its purpose in this childhood malignancy remains unclear. We hypothesized that SIX2, analogous to its function in development, confers a survival pathway to blastema, the putative WT stem cell. To test its functional significance in WT biology, wild-type SIX2 was overexpressed in the human WT cell line, WiT49. After validating this model, SIX2 effects on anchorage-independent growth, proliferation, invasiveness, canonical WNT pathway signaling, and gene expression of specific WNT pathway participants were evaluated. Relative to controls, WiT49 cells overexpressing SIX2 showed significantly enhanced anchorage-independent growth and early-passage proliferation representing surrogates of cell survival. Interestingly, overexpression of SIX2 generally repressed TCF/LEF-dependent canonical WNT signaling, which activates and coordinates both differentiation and stem pathways, but significantly heightened canonical WNT signaling through the survivin promoter, a mechanism that exclusively maintains the stem state. In summary, when overexpressed in a human WT cell line, SIX2 enhances cell survival and appears to shift the balance in WNT/β-catenin signaling away from a differentiation path and toward a stem cell survival path.

  7. Biological effects of high LET radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Masami [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1997-03-01

    Biological effect of radiation is different by a kind of it greatly. Heavy ions were generally more effective in cell inactivation, chromosome aberration induction, mutation induction and neoplastic cell transformation induction than {gamma}-rays in SHE cells. (author)

  8. Does the start and end of the biological growing season respond independently to a changing climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmgren, Kjell

    2016-04-01

    Adaptation of the biological growing season to a changing climatic requires that plants can adapt their phenology plastically or genetically to new conditions. Physiological and evolutionary constraints may, however, hamper such adaptations. Here, we study correlations between leafing out and autumn coloration phenology, that is, the start and end of the green growing season. In temperate, deciduous tree species the period with green leaves is more or less the same as the individual leaf's life span. General plant ecological strategy schemes suggest that the individual leaf's life span is one of the major dimensions evolutionary associated with other leaf and plant characteristics, including expensive investments in leaf nutrient content and leaf morphology. Leaf life span is thus considered highly conserved within evolutionary lineages. At the same time, local adaptation of leaf phenology to the length of the climatic growing season is common, both when it comes to leafing out cues and autumn senescence cues, suggesting that there are strong selection pressures and adaptability (plastic and/or genetic) to make use of the climatically defined growing season. We used a data set from a Swedish, national phenology network where volunteer observers recorded the start of leafing out defined as 'when the tree looks green from a distance' and the start of autumn leaf coloration as 'when 1/3 of the tree canopy had attained autumn colors'. In the subset used observations were made at 489 sites/farms between 1873-1922. We only included data when the observer at a site and year had recorded both spring leafing and autumn leaf coloration phenology on the same species. In total, the data set comprised 25'099 observations of 17 species. As the participants in the phenology monitoring network were volunteers, the data matrix has lots of missing data and unbalanced representation from different sites. We used linear mixed model analyses, including year as random factor, to analyse

  9. Correlation Effects in Biological Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Bagdasaryan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of the complex network theory is presented and classification of such networks in accordance with the main statistical characteristics is considered. For the adjacency matrix of a real neural network the shortest distances for each pair of nodes as well as the node degree distribution and cluster coefficients are calculated. Comparison of the main statistical parameters with the random network is performed, and based on this, the conclusions about the correlation phenomena in biological system are made.

  10. Systems biology of cancer: entropy, disorder, and selection-driven evolution to independence, invasion and "swarm intelligence".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabichi, M; Antoniou, A; Saiselet, M; Pita, J M; Andry, G; Dumont, J E; Detours, V; Maenhaut, C

    2013-12-01

    Our knowledge of the biology of solid cancer has greatly progressed during the last few years, and many excellent reviews dealing with the various aspects of this biology have appeared. In the present review, we attempt to bring together these subjects in a general systems biology narrative. It starts from the roles of what we term entropy of signaling and noise in the initial oncogenic events, to the first major transition of tumorigenesis: the independence of the tumor cell and the switch in its physiology, i.e., from subservience to the organism to its own independent Darwinian evolution. The development after independence involves a constant dynamic reprogramming of the cells and the emergence of a sort of collective intelligence leading to invasion and metastasis and seldom to the ultimate acquisition of immortality through inter-individual infection. At each step, the probability of success is minimal to infinitesimal, but the number of cells possibly involved and the time scale account for the relatively high occurrence of tumorigenesis and metastasis in multicellular organisms.

  11. Central bank independence and its effect on money market stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Anera Alishani

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990s many countries have moved toward greater central bank independence (CBI by either amending their Central Bank’s laws or writing them de novo. Also countries of Western Balkans and many other transition countries have moved toward greater CBI. There are many potential benefits associated with greater CBI, and one of them is stable growth of money and liquidity. For a given level of money market development the hypothesis is that a more independent CB is likely to promote more stable growth of money supply (Dželetović et al., 2008. As a result the main research task of this work is to estimate the effects of CBI on money market growth for five Western Balkans countries and five other European transition countries. Because the empirical studies were very limited for the relationship between CBI and money market growth, there were no clear conclusions. In addition, there were different measuring methodologies that attempt to quantify the extent of legal and actual CBI. Related to the main research task, this dissertation has examined the effects of CBI on money market stability (proxied by bank deposit growth for a sample of 10 countries for a period from 1999-2009 by using fixed effect model. Through this methodology different regressions have been estimated, but the results were not robust and there are no clear finding on the relationship between CBI and money market growth.

  12. EFFECTIVE INDEPENDENT QUALITY ASSESSMENT USING IV&V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nageswara Rao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Software is critical to the effectiveness, competitiveness, and survival of any organization. Unexpected behavior or critical problems that bring operations to an idle are just not an option. Effective oversight is critical to good project management and as it is important for the project manager to ensure that the project is on track and to be completed within the estimated schedule and cost by maintaining the quality of the deliverables. This paper describes the role of Independent Verification and Validation (IV&V integrated into the software development life cycle in bringing down company’s cost to develop software products, improve the quality of developed systems and save money throughout the system life cycle by detecting and identifying risk elements throughout the entire software development process thus allowing project and quality assurance managers to respond quickly in order to mitigate risks earlier in the product development life cycle, with more effectiveness, and with less impact on cost and schedule.

  13. Biological effects of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G. [SENES Oak Ridge Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Theodorakis, C.W.; Shugart, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division

    1996-12-31

    Natural populations have always been exposed to background levels of ionizing radiation; however, with the event of the nuclear age, studies about the effects of higher-than-background levels of ionizing radiation on individuals or populations of organisms became important. Originally, concern was focused on survival after large, acute radiation doses, and numerous studies document the somatic and genetic effects of acute ionizing radiation. However, there is a growing realization that chronic long-term exposure to higher-than-background levels of environmental radiation is more likely than is large acute exposure. Less than 10% of the literature on ionizing radiation effects deals with chronic long-term effects, and very few studies involve natural populations. In 1977, mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis, were experimentally introduced into a 0,45 ha, decommissioned, radioactive waste pond where the measured dose at the sediment-water interface was 1,150 rad/year. One year later, the fecundity of the population had not changed significantly. Eighteen years later, studies of the fish showed an inverse correlation between DNA strand breakage and fecundity in the contaminated pond. More recent studies have provided evidence that genetic diversity of the fish has increased in the contaminated site. These fish also have a greater prevalence of certain DNA banding patterns. Individuals displaying these banding patterns have a higher fecundity and lower degree of DNA strand breakage than individuals with less common banding patterns. Gambusia affinis has apparently adapted to the high background radiation, successfully surviving for approximately 50 generations. 31 refs, 5 figs.

  14. Preadult Learning of Political Independence: Media and Family Communication Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Jack

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the question of the influence of mass media and interpersonal communication on the growth of partisan independence among American preadults and concludes that preadults become increasingly independent as they get older. (DF)

  15. Biological Effects of Low-Dose Exposure

    CERN Document Server

    Komochkov, M M

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the two-protection reaction model an analysis of stochastic radiobiological effects of low-dose exposure of different biological objects has been carried out. The stochastic effects are the results published in the last decade: epidemiological studies of human cancer mortality, the yield of thymocyte apoptosis of mice and different types of chromosomal aberrations. The results of the analysis show that as dependent upon the nature of biological object, spontanous effect, exposure conditions and radiation type one or another form dose - effect relationship is realized: downwards concave, near to linear and upwards concave with the effect of hormesis included. This result testifies to the incomplete conformity of studied effects of 1990 ICRP recomendations based on the linear no-threshold hypothesis about dose - effect relationship. Because of this the methodology of radiation risk estimation recomended by ICRP needs more precisian and such quantity as collective dose ought to be classified into...

  16. Biological Effect of Magnetic Field in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-Wei ZENG

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the biological effect of magnetic field in mice bodies. Method: With a piece of permanent magnet embeded in mice bodies beside the femoral artery and vein to measure the electrophoretic velocity(um/s). Result: The magnetic field in mice bodies on the experiment group that the electrophoretic velocity is faster more than control and free group.Conclusion:The magnetic field in animal's body can raise the negative electric charges on the surface of erythrocyte to improve the microcirculation, this is the biological effect of magnetic field.

  17. Biological effects of electric fields: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.; Phillips, R.D.

    1983-11-01

    An overview of the literature suggests tha electric-field exposure is an environmental agent/influence of relatively low potential toxicity to biological systems. Generally, many of the biological effects which have been reported are quite subtle and differences between exposed and unexposed subjects may be masked by normal biological variations. However, several recent reports indicate possibly more serious consequences from chronic exposure, emphasizing the need for more research in epidemiology and laboratory experiments. This paper presents a cursory overview of investigations on the biological consequences of exposure to ELF electromagnetic fields. Three important topics are discussed, including: 1) the general methodology of exposure experiments, including those elements which are critical for definitive studies in biological systems; 2) a brief discussion of epidemiological and clinical studies conducted to date; and 3) a somewhat more extensive examination of animal experiments representing major areas of investigation (behavior, biological rhythms, nervous and endocrine systems, bone growth and repair, cardiovascular system and blood chemistry, immunology, reproduction, growth and development mortality and pathology, cellular and membrane studies, and mutagenesis). A discussion of current concepts, possible mechanisms and future directions of research is presented. 110 references.

  18. Biological effectiveness of neutrons: Research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarett, G.W.; Braby, L.A.; Broerse, J.J.; Elkind, M.M.; Goodhead, D.T.; Oleinick, N.L.

    1994-02-01

    The goal of this report was to provide a conceptual plan for a research program that would provide a basis for determining more precisely the biological effectiveness of neutron radiation with emphasis on endpoints relevant to the protection of human health. This report presents the findings of the experts for seven particular categories of scientific information on neutron biological effectiveness. Chapter 2 examines the radiobiological mechanisms underlying the assumptions used to estimate human risk from neutrons and other radiations. Chapter 3 discusses the qualitative and quantitative models used to organize and evaluate experimental observations and to provide extrapolations where direct observations cannot be made. Chapter 4 discusses the physical principles governing the interaction of radiation with biological systems and the importance of accurate dosimetry in evaluating radiation risk and reducing the uncertainty in the biological data. Chapter 5 deals with the chemical and molecular changes underlying cellular responses and the LET dependence of these changes. Chapter 6, in turn, discusses those cellular and genetic changes which lead to mutation or neoplastic transformation. Chapters 7 and 8 examine deterministic and stochastic effects, respectively, and the data required for the prediction of such effects at different organizational levels and for the extrapolation from experimental results in animals to risks for man. Gaps and uncertainties in this data are examined relative to data required for establishing radiation protection standards for neutrons and procedures for the effective and safe use of neutron and other high-LET radiation therapy.

  19. II. Biological studies of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, J.H.

    1948-05-24

    With the completion of the 184 inch cyclotron in Berkeley and the successful construction of a deflector system, it was possible to bring the 190 Mev deuteron and the 380 Mev alpha beams out into the air and to begin a study of the effects of high-energy deuteron beams by direct irradiation of biological specimens. The direct biological use of deuteron beams was attempted earlier in Berkeley by Marshak, MacLeish, and Walker in 1940. These and other investigators have been aware for some time of the potential usefulness of high energy particle beams for radio-biological studies and their suitability for biological investigations. R.R. Wilson advanced the idea of using fast proton beams to deliver radiation and intervening tissues. R.E. Zirkle pointed out that such particle beams may be focused or screened until a cross-section of the beam is small enough to study effects of irradiation under the microscope on single cells or on parts of single cells. This article gives an overview of the radiological use of high energy deuteron beams, including the following topics: potential uses of high energy particle beams; experiments on the physical properties of the beam; lethal effect of the deuteron beam on mice.

  20. [Biological effects of electromagnetic fields (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, J

    1979-08-01

    This résumé deals with thermal and nonthermal effects of electromagnetic fields on man. In consideration of two aspects a limitation is necessary. Firstly, there will be discussed only direct and immediate influences on biological cells and tissues, secondly, the treatment is limited to such phenomena, for which biophysical aproximations, based on experimental data, could be developed. Hazards for the human being may occur only by thermal effects within the microwave range. Regarding frequencies below approximately 30 kHz, excitation processes cannot be excluded in exceptional cases. Thermal effects are predominant, between 30 kHz and 100 kHz, before excitations can appear. Furthermore, by comparing the electrically and magnetically induced currents with the naturally flowing currents in man caused by the brain's and heart's electrical activity, a "lower boundaryline" was estimated. Regarding electric or magnetic field strengths undercutting this boundary-line, direct effects on the central nervous system may be excluded; other mechanisms should be responsible for demonstrated biological effects. The paper closes referring to some reports--presently discussed--on experimental findings of biological effects, which are observed as a result of the influence of electromagnetic fields of small field strengths.

  1. Independent effects of early-life experience and trait aggression on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A

    2016-08-01

    Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function.

  2. The Biological Effects of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasprova, Jana; Dal Ben, Matteo; Vianello, Eleonora; Goncharova, Iryna; Urbanova, Marie; Vyroubalova, Karolina; Gazzin, Silvia; Tiribelli, Claudio; Sticha, Martin; Cerna, Marcela; Vitek, Libor

    2016-01-01

    Although phototherapy was introduced as early as 1950's, the potential biological effects of bilirubin photoisomers (PI) generated during phototherapy remain unclear. The aim of our study was to isolate bilirubin PI in their pure forms and to assess their biological effects in vitro. The three major bilirubin PI (ZE- and EZ-bilirubin and Z-lumirubin) were prepared by photo-irradiation of unconjugated bilirubin. The individual photoproducts were chromatographically separated (TLC, HPLC), and their identities verified by mass spectrometry. The role of Z-lumirubin (the principle bilirubin PI) on the dissociation of bilirubin from albumin was tested by several methods: peroxidase, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism. The biological effects of major bilirubin PI (cell viability, expression of selected genes, cell cycle progression) were tested on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Lumirubin was found to have a binding site on human serum albumin, in the subdomain IB (or at a close distance to it); and thus, different from that of bilirubin. Its binding constant to albumin was much lower when compared with bilirubin, and lumirubin did not affect the level of unbound bilirubin (Bf). Compared to unconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin PI did not have any effect on either SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of genes involved in bilirubin metabolism or cell cycle progression, nor in modulation of the cell cycle phase. The principle bilirubin PI do not interfere with bilirubin albumin binding, and do not exert any toxic effect on human neuroblastoma cells.

  3. Gene-ontology enrichment analysis in two independent family-based samples highlights biologically plausible processes for autism spectrum disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anney, Richard J L

    2012-02-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have implicated a range of genes from discrete biological pathways in the aetiology of autism. However, despite the strong influence of genetic factors, association studies have yet to identify statistically robust, replicated major effect genes or SNPs. We apply the principle of the SNP ratio test methodology described by O\\'Dushlaine et al to over 2100 families from the Autism Genome Project (AGP). Using a two-stage design we examine association enrichment in 5955 unique gene-ontology classifications across four groupings based on two phenotypic and two ancestral classifications. Based on estimates from simulation we identify excess of association enrichment across all analyses. We observe enrichment in association for sets of genes involved in diverse biological processes, including pyruvate metabolism, transcription factor activation, cell-signalling and cell-cycle regulation. Both genes and processes that show enrichment have previously been examined in autistic disorders and offer biologically plausibility to these findings.

  4. Mechanistic Effects of Calcitriol in Cancer Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza Díaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Besides its classical biological effects on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, calcitriol, the active vitamin D metabolite, has a broad variety of actions including anticancer effects that are mediated either transcriptionally and/or via non-genomic pathways. In the context of cancer, calcitriol regulates the cell cycle, induces apoptosis, promotes cell differentiation and acts as anti-inflammatory factor within the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we address the different mechanisms of action involved in the antineoplastic effects of calcitriol.

  5. Effect of Ceramic Scaffold Architectural Parameters on Biological Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabella eGariboldi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have focused on the optimization of ceramic architectures to fulfill a variety of scaffold functional requirements and improve biological response. Conventional fabrication techniques, however, do not allow for the production of geometrically controlled, reproducible structures and often fail to allow the independent variation of individual geometric parameters. Current developments in additive manufacturing technologies suggest that 3D printing will allow a more controlled and systematic exploration of scaffold architectures. This more direct translation of design into structure requires a pipeline for design-driven optimization. A theoretical framework for systematic design and evaluation of architectural parameters on biological response is presented. Four levels of architecture are considered, namely (1 surface topography, (2 pore size and geometry, (3 porous networks and (4 macroscopic pore arrangement, including the potential for spatially varied architectures. Studies exploring the effect of various parameters within these levels are reviewed. This framework will hopefully allow uncovering of new relationships between architecture and biological response in a more systematic way, as well as inform future refinement of fabrication techniques to fulfill architectural necessities with a consideration of biological implications.

  6. Effect of Ceramic Scaffold Architectural Parameters on Biological Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariboldi, Maria Isabella; Best, Serena M

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the optimization of ceramic architectures to fulfill a variety of scaffold functional requirements and improve biological response. Conventional fabrication techniques, however, do not allow for the production of geometrically controlled, reproducible structures and often fail to allow the independent variation of individual geometric parameters. Current developments in additive manufacturing technologies suggest that 3D printing will allow a more controlled and systematic exploration of scaffold architectures. This more direct translation of design into structure requires a pipeline for design-driven optimization. A theoretical framework for systematic design and evaluation of architectural parameters on biological response is presented. Four levels of architecture are considered, namely (1) surface topography, (2) pore size and geometry, (3) porous networks, and (4) macroscopic pore arrangement, including the potential for spatially varied architectures. Studies exploring the effect of various parameters within these levels are reviewed. This framework will hopefully allow uncovering of new relationships between architecture and biological response in a more systematic way as well as inform future refinement of fabrication techniques to fulfill architectural necessities with a consideration of biological implications.

  7. The Biological Effects of Bilirubin Photoisomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jasprova

    Full Text Available Although phototherapy was introduced as early as 1950's, the potential biological effects of bilirubin photoisomers (PI generated during phototherapy remain unclear. The aim of our study was to isolate bilirubin PI in their pure forms and to assess their biological effects in vitro. The three major bilirubin PI (ZE- and EZ-bilirubin and Z-lumirubin were prepared by photo-irradiation of unconjugated bilirubin. The individual photoproducts were chromatographically separated (TLC, HPLC, and their identities verified by mass spectrometry. The role of Z-lumirubin (the principle bilirubin PI on the dissociation of bilirubin from albumin was tested by several methods: peroxidase, fluorescence quenching, and circular dichroism. The biological effects of major bilirubin PI (cell viability, expression of selected genes, cell cycle progression were tested on the SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell line. Lumirubin was found to have a binding site on human serum albumin, in the subdomain IB (or at a close distance to it; and thus, different from that of bilirubin. Its binding constant to albumin was much lower when compared with bilirubin, and lumirubin did not affect the level of unbound bilirubin (Bf. Compared to unconjugated bilirubin, bilirubin PI did not have any effect on either SH-SY5Y cell viability, the expression of genes involved in bilirubin metabolism or cell cycle progression, nor in modulation of the cell cycle phase. The principle bilirubin PI do not interfere with bilirubin albumin binding, and do not exert any toxic effect on human neuroblastoma cells.

  8. Method for photo-altering a biological system to improve biological effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard A.; Doiron, Daniel R.; Crean, David H.

    2000-08-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a new adjunctive therapy for filtration surgery that does not use chemotherapy agents or radiation, but uses pharmacologically-active sensitizing compounds to produce a titratable, localized, transient, post operative avascular conjunctiva. A photosensitizing agent in a biological system is selectively activated by delivering the photosensitive agent to the biological system and laser activating only a spatially selected portion of the delivered photosensitive agent. The activated portion of the photosensitive agent reacts with the biological system to obtain a predetermined biological effect. As a result, an improved spatial disposition and effectuation of the biological effect by the photosensitive agent in the biological system is achieved.

  9. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  10. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE SOURCE OF GEONEUTRINOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik T.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of antineutrinos from U and Th series decay within the Earth (geoneutrinos) constrains the absolute abundance of these elements. Marine detectors will measure the ratio over the mantle beneath the site and provide spatial averaging. The measured mantle Th/U may well be significantly below...... its bulk earth value of similar to 4; Pb isotope measurements on mantle-derived rocks yield low Th/U values, effectively averaged over geological time. The physics of the modern biological process is complicated, but the net effect is that much of the U in the mantle comes from subducted marine......, these elements behave similarly in the absence of life, where the elements occur as U(IV) and Th(IV), which do not significantly fractionate during igneous processes. Neither do they fractionate during weathering, as they are essentially insoluble in water in surface environments. Th(IV) and U(IV) remain...

  11. The Biological Effects of Ivabradine in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziano Riccioni

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A large number of studies in healthy and asymptomatic subjects, as well as patients with already established cardiovascular disease (CAD have demonstrated that heart rate (HR is a very important and major independent cardiovascular risk factor for prognosis. Lowering heart rate reduces cardiac work, thereby diminishing myocardial oxygen demand. Several experimental studies in animals, including dogs and pigs, have clarified the beneficial effects of ivabradine associated with HR lowering. Ivabradine is a selective inhibitor of the hyperpolarisation activated cyclic-nucleotide-gated funny current (If involved in pacemaker generation and responsiveness of the sino-atrial node (SAN, which result in HR reduction with no other apparent direct cardiovascular effects. Several studies show that ivabradine substantially and significantly reduces major risks associated with heart failure when added to guideline-based and evidence-based treatment. However the biological effect of ivabradine have yet to be studied. This effects can appear directly on myocardium or on a systemic level improving endothelial function and modulating immune cell migration. Indeed ivabradine is an ‘open-channel’ blocker of human hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels of type-4 (hHCN4, and a ‘closed-channel’ blocker of mouse HCN1 channels in a dose-dependent manner. At endothelial level ivabradine decreased monocyte chemotactin protein-1 mRNA expression and exerted a potent anti-oxidative effect through reduction of vascular NADPH oxidase activity. Finally, on an immune level, ivabradine inhibits the chemokine-induced migration of CD4-positive lymphocytes. In this review, we discuss the biological effects of ivabradine and highlight its effects on CAD.

  12. Biological effects of space radiation and development of effective countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann R.

    2014-04-01

    As part of a program to assess the adverse biological effects expected from astronauts' exposure to space radiation, numerous different biological effects relating to astronauts' health have been evaluated. There has been major focus recently on the assessment of risks related to exposure to solar particle event (SPE) radiation. The effects related to various types of space radiation exposure that have been evaluated are: gene expression changes (primarily associated with programmed cell death and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling), oxidative stress, gastrointestinal tract bacterial translocation and immune system activation, peripheral hematopoietic cell counts, emesis, blood coagulation, skin, behavior/fatigue (including social exploration, submaximal exercise treadmill and spontaneous locomotor activity), heart functions, alterations in biological endpoints related to astronauts' vision problems (lumbar puncture/intracranial pressure, ocular ultrasound and histopathology studies), and survival, as well as long-term effects such as cancer and cataract development. A number of different countermeasures have been identified that can potentially mitigate or prevent the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to space radiation.

  13. Jabuticaba-Induced Endothelium-Independent Vasodilating Effect on Isolated Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Medeiros Lobo de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the important biological effects of jabuticaba, its actions on the cardiovascular system have not been clarified. Objectives: To determine the effects of jabuticaba hydroalcoholic extract (JHE on vascular smooth muscle (VSM of isolated arteries. Methods: Endothelium-denuded aortic rings of rats were mounted in isolated organ bath to record isometric tension. The relaxant effect of JHE and the influence of K+ channels and Ca2+ intra- and extracellular sources on JHE-stimulated response were assessed. Results: Arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine showed concentration-dependent relaxation (0.380 to 1.92 mg/mL. Treatment with K+ channel blockers (tetraethyl-ammonium, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine hindered relaxation due to JHE. In addition, phenylephrine-stimulated contraction was hindered by previous treatment with JHE. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase did not change relaxation due to JHE. In addition, JHE inhibited the contraction caused by Ca2+ influx stimulated by phenylephrine and KCl (75 mM. Conclusion: JHE induces endothelium-independent vasodilation. Activation of K+ channels and inhibition of Ca2+ influx through the membrane are involved in the JHE relaxant effect.

  14. Jabuticaba-Induced Endothelium-Independent Vasodilating Effect on Isolated Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Daniela Medeiros Lobo; Borges, Leonardo Luis; Torres, Ieda Maria Sapateiro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rocha, Matheus Lavorenti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the important biological effects of jabuticaba, its actions on the cardiovascular system have not been clarified. Objectives: To determine the effects of jabuticaba hydroalcoholic extract (JHE) on vascular smooth muscle (VSM) of isolated arteries. Methods: Endothelium-denuded aortic rings of rats were mounted in isolated organ bath to record isometric tension. The relaxant effect of JHE and the influence of K+ channels and Ca2+ intra- and extracellular sources on JHE-stimulated response were assessed. Results: Arteries pre-contracted with phenylephrine showed concentration-dependent relaxation (0.380 to 1.92 mg/mL). Treatment with K+ channel blockers (tetraethyl-ammonium, glibenclamide, 4-aminopyridine) hindered relaxation due to JHE. In addition, phenylephrine-stimulated contraction was hindered by previous treatment with JHE. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase did not change relaxation due to JHE. In addition, JHE inhibited the contraction caused by Ca2+ influx stimulated by phenylephrine and KCl (75 mM). Conclusion: JHE induces endothelium-independent vasodilation. Activation of K+ channels and inhibition of Ca2+ influx through the membrane are involved in the JHE relaxant effect. PMID:27533258

  15. Examining factors involved in stress-related working memory impairments: Independent or conditional effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Jonathan B; Tartar, Jaime L; Tamayo, Brittney A

    2015-12-01

    A large and growing body of research demonstrates the impact of psychological stress on working memory. However, the typical study approach tests the effects of a single biological or psychological factor on changes in working memory. The current study attempted to move beyond the standard single-factor assessment by examining the impact of 2 possible factors in stress-related working memory impairments. To this end, 60 participants completed a working memory task before and after either a psychological stressor writing task or a control writing task and completed measures of both cortisol and mind wandering. We also included a measure of state anxiety to examine the direct and indirect effect on working memory. We found that mind wandering mediated the relationship between state anxiety and working memory at the baseline measurement. This indirect relationship was moderated by cortisol, such that the impact of mind wandering on working memory increased as cortisol levels increased. No overall working memory impairment was observed following the stress manipulation, but increases in state anxiety and mind wandering were observed. State anxiety and mind wandering independently mediated the relationship between change in working memory and threat perception. The indirect paths resulted in opposing effects on working memory. Combined, the findings from this study suggest that cortisol enhances the impact of mind wandering on working memory, that state anxiety may not always result in stress-related working memory impairments, and that high working memory performance can protect against mind wandering.

  16. The biologically effective dose in inhalation nanotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Ken; Schinwald, Anja; Murphy, Fiona; Cho, Wan-Seob; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Poland, Craig

    2013-03-19

    In all branches of toxicology, the biologically effective dose (BED) is the fraction of the total dose of a toxin that actually drives any toxic effect. Knowledge of the BED has a number of applications including in building structure-activity relationships, the selection of metrics, the design of safe particles, and the determination of when a nanoparticle (NP) can be considered to be "new" for regulatory purposes. In particle toxicology, we define the BED as "the entity within any dose of particles in tissue that drives a critical pathophysiogically relevant form of toxicity (e.g., oxidative stress, inflammation, genotoxicity, or proliferation) or a process that leads to it." In conventional chemical toxicology, researchers generally use the mass as the metric to describe dose (such as mass per unit tissue or cells in culture) because of its convenience. Concentration, calculated from mass, may also figure in any description of dose. In the case of a nanoparticle dose, researchers use either the mass or the surface area. The mass of nanoparticles is not the only driver of their activity: the surfaces of insoluble particles interact with biological systems, and soluble nanoparticles can release factors that interact with these systems. Nanoparticle shape can modify activity. In this Account, we describe the current knowledge of the BED as it pertains to different NP types. Soluble toxins released by NPs represent one potential indicator of BED for wholly or partially soluble NPs composed of copper or zinc. Rapid dissolution of these NPs into their toxic ions in the acidic environment of the macrophage phagolysosome causes those ions to accumulate, which leads to lysosome destabilization and inflammation. In contrast, soluble NPs that release low toxicity ions, such as magnesium oxide NPs, are not inflammogenic. For insoluble NPs, ζ potential can serve as a BED measurement because the exposure of the particle surface to the acidic milieu of the phagolysosome and

  17. Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

  18. What Makes Biology Learning Difficult and Effective: Students' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimer, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the biological topics that students have difficulties learning, the reasons why secondary school students have difficulties in learning biology, and ways to improve the effectiveness of students' biology learning. For these purposes, a self-administered questionnaire including three open-ended questions was…

  19. Propylthiouracil, independent of its antithyroid effect, decreases VSMC collagen expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Jan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Lin, Kwang-Huei; Yang, Su-Hui

    2009-01-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU), in addition to its antithyroid effect, is recently found to have a potent antiatherosclerotic effect. Because collagen accumulation is the major contributor to the growth of atherosclerotic lesions and the neointimal formation after arterial injury, the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of PTU on collagen regulation. In the rat carotid injury model, PTU administration reversed the up-regulation of collagen in the neointima induced by balloon injury. In vitro, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), the main origin of arterial collagen, were treated with PTU. Propylthiouracil caused a concentration-dependent decrease in collagen I and III steady-state protein and mRNA levels, as determined by immuno-cytochemistry, Western, and/or Northern blot analyses. Transient transfection experiments using rat type I collagen promoter construct showed that PTU failed to affect collagen gene transcription in VSMCs. Actinomycin D studies demonstrated that the half-life of collagens mRNA decreased with PTU treatment, suggesting that PTU down-regulates collagen expression predominantly at the post-transcriptional level. Taken together, these data suggest that PTU inhibits VSMC collagen production via destabilization of collagen mRNA that contributes to its beneficial effect on atherogenesis and neointimal formation after arterial injury. However, whether the destabilization of collagen may induce plaque rupture in PTU-treated arteries merits further investigation.

  20. Biologically based multistage modeling of radiation effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Hazelton; Suresh Moolgavkar; E. Georg Luebeck

    2005-08-30

    This past year we have made substantial progress in modeling the contribution of homeostatic regulation to low-dose radiation effects and carcinogenesis. We have worked to refine and apply our multistage carcinogenesis models to explicitly incorporate cell cycle states, simple and complex damage, checkpoint delay, slow and fast repair, differentiation, and apoptosis to study the effects of low-dose ionizing radiation in mouse intestinal crypts, as well as in other tissues. We have one paper accepted for publication in ''Advances in Space Research'', and another manuscript in preparation describing this work. I also wrote a chapter describing our combined cell-cycle and multistage carcinogenesis model that will be published in a book on stochastic carcinogenesis models edited by Wei-Yuan Tan. In addition, we organized and held a workshop on ''Biologically Based Modeling of Human Health Effects of Low dose Ionizing Radiation'', July 28-29, 2005 at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, Washington. We had over 20 participants, including Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff as keynote speaker, talks by most of the low-dose modelers in the DOE low-dose program, experimentalists including Les Redpath (and Mary Helen), Noelle Metting from DOE, and Tony Brooks. It appears that homeostatic regulation may be central to understanding low-dose radiation phenomena. The primary effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are cell killing, delayed cell cycling, and induction of mutations. However, homeostatic regulation causes cells that are killed or damaged by IR to eventually be replaced. Cells with an initiating mutation may have a replacement advantage, leading to clonal expansion of these initiated cells. Thus we have focused particularly on modeling effects that disturb homeostatic regulation as early steps in the carcinogenic process. There are two primary considerations that support our focus on homeostatic regulation. First, a number of

  1. Biological Effects on the Source of Geoneutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Rosing, Minik T.

    2013-11-01

    Detection of antineutrinos from U and Th series decay within the Earth (geoneutrinos) constrains the absolute abundance of these elements. Marine detectors will measure the ratio over the mantle beneath the site and provide spatial averaging. The measured mantle Th/U may well be significantly below its bulk earth value of 4; Pb isotope measurements on mantle-derived rocks yield low Th/U values, effectively averaged over geological time. The physics of the modern biological process is complicated, but the net effect is that much of the U in the mantle comes from subducted marine sediments and subducted upper oceanic crust. That is, U subducts preferentially relative to Th. Oxygen ultimately from photosynthesis oxidizes U(IV) to U(VI), which is soluble during weathering and sediment transport. Dissolved U(VI) reacts with FeO in the oceanic crust and organic carbon within sediments to become immobile U(IV). These deep marine rocks are preferentially subducted relative to Th(IV)-bearing continental margin rocks. Ferric iron from anoxygenic photosynthesis and oxygen in local oases likely mobilized some U during the Archean Era when there was very little O2 in the air. Conversely, these elements behave similarly in the absence of life, where the elements occur as U(IV) and Th(IV), which do not significantly fractionate during igneous processes. Neither do they fractionate during weathering, as they are essentially insoluble in water in surface environments. Th(IV) and U(IV) remain in solid clay-sized material. Overall, geoneutrino data constrain the masses of mantle chemical and isotopic domains recognized by studies of mantle-derived rocks and show the extent of recycling into the mantle over geological time.

  2. The Effect of Board Independence on the Sustainability Reporting Practices of Large U.S. Firms \\

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Herda

    2012-12-01

    firms with a greater proportion of independent board members are: 1 more likely to publish standalone sustainability reports, and 2 more likely to publish higher quality sustainability reports. This paper contributes to prior literature that reports somewhat mixed results on the effect of board independence on voluntary disclosure.

  3. Data from a pre-publication independent replication initiative examining ten moral judgement effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tierney, W. (Warren); Schweinsberg, M. (Martin); Jordan, J. (Jennifer); Kennedy, D.M. (Deanna M.); Qureshi, I. (Israr); Sommer, S.A. (S. Amy); Thornley, N. (Nico); Madan, N. (Nikhil); M. Vianello (Michelangelo); Awtrey, E. (Eli); Zhu, L.L. (Luke Lei); Diermeier, D. (Daniel); Heinze, J.E. (Justin E.); Srinivasan, M. (Malavika); Tannenbaum, D. (David); Bivolaru, E. (Eliza); Dana, J. (Jason); Davis-Stober, C.P. (Clintin P.); Du Plessis, C. (Christilene); Gronau, Q.F. (Quentin F.); Hafenbrack, A.C. (Andrew C.); Liao, E.Y. (Eko Yi); Ly, A. (Alexander); Marsman, M. (Maarten); Murase, T. (Toshio); Schaerer, M. (Michael); Tworek, C.M. (Christina M.); E.J. Wagenmakers (Eric-Jan); Wong, L. (Lynn); Anderson, T. (Tabitha); Bauman, C.W. (Christopher W.); Bedwell, W.L. (Wendy L.); Brescoll, V. (Victoria); Canavan, A. (Andrew); J. Chandler (Jesse); Cheries, E. (Erik); Cheryan, S. (Sapna); Cheung, F. (Felix); Cimpian, A. (Andrei); Clark, M.A. (Mark A.); Cordon, D. (Diana); Cushman, F. (Fiery); Ditto, P.H. (Peter H.); Amell, A. (Alice); Frick, S.E. (Sarah E.); Gamez-Djokic, M. (Monica); Grady, R.H. (Rebecca Hofstein); Graham, J. (Jesse); Gu, J. (Jun); Hahn, A. (Adam); Hanson, B.E. (Brittany E.); Hartwich, N.J. (Nicole J.); Hein, K. (Kristie); Inbar, Y. (Yoel); Jiang, L. (Lily); Kellogg, T. (Tehlyr); Legate, N. (Nicole); Luoma, T.P. (Timo P.); Maibeucher, H. (Heidi); Meindl, P. (Peter); Miles, J. (Jennifer); Mislin, A. (Alexandra); Molden, D.C. (Daniel C.); Motyl, M. (Matt); Newman, G. (George); Ngo, H.H. (Hoai Huong); Packham, H. (Harvey); Ramsay, P.S. (P. Scott); Ray, J.L. (Jennifer L.); Sackett, A.M. (Aaron M.); Sellier, A.-L. (Anne-Laure); Sokolova, T. (Tatiana); Sowden, W. (Walter); Storage, D. (Daniel); Sun, X. (Xiaomin); Van Bavel, J.J. (Jay J.); Washburn, A.N. (Anthony N.); Wei, C. (Cong); Wetter, E. (Erik); Wilson, C.T. (Carlos T.); Darroux, S.-C. (Sophie-Charlotte); Uhlmann, E.L. (Eric Luis)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe present the data from a crowdsourced project seeking to replicate findings in independent laboratories before (rather than after) they are published. In this Pre-Publication Independent Replication (PPIR) initiative, 25 research groups attempted to replicate 10 moral judgment effects

  4. Effects of Individualized Assignments on Biology Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Philip L.

    1983-01-01

    Compared detailed (favoring field dependence and induction) and nondetailed (favoring field dependence and deduction) assignments on biology achievement of grade 10 male students (N=95) over a seven-month period. Detailed assignments, employing pictorial and verbal block diagrams and high structure, significantly enhanced learning among some…

  5. The Biological Effects of Nonionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-29

    surrounding C-12-81 normal tissues. According to N.W. Bleehan, this was the method used by Hippocrates , with the aid of a hot iron. Hippocrates , by the way, is...temporal pattern of desired increases of tempera - ture in the body; (2) the biological consequences of doing this must be established and evaluated

  6. Technology Rich Biology Labs: Effects of Misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuech, Robert; Zogg, Gregory; Zeeman, Stephan; Johnson, Mark

    This paper describes a study conducted on the lab sections of the general biology course for non-science majors at the University of New England, and reports findings of student misconceptions about photosynthesis and the mass/carbon uptake during plant growth. The current study placed high technology analytic tools in the hands of introductory…

  7. Effect Of Independence And Competence The Quality Of Internal Audit Proposing A Research Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effect of competence independence the quality of internal audit at the regional inspectorate officers. Common problems in this research are the findings of the audit were not detected by the apparatus inspectorate as an internal auditor but was found by the external auditor in this case the Supreme Audit Agency BPK. Operationally variable of this research is reinforced by several indicators. Variable independence has three main indicators including independent organizational individual objectivity and reporting. While variable competence of internal auditors will be strengthened into five indicators namely knowledge expertise skills education and experience. To improve the quality of internal audit can be done by increasing the independence of the internal auditor internal auditor independence higher it will improve the quality of internal audit. Similarly if a variable internal auditor competence of internal auditors is increasing the quality of internal audit at the regional inspectorate will also increase.

  8. Mass-independent isotope effects in planetary atmospheres and the early solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemens, M H

    1999-01-15

    A class of isotope effects that alters isotope ratios on a mass-independent basis provides a tool for studying a wide range of processes in atmospheres of Earth and other planets as well as early processes in the solar nebula. The mechanism for the effect remains uncertain. Mass-independent isotopic compositions have been observed in O3, CO2, N2O, and CO in Earth's atmosphere and in carbonate from a martian meteorite, which suggests a role for mass-independent processes in the atmosphere of Mars. Observed mass-independent meteoritic oxygen and sulfur isotopic compositions may derive from chemical processes in the presolar nebula, and their distributions could provide insight into early solar system evolution.

  9. Non-Thermal Effects Mobile Phones at Biological Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Ladislav Balogh

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with non-thermal effects of mobile phones on biological objects. Even though these effects are observed for longer period, there are not so far unequivocal results on obtained biological and biophysical results in this field. Biologicaleffects of electromagnetic field (EMF) depend on its character, its duration as well as on features of organism. As the receptors offield are not known (e.g. inputs of EMF into organism), its effects are judged only by non-specific reaction of...

  10. Androgen-independent effects of Serenoa repens extract (Prostasan®) on prostatic epithelial cell proliferation and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias-Gato, Diego; Carsten, Tober; Vesterlund, Mattias;

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from Serenoa repens are widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and traditionally for prostatitis. In the present study we evaluated the biological effects of Serenoa repens extract (Prostasan®) on prostate cells beyond its known antiandrogenic actions....... Prostasan® inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced proliferation of the prostatic epithelial, androgen independent cell line PC-3. At effective concentrations of 50 µg/mL, Prostasan® partly displaced EGF from EGF receptor (EGFR) but fully blocked EGF-induced cell......-induced secretion of IL-12 and inhibited MCP-1 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production in the presence of LPS on PC-3 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that S. repens extracts, in addition to other reported effects on BPH development and prostatitis, inhibits EGF...

  11. Task-independent effects are potential confounders in longitudinal imaging studies of learning in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korostil, Michele; Fatima, Zainab; Kovacevic, Natasha; Menon, Mahesh; McIntosh, Anthony Randal

    2016-01-01

    Learning impairment is a core deficit in schizophrenia that impacts on real-world functioning and yet, elucidating its underlying neural basis remains a challenge. A key issue when interpreting learning-task experiments is that task-independent changes may confound interpretation of task-related signal changes in neuroimaging studies. The nature of these task-independent changes in schizophrenia is unknown. Therefore, we examined task-independent "time effects" in a group of participants with schizophrenia contrasted with healthy participants in a longitudinal fMRI learning-experiment designed to allow for examination of non-specific effects of time. Flanking the learning portions of the experiment with a task-of-no-interest allowed us to extract task-independent BOLD changes. Task-independent effects occurred in both groups, but were more robust in the schizophrenia group. There was a significant interaction effect between group and time in a distributed activity pattern that included inferior and superior temporal regions, frontal areas (left anterior insula and superior medial gyri), and parietal areas (posterior cingulate cortices and precuneus). This pattern showed task-independent linear decrease in BOLD amplitude over the two scanning sessions for the schizophrenia group, but showed either opposite effect or no activity changes for the control group. There was a trend towards a correlation between task-independent effects and the presence of more negative symptoms in the schizophrenia group. The strong interaction between group and time suggests that both the scanning experience as a whole and the transition between task-types evokes a different response in persons with schizophrenia and may confound interpretation of learning-related longitudinal imaging experiments if not explicitly considered.

  12. Topical Day on Biological Effects of Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baatout, S.; Jacquet, P.

    1997-05-15

    The topical day has been focussed on the potential effects of ionizing radiation on human health. A general overview on molecular and biophysical aspects of radiation, its effects on cells and organisms, and the contribution of radiobiology to radiation protection and risk assessment is given. The genetic effects of radiation and its effects on the developing organism, the effects of radiation on the cell cycle and the mechanisms of radiation induced apoptosis were also discussed.

  13. thermally poled channel waveguides with polarization independent electro-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Yitao; Marckmann, Carl Johan; Arentoft, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the poling-induced electrooptic (EO) effect in germanium and nitrogen codoped channel waveguides. The channel waveguides show attractive properties: (1) almost polarization independent EO effect; (2) a flat frequency response with the modulation frequency up...

  14. Cinnamon extract exhibits insulin-like and independent effects on gene expression in adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinnamon is beneficial to people with insulin resistance due in part to the insulin-like activity of the cinnamon extract (CE). Molecular effects of CE are limited. This study tested the hypothesis that CE has insulin-like and insulin-independent effects at the molecular level. Quantitative real-tim...

  15. Iron diminishes the in vitro biological effect of vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanistic pathways underlying inflammatory injury following exposures to vanadium-containing compounds are not defined. We tested the postulate that the in vitro biological effect of vanadium results from its impact on iron homeostasis. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells ex...

  16. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed.

  17. Hormesis [Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (Belle)] and Dermatology

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Haw-Yueh; Maibach, Howard I.

    2008-01-01

    Hormesis, or biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE), is characterized by nonmonotonic dose response which is biphasic, displaying opposite effects at low and high dose. Its occurrence has been documented across a broad range of biological models and diverse type of exposure. Since hormesis appears to be a relatively common phenomenon in many areas, the objective of this review is to explore its occurrence related to dermatology and its public health and risk assessment implication....

  18. Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Formica Domenico; Silvestri Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to a...

  19. Biological Effects of the Great Oxidation Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil evidence of photoautotrophy, documented in Precambrian sediments by stromatolites, stromatolitic microfossils, and carbon isotopic data consistent with autotrophic CO2-fixation, extends to ~3,500 Ma. Such data, however, are insufficient to establish the time of origin of O2-producing (cyanobacterial) photosynthesis from its anoxygenic, photosynthetic bacterial, evolutionary precursor. The oldest (Paleoarchean) stromatolites may have been formed by anoxygenic photoautotrophs, rather than the cyanobacteria that dominate Proterozoic and modern stromatolites. Unlike the cyanobacteria of Proterozoic microbial assemblages, the filamentous and coccoidal microfossils of Archean deposits may represent remnants of non-O2-producing prokaryotes. And although the chemistry of Archean organic matter shows it to be biogenic, its carbon isotopic composition is insufficient to differentiate between oxygenic and anoxygenic sources. Though it is well established that Earth's ecosystem has been based on autotrophy since its early stages and that O2-producing photosynthesis evolved earlier, perhaps much earlier, than the increase of atmospheric oxygen in the ~2,450 and ~2,320 Ma Great Oxidation Event (GOE), the time of origin of oxygenic photoautotrophy has yet to be established. Recent findings suggest that Earth's ecosystem responded more or less immediately to the GOE. The increase of atmospheric oxygen markedly affected ocean water chemistry, most notably by increasing the availability of biologically usable oxygen (which enabled the development of obligate aerobes, such as eukaryotes), and of nitrate, sulfate and hydrogen sulfide (the increase of H2S being a result of microbial reduction of sulfate), the three reactants that power the anaerobic basis of sulfur-cycling microbial sulfuretums. Fossil evidence of the earliest eukaryotes (widely accepted to date from ~1800 Ma and, arguably, ~2200 Ma) fit this scenario, but the most telling example of life's response to the GOE

  20. STUDY ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF ARSENIC TRIOXIDE-INDUCED BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS AND DEGRADATIONOF PML PROTEINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To understand whether arsenic trioxide (As2O3)-induced biological effects are associated with degradation of PML proteins. Methods Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cell line NB4, acute T-lymphocytic leukemia cell line Jurkat, acute myeloid leukemia cell line U937, and chronic myelocytic leukemia blast crisis cell line K562 were used as in vitro models. In different cell lines, the As2O3-induced bio- logical effects were determined by cell growth, cell viability, cell morphology, and flow cytometry assay on sub- G1 cell content. The alteration of PML proteins was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Results In terms of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction, 1.0μmol/L As2O3 had different effects on different cell lines. However, degradation of PML proteins occurred in all the cell lines with As2O3 treatment. Conclusion As2O3-induced biological effects may be independent of PML protein degradation.

  1. Application of culture culture-independent molecular biology based methods to evaluate acetic acid bacteria diversity during vinegar processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilabaca, Carolina; Navarrete, Paola; Mardones, Pamela; Romero, Jaime; Mas, Albert

    2008-08-15

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are considered fastidious microorganisms because they are difficult to isolate and cultivate. Different molecular approaches were taken to detect AAB diversity, independently of their capacity to grow in culture media. Those methods were tested in samples that originated during traditional vinegar production. Bacterial diversity was assessed by analysis of 16S rRNA gene, obtained by PCR amplifications of DNA extracted directly from the acetification container. Bacterial composition was analyzed by RFLP-PCR of 16S rRNA gene, Temporal Temperature Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (TTGE) separation of amplicons containing region V3-V5 of 16S rRNA gene and cloning of those amplicons. TTGE bands and clones were grouped based on their electrophoretic pattern similarity and sequenced to be compared with reference strains. The main microorganism identified in vinegar was Acetobacter pasteurianus, which at the end of the acetification process was considered to be the only microorganism present. The diversity was the highest at 2% acetic acid, where indefinite species of Gluconacetobacter xylinus/europaeus/intermedius were also present.

  2. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte;

    2006-01-01

    , providing 600hairspg fruit and vegetables/d or in the controls a carbohydrate-rich drink to balance energy intake. Surrogate markers of oxidative damage to DNA, protein and lipids, enzymic defence and lipid metabolism were determined in blood and urine. It was found that a high intake of fruit......A strong and persistent effect of plant-derived foods on the prevention of lifestyle diseases has emerged from observational studies. Several groups of constituents in plants have been identified as potentially health promoting in animal studies, including cholesterol-lowering factors, antioxidants......, enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers...

  3. Biological and therapeutical effects of Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deetjen, P. [Institute of Physiologie and Balneologie, University of Innsbruck (Austria)

    1998-12-31

    In spas with a somewhat elevated Radon{sup 222} (Rn) activity (between 300 and 3000 Bq/l), the empirical medicine ended - in all parts of the world - with the same list of indications. It mainly includes the more painful rheumatic diseases such as deformation or degeneration of the joints and non bacterial inflammation of muscles, tendons or joints; Morbus Bechterew and other diseases of the vertebral column like spondylosis, spondylarthrosis or osteochondrosis. While informer times these effects were seldom documented in an objective manner, in recent years several prospective randomized double-blind studies proved the pain reducing efficacy of Radon therapy in patients with cervical pain syndromes, with chronic polyarthritis or with Morbus Bechterew. Studies in experimental animal models have accumulated remarkable data in organs, tissue and cultured cells that provide a rationale to explain the observed effects of Radon therapy in patients. (author)

  4. Students' performance in accounting: differential effect of field dependence-independence as a learning style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Richard A

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the differential moderating effects associated with field dependence-independence and perceptions of stress on students' performance after controlling for SAT Mathematics and Verbal scores as well as students' actual effort on homework. The average performance of 178 third-year accounting majors over three examinations was used to evaluate their understanding of financial accounting. The students also took the Group Embedded Figures Test. While the data indicate that the most significant variables were students' effort, SAT Verbal scores, and their perceptions of stress, these variables were differentially associated with students' performance depending upon whether the student was classified as a field-independent or field-dependent learner.

  5. Testing the economic independence hypothesis: the effect of an exogenous increase in child support on subsequent marriage and cohabitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancian, Maria; Meyer, Daniel R

    2014-06-01

    We examine the effects of an increase in income on the cohabitation and marriage of single mothers. Using data from an experiment that resulted in randomly assigned differences in child support receipt for welfare-receiving single mothers, we find that exogenous income increases (as a result of receiving all child support that was paid) are associated with significantly lower cohabitation rates between mothers and men who are not the fathers of their child(ren). Overall, these results support the hypothesis that additional income increases disadvantaged women's economic independence by reducing the need to be in the least stable type of partnerships. Our results also show the potential importance of distinguishing between biological and social fathers.

  6. Palytoxin and Analogs: Biological and Ecological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vítor Ramos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Palytoxin (PTX is a potent marine toxin that was originally found in soft corals from tropical areas of the Pacific Ocean. Soon after, its occurrence was observed in numerous other marine organisms from the same ecological region. More recently, several analogs of PTX were discovered, remarkably all from species of the dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis. Since these dinoflagellates are also found in other tropical and even in temperate regions, the formerly unsuspected broad distribution of these toxins was revealed. Toxicological studies with these compounds shows repeatedly low LD50 values in different mammals, revealing an acute toxic effect on several organs, as demonstrated by different routes of exposure. Bioassays tested for some marine invertebrates and evidences from environmental populations exposed to the toxins also give indications of the high impact that these compounds may have on natural food webs. The recognition of its wide distribution coupled with the poisoning effects that these toxins can have on animals and especially on humans have concerned the scientific community. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on the effects of PTX and its analogs on different organisms, exposing the impact that these toxins may have in coastal ecosystems.

  7. Linking exposure to environmental pollutants with biological effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette; Autrup, Herman; Møller, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with cancer. Ambient air contains a complex mixture of toxics, including particulate matter (PM) and benzene. Carcinogenic effects of PM may relate both to the content of PAH and to oxidative DNA damage generated by transition metals, benzene......, metabolism and inflammation. By means of personal monitoring and biomarkers of internal dose, biologically effective dose and susceptibility, it should be possible to characterize individual exposure and identify air pollution sources with relevant biological effects. In a series of studies, individual......, biological effects of air pollutants appear mainly related to oxidative stress via personal exposure and not to urban background levels. Future developments include personal time-resolved monitors for exposure to ultrafine PM and PM(2.5,) use of GPS, as well as genomics and proteomics based biomarkers....

  8. Biological effects of stellar collapse neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Collar, J I

    1996-01-01

    Massive stars in their final stages of collapse radiate most of their binding energy in the form of MeV neutrinos. The recoil atoms that they produce in elastic scattering off nuclei in organic tissue create a radiation damage which is highly effective in the production of irreparable DNA harm, leading to cellular mutation, neoplasia and oncogenesis. Using a conventional model of the galaxy and of the collapse mechanism, the periodicity of nearby stellar collapses and the radiation dose are calculated. The possible contribution of this process to the paleontological record of mass extinctions is examined.

  9. Independent effects of motivation and spatial attention in the human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Mareike; Rossi, Valentina; Vanlessen, Naomi; Grass, Annika; Schacht, Annekathrin; Pourtois, Gilles

    2016-12-28

    Motivation and attention constitute major determinants of human perception and action. Nonetheless, it remains a matter of debate whether motivation effects on the visual cortex depend on the spatial attention system, or rely on independent pathways. This study investigated the impact of motivation and spatial attention on the activity of the human primary and extrastriate visual cortex by employing a factorial manipulation of the two factors in a cued pattern discrimination task. During stimulus presentation, we recorded event-related potentials and pupillary responses. Motivational relevance increased the amplitudes of the C1 component at ∼70 ms after stimulus onset. This modulation occurred independently of spatial attention effects, which were evident at the P1 level. Furthermore, motivation and spatial attention had independent effects on preparatory activation as measured by the contingent negative variation; and pupil data showed increased activation in response to incentive targets. Taken together, these findings suggest independent pathways for the influence of motivation and spatial attention on the activity of the human visual cortex.

  10. Nanosilver – Harmful effects of biological activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanosilver, also identified as colloidal silver, has been known and used for ages to combat diseases or prolong food freshness. It usually occurs in the form of a suspension consisting of particles of size < 100 nm. Due to its specific properties, silver nanoparticles are used in many technologies to produce medical devices, textiles, conductive materials or photovoltaic cells. The growing popularity of nanosilver applications increases the number of people occupationally exposed to this substance. Potential exposure routes for silver nanoparticles are through dermal, oral and inhalation pathways. Silver nanoparticles may be absorbed through the lungs, intestine, and through the skin into circulation and thus may reach such organs as the liver, kidney, spleen, brain, heart and testes. Nanosilver may cause mild eyes and skin irritations. It can also act as a mild skin allergen. Inhalation of silver nanoparticles mainly affects the lungs and liver. It has been demonstrated that silver nanoparticles may be genotoxic to mammalian cells. There are some alarming reports on the adverse effects of silver nanoparticles on reproduction of experimental animals. Exposure to silver nanoparticles may exert a neurotoxic effect and affect cognitive functions, causing the impairment of short-term and working memory. Maximum admissible concentration (MAC for the inhalable fraction of silver of 0.05 mg/m3 is currently binding in Poland. In light of toxicological studies of silver nanoparticles it seems reasonable to update the hygiene standards for silver with nanoparticles as a separate fraction. Med Pr 2014;65(6:831–845

  11. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  12. Biological effect of radiation on human

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yun Sil; Cho, Chul Koo; Lee, Su Jae [and others

    2000-04-01

    1. Adaptive response when 0.01 Gy was preirradiated before high challenging dose is induced in normal cell types such normal lymphocytes, primary keratinocytes, and L929 fibroblast cells but not in neoplastic cells such as L5178Y lymphoma cells, EL-4 lymphoma cells and 308 papilloma cells. 2. Heat shock protein (HSP) 25 and inducible HSP70 is responsible for the induction of adaptive response and radioresistance - cell cycle regulation, antiapoptotic molecule and PKC activation were involved. 3. Apoptosis was induced at most 5. hrs after irradiation in primary keratinocytes, in v-rasHa transformed keratinocytes, the maximum interval was 16 hrs, and in 308 papilloma cells, the maximum was 48 hrs. 4. PKC response by radiation is correlated with induction of apoptosis. 5. Rapid induction PKCdelta in primary keratinocytes and no response of PKC epsilon may involved in radiation induced apoptosis. 6. The rate of resorption was increased when radiation was given at 2.5 days after gestation. Early death including foetal death were highly expressed when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. There are no difference in incidence of late death including embryonic death. 7. 2 Gy is the most effective dose in radiation induced teratogenesis in mouse model. 8. Growth retardation and small head was present when radiation was given at 5.5, 7.5, 11.5 and 15.5 days after gestation and small head showed high incidence at 11.5 days after gestation. 9. External malformation, internal malformation and skeletal malformation was induced when radiation was given at 7.5 days after gestation. 10. OGG1-mutated cells induced radiosensitive by G2/M cell cycle arrest. 11. Radiation induced G2/M phase cell cycle and correlated with radiosensitivity. 12. PKCalpha induced differentiation. 13. Radiation exposed cells showed carcinogenic effect. 14. Organ specific radiosensitivity was shown and protein expression was involved.

  13. Biologic

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, L H

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we explore the boundary between biology and the study of formal systems (logic). In the end, we arrive at a summary formalism, a chapter in "boundary mathematics" where there are not only containers but also extainers ><, entities open to interaction and distinguishing the space that they are not. The boundary algebra of containers and extainers is to biologic what boolean algebra is to classical logic. We show how this formalism encompasses significant parts of the logic of DNA replication, the Dirac formalism for quantum mechanics, formalisms for protein folding and the basic structure of the Temperley Lieb algebra at the foundations of topological invariants of knots and links.

  14. Targeting CD9 produces stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects predominantly in activated endothelial cells during angiogenesis: A novel antiangiogenic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamisasanuki, Taro [Department of Gene Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Tokushige, Saori [Department of Gene Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Terasaki, Hiroto [Department of Gene Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Khai, Ngin Cin; Wang, Yuqing [Department of Gene Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Sakamoto, Taiji [Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Kosai, Ken-ichiro, E-mail: kosai@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Gene Therapy and Regenerative Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} CD9 plays stimulus-independent roles in angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. {yields} Targeting CD9 expression is effective in an angiogenic disease model. {yields} Targeting CD9 expression predominantly affects activated endothelial cells. {yields} CD9 is involved in endothelial cell proliferation, but not survival. {yields} CD9 is part of angiogenic machinery in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. -- Abstract: The precise roles of tetraspanin CD9 are unclear. Here we show that CD9 plays a stimulus-independent role in angiogenesis and that inhibiting CD9 expression or function is a potential antiangiogenic therapy. Knocking down CD9 expression significantly inhibited in vitro endothelial cell migration and invasion induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Injecting CD9-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA-CD9) markedly inhibited HGF- or VEGF-induced subconjunctival angiogenesis in vivo. Both results revealed potent and stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects of targeting CD9. Furthermore, intravitreous injections of siRNA-CD9 or anti-CD9 antibodies were therapeutically effective for laser-induced retinal and choroidal neovascularization in mice, a representative ocular angiogenic disease model. In terms of the mechanism, growth factor receptor and downstream signaling activation were not affected, whereas abnormal localization of integrins and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed during angiogenesis, by knocking down CD9 expression. Notably, knocking down CD9 expression did not induce death and mildly inhibited proliferation of quiescent endothelial cells under conditions without an angiogenic stimulus. Thus, CD9 does not directly affect growth factor-induced signal transduction, which is required in angiogenesis and normal vasculature, but is part of the angiogenesis machinery in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. In conclusion, targeting CD9 produced stimulus-independent

  15. Social desirability effects on measures of adjustment to university, independence from parents, and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverthorn, N A; Gekoski, W L

    1995-03-01

    Results of regression analyses on data from 96 first-year undergraduates indicated that social desirability (Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scales), particularly scores on the Jackson scale, is related strongly to scores on measures of adjustment (Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Hale-Fibel Generalized Expectation for Success Scale), and independence (Psychological Separation Inventory) from mother, but not from father. In addition, both the Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne scales were correlated highly. Independence from parents and self-efficacy each continued to show a relationship with adjustment to university after social desirability effects were removed. Failure to remove the effect(s) of social desirability from the present measures is likely to lead to inflated estimates of their relation to each other or to other measures.

  16. Third eye, the biological effects; 3. oeil, les effets biologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2004-02-01

    The discovery of a third kind of photo-receptor cell in the human eye has permitted to better understand the biological effects of lighting, not only on the vision, but also on some nervous processes, like emotion, mood, stress, biological clock, etc.. This additional dimension has led the engineers of Philips Lighting company to launch a new indoor lighting concept named 'Carpe Diem'. This concept adapts both the illuminance and the color of a lighting system according to the type of work and to the expected stimulating effect. (J.S.)

  17. Biological effect of penetration controlled irradiation with ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takashi; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Yamashita, Takao

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation with ion beams on biological systems, technique for penetration controlled irradiation has been established. The range in a target was controlled by changing the distance from beam window in the atmosphere, and could be controlled linearly up to about 31 {mu}m in biological material. In addition, the effects of the penetration controlled irradiations with 1.5 MeV/u C and He ions were examined using tobacco pollen. The increased frequency of leaky pollen produced by ion beams suggests that the efficient pollen envelope damages would be induced at the range-end of ion beams. (author)

  18. Plasma effects in electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. P.; Batra, Karuna; Excell, Peter S.

    2011-02-01

    Theoretical analysis is presented of the nonlinear behavior of charge carriers in biological tissue under the influence of varying low-intensity electromagnetic (EM) field. The interaction occurs because of the nonlinear force arising due to the gradient of the EM field intensity acting on free electrons in the conduction band of proteins in metabolically active biological cell membrane receptors leading to a redistribution of charge carriers. Field dependence of the resulting dielectric constant is investigated by a suitable modification to include an additional electronic contribution term to the three-term Debye model. The exogenous EM field propagating in this nonlinear cellular medium satisfies the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can be affected significantly. Resulting field effect can be substantially augmented and effective rectification/demodulation can occur. Possible implications of this modification on biological processes in white and grey matter are discussed.

  19. Data from a pre-publication independent replication initiative examining ten moral judgement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Warren; Schweinsberg, Martin; Jordan, Jennifer; Kennedy, Deanna M.; Qureshi, Israr; Sommer, S. Amy; Thornley, Nico; Madan, Nikhil; Vianello, Michelangelo; Awtrey, Eli; Zhu, Luke Lei; Diermeier, Daniel; Heinze, Justin E.; Srinivasan, Malavika; Tannenbaum, David; Bivolaru, Eliza; Dana, Jason; Davis-Stober, Clintin P.; du Plessis, Christilene; Gronau, Quentin F.; Hafenbrack, Andrew C.; Liao, Eko Yi; Ly, Alexander; Marsman, Maarten; Murase, Toshio; Schaerer, Michael; Tworek, Christina M.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Wong, Lynn; Anderson, Tabitha; Bauman, Christopher W.; Bedwell, Wendy L.; Brescoll, Victoria; Canavan, Andrew; Chandler, Jesse J.; Cheries, Erik; Cheryan, Sapna; Cheung, Felix; Cimpian, Andrei; Clark, Mark A.; Cordon, Diana; Cushman, Fiery; Ditto, Peter H.; Amell, Alice; Frick, Sarah E.; Gamez-Djokic, Monica; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Graham, Jesse; Gu, Jun; Hahn, Adam; Hanson, Brittany E.; Hartwich, Nicole J.; Hein, Kristie; Inbar, Yoel; Jiang, Lily; Kellogg, Tehlyr; Legate, Nicole; Luoma, Timo P.; Maibeucher, Heidi; Meindl, Peter; Miles, Jennifer; Mislin, Alexandra; Molden, Daniel C.; Motyl, Matt; Newman, George; Ngo, Hoai Huong; Packham, Harvey; Ramsay, P. Scott; Ray, Jennifer L.; Sackett, Aaron M.; Sellier, Anne-Laure; Sokolova, Tatiana; Sowden, Walter; Storage, Daniel; Sun, Xiaomin; Van Bavel, Jay J.; Washburn, Anthony N.; Wei, Cong; Wetter, Erik; Wilson, Carlos T.; Darroux, Sophie-Charlotte; Uhlmann, Eric Luis

    2016-01-01

    We present the data from a crowdsourced project seeking to replicate findings in independent laboratories before (rather than after) they are published. In this Pre-Publication Independent Replication (PPIR) initiative, 25 research groups attempted to replicate 10 moral judgment effects from a single laboratory’s research pipeline of unpublished findings. The 10 effects were investigated using online/lab surveys containing psychological manipulations (vignettes) followed by questionnaires. Results revealed a mix of reliable, unreliable, and culturally moderated findings. Unlike any previous replication project, this dataset includes the data from not only the replications but also from the original studies, creating a unique corpus that researchers can use to better understand reproducibility and irreproducibility in science. PMID:27727246

  20. Nonlinear Statistical Process Monitoring Based on Control Charts with Memory Effect and Kernel Independent Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A novel nonlinear combination process monitoring method was proposed based on techniques with memory effect (multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA)) and kernel independent component analysis (KICA). The method was developed for dealing with nonlinear issues and detecting small or moderate drifts in one or more process variables with autocorrelation. MEWMA charts use additional information from the past history of the process for keeping the memory effect of the process behavior trend. KICA is a recently developed statistical technique for revealing hidden, nonlinear statistically independent factors that underlie sets of measurements and it is a two-phase algorithm: whitened kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) plus independent component analysis (ICA). The application to the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) simulated process indicates that the proposed combined method based on MEWMA and KICA can effectively capture the nonlinear relationship and detect small drifts in process variables. Its performance significantly outperforms monitoring method based on ICA, MEWMA-ICA and KICA, especially for long-term performance deterioration.

  1. Challenges in Analyzing the Biological Effects of Resveratrol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdogan, Cihan Süleyman; Vang, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The suggested health effects (e.g., disease prevention) of dietary bioactive compounds such as resveratrol are challenging to prove in comparison to man-made drugs developed for therapeutic purposes. Dietary bioactive compounds have multiple cellular targets and therefore have a variety of biolog...

  2. Effects of pion-fold-pion diagrams in the energy-independent nucleon-nucleon potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guzman, G.; Kuo, T. T. S.; Holinde, K.; Machleidt, R.; Faessler, A.; Müther, H.

    1985-10-01

    Based on a T-matrix equivalence theory, an energy-independent or locally energy-dependent nucléon-nucléon potential VNN derived from meson exchanges is studied. The potential, given as a series expansion of folded diagrams, is independent of the asymptotic energy of the scattering nucleons. It is, however, locally energy dependent in the sense that its matrix elements depend on the energies associated with its bra and ket states a and b. Our formulation makes use of right-hand-side on-shell T-matrix equivalence of the field-theoretical and potential descriptions when limited to the space of neutrons and protons only. This preserves not only scattering (e.g. phase shifts, projections of wave functions) but also bound-state properties. The matrix elements of V were calculated for two potential models, one based on one-pion exchange (OPEP) and the other on one-boson exchange (OBEP) using {π, ρ, σ, ω, δ, η }. Three types of phase-shift calculations have been carried out to study the viability of constructing an energy-independent potential using the folded-diagram expansion: (A) NN phase shifts for an energy-dependent OPEP and OBEP. For the OBEP we used parameters adjusted to fit experimental data. (B) The same phase shifts for the energy-independent case for both OPEP and OBEP. (C) Repetition of (B) with effects of the two-pion folded diagrams included. Our results show two important points: (i) folded diagrams are of essential importance, and (ii) the first-order folded diagrams contain the dominant effect and the neglect of terms with more than two folds can be regarded as a good approximation. The effects of folded diagrams are large especially for low partial waves and high energies. For high partial waves ( J greater than 2) the folded terms are negligible, and the phase shifts given by (A), (B) and (C) practically coincide.

  3. Adaptation hypothesis of biological effectiveness of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudritsky, Yu.K.; Georgievsky, A.B.; Karpov, V.I.

    1993-12-31

    The adoptation hypothesis of biological effectiveness of ionizing radiations is based on the recognition of the invariability of general biological laws for radiobiology and on the comprehension of life evolution regularities and axiomatic principles of environment and biota unity. The ionizing radiation factor is essential for life which could not exist beyond the radiation field. The possibility of future development of the adaptation hypothesis serves as a basis for it`s transformation into the theoretical foundation of radiobiology. This report discusses the aspects of the adaptation theory.

  4. The Effect Of Non-Audit Services And Related Threats On Investors' Perceptions Of Auditor Independence: An Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner

    2011-01-01

    The provision of non-audit services by the statutory auditor may have a negative impact on independence in mind as well as on independence in appearance. Prior research revealed that different advisory services have a different effect on perceived auditor independence. This could be caused...... impair auditor independence disregarding their size. Furthermore, it was found that a higher self-review threat increases the negative impact on independence perceptions. an advocacy threat, however, seens to be irrelevant. Manipulation checks disclose that the manipulation of the familiarity chedk...

  5. Effect of biologic agents on radiographic progression of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel J Tobón

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel J Tobón1, Alain Saraux1,2, Valérie Devauchelle-Pensec1,21Immunology Laboratory, Morvan Hospital, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest, France; 2Rheumatology Unit, Hôpital de la Cavale Blanche, CHU Brest, FranceAbstract: The treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA has benefited over the last few years from the introduction of biologic agents whose development was based on new insights into the immunological factors involved in the pathogenesis of RA and the development of joint damage. These biological agents have been proven effective in RA patients with inadequate responses to synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs. Preventing joint damage is now the primary goal of RA treatment, and guidelines exist for the follow-up of joint abnormalities. Most biologic agents produced high clinical and radiological response rates in patients with established or recent-onset RA. Thus, for the first time, obtaining a remission is a reasonable treatment goal in RA patients. Factors that are crucial to joint damage control are: early initiation of DMARDs, use of intensive treatments including biological agents, and close monitoring of clinical disease activity and radiographic progression. However, some patients remain unresponsive to all available treatments and continue to experience joint damage progression. A major objective now is to identify patients at high risk for severe joint damage, in order to tailor the treatment regimen to their specific needs.Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, radiographic progression, biologics

  6. Looking back on the London Olympics: Independent outcome and hindsight effects in decision evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, Hartmut; Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    Outcome bias and hindsight bias are related, but how exactly? To remedy theoretical ambiguity and non-existent directly relevant empirical research, we contrast an older idea (Baron & Hershey, 1988, J. Pers. Soc. Psychol., 54, 569) that sees outcome bias as partly mediated through hindsight bias with the idea that the two biases independently affect decision evaluations. In an Internet study of retrospections on the 2012 London Olympics, evaluations of the Games' success and its foreseeability had independent effects on evaluations of the International Olympic Committee's decision to award the Olympics to London; there was no evidence of mediation. Further theoretical discussion emphasizes the need to distinguish between a holistic assessment of decisions and a more specific assessment of the decision-making process in future outcome bias research.

  7. Growth inhibiting effects of terazosin on androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许克新; 王向红; 凌明达; 王云川

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of an α1-adrenoceptor antagonist, terazosin on the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU145.Methods Two androgen independent cell lines, PC-3 and DU145, were used to determine cell viability, colony-forming ability, as well as cell cycle distribution, after exposure to terazosin. Western blot analysis was used to determine the expression of p21WAF1 and p27KIP1.Results This study shows that terazosin inhibits not only prostate cancer cell growth but also its colony forming ability, both of which are main targets of clinical treatment. In addition, terazosin is shown to inhibit cell growth through G1 phase cell cycle arrest and the up-regulation of p27KIP1.Conclusion This study provides evidence that the α1-adrenoceptor antagonist terazosin may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer.

  8. Predictive modeling of nanomaterial exposure effects in biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiong Liu,1 Kaizhi Tang,1 Stacey Harper,2 Bryan Harper,2 Jeffery A Steevens,3 Roger Xu1 1Intelligent Automation, Inc., Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, School of Chemical, Biological, and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; 3ERDC Environmental Laboratory, Vicksburg, MS, USA Background: Predictive modeling of the biological effects of nanomaterials is critical for industry and policymakers to assess the potential hazards resulting from the application of engineered nanomaterials. Methods: We generated an experimental dataset on the toxic effects experienced by embryonic zebrafish due to exposure to nanomaterials. Several nanomaterials were studied, such as metal nanoparticles, dendrimer, metal oxide, and polymeric materials. The embryonic zebrafish metric (EZ Metric was used as a screening-level measurement representative of adverse effects. Using the dataset, we developed a data mining approach to model the toxic endpoints and the overall biological impact of nanomaterials. Data mining techniques, such as numerical prediction, can assist analysts in developing risk assessment models for nanomaterials. Results: We found several important attributes that contribute to the 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf mortality, such as dosage concentration, shell composition, and surface charge. These findings concur with previous studies on nanomaterial toxicity using embryonic zebrafish. We conducted case studies on modeling the overall effect/impact of nanomaterials and the specific toxic endpoints such as mortality, delayed development, and morphological malformations. The results show that we can achieve high prediction accuracy for certain biological effects, such as 24 hpf mortality, 120 hpf mortality, and 120 hpf heart malformation. The results also show that the weighting scheme for individual biological effects has a significant influence on modeling the overall impact of

  9. Effectiveness of a Structured Work System to Improve the Independence of Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Degner

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The TEACCH approach (Mesibov, Shea & Schopler, 2005 is a widely used concept to educate individuals with autism spectrum disorders (Francis, 2005; Frith, 2008. According to Research Autism (2010, the TEACCH-approach has „limited positive evidence“. Furthermore, Research Autism highlights the need of a manual that clarifies the implementation of TEACCH. To broaden the empirical foundation of TEACCH, this study examined to what extent a “TEACCH-structured work system” (Mesibov et al., 2005, manualized by the “Action-Motivation Approach” (Schatz, Schellbach & Degner 2007, improved the on-task behavior and the independence of two students with autism (7;6 and 6;8 years old. An A1B1A2B2 reversal design with generalization and maintenance phase was used to address this research question. The visual inspection of data as well as the percentage of non-overlapping data-points indicates an improvement of on-task behavior and independence for both participants. However, a causal relationship between independent and dependent variables was evident only for one participant. The TEACCH-structured work system was effective in new settings, too. Additionally, social validity measurements confirmed a decrease of challenging behavior.

  10. Independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance during quiet standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello Kerry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human balance during quiet standing is influenced by adding mass to the body with a backpack, with symmetrically-applied loads to the trunk, or with obesity. Adding mass to the body increases both the weight and inertia of the body, which theoretically could provide counteracting effects on body dynamics and balance. Understanding the independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance may provide additional insight into human balance that could lead to novel advancements in balance training and rehabilitation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the independent effects of adding weight and inertia on balance during quiet standing. Methods Sixteen normal-weight young adult participants stood as still as possible on a custom-built backboard apparatus under four experimental conditions: baseline, added inertia only, added weight only, and added inertia and weight. Results Adding inertia by itself had no measurable effect on center of pressure movement or backboard movement. Adding weight by itself increased center of pressure movement (indicated greater effort by the postural control system to stand as still as possible and backboard movement (indicating a poorer ability of the body to stand as still as possible. Adding inertia and weight at the same time increased center of pressure movement but did not increase backboard movement compared to the baseline condition. Conclusions Adding inertia and adding weight had different effects on balance. Adding inertia by itself had no effect on balance. Adding weight by itself had a negative effect on balance. When adding inertia and weight at the same time, the added inertia appeared to lessen (but did not eliminate the negative effect of adding weight on balance. These results improve our fundamental understanding of how added mass influences human balance.

  11. Estimation of effective lens position using a method independent of preoperative keratometry readings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ian

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the validity of a keratometry (K)-independent method of estimating effective lens position (ELP) before phacoemulsification cataract surgery. SETTING: Institute of Eye Surgery, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland. DESIGN: Evaluation of diagnostic test or technology. METHODS: The anterior chamber diameter and corneal height in eyes scheduled for cataract surgery were measured with a rotating Scheimpflug camera. Corneal height and anterior chamber diameter were used to estimate the ELP in a K-independent method (using the SRK\\/T [ELP(rs)] and Holladay 1 [ELP(rh)] formulas). RESULTS: The mean ELP was calculated using the traditional (mean ELP(s) 5.59 mm +\\/- 0.52 mm [SD]; mean ELP(h) 5.63 +\\/- 0.42 mm) and K-independent (mean ELP(rs) 5.55 +\\/- 0.42 mm; mean ELP(rh) +\\/- SD 5.60 +\\/- 0.36 mm) methods. Agreement between ELP(s) and ELP(rs) and between ELP(h) and ELP(rh) were represented by Bland-Altman plots, with mean differences (+\\/- 1.96 SD) of 0.06 +\\/- 0.65 mm (range -0.59 to +0.71 mm; P=.08) in association with ELP(rs) and -0.04 +\\/- 0.39 mm (range -0.43 to +0.35 mm; P=.08) in association with ELP(rh). The mean absolute error for ELP(s) versus ELP(rs) estimation and for ELP(h) versus ELP(rh) estimation was 0.242 +\\/- 0.222 mm (range 0.001 to 1.272 mm) and 0.152 +\\/- 0.137 mm (range 0.001 to 0.814 mm), respectively. CONCLUSION: This study confirms that the K-independent ELP estimation method is comparable to traditional K-dependent methods and may be useful in post-refractive surgery patients.

  12. Biological effects of exposure to magnetic resonance imaging: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Formica Domenico

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The literature on biological effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields commonly utilized in magnetic resonance imaging systems is surveyed here. After an introduction on the basic principles of magnetic resonance imaging and the electric and magnetic properties of biological tissues, the basic phenomena to understand the bio-effects are described in classical terms. Values of field strengths and frequencies commonly utilized in these diagnostic systems are reported in order to allow the integration of the specific literature on the bio-effects produced by magnetic resonance systems with the vast literature concerning the bio-effects produced by electromagnetic fields. This work gives an overview of the findings about the safety concerns of exposure to static magnetic fields, radio-frequency fields, and time varying magnetic field gradients, focusing primarily on the physics of the interactions between these electromagnetic fields and biological matter. The scientific literature is summarized, integrated, and critically analyzed with the help of authoritative reviews by recognized experts, international safety guidelines are also cited.

  13. Biological activities of C1 inhibitor independent of protease inhibition%C1酯酶抑制剂的非蛋白酶抑制功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓凤; 张俊平; 胡振林

    2012-01-01

    C1 esterase inhibitor belongs to the superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) and regulates several important systems including the complement system, the contact activation system, the fibrinolytic system, and the intrinsic pathway of coagulation. It is currently used for the treatment of hereditary angioedema in clinic. However, recent studies have suggested that Cl esterase inhibitor may have potential use in the treatment of diseases other than hereditary angioedema, such as sepsis and reperfusion of ischemic myocardium, due to its new biological activities, for instance, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis, unrelated to protease inhibition. Here we review the biological activities of Cl inhibitor independent of protease inhibition.%C1酯酶抑制剂(C1 esterase inhibitor,C1INH)属于丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制剂家族,能够调节补体系统、激肽释放系统、纤溶系统和凝血系统.目前在临床号主要用于遗传性血管性水肿的治疗.但最近的研究表明C1 INH除丝氨酸蛋白酶抑制作用外,还具有多种非蛋白酶抑制功能,如抗炎和抗凋亡作用.而且很多动物实验和临床试验显示C1INH对脓毒症(sepsis),心肌缺血等疾病也有治疗作用.本文主要综述C1INH的非蛋白酶抑制功能的最新研究进展.

  14. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Hao, Yan-Hui; Peng, Rui-Yun

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  15. Advances in the biological effects of terahertz wave radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhao; Yan-Hui Hao; Rui-Yun Peng

    2014-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band lies between microwave and infrared rays in wavelength and consists of non-ionizing radiation. Both domestic and foreign research institutions, including the army, have attached considerable importance to the research and development of THz technology because this radiation exhibits both photon-like and electron-like properties, which grant it considerable application value and potential. With the rapid development of THz technology and related applications, studies of the biological effects of THz radiation have become a major focus in the field of life sciences. Research in this field has only just begun, both at home and abroad. In this paper, research progress with respect to THz radiation, including its biological effects, mechanisms and methods of protection, will be reviewed.

  16. PPARα-Independent Arterial Smooth Muscle Relaxant Effects of PPARα Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silswal, Neerupma; Parelkar, Nikhil K; Wacker, Michael J; Badr, Mostafa; Andresen, Jon

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine direct vascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) agonists using isolated mouse aortas and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). The PPARα agonists GW7647, WY14643, and gemfibrozil acutely relaxed aortas held under isometric tension and dilated pressurized MCAs with the following order of potency: GW7647≫WY14643>gemfibrozil. Responses were endothelium-independent, and the use of PPARα deficient mice demonstrated that responses were also PPARα-independent. Pretreating arteries with high extracellular K(+) attenuated PPARα agonist-mediated relaxations in the aorta, but not in the MCA. In the aorta, the ATP sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel blocker glibenclamide also impaired relaxations whereas the other K(+) channel inhibitors, 4-aminopyridine and Iberiotoxin, had no effect. In aortas, GW7647 and WY14643 elevated cGMP levels by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), and inhibition of sGC with ODQ blunted relaxations to PPARα agonists. In the MCA, dilations were inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC) activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and also by ODQ. Our results demonstrated acute, nonreceptor-mediated relaxant effects of PPARα agonists on smooth muscle of mouse arteries. Responses to PPARα agonists in the aorta involved K(ATP) channels and sGC, whereas in the MCA the PKC and sGC pathways also appeared to contribute to the response.

  17. Controlling the biological effects of spermine using a synthetic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Laurent; Ludlow, R Frederick; Leclaire, Julien; Pérez-Fernandez, Ruth; Otto, Sijbren

    2006-08-09

    Polyamines play an important role in biology, yet their exact function in many processes is poorly understood. Artificial host molecules capable of sequestering polyamines could be useful tools for studying their cellular function. However, designing synthetic receptors with affinities sufficient to compete with biological polyamine receptors remains a huge challenge. Binding affinities of synthetic hosts are typically separated by a gap of several orders of magnitude from those of biomolecules. We now report that a dynamic combinatorial selection approach can deliver a synthetic receptor that bridges this gap. The selected receptor binds spermine with a dissociation constant of 22 nM, sufficient to remove it from its natural host DNA and reverse some of the biological effects of spermine on the nucleic acid. In low concentrations, spermine induces the formation of left-handed DNA, but upon addition of our receptor, the DNA reverts back to its right-handed form. NMR studies and computer simulations suggest that the spermine complex has the form of a pseudo-rotaxane. The spermine receptor is a promising lead for the development of therapeutics or molecular probes for elucidating spermine's role in cell biology.

  18. Effect of pH on biological phosphorus uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serralta, J; Ferrer, J; Borrás, L; Seco, A

    2006-12-05

    An anaerobic aerobic laboratory scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated to study the effect of pH on enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Seven steady states were achieved under different operating conditions. In all of them, a slight variation in the pH value was observed during anaerobic phase. However, pH rose significantly during aerobic phase. The increase observed was due to phosphorus uptake and carbon dioxide stripping. When pH was higher than 8.2-8.25 the phosphorus uptake rate clearly decreased. The capability of Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) and Biological Nutrient Removal Model No. 1 (BNRM1) to simulate experimental results was evaluated. Both models successfully characterized the enhanced biological phosphorus removal performance of the SBR. Furthermore, BNRM1 also reproduced the pH variations observed and the decrease in the phosphorus uptake rate. This model includes a switch function in the kinetic expressions to represent the pH inhibition in biological processes. The pH inhibition constants related to polyphosphate storage process were obtained by adjusting model predictions to measured phosphorus concentrations. On the other hand, pH inhibition should be included in ASM2d to accurately simulate experimental phosphorus evolution observed in an A/O SBR.

  19. Independent effects of personality and sex on self-estimated intelligence: evidence from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieger, Stefan; Kastner, Cornelia K; Voracek, Martin; von Stumm, Sophie; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    The effects of sex and personality traits on self-estimates of intelligence were examined in a sample of 302 Austrian adults (143 men, 159 women). Confirming previous research, men had higher self-estimates of logical and spatial abilities than did women, and these differences were partly explained in terms of women's higher Neuroticism scores. Neuroticism (negatively) and Openness (positively) accounted significantly for variances in self-estimates of spatial and logical intelligence. However, sex had stronger direct and indirect effects on self-estimates of intelligence. Sex and personality effects appear to be largely independent. Thus, being male, emotionally stable, and open to new experiences is likely to result in higher self-estimates of spatial and logical abilities.

  20. Intuitive biological thought: Developmental changes and effects of biology education in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, John D; Arenson, Melanie; Xu, Yian; Tanner, Kimberly D

    2017-02-01

    A large body of cognitive research has shown that people intuitively and effortlessly reason about the biological world in complex and systematic ways. We addressed two questions about the nature of intuitive biological reasoning: How does intuitive biological thinking change during adolescence and early adulthood? How does increasing biology education influence intuitive biological thinking? To do so, we developed a battery of measures to systematically test three components of intuitive biological thought: anthropocentric thinking, teleological thinking and essentialist thinking, and tested 8th graders and university students (both biology majors, and non-biology majors). Results reveal clear evidence of persistent intuitive reasoning among all populations studied, consistent but surprisingly small differences between 8th graders and college students on measures of intuitive biological thought, and consistent but again surprisingly small influence of increasing biology education on intuitive biological reasoning. Results speak to the persistence of intuitive reasoning, the importance of taking intuitive knowledge into account in science classrooms, and the necessity of interdisciplinary research to advance biology education. Further studies are necessary to investigate how cultural context and continued acquisition of expertise impact intuitive biology thinking.

  1. Neutrophil bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus adherent on biological surfaces. Surface-bound extracellular matrix proteins activate intracellular killing by oxygen-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, M; Jaconi, M E; Dahlgren, C; Waldvogel, F A; Stendahl, O; Lew, D P

    1990-09-01

    The activation patterns of surface adherent neutrophils are modulated via interaction of extracellular matrix proteins with neutrophil integrins. To evaluate neutrophil bactericidal activity, Staphylococcus aureus adherent to biological surfaces were incubated with neutrophils and serum, and the survival of surface bacteria was determined. When compared to albumin-coated surfaces, the bactericidal activity of neutrophils adherent to purified human extracellular matrix was markedly enhanced (mean survival: 34.2% +/- 9.0% of albumin, P less than 0.0001) despite similar efficient ingestion of extracellular bacteria. Enhancement of killing was observed when surfaces were coated with purified constituents of extracellular matrix, i.e., fibronectin, fibrinogen, laminin, vitronectin, or type IV collagen. In addition to matrix proteins, the tetrapeptide RGDS (the sequence recognized by integrins) crosslinked to surface bound albumin was also active (survival: 74.5% +/- 5.5% of albumin, P less than 0.02), and fibronectin-increased killing was inhibited by soluble RGDS. Chemiluminescence measurements and experiments with CGD neutrophils revealed that both oxygen-dependent and -independent bactericidal mechanisms are involved. In conclusion, matrix proteins enhance intracellular bactericidal activity of adherent neutrophils, presumably by integrin recognition of RGDS-containing ligands. These results indicate a role for extracellular matrix proteins in the enhancement of the host defense against pyogenic infections.

  2. Biological effects from electromagnetic field exposure and public exposure standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardell, Lennart; Sage, Cindy

    2008-02-01

    During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential health risks from power-frequency fields (extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; ELF) and from radiofrequency/microwave radiation emissions (RF) from wireless communications. Non-thermal (low-intensity) biological effects have not been considered for regulation of microwave exposure, although numerous scientific reports indicate such effects. The BioInitiative Report is based on an international research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at low-intensity electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. Health endpoints reported to be associated with ELF and/or RF include childhood leukaemia, brain tumours, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, breast cancer, miscarriage and some cardiovascular effects. The BioInitiative Report concluded that a reasonable suspicion of risk exists based on clear evidence of bioeffects at environmentally relevant levels, which, with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. Regarding ELF a new lower public safety limit for habitable space adjacent to all new or upgraded power lines and for all other new constructions should be applied. A new lower limit should also be used for existing habitable space for children and/or women who are pregnant. A precautionary limit should be adopted for outdoor, cumulative RF exposure and for cumulative indoor RF fields with considerably lower limits than existing guidelines, see the BioInitiative Report. The current guidelines for the US and European microwave exposure from mobile phones, for the brain are 1.6 W/Kg and 2 W/Kg, respectively. Since use of mobile phones is associated with an increased risk for brain tumour after 10 years, a new biologically based guideline is warranted. Other health impacts associated with exposure to

  3. Biological effects of low level exposures to chemicals and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calabrese, E.J. (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    In May 1990 a group of scientists representing several federal agencies, the International Society of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, the private sector, and academia met to develop a strategy to encourage the study of the biological effects of low level exposures (BELLE) to chemical agents and radioactivity. A workshop was held in 1991 with seven invited speakers focusing on the toxicological implications of biological adaptations. The selection of topics and speakers was designed to consider critically the concept of hormesis, not only in a broad, conceptual manner, but also at the molecular and biochemical levels. These presentations offered a complementary perspective on the diverse range of molecular mechanisms that can become activated at low levels of toxicant exposure. In addition to chemical toxicology research, an overview of current research on Effects of low-dose radiation on the immune response' was presented as well as Cellular adaptation as an important response during chemical carcinogenesis'. The final presentation was devoted to biostatistical considerations when designing studies that address issues associated with the biological responses to low doses of chemicals and radiation, as well as issues in interpretation of the findings from such studies.

  4. Biological effects of pulsating magnetic fields: role of solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Brizhik, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze biological effects produced by magnetic fields in order to elucidate the physical mechanisms, which can produce them. We show that there is a chierarchy of such mechanisms and that the mutual interplay between them can result in the synergetic outcome. In particular, we analyze the biological effects of magnetic fields on soliton mediated charge transport in the redox processes in living organisms. Such solitons are described by nonlinear systems of equations and represent electrons that are self-trapped in alpha-helical polypeptides due to the moderately strong electron-lattice interaction. They represent a particular type of disssipativeless large polarons in low-dimensional systems. We show that the effective mass of solitons in the is different from the mass of free electrons, and that there is a resonant effect of the magnetic fields on the dynamics of solitons, and, hence, on charge transport that accompanies photosynthesis and respiration. These effects can result in non-therm...

  5. Telomere length is a biomarker of cumulative oxidative stress, biologic age, and an independent predictor of survival and therapeutic treatment requirement associated with smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Moskvina, Svetlana N; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2011-11-01

    Globally, tobacco use is associated with 5 million deaths per annum and is regarded as one of the leading causes of premature death. Major chronic disorders associated with smoking include cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (lung problems). Cigarette smoking (CS) generates a cumulative oxidative stress, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic diseases. Mainstream and side stream gas-phase smoke each have about the same concentration of reactive free radical species, about 1 × 10(16) radicals per cigarette (or 5 × 10(14) per puff). This effect is critical in understanding the biologic effects of smoke. Several lines of evidence suggest that cigarette smoke constituents can directly activate vascular reactive oxygen species production. In this work we present multiple evidence that CS provide the important risk factors in many age-related diseases, and is associated with increased cumulative and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. The cited processes are marked by increased white blood cell (leucocytes, WBCs) turnover. The data suggest an alteration of the circulating WBCs by CS, resulting in increased adherence to endothelial cells. Telomeres are complex DNA-protein structures located at the end of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomere length shortens with biologic age in all replicating somatic cells. It has been shown that tobacco smoking enhances telomere shortening in circulating human WBCs. Telomere attrition (expressed in WBCs) can serve as a biomarker of the cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation induced by smoking and, consequently, show the pace of biologic aging. We originally propose that patented specific oral formulations of nonhydrolized carnosine and carcinine provide a powerful tool for targeted therapeutic inhibition of cumulative oxidative stress and inflammation and protection of telomere attrition associated with smoking. The longitudinal studies of the clinical

  6. Relative biological effectiveness of the boron neutron-capture beam for the inactivation of biological macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masahiro (Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst.)

    1993-12-01

    The r.b.e. values of the boron neutron-capture beam (BNCB) for inactivation of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (YADH) and the coenzyme NADH were determined in aqueous and air-saturated state. The r.b.e. value for YADH was 0.24 at a protein concentration of 0.2 mg/ml and that for NADH at the same concentration was 0.4. These r.b.e. values are less than unity in contrast to the r.b.e. values of BNCB for cell killing and mutagenesis which usually exceed 2. The small r.b.e. values for biological macromolecules is mainly explained from a relatively low yield of the radical species OH and H produced by high LET radiations compared to low LET radiations. Dithiothreitol protected YADH efficiently against inactivation by BNCB. It was suggested that radical repair process is the major cause of the observed radioprotective effect. (author).

  7. Jackbean, soybean and Bacillus pasteurii ureases: biological effects unrelated to ureolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmer, Cristian; Real-Guerra, Rafael; Wasserman, German E; Olivera-Severo, Deiber; Carlini, Célia R

    2004-04-01

    In this work we compared two plant ureases, jackbean urease (JBU) and embryo-specific soybean urease (SBU) and a bacterial (Bacillus pasteurii) urease, for kinetic parameters and other biological properties described recently for ureases that are independent of the ureolytic activity. The insecticidal effect of ureases was investigated in feeding trials with the cotton sucker bug, Dysdercus peruvianus (Hemiptera) as an insect model. Contrasting with B. pasteurii urease (PBU), both plant ureases presented potent insecticidal activity, with LD(50) values of 0.017% (w/w) and 0.052% (w/w) for JBU and SBU, respectively. The insecticidal property of JBU or SBU was not affected by treatment with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, an irreversible inhibitor of ureolytic activity of both proteins. Also, contrasting with canatoxin - a urease isoform from jackbean seeds that displays a toxic effect in mice (LD(50) = 2 mg x kg(-1)) - no lethality was seen in mice injected intraperitoneally with JBU or SBU (20 mg x kg(-1)). Similarly to canatoxin, the three enzymes promoted aggregation of blood platelets (EC(50) = 400.0 micro g x mL(-1), 22.2 micro g x mL(-1), 15.8 micro g x mL(-1) for BPU, SBU and JBU, respectively). This platelet activating property was also independent of urease activity. Comparison of the kinetic properties indicated that SBU is fivefold less susceptible than JBU to inhibition by acetohydroxamic acid, a chelator of Ni(+2) and Zn(+2) ions. The ureases also showed different susceptibility to agents that modify cysteine residues, such as p-hydroxymercuribenzoate and p-benzoquinone. Altogether, these data emphasize that biological properties that are independent of ureolytic activity are not restricted to jackbean ureases and that these proteins may have a role in plant defense against insect predators.

  8. Biological monitoring of non-thermal effects of mobile phone radiation: recent approaches and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaestel, Matthias

    2010-08-01

    This review describes recent developments in analysing the influence of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs ) on biological systems by monitoring the cellular stress response as well as overall gene expression. Recent data on the initiation and modulation of the classical cellular stress response by RF-EMFs, comprising expression of heat shock proteins and stimulation of stress-activated protein kinases, are summarised and evaluated. Since isothermic RF-EMF exposure is assumed rather than proven there are clear limitations in using the stress response to describe non-thermal effects of RF-EMFs. In particular, further experiments are needed to characterise better the threshold of the thermal heat shock response and the homogeneity of the cellular response in the whole sample for each biological system used. Before then, it is proposed that the absence of the classical stress response can define isothermal experimental conditions and qualifies other biological effects of RF-EMFs detected under these conditions to be of non-thermal origin. To minimise the probability that by making this assumption valuable insights into the nature of biological effects of RF-EMFs could be lost, proteotoxic non-thermal RF-EMF effects should also be monitored by measuring activities of labile intracellular enzymes and/or levels of their metabolites before the threshold for the heat shock response is reached. In addition, non-thermal induction of the stress response via promoter elements distinct from the heat shock element (HSE) should be analysed using HSE-mutated heat shock promoter reporter constructs. Screening for non-thermal RF-EMF effects in the absence of a classical stress response should be performed by transcriptomics and proteomics. Recent approaches demonstrate that due to their high-throughput characteristics, these methods inherently generate false positive results and require statistical evaluation based on quantitative expression analysis from a sufficient

  9. In vitro Th1 cytokine-independent Th2 suppressive effects of bifidobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Noritoshi; Xiao, Jin-zhong; Miyaji, Kazuhiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    A comparison between 17 strains of lactic acid bacteria and 15 strains of bifidobacteria indicated that bifidobacteria induced significantly lower levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) in murine splenic cells. The present study aims to evaluate the effect and mechanism of Bifidobacterium longum BB536, a probiotic strain, in suppressing antigen-induced Th2 immune response in vitro. BB536 suppressed immunoglobulin (Ig) E and IL-4 production by ovalbumin-sensitized splenic cells, but induction of Th1-inducing cytokine production, such as IL-12 and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) tended to be lower compared with lactic acid bacteria. Neutralization with antibodies to IL-12, IFN-gamma, IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta indicated negative involvement of Th1-inducing cytokines and regulatory cytokines in the suppression of Th2 immune response by BB536, especially when treated at higher doses of BB536 (>10 microg cells/ml). Furthermore, BB536 induced the maturation of immature bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs), and suppressed antigen-induced IL-4 production mediated by BM-DCs. These results suggested that BB536 suppressed Th2 immune responses, partially independent of Th1-inducing cytokines and independent of regulatory cytokines, mediated by antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells.

  10. The cost-effectiveness of biologics for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana T Joensuu

    Full Text Available Economic evaluations provide information to aid the optimal utilization of limited healthcare resources. Costs of biologics for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA are remarkably high, which makes these agents an important target for economic evaluations. This systematic review aims to identify existing studies examining the cost-effectiveness of biologics for RA, assess their quality and report their results systematically.A literature search covering Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, ACP Journal club and Web of Science was performed in March 2013. The cost-utility analyses (CUAs of one or more available biological drugs for the treatment of RA in adults were included. Two independent investigators systematically collected information and assessed the quality of the studies. To enable the comparison of the results, all costs were converted to 2013 euro.Of the 4890 references found in the literature search, 41 CUAs were included in the current systematic review. While considering only direct costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER of the tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi ranged from 39,000 to 1,273,000 €/quality adjusted life year (QALY gained in comparison to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs in cDMARD naïve patients. Among patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs, biologics were associated with ICERs ranging from 12,000 to 708,000 €/QALY. Rituximab was found to be the most cost-effective alternative compared to other biologics among the patients with an insufficient response to TNFi.When 35,000 €/QALY is considered as a threshold for the ICER, TNFis do not seem to be cost-effective among cDMARD naïve patients and patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs. With thresholds of 50,000 to 100,000 €/QALY biologics might be cost-effective among patients with an inadequate response to cDMARDs. Standardization of multiattribute utility instruments and a validated standard conversion method

  11. The Cost-Effectiveness of Biologics for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensuu, Jaana T.; Huoponen, Saara; Aaltonen, Kalle J.; Konttinen, Yrjö T.; Nordström, Dan; Blom, Marja

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Economic evaluations provide information to aid the optimal utilization of limited healthcare resources. Costs of biologics for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are remarkably high, which makes these agents an important target for economic evaluations. This systematic review aims to identify existing studies examining the cost-effectiveness of biologics for RA, assess their quality and report their results systematically. Methods A literature search covering Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, ACP Journal club and Web of Science was performed in March 2013. The cost-utility analyses (CUAs) of one or more available biological drugs for the treatment of RA in adults were included. Two independent investigators systematically collected information and assessed the quality of the studies. To enable the comparison of the results, all costs were converted to 2013 euro. Results Of the 4890 references found in the literature search, 41 CUAs were included in the current systematic review. While considering only direct costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) ranged from 39,000 to 1 273,000 €/quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained in comparison to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) in cDMARD naïve patients. Among patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs, biologics were associated with ICERs ranging from 12,000 to 708,000 €/QALY. Rituximab was found to be the most cost-effective alternative compared to other biologics among the patients with an insufficient response to TNFi. Conclusions When 35,000 €/QALY is considered as a threshold for the ICER, TNFis do not seem to be cost-effective among cDMARD naïve patients and patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs. With thresholds of 50,000 to 100,000 €/QALY biologics might be cost-effective among patients with an inadequate response to cDMARDs. Standardization of multiattribute utility instruments

  12. The Effect of Board Independence on the Earnings Quality: Evidence from Portuguese Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Alves

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Agency theory suggests that independent outside board members may have an important monitoring function of the financial reporting process. As a result, boards with more independent directors have a tendency for increased monitoring and are therefore expected to insist on better earnings quality. This study examines whether board independence improves earnings quality by reducing earnings management in Portugal, a country with significantly different institutional and legal characteristics from the Anglo-Saxon countries. Using ordinary least square (OLS and two stage least squares (2SLS techniques to control potential simultaneity problems between board independence and earnings quality, we find evidence that independent board members improve earnings quality by reducing earnings management for a sample of Portuguese listed firms. This result suggests that strengthening the independence of boards by appointing more independent board members is a positive step toward improving earnings quality.

  13. The independent effects of personality and situations on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Ryne A; Rauthmann, John F; Brown, Nicolas A; Serfass, David G; Jones, Ashley Bell

    2015-11-01

    The joint influence of persons and situations on behavior has long been posited by personality and social psychological theory (Funder, 2006; Lewin, 1951). However, a lack of tools for real-time behavioral and situation assessment has left direct investigations of this sort immobilized. This study combines recent advances in situation assessment and experience sampling methodology to examine the simultaneous effects of personality traits and situation characteristics on real-time expressions of behavior and emotion in N = 210 participants. The results support an additive model such that both personality traits and situation characteristics independently predict real-time expressions of behavior and emotion. These results have implications for several prominent theoretical perspectives in personality, including both trait and cognitive theories.

  14. Field dependence–independence and instructional-design effects on learners’ performance with a computer-modeling tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Angeli, C., Valanides, N., & Kirschner, P. A. (2009). Field dependence–independence and instructional-design effects on learners’ performance with a computer-modeling tool. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 1355–1366.

  15. On the evaporation of solar dark matter: spin-independent effective operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zheng-Liang; Wu, Yue-Liang; Yang, Zi-Qing; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2016-09-01

    As a part of the effort to investigate the implications of dark matter (DM)-nucleon effective interactions on the solar DM detection, in this paper we focus on the evaporation of the solar DM for a set of the DM-nucleon spin-independent (SI) effective operators. In order to put the evaluation of the evaporation rate on a more reliable ground, we calculate the non-thermal distribution of the solar DM using the Monte Carlo methods, rather than adopting the Maxwellian approximation. We then specify relevant signal parameter spaces for the solar DM detection for various SI effective operators. Based on the analysis, we determine the minimum DM masses for which the DM-nucleon coupling strengths can be probed from the solar neutrino observations. As an interesting application, our investigation also shows that evaporation effect can not be neglectd in a recent proposal aiming to solve the solar abundance problem by invoking the momentum-dependent asymmetric DM in the Sun.

  16. Acuity-independent effects of visual deprivation on human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chuan; Pettet, Mark W; Norcia, Anthony M

    2014-07-29

    Visual development depends on sensory input during an early developmental critical period. Deviation of the pointing direction of the two eyes (strabismus) or chronic optical blur (anisometropia) separately and together can disrupt the formation of normal binocular interactions and the development of spatial processing, leading to a loss of stereopsis and visual acuity known as amblyopia. To shed new light on how these two different forms of visual deprivation affect the development of visual cortex, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the temporal evolution of visual responses in patients who had experienced either strabismus or anisometropia early in life. To make a specific statement about the locus of deprivation effects, we took advantage of a stimulation paradigm in which we could measure deprivation effects that arise either before or after a configuration-specific response to illusory contours (ICs). Extraction of ICs is known to first occur in extrastriate visual areas. Our ERP measurements indicate that deprivation via strabismus affects both the early part of the evoked response that occurs before ICs are formed as well as the later IC-selective response. Importantly, these effects are found in the normal-acuity nonamblyopic eyes of strabismic amblyopes and in both eyes of strabismic patients without amblyopia. The nonamblyopic eyes of anisometropic amblyopes, by contrast, are normal. Our results indicate that beyond the well-known effects of strabismus on the development of normal binocularity, it also affects the early stages of monocular feature processing in an acuity-independent fashion.

  17. On the evaporation of solar dark matter: spin-independent effective operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Zheng-Liang [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,19B Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Wu, Yue-Liang; Yang, Zi-Qing; Zhou, Yu-Feng [Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China,CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhong Guan Cun Street 55#, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2016-09-13

    As a part of the effort to investigate the implications of dark matter (DM)-nucleon effective interactions on the solar DM detection, in this paper we focus on the evaporation of the solar DM for a set of the DM-nucleon spin-independent (SI) effective operators. In order to put the evaluation of the evaporation rate on a more reliable ground, we calculate the non-thermal distribution of the solar DM using the Monte Carlo methods, rather than adopting the Maxwellian approximation. We then specify relevant signal parameter spaces for the solar DM detection for various SI effective operators. Based on the analysis, we determine the minimum DM masses for which the DM-nucleon coupling strengths can be probed from the solar neutrino observations. As an interesting application, our investigation also shows that evaporation effect can not be neglectd in a recent proposal aiming to solve the solar abundance problem by invoking the momentum-dependent asymmetric DM in the Sun.

  18. On the evaporation of solar dark matter: spin-independent effective operators

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Zheng-Liang; Yang, Zi-Qing; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2016-01-01

    As a part of the effort to investigate the implications of dark matter (DM)-nucleon effective interactions on the solar DM detection, in this paper we focus on the evaporation of the solar DM for a set of the DM-nucleon spin-independent (SI) effective operators. In order to put the evaluation of the evaporation rate on a more reliable ground, we calculate the non-thermal distribution of the solar DM using the Monte Carlo methods, rather than adopting the Maxwellian approximation. We then specify relevant signal parameter spaces for the solar DM detection for various SI effective operators. Based on the analysis, we determine the minimum DM masses for which the DM-nucleon coupling strengths can be probed from the solar neutrino observations. As an interesting application, our investigation also shows that evaporation effect can not be neglectd in a recent proposal aiming to solve the solar abundance problem by invoking the momentum-dependent asymmetric DM in the Sun.

  19. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Koyano, Yuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous 2D fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it has been shown [Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015)] that such active proteins should in- duce non-thermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxis-like drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  20. Current research on biological effects of low-level exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagan, L.A.

    1994-12-31

    Rather substantial numbers of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and radiation display U-shaped or seemingly paradoxical dose-response relationships. A limited listing of studies providing examples of data fitting the U-shaped curve has been published. This array suggests that the U-shaped response is broadly generalizable and therefore potentially of considerable significance in the toxicological and public health domains. In fact, in 1992 and 1993, three conferences (Japan, United States, and China) were held exclusively on the topic of the biological effects of low doses of chemicals and radioactivity with articular emphasis on U-shaped curves. Substantial efforts have been made at understanding this observation.

  1. Biological activity of selected plants with adaptogenic effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine biological activity of plants with adaptogenic effect: Panax ginseng Mayer., Withania somnifera L., Eleuterococcus senticosus Rupr. et Maxim., Astragallus membranaceus Fisch. and Codonopsis pilosulae Franch. The antioxidant activity was detected by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum method, total polyphenol content with Folin – Ciocalteu reagent, flavonoids content by aluminium chloride method. The detection of antimicrobial activity was carried out by disc diffusion method against three species of Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli CCM 3988, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807, Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and two Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19, Stapylococcus aureus subsp. aureus CCM 2461. Results showed that plants with adaptogenic effect are rich for biologically active substances. The highest antioxidant activity by DPPH method was determined in the sample of Eleuterococcus senticosus (3.15 mg TEAC – Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity per g of sample and by phosphomolybdenum method in the sample of Codonopsis pilosulae (188.79 mg TEAC per g of sample. In the sample of Panax ginseng was measured the highest content of total polyphenols (8.10 mg GAE – galic acid equivalent per g of sample and flavonoids (3.41 μg QE – quercetin equivalent per g of sample. All samples also showed strong antimicrobial activity with the best results in Panax ginseng and Withania somnifera in particular for species Yersinia enterocolitica CCM 5671 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica CCM 3807. The analyzed species of plant with high value of biological activity can be used more in the future, not only in food, but also in cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Inhibition of HIV by Legalon-SIL is independent of its effect on cellular metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Janela [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Margineantu, Daciana H. [Department of Clinical Research, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Sweet, Ian R. [Department of Medicine (Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Nutrition), University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Polyak, Stephen J., E-mail: polyak@uw.edu [Department of Laboratory Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Global Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-01-20

    In this report, we further characterized the effects of silibinin (SbN), derived from milk thistle extract, and Legalon-SIL (SIL), a water-soluble derivative of SbN, on T cell metabolism and HIV infection. We assessed the effects of SbN and SIL on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and CEM-T4 cells in terms of cellular growth, ATP content, metabolism, and HIV infection. SIL and SbN caused a rapid and reversible (upon removal) decrease in cellular ATP levels, which was associated with suppression of mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. SbN, but not SIL inhibited glucose uptake. Exposure of T cells to SIL (but not SbN or metabolic inhibitors) during virus adsorption blocked HIV infection. Thus, both SbN and SIL rapidly perturb T cell metabolism in vitro, which may account for its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects that arise with prolonged exposure of cells. However, the metabolic effects are not involved in SIL's unique ability to block HIV entry. - Highlights: • Silibinin (SbN) and Legalon-SIL (SIL) are cytoprotective mixtures of natural products. • SbN and SIL reduce T cell oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis in vitro. • SIL but not SbN blocks entry of multiple HIV isolates into T cells in vitro. • SIL's suppression of HIV appears independent of its effects on T cell metabolism. • Metabolic effects of SIL and SbN may be relevant in inflammatory diseases.

  3. Proton pump inhibitors induce a caspase-independent antitumor effect against human multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Andrea; Iessi, Elisabetta; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Federici, Cristina; Fais, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy and is responsive to a limited number of drugs. Unfortunately, to date, despite the introduction of novel drugs, no relevant increase in survival rates has been obtained. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been shown to have significant antitumor action as single agents as well as in combination with chemotherapy. This study investigates the potential anti-tumor effectiveness of two PPIs, Lansoprazole and Omeprazole, against human MM cells. We found that Lansoprazole exerts straightforward efficacy against myeloma cells, even at suboptimal concentrations (50 µM), while Omeprazole has limited cytotoxic action. The Lansoprazole anti-MM effect was mostly mediated by a caspase-independent apoptotic-like cytotoxicity, with only a secondary anti-proliferative action. This study provides clear evidence supporting the use of Lansoprazole in the strive against MM with an efficacy proven much higher than current therapeutical approaches and without reported side effects. It is however conceivable that, consistent with the results obtained in other human tumors, Lansoprazole may well be combined with existing anti-myeloma therapies with the aim to improve the low level of efficacy of the current strategies.

  4. Fishery-independent data reveal negative effect of human population density on Caribbean predatory fish communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Stallings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the current status of predatory fish communities, and the effects fishing has on them, is vitally important information for management. However, data are often insufficient at region-wide scales to assess the effects of extraction in coral reef ecosystems of developing nations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, I overcome this difficulty by using a publicly accessible, fisheries-independent database to provide a broad scale, comprehensive analysis of human impacts on predatory reef fish communities across the greater Caribbean region. Specifically, this study analyzed presence and diversity of predatory reef fishes over a gradient of human population density. Across the region, as human population density increases, presence of large-bodied fishes declines, and fish communities become dominated by a few smaller-bodied species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Complete disappearance of several large-bodied fishes indicates ecological and local extinctions have occurred in some densely populated areas. These findings fill a fundamentally important gap in our knowledge of the ecosystem effects of artisanal fisheries in developing nations, and provide support for multiple approaches to data collection where they are commonly unavailable.

  5. Propylthiouracil, independent of its antithyroid effect, promotes vascular smooth muscle cells differentiation via PTEN induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Jan; Pang, Jong-Hwei S; Lin, Kwang-Huei; Lee, Dany-Young; Hsu, Lung-An; Kuo, Chi-Tai

    2010-01-01

    Propylthiouracil (PTU), independent of its antithyroid effect, is recently found to have an antiatherosclerotic effect. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of PTU on phenotypic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), as phenotypic modulation may contribute to the growth of atherosclerotic lesions and neointimal formation after arterial injury. Propylthiouracil reduced neointimal formation in balloon-injured rat carotid arteries. In vitro, PTU may convert VSMCs from a serum-induced dedifferentiation state to a differentiated state, as indicated by a spindle-shaped morphology and an increase in the expression of SMC differentiation marker contractile proteins, including calponin and smooth muscle (SM)-myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). Transient transfection studies in VSMCs demonstrated that PTU induced the activity of SMC marker genes (calponin and SM-MHC) promoters, indicating that PTU up-regulates these genes expression predominantly at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, PTU enhanced the expression of PTEN and inhibition of PTEN by siRNA knockdown blocked PTU-induced activation of contractile proteins expression and promoter activity. In the rat carotid injury model, PTU reversed the down-regulation of contractile proteins and up-regulated PTEN in the neointima induced by balloon injury. Propylthiouracil promotes VSMC differentiation, at lest in part, via induction of the PTEN-mediated pathway. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which PTU may contribute to its beneficial effects on atherogenesis and neointimal formation after arterial injury.

  6. Conjugated linoleic acid isomers: differences in metabolism and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churruca, Itziar; Fernández-Quintela, Alfredo; Portillo, Maria Puy

    2009-01-01

    The term conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a mixture of linoleic acid positional and geometric isomers, characterized by having conjugated double bonds, not separated by a methylene group as in linoleic acid. CLA isomers appear as a minor component of the lipid fraction, found mainly in meat and dairy products from cows and sheep. The most abundant isomer is cis-9,trans-11, which represents up to 80% of total CLA in food. These isomers are metabolized in the body through different metabolic pathways, but important differences, that can have physiological consequences, are observed between the two main isomers. The trans-10,cis-12 isomer is more efficiently oxidized than the cis-9,trans-11 isomer, due to the position of its double bounds. Interest in CLA arose in its anticarcinogenic action but there is an increasing amount of specific scientific literature concerning the biological effects and properties of CLA. Numerous biological effects of CLA are due to the separate action of the most studied isomers, cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12. It is also likely that some effects are induced and/or enhanced by these isomers acting synergistically. Although the cis-9,trans-11 isomer is mainly responsible for the anticarcinogenic effect, the trans-10,cis-12 isomer reduces body fat and it is referred as the most effective isomer affecting blood lipids. As far as insulin function is concerned, both isomers seem to be responsible for insulin resistance in humans. Finally, with regard to the immune system it is not clear whether individual isomers of CLA could act similarly or differently.

  7. Arsenic in the aquatic environment - speciation and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landner, L. [Swedish Environmental Research Group (MFG)

    1998-03-01

    The present report is a contribution to EC Commission`s undertaking to review existing EC provisions on the substances for which Sweden has been granted transitional provisions. The provisions imply that Sweden may maintain more stringent regulations on four substances until the end of 1998. The present report deals with speciation and biological effects of arsenic in three types of aquatic environments - marine water, estuarine or brackish water and freshwater. The similarity between arsenate and phosphate and the interference in phosphorylation reactions is discussed. It is clear that in Scandinavian inland waters the concentration of phosphorous is on average lower than in most inland waters in continental Europe. However, in most inland waters phosphorus is the limiting factor for phytoplankton development and eutrophication, which means that there is a clear risk for detrimental effects in the great majority of inland waters, also eutrophic waters 167 refs, 27 figs, 12 tabs. Exemption Substances Project (Directive 89/677/EEC)

  8. Modeling of biological doses and mechanical effects on bone transduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, Romain; Jennane, Rachid; 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.01.003

    2012-01-01

    Shear stress, hormones like parathyroid and mineral elements like calcium mediate the amplitude of stimulus signal which affects the rate of bone remodeling. The current study investigates the theoretical effects of different metabolic doses in stimulus signal level on bone. The model was built considering the osteocyte as the sensing center mediated by coupled mechanical shear stress and some biological factors. The proposed enhanced model was developed based on previously published works dealing with different aspects of bone transduction. It describes the effects of physiological doses variations of Calcium, Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 on the stimulus level sensed by osteocytes in response to applied shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow. We retained the metabolic factors (Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide, and Prostaglandin E2) as parameters of bone cell mechanosensitivity because stimulation/inhibition of induced pathways stimulates osteogenic response in vivo. We t...

  9. Canagliflozin Slows Progression of Renal Function Decline Independently of Glycemic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J L; Desai, Mehul; Jardine, Meg; Balis, Dainius; Meininger, Gary; Perkovic, Vlado

    2017-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with canagliflozin decreases HbA1c, body weight, BP, and albuminuria, implying that canagliflozin confers renoprotection. We determined whether canagliflozin decreases albuminuria and reduces renal function decline independently of its glycemic effects in a secondary analysis of a clinical trial in 1450 patients with type 2 diabetes receiving metformin and randomly assigned to either once-daily canagliflozin 100 mg, canagliflozin 300 mg, or glimepiride uptitrated to 6-8 mg. End points were annual change in eGFR and albuminuria over 2 years of follow-up. Glimepiride, canagliflozin 100 mg, and canagliflozin 300 mg groups had eGFR declines of 3.3 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 2.8 to 3.8), 0.5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year (95% CI, 0.0 to 1.0), and 0.9 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) per year (95% CI, 0.4 to 1.4), respectively (P<0.01 for each canagliflozin group versus glimepiride). In the subgroup of patients with baseline urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/g, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio decreased more with canagliflozin 100 mg (31.7%; 95% CI, 8.6% to 48.9%; P=0.01) or canagliflozin 300 mg (49.3%; 95% CI, 31.9% to 62.2%; P<0.001) than with glimepiride. Patients receiving glimepiride, canagliflozin 100 mg, or canagliflozin 300 mg had reductions in HbA1c of 0.81%, 0.82%, and 0.93%, respectively, at 1 year and 0.55%, 0.65%, and 0.74%, respectively, at 2 years. In conclusion, canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg/d, compared with glimepiride, slowed the progression of renal disease over 2 years in patients with type 2 diabetes, and canagliflozin may confer renoprotective effects independently of its glycemic effects.

  10. Independent and combined effect of diet and exercise in adults with prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sénéchal M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Martin Sénéchal,1,2 Jana Slaght,3 Neha Bharti,3 Danielle R Bouchard3,4 1Manitoba Institute of Child Health, Winnipeg, MN, Canada; 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, 3Faculty of Kinesiology and Recreation Management, 4Health, Leisure, and Human Performance Research Institute, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MN, Canada Abstract: Prediabetes is defined as impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. Impaired fasting glucose is usually defined as fasting blood glucose between 5.6 mmol/L and 6.9 mmol/L (100.8–124.2 mg/dL, and impaired glucose tolerance is the 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test of 7.8–11.0 mmol/L (140.4–198.0 mg/dL. Most individuals with prediabetes are overweight or obese and are at greater risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The first line of treatment for individuals with prediabetes is lifestyle modification, including diet and exercise. The aim of this review, through the revision of primarily randomized control trials, is to discuss the independent and combined effect of diet and exercise on the incidence of T2D, glycemic control, and weight loss in adults with prediabetes. Based on the available literature, lifestyle modification combining both diet and exercise is effective at reducing the incidence of T2D and improving glycemic control, even without a significant reduction in body weight. Thus, it is unclear whether weight loss, through lifestyle modification, is a cornerstone for improving glycemic control in individuals with prediabetes. The independent effect of diet or exercise alone on the improvement in glycemic control and/or reduction in body weight in individuals with prediabetes still requires more studies to draw a clear conclusion, considering the quality and quantity of available studies. As of now, the best diet and/or exercise program to improve glycemic control and body weight in adults with prediabetes is unknown. Keywords: diabetes, glycemic control, weight

  11. Late biological effects from internal and external exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Information on late biological effects of radiation was obtained from the long-term medical followup of a small population of Marshallese accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout from a thermonuclear test in 1954. Endocrine data are compatible with a sequence of nonstochastic radiation effects. The ingestion of radioisotopes of iodine produced clinical thyroid hypofunction in children, biochemical evidence of thyroid dysfunction in some adults, thyroid adenomatous module formation, and, as a possible indirect effect of thyroid damage, at least two cases of pituitary adenoma. In contrast, the only evidence of a stochastic effect has been a real increase in thyroid cancers among the more highly exposed people of Rongelap, none of whom have evidence of residual disease. While three nonthyroidal cancers which are known to be inducible in humans by external irradiation have been documented in the exposed population, three similar cancers have occurred in an unexposed comparison population of Marshallese. Nonstochastic effects of radiation exposure may be common but subtle. In the Marshallese experience the morbidity of delayed nonstochastic effects far exceeds that of the stochastic. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effect of Organic Loading on Rotating Biological Contactor Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kossay K. Al-Ahmady

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic loading (weight per unit time per volume is useful for the design of rotating biological contactors (RBC and for comparison with the other processes such as activated sludge or oxidation ponds. The present study puts emphasis on the significance of this control or design parameter because it allows direct comparison of the RBC system's performance when operated under various circumstances and with different kinds of wastewater. The results of the paper proved that, the COD removal in rotating biological contactor systems is a function of the organic loading rate. However, each of the wastewater concentration and flow rate are also influence on the system efficiency but theirs impact can be combined by the effect of organic loading. The majority of COD removal (40-85 % of the total removal depending on the organic loading applied occurs in the first stages of the system. There is a strong correlation between the organic loading and the concentration of the suspended solids in the rotating biological contactor basin. At higher loadings higher concentrations noted. At a loading of about, (24 g/m2.d suspended solids were 225, 125, 35, and 25 mg/L in the first, second, third and, the fourth stage respectively. To achieve an effluent quality of (BOD < 25 mg/L, COD < 60 mg/L, the system must be operated on organic loadings of about (22 gBOD/m2.d and 65 gCOD/m2.d respectively. For nitrification process, the system must be designed to operate at organic loading of about (10 g/m2.d or less and, the reactor or basin volume should be designed to achieve a hydraulic loading of about (40 L/m2.d or less.

  13. The biological effects of five feline IFN-alpha subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Susan L; Powell, Tim D; Sellins, Karen S; Radecki, Steven V; Cohen, J John; Milhausen, Michael J

    2004-06-01

    IFN-alpha has been shown to induce both antiviral and antiproliferative activities in animals. This report describes the biological activity of five recently identified feline IFN-alpha subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line (rfeIFN-alpha1[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha2[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha3[CHO], rfeIFN-alpha5[CHO] and rfeIFN-alpha6[CHO]) and the feIFN-alpha6 subtype expressed in and purified from Pichia pastoris (rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]). The rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes were tested for antiviral activity against either Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) or feline calicivirus (FCV) infected feline embryonic fibroblast cell line (AH927) or Crandell feline kidney cell line (CRFK). Antiviral activity was induced against both VSV and FCV infected AH927 cells and VSV infected CRFK cells by all five of the rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes and rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]. In addition, the IFN-alpha inducible Mx gene (associated with antiviral activity) was upregulated in vivo 24 h following treatment with rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris], compared to baseline levels seen prior to treatment. All of the rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes and rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris] exhibited antiproliferative activity in the FeT-J cell line (an IL-2 independent feline T-cell line). Both necrosis and apoptosis were observed in rfeIFN-alpha6[P. pastoris]-treated FeT-J cells. The rfeIFN-alpha3[CHO] subtype consistently exhibited lower antiviral and antiproliferative activity compared to that observed with the other four rfeIFN-alpha[CHO] subtypes. In summary, this paper demonstrates that five previously described feIFN-alpha subtypes induce both antiviral and antiproliferative activities in vitro and are capable of upregulating the feMx gene in vivo.

  14. Effective interactions between nanoparticles: Creating temperature-independent solvation environments for self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hari O. S.; Shrivastav, Gourav; Agarwal, Manish; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2016-06-01

    The extent to which solvent-mediated effective interactions between nanoparticles can be predicted based on structure and associated thermodynamic estimators for bulk solvents and for solvation of single and pairs of nanoparticles is studied here. As a test of the approach, we analyse the strategy for creating temperature-independent solvent environments using a series of homologous chain fluids as solvents, as suggested by an experimental paper [M. I. Bodnarchuk et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 132, 11967 (2010)]. Our conclusions are based on molecular dynamics simulations of Au140(SC10H21)62 nanoparticles in n-alkane solvents, specifically hexane, octane, decane and dodecane, using the TraPPE-UA potential to model the alkanes and alkylthiols. The 140-atom gold core of the nanocrystal is held rigid in a truncated octahedral geometry and the gold-thiolate interaction is modeled using a Morse potential. The experimental observation was that the structural and rheological properties of n-alkane solvents are constant over a temperature range determined by equivalent solvent vapour pressures. We show that this is a consequence of the fact that long chain alkane liquids behave to a good approximation as simple liquids formed by packing of monomeric methyl/methylene units. Over the corresponding temperature range (233-361 K), the solvation environment is approximately constant at the single and pair nanoparticle levels under good solvent conditions. However, quantitative variations of the order of 10%-20% do exist in various quantities, such as molar volume of solute at infinite dilution, entropy of solvation, and onset distance for soft repulsions. In the opposite limit of a poor solvent, represented by vacuum in this study, the effective interactions between nanoparticles are no longer temperature-independent with attractive interactions increasing by up to 50% on decreasing the temperature from 361 K to 290 K, accompanied by an increase in emergent anisotropy due to

  15. Biological effects due to weak magnetic field on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N. A.

    2004-01-01

    magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular, tissue and organ levels. They may be functionally related to systems that regulate plant metabolism including the intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis. However, our understanding of very complex fundamental mechanisms and sites of interactions between weak magnetic fields and biological systems is still incomplete and still deserve strong research efforts.

  16. [DIRECTIONALITY OF THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibert, K K; Karasev, A K; Marasanov, A V; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V

    2015-01-01

    There have been performed the studies of the dimensional parameters of peroxide associates in drinking water, per- forming regulatory functions in cellular metabolism, that determine the character of the biological response of the human body to drinking water The direction of action of peroxide associates type Σ [(HO2-(*) ... OH-(*) (H2O) tp)]q, (where (H2O) tp is an associate with the tetragonal structure (Walrafen pentamer Is ice VI), q is the degree of association p--parameter of ion coordination) on the cellular structures of the organism is associated with their quantum properties, determining the macroscopic parameters of the electron wave packets. Research has confirmed the addressness of the nonlocal entering electron to certain cellular structures of the body, which is determined by the structural similarity of centers of condensation of electrons in the cells of systems and organs of the body with the parameters of the electron wave packets in the associates. Methodology for the estimation of the orientation of biological effect of the drinking water to the systems of the body on the base of the analysis of variations in heart rhythm under non-contact influence of water on the human body and its relationship with the dimensional parameters and peroxide activity of associates in drinking water can be suggested for the implementation of screening tests for drinking water quality, taking into account both the individualfeatures of responses of body systems to drinking water and its group action.

  17. Biological vs. physical mixing effects on benthic food web dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Braeckman

    Full Text Available Biological particle mixing (bioturbation and solute transfer (bio-irrigation contribute extensively to ecosystem functioning in sediments where physical mixing is low. Macrobenthos transports oxygen and organic matter deeper into the sediment, thereby likely providing favourable niches to lower trophic levels (i.e., smaller benthic animals such as meiofauna and bacteria and thus stimulating mineralisation. Whether this biological transport facilitates fresh organic matter assimilation by the metazoan lower part of the food web through niche establishment (i.e., ecosystem engineering or rather deprives them from food sources, is so far unclear. We investigated the effects of the ecosystem engineers Lanice conchilega (bio-irrigator and Abra alba (bioturbator compared to abiotic physical mixing events on survival and food uptake of nematodes after a simulated phytoplankton bloom. The (13C labelled diatom Skeletonema costatum was added to 4 treatments: (1 microcosms containing the bioturbator, (2 microcosms containing the bio-irrigator, (3 control microcosms and (4 microcosms with abiotic manual surface mixing. Nematode survival and subsurface peaks in nematode density profiles were most pronounced in the bio-irrigator treatment. However, nematode specific uptake (Δδ(13C of the added diatoms was highest in the physical mixing treatment, where macrobenthos was absent and the diatom (13C was homogenised. Overall, nematodes fed preferentially on bulk sedimentary organic material rather than the added diatoms. The total C budget (µg C m(-2, which included TO(13C remaining in the sediment, respiration, nematode and macrobenthic uptake, highlighted the limited assimilation by the metazoan benthos and the major role of bacterial respiration. In summary, bioturbation and especially bio-irrigation facilitated the lower trophic levels mainly over the long-term through niche establishment. Since the freshly added diatoms represented only a limited food

  18. Evidence for differential effects of reduced and oxidised nitrogen deposition on vegetation independent of nitrogen load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Leon J L; Jones, Laurence; Sheppard, Lucy J; Smart, Simon M; Bobbink, Roland; Dise, Nancy B; Ashmore, Mike R

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition impacts natural and semi-natural ecosystems globally. The responses of vegetation to N deposition may, however, differ strongly between habitats and may be mediated by the form of N. Although much attention has been focused on the impact of total N deposition, the effects of reduced and oxidised N, independent of the total N deposition, have received less attention. In this paper, we present new analyses of national monitoring data in the UK to provide an extensive evaluation of whether there are differences in the effects of reduced and oxidised N deposition across eight habitat types (acid, calcareous and mesotrophic grasslands, upland and lowland heaths, bogs and mires, base-rich mires, woodlands). We analysed data from 6860 plots in the British Countryside Survey 2007 for effects of total N deposition and N form on species richness, Ellenberg N values and grass:forb ratio. Our results provide clear evidence that N deposition affects species richness in all habitats except base-rich mires, after factoring out correlated explanatory variables (climate and sulphur deposition). In addition, the form of N in deposition appears important for the biodiversity of grasslands and woodlands but not mires and heaths. Ellenberg N increased more in relation to NHx deposition than NOy deposition in all but one habitat type. Relationships between species richness and N form were habitat-specific: acid and mesotrophic grasslands appear more sensitive to NHx deposition while calcareous grasslands and woodlands appeared more responsive to NOy deposition. These relationships are likely driven by the preferences of the component plant species for oxidised or reduced forms of N, rather than by soil acidification.

  19. Role of prefrontal cortical calcium independent phospholipase A₂ in antidepressant-like effect of maprotiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lynette Hui-Wen; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Shui, Guanghou; Wenk, Markus R; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2012-09-01

    There is increasing interest in the pathophysiology and neurochemistry of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in depression. Blood flow and metabolism are decreased in the PFC of patients with depression compared to controls. Changes in long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are also associated with depression. This study was conducted to elucidate a possible role of PFC activity of an enzyme involved in the release of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), i.e. calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA₂), in the effects of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) antidepressant, maprotiline, in mice. Treatment of Balb/C mice with maprotiline for 4 wk resulted in reduction in the level of behavioural despair, as determined by decreased immobility and increased climbing during the forced swim test. In contrast, mice treated with maprotiline plus bilateral prefrontal cortical injections of antisense oligonucleotide to iPLA₂, showed significantly increased immobility and decreased climbing, to levels comparable to saline-treated controls, indicating abolishment of the antidepressant-like effect of maprotiline. Lipidomic analyses showed significant decreases in phosphatidylcholine species containing long-chain PUFAs and increases in lysophosphatidylcholine after maprotiline treatment, indicating increased PLA₂ activity and endogenous release of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or DHA after maprotiline treatment. These changes in lipid profiles were absent in mice that received maprotiline and PFC injections of antisense oligonucleotide to iPLA₂. Together, the results indicate that PFC iPLA₂ activity plays an important role in the antidepressant-like effect of maprotiline, possibly through endogenous release of long-chain PUFAs.

  20. Effective Expression-Independent Gene Trapping and Mutagenesis Mediated by Sleeping Beauty Transposon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guili Song; Qing Li; Yong Long; Perry B. Hackett; Zongbin Cui

    2012-01-01

    Expression-independent gene or polyadenylation [poly(A)] trapping is a powerful tool for genome-wide mutagenesis regardless of whether a targeted gene is expressed.Although a number of poly(A)-trap vectors have been developed for the capture and mutation of genes across a vertebrate genome,further efforts are needed to avoid the 3′-terminal insertion bias and the splice donor (SD)read-through,and to improve the mutagenicity.Here,we present a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based vector that can overcome these limitations through the inclusion of three functional cassettes required for gene-finding,gene-breaking and large-scale mutagenesis,respectively.The functional cassette contained a reporter/selective marker gene driven by a constitutive promoter in front of a strong SD signal and an AU-rich RNA-destabilizing element (ARE),which greatly reduced the SD read-through events,except that the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) element was introduced in front of the SD signal to overcome the phenomenon of 3′-bias gene trapping.The breaking cassette consisting of an enhanced splicing acceptor (SA),a poly(A) signal coupled with a transcriptional terminator (TT) effectively disrupted the transcription of trapped genes.Moreover,the Hsp70 promoter from tilapia genome was employed to drive the inducible expression of SB11,which allows the conditional remobilization of a trap insert from a non-coding region.The combination of three cassettes led to effective capture and disruption of endogenous genes in HeLa cells.In addition,the Cre/LoxP system was introduced to delete the Hsp70-SB11 cassette for stabilization of trapped gene interruption and biosafety.Thus,this poly(A)-trap vector is an alternative and effective tool for identification and mutation of endogenous genes in cells and animals.

  1. 21 CFR 601.26 - Reclassification procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded under prescribed, recommended, or... Reclassification procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded... for the reclassification of all biological products that have been classified into Category IIIA....

  2. Effect of miR-296 on the Apoptosis of Androgen-independent Prostate Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei CHENG; Run-sheng LI; Biao-yang LIN; Wei-qun WANG; Yu-hua LI; Yan GUO; Wei LI

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the miR-296's function in prostate carcinoma(PCa) cells. Methods In order to profile the miRNA expression in LNCaP cells, the cultured cells were stimulated with androgen after 48-h starvation, miRNA microarray analysis and Q-RT-PCR assay were performed. To characterize the effects of miR296 on PCa cells, CL-1 and PC-3 cells were transfected with miR-296 and antisense-miR-296, cell growth and apoptosis were then analyzed. Results The miR-296-5p expression was up-regulated by 2.22 folds in the CL-1 cells, which do not express significantly androgen receptor, than in LNCaP cells. Knockdown of miR-296-Sp induced apoptosis of CL-1 cells, but not LNCaP cells. However, knockdown of miR-296-Sp inhibited the growth rate of LNCaP cells cultured in absence of androgen. Conclusion MiR-296-5p could be irnportant for development of prostate cancer from androgen dependence to androgen independence.

  3. Effects of antidiabetes drugs on functional independence measure on a subacute rehabilitation ward for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, E; Toyoshima, M; Tachi, T; Teramachi, H; Kawakubo, T; Hayashi, H

    2015-07-01

    It has been reported that the improvement of activities of daily living (ADL) by rehabilitation affects glycemic control. However, there are no reports about antidiabetes drugs as factors affecting the outcomes of rehabilitation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of antidiabetes drugs on functional independence measure (FIM) [total (T), motor (M), and cognition (C) items] in stroke patients with diabetes who were discharged from the subacute rehabilitation ward. We chose the frequently used antidiabetes drugs [sulfonylurea (SU), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP-IVIs), and α-glycosidase inhibitors (α-GIs)] as the basis for categorizing the patients. We compared the patients' background features and laboratory data among the three groups. As a result, when SU was used in stroke patients with diabetes, it is difficult to obtain significant FIM-M gain, FIM-C gain, FIM-M efficiency, and FIM-C efficiency compared with of-GIs. As a reason for this, we hypothesize the possibility of the involvement of insulin resistance. Therefore, we consider that insulin resistance should be determined early and that it is important to reduce insulin resistance comprehensively by involving experts.

  4. Completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in a silicene field effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Jin, Guojun

    2016-09-07

    One-atom-thick silicene is a silicon-based hexagonal-lattice material with buckled structure, where an electron fuses multiple degrees of freedom including spin, sublattice pseudospin and valley. We here demonstrate that a valley-selective spin filter (VSSF) that supports single-valley and single-spin transport can be realized in a silicene field effect transistor constructed of an npn junction, where an antiferromagnetic exchange field and a perpendicular electric field are applied in the p-doped region. The nontrivial VSSF property benefits from an electrically controllable state of spin-polarized single-valley Dirac cone. By reversing the electric field direction, the device can operate as a spin-reversed but valley-unreversed filter due to the dependence of band gap on spin and valley. Further, we find that all the possible spin-valley configurations of VSSF can be achieved just by tuning the electric field. Our findings pave the way to the realization of completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in silicene circuits.

  5. Independent effects of endurance training and weight loss on peak fat oxidation in moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil

    2015-01-01

    Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO...... and calculated by polynomial regression. As intended by study design, a similar weight loss was observed in T (-5.9 ± 0.7 kg) and D (-5.2 ± 0.8 kg), whereas T-iD (-1.0 ± 0.5 kg) and C (0.1 ± 0.6 kg) remained weight stable. PFO increased to a similar extent with 42% in T [0.16 g/min; 95% confidence intervals (CI...... and on key skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins involved in fat oxidation. Sixty moderately overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy men were randomized to 12 wk of training (T), diet (D), training and increased caloric intake (T-iD), or continuous sedentary control (C). Isoenergetic deficits...

  6. Arabidopsis growth under prolonged high temperature and water deficit: independent or interactive effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vile, Denis; Pervent, Marjorie; Belluau, Michaël; Vasseur, François; Bresson, Justine; Muller, Bertrand; Granier, Christine; Simonneau, Thierry

    2012-04-01

    High temperature (HT) and water deficit (WD) are frequent environmental constraints restricting plant growth and productivity. These stresses often occur simultaneously in the field, but little is known about their combined impacts on plant growth, development and physiology. We evaluated the responses of 10 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions to prolonged elevated air temperature (30 °C) and soil WD applied separately or in combination. Plant growth was significantly reduced under both stresses and their combination was even more detrimental to plant performance. The effects of the two stresses were globally additive, but some traits responded specifically to one but not the other stress. Root allocation increased in response to WD, while reproductive allocation, hyponasty and specific leaf area increased under HT. All the traits that varied in response to combined stresses also responded to at least one of them. Tolerance to WD was higher in small-sized accessions under control temperature and HT and in accessions with high biomass allocation to root under control conditions. Accessions that originate from sites with higher temperature have less stomatal density and allocate less biomass to the roots when cultivated under HT. Independence and interaction between stresses as well as the relationships between traits and stress responses are discussed.

  7. The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive function on binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Zhang, Fengqing; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors.

  8. Completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in a silicene field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xuechao; Jin, Guojun

    2016-09-01

    One-atom-thick silicene is a silicon-based hexagonal-lattice material with buckled structure, where an electron fuses multiple degrees of freedom including spin, sublattice pseudospin and valley. We here demonstrate that a valley-selective spin filter (VSSF) that supports single-valley and single-spin transport can be realized in a silicene field effect transistor constructed of an npn junction, where an antiferromagnetic exchange field and a perpendicular electric field are applied in the p-doped region. The nontrivial VSSF property benefits from an electrically controllable state of spin-polarized single-valley Dirac cone. By reversing the electric field direction, the device can operate as a spin-reversed but valley-unreversed filter due to the dependence of band gap on spin and valley. Further, we find that all the possible spin-valley configurations of VSSF can be achieved just by tuning the electric field. Our findings pave the way to the realization of completely independent electrical control of spin and valley in silicene circuits.

  9. Reactive Carbonyl Species In Vivo: Generation and Dual Biological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna M. Semchyshyn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive carbonyls are widespread species in living organisms and mainly known for their damaging effects. The most abundant reactive carbonyl species (RCS are derived from oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids. Chemical modification of proteins, nucleic acids, and aminophospholipids by RCS results in cytotoxicity and mutagenicity. In addition to their direct toxicity, modification of biomolecules by RCS gives rise to a multitude of adducts and cross links that are increasingly implicated in aging and pathology of a wide range of human diseases. Understanding of the relationship between metabolism of RCS and the development of pathological disorders and diseases may help to develop effective approaches to prevent a number of disorders and diseases. On the other hand, constant persistence of RCS in cells suggests that they perform some useful role in living organisms. The most beneficial effects of RCS are their establishment as regulators of cell signal transduction and gene expression. Since RCS can modulate different biological processes, new tools are required to decipher the precise mechanisms underlying dual effects of RCS.

  10. Effect of choline carboxylate ionic liquids on biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengstl, Doris; Kraus, Birgit; Van Vorst, Matthew; Elliott, Gloria D; Kunz, Werner

    2014-11-01

    Choline carboxylates, ChCm, with m=2-10 and choline oleate are known as biocompatible substances, yet their influence on biological membranes is not well-known, and the effect on human skin has not previously been investigated. The short chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m=2, 4, 6 act as hydrotropes, solubilizing hydrophobic compounds in aqueous solution, while the longer chain choline carboxylates ChCm with m=8, 10 and oleate are able to form micelles. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of choline carboxylates was tested using HeLa and SK-MEL-28 cells. The influence of these substances on liposomes prepared from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was also evaluated to provide insights on membrane interactions. It was observed that the choline carboxylates with a chain length of m>8 distinctly influence the bilayer, while the shorter ones had minimal interaction with the liposomes.

  11. Behavioural biology: an effective and relevant conservation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Richard

    2007-08-01

    'Conservation behaviour' is a young discipline that investigates how proximate and ultimate aspects of the behaviour of an animal can be of value in preventing the loss of biodiversity. Rumours of its demise are unfounded. Conservation behaviour is quickly building a capacity to positively influence environmental decision making. The theoretical framework used by animal behaviourists is uniquely valuable to elucidating integrative solutions to human-wildlife conflicts, efforts to reintroduce endangered species and reducing the deleterious effects of ecotourism. Conservation behaviourists must join with other scientists under the multidisciplinary umbrella of conservation biology without giving up on their focus: the mechanisms, development, function and evolutionary history of individual differences in behaviour. Conservation behaviour is an increasingly relevant tool in the preservation of nature.

  12. Biological effects and equivalent doses in radiotherapy: a software solution

    CERN Document Server

    Voyant, Cyril; Roustit, Rudy; Biffi, Katia; Marcovici, Celine Lantieri

    2013-01-01

    The limits of TDF (time, dose, and fractionation) and linear quadratic models have been known for a long time. Medical physicists and physicians are required to provide fast and reliable interpretations regarding the delivered doses or any future prescriptions relating to treatment changes. We therefore propose a calculation interface under the GNU license to be used for equivalent doses, biological doses, and normal tumor complication probability (Lyman model). The methodology used draws from several sources: the linear-quadratic-linear model of Astrahan, the repopulation effects of Dale, and the prediction of multi-fractionated treatments of Thames. The results are obtained from an algorithm that minimizes an ad-hoc cost function, and then compared to the equivalent dose computed using standard calculators in seven French radiotherapy centers.

  13. Biological Effects on Fruit Fly by N+ ion Beam Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Mutation induced by low energy ion beam implantation has beenapplied widely both in plants and microbes. However, due to the vacuum limitation, such ion implantation into animals was never studied except for silkworm. In this study, Pupae of fruit fly were irradiated with different dosage N+ ions at energy 20 KeV to study the biological effect of ion beam on animal. The results showed a saddle-like curve exists between incubate rate and dosage. Damage of pupae by ion beam implantation was observed using scanning electron microscope. Some individuals with incomplete wing were obtained after implantation but no similar character was observed in their offspring. Furthermore, about 5.47% mutants with wide variation appeared in M1 generation. Therefore, ion beam implantation could be widely used for mutation breeding.

  14. Hydrodynamic collective effects of active proteins in biological membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, Yuki; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2016-08-01

    Lipid bilayers forming biological membranes are known to behave as viscous two-dimensional fluids on submicrometer scales; usually they contain a large number of active protein inclusions. Recently, it was shown [A. S. Mikhailov and R. Kapral, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 112, E3639 (2015), 10.1073/pnas.1506825112] that such active proteins should induce nonthermal fluctuating lipid flows leading to diffusion enhancement and chemotaxislike drift for passive inclusions in biomembranes. Here, a detailed analytical and numerical investigation of such effects is performed. The attention is focused on the situations when proteins are concentrated within lipid rafts. We demonstrate that passive particles tend to become attracted by active rafts and are accumulated inside them.

  15. Interaction mechanisms and biological effects of static magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1994-06-01

    Mechanisms through which static magnetic fields interact with living systems are described and illustrated by selected experimental observations. These mechanisms include electrodynamic interactions with moving, ionic charges (blood flow and nerve impulse conduction), magnetomechanical interactions (orientation and translation of molecules structures and magnetic particles), and interactions with electronic spin states in charge transfer reactions (photo-induced electron transfer in photosynthesis). A general summary is also presented of the biological effects of static magnetic fields. There is convincing experimental evidence for magnetoreception mechanisms in several classes of lower organisms, including bacteria and marine organisms. However, in more highly evolved species of animals, there is no evidence that the interactions of static magnetic fields with flux densities up to 2 Tesla (1 Tesla [T] = 10{sup 4} Gauss) produce either behavioral or physiolocical alterations. These results, based on controlled studies with laboratory animals, are consistent with the outcome of recent epidemiological surveys on human populations exposed occupationally to static magnetic fields.

  16. Effect of Antimicrobial Peptide-Amide: Indolicidin on Biological Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Gergely Végh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Indolicidin, a cationic antimicrobial tridecapeptide amide, is rich in proline and tryptophan residues. Its biological activity is intensively studied, but the details how indolicidin interacts with membranes are not fully understood yet. We report here an in situ atomic force microscopic study describing the effect of indolicidin on an artificial supported planar bilayer membrane of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC and on purple membrane of Halobacterium salinarum. Concentration dependent interaction of the peptide and membranes was found in case of DPPC resulting the destruction of the membrane. Purple membrane was much more resistant against indolicidin, probably due to its high protein content. Indolicidin preferred the border of membrane disks, where the lipids are more accessible. These data suggest that the atomic force microscope is a powerful tool in the study of indolicidin-membrane interaction.

  17. [The biological effect of fireproof ceramic fibers--literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajnow, A

    1996-01-01

    The work presents reports, selected from the world literature, on the studies of biological effect of refractory ceramic fibres, carried out on experimental animals. The discrepancy between the results of studies performed may originate from differences in the distribution of fibre sizes or the durability of fibres in the organism and their surface properties which, in turn, depend on the chemical composition of fibres. In all studies discussed, ceramic fibres generally activated macrophages and they were characterised by a moderate fibrotic activity. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of tumor (mesothelioma) observed in several very important experimental studies may suggest that some types of refractory ceramic fibres show a similar carcinogenic potential to that of natural asbestos: crocidolite or chrysotile.

  18. Investigation on inhibition of biological effects of endothelin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田青; 赵东; 张继峰; 高连如; 刘胜昔; 杨军; 苏静怡; 张肇康; 汤健; 唐朝枢

    1996-01-01

    The effects of a series of substances on the biological function of endothelin (ET) are reported. The substances used are: synthetic inhibitors of endothelium derived relaxing factors (EDRFs), inhibitor of big-endothelin converting enzyme phosphoramidon, antiserum of endothelin, antagonists of endothelin A receptor BQ123 and JKC301, and two Chinese anti-snake venom herb medicines Lobelia radians Thumb and Taris polyphylla Smith var. chinensis (Franch) Hara. The results showed that inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) could stimulate ET release from vascular endothelium, elevate plasma ET and increase blood pressure. These changes could be reversed by L-arginine (L-Arg), the substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The amount of ET released by arterial endothelium could be increased or inhibited by inhibiting or stimulating the synthesis of prostacyclin (PGI2). The plasma ET level and blood pressure in both SHR and WKY rats could be decreased by giving phosphoramidon (PhR). The above results i

  19. Effect of Computer Animations Upon Student's Achievement of Biology Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YAKIŞAN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The prime purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of computer animation supported biology education upon students’ academic achievement. The study was participated by 97 pre service teachers studying in the first year of university. The data were collected by “Cell Achievement Test” There were control and experimental groups formed and the experimental group was taught with computer animations related with diffusion, osmosis, active transport, protein synthesis, mitosis and meiosis phenomena taking place in cell while the control group was taught with traditional method based on question and answer process. The data obtained were evaluated by t- test and represented by tables and graphs. The results of the study indicated significant differences between the academic achievements of control and experimental groups. The difference is in the favor of the experimental group which revealed the fact the computer animations caused a significant increase in the academic achievements of the students.

  20. Biological Effectiveness and Application of Heavy Ions in Radiation Therapy Described by a Physical and Biological Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kjeld J.; Hansen, Johnny W.

    A description is given of the physical basis for applying track structure theory in the determination of the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation of single- and multi-hit target systems. It will be shown that for applying the theory to biological systems the effectiveness of heavy-ion irradiation...... simultaneously in therapy....

  1. Biological effects due to weak magnetic fields on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyavskaya, N.

    In the evolution process, living organisms have experienced the action of the Earth's magnetic field (MF) that is a natural component of our environment. It is known that a galactic MF induction does not exceed 0.1 nT, since investigations of weak magnetic field (WMF) effects on biological systems have attracted attention of biologists due to planning long-term space flights to other planets where the magnetizing force is near 10-5 Oe. However, the role of WMF and its influence on organisms' functioning are still insufficiently investigated. A large number of experiments with seedlings of different plant species placed in WMF has found that the growth of their primary roots is inhibited during the early terms of germination in comparison with control. The proliferation activity and cell reproduction are reduced in meristem of plant roots under WMF application. The prolongation of total cell reproductive cycle is registered due to the expansion of G phase in1 different plant species as well as of G phase in flax and lentil roots along with2 relative stability of time parameters of other phases of cell cycle. In plant cells exposed to WMF, the decrease in functional activity of genome at early prereplicate period is shown. WMF causes the intensification in the processes of proteins' synthesis and break-up in plant roots. Qualitative and quantitative changes in protein spectrum in growing and differentiated cells of plant roots exposed to WMF are revealed. At ultrastructural level, there are observed such ultrastructural peculiarities as changes in distribution of condensed chromatin and nucleolus compactization in nuclei, noticeable accumulation of lipid bodies, development of a lytic compartment (vacuoles, cytosegresomes and paramural bodies), and reduction of phytoferritin in plastids in meristem cells of pea roots exposed to WMF. Mitochondria are the most sensitive organelle to WMF application: their size and relative volume in cells increase, matrix is electron

  2. Effect of a biological activated carbon filter on particle counts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hua WU; Bing-zhi DONG; Tie-jun QIAO; Jin-song ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Due to the importance of biological safety in drinking water quality and the disadvantages which exist in traditional methods of detecting typical microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia,it is necessary to develop an alternative.Particle counts is a qualitative measurement of the amount of dissolved solids in water.The removal rate of particle counts was previously used as an indicator of the effectiveness of a biological activated carbon(BAC)filter in removing Cryptosporidium and Giardia.The particle counts in a BAC filter effluent over one operational period and the effects of BAC filter construction and operational parameters were investigated with a 10 m3/h pilot plant.The results indicated that the maximum particle count in backwash remnant water was as high as 1296 count/ml and it needed about 1.5 h to reduce from the maximum to less than 50 count/ml.During the standard filtration period,particle counts stay constant at less than 50 count/ml for 5 d except when influ-enced by sand filter backwash remnant water.The removal rates of particle counts in the BAC filter are related to characteristics of the carbon.For example,a columned carbon and a sand bed removed 33.3% and 8.5% of particles,respectively,while the particle counts in effluent from a cracked BAC filter was higher than that of the influent.There is no significant difference among particle removal rates with different filtration rates.High post-ozone dosage(>2 mg/L)plays an important role in particle count removal;when the dosage was 3 mg/L,the removal rates by carbon layers and sand beds decreased by 17.5% and increased by 9.5%,respectively,compared with a 2 mg/L dosage.

  3. Endothelium-Independent Effect of Fisetin on the Agonist-Induced Regulation of Vascular Contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Je, Hyun Dong; Sohn, Uy Dong; La, Hyen-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a natural flavonoid found in a variety of vegetables and fruits, has been shown to possess many biological functions. The present study was undertaken to investigate the influence of fisetin on vascular smooth muscle contractility and to determine the mechanism involved. Denuded aortic rings from male rats were used and isometric contractions were recorded and combined with molecular experiments. Fisetin significantly relaxed fluoride-, thromboxane A2- or phorbol ester-induced vascular contraction suggesting as a possible anti-hypertensive on the agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. Furthermore, fisetin significantly inhibited fluoride-induced increases in pMYPT1 levels and phorbol ester-induced increases in pERK1/2 levels suggesting the mechanism involving the inhibition of Rho-kinase activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of MYPT1 and MEK activity and the subsequent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. This study provides evidence regarding the mechanism underlying the relaxation effect of fisetin on agonist-induced vascular contraction regardless of endothelial function.

  4. Independent effects of both right and left ventricular function on plasma brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, Thomas Wiis; Jensen, Ruben J; Monrad, Astrid L;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increased in heart failure; however, the relative contribution of the right and left ventricles is largely unknown. AIM: To investigate if right ventricular function has an independent influence on plasma BNP concentration. METHODS: Right (RVEF), left......, which is a strong prognostic marker in heart failure, independently depends on both left and right ventricular systolic function. This might, at least in part, explain why BNP holds stronger prognostic value than LVEF alone....

  5. Comment on ``Constraints on biological effects of weak extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    1992-08-01

    In a recent paper, Adair [Phys. Rev. A 43, 1039 (1991)] concludes that weak extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields cannot affect biology on the cell level. However, Adair's assertion that few cells of higher organisms contain magnetite (Fe3O4) and his blanket denial of reproducible ELF effects on animals are both wrong. Large numbers of single-domain magnetite particles are present in a variety of animal tissues, including up to a hundred million per gram in human brain tissues, organized in clusters of tens to hundreds of thousand per gram. This is far more than a ``few cells.'' Similarly, a series of reproducible behavioral experiments on honeybees, Apis mellifera, have shown that they are capable of responding to weak ELF magnetic fields that are well within the bounds of Adair's criteria. A biologically plausible model of the interaction of single-domain magnetosomes with a mechanically activated transmembrane ion channel shows that ELF fields on the order of 0.1 to 1 mT are capable of perturbing the open-closed state by an energy of kT. As up to several hundred thousand such structures could fit within a eukaryotic cell, and the noise should go as the square root of the number of independent channels, much smaller ELF sensitivities at the cellular level are possible. Hence, the credibility of weak ELF magnetic effects on living systems must stand or fall mainly on the merits and reproducibility of the biological or epidemiological experiments that suggest them, rather than on dogma about physical implausibility.

  6. The effect of green tea on radiation-induced late biological effect in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Se Ra; Lee, Hae June; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of Green tea on the late biological effect of mice irradiated with 3 Gy of gamma-radiation. There were various findings including hematopoietic and lymphoid tumor, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and cancer of other lesions. Further studies are needed to characterize better the protective nature of active compounds.

  7. Mutagenic Effects of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Biological Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayake, Niluka M; Current, Kelley M; Obare, Sherine O

    2015-09-30

    In recent years, there has been an increased interest in the design and use of iron oxide materials with nanoscale dimensions for magnetic, catalytic, biomedical, and electronic applications. The increased manufacture and use of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in consumer products as well as industrial processes is expected to lead to the unintentional release of IONPs into the environment. The impact of IONPs on the environment and on biological species is not well understood but remains a concern due to the increased chemical reactivity of nanoparticles relative to their bulk counterparts. This review article describes the impact of IONPs on cellular genetic components. The mutagenic impact of IONPs may damage an organism's ability to develop or reproduce. To date, there has been experimental evidence of IONPs having mutagenic interactions on human cell lines including lymphoblastoids, fibroblasts, microvascular endothelial cells, bone marrow cells, lung epithelial cells, alveolar type II like epithelial cells, bronchial fibroblasts, skin epithelial cells, hepatocytes, cerebral endothelial cells, fibrosarcoma cells, breast carcinoma cells, lung carcinoma cells, and cervix carcinoma cells. Other cell lines including the Chinese hamster ovary cells, mouse fibroblast cells, murine fibroblast cells, Mytilus galloprovincialis sperm cells, mice lung cells, murine alveolar macrophages, mice hepatic and renal tissue cells, and vero cells have also shown mutagenic effects upon exposure to IONPs. We further show the influence of IONPs on microorganisms in the presence and absence of dissolved organic carbon. The results shed light on the OPEN ACCESS Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16 23483 transformations IONPs undergo in the environment and the nature of the potential mutagenic impact on biological cells.

  8. Efeitos da independência do banco central e da taxa de rotatividade sobre a inflação brasileira The effects of central bank independence and the rate of turnover on the Brazilian inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Ferreira de Mendonça

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the belief is strong in the Brazilian federal government that operational central bank independence is a basic condition to assure price stability. The literature concerning this subject highlights that a high degree of independence and a low turnover of central bank governor are associated with low inflation. This paper analyzes the relation between central bank independence and inflation in Brazil during 1980-2002. The findings denote that there is no effect on inflation due to an increase in degree of independence and a fall in turnover rate.

  9. "Weighing" the effects of exercise and intrinsic aerobic capacity: are there beneficial effects independent of changes in weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight.

  10. Independent Maternal and Fetal Genetic Effects on Midgestational Circulating Levels of Environmental Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traglia, Michela; Croen, Lisa A.; Lyall, Kristen; Windham, Gayle C.; Kharrazi, Marty; DeLorenze, Gerald N.; Torres, Anthony R.; Weiss, Lauren A.

    2017-01-01

    Maternal exposure to environmental pollutants could affect fetal brain development and increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in conjunction with differential genetic susceptibility. Organohalogen congeners measured in maternal midpregnancy blood samples have recently shown significant, but negative associations with offspring ASD outcome. We report the first large-scale maternal and fetal genetic study of the midpregnancy serum levels of a set of 21 organohalogens in a subset of 790 genotyped women and 764 children collected in California by the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) Project. Levels of PCB (polychlorinated biphenyl) and PBDE (polybrominated diphenyl ether) congeners showed high maternal and fetal estimated SNP-based heritability (h2g) accounting for 39–99% of the total variance. Genome-wide association analyses identified significant maternal loci for p,p′-DDE (P = 7.8 × 10−11) in the CYP2B6 gene and for BDE-28 (P = 3.2 × 10−8) near the SH3GL2 gene, both involved in xenobiotic and lipid metabolism. Fetal genetic loci contributed to the levels of BDE-100 (P = 4.6 × 10−8) and PCB187 (P = 2.8 × 10−8), near the potential metabolic genes LOXHD1 and PTPRD, previously implicated in neurodevelopment. Negative associations were observed for BDE-100, BDE153, and the sum of PBDEs with ASD, partly explained by genome-wide additive genetic effects that predicted PBDE levels. Our results support genetic control of midgestational biomarkers for environmental exposures by nonoverlapping maternal and fetal genetic determinants, suggesting that future studies of environmental risk factors should take genetic variation into consideration. The independent influence of fetal genetics supports previous hypotheses that fetal genotypes expressed in placenta can influence maternal physiology and the transplacental transfer of organohalogens. PMID:28235828

  11. Effect of Sedimentation on Treated Greywater Through Rotating Biological Contactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaque Ahmed Pathan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to study the effect of sedimentation on effluent of a pilot scale Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC. The treated greywater was given three hours sedimentation period and samples were analyzed to observe the effect of sedimentations under variousflow rates. Greywater was separated from the black water and collected in the collection tank and then it was pumped to an overhead tank. This tank supplied a regulated continuous flow of greywater into the RBC chamber at the required flow rate ranging between 0.28 to 1.89 l/min. A pilot scale RBC simulator was developed and placed outside a hall of residence at National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, Sindh University, Jamshoro. The simulator was operated at the rotational speed of discs of 1.7 rpm. The disks were uneven and textured so as to encourage growth of bacteria on them. These discs were immersed about 40 percent in the greywater.The simulator produced effluent of significant quality and was found efficient in removal of BOD5, COD and TSS as 85%, 68% and 95% respectively.

  12. New Scientific Pearl about Biologic Effect of Ionizing Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Alamdaran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Soon after the discovery of X-ray by Rontgen in 1895, it became evident that radiation can cause some somatic damage to tissues. The hazards of X-ray exposure were clearly known when many large hospitals had radiology departments. The greatest increased in knowledge about X-ray risks had accrued from the dropping of the two atomic bombs in Japan in 1945 and some other atomic accident. For example, among the Japanese bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, there have been about 400 extra cancer deaths. These were the origin of radiology personnel and people fear from radiation exposure and resistant in against simple X-ray exam (radiophobia. However, new scientific data on the effects radiation on survivors, especially about biologic effect of ionizing rays, background radiation exposure, amount of endogenous radiation, hormosis phenomenon and comparison radiation risk with other risk over lifetime are still being continuously revised and risk estimates updated. Fundamentally, this risk is much"nlower than whatever already estimated and it is insignificant in diagnostic domain. Better perception of physician from these instances help to prevent of false radiophobia and to make proper use of diagnostic and therapeutic advantages of ionizing beam.

  13. [Effects of decitabine on biological behavior of U266 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Fang; Yang, Lin-Hua; Dong, Chun-Xia; Zhang, Rui-Juan; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Guo, Zhi-Ping; Chen, Jian-Fang; Zhagn, Li; Feng, Da-Wei

    2011-08-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effects of decitabine on the biological behaviour of U266 cells in vitro so as to provide a new thinking and experiment basis, as well as new evidences for the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma. MTT and colony formation assays were used to evaluate the impact of decitabine on the ability of proliferation of U266 cells; flow cytometry was used to analyze the cell distribution in cell cycle; transwell chamber and matrigel assays were used to observe the ability of migration and invasion. The results indicated that decitabine could significantly suppress the proliferation of U266 cells in time-and dose-dependent manners. The flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the cells in G(0)-G(1) phase significantly increased while the cells in S and G(2)/M phase decreased. The migration and matrigel invading tests showed that the number of cells moving into under chamber of transwell decreased after U266 cells treated with decitabine. It is concluded that decitabine may act as an effective drug for MM by inhibiting the proliferation, migration and invasion ability, and the specific mechanism needs to be deeply explored.

  14. Effective time-independent studies on resonance Raman spectroscopy of trans-stilbene including the Duschinsky effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Na; Barone, Vincenzo; Cappelli, Chiara; Zhao, Xian; Ruud, Kenneth; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    We simulate the resonance Raman spectra of trans-stilbene using a recently developed time-independent method that allows computations of the full two-dimensional spectrum as a function of the incident and scattered frequencies, including both the Franck-Condon and the Herzberg-Teller contributions. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground and resonant states are described in the harmonic approximation using density functional theory PBE0/6-31+G(d,p) calculations in gas phase and in cyclohexane. The simulated spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data [J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5000 (1985)] measured at four different excitation wavelengths, and allow us to unambiguously assign the main experimental bands. We perform an extensive comparison of the performance of four different vertical or adiabatic models for the PES of the resonant state, dissecting the effects of nuclear displacements and Duschinsky mixings on the spectra.

  15. 21 CFR 601.25 - Review procedures to determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded under prescribed, recommended, or suggested... determine that licensed biological products are safe, effective, and not misbranded under prescribed, recommended, or suggested conditions of use. For purposes of reviewing biological products that have...

  16. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: alex.ford@port.ac.uk [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of budesonide in human lung fibroblasts are independent of histone deacetylase 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang X

    2013-08-01

    effect of budesonide on release of cytokines and MMPs from HFL-1 cells. Similarly, an HDAC2-siRNA blocked budesonide inhibition of cytokine release in HBECs, but it did not block the inhibitory effect of budesonide on HFL-1 cytokine and MMP release. Furthermore, budesonide significantly blocked release of cytokines and MMPs to a similar degree in normal and COPD lung fibroblasts as well as in HFL-1 cells exposed or not exposed to cigarette smoke extract. Conclusion: These findings suggest that, in contrast to airway epithelial cells and monocytes/macrophages, HDAC2 is not required for budesonide to inhibit MMP and cytokine release by lung fibroblasts and this inhibitory pathway appears to be intact in cultured fibroblasts from COPD patients. These results also suggest that budesonide has the potential to modulate fibroblast-mediated tissue remodeling following airway inflammation in COPD, which is mediated via an HDAC2 independent pathway. Keywords: budesonide, fibroblasts, HDAC2

  18. Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal: Metabolic Insights and Salinity Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welles, L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is a biological process for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters through intracellular storage of polyphosphate by polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO) and subsequent removal of PAO from the system through wastage of sludge. In comparison t

  19. The effect of network biology on drug toxicology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Laurent; Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine Marie Laure

    2013-01-01

    it with bioinformatics. With this approach, the assessment of chemical safety can be done across multiple scales of complexity from molecular to cellular and system levels in human health. Network biology can be used at several levels of complexity. Areas covered: This review describes the strengths and limitations......Introduction: The high failure rate of drug candidates due to toxicity, during clinical trials, is a critical issue in drug discovery. Network biology has become a promising approach, in this regard, using the increasingly large amount of biological and chemical data available and combining...... of network biology. The authors specifically assess this approach across different biological scales when it is applied to toxicity. Expert opinion: There has been much progress made with the amount of data that is generated by various omics technologies. With this large amount of useful data, network...

  20. Occurrence and Potential Biological Effects of Amphetamine on Stream Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sylvia S; Paspalof, Alexis M; Snow, Daniel D; Richmond, Erinn K; Rosi-Marshall, Emma J; Kelly, John J

    2016-09-06

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, including illicit drugs in aquatic systems, is a topic of environmental significance because of their global occurrence and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health, but few studies have examined the ecological effects of illicit drugs. We conducted a survey of several drug residues, including the potentially illicit drug amphetamine, at 6 stream sites along an urban to rural gradient in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. We detected numerous drugs, including amphetamine (3 to 630 ng L(-1)), in all stream sites. We examined the fate and ecological effects of amphetamine on biofilm, seston, and aquatic insect communities in artificial streams exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration (1 μg L(-1)) of amphetamine. The amphetamine parent compound decreased in the artificial streams from less than 1 μg L(-1) on day 1 to 0.11 μg L(-1) on day 22. In artificial streams treated with amphetamine, there was up to 45% lower biofilm chlorophyll a per ash-free dry mass, 85% lower biofilm gross primary production, 24% greater seston ash-free dry mass, and 30% lower seston community respiration compared to control streams. Exposing streams to amphetamine also changed the composition of bacterial and diatom communities in biofilms at day 21 and increased cumulative dipteran emergence by 65% and 89% during the first and third weeks of the experiment, respectively. This study demonstrates that amphetamine and other biologically active drugs are present in urban streams and have the potential to affect both structure and function of stream communities.

  1. Examining the Effect of Multiple Writing Tasks on Year 10 Biology Students' Understandings of Cell and Molecular Biology Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brian; Hohenshell, Liesl; Prain, Vaughan

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examined the cumulative effects on students' learning of science, and perceptions of the role of writing in learning, when the students engaged in multiple writing tasks with planning strategy support. The study was conducted with Year 10 biology students who completed two consecutive units on Cells and Molecular…

  2. Determining environmental causes of biological effects: the need for a mechanistic physiological dimension in conservation biology

    OpenAIRE

    Seebacher, Frank; Craig E. Franklin

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of Conservation Physiology links environmental change and ecological success by the application of physiological theory, approaches and tools to elucidate and address conservation problems. Human activity has changed the natural environment to a point where the viability of many ecosystems is now under threat. There are already many descriptions of how changes in biological patterns are correlated with environmental changes. The next important step is to determine the causa...

  3. The Effect of iPad Use during Independent Practice for Students with Challenging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flower, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the classroom, time on-task is critical because it is linked to learning and success. When off-task behaviors occur, substantial learning and instructional time may be lost. Many students with disabilities struggle with remaining on-task, particularly during independent practice periods. Strategies to increase time on-task during classroom…

  4. Effects of the near field on source-independent q estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shigapov, R.; Kashtan, B.; Droujinine, A.; Mulder, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of Q estimation from microseismic and from perforation shot data. Assuming that the source wavelet is not well known, we focused on the spectral ratio method and on source-independent viscoelastic full waveform inversion. We derived 3-D near-field approximations of monopole a

  5. Relative Biological Effectiveness and Peripheral Damage of Antiproton Annihilation

    CERN Multimedia

    Kavanagh, J N; Kaiser, F; Tegami, S; Schettino, G; Kovacevic, S; Hajdukovic, D; Welsch, C P; Currell, F J; Toelli, H T; Doser, M; Holzscheiter, M; Herrmann, R; Timson, D J; Alsner, J; Landua, R; Knudsen, H; Comor, J; Moller, S P; Beyer, G

    2002-01-01

    The use of ions to deliver radiation to a body for therapeutic purposes has the potential to be significant improvement over the use of low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation because of the improved energy deposition profile and the enhanced biological effects of ions relative to photons. Proton therapy centers exist and are being used to treat patients. In addition, the initial use of heavy ions such as carbon is promising to the point that new treatment facilities are planned. Just as with protons or heavy ions, antiprotons can be used to deliver radiation to the body in a controlled way; however antiprotons will exhibit additional energy deposition due to annihilation of the antiprotons within the body. The slowing down of antiprotons in matter is similar to that of protons except at the very end of the range beyond the Bragg peak. Gray and Kalogeropoulos estimated the additional energy deposited by heavy nuclear fragments within a few millimeters of the annihilation vertex to be approximately 30 MeV (...

  6. Biological effectiveness of neutron irradiation on animals and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straume, T.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron experiments on a highly radiosensitive in vivo system - oocytes in mice - provide new insight into the nature of the radiosensitive targets of these important cells. With the radiobiological literature as background, neutron data from animals and humans are integrated, and the controversial question of radiation protection standards for neutrons is addressed. Oocyte killing in juvenile mice by 0.43-MeV, /sup 252/Cf-fission, and 15 MeV neutrons, compared with that by /sup 60/Co gamma rays, yields unusually low neutron RBEs (relative biological effectiveness). At 0.1 rad of 0.43-MeV neutrons the RBE is only 1.8, contrasting greatly with values of 100 or more reported at low-doses for other endpoints. In mice just prior to birth, however, when oocytes are less radiosensitive, the neutron RBE is much higher, similar to values for most other mammalian endpoints. This dramatic change in neutron RBE with mouse age (occurring within 2 to 3 days) can be explained as the result of a shift from a less radiosensitive target (presumably nuclear DNA) to a much more radiosensitive one (probably the oocyte plasma membrane). Using various approaches, a value for the neutron Quality Factor (Q, a radiation protection standard) is estimated as 17 (+-100%), much lower than 100 which has been suggested. With the large uncertainty, 17 is not markedly different from the value of 10 presently in general use.

  7. Stochastic Effects in Computational Biology of Space Radiation Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Pluth, Janis; Harper, Jane; O'Neill, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Estimating risk from space radiation poses important questions on the radiobiology of protons and heavy ions. We are considering systems biology models to study radiation induced repair foci (RIRF) at low doses, in which less than one-track on average transverses the cell, and the subsequent DNA damage processing and signal transduction events. Computational approaches for describing protein regulatory networks coupled to DNA and oxidative damage sites include systems of differential equations, stochastic equations, and Monte-Carlo simulations. We review recent developments in the mathematical description of protein regulatory networks and possible approaches to radiation effects simulation. These include robustness, which states that regulatory networks maintain their functions against external and internal perturbations due to compensating properties of redundancy and molecular feedback controls, and modularity, which leads to general theorems for considering molecules that interact through a regulatory mechanism without exchange of matter leading to a block diagonal reduction of the connecting pathways. Identifying rate-limiting steps, robustness, and modularity in pathways perturbed by radiation damage are shown to be valid techniques for reducing large molecular systems to realistic computer simulations. Other techniques studied are the use of steady-state analysis, and the introduction of composite molecules or rate-constants to represent small collections of reactants. Applications of these techniques to describe spatial and temporal distributions of RIRF and cell populations following low dose irradiation are described.

  8. Effects of Simulated Rare Earth Recycling Wastewaters on Biological Nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshiko; Barnes, Joni; Eslamimanesh, Ali; Lencka, Malgorzata M; Anderko, Andrzej; Riman, Richard E; Navrotsky, Alexandra

    2015-08-18

    Increasing rare earth element (REE) supplies by recycling and expanded ore processing will result in generation of new wastewaters. In some cases, disposal to a sewage treatment plant may be favored, but plant performance must be maintained. To assess the potential effects of such wastewaters on biological treatment, model nitrifying organisms Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrobacter winogradskyi were exposed to simulated wastewaters containing varying levels of yttrium or europium (10, 50, and 100 ppm), and the extractant tributyl phosphate (TBP, at 0.1 g/L). Y and Eu additions at 50 and 100 ppm inhibited N. europaea, even when virtually all of the REE was insoluble. Provision of TBP with Eu increased N. europaea inhibition, although TBP alone did not substantially alter activity. For N. winogradskyi cultures, Eu or Y additions at all tested levels induced significant inhibition, and nitrification shut down completely with TBP addition. REE solubility was calculated using the previously developed MSE (Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte) thermodynamic model. The model calculations reveal a strong pH dependence of solubility, typically controlled by the precipitation of REE hydroxides but also likely affected by the formation of unknown phosphate phases, which determined aqueous concentrations experienced by the microorganisms.

  9. The Effects of Formalism on Teacher Trainees' Algebraic and Geometric Interpretation of the Notions of Linear Dependency/Independency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, E.; Solak, S.; Yazici, E.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the effects of formalism in teaching on primary and secondary school mathematics teacher trainees' algebraic and geometric interpretations of the notions of linear dependency/independency. Quantitative research methods are drawn in order to determine differences in success levels between algebraic and geometric…

  10. Chemical and biological oxidative effects of carbon black nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Eiko; Kobayashi, Takahiro

    2006-11-01

    Several studies show that ultrafine particles have a larger surface area than coarse particles, thus causing a greater inflammatory response. In this study, we investigated chemical and biological oxidative effects of nanoparticles in vitro. Carbon black (CB) nanoparticles with mean aerodynamic diameters of 14, 56, and 95nm were examined. The innate oxidative capacity of the CB nanoparticles was measured by consumption of dithiothreitol (DTT) in cell-free system. The expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat alveolar type II epithelial cell line (SV40T2) and alveolar macrophages (AM) exposed to CB nanoparticles was measured by ELISA. DTT consumption of 14nm CB was higher than that of other CB nanoparticles having the same particle weight. However, DTT consumption was directly proportional to the particle surface area. HO-1 protein in SV40T2 cells was significantly increased by the 14nm and 56nm CB, however, 95nm CB did not affect. HO-1 protein in AM was significantly increased by the 14, 56, and 95nm CB. The increase in HO-1 expression was diminished by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) treatment of each CB nanoparticles before exposure although the difference between the effects of NAC-treated and untreated 14nm CB did not achieve significant. In conclusion, CB nanoparticles have innate oxidative capacity that may be dependent on the surface area. CB nanoparticles can induce oxidative stress in alveolar epithelial cells and AM that is more prominent with smaller particles. The oxidative stress may, at least partially, be mediated by surface function of particles.

  11. Tea polyphenols, their biological effects and potential molecular targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D; Milacic, V; Chen, M S; Wan, S B; Lam, W H; Huo, C; Landis-Piwowar, K R; Cui, Q C; Wali, A; Chan, T H; Dou, Q P

    2008-04-01

    Tea is the most popular beverage in the world, second only to water. Tea contains an infusion of the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, the most abundant of which is (-)-EGCG. Although tea has been consumed for centuries, it has only recently been studied extensively as a health-promoting beverage that may act to prevent a number of chronic diseases and cancers. The results of several investigations indicate that green tea consumption may be of modest benefit in reducing the plasma concentration of cholesterol and preventing atherosclerosis. Additionally, the cancer-preventive effects of green tea are widely supported by results from epidemiological, cell culture, animal and clinical studies. In vitro cell culture studies show that tea polyphenols potently induce apoptotic cell death and cell cycle arrest in tumor cells but not in their normal cell counterparts. Green tea polyphenols were shown to affect several biological pathways, including growth factor-mediated pathway, the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent pathway, and ubiquitin/proteasome degradation pathways. Various animal studies have revealed that treatment with green tea inhibits tumor incidence and multiplicity in different organ sites such as skin, lung, liver, stomach, mammary gland and colon. Recently, phase I and II clinical trials have been conducted to explore the anticancer effects of green tea in humans. A major challenge of cancer prevention is to integrate new molecular findings into clinical practice. Therefore, identification of more molecular targets and biomarkers for tea polyphenols is essential for improving the design of green tea trials and will greatly assist in a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying its anti-cancer activity.

  12. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    about board independence in Western jurisdictions, a surprising disharmony prevails about the justification, extent and purpose of independence requirements. These considerations lead me to question the benefits of the current system. Instead, this paper proposes a new, ‘functional’ concept of board...

  13. Gravity Independent Compressor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop and demonstrate a small, gravity independent, vapor compression refrigeration system using a linear motor compressor which effectively...

  14. Combined effects of terazosin and genistein on a metastatic, hormone-independent human prostate cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kee-Lung; Cheng, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Li-Wen; Hsieh, Bau-Shan; Hu, Yu-Chen; Chih, Tsai-Tung; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Su, Shu-Jem

    2009-04-08

    Metastatic prostate cancer progresses from androgen-dependent to androgen-independent. Terazosin, a long-acting selective alpha1-adrenoreceptor antagonist, induces apoptosis of prostate cancer cells in an alpha1-adrenoreceptor-independent manner, while genistein, a major soy isoflavone, inhibits the growth of several types of cancer cells. The present study was designed to test the therapeutic potential of a combination of terazosin and genistein using a metastatic, hormone-independent prostatic cancer cell line, DU-145. Terazosin or genistein treatment inhibited the growth of DU-145 cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas had no effect on normal prostate epithelial cells. Addition of 1 microg/ml of terazosin, which was inactive alone, augmented the growth inhibitory effect of 5 microg/ml of genistein. Co-treatment with terazosin resulted in the genistein-induced arrest of DU-145 cells in G2/M phase being overridden and an increase in apoptotic cells, as evidenced by procaspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. The combination also caused a greater decrease in the levels of the apoptosis-regulating protein, Bcl-XL, and of VEGF165 and VEGF121 than genistein alone. In conclusion, the terazosin/genistein combination was more effective in inhibiting cell growth and VEGF expression as well as inducing apoptosis of the metastatic, androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line, DU-145, than either alone. The doses used in this study are in lower and nontoxic anticancer dosage range, suggesting this combination has potential for therapeutic use.

  15. Biological Effects of Medicinal Plants on Induced Periodontitis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moara e Silva Conceição; di Lenardo, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the advances in the study of medicinal plants and their biologic effects on periodontitis in animal models. Study Design. A systematic search was conducted by three independent researchers, who screened articles published up to March/2016, to identify the studies that contained sufficient and clear information on the association of the medicinal plants and periodontitis in murine models. The searches were performed using PubMed, Cochrane, and Science Direct databases. Results. After a critical analysis of titles and abstracts, 30 studies were finally eligible for analysis. The studies presented a great diversity of the experiment designed regarding the methods of induced periodontitis and the evaluation of the medicinal plants efficacy. None of the studies described the possible toxic effects associated with the administration of the plant material to animals and whether they could prevent damage to organs caused by systemic effect of induced periodontitis. Gel-based formulations containing plant substances are seen as an interesting strategy to treat periodontitis. Conclusions. In this systematic review, the state-of-the-art knowledge on the medicinal plants and the induced periodontitis was critically evaluated and discussed from the experiment designed to the possible clinical application. PMID:27738432

  16. Effects Of Rotation On Auditor Independence And Quality Of Audit Service In Malaysian Banking Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru Isa Dandago

    2012-12-01

    means for ensuring auditor independence and high audit quality in the Malaysian banking industry. In the absence of statutory/mandatory requirement for auditor rotation, it is recommended that the Malaysian banking institutions should be carefully evaluating the impact auditor rotation would have on the quality of audit work on their current and future financial statements, as they decide whether to rotate their auditors or not.

  17. Separating the Effect of Independent Interference Sources with Rayleigh Faded Signal Link: Outage Analysis and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kahlon, Arshdeep S; Periyalwar, Shalini; Yanikomeroglu, Halim

    2012-01-01

    We show that, for independent interfering sources and a signal link with exponentially distributed received power, the total probability of outage can be decomposed as a simple expression of the outages from the individual interfering sources. We give a mathematical proof of this result, and discuss some immediate implications, showing how it results in important simplifications to statistical outage analysis. We also discuss its application to two active topics of study: spectrum sharing, and sum of interference powers (e.g., lognormal) analysis.

  18. Sulfasalazine unveils a contact-independent HSV-TK/ganciclovir gene therapy bystander effect in malignant gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robe, Pierre A; Nguyen-Khac, Minh-Tuan; Lambert, Frederic; Lechanteur, Chantal; Jolois, Olivier; Ernst-Gengoux, Patricia; Rogister, Bernard; Bours, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of HSV-TK/ganciclovir-based gene therapy on malignant gliomas largely relies on the amplitude of the bystander effect. In these experiments, the anti-inflammatory drug Sulfasalazine increased the HSV-TK/ganciclovir bystander effect in C6, 9L and LN18 cells but not in U87 glioma cells. Using bi-compartmental culture devices and conditioned medium transfer experiments, we showed that in C6, 9L and LN18 cells but not in U87 cells, Sulfasalazine also unveiled a new, contact-independent mechanism of HSV-TK/ganciclovir bystander effect. Upon treatment with ganciclovir, human LN18-TK but not U87-TK cells synthetized and released TNF-alpha in the culture medium. Sulfasalazine sensitized glioma cells to the toxic effect of TNF-alpha and enhanced its secretion in LN18-TK cells in response to GCV treatment. The caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK and a blocking antibody to TNF-alpha both inhibited the contact-independent bystander effect in LN18 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that TNF-alpha mediates the contact-independent bystander effect in LN18 cells. The treatment with GCV and/or Sulfasalazine of tumor xenografts consisting of a mix of 98% C6 and 2% C6-TK cells shows that Sulfasalazine is also a potent adjunct to the in vivo treatment of gliomas.

  19. The Effects of Ultrasound on Biological Systems: Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Karmi, Anan M.

    vs. 18 minutes). This demonstrates that the biological effects of ultrasound are influenced by Ca^ {2+}. The larger increases in G _{rm t} and the time constants confirm other studies addressing the role of Ca ^{2+} in potentiating lipid peroxidation by free radicals, and the role of calcium ions in the formation of tight junctions.

  20. Penetration and propagation into biological matter and biological effects of high-power ultra-wideband pulses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunck, Thérèse; Bieth, François; Pinguet, Sylvain; Delmote, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Systems emitting ultra-wideband high power microwave (HP/UWB) pulses are developed for military and civilian applications. HP/UWB pulses typically have durations on the order of nanoseconds, rise times of picoseconds and amplitudes around 100 kV m(-1). This article reviews current research on biological effects from HP/UWB exposure. The different references were classified according to endpoints (cardiovascular system, central nervous system, behavior, genotoxicity, teratology …). The article also reviews the aspects of mechanisms of interactions and tissue damage as well as the numerical work that has been done for studying HP/UWB pulse propagation and pulse energy deposition inside biological tissues. The mechanisms proposed are the molecular conformation change, the modification of chemical reaction rates, membrane excitation and breakdown and direct electrical forces on cells or cell constituents, and the energy deposition. As regards the penetration of biological matter and the deposited energy, mainly computations were published. They have shown that the EM field inside the biological matter is strongly modified compared to the incident EM field and that the energy absorption for HP/UWB pulses occurs in the same way as for continuous waves. However, the energy carried by a HP/UWB pulse is very low and the deposited energy is low. The number of published studies dealing with the biological effects is small and only a few pointed out slight effects. It should be further noted that the animal populations used in the studies were not always large, the statistical analyses not always relevant and the teams involved in this research rather limited in number.

  1. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The hypothesis being evaluated in this research program is that control of radiation induced oxidative stress will reduce the risk of radiation induced adverse biological effects occurring as a result of exposure to the types of radiation encountered during space travel. As part of this grant work, we have evaluated the protective effects of several antioxidants and dietary supplements and observed that a mixture of antioxidants (AOX), containing L-selenomethionine, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid, vitamin E succinate, and alpha-lipoic acid, is highly effective at reducing space radiation induced oxidative stress in both in vivo and in vitro systems, space radiation induced cytotoxicity and malignant transformation in vitro [1-7]. In studies designed to determine whether the AOX formulation could affect radiation induced mortality [8], it was observed that the AOX dietary supplement increased the 30-day survival of ICR male mice following exposure to a potentially lethal dose (8 Gy) of X-rays when given prior to or after animal irradiation. Pretreatment of animals with antioxidants resulted in significantly higher total white blood cell and neutrophil counts in peripheral blood at 4 and 24 hours following exposure to doses of 1 Gy and 8 Gy. Antioxidant treatment also resulted in increased bone marrow cell counts following irradiation, and prevented peripheral lymphopenia following 1 Gy irradiation. Supplementation with antioxidants in irradiated animals resulted in several gene expression changes: the antioxidant treatment was associated with increased Bcl-2, and decreased Bax, caspase-9 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in the bone marrow following irradiation. These results suggest that modulation of apoptosis may be mechanistically involved in hematopoietic system radioprotection by antioxidants. Maintenance of the antioxidant diet was associated with improved recovery of the bone marrow following sub-lethal or potentially lethal irradiation. Taken together

  2. Essential Oils from Thyme (Thymus vulgaris): Chemical Composition and Biological Effects in Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetvicka, Vaclav; Vetvickova, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Thymus species are popular spices and contain volatile oils as main chemical constituents. Recently, plant-derived essential oils are gaining significant attention due to their significant biological activities. Seven different thymus-derived essential oils were compared in our study. First, we focused on their chemical composition, which was followed up by testing their effects on phagocytosis, cytokine production, chemotaxis, edema inhibition, and liver protection. We found limited biological activities among tested oils, with no correlation between composition and biological effects. Similarly, no oils were effective in every reaction. Based on our data, the tested biological use of these essential oils is questionable.

  3. Neutrophil bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus adherent on biological surfaces. Surface-bound extracellular matrix proteins activate intracellular killing by oxygen-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann, M.; Jaconi, M E; Dahlgren, C; Waldvogel, F A; Stendahl, O; Lew, D P

    1990-01-01

    The activation patterns of surface adherent neutrophils are modulated via interaction of extracellular matrix proteins with neutrophil integrins. To evaluate neutrophil bactericidal activity, Staphylococcus aureus adherent to biological surfaces were incubated with neutrophils and serum, and the survival of surface bacteria was determined. When compared to albumin-coated surfaces, the bactericidal activity of neutrophils adherent to purified human extracellular matrix was markedly enhanced (m...

  4. Effect of Process-Oriented Guided-Inquiry Learning on Non-majors Biology Students' Understanding of Biological Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Breann M.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of process-oriented guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) on non-majors college biology students' understanding of biological classification. This study addressed an area of science instruction, POGIL in the non-majors college biology laboratory, which has yet to be qualitatively and quantitatively researched. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods approach was used. Students' understanding of biological classification was measured in two areas: scores on pre and posttests (consisting of 11 multiple choice questions), and conceptions of classification as elicited in pre and post interviews and instructor reflections. Participants were Minnesota State University, Mankato students enrolled in BIOL 100 Summer Session. One section was taught with the traditional curriculum (n = 6) and the other section in the POGIL curriculum (n = 10) developed by the researcher. Three students from each section were selected to take part in pre and post interviews. There were no significant differences within each teaching method (p vs. M = 7.330 +/- .330; z =-1.729, p = .084) and the traditional group may have scored higher on the pretest than the posttest (M = 8.333 +/- .333 vs M = 7.333 +/- .333; z = -1.650 , p = .099). Two themes emerged after the interviews and instructor reflections: 1) After instruction students had a more extensive understanding of classification in three areas: vocabulary terms, physical characteristics, and types of evidence used to classify. Both groups extended their understanding, but only POGIL students could explain how molecular evidence is used in classification. 2) The challenges preventing students from understanding classification were: familiar animal categories and aquatic habitats, unfamiliar organisms, combining and subdividing initial groupings, and the hierarchical nature of classification. The POGIL students were the only group to surpass these challenges after the teaching intervention. This

  5. Electrode size and boundary condition independent measurement of the effective piezoelectric coefficient of thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stewart

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the piezoelectric coefficient of thin films using interferometry is hindered by bending contributions. Using finite element analysis (FEA simulations, we show that the Lefki and Dormans approximations using either single or double-beam measurements cannot be used with finite top electrode sizes. We introduce a novel method for characterising piezoelectric thin films which uses a differential measurement over the discontinuity at the electrode edge as an internal reference, thereby eliminating bending contributions. This step height is shown to be electrode size and boundary condition independent. An analytical expression is derived which gives good agreement with FEA predictions of the step height.

  6. Effect of Independent Crank Cycling Training On Running Economy In Collegiate Distance Runners

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Aaron W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in running economy of collegiate cross-country runners with 6 weeks of training on the PowerCranks ™ independent bicycle crank. Thirteen collegiate cross-country runners completed the study. Participants were asked to perform 6 weeks of training with either the PowerCranks™ device or the standard cranks (control group). Participants trained 3 days per week with a 48-hour minimum rest time between training sessions. Pre- and post-running eco...

  7. Radioprotection, biological effects of the radiations and security in the handling of radioactive material

    CERN Document Server

    Teran, M

    2000-01-01

    The development of the philosophy of the radioprotection is dependent on the understanding of the effects of the radiation in the man. Behind the fact that the radiation is able to produce biological damages there are certain factors with regard to the biological effects of the radiations that determine the boarding of the radioprotection topics.

  8. Radon exposure of the skin: I. Biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, M W [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    Radon progeny can plate out on skin and give rise to exposure of the superficial epidermis from alpha emitters Po-218 (7.7 MeV, range {approx}66 {mu}m) and Po-214 (6 MeV, range {approx}44 {mu}m). Dose rates from beta/gamma emitters Pb-214 and Bi-214 are low and only predominate at depths in excess of the alpha range. This paper reviews the evidence for a causal link between exposure from radon and its progeny, and deterministic and stochastic biological effects in human skin. Radiation induced skin effects such as ulceration and dermal atrophy, which require irradiation of the dermis, are ruled out for alpha irradiation from radon progeny because the target cells are considerably deeper than the range of alpha particles. They have not been observed in man or animals. Effects such as erythema and acute epidermal necrosis have been observed in a few cases of very high dose alpha particle exposures in man and after acute high dose exposure in animals from low energy beta radiations with similar depth doses to radon progeny. The required skin surface absorbed doses are in excess of 100 Gy. Such effects would require extremely high levels of radon progeny. They would involve quite exceptional circumstances, way outside the normal range of radon exposures in man. There is no definitive identification of the target cells for skin cancer induction in animals or man. The stem cells in the basal layer which maintain the epidermis are the most plausible contenders for target cells. The majority of these cells are near the end of the range of radon progeny alpha particles, even on the thinnest body sites. The nominal depth of these cells, as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), is 70 {mu}m. There is evidence however that some irradiation of the hair follicles and/or the deeper dermis, as well as the inter-follicular epidermis, is also necessary for skin cancer induction. Alpha irradiation of rodent skin that is restricted to the

  9. Effects of Magnetic Field on Biological Cells and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Jen

    2001-03-01

    While there has been extensive research performed in the physics of magnetic fields and the physics and chemistry in life sciences, independent of each other, there has been a paucity of scientific research and development investigating the possible applications of magnetic fields in life sciences. The focus of this presentation is to present the stimulation mechanism by which magnetic fields affect (a) yeast cells (b) plant cells and (c) mammalian normal and cancer cells. Recently we have found that the Saccharomyces Cerevsa yeast growth increases by about 30to a 1 tesla field and the production of CO2 increases by about 30of yeast metabolism may be due to an increase in intercellular interaction and protein channel alignment, the introduction of an alteration in the DNA from the magnetic field exposure or a combination of these mechanisms. We also have found that the application of high magnetic fields (1 tesla and above) can have marked effects on the germination and growth of plants, especially corn, beans and peas. This finding has opened up the possibility of technology developments in botanical growth systems to accelerate seed germination and crop harvesting. Most recently we have investigated the application of high magnetic fields on leukemia, CaCoII and HEP G2 cancer cell lines. We found that when leukemia are exposed to a 12 tesla field for 2 hours has an increase in cell death by about 30that were not exposed to the magnetic field. Viability of CaCoII cells sandwiched between permanent magnets of maximum strength of 1.2 tesla was measured. A decrease in viable cells by 33unexposed cells. HSP 70 was measured for HEPG2 cells that were exposed to permanent magnetic field of 1.2 tesla for 40 minutes and for unexposed cells. It was found that the exposed cells produce 19 times more HSP70 compared to unexposed cells. Our results together with other investigators report suggest a strong evidence of a reduction in the cell growth rate for cancer cells when

  10. Anomalous Temperature Effects of the Entanglement of Two Coupled Qubits in Independent Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Chuan-Jia; CAO Shuai; XUE Zheng-Yuan; ZHU Shi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the entanglement dynamical behavior of two coupled qubits via a Heisenberg XX interaction, which are connected with two independent finite temperature heat baths. By numerical simulations of the quantum master equation, it is found that the interesting phenomena of entanglement sudden death (ESD) as well as sudden birth (ESB) appear during the evolution process for particular initial states. We also show that two critical temperatures T1 (determining that the quantum state is entangled or separable) and T2 (where maximal stationary entanglement can be observed) exist, and stationary entanglement exhibits a non-monotonic behavior as a function of the finite temperature noise strength. These results enlarge the domain of the reasonable experimental temperature where stationary entanglement can be observable.%We investigate the entanglement dynamical behavior of two coupled qubits via a Heisenberg XX interaction,which are connected with two independent finite temperature heat baths.By numerical simulations of the quantum master equation,it is found that the interesting phenomena of entanglement sudden death (ESD) as well as sudden birth (ESB) appear during the evolution process for particular initial states.We also show that two critical temperatures T1 (determining that the quantum state is entangled or separable) and T2 (where maximal stationary entanglement can be observed) exist,and stationary entanglement exhibits a non-monotonic behavior as a function of the finite temperature noise strength.These results enlarge the domain of the reasonable experimental temperature where stationary entanglement can be observable.

  11. Nutritional value-dependent and nutritional value-independent effects on Drosophila melanogaster larval behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwedder, Astrid; Pfitzenmaier, Johanna E; Ramsperger, Noel; Apostolopoulou, Anthi A; Widmann, Annekathrin; Thum, Andreas S

    2012-10-01

    Gustatory stimuli allow an organism not only to orient in its environment toward energy-rich food sources to maintain nutrition but also to avoid unpleasant or even poisonous substrates. For both mammals and insects, sugars-perceived as "sweet"-potentially predict nutritional benefit. Interestingly, even Drosophila adult flies are attracted to most high-potency sweeteners preferred by humans. However, the gustatory information of a sugar may be misleading as some sugars, although perceived as "sweet," cannot be metabolized. Accordingly, in adult Drosophila, a postingestive system that additionally evaluates the nutritional benefit of an ingested sugar has been shown to exist. By using a set of seven different sugars, which either offer (fructose, sucrose, glucose, maltodextrin, and sorbitol) or lack (xylose and arabinose) nutritional benefit, we show that Drosophila, at the larval stage, can perceive and evaluate sugars based on both nutrition-dependent and -independent qualities. In detail, we find that larval survival and feeding mainly depend on the nutritional value of a particular sugar. In contrast, larval choice behavior and learning are regulated in a more complex way by nutrition value-dependent and nutrition value-independent information. The simplicity of the larval neuronal circuits and their accessibility to genetic manipulation may ultimately allow one to identify the neuronal and molecular basis of the larval sugar perception systems described here behaviorally.

  12. Controlling the Biological Effects of Spermine Using a Synthetic Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vial, Laurent; Ludlow, R. Frederick; Leclaire, Julien; Pérez-Fernández, Ruth; Otto, Sijbren

    2006-01-01

    Polyamines play an important role in biology, yet their exact function in many processes is poorly understood. Artificial host molecules capable of sequestering polyamines could be useful tools for studying their cellular function. However, designing synthetic receptors with affinities sufficient to

  13. Piperine, a Bioactive Component of Pepper Spice Exerts Therapeutic Effects on Androgen Dependent and Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common solid malignancy in men, with 32,000 deaths annually. Piperine, a major alkaloid constituent of black pepper, has previously been reported to have anti-cancer activity in variety of cancer cell lines. The effect of piperine against prostate cancer is not currently known. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-tumor mechanisms of piperine on androgen dependent and androgen independent prostate cancer cells. Here, we show that piperine inhibited th...

  14. The effect of parents' conversational style and disciplinary knowledge on children's observation of biological phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberbach, Catherine

    This study was designed to better understand how children begin to make the transition from seeing the natural world to scientifically observing the natural world during shared family activity in an informal learning environment. Specifically, this study addressed research questions: (1) What is the effect of differences in parent conversational style and disciplinary knowledge on children's observations of biological phenomena? (2) What is the relationship between parent disciplinary knowledge and conversational style to children's observations of biological phenomena? and (3) Can parents, regardless of knowledge, be trained to use a teaching strategy with their children that can be implemented in informal learning contexts? To address these questions, 79 parent-child dyads with children 6-10 years old participated in a controlled study in which half of the parents used their natural conversational style and the other half were trained to use particular conversational strategies during family observations of pollination in a botanical garden. Parents were also assigned to high and low knowledge groups according to their disciplinary knowledge of pollination. Data sources included video recordings of parent-child observations in a garden, pre-post child tasks, and parent surveys. Findings revealed that parents who received training used the conversational strategies more than parents who used their natural conversational style. Parents and children who knew more about pollination at the start of the study exhibited higher levels of disciplinary talk in the garden, which is to be expected. However, the use of the conversational strategies also increased the amount of disciplinary talk in the garden, independent of what families knew about pollination. The extent to which families engaged in disciplinary talk in the garden predicted significant variance in children's post-test scores. In addition to these findings, an Observation Framework (Eberbach & Crowley, 2009

  15. Independent Effects of Bilingualism and Socioeconomic Status on Language Ability and Executive Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children’s development irrespective of the child’s level on the other factor. PMID:24374020

  16. The independent effect of type 2 diabetes mellitus on ischemic heart disease, stroke, and death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, Thomas; Scharling, Henrik; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have reported that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have increased mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases, independent of other risk factors. However, most of these studies have been performed in selected patient groups. The purpose...... of the present study was prospectively to assess the impact of type 2 DM on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in an unselected population. METHODS: A total of 13,105 subjects from the Copenhagen City Heart Study were followed up prospectively for 20 years. Adjusted relative risks of first, incident......, admission for, or death from ischemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, or stroke, as well as total mortality in persons with type 2 DM compared with healthy controls, were estimated. RESULTS: The relative risk of first, incident, and admission for myocardial infarction was increased 1.5- to 4...

  17. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor.

  18. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Kyle L.; Pop, Eric; King, William P.

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K-1. This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  19. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Kyle L; Pop, Eric; King, William P

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K(-1). This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  20. Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Kyle L. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Pop, Eric [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); King, William P., E-mail: wpk@illinois.edu [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K{sup −1}. This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.

  1. The effects of field dependent/independent style awareness on learning strategies and outcomes in an instructional hypermedia module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    . Correspondingly, there were no significant findings for field-independent students of the effects of style awareness on learning strategies. The findings also revealed significant differences in terms of style awareness and its interactions with achievement on the multiple-choice test. Both field-dependent and field-independent students with style awareness achieved higher scores than their counterparts who received no style awareness. There were however no significant findings with respect to the effects of style awareness on performance on the design task. Overall this study demonstrated that providing middle-school students with cognitive-style awareness training can improve both their academic performance as well as enable them to adopt more effective learning strategies when learning in hypermedia environments.

  2. Central bank Financial Independence

    OpenAIRE

    J.Ramon Martinez-Resano

    2004-01-01

    Central bank independence is a multifaceted institutional design. The financial component has been seldom analysed. This paper intends to set a comprehensive conceptual background for central bank financial independence. Quite often central banks are modelled as robot like maximizers of some goal. This perspective neglects the fact that central bank functions are inevitably deployed on its balance sheet and have effects on its income statement. A financially independent central bank exhibits ...

  3. Biological Effects of Listeriolysin O: Implications for Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. G. Hernández-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeriolysin O (LLO is a thiol-activated cholesterol-dependent pore-forming toxin and the major virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes (LM. Extensive research in recent years has revealed that LLO exerts a wide array of biological activities, during the infection by LM or by itself as recombinant antigen. The spectrum of biological activities induced by LLO includes cytotoxicity, apoptosis induction, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, modulation of gene expression, intracellular calcium oscillations, and proinflammatory activity. In addition, LLO is a highly immunogenic toxin and the major target for innate and adaptive immune responses in different animal models and humans. Recently, the crystal structure of LLO has been published in detail. Here, we review the structure-function relationship for this fascinating microbial molecule, highlighting the potential uses of LLO in the fields of biomedicine and biotechnology, particularly in vaccination.

  4. Resurrecting the body: Has portmodernism had any effect on biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, S F

    1995-01-01

    While postmodernism has had very little influence in biology (for reasons discussed in the paper), it can provide a framework for discussing the context in which biology is done. Here, four biological views of the body/self are contrasted: the neural, immunological, genetic, and phenotypic bodies. Each physical view of the body extrapolates into a different model of the body politic, and each posits a different relationship between bodies of knowledge. The neural view of the body models a body politic wherein society is defined by its culture and laws. The genetic view privileges views of polities based on ethnicity and race. The immune body extrapolates into polities that can defend themselves against other such polities. The phenotypic view of the body politic stands in opposition to these three major perspectives and integrates them without giving any predominance. The view of science as a "neural" body of knowledge contends that science is aperspectival and objective. The perspective of the "immune" body is that science exists to defend the interests of its creataors. The genetic view of science is that science is the basis of all culture. The extrapolation of the phenotypic body to science insists upon the utilitarian rationale for scientific interprises. In all instances, the genetic view of the body/body politic/body of science is presently in ascendance.

  5. Choosing Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Milo Djukanovic, Prime Minister of Montenegro, won a key referendum May 21 when voters in his tiny, mountainous nation endorsed a plan to split from Serbia and become an independent state. This marked a final step in the breakup of the former Yugoslavia formed by six republics.

  6. Independent effect of fatigue on health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Vasfiye Burcu; Koksal, Ayhan; Dirican, Ayten; Baybas, Sevim; Dirican, Ahmet; Dogan, Gulsum Buse

    2015-12-01

    Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), specifically fatigue, depression and sleep disturbances, are important contributors for worse quality of life and poor patient outcomes. The aim of this research is to determine the relationship between fatigue and other NMS and the independent effect of fatigue on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with IPD. 86 IPD patients and 85 healthy individuals were included in our study. Participants were evaluated by their answers to the Beck Depression Inventory, Fatigue Severity Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39. Hoehn-Yahr stage, disease duration, medications and demographical characteristics were also noted. ROC analysis was used to determine the cutoff point for HRQoL. Nonparametric Spearman correlation analysis was used for determining the relationship between variables. Independent factors which affect HRQoL were detected by multiple forward stepwise logistic regression analysis. NMS were associated with each other and with HRQoL when they act concomitantly (p 0.05). The stage of IPD and levodopa-entacapone treatment had independent effects on HRQoL too (p life quality.

  7. Effects of Loading Paths on Hydrodynamic Deep Drawing with Independent Radial Hydraulic Pressure of Aluminum Alloy Based on Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing LIU; Yongchao XU; Shijian YUAN

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the forming demands for low plasticity materials and large height-diameter ratio parts, a new process of hydrodynamic deep drawing (HDD) with independent radial hydraulic pressure is proposed. To investigate the effects of loading paths on the HDD with independent radial hydraulic pressure, the forming process of 5A06 aluminum alloy cylindrical cup with a hemispherical bottom was studied by numerical simula- tion. By employing the dynamic explicit analytical software ETA/Dynaform based on LS-DYNA3D, the effects of loading paths on the sheet-thickness distribution and surface quality were analyzed. The corresponding relations of the radial hydraulic pressure loading paths and the part's strain status on the forming limit diagram (FLD) were also discussed. The results indicated that a sound match between liquid chamber pressure and independent radial hydraulic pressure could restrain the serious thinning at the hemisphere bottom and that through adjusting radial hydraulic pressure could reduce the radial tensile strain and change the strain paths. Therefore, the drawing limit of the aluminum cylindrical cup with a hemispherical bottom could be increased significantly.

  8. Effects of New Audit Regulation on Auditor´s Perceptions by Independence Issues, Audit Planning Activities and Reporting Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiertzner, Lars

    This paper examines the effects of new audit regulation on the behaviour of Danish State Authorized Public Accountants when they confront independence threats, audit planning activities and the reporting of critical findings in the audit report. The detail approach and the stressing of the import......This paper examines the effects of new audit regulation on the behaviour of Danish State Authorized Public Accountants when they confront independence threats, audit planning activities and the reporting of critical findings in the audit report. The detail approach and the stressing...... of the importance of scepticism in new audit regulation are expected to make the auditors´ decisions by interpreting principles more restrictive, or direct in conformity with prescriptive regulation, whereas the importance of professional judgement is diminishing by independence threats and reporting decisions....... Furthermore, the complexity of the new audit process is likely to increase the weight of planning and reporting activities, the use of qualified resources (senior staff and State Authorized Public Accountants) and interim auditing. The approach used is questionnaire surveys in 1995 and 2005 respectively...

  9. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting Apo

  10. Independent and additive effects of glutamic acid and methionine on yeast longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    It is established that glucose restriction extends yeast chronological and replicative lifespan, but little is known about the influence of amino acids on yeast lifespan, although some amino acids were reported to delay aging in rodents. Here we show that amino acid composition greatly alters yeast chronological lifespan. We found that non-essential amino acids (to yeast) methionine and glutamic acid had the most significant impact on yeast chronological lifespan extension, restriction of methionine and/or increase of glutamic acid led to longevity that was not the result of low acetic acid production and acidification in aging media. Remarkably, low methionine, high glutamic acid and glucose restriction additively and independently extended yeast lifespan, which could not be further extended by buffering the medium (pH 6.0). Our preliminary findings using yeasts with gene deletion demonstrate that glutamic acid addition, methionine and glucose restriction prompt yeast longevity through distinct mechanisms. This study may help to fill a gap in yeast model for the fast developing view that nutrient balance is a critical factor to extend lifespan.

  11. An independent determination of Fomalhaut b's orbit and the dynamical effects on the outer dust belt

    CERN Document Server

    Beust, Hervé; Bonsor, Amy; Graham, J; Kalas, Paul; Lebreton, J; Lagrange, Anne-Marie; Ertel, Steve; Faramaz, Virginie; Thebault, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The nearby star Fomalhaut harbours a cold, moderately eccentric dust belt with a sharp inner edge near 133 au. A low-mass, common proper motion companion (Fom b), was discovered near the inner edge and was identified as a planet candidate that could account for the belt morphology. However, the most recent orbit determination based on four epochs of astrometry over eight years reveals a highly eccentric orbit that appears to cross the belt in the sky plane projection. We perform here a full orbital determination based on the available astrometric data to independently validate the orbit estimates previously presented. Adopting our values for the orbital elements and their associated uncertainties, we then study the dynamical interaction between the planet and the dust ring, to check whether the proposed disk sculpting scenario by Fom b is plausible. We used a dedicated MCMC code to derive the statistical distributions of the orbital elements of Fom b. Then we used symplectic N-body integration to investigate ...

  12. Functional proteomic analysis revealed ground-base ion radiations cannot reflect biological effects of space radiations of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Sun, Yeqing; Zhao, Qian; Han, Lu

    2016-07-01

    Highly ionizing radiation (HZE) in space is considered as main factor causing biological effects. Radiobiological studies during space flights are unrepeatable due to the variable space radiation environment, ground-base ion radiations are usually performed to simulate of the space biological effect. Spaceflights present a low-dose rate (0.1˜~0.3mGy/day) radiation environment inside aerocrafts while ground-base ion radiations present a much higher dose rate (100˜~500mGy/min). Whether ground-base ion radiation can reflect effects of space radiation is worth of evaluation. In this research, we compared the functional proteomic profiles of rice plants between on-ground simulated HZE particle radiation and spaceflight treatments. Three independent ground-base seed ionizing radiation experiments with different cumulative doses (dose range: 2˜~20000mGy) and different liner energy transfer (LET) values (13.3˜~500keV/μμm) and two independent seed spaceflight experiments onboard Chinese 20th satellite and SZ-6 spacecraft were carried out. Alterations in the proteome were analyzed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry identifications. 45 and 59 proteins showed significant (pmetabolic process, protein folding and phosphorylation. The results implied that ground-base radiations cannot truly reflect effects of spaceflight radiations, ground-base radiation was a kind of indirect effect to rice causing oxidation and metabolism stresses, but space radiation was a kind of direct effect leading to macromolecule (DNA and protein) damage and signal pathway disorders. This functional proteomic analysis work might provide a new evaluation method for further on-ground simulated HZE radiation experiments.

  13. Sputtering effect of low-energy ions on biological target: The analysis of sputtering product of urea and capsaicin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lili [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031 (China); Xu, Xue [Rice Research Institute, Anhui Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nongke South Road 40, Hefei 230031 (China); Wu, Yuejin, E-mail: yjwu@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-Engineering, Institute of Technical Biology and Agriculture Engineering of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2013-08-01

    Sputtering is a process whereby atoms are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles. Recent years, ion implantation was successfully applied to biological research based on the fragments sputtering and form open paths in cell structure caused by ion sputtering. In this study, we focused on urea and chilli pepper pericarp samples implanted with N{sup +} and Ar{sup +} ions. To investigate the sputtering effect, we designed a collecting unit containing a disk sample and a glass pipe. The urea content and capsaicin content recovered from glass pipes were adopted to represent the sputtering product. The result of urea showed that the sputtering effect is positively correlated with the ion energy and dose, also affected by the ion type. The result of capsaicin was different from that of urea at 20 keV and possibly due to biological complex composition and structure. Therefore the sputtering yield depended on both the parameters of incident ions and the state of target materials. The sputtering yield of urea was also simulated by computational method achieved through the TRIM program. The trajectories of primary and recoiled atoms were calculated on the basis of the binary collision approximation using Monte Carlo method. The experimental results were much higher than the calculated results. The possible explanation is that in the physical model the target were assumed as a disordered lattice and independent atoms, which is much less complicated than that of the biological models.

  14. Sputtering effect of low-energy ions on biological target: The analysis of sputtering product of urea and capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Xu, Xue; Wu, Yuejin

    2013-08-01

    Sputtering is a process whereby atoms are ejected from a solid target material due to bombardment of the target by energetic particles. Recent years, ion implantation was successfully applied to biological research based on the fragments sputtering and form open paths in cell structure caused by ion sputtering. In this study, we focused on urea and chilli pepper pericarp samples implanted with N+ and Ar+ ions. To investigate the sputtering effect, we designed a collecting unit containing a disk sample and a glass pipe. The urea content and capsaicin content recovered from glass pipes were adopted to represent the sputtering product. The result of urea showed that the sputtering effect is positively correlated with the ion energy and dose, also affected by the ion type. The result of capsaicin was different from that of urea at 20 keV and possibly due to biological complex composition and structure. Therefore the sputtering yield depended on both the parameters of incident ions and the state of target materials. The sputtering yield of urea was also simulated by computational method achieved through the TRIM program. The trajectories of primary and recoiled atoms were calculated on the basis of the binary collision approximation using Monte Carlo method. The experimental results were much higher than the calculated results. The possible explanation is that in the physical model the target were assumed as a disordered lattice and independent atoms, which is much less complicated than that of the biological models.

  15. Adverse effects of biologics: a network meta-analysis and Cochrane overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, J. A.; Wells, G. A.; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2011-01-01

    Background Biologics are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and many other conditions. While the efficacy of biologics has been established, there is uncertainty regarding the adverse effects of this treatment. Since serious risks such as tuberculosis (TB) reactivation, serious...

  16. Gender Inequality in Biology Classes in China and Its Effects on Students' Short-Term Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated gender inequality in biology lessons and analysed the effects of the observed inequality on students' short-term knowledge achievement, situational interest and students' evaluation of teaching (SET). Twenty-two biology teachers and 803 7th-grade students from rural and urban classrooms in China participated in the study.…

  17. A Study of the Probe Effect on the Apparent Image of Biological Atomic Force Microscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The probe effect on the apparent image of biological atomic force microscopy was explored in this study, and the potential of AFM in conformational study of gene related biological processes was illustrated by the specific nanostructural information of a new antitumor drug binding to DNA.

  18. Indirect ecological effects in invaded landscapes: Spillover and spillback from biological control agents to native analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control remains an effective option for managing large-scale weed problems in natural areas. The predation or parasitism of biological control agents by other species present in the introduced range (biotic resistance) is well studied and is often cited as the cause for a lack of establis...

  19. Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    TITLE: Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jianghua Wang, M.D...6 JAN 2009 / / /4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biological Effects of TMPRSS2/ERG Fusion Isoforms in Human Prostate Cancer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH...quantitative RT-PCR arrays we have identified candidate mediators of these phenotypic effects . We propose to extend these studies to primary prostate epithelial

  20. Integrated Network Analysis and Effective Tools in Plant Systems Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eFukushima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the ultimate goals in plant systems biology is to elucidate the genotype-phenotype relationship in plant cellular systems. Integrated network analysis that combines omics data with mathematical models has received particular attention. Here we focus on the latest cutting-edge computational advances that facilitate their combination. We highlight (1 network visualization tools, (2 pathway analyses, (3 genome-scale metabolic reconstruction, and (4 the integration of high-throughput experimental data and mathematical models. Multi-omics data that contain the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome and mathematical models are expected to integrate and expand our knowledge of complex plant metabolisms.

  1. Biological influences on hydrogen effects in steel in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edyvean, R.G.J.; Benson, J.; Thomas, C.J. [Univ. of Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical and Process Engineering; Beech, I.B. [Univ. of Portsmouth (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Videla, H.A. [Univ. of La Plata (Argentina). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-08-01

    Conditions conducive to the enhancement of corrosion-fatigue crack growth and of hydrogen embrittlement can be generated by the activity of sulfate-reducing bacterial. However, while the presence of bacteria encourages more hydrogen entry into susceptible metals when compared to similar levels of sulfide generated abiotically, corrosion-fatigue crack growth rates are slower in biological environments than the equivalent abiological environment. These results are discussed in the light of recent findings on the enhancement and inhibition of surface corrosion by bacterial biofilms.

  2. Dspp-independent Effects of Transgenic Trps1 Overexpression on Dentin Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, C G; Kuzynski, M; Zhang, H; Jani, P; Qin, C; Napierala, D

    2015-08-01

    The Trps1 transcription factor is highly expressed in dental mesenchyme and preodontoblasts, while in mature, secretory odontoblasts, it is expressed at low levels. Previously, we have shown that high Trps1 levels in mature odontoblasts impair their function in vitro and in vivo. Col1a1-Trps1 transgenic (Trps1-Tg) mice demonstrate defective dentin secretion and mineralization, which are associated with significantly decreased Dspp expression due to direct repression of the Dspp gene by Trps1. Here, by crossing Trps1-Tg and Col1a1-Dspp transgenic (Dspp-Tg) mice, we generated Col1a1-Trps1;Col1a1-Dspp double transgenic (double-Tg) mice in which Dspp was restored in odontoblasts overexpressing Trps1. Comparative micro-computed tomography analyses revealed partial correction of the dentin volume and no improvement of dentin mineralization in double transgenic mice in comparison with Trps1-Tg and wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, dentin of double-Tg mice has an irregular mineralization pattern characteristic for dentin in hypophosphatemic rickets. Consistent with this phenotype, decreased levels of Phex, Vdr, and Fam20c proteins are detected in both Trps1-Tg and double-Tg odontoblasts in comparison with WT and Dspp-Tg odontoblasts. This suggests that the Dspp-independent dentin mineralization defects in Trps1-Tg mice are a result of downregulation of a group of proteins critical for mineral deposition within the dentin matrix. In summary, by demonstrating that Trps1 functions as a repressor of later stages of dentinogenesis, we provide functional significance of the dynamic Trps1 expression pattern during dentinogenesis.

  3. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  4. Effects of locality based community hospital care on independence in older people needing rehabilitation: randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, John; Young, John; Forster, Anne; Mallinder, Karen; Bogle, Sue; Lowson, Karin; Small, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects on independence in older people needing rehabilitation in a locality based community hospital compared with care on a ward for elderly people in a district general hospital. Design Randomised controlled trial. Setting Care in a community hospital and district general hospital in Bradford, England. Participants 220 patients needing rehabilitation after an acute illness that required hospital admission. Interventions Patients were randomly allocated to a locality based community hospital or to remain within a department for the care of elderly people in a district general hospital. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were Nottingham extended activities of daily living scale and general health questionnaire 28 (carer). Secondary outcomes were activities of daily living (Barthel index), Nottingham health profile, hospital anxiety and depression scale, mortality, destination after discharge, satisfaction with services, carer strain index, and carer's satisfaction with services. Results The median length of stay was 15 days for both the community hospital and the district general hospital groups (interquartile range: community hospital 9-25 days; district general hospital 9-24 days). Independence at six months was greater in the community hospital group (adjusted mean difference 5.30, 95% confidence interval 0.64 to 9.96). Results for the secondary outcome measures, including care satisfaction and measures of carer burden, were similar for both groups. Conclusions Care in a locality based community hospital is associated with greater independence for older people than care in wards for elderly people in a district general hospital. PMID:15994660

  5. The effects of formalism on teacher trainees' algebraic and geometric interpretation of the notions of linear dependency/independency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, E.; Solak, S.; Yazici, E.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the effects of formalism in teaching on primary and secondary school mathematics teacher trainees' algebraic and geometric interpretations of the notions of linear dependency/independency. Quantitative research methods are drawn in order to determine differences in success levels between algebraic and geometric interpretations of the linear dependency/independency of vectors presented in two- and three-dimensional space. On the other hand, qualitative research methods were utilized in order to investigate thinking modes involved in the geometric interpretation of the same notion. The participants were a total of 144 teacher trainees registered at the Selçuk University, Education Faculty in 2007-2008 academic year. 33 participants were first year students at Secondary Mathematics Education Department, while 111 were second year students at Primary Mathematics Education Department. The results indicated that correlations between the formal definition of the notions of linear dependency/independency and the items of the test which required algebraic and geometric interpretation were both low. Yet, the correlation for the algebraic dimension of the test was higher than the geometric dimension. Likewise, algebraic mean success score was significantly higher than the geometric mean score.

  6. Cholesterol-independent effects of methyl-β-cyclodextrin on chemical synapses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiel G Ormerod

    Full Text Available The cholesterol chelating agent, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD, alters synaptic function in many systems. At crayfish neuromuscular junctions, MβCD is reported to reduce excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs by impairing impulse propagation to synaptic terminals, and to have no postsynaptic effects. We examined the degree to which physiological effects of MβCD correlate with its ability to reduce cholesterol, and used thermal acclimatization as an alternative method to modify cholesterol levels. MβCD impaired impulse propagation and decreased EJP amplitude by 40% (P<0.05 in preparations from crayfish acclimatized to 14 °C but not from those acclimatized to 21 °C. The reduction in EJP amplitude in the cold-acclimatized group was associated with a 49% reduction in quantal content (P<0.05. MβCD had no effect on input resistance in muscle fibers but decreased sensitivity to the neurotransmitter L-glutamate in both warm- and cold-acclimatized groups. This effect was less pronounced and reversible in the warm-acclimatized group (90% reduction in cold, P<0.05; 50% reduction in warm, P<0.05. MβCD reduced cholesterol in isolated nerve and muscle from cold- and warm-acclimatized groups by comparable amounts (nerve: 29% cold, 25% warm; muscle: 20% cold, 18% warm; P<0.05. This effect was reversed by cholesterol loading, but only in the warm-acclimatized group. Thus, effects of MβCD on glutamate-sensitivity correlated with its ability to reduce cholesterol, but effects on impulse propagation and resulting EJP amplitude did not. Our results indicate that MβCD can affect both presynaptic and postsynaptic properties, and that some effects of MβCD are unrelated to cholesterol chelation.

  7. Caspase-3-independent pathways proceeding in bystander effect of HSV-tk/GCV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Juqiang; Ma, Yan; Zeng, Shaoqun; Zhang, Zhihong

    2008-02-01

    HSV-tk/GCV system, which is the virus-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy of herpes simplex virus (HSV) thymidine kinase (tk) gene / the anti-viral reagent ganciclovir (GCV), is one of the promising approaches in the rapidly growing area of gene therapy. As gene therapy of cancer such as suicide gene therapy has entered the clinic, another therapy effect which is called 'bystander effect' was reported. Bystander effect can lead to killing of non-transduced tumor cells in the immediate vicinity of GCV-treated HSV-TK-positive cells. Now the magnitude of 'bystander effect' is an essential factor for this anti-tumor approach in vivo. However, the mechanism which HSV-tk/ACV brings "bystander effect" is poorly understood. In this study, we monitor the activation of caspase-3 in HSV-tk/GCV system by a FRET probe CD3, a FRET-based indicator for activity of caspase3, which is composed of an enhanced cyan fluorescent protein, a caspase-sensitive linker, and a red fluorescent protein from Discosoma with efficient maturation property. Through application of CD3 we have visualized the activation of caspase-3 in tk gene positive human adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC-M) cells but not in bystander effect of HSV-tk/GCV system induced by GCV. This finding provides needed information for understanding the mechanisms by which suicide gene approaches actually kill cancer cells, and may prove to be helpful for the clinical treatment of cancers.

  8. Geranylated 4-Phenylcoumarins Exhibit Anticancer Effects against Human Prostate Cancer Cells through Caspase-Independent Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Shahirah Suparji

    Full Text Available Geranylated 4-phenylcoumarins, DMDP-1 & -2 isolated from Mesua elegans were investigated for anticancer potential against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with DMDP-1 & -2 resulted in cell death in a time and dose dependent manner in an MTT assay on all cancer cell lines tested with the exception of lung adenocarcinoma cells. DMDP-1 showed highest cytotoxic efficacy in PC-3 cells while DMDP-2 was most potent in DU 145 cells. Flow cytometry indicated that both coumarins were successful to induce programmed cell death after 24 h treatment. Elucidation on the mode-of-action via protein arrays and western blotting demonstrated death induced without any significant expressions of caspases, Bcl-2 family proteins and cleaved PARP, thus suggesting the involvement of caspase-independent pathways. In identifying autophagy, analysis of GFP-LC3 showed increased punctate in PC-3 cells pre-treated with CQ and treated with DMDP-1. In these cells decreased expression of autophagosome protein, p62 and cathepsin B further confirmed autophagy. In contrary, the DU 145 cells pre-treated with CQ and treated with DMDP-2 has reduced GFP-LC3 punctate although the number of cells with obvious GFP-LC3 puncta was significantly increased in the inhibitor-treated cells. The increase level of p62 suggested leakage of cathepsin B into the cytosol to trigger potential downstream death mediators. This correlated with increased expression of cathepsin B and reduced expression after treatment with its inhibitor, CA074. Also auto-degradation of calpain-2 upon treatment with DMDP-1 &-2 and its inhibitor alone, calpeptin compared with the combination treatment, further confirmed involvement of calpain-2 in PC-3 and DU 145 cells. Treatment with DMDP-1 & -2 also showed up-regulation of total and phosphorylated p53 levels in a time dependent manner. Hence, DMDP-1 & -2 showed ability to activate multiple death pathways involving autophagy, lysosomal and endoplasmic reticulum death

  9. Maternal filaggrin mutations increase the risk of atopic dermatitis in children: an effect independent of mutation inheritance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Esparza-Gordillo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that allergy risk is preferentially transmitted through mothers. This can be due to genomic imprinting, where the phenotype effect of an allele depends on its parental origin, or due to maternal effects reflecting the maternal genome's influence on the child during prenatal development. Loss-of-function mutations in the filaggrin gene (FLG cause skin barrier deficiency and strongly predispose to atopic dermatitis (AD. We investigated the 4 most prevalent European FLG mutations (c.2282del4, p.R501X, p.R2447X, and p.S3247X in two samples including 759 and 450 AD families. We used the multinomial and maximum-likelihood approach implemented in the PREMIM/EMIM tool to model parent-of-origin effects. Beyond the known role of FLG inheritance in AD (R1meta-analysis = 2.4, P = 1.0 x 10-36, we observed a strong maternal FLG genotype effect that was consistent in both independent family sets and for all 4 mutations analysed. Overall, children of FLG-carrier mothers had a 1.5-fold increased AD risk (S1 = 1.50, Pmeta-analysis = 8.4 x 10-8. Our data point to two independent and additive effects of FLG mutations: i carrying a mutation and ii having a mutation carrier mother. The maternal genotype effect was independent of mutation inheritance and can be seen as a non-genetic transmission of a genetic effect. The FLG maternal effect was observed only when mothers had allergic sensitization (elevated allergen-specific IgE antibody plasma levels, suggesting that FLG mutation-induced systemic immune responses in the mother may influence AD risk in the child. Notably, the maternal effect reported here was stronger than most common genetic risk factors for AD recently identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS. Our study highlights the power of family-based studies in the identification of new etiological mechanisms and reveals, for the first time, a direct influence of the maternal genotype on the offspring

  10. Biological effects of an impulse current according to laboratory researches of electroshock devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoryev О.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The federal law "About Weapons" permits the use of electroshock devices if they are safe for people. We developed requirements for the procedure medical-biological testing on the safety of electroshock devices. We did an experimental study assessing medical-biological safety of electroshock devices. The assessment is based on a point system, which use ranges of biological effects. The experiments were performed in rabbits. We used 13 electroshock devices with different characteristics. Electroshock devices were made in Russia. We found that the response of a biological object to inrush current included convulsions, respiratory and cardiac activity. We analyzed the biological effects of pulsed current electroshock device obtained in experimental conditions. It is concluded that the characteristic clinical and physiological response to the action of electric current is pulsepolyparametric and depending on a combination of characteristics and condition of the electric impulse influence object.

  11. The effect of a combined biological and thermo-mechanical pretreatment of wheat straw on energy yields in coupled ethanol and methane generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuretzbacher, Franz; Blomqvist, Johanna; Lizasoain, Javier; Klietz, Lena; Potthast, Antje; Horn, Svein Jarle; Nilsen, Paal J; Gronauer, Andreas; Passoth, Volkmar; Bauer, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Ethanol and biogas are energy carriers that could contribute to a future energy system independent of fossil fuels. Straw is a favorable bioenergy substrate as it does not compete with food or feed production. As straw is very resistant to microbial degradation, it requires a pretreatment to insure efficient conversion to ethanol and/or methane. This study investigates the effect of combining biological pretreatment and steam explosion on ethanol and methane yields in order to improve the coupled generation process. Results show that the temperature of the steam explosion pretreatment has a particularly strong effect on possible ethanol yields, whereas combination with the biological pretreatment showed no difference in overall energy yield. The highest overall energy output was found to be 10.86 MJ kg VS(-1) using a combined biological and steam explosion pretreatment at a temperature of 200°C.

  12. Nitroglycerin reduces augmentation index and central blood pressure independent of effects on cardiac preload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mike; Saddon; Karen; McNeil; Philip; Chowienczyk

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reduction in central pressure augmentation and central systolic blood pressure by nitroglycerine (NTG) results from effects on pre-load or is due to arterial dilation. Methods We compared effects of NTG with those of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Hemodynamic measurements were made at rest,during LBNP (10,20 and 30 mmHg,each for 15 min) and after NTG (10,30 and 100 μg/min,each dose for 15 min) in ten healthy volunteers. Cardiac pre-load,stroke volume and cardiac output w...

  13. Perfusion-independent effect of bradykinin and fosinoprilate on glucose transport in Langendorff rat hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rett, K; Maerker, E; Renn, W; vanGilst, W; Haering, HU

    1997-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor-stimulated glucose metabolism and perfusion in muscle tissue seem to be, at least in part, mediated by kinins. However, the relative contribution of direct metabolic or secondary hemodynamically induced effects is unclear, It was the aim of this study to

  14. Anti-aggressive effects of neuropeptide S independent of anxiolysis in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela I Beiderbeck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide S (NPS exerts robust anxiolytic and memory enhancing effects, but only in a non-social context. In order to study whether NPS affects aggressive behavior we used Wistar rats bred for low (LAB and high (HAB levels of innate anxiety-related behaviour, respectively, which were both described to display increased levels of aggression compared with Wistar rats not selectively bred for anxiety (NAB. Male LAB, HAB and NAB rats were tested for aggressive behavior towards a male intruder rat within their home cage (10 min, resident-intruder [RI] test. Intracerebroventricular (icv infusion of NPS (1 nmol significantly reduced inter-male aggression in LAB rats, and tended to reduce aggression in HAB and NAB males. However, local infusion of NPS (0.2 or 0.1 nmol NPS into either the nucleus accumbens or the lateral hypothalamus did not influence aggressive behavior. Social investigation in the RI test and general social motivation assessed in the social preference paradigm were not altered by icv NPS. The anti-aggressive effect of NPS is most likely not causally linked to its anxiolytic properties, as intraperitoneal administration of the anxiogenic drug pentylenetetrazole decreased aggression in LAB rats whereas the anxiolytic drug diazepam did not affect aggression of HAB rats. Thus, although NPS has so far only been shown to exert effects on non-social behaviors, our results are the first demonstration of anti-aggressive effects of NPS in male rats.

  15. The effect of carotid sinus massage is independent of posture in patients with heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Hansen, K N; Oxhøj, H

    1989-01-01

    The influence of posture on the effect of carotid sinus massage (CSM) in patients with heart disease has not been systematically evaluated. In the present study CSM was performed in 80 patients (mean age 55 +/- 10 (SD) years) suffering from various cardiovascular diseases. Each subject had...

  16. Independent variations of plant and soil mixtures reveal soil feedback effects on plant community overyielding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.; Mommer, L.; Caluwe, de H.; Smit-Tiekstra, A.E.; Putten, van der W.H.; Kroon, de H.

    2013-01-01

    1. Recent studies have shown that the positive relationship between plant diversity and plant biomass ('overyielding') can be explained by soil pathogens depressing productivity more in low than in high diverse plant communities. However, tests of such soil effects in field studies were constrained

  17. Independent variations of plant and soil mixtures reveal soil feedback effects on plant community overyielding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.; Mommer, L.; De Caluwe, H.; Smit-Tiekstra, A.E.; Van der Putten, W.H.; De Kroon, H.

    2013-01-01

    * Recent studies have shown that the positive relationship between plant diversity and plant biomass (‘overyielding’) can be explained by soil pathogens depressing productivity more in low than in high diverse plant communities. However, tests of such soil effects in field studies were constrained b

  18. Effects of Oxidative Stress on Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells present in most fetal and adult tissues. Ex vivo culture-expanded MSCs are being investigated for tissue repair and immune modulation, but their full clinical potential is far from realization. Here we review the role of oxidative stress in MSC biology, as their longevity and functions are affected by oxidative stress. In general, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibit MSC proliferation, increase senescence, enhance adipogenic but reduce osteogenic differentiation, and inhibit MSC immunomodulation. Furthermore, aging, senescence, and oxidative stress reduce their ex vivo expansion, which is critical for their clinical applications. Modulation of sirtuin expression and activity may represent a method to reduce oxidative stress in MSCs. These findings have important implications in the clinical utility of MSCs for degenerative and immunological based conditions. Further study of oxidative stress in MSCs is imperative in order to enhance MSC ex vivo expansion and in vivo engraftment, function, and longevity. PMID:27413419

  19. Biological methanogenesis and the CO2 greenhouse effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well established that plants tend to increase net photosynthesis under increased carbon dioxide. It is also well established that a large fraction of atmospheric methane is produced by microbial metabolism of organic sediments in paddies and freshwater wetlands, where a major source of organic debris is local plant growth. As CO2 increases, it may lead to increased methane production and a resulting enhancement of the expected greenhouse warming. A rough estimate of the present rate of this biologically mediated feedback on the climate system indicates that it might account for as much as 30 percent of the observed methane increase and speed up the greenhouse forcing by as much as 15 percent.

  20. The Effectiveness of a Parent Education Programme Offered Through Distance Education About Independent Autistic Children Education Centre (IACEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze YUCEL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a parent education program on parents’ awareness about the Independent Autistic Children Education Centre (ACEC: in Turkish OCEM. The program was offered through a distance education program. Participants of the study included parents of 72 children with autism who were receiving education in one of the ACEC in Istanbul. The study was carried out during 2005-2006 school year. The research study was experimental including a pre and a post-test to determine the effectiveness of the program. The Parent Education Program included five VCDs, each of which incorporated about 20 minute-presentation on various topics about Autism and the ACEC, and five handbooks. Participants in experimental and control groups were randomly assigned. The experimental group took a five-week training while the control group did not receive any training. Data were gathered by ACEC Knowledge Test developed by the researchers. The results indicated that significant differences were found between pre-and post-test scores of the experimental group. The findings showed that parent education programme offered through the distance education about Independent Autistic Children Education Centre was significantly effective. .

  1. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Goncharov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA. The adrenal glands of other species, including rats and mice do not synthesize DHEA. At the same time, in certain brain structures not only in man and monkey, but also in other animals DHEA and its precursors are synthesized de novo which are denoted as neurosteroids. It was demonstrated that Purkinje cells which play an important role in memory formation and learning are mainly place neurosteroid formation in mammals and other vertebrates. To establish the relationship of age and the level of DHEA and other steroids we studied the dynamics of their levels at different periods of postnatal development of people. Peak concentration DHEA observed in aged 25–30 years. In the interval from 20 to 90 years in humans the level falls approximately for 90 %. Cortisol levels in blood does not vary with age, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of cortisol/DHEA. Proved a major role of DHEA as a source (precursor for the synthesis of biologically active sex steroids – testosterone, estradiol and estrone in peripheral tissues. This review presents the bioavailability of DHEA in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. In animal experiments has shown a higher bioavailability of DHEA in transdermal administration as compared with oral administration as in this case there is no steroid rapid inactivation in the liver during its first passage. According to recent studies there is a pronounced dependence of bioavailability of DHEA

  2. Dehydroepiandrosterone biosynthesis, metabolism, biological effects, and clinical use (analytical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Goncharov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the fundamental information on the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, its biological role and possibilities of its use for replacement therapy. There were studied species differences in the synthesis of DHEA in the adrenal cortex. It was found that DHEA and DHEA-sulfate are produced only by the adrenal glands of humans and monkeys, including lower monkeys. Their biosynthesis involves the following steps: cholesterol → pregnenolone → 17-hydroxypregnenolone → DHEA. The adrenal glands of other species, including rats and mice do not synthesize DHEA. At the same time, in certain brain structures not only in man and monkey, but also in other animals DHEA and its precursors are synthesized de novo which are denoted as neurosteroids. It was demonstrated that Purkinje cells which play an important role in memory formation and learning are mainly place neurosteroid formation in mammals and other vertebrates. To establish the relationship of age and the level of DHEA and other steroids we studied the dynamics of their levels at different periods of postnatal development of people. Peak concentration DHEA observed in aged 25–30 years. In the interval from 20 to 90 years in humans the level falls approximately for 90 %. Cortisol levels in blood does not vary with age, leading to an imbalance in the ratio of cortisol/DHEA. Proved a major role of DHEA as a source (precursor for the synthesis of biologically active sex steroids – testosterone, estradiol and estrone in peripheral tissues. This review presents the bioavailability of DHEA in various physiological and pathological processes in humans and animals. In animal experiments has shown a higher bioavailability of DHEA in transdermal administration as compared with oral administration as in this case there is no steroid rapid inactivation in the liver during its first passage. According to recent studies there is a pronounced dependence of bioavailability of DHEA

  3. Sequestration of mitochondrial iron by silica particles initiates a biological effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary Inhalation of particulate matter has presented a challenge to human health for thousands of years. The underlying mechanism for biological effect following particle exposure is incompletely understood. We tested the postulate that particle sequestration of cell and mit...

  4. Biological effects of brachytherapy using a {sup 32}P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgueiro, M.J. [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 Piso Bajo, 1113-Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: jsalgueiro@ffyb.uba.ar; Collia, N. [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 Piso Bajo, 1113-Buenos Aires (Argentina); Duran, H. [CONICET, San Martin (Argentina); School of Science and Technology, University of San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Radiobiology Department, National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Palmieri, M. [CONICET, San Martin (Argentina); Biodiversity and Experimental Biology Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); School of Science and Technology, University of San Martin, San Martin (Argentina); Medina, V. [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 Piso Bajo, 1113-Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ughetti, R.; Nicolini, J. [Research and Development Department, Laboratorios Bacon SAIC, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zubillaga, M. [Radioisotope Laboratory, School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Junin 956 Piso Bajo, 1113-Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    In recent years, specially designed patches containing beta emitters have been developed for contact brachytherapy of skin lesions. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the biological effects of the {sup 32}P-patch on the skin of Sencar mice as a result of a brachytherapy treatment. For this purpose, a {sup 32}P-patch was prepared with Chromic {sup 32}P-phosphate and silicone and the classical model of two-stage skin carcinogenesis was reproduced in Sencar mice. Animals were divided in six groups. Four groups received the contact brachytherapy treatments using a scheme of a single session of 40 and 60 Gy (SD40 and SD60) and a scheme of two sessions of 40 and 60 Gy each (FD40 and FD60). The other two groups were used as controls of the single (CSD) and the fractionated (CFD) treatments. Radiation doses were estimated with equations derived from the MIRD DOSE scheme, and biologically effective doses (BED) were calculated according to equations derived from the linear-quadratic model. The endpoint to evaluate the treatments effects was tumor size after a follow-up period of 44 days. Finally, animals were sacrificed in order to get samples of all tumors for histological analysis and PCNA staining. Erythema, dermatitis and skin ulceration developed in almost all treated animals, but they gradually healed with regeneration of tissue during the follow-up period. Radiation effects on the skin of SD40, SD60, FD40 and FD60 showed a significant reduction of the tumor size with regard to controls, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. PCNA staining scores of control groups were higher than for treated groups, independently of the scheme and the radiation dose considered. This radioactive {sup 32}P-silicone-patch which is easy to prepare and use in the treatment of skin diseases, seems promising as a radioactive device for clinical use.

  5. Effect of peptide assay library size and composition in targeted data-independent acquisition-MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah J; Venkatraman, Vidya; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2016-08-01

    The quantification of peptides using targeted analysis of data-independent acquisition MS (DIA-MS) is dependent on the size and characteristics of the assay library. We addressed several important questions on how library composition influences: (1) the number of peptides extracted from DIA-MS datasets, (2) the quality of these peptides and proteins, and (3) the biological conclusions inferred. To answer these questions we constructed five libraries from mouse vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) lysate, each unique in depth, input sample complexity, data acquisition mode (DDA-MS or DIA-MS), and precursor fragmentation mode (TOF-CID or Orbitrap HCD) and extracted them against the same eight DIA-MS files of VSMCs treated with vehicle or transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β1). We found that along with differences in peptide and protein composition, the fragments representing a given peptide differed between the libraries. Collectively these differences impacted both peak group score profile and protein abundance estimates. Surprisingly, there was little overlap in the TGF-β1 response proteome between libraries. We conclude that additional work is needed to optimize peptide assay library building for DIA-MS applications, particularly in terms of selecting optimal peptides and their respective fragments for protein quantification.

  6. Endothelium-dependent and independent vasorelaxant effects of aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens Lin. leaf in rat aortic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahdeen, Hussein M; Idowu, Gbolahan O; Murtala, Babatunde A

    2012-12-01

    Tridax procumbens leaf extract induced aortic relaxation in a concentration-dependent manner, for both phenylephrine (PE) and KCl- induced contractions in isolated rat aortic rings. The relaxation effect of the extract on PE-induced contraction was 57% greater than that on KCl- induced contraction. The extract caused dose-dependent relaxations in precontracted isolated rat aorta with phenylephrine; the relaxation was attenuated by the removal of endothelium. However, the relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside were not significantly abolished by the removal of endothelium. The vasorelaxatory effect of the extract was completely abolished in presence of L-NAME. The results indicate that the vasorelaxant effect of T. procumbens extract is probably mediated by both endothelium-dependent and-independent mechanisms.

  7. Glyphosate accumulation, translocation, and biological effects in Coffea arabica after single and multiple exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrübbers, Lars Christoph; Valverde, Bernal E.; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2016-01-01

    . In this study, we investigated glyphosate translocation over time, and its concentration and biological effects after single and multiple simulated spray-drift exposures. Additionally, shikimic acid/glyphosate ratios were used as biomarkers for glyphosate binding to its target enzyme.Four weeks after...... of application, however, was more important regarding biological effects than the number of applications both in the greenhouse and in the field. In the field, berry yield, the most important biological response variable, was reduced 26% by the first out of four sequential applications of glyphosate at 64 g a...

  8. Nitroglycerin reduces augmentation index and central blood pressure independent of effects on cardiac preload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-min Liu; Xiao-lin Niu; Ben-yu Jiang; Mike Saddon; Karen McNeil; Philip Chowienczyk

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reduction In central pressure augmentation and central systolic blood pressure by nitroglycerine (NTG) results from effects on pre-lead or is due to arterial dilation. Methods We compared effects of NTG with these of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Hemodyunmic measurements were made at rest, during LBNP (10, 20 and 30 mmHg, each for 15 min) and after NTG (10, 30 and 100μg/min, each dose for 15 min) in ten healthy volunteers. Cardiac pre-lead, stroke volume and cardiac output were assessed by echacardiography. Central pressure an mnentation and central systolic pressure were obtained by radial tonometry using a transfer function. Results LBNP (20 mmHg) and NTG (30μg/min) reduced pre-lead (as measured by the peak velocity of the S wave in the superior vena eava) to a similar degree [by (26. 8 ± 3.8) % and (23.9 ± 3. 4) %, respectively]. Compared to LBNP, NTG reduced systemic vascular resistance [by (32. 9 ± 7.5) %, p< 0. 01], decreased peripheral and central pressure augmentation [by (20. 8 ± 3. 4)% units and (12. 9±2. 9)% units, respectively, each P< 0. 01]. Conclusion These results suggest that a reduction in pre-load does not explain reduction in pressure augmentation and central systolic blood pressure by NTG and that these effects are mediated through arterial dilation.

  9. Professional development strategies for teaching urban biology teachers to use concept maps effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor Petgrave, Dahlia M.

    Many teachers are not adequately prepared to help urban students who have trouble understanding conceptual ideas in biology because these students have little connection to the natural world. This study explored potential professional development strategies to help urban biology teachers use concept maps effectively with various topics in the biology curriculum. A grounded theory approach was used to develop a substantive professional development model for urban biology teachers. Qualitative data were collected through 16 semi-structured interviews of professional developers experienced in working with concept maps in the urban context. An anonymous online survey was used to collect quantitative data from 56 professional developers and teachers to support the qualitative data. The participants were from New York City, recruited through the NY Biology-Chemistry Professional Development Mentor Network and the NY Biology Teachers' Association. According to the participants, map construction, classroom applications, lesson planning, action research, follow-up workshops, and the creation of learning communities are the most effective professional development strategies. The interviewees also proposed English language learning strategies such as picture maps, native word maps, and content reading materials with underlined words. This study contributes to social change by providing a professional development model to use in planning workshops for urban teachers. Urban teachers improve their own conceptual understanding of biology while learning how to implement concept mapping strategies in the classroom. Students whose teachers are better prepared to teach biology in a conceptual manner have the potential of growing into more scientifically literate citizens.

  10. Order Effects of Learning with Modeling and Simulation Software on Field-Dependent and Field-Independent Children's Cognitive Performance: An Interaction Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Charoula; Valanides, Nicos; Polemitou, Eirini; Fraggoulidou, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the interaction between field dependence-independence (FD/I) and learning with modeling software and simulations, and their effect on children's performance. Participants were randomly assigned into two groups. Group A first learned with a modeling tool and then with simulations. Group B learned first with simulations and then…

  11. Bioaccumulation and biological effects in the earthworm Eisenia fetida exposed to natural and depleted uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanetti, Anna, E-mail: anna.giovanetti@enea.i [ENEA, Institute of Radiation Protection, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Cozzella, Maria L. [ENEA, National Institute for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation, CR Casaccia Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); Asencio, Lisbet D. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales, Carretera a Castillo de Jagua, CP. 59350 C. Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2010-06-15

    The accumulations of both natural (U) and depleted (DU) uranium in the earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were studied to evaluate corresponding biological effects. Concentrations of metals in the experimental soil ranged from 1.86 to 600 mg kg{sup -1}. Five biological endpoints: mortality, animals' weight increasing, lysosomal membrane stability by measuring the neutral red retention time (the NRRT), histological changes and genetic effects (Comet assay) were used to evaluate biological effects in the earthworms after 7 and 28 days of exposure. No effects have been observed in terms of mortality or weight reduction. Cytotoxic and genetic effects were identified at quite low U concentrations. For some of these endpoints, in particular for genetic effects, the dose (U concentration)-effect relationships have been found to be non-linear. The results have also shown a statistically significant higher level of impact on the earthworms exposed to natural U compared to depleted U.

  12. Model independent result on possible diurnal effect in DAMA/LIBRA-phase1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabei, R.; D' Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A. [Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipt. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Belli, P. [INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Cappella, F.; D' Angelo, A.; Prosperi, D. [Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipt. di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN, Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Caracciolo, V.; Castellano, S.; Cerulli, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Dai, C.J.; He, H.L.; Kuang, H.H.; Ma, X.H.; Sheng, X.D.; Wang, R.G. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); Incicchitti, A. [INFN, Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Montecchia, F. [INFN, Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipt. di Ingegneria Civile e Ingegneria Informatica, Rome (Italy); Ye, Z.P. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China); University of Jing Gangshan, Jiangxi (China)

    2014-03-15

    The results obtained in the search for possible diurnal effect in the single-hit low energy data collected by DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 (total exposure 1.04 ton x year) deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the INFN are presented. At the present level of sensitivity the presence of any significant diurnal variation and of diurnal time structures in the data can be excluded for both the cases of solar and sidereal time. In particular, the diurnal modulation amplitude expected, because of the Earth diurnal motion, on the basis of the DAMA dark matter annual modulation results is below the present sensitivity. (orig.)

  13. Independent Effects of a Herbivore’s Bacterial Symbionts on Its Performance and Induced Plant Defences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, Heike; Schimmel, Bernardus C. J.; Lamers, Mart M.; Wybouw, Nicky; Groot, Astrid T.; Kant, Merijn R.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that microbial pathogens and herbivores elicit defence responses in plants. Moreover, microorganisms associated with herbivores, such as bacteria or viruses, can modulate the plant’s response to herbivores. Herbivorous spider mites can harbour different species of bacterial symbionts and exert a broad range of effects on host-plant defences. Hence, we tested the extent to which such symbionts affect the plant’s defences induced by their mite host and assessed if this translates into changes in plant resistance. We assessed the bacterial communities of two strains of the common mite pest Tetranychus urticae. We found that these strains harboured distinct symbiotic bacteria and removed these using antibiotics. Subsequently, we tested to which extent mites with and without symbiotic bacteria induce plant defences in terms of phytohormone accumulation and defence gene expression, and assessed mite oviposition and survival as a measure for plant resistance. We observed that the absence/presence of these bacteria altered distinct plant defence parameters and affected mite performance but we did not find indications for a causal link between the two. We argue that although bacteria-related effects on host-induced plant defences may occur, these do not necessarily affect plant resistance concomitantly. PMID:28106771

  14. III. Biological effects of radiation from external and internal sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, R.S.

    1948-05-24

    This report focuses on the hemotological effects of total body irradiation from external and internal sources observed in patients treated for arthritis with radioactive phosphorus administered intravenously.

  15. Soil degradation effect on biological activity in Mediterranean calcareous soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Alcover-Sáez, S.; Mormeneo, S.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Soil degradation processes include erosion, organic matter decline, compaction, salinization, landslides, contamination, sealing and biodiversity decline. In the Mediterranean region the climatological and lithological conditions, together with relief on the landscape and anthropological activity are responsible for increasing desertification process. It is therefore considered to be extreme importance to be able to measure soil degradation quantitatively. We studied soil characteristics, microbiological and biochemical parameters in different calcareous soil sequences from Valencia Community (Easter Spain), in an attempt to assess the suitability of the parameters measured to reflect the state of soil degradation and the possibility of using the parameters to assess microbiological decline and soil quality. For this purpose, forest, scrubland and agricultural soil in three soil sequences were sampled in different areas. Several sensors of the soil biochemistry and microbiology related with total organic carbon, microbial biomass carbon, soil respiration, microorganism number and enzyme activities were determined. The results show that, except microorganism number, these parameters are good indicators of a soil biological activity and soil quality. The best enzymatic activities to use like indicators were phosphatases, esterases, amino-peptidases. Thus, the enzymes test can be used as indicators of soil degradation when this degradation is related with organic matter losses. There was a statistically significant difference in cumulative O2 uptake and extracellular enzymes among the soils with different degree of degradation. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for funding and support (MICINN, project CGL2006-09776).

  16. Flow-mediated dilatation has no independent prognostic effect in patients with chest pain with or without ischaemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulriksen, Line Skjold; Malmqvist, Beata B; Hansen, Are;

    2009-01-01

    had significantly lower FMD than patients without IHD (p=0.002). During a mean follow-up of 4.2 years, 90 patients had an endpoint event, i.e. cardiovascular death, acute MI, unstable angina pectoris, PCI or CABG. In univariate analysis, FMD ...OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic effect of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in patients with chest pain admitted to a coronary care unit. METHODS: Endothelium-dependent FMD in the brachial artery was examined in 223 patients with acute chest pain. All patients...... endpoint (p=0.04). In multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, IHD and body mass index, no association between FMD and the combined endpoint was found (p=0.99). CONCLUSION: FMD is associated with IHD, but has no independent prognostic effect in patients with chest pain....

  17. Fabrication and independent control of patterned polymer gate for a few-layer WSe2 field-effect transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ju Hong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of a patterned polymer electrolyte for a two-dimensional (2D semiconductor, few-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe2 field-effect transistor (FET. We expose an electron-beam in a desirable region to form the patterned structure. The WSe2 FET acts as a p-type semiconductor in both bare and polymer-covered devices. We observe a highly efficient gating effect in the polymer-patterned device with independent gate control. The patterned polymer gate operates successfully in a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 FET, indicating the potential for general applications to 2D semiconductors. The results of this study can contribute to large-scale integration and better flexibility in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD-based electronics.

  18. Development of a Cost-Effective Solar/Diesel Independent Power Plant for a Remote Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeolu Samuel Omogoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the design, simulation, and optimization of a solar/diesel hybrid power supply system for a remote station. The design involves determination of the station total energy demand as well as obtaining the station solar radiation data. This information was used to size the components of the hybrid power supply system (HPSS and to determine its configuration. Specifically, an appropriate software package, HOMER, was used to determine the number of solar panels, deep-cycle batteries, and rating of the inverter that comprise the solar section of the HPSS. A suitable diesel generator was also selected for the HPSS after careful technical and cost analysis of those available in the market. The designed system was simulated using the HOMER software package and the simulation results were used to carry out the optimization of the system. The final design adequately meets the station energy requirement. Based on a life expectancy of twenty-five years, a cost-benefit analysis of the HPSS was carried out. This analysis shows that the HPSS has a lower cost as compared to a conventional diesel generator power supply, thus recommending the HPSS as a more cost-effective solution for this application.

  19. DXD Motif-Dependent and -Independent Effects of the Chlamydia trachomatis Cytotoxin CT166

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Bothe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative, intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute and chronic urogenital tract infection, potentially leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The only partially characterized cytotoxin CT166 of serovar D exhibits a DXD motif, which is important for the enzymatic activity of many bacterial and mammalian type A glycosyltransferases, leading to the hypothesis that CT166 possess glycosyltransferase activity. CT166-expressing HeLa cells exhibit actin reorganization, including cell rounding, which has been attributed to the inhibition of the Rho-GTPases Rac/Cdc42. Exploiting the glycosylation-sensitive Ras(27H5 antibody, we here show that CT166 induces an epitope change in Ras, resulting in inhibited ERK and PI3K signaling and delayed cell cycle progression. Consistent with the hypothesis that these effects strictly depend on the DXD motif, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif causes neither Ras-ERK inhibition nor delayed cell cycle progression. In contrast, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif is still capable of inhibiting cell migration, suggesting that CT166 with the mutated DXD motif cannot be regarded as inactive in any case. Taken together, CT166 affects various fundamental cellular processes, strongly suggesting its importance for the intracellular survival of chlamydia.

  20. DXD motif-dependent and -independent effects of the chlamydia trachomatis cytotoxin CT166.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Miriam; Dutow, Pavel; Pich, Andreas; Genth, Harald; Klos, Andreas

    2015-02-17

    The Gram-negative, intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis causes acute and chronic urogenital tract infection, potentially leading to infertility and ectopic pregnancy. The only partially characterized cytotoxin CT166 of serovar D exhibits a DXD motif, which is important for the enzymatic activity of many bacterial and mammalian type A glycosyltransferases, leading to the hypothesis that CT166 possess glycosyltransferase activity. CT166-expressing HeLa cells exhibit actin reorganization, including cell rounding, which has been attributed to the inhibition of the Rho-GTPases Rac/Cdc42. Exploiting the glycosylation-sensitive Ras(27H5) antibody, we here show that CT166 induces an epitope change in Ras, resulting in inhibited ERK and PI3K signaling and delayed cell cycle progression. Consistent with the hypothesis that these effects strictly depend on the DXD motif, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif causes neither Ras-ERK inhibition nor delayed cell cycle progression. In contrast, CT166 with the mutated DXD motif is still capable of inhibiting cell migration, suggesting that CT166 with the mutated DXD motif cannot be regarded as inactive in any case. Taken together, CT166 affects various fundamental cellular processes, strongly suggesting its importance for the intracellular survival of chlamydia.

  1. Psychological Effects towards Humans Living in the Environment Made of Biological Concrete in Malaysia at 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Talaiekhozani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In day-to-day life concrete become a compulsory material in the construction field as to make it a real concern among researchers for producing concrete with improved properties. Biological method is one of the new methods to improve concrete properties. Although, much research about biological concrete has been carried out, but till now nobody has not studied for the psychological effects of using a house or offices made up of biological concrete. The aim of this study is to investigate and find out the person's opinion about staying in a house or offices made up of biological concrete. In this study, a questionnaire containing eight questions was prepared and distributed among 21 persons in Malaysia University of Technology including students, academic and non-academic staffs among which few of them was an expert in the field of biological concrete and others did not have any knowledge about the bioconcrete. Finally, the results obtained from the questionnaires were analyzed. The results showed that 81% of participants in this study would like to stay in a house or office made up of biological concrete. However, 38% of participants believe that staying in a house or office made of biological concrete can cause health related problems. The current research paper can be considered significant for architects and civil engineers to have the insight to look into the psychological aspects of using biological concrete for various applications in the field of construction.

  2. BAK overexpression mediates p53-independent apoptosis inducing effects on human gastric cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jun

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BAK (Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer is a novel pro-apoptotic gene of the Bcl-2 family. It has been reported that gastric tumors have reduced BAK levels when compared with the normal mucosa. Moreover, mutations of the BAK gene have been identified in human gastrointestinal cancers, suggesting that a perturbation of BAK-mediated apoptosis may contribute to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. In this study, we explored the therapeutic effects of gene transfer mediated elevations in BAK expression on human gastric cancer cells in vitro. Methods Eukaryotic expression vector for the BAK gene was constructed and transferred into gastric cancer cell lines, MKN-45 (wild-type p53 and MKN-28 (mutant-type p53. RT-PCR and Western Blotting detected cellular BAK gene expression. Cell growth activities were detected by MTT colorimetry and flow cytometry, while apoptosis was assayed by electronic microscopy and TUNEL. Western Blotting and colorimetry investigated cellular caspase-3 activities. Results BAK gene transfer could result in significant BAK overexpression, decreased in vitro growth, cell cycle G0/G1 arrest, and induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In transferred cells, inactive caspase-3 precursor was cleaved into the active subunits p20 and p17, during BAK overexpression-induced apoptosis. In addition, this process occurred equally well in p53 wild-type (MKN-45, or in p53 mutant-type (MKN-28 gastric cancer cells. Conclusions The data presented suggests that overexpression of the BAK gene can lead to apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in vitro, which does not appear to be dependent on p53 status. The action mechanism of BAK mediated apoptosis correlates with activation of caspase-3. This could be served as a potential strategy for further development of gastric cancer therapies.

  3. MICROWAVE SYSTEM FOR RESEARCH BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON LABORATORY ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Kopylov, Alexei; Kruglik, Olga; Khlebopros, Rem

    2014-01-01

    This research is concerned with development of the microwave system for research the radiophysical microwave radiation effects on laboratory animals. The frequency was 1 GHz. The results obtained demonstrate the metabolic changes in mice under the electromagnetic field influence.

  4. MyD88-dependent and independent pathways of Toll-Like Receptors are engaged in biological activity of Triptolide in ligand-stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorn Ruth

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triptolide is a diterpene triepoxide from the Chinese medicinal plant Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F., with known anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and anti-cancer properties. Results Here we report the expression profile of immune signaling genes modulated by triptolide in LPS induced mouse macrophages. In an array study triptolide treatment modulated expression of 22.5% of one hundred and ninety five immune signaling genes that included Toll-like receptors (TLRs. TLRs elicit immune responses through their coupling with intracellular adaptor molecules, MyD88 and TRIF. Although it is known that triptolide inhibits NFκB activation and other signaling pathways downstream of TLRs, involvement of TLR cascade in triptolide activity was not reported. In this study, we show that triptolide suppresses expression of proinflammatory downstream effectors induced specifically by different TLR agonists. Also, the suppressive effect of triptolide on TLR-induced NFκB activation was observed when either MyD88 or TRIF was knocked out, confirming that both MyD88 and TRIF mediated NFκB activation may be inhibited by triptolide. Within the TLR cascade triptolide downregulates TLR4 and TRIF proteins. Conclusions This study reveals involvement of TLR signaling in triptolide activity and further increases understanding of how triptolide activity may downregulate NFκB activation during inflammatory conditions.

  5. A theoretical framework for biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens: Identifying effective strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Nik J; Gilligan, Christopher A

    2011-06-07

    We develop and analyse a flexible compartmental model of the interaction between a plant host, a soil-borne pathogen and a microbial antagonist, for use in optimising biological control. By extracting invasion and persistence thresholds of host, pathogen and biological control agent, performing an equilibrium analysis, and numerical investigation of sensitivity to parameters and initial conditions, we determine criteria for successful biological control. We identify conditions for biological control (i) to prevent a pathogen entering a system, (ii) to eradicate a pathogen that is already present and, if that is not possible, (iii) to reduce the density of the pathogen. Control depends upon the epidemiology of the pathogen and how efficiently the antagonist can colonise particular habitats (i.e. healthy tissue, infected tissue and/or soil-borne inoculum). A sharp transition between totally effective control (i.e. eradication of the pathogen) and totally ineffective control can follow slight changes in biologically interpretable parameters or to the initial amounts of pathogen and biological control agent present. Effective biological control requires careful matching of antagonists to pathosystems. For preventative/eradicative control, antagonists must colonise susceptible hosts. However, for reduction in disease prevalence, the range of habitat is less important than the antagonist's bulking-up efficiency.

  6. Effects of pico-to-nanometer-thin TiO2 coating on the biological properties of microroughened titanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Yoshihiko; Ishizaki, Ken; Iwasa, Fuminori; Ueno, Takeshi; Minamikawa, Hajime; Yamada, Masahiro; Suzuki, Takeo; Ogawa, Takahiro

    2011-11-01

    The independent, genuine role of surface chemistry in the biological properties of titanium is unknown. Although microtopography has been established as a standard surface feature in osseous titanium implants, unfavorable behavior and reactions of osteogenic cells are still observed on the surfaces. To further enhance the biological properties of microfeatured titanium surfaces, this study tested the hypotheses that (1) the surface chemistry of microroughened titanium surfaces can be controllably varied by coating with a very thin layer of TiO(2), without altering the existing topographical and roughness features; and (2) the change in the surface chemistry affects the biological properties of the titanium substrates. Using a slow-rate sputter deposition of molten TiO(2) nanoparticles, acid-etched microroughened titanium surfaces were coated with a TiO(2) layer of 300-pm to 6.3-nm thickness that increased the surface oxygen levels without altering the existing microtopography. The attachment, spreading behavior, and proliferation of osteoblasts, which are considered to be significantly impaired on microroughened surfaces compared with relatively smooth surfaces, were considerably increased on TiO(2)-coated microroughened surfaces. The rate of osteoblastic differentiation was represented by the increased levels of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineral deposition as well as by the upregulated expression of bone-related genes. These biological effects were exponentially correlated with the thickness of TiO(2) and surface oxygen percentage, implying that even a picometer-thin TiO(2) coating is effective in rapidly increasing the biological property of titanium followed by an additional mild increase or plateau induced by a nanometer-thick coating. These data suggest that a super-thin TiO(2) coating of pico-to-nanometer thickness enhances the biological properties of the proven microroughened titanium surfaces by controllably and exclusively modulating their surface

  7. Effect of solids retention time and wastewater characteristics on biological phosphorus removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens; Aspegren, H.; Jansen, J.l.C.

    2002-01-01

    The paper deals with the effect of wastewater, plant design and operation in relation to biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the possibilities to model the processes. Two Bio-P pilot plants were operated for 2.5 years in parallel receiving identical wastewater. The plants had SRT of 4...... with time which has importance in relation to modelling. The overall conclusion of the comparison between the two plants is that the biological phosphorus removal efficiency under practical operating conditions is affected by the SRT in the plant and the wastewater composition. Thus great care should...... in verification of models for Nitrogen and Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal....

  8. Table-like magnetocaloric effect in Gd56Ni15Al27Zr2 alloy and its field independence feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurgo Balfour, E.; Ma, Z.; Fu, H.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.; Wang, L.; Luo, Y.; Wang, S. F.

    2015-09-01

    In order to obtain "table-like" magnetocaloric effect (MCE), multiple-phase Gd56Ni15Al27Zr2 alloy was prepared by arc-melting followed by suck-casting method. Powder x-ray diffraction and calorimetric measurements reveal that the sample contains both glassy and crystalline phases. The fraction of the glassy phase is about 62%, estimated from the heat enthalpy of the crystallization. The crystalline phases, Gd2Al and GdNiAl further broadened the relatively wider magnetic entropy change (-ΔSM) peak of the amorphous phase, which resulted in the table-like MCE over a maximum temperature range of 52.5 K to 77.5 K. The plateau feature of the MCE was found to be nearly independent of the applied magnetic field from 3 T to 5 T. The maximum -ΔSM value of the MCE platforms is 6.0 J/kg K under applied magnetic field change of 5 T. Below 3 T, the field independence of the table-like feature disappears. The relatively large constant values of -ΔSM for the respective applied magnetic fields have promising applications in magnetic refrigeration using regenerative Ericsson cycle.

  9. Combined effects of independent variables on yield and protein content of pectin extracted from sugar beet pulp by citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, De-Qiang; Du, Guang-Ming; Jing, Wei-Wen; Li, Jun-Fang; Yan, Jia-Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2015-09-20

    The extraction of pectin from sugar beet pulp by citric acid was carried out under different conditions using Box-Behnken design for four independent variables (pH, temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio). The yield of sugar beet pulp pectin ranged from 6.3% to 23.0%, and the content of protein from 1.5% to 4.5%. All independent variables significantly affected the yield, and all variables except liquid to solid ratio significantly affected the protein content. The yield increased as decreasing pH of extracting solution, extending time and advancing temperature, and an opposite relationship of effects between variables and content of protein was obtained. The chemical composition of collected samples was determined. Moreover, from the results of emulsifying properties study, the extracted pectin from sugar beet pulp could prepare steady oil-in-water emulsions. Therefore, it was inferred that the extraction conditions could influence yield and protein content, resulting in different emulsifying property.

  10. Which chemicals drive biological effects in wastewater and recycled water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Janet Y M; Busetti, Francesco; Charrois, Jeffrey W A; Escher, Beate I

    2014-09-01

    Removal of organic micropollutants from wastewater during secondary treatment followed by reverse osmosis and UV disinfection was evaluated by a combination of four in-vitro cell-based bioassays and chemical analysis of 299 organic compounds. Concentrations detected in recycled water were below the Australian Guidelines for Water Recycling. Thus the detected chemicals were considered not to pose any health risk. The detected pesticides in the wastewater treatment plant effluent and partially advanced treated water explained all observed effects on photosynthesis inhibition. In contrast, mixture toxicity experiments with designed mixtures containing all detected chemicals at their measured concentrations demonstrated that the known chemicals explained less than 3% of the observed cytotoxicity and less than 1% of the oxidative stress response. Pesticides followed by pharmaceuticals and personal care products dominated the observed mixture effects. The detected chemicals were not related to the observed genotoxicity. The large proportion of unknown toxicity calls for effect monitoring complementary to chemical monitoring.

  11. Biological effects of lysophosphatidic acid in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisca, Frisca; Sabbadini, Roger A; Goldshmit, Yona; Pébay, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid that regulates a broad range of cellular effects in various cell types, leading to a variety of responses in tissues, including in the nervous system. LPA and its receptors are found in the nervous system, with different cellular and temporal profiles. Through its ability to target most cells of the nervous system and its induction of pleiotropic effects, LPA mediates events during neural development and adulthood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the effects of LPA in the nervous system, during development and adulthood, and in various pathologies of the nervous system. We also explore potential LPA intervention strategies for anti-LPA therapeutics.

  12. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  13. Some features of irradiated chitosan and its biological effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hai, Le; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; Luan, Le Quang; Hanh, Truong Thi; Man, Nguyen Tan; Ha, Pham Thi Le; Thuy, Tran Thi [Nuclear Research Institute, VAEC, Dalat (Viet Nam); Yoshii, Fumio; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-03-01

    Preparation of chitosan oligomer by radiation degradation was carried out on the gamma Co-60 source. The radiation degradation yield (G{sub d}) of the chitosan was found to be of 1.03. The oligochitosan with 50% of dp>8 fraction was obtained by irradiating the 10% (w/v) chitosan solution in 5% acetic acid at 45 kGy for the chitosan having the initial viscometric average molecular weight, Mv=60,000. Irradiated chitosan showed higher antifungal effect than that of unirradiated one. Furthermore, the irradiated chitosan also showed the growth-promotion effect for plants. (author)

  14. Nanoscaled biological gated field effect transistors for cytogenetic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Dimaki, Maria; Andersen, Karsten Brandt;

    2014-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis is the study of chromosome structure and function, and is often used in cancer diagnosis, as many chromosome abnormalities are linked to the onset of cancer. A novel label free detection method for chromosomal translocation analysis using nanoscaled field effect transistors...

  15. Biological effects of ionizing radiations; Effets biologiques des rayonnements ionisants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenot, J.C. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire]|[Commission Internationale de protection radiologique (France)]|[Association Internationale de Radiopathologie (France)

    1999-01-01

    Since ten years the ionizing radiations are more and more often used in various domains as medical, industrial or research sector. In the same way, these radiation impacts on the environment and the living organisms, have been studied intensively. The effects mechanism knowledge improved considerably and allowed to better protect the workers and the public. (A.L.B.)

  16. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Beheshte; Wilson, James; Masood, Samina

    2012-10-01

    The interaction of organisms with environmental magnetic fields at the cellular level is well documented, yet not fully understood. We review the existing experimental results to understand the physics behind the effects of ambient magnetic fields on the growth, metabolism, and proliferation of in vitro cell cultures. Emphasis is placed on identifying the underlying physical principles responsible for alterations to cell structure and behavior.

  17. Resource Letter BELFEF-1: Biological effects of low-frequency electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafemeister, David

    1996-08-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on the interaction of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF/EMF) interactions with biological matter, and on the possibility that such interactions could have a harmful effect on human health. Journal articles and books are cited for the following topics: ELF/EMF theoretical interactions with biological cells, organs and organisms, magnetic dipole interactions, sensing by animals, biomedical-biophysical experiments, epidemiology, and litigation-mitigation risk issues.

  18. Biological activities and health effects of terpenoids from marine fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Li, Yong-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed by the consumers toward natural bioactive compounds as functional ingredients in the nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical products due to their various health beneficial effects. Hence, it can be suggested that bioactive functional ingredients from marine bioresources and their by-products are alternative sources for synthetic ingredients that can contribute to consumer's well-being, as a part of nutraceuticals and functional foods. Marine-derived fungi produce a vast array of secondary metabolites including terpenes, steroids, polyketides, peptides, alkaloids, and polysaccharides. These secondary metabolites serve many biopharmaceutical purposes. This chapter discusses about marine fungi-derived terpenoids and presents an overview of their beneficial health effects.

  19. Biological Effects of Nonionizing Electromagnetic Radiation. Volume IV. Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    teratogenesis in mealworms (9-10 GHz at total power CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, BEHAVIOR, AND of 20-80 mW) and in mice (2,450 MHz, energy absorp- BLOOD: A PROGRESS...behavioral changes, diseases are discussed and three case reports dem- malaise, restlessness, sterilization, fetal damage, onstrating this problem are...April, 1979. exposure of Moscow Embassy employees in the causa - (7 refs) tion of any adverse health effects. Four studies to determine the health

  20. Biologic Effects of Dopamine on Tumor Vasculature in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrthala Moreno-Smith

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Chronic sympathetic nervous system activation results in increased angiogenesis and tumor growth in orthotopic mouse models of ovarian carcinoma. However, the mechanistic effects of such activation on the tumor vasculature are not well understood. Dopamine (DA, an inhibitory catecholamine, regulates the functions of normal and abnormal blood vessels. Here, we examined whether DA, an inhibitory catecholamine, could block the effects of chronic stress on tumor vasculature and tumor growth. Exogenous administration of DA not only decreased tumor microvessel density but also increased pericyte coverage of tumor vessels following daily restraint stress in mice. Daily restraint stress resulted in significantly increased tumor growth in the SKOV3ip1 and HeyA8 ovarian cancer models. DA treatment blocked stress-mediated increases in tumor growth and increased pericyte coverage of tumor endothelial cells. Whereas the antiangiogenic effect of DA is mediated by dopamine receptor 2 (DR2, our data indicate that DA, through DR1, stimulates vessel stabilization by increasing pericyte recruitment to tumor endothelial cells. DA significantly stimulated migration of mouse 10T1/2 pericyte-like cells in vitro and increased cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate (cAMP levels in these cells. Moreover, DA or the DR1 agonist SKF 82958 increased platinum concentration in SKOV3ip1 tumor xenografts following cisplatin administration. In conclusion, DA stabilizes tumor blood vessels through activation of pericyte cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway by DR1. These findings could have implications for blocking the stimulatory effects of chronic stress on tumor growth.

  1. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF TNF-BINDING VARIOLAVIRUS RECOMBINANT PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Orlovskaya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This review presents a summary of our data concerning in vivo and in vitro effects of recombinant TNF-binding protein from variola virus (VARVCrmB upon TNF-induced functional changes of human and murine cells. VARV-CrmB protein blocks TNF-induced production of IL-1β and IL-6 by human mononuclear cells, and their in vitro oxidation-related metabolic (OM activity. VARV-CrmB protein restores TNF-induced reduction of BFU-E+CFU-E colony-forming activity and normalizes TNF-induced effects upon CFU-GM formation in a colony-forming model of human and murine bone morrow cells (BMC. VARV-CrmB protein displays a pronounced in vivo alleviation of LPS-induced endotoxic shock symptoms in SPF BALB/C mice thus significantly increasing survival of experimental animals. Moreover, VARV-CrmBprotein decreases intensity of collagen-induced arthritis at early terms. Application of VARV-CrmB protein results in normalization of TNF-induced increase of migratory and OM activity of murine leukocytes, and exerts corrective effects upon colony-forming ability of murine hematopoietic precursors. Skin application of VARV-CrmB protein decreases leukocyte migration from a skin scrap in afferent phase of DNCB-induced contact reaction, as well as “ear oedema” index. Our results demonstrate TNF-blocking properties of VARVCrmB protein. In summary, our data allow to consider a recombinant variola virus VARV-CrmB as a new potential TNF-antagonist. Its effects can be explained by its ability of neutralizing TNF-induced activation of oxidation-related metabolic, cytokine-producing and migratory functions of effector cells in therapy of pathological inflammatory processes.

  2. Radioactivity in the ocean: laws and biological effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the literature on US laws and international agreements, experimental and monitoring data, and ongoing studies to provide background information for environmental assessment and regulatory compliance activities for ocean dumping of low-level radioactive waste. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act is the major US legislation governing ocean disposal of radioactive waste. The major international agreement on ocean dumping is the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matter. The United States ended its ocean dumping of radioactive wastes in 1970, but other countries have continued ocean dumping under international supervision in the northeast Atlantic. Monitoring of former US disposal sites has neither revealed significant effects on marine biota nor indicated a hazard to human health. Also, no effects on marine organisms have been found that could be attributed to routine discharges into the Irish Sea from the Windscale reprocessing plant. We must improve our ability to predict the oceanic carrying capacity and the fate and effects of ionizing radiation in the marine environment.

  3. Biological Effects of Culture Substrates on Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Hayashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, as human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs have been commonly cultured in feeder-free conditions, a number of cell culture substrates have been applied or developed. However, the functional roles of these substrates in maintaining hPSC self-renewal remain unclear. Here in this review, we summarize the types of these substrates and their effect on maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Endogenous extracellular matrix (ECM protein expression has been shown to be crucial in maintaining hPSC self-renewal. These ECM molecules interact with integrin cell-surface receptors and transmit their cellular signaling. We discuss the possible effect of integrin-mediated signaling pathways on maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Activation of integrin-linked kinase (ILK, which transmits ECM-integrin signaling to AKT (also known as protein kinase B, has been shown to be critical in maintaining hPSC self-renewal. Also, since naïve pluripotency has been widely recognized as an alternative pluripotent state of hPSCs, we discuss the possible effects of culture substrates and integrin signaling on naïve hPSCs based on the studies of mouse embryonic stem cells. Understanding the role of culture substrates in hPSC self-renewal and differentiation enables us to control hPSC behavior precisely and to establish scalable or microfabricated culture technologies for regenerative medicine and drug development.

  4. [Effects and Biological Response on Bioremediation of Petroleum Contaminated Soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Wu, Man-li; Nie, Mai-qian; Wang, Ting-ting; Zhang, Ming-hui

    2015-05-01

    Bioaugmentation and biostimulation were used to remediate petroleum-contaminated soil which were collected from Zichang city in North of Shaanxi. The optimal bioremediation method was obtained by determining the total petroleum hydrocarbon(TPH) using the infrared spectroscopy. During the bioremediation, number of degrading strains, TPH catabolic genes, and soil microbial community diversity were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) combined agarose electrophoresis, and PCR-denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE). The results in different treatments showed different biodegradation effects towards total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Biostimulation by adding N and P to soils achieved the best degradation effects towards TPH, and the bioaugmentation was achieved by inoculating strain SZ-1 to soils. Further analysis indicated the positive correlation between catabolic genes and TPH removal efficiency. During the bioremediation, the number of TPH and alkanes degrading strains was higher than the number of aromatic degrading strains. The results of PCR-DGGE showed microbial inoculums could enhance microbial community functional diversity. These results contribute to understand the ecologically microbial effects during the bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soil.

  5. Accurate evaluation of hadronic uncertainties in spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering: Disentangling two- and three-flavor effects

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Procura, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We show how to avoid unnecessary and uncontrolled assumptions usually made in the literature about soft SU(3) flavor symmetry breaking in determining the two-flavor nucleon matrix elements relevant for direct detection of WIMPs. Based on SU(2) Chiral Perturbation Theory, we provide expressions for the proton and neutron scalar couplings $f_u^{p,n}$ and $f_d^{p,n}$ with the pion-nucleon sigma-term as the only free parameter, which should be used in the analysis of direct detection experiments. This approach for the first time allows for an accurate assessment of hadronic uncertainties in spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering and for a reliable calculation of isospin-violating effects. We find that the traditional determinations of $f_u^p-f_u^n$ and $f_d^p-f_d^n$ are off by a factor of 2.

  6. Independent prognostic effect of co-morbidity in lymphoma patients: results of the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spronsen, D J; Janssen-Heijnen, M L G; Lemmens, V E P P; Peters, W G; Coebergh, J W W

    2005-05-01

    The prevalence of co-morbidity among elderly lymphoma patients is associated with a decrease in the use of chemotherapy. This study assessed the independent prognostic effect of co-morbidity in 1551 unselected lymphoma patients, diagnosed between 1995 and 2001 in the area of the population-based Eindhoven Cancer Registry. The prevalence of serious co-morbidity was 58% for patients with Hodgkin's disease (HD) who were over 60 years of age and 66% for patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) who were over 60 years of age. The administration of chemotherapy declined in the presence of co-morbidity for elderly patients with early-stage HD and elderly patients with aggressive NHL. Co-morbidity was associated with a 10-20% decline in 5-year survival. Whether less frequent application of chemotherapy in the presence of co-morbidity is justified as far as complications, prognosis and quality of life are concerned requires further investigation.

  7. Extraction of Channel Length Independent Series Resistance for Deeply Scaled Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Juan; Ji, Xiao-Li; Chen, Yuan-Cong; Xia, Hao-Guang; Zhu, Chen-Xin; Guo, Qiang; Yan, Feng

    2014-09-01

    The recently developed four Rsd extraction methods from a single device, involving the constant-mobility method, the direct Id—Vgs method, the conductance method and the Y-function method, are evaluated on 32 nm n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (nMOSFETs). It is found that Rsd achieved from the constant-mobility method exhibits the channel length independent characteristics. The L-dependent Rsd extracted from the other three methods is proven to be associated with the gate-voltage-induced mobility degradation in the extraction procedures. Based on L-dependent behaviors of Rsd, a new method is proposed for accurate series resistance extraction on deeply scaled MOSFETs.

  8. Acute inflammation reduces kisspeptin immunoreactivity at the arcuate nucleus and decreases responsiveness to kisspeptin independently of its anorectic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, J M; Bentsen, A H; Romero, M;

    2010-01-01

    Severe inflammatory challenges are frequently coupled to decreased food intake and disruption of reproductive function, the latter via deregulation of different signaling pathways that impinge onto GnRH neurons. Recently, the hypothalamic Kiss1 system, a major gatekeeper of GnRH function...... of hypothalamic kisspeptin immunoreactivity (IR) and hormonal responses to kisspeptin during the acute inflammatory phase. LPS injections induced a dramatic but transient drop of serum LH and testosterone levels. Suppression of gonadotropic function was associated with a significant decrease in kisspeptin...... for the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Our results also suggest that suppressed gonadotropic function following inflammatory challenges might involve a reduction in absolute responsiveness to kisspeptin that is independent of the anorectic effects of inflammation....

  9. Effect of major lifestyle risk factors, independent and jointly, on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Cairns, Karen; O'Neill, Vikki

    2016-01-01

    -free” years, though a healthy lifestyle was also associated with extra years lived after a CVD event. There are sizeable benefits to LE without CVD and also for survival after CVD onset when people favour a lifestyle characterized by salutary behaviours. Remaining a non-smoker yielded the greatest extra years......Seldom have studies taken account of changes in lifestyle habits in the elderly, or investigated their impact on disease-free life expectancy (LE) and LE with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using data on subjects aged 50+ years from three European cohorts (RCPH, ESTHER and Tromsø), we used multi......-state Markov models to calculate the independent and joint effects of smoking, physical activity, obesity and alcohol consumption on LE with and without CVD. Men and women aged 50 years who have a favourable lifestyle (overweight but not obese, light/moderate drinker, non-smoker and participates in vigorous...

  10. Gastric bypass surgery has a weight-loss independent effect on post-challenge serum glucose levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofsø, Dag; Birkeland, Kåre I; Holst, Jens J;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gastric bypass surgery seems to have an effect on glucose metabolism beyond what is mediated through weight reduction. The magnitude of this effect on fasting and post-challenge glucose levels remains unknown. RESULTS: Morbidly obese subjects without known diabetes performed a 75 g oral...... glucose tolerance test before and after either gastric bypass surgery (n = 64) or an intensive lifestyle intervention programme (n = 55), ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00273104. The age-adjusted effects of the therapeutic procedures and percentage weight change on fasting and 2-h glucose levels at 1......-h glucose levels were significantly lower in the surgery group than in the lifestyle group, 4.7 (0.4) versus 5.4 (0.7) mmol/l and 3.4 (0.8) versus 6.0 (2.4) mmol/l, respectively (both p Gastric bypass and weight-loss had both independent glucose-lowering effects on 2-h glucose levels [B...

  11. The Effects of Sample Size on Expected Value, Variance and Fraser Efficiency for Nonparametric Independent Two Sample Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet DOGAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Choosing the most efficient statistical test is one of the essential problems of statistics. Asymptotic relative efficiency is a notion which enables to implement in large samples the quantitative comparison of two different tests used for testing of the same statistical hypothesis. The notion of the asymptotic efficiency of tests is more complicated than that of asymptotic efficiency of estimates. This paper discusses the effect of sample size on expected values and variances of non-parametric tests for independent two samples and determines the most effective test for different sample sizes using Fraser efficiency value. Material and Methods: Since calculating the power value in comparison of the tests is not practical most of the time, using the asymptotic relative efficiency value is favorable. Asymptotic relative efficiency is an indispensable technique for comparing and ordering statistical test in large samples. It is especially useful in nonparametric statistics where there exist numerous heuristic tests such as the linear rank tests. In this study, the sample size is determined as 2 ≤ n ≤ 50. Results: In both balanced and unbalanced cases, it is found that, as the sample size increases expected values and variances of all the tests discussed in this paper increase as well. Additionally, considering the Fraser efficiency, Mann-Whitney U test is found as the most efficient test among the non-parametric tests that are used in comparison of independent two samples regardless of their sizes. Conclusion: According to Fraser efficiency, Mann-Whitney U test is found as the most efficient test.

  12. Effect of biologic therapy on radiological progression in rheumatoid arthritis: what does it add to methotrexate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Graeme Jones, Erica Darian-Smith, Michael Kwok, Tania WinzenbergMenzies Research Institute, University of Tasmania, Tasmania, AustraliaAbstract: There have been substantial advances in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in recent years. Traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs have been shown to have small effects on the progression of radiographic damage. This quantitative overview summarizes the evidence for biologic DMARDS and radiographic damage either alone or in combination with methotrexate. Two outcomes were used (standardized mean difference and odds of progression. A total of 21 trials were identified of which 18 had useable data. For biologic monotherapy, tocilizumab, adalimumab, and etanercept were significantly better than methotrexate, with tocilizumab ranking first in both outcomes while golimumab was ineffective in both outcomes. For a biologic in combination with methotrexate compared with methotrexate alone, most therapies studied (etanercept, adalimumab, infliximab, certolizumab, tocilizumab, and rituximab were effective at slowing X-ray progression using either outcome, with infliximab ranking first in both outcomes. The exceptions to this were golimumab (no effect on standardized mean difference and abatacept (no effect on odds of progression. This effect was additional to methotrexate; thus, the overall benefit is moderate to large in magnitude, which is clearly of major clinical significance for sufferers of rheumatoid arthritis and supports the use of biologic DMARDs in those with a poor disease prognosis.Keywords: rheumatoid, trials, meta-analysis, radiographs, biologic, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, DMARDs

  13. EFFECTS OF 5E LEARNING CYCLE ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Osawaru Ajaja,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning cycle as an instructional strategy on biology andchemistry students achievement. To guide this study, six research hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level ofsignificance. The design of this study was 2x2x3x6 Pre-test Post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design.These included two instructional groups (experimental and control groups, sex (male and female, repeated testing (Pre,Post and follow-up tests, and six weeks of experience. The samples of the study included six senior secondary schools, 112science students, and 12 biology and chemistry teachers. The instruments used for this study were: teacher’s questionnaireon knowledge and use of learning cycle (KULC; and Biology and Chemistry Achievement Test (BCAT. The data collected wereanalyzed with simple percentage, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA and student t-test statistics. The major findings of thestudy included that only 30.43% and 26.31% of biology and chemistry teachers have the knowledge that learning cycle is aninstructional method; all the biology and chemistry teachers sampled have never used learning cycle as an instructionalmethod; learning cycle had a significant effect on students achievement in biology and chemistry; students taught withlearning cycle significantly achieved better in biology/chemistry Post-test than those taught with lecture method; the posttestscores of students in the learning cycle group increased over the period of experience; non-significant difference in Posttestscores between males and females taught with learning cycle; non-significant interaction effect between method andsex on achievement; and a significant higher retention of biology and chemistry knowledge by students taught with learningcycle than those taught with lecture method. It was concluded that the method seems an appropriate instructional modelthat could be used to solve the problems of

  14. Biological effect of non-ionizing radiations on microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Takayoshi [Osaka Univ., Radioisotope Research Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Nakaoka, Yasuo [Osaka Univ., Graduate School of Engineering Science, Department of Biophysical Engineering, Toyonaka, Osaka (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    We studied the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) of 60-Hz and 500 mT on the growth and the mutation frequency of the budding yeast S.cerevisiae and on the behavior of the ciliate Paramecium multimicronucleatum. The growth rate and mutation frequencies of several strains of S.cerevisiae (wild type and radiation sensitive mutants, rad or rev) were examined but no significant difference was observed. Moreover, the behavior of P.multimicronucleatum under the ELF-MF was examined. When exposed to a vertical field of 0.6 T, the cells accumulated at the upper end of the cuvette. (author)

  15. Biological effect markers for exposure to carcinogenic compound and their relevance for risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, J.H.M. van; Baan, R.A.; Roza, L.

    1998-01-01

    In this review data are summarized on biomarkers that are used for biological effect monitoring of human populations exposed to genotoxic carcinogens. The biomarkers are DNA and protein adducts and cytogenetic effects. Most of these biomarkers are relevant for the process of carcinogenesis. Emphasis

  16. Oil spills: Biological effects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the biological and ecological effects of oil spills. Citations discuss effects on microorganisms, plants, and animals. Damage assessment, ecological modeling, and environmental impact statements are included. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  17. Low power laser therapy — an introduction and a review of some biological effects

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel, Haymo

    1986-01-01

    This report gives a brief introduction to the characteristics of therapeutic low power laser devices. Absorption, tissue penetration and physiological mechanisms of laser irradiation are discussed. The biological effects of low power laser light are reviewed in the areas of collagen metabolism, woundhealing, inflammation and pain control. Contraindications, precautions and side effects of low power laser irradiation are discussed.

  18. Catalytically and noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust: biological effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, G.P. (Univ. of Cincinnati); Lewkowski, J.P.; Hastings, L.; Malanchuk, M.

    1977-12-01

    Chronic exposure to catalytically treated or noncatalytically treated automobile exhaust significantly depressed the spontaneous locomotor activity (SLA) of rats. Exposure to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ alone or CO at comparable levels did not alter the SLA. Exposure to noncatalytically treated exhaust resulted in significant reductions in growth rate and food and water intake. However, these effects were not evident in the exposure to catalytically treated exhaust or in the control H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and CO exposures. Blood acid-base analyses indicated that exposure to either catalytically treated exhaust or H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ elicits a metabolic alkalosis, while exposure to CO alone results in a metabolic acidosis. All acid-base parameters were within the normal range several weeks after the termination of exposure.

  19. [Quality of interior air: biological contaminants and their effects on health; bioaerosols and gathering techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bălan, Gabriela

    2007-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality: biological contaminants and health effects; airborne organisms and sampling instruments. Biological contaminants include bacteria, molds, viruses, animal dander and cat saliva, house dust, mites, cockroaches and pollen. Symptoms of health problems caused by biological pollutants include sneezing, watery eyes, coughing, shortness of breath, dizziness, lethargy, fevers. Children, elderly people with breathing problems, allergies and lung diseases are particularly susceptible to disease-causing biological agents in the indoor air. It is convenient to consider microbiological samplers for collecting organisms in air as falling into several broad categories. Many popular microbiological air samplers use the principle of impaction to trap the organisms by impacting them directly on to agar. Further distinct groups are the impingers, which operate by impinging organisms into liquid.

  20. Sleep-independent off-line enhancement and time of the day effects in three forms of skill learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemény, Ferenc; Lukács, Ágnes

    2016-05-01

    The role of sleep in memory and skill-learning processes is an important and widely debated issue. The current study explores the nature of the relationship between sleep and off-line improvement in three tasks for measuring different aspects of skill learning: the serial reaction time (SRT) task, which is a motor sequence learning task; the artificial grammar learning (AGL) task, testing abstract verbal sequence learning; and the weather prediction (WP) task, which is a non-sequential categorization task. Each participant was tested on one of the three tasks twice, either in a Wake condition (with a 12-h off-line period without sleep), or in a Sleep condition (with sleep). Results showed no sleep-related off-line improvement throughout the three tasks in a two-session re-learning design, but a sleep-independent time-based effect was found on the SRT task. No performance boost was observed in the WP and AGL tasks. Performance on the SRT showed a time of the day effect: the Sleep group outperforming the Wake group; however, this effect was restricted to overall response latencies. Taken together, no evidence was found in favor of sleep-dependent off-line enhancement in skill learning, but methodological concerns warrant further investigations.

  1. The Boer-Mulders and Cahn effects. Azimuthal modulations in the spin-independent SIDIS cross section at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, Rebecca Mae

    2010-08-15

    The cos {phi}{sub h} and cos 2{phi}{sub h} modulations of the spin independent semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering cross section were measured at Hermes. These modulations are sensitive to the polarization and transverse motion of quarks within the nucleon. The Cahn effect, which contributes at subleading twist (twist-3) to cos {phi}{sub h} and twist-4 to cos 2{phi}{sub h}, is sensitive to transverse motion of quarks. The Boer-Mulders effect, which contributes at subleading twist to cos {phi}{sub h} and leading twist to cos 2{phi}{sub h}, requires non-zero transverse quark motion and is sensitive to quark polarization, effectively measuring the quark spin-orbit correlation. These modulations were measured in a fully differential way, as a function of x, y, z, and P{sub h} {sub perpendicular} {sub to} for positive and negative pions, kaons, and unidentified-hadrons produced from hydrogen and deuterium targets at Hermes. This is the the most complete measurement to date, for the first time granting access to the flavor dependent distribution and fragmentation functions that generate these moments. These measurement would not have been possible without an improved hadron-type identification algorithm for the Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector. The EVT event-level algorithm is presented and now is the primary method used at Hermes. (orig.)

  2. [Adipogenic function and other biologic effects of insulin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankov, Y A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on experimental animals with knockout of the insulin receptor gene Insr (in the whole body or in certain tissues) and/or related genes encoding proteins involved in realization of insulin signal transduction in target cells, have made an important contribution to the elucidation of insulin regulation of metabolism, particularly fat metabolism. Since the whole insulin secreted by b-cells, together with the products of gastrointestinal tract digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates reach the liver, the latter is the first organ on which this hormone acts. The liver employs released amino acids for synthesis of proteins, including apoproteins for various lipoproteins. Glucose is used for synthesis of glycogen, fatty acids, and triglycerides, which enter all the organs in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL). The LIRKO mice with knockout of the Insr gene in the liver demonstrated inhibition of synthesis of macromolecular compounds from amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids. Low molecular weight substances demonstrated increased entry to circulation, and together with other disorders induced hyperglycemia. In LIRKO mice blood glucose levels and glucose tolerance demonstrated time-dependent normalization and at later stages the increase in glucose levels was replaced by hypoglycemia. These changes can be well explained if we take into consideration that one of the main functions of insulin consists in stimulation of energy accumulation by means of activation of triglyceride deposition in adipose tissue. FIRKO mice with selective knockout of adipose tissue Insr were characterized by decreased uptake of glucose in adipocytes, and its transformation into lipids. However, the level of body fat in animals remained normal, possibly due to preserved insulin receptor in the liver and insulin-induced activation of triglyceride production which maintained normal levels of body fat stores, the effective functioning of adipose tissue and secretion of leptin by

  3. Biologic effects of fenbendazole in rats and mice: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, David; Cray, Carolyn; Zaias, Julia; Altman, Norman H

    2007-11-01

    This review summarizes findings from toxicologic, carcinogenic, immunologic, and metabolic studies on fenbendazole (FBZ). Currently, FBZ is used to treat or prevent pinworm outbreaks in laboratory rodents. Because antiparasitic treatments usually are not part of experimental designs, interactions from the medication on the outcomes of ongoing experiments are a concern. At therapeutic levels, FBZ does not alter the total content of cytochromes P450 but does induce certain hepatic cytochrome P450 isoforms, namely 1A1, 1A2, and 2B1. Although expressed constitutively at low or undetectable levels, these isoforms particularly are known for bioactivating a number of procarcinogens. Lifetime studies in rats have shown that FBZ is not a carcinogen but that it may behave as a tumor promoter when given after certain initiators. Unlike in other animal species, FBZ treatment-associated myelosuppression has not been reported to occur in rodents. The few currently available immunologic studies in mice, including an autoimmune model, have not shown effects on selected immune responses. However, data from other animal species suggest that the ability of B and T lymphocytes to proliferate in the secondary immune response may be suppressed during treatment with FBZ.

  4. Cardiometabolic risk in psoriasis: differential effects of biologic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana J Kaplan

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariana J KaplanDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is associated to an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV complications. Overall, the pathogenic mechanisms involved in premature CV complications in psoriasis appear to be complex and multifactorial, with traditional and nontraditional risk factors possibly contributing to the increased risk. Based on what is known about the pathogenesis of psoriasis and extrapolating the current knowledge on CV complications in other inflammatory diseases, studies are needed to investigate if appropriate control of the inflammatory, immunologic and metabolic disturbances present in psoriasis can prevent the development of this potentially lethal complication. It is clear that there is a great need for heightened awareness of the increased risk for vascular damage in patients with psoriasis. It is also crucial to closely monitor patients with psoriasis for CV risk factors including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Whether treatment regimens that effectively manage systemic inflammation will lead to prevention of CV complications in psoriasis needs to be investigated. Clearly, studies should focus on establishing the exact mechanisms that determine CV risk in psoriasis so that appropriate preventive strategies and treatment guidelines can be established.Keywords: psoriasis, atherosclerosis, inflammation, vascular

  5. The biological effect and medical functions of the Infrared Rays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Xiao-feng

    2001-01-01

    The quantum vibrational energy-spectra including high excited states of the protein molecules have been calculated by new theory of bio-energy transport along the protein molecules and its dynamic equation, discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation, appropriate to the protein molecules on the basis of the level of molecular structure. This energy-spectra obtained are basically consistent with the experimental values by infrared absorption and radiated measurement of person's hands and laser-Raman spectrum from metabolically active E. Coli.. From this energy-spectra we know that the infrared lights with (1-3)x1000nm and (5-7)x1000nm wavelength can be absorbed by the protein molecules in the living systems.In accordance with the non-linear theory of the bio-energy transport we know that the energy of the infrared light absorbed by the proteins can result in vibrations of amide-I in amino acids and can facilitate the bio-energy transport along the protein molecular chains from one place to other for the growth of living bodies. This processe is non-thermal. This is just non-thermal effect of the infrared lights. According to the mechanism we explained further the medical functions of the infrared lights absorbed.

  6. Biological effects of exposure to intermediate neutron and repair mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utsumi, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masao [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Onishi, Takeo; Onizuka, Masahiko

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was made on cytotoxic effects of neutron capture using chicken B-cell line mutants, DT40, KURO{sup -/-}, RAD54 {sup -/-} and KU70{sup -/-} / RAD54{sup -/-}. Suspensions of these cells were exposed to two times X-radiation at various doses and the cell surviving was evaluated. The sensitivity to radiation was highest in the double defective mutant, KU70{sup -/-} / RAD54{sup -/-} and followed by that of RAD54 {sup -/-}, a homologous recombination mutant, whereas KURO {sup -/-} cell, a non-homologous end-joining mutant showed a peculiar surviving curve composed of two phases and the cell was highly sensitive to a low-dose radiation. This indicates that there are two different DNA repair systems for double-strand breaks and the system for non-homologous end-joining repair can be involved in all phases of cell cycle, but the system for the homologous one is involved only in S-phase. Therefore, it was thought that variation of sensitivity to radiation exposure depending to the phase of cell cycle might explain the alternation of repair system depending to the phase progressing of cell cycle. It was thus likely that the recovery from radiation injury, which is still a black box might be explained with the double strand breaks of DNA. (M.N.)

  7. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  8. Effects of Fe2+, Co2+and Ni2+Ions on Biological Methane Production from Residual Heavy Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Chunshuang; Ma Wenjuan; Zhao Dongfeng; Jia Kuili; Zhao Chaocheng

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of single factor tests, the effect of trace elements—Fe2+, Co2+and Ni2+ions—on biological methane production from heavy oil was investigated by the response surface method. A three-level Box-Behnken design was em-ployed to study the relationship between the independent variables and the dependent variable by applying initial Fe2+, Co2+and Ni2+concentration as the independent variables (factors) and using the methane production after 270 days of cultivation as the dependent variable (response). A prediction model of quadramatic polynomial regression equation was obtained. The results showed that the methane production could be as high as 240.69 µmol after optimization compared with 235.74 µmol obtained under un-optimized condition. Furthermore, the microbial communities before and after biodegradation were ana-lyzed by PCR-DGGE method. The dominant bands were recovered and sequenced. Three strains were obtained;the strain T1 has 97%similarity with Bacillus thermoamylovorans, the strain H3 has 97%similarity with Bacillus thermoamylovorans and the strain H4 has 99%similarity with Bacillus vietnamensis.

  9. Microbiota-Independent Ameliorative Effects of Antibiotics on Spontaneous Th2-Associated Pathology of the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Daehee; Walsh, Matthew C; Kim, Kwang Soon; Hong, Sung-Wook; Lee, Junyoung; Yi, Jaeu; Rivas, Gloriany; Surh, Charles D; Choi, Yongwon

    2015-01-01

    We have previously generated a mouse model of spontaneous Th2-associated disease of the small intestine called TRAF6ΔDC, in which dendritic cell (DC)-intrinsic expression of the signaling mediator TRAF6 is ablated. Interestingly, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment ameliorates TRAF6ΔDC disease, implying a role for commensal microbiota in disease development. However, the relationship between the drug effects and commensal microbiota status remains to be formally demonstrated. To directly assess this relationship, we have now generated TRAF6ΔDC bone marrow chimera mice under germ-free (GF) conditions lacking commensal microbiota, and found, unexpectedly, that Th2-associated disease is actually exacerbated in GF TRAF6ΔDC mice compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) TRAF6ΔDC mice. At the same time, broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment of GF TRAF6ΔDC mice has an ameliorative effect similar to that observed in antibiotics-treated SPF TRAF6ΔDC mice, implying a commensal microbiota-independent effect of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. We further found that treatment of GF TRAF6ΔDC mice with broad-spectrum antibiotics increases Foxp3+ Treg populations in lymphoid organs and the small intestine, pointing to a possible mechanism by which treatment may directly exert an immunomodulatory effect. To investigate links between the exacerbated phenotype of the small intestines of GF TRAF6ΔDC mice and local microbiota, we performed microbiotic profiling of the luminal contents specifically within the small intestines of diseased TRAF6ΔDC mice, and, when compared to co-housed control mice, found significantly increased total bacterial content characterized by specific increases in Firmicutes Lactobacillus species. These data suggest a protective effect of Firmicutes Lactobacillus against the spontaneous Th2-related inflammation of the small intestine of the TRAF6ΔDC model, and may represent a potential mechanism for related disease phenotypes.

  10. Quantifying the temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoengineering on global-mean precipitation in a multi-model ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angus J.; Griffiths, Hannah G.

    2016-03-01

    The reduction in global-mean precipitation when stratospheric aerosol geoengineering is used to counterbalance global warming from increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations has been mainly attributed to the temperature-independent effect of CO2 on atmospheric radiative cooling. We demonstrate here that stratospheric sulphate aerosol itself also acts to reduce global-mean precipitation independent of its effects on temperature. The temperature-independent effect of stratospheric aerosol geoenginering on global-mean precipitation is calculated by removing temperature-dependent effects from climate model simulations of the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP). When sulphate aerosol is injected into the stratosphere at a rate of 5 Tg SO2 per year the aerosol reduces global-mean precipitation by approximately 0.2 %, though multiple ensemble members are required to separate this effect from internal variability. For comparison, the precipitation reduction from the temperature-independent effect of increasing CO2 concentrations under the RCP4.5 scenario of the future is approximately 0.5 %. The temperature-independent effect of stratospheric sulphate aerosol arises from the aerosol’s effect on tropospheric radiative cooling. Radiative transfer calculations show this is mainly due to increasing downward emission of infrared radiation by the aerosol, but there is also a contribution from the stratospheric warming the aerosol causes. Our results suggest climate model simulations of solar dimming can capture the main features of the global-mean precipitation response to stratospheric aerosol geoengineering.

  11. Allee effects in tritrophic food chains: some insights in pest biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michel Iskin da S; Dos Anjos, Lucas

    2016-12-01

    Release of natural enemies to control pest populations is a common strategy in biological control. However, its effectiveness is supposed to be impaired, among other factors, by Allee effects in the biological control agent and by the fact that introduced pest natural enemies interact with some native species of the ecosystem. In this work, we devise a tritrophic food chain model where the assumptions previously raised are proved correct when a hyperpredator attacks the introduced pest natural enemy by a functional response type 2 or 3. Moreover, success of pest control is shown to be related to the release of large amounts (i.e., inundative releases) of natural enemies.

  12. Effects of synthetic A3 adenosine receptor agonists on cell proliferation and viability are receptor independent at micromolar concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlejnek, Petr; Dolezel, Petr; Frydrych, Ivo

    2013-09-01

    The question as to whether A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonists, N (6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N- methyluronamide (IB-MECA) and 2-chloro-N (6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (Cl-IB-MECA), could exert cytotoxic effects at high concentrations with or without the involvement of A3AR has been a controversial issue for a long time. The initial findings suggesting that A3AR plays a crucial role in the induction of cell death upon treatment with micromolar concentrations of IB-MECA or Cl-IB-MECA were revised, however, the direct and unequivocal evidence is still missing. Therefore, the sensitivity of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with human recombinant A3AR (A3-CHO) and their counter partner wild-type CHO cells, which do not express any of adenosine receptors, to micromolar concentrations of IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA was studied. We observed that IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on cell proliferation due to the blockage of cell cycle progression at G1/S and G2/M transitions in both A3-CHO and CHO cells. Further analysis revealed that IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA attenuated the Erk1/2 signalling irrespectively to A3AR expression. In addition, Cl-IB-MECA induced massive cell death mainly with hallmarks of a necrosis in both cell lines. In contrast, IB-MECA affected cell viability only slightly independently of A3AR expression. IB-MECA induced cell death that exhibited apoptotic hallmarks. In general, the sensitivity of A3-CHO cells to micromolar concentrations of IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA was somewhat, but not significantly, higher than that observed in the CHO cells. These results strongly suggest that IB-MECA and Cl-IB-MECA exert cytotoxic effects at micromolar concentrations independently of A3AR expression.

  13. The Effects of Aging and Sex Steroid Deficiency on the Murine Skeleton Are Independent and Mechanistically Distinct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucer, Serra; Iyer, Srividhya; Kim, Ha-Neui; Han, Li; Rutlen, Christine; Allison, Kelly; Thostenson, Jeff D; de Cabo, Rafael; Jilka, Robert L; O’Brien, Charles; Almeida, Maria; Manolagas, Stavros C

    2017-01-01

    Old age and sex steroid deficiency are the two most critical factors for the development of osteoporosis. It remains unknown, however, whether the molecular culprits of the two conditions are similar or distinct. We show herein that at 19.5 months of age —a time by which the age-dependent decline of cortical and cancellous bone mass and cortical porosity were fully manifested in C57BL/6J mice—these animals remained functionally estrogen sufficient. Transgenic mice with conditional expression of mitochondria-targeted catalase—a potent H2O2 inactivating enzyme—in cells of the myeloid lineage (mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice) were protected from the loss of cortical, but not cancellous, bone caused by gonadectomy in either sex. Consistent with these findings, in vitro studies with ERα-deficient Prx1+ cells and gonadectomized young adult mice showed that in both sexes decreased ERα signaling in Prx1+ cells leads to an increase in SDF1, a.k.a. CXCL12, an osteoclastogenic cytokine whose effects were abrogated in macrophages from mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice. In contrast to sex steroid deficiency, the adverse effects of aging on either cortical or cancellous bone were unaffected in mitoCAT;LysM-Cre mice. On the other hand, attenuation of H2O2 generation in cells of the mesenchymal lineage targeted by Prx1-Cre partially prevented the loss of cortical bone caused by old age. Our results suggest the effects of sex steroid deficiency and aging on the murine skeleton are independent and result from distinct mechanisms. In the former, the prevailing mechanism of the cortical bone loss in both sexes is increased osteoclastogenesis caused by estrogen deficiency; this is likely driven, at least in part, by mesenchymal/stromal cell–derived SDF1. Decreased osteoblastogenesis, owing in part to increased H2O2, combined with increased osteoclastogenesis caused by aging mechanisms independent of estrogen deficiency, are the prevailing mechanisms of the loss of cortical bone with old age

  14. Study of complex matrix effect on solid phase microextraction for biological sample analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ruifen; Xu, Jianqiao; Zhu, Fang; Luan, Tiangang; Zeng, Feng; Shen, Yong; Ouyang, Gangfeng

    2015-09-11

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) has become a useful tool for in vivo monitoring the behavior of environmental organic pollutants in biological species due to its simplicity, relatively non-invasive, and cost-effective manner. However, the complex matrices in biological samples could significantly influence the extraction kinetic, and bias the quantification result. In this study, we investigated the effect of complex matrix on the extraction kinetic of SPME for biological sample analysis. Two sample matrices, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and agarose gel with BSA were used to simulate the biological fluid and tissue. Results showed that the addition of BSA significantly enhanced the mass transfer of organic compounds onto SPME fiber in both PBS buffer and gel sample. Enhancement factors ranging from 1.3 to 27, and 2.0 to 80 were found for all selected polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PBS buffer and agarose gel with BSA concentration of 0.1-5%, respectively. Then, an improved theoretical model was applied to quantify the observed enhancement effect, and the result showed that the predicted sampling time constant agreed well with the experimental one in complex matrix. Furthermore, a simplified equation was proposed for the real biological sample analysis.

  15. Synthesizing metamaterials with angularly independent effective medium properties based on an anisotropic parameter retrieval technique coupled with a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Bossard, Jeremy A.; Wang, Xiande; Werner, Douglas H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to retrieve the effective electromagnetic parameters of a slab of anisotropic metamaterial from reflection and transmission coefficients (or scattering parameters). In this retrieval method, calculated or measured scattering parameters are employed for plane waves incident obliquely on a metamaterial slab at different angles. Useful analytical expressions are derived for extracting the homogeneous anisotropic medium parameters of a metamaterial. To validate the method, the effective permittivity and permeability tensor parameters for a composite split-ring resonator-wire array are retrieved and shown to be consistent with observations previously reported in the literature. This retrieval method is further incorporated into a genetic algorithm (GA) to synthesize an infrared zero-index-metamaterial with a wide field-of-view, demonstrating the utility of the new design approach. The anisotropic parameter retrieval algorithm, when combined with a robust optimizer such as GA, can provide a powerful design tool for exploiting the anisotropic properties in metamaterials to achieve specific angle dependant or independent responses.

  16. Light-effect transistor (LET) with multiple independent gating controls for optical logic gates and optical amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Marmon, Jason K; Wang, Kai; Zhou, Weilie; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Modern electronics are developing electronic-optical integrated circuits, while their electronic backbone, e.g. field-effect transistors (FETs), remains the same. However, further FET down scaling is facing physical and technical challenges. A light-effect transistor (LET) offers electronic-optical hybridization at the component level, which can continue Moore's law to the quantum region without requiring a FET's fabrication complexity, e.g. a physical gate and doping, by employing optical gating and photoconductivity. Multiple independent gates are therefore readily realized to achieve unique functionalities without increasing chip space. Here we report LET device characteristics and novel digital and analog applications, such as optical logic gates and optical amplification. Prototype CdSe-nanowire-based LETs show output and transfer characteristics resembling advanced FETs, e.g. on/off ratios up to ~1.0x10^6 with a source-drain voltage of ~1.43 V, gate-power of ~260 nW, and subthreshold swing of ~0.3 nW/de...

  17. Differential Effects of Leptin on the Invasive Potential of Androgen-Dependent and -Independent Prostate Carcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanand D. Deo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has been linked with an increased risk of prostate cancer. The formation of toxic free oxygen radicals has been implicated in obesity mediated disease processes. Leptin is one of the major cytokines produced by adipocytes and controls body weight homeostasis through food intake and energy expenditure. The rationale of the study was to determine the impact of leptin on the metastatic potential of androgen-sensitive (LNCaP cells as well as androgen-insensitive (PC-3 and DU-145 cells. At a concentration of 200_nm, LNCaP cells showed a significant increase (20% above control; P<.0001 in cellular proliferation without any effect on androgen-insensitive cells. Furthermore, exposure to leptin caused a significant (P<.01 to P<.0001 dose-dependent decrease in migration and invasion of PC3 and Du-145 prostate carcinoma cell lines. At the molecular level, exposure of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells to leptin stimulates the phosphorylation of MAPK at early time point as well as the transcription factor STAT3, suggesting the activation of the intracellular signaling cascade upon leptin binding to its cognate receptor. Taken together, these results suggest that leptin mediates the invasive potential of prostate carcinoma cells, and that this effect is dependent on their androgen sensitivity.

  18. Nonlinear effects of the finite amplitude ultrasound wave in biological tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nonlinear effects will occur during the transmission of the finite amplitude wave in biological tissues.The theoretical prediction and experimental demonstration of the nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude wave at the range of biomedical ultrasound frequency and intensity are studied.Results show that the efficiency factor and effective propagation distance will decrease while the attenuation coefficient increases due to the existence of nonlinear effects.The experimental results coincided quite well with the theory.This shows that the effective propagation distance and efficiency factor can be used to describe quantitatively the influence of nonlinear effects on the propagation of the finite amplitude sound wave in biological tissues.

  19. ICBEN review of research on the biological effects of noise 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Brink, Mark; Bristow, Abigail; de Kluizenaar, Yvonne; Finegold, Lawrence; Hong, Jiyoung; Janssen, Sabine A; Klaeboe, Ronny; Leroux, Tony; Liebl, Andreas; Matsui, Toshihito; Schwela, Dieter; Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    The mandate of the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) is to promote a high level of scientific research concerning all aspects of noise-induced effects on human beings and animals. In this review, ICBEN team chairs and co-chairs summarize relevant findings, publications, developments, and policies related to the biological effects of noise, with a focus on the period 2011-2014 and for the following topics: Noise-induced hearing loss; nonauditory effects of noise; effects of noise on performance and behavior; effects of noise on sleep; community response to noise; and interactions with other agents and contextual factors. Occupational settings and transport have been identified as the most prominent sources of noise that affect health. These reviews demonstrate that noise is a prevalent and often underestimated threat for both auditory and nonauditory health and that strategies for the prevention of noise and its associated negative health consequences are needed to promote public health.

  20. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Leonardo G.O.; Seabra, André; Padez, Cristina; Duarte, João P.; Rebelo-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Valente-dos-Santos, João; Luz, Tatiana D.D.; Carmo, Bruno C.M.; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The present study aimed to: 1) examine the association of biological maturation effect on performance at a motor coordination battery and 2) to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Results: Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34). Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%). Conclusions: We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges. PMID:26972616

  1. Effective identification of conserved pathways in biological networks using hidden Markov models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Qian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The advent of various high-throughput experimental techniques for measuring molecular interactions has enabled the systematic study of biological interactions on a global scale. Since biological processes are carried out by elaborate collaborations of numerous molecules that give rise to a complex network of molecular interactions, comparative analysis of these biological networks can bring important insights into the functional organization and regulatory mechanisms of biological systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we present an effective framework for identifying common interaction patterns in the biological networks of different organisms based on hidden Markov models (HMMs. Given two or more networks, our method efficiently finds the top matching paths in the respective networks, where the matching paths may contain a flexible number of consecutive insertions and deletions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on several protein-protein interaction (PPI networks obtained from the Database of Interacting Proteins (DIP and other public databases, we demonstrate that our method is able to detect biologically significant pathways that are conserved across different organisms. Our algorithm has a polynomial complexity that grows linearly with the size of the aligned paths. This enables the search for very long paths with more than 10 nodes within a few minutes on a desktop computer. The software program that implements this algorithm is available upon request from the authors.

  2. Waist circumference as a mediator of biological maturation effect on the motor coordination in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G.O. Luz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The present study aimed to: 1 examine the association of biological maturation effect on performance at a motor coordination battery and 2 to assess whether the association between biological maturation and scores obtained in motor coordination tests is mediated by some anthropometric measurement. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 73 male children aged 8 years old. Anthropometric data considered the height, body mass, sitting height, waist circumference, body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass estimates. Biological maturation was assessed by the percentage of the predicted mature stature. Motor coordination was tested by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. A partial correlation between anthropometric measurements, z-score of maturation and the motor coordination tests were performed, controlling for chronological age. Finally, causal mediation analysis was performed. Results: Height, body mass, waist circumference and fat mass showed a slight to moderate inverse correlation with motor coordination. Biological maturation was significantly associated with the balance test with backward walking (r=-0.34. Total mediation of the waist circumference was identified in the association between biological maturation and balance test with backward walking (77%. Conclusions: We identified an association between biological maturation and KTK test performance in male children and also verified that there is mediation of waist circumference. It is recommended that studies be carried out with female individuals and at other age ranges.

  3. Neutron exposures in human cells: bystander effect and relative biological effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isheeta Seth

    Full Text Available Bystander effects have been observed repeatedly in mammalian cells following photon and alpha particle irradiation. However, few studies have been performed to investigate bystander effects arising from neutron irradiation. Here we asked whether neutrons also induce a bystander effect in two normal human lymphoblastoid cell lines. These cells were exposed to fast neutrons produced by targeting a near-monoenergetic 50.5 MeV proton beam at a Be target (17 MeV average neutron energy, and irradiated-cell conditioned media (ICCM was transferred to unirradiated cells. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay was used to quantify genetic damage in radiation-naïve cells exposed to ICCM from cultures that received 0 (control, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 or 4 Gy neutrons. Cells grown in ICCM from irradiated cells showed no significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or nucleoplasmic bridges compared to cells grown in ICCM from sham irradiated cells for either cell line. However, the neutron beam has a photon dose-contamination of 5%, which may modulate a neutron-induced bystander effect. To determine whether these low doses of contaminating photons can induce a bystander effect, cells were irradiated with cobalt-60 at doses equivalent to the percent contamination for each neutron dose. No significant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei or bridges was observed at these doses of photons for either cell line when cultured in ICCM. As expected, high doses of photons induced a clear bystander effect in both cell lines for micronuclei and bridges (p<0.0001. These data indicate that neutrons do not induce a bystander effect in these cells. Finally, neutrons had a relative biological effectiveness of 2.0 ± 0.13 for micronuclei and 5.8 ± 2.9 for bridges compared to cobalt-60. These results may be relevant to radiation therapy with fast neutrons and for regulatory agencies setting standards for neutron radiation protection and safety.

  4. Methods for studying and criteria for evaluating the biological effects of electric fields of industrial frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savin, B.M.; Shandala, M.G.; Nikonova, K.V.; Morozov, Yu.A.

    1978-10-01

    Data are reviewed from a number of USSR research studies on the biological effects of electric power transmission lines of 1150 Kv and above. Effects on man, plants, animals, and terrestrial ecosystems are reported. Existing health standards in the USSR for the exposure of personnel working in electric fields are included. It is concluded that high-voltage electric fields have a harmful effect on man and his environment.

  5. The Effects of Field Dependent/Independent Style Awareness on Learning Strategies and Outcomes in an Instructional Hypermedia Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyle, Clifford Omodele

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-dependent/independent style awareness affects learning outcomes and learning strategies used in a hypermedia instructional module. Field-dependent/independent style was measured using the Global Embedded Figures Test. Style awareness meant that students were provided with information and…

  6. "The Most Important Thing Is to Learn the Way to Learn": Evaluating the Effectiveness of Independent Learning by Perceptual Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The mission of universities today is not only to nurture experts in various professions, but also to cultivate lifelong autonomous learners. Independent learning and pedagogies that aim to foster learner autonomy have grown in importance over the past decade. However, the extent to which independent learning is successful in fostering autonomy has…

  7. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanis Kelly L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure

  8. Predator interference effects on biological control: The "paradox" of the generalist predator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshad, Rana D.; Bhowmick, Suman; Quansah, Emmanuel; Basheer, Aladeen; Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar

    2016-10-01

    An interesting conundrum in biological control questions the efficiency of generalist predators as biological control agents. Theory suggests, generalist predators are poor agents for biological control, primarily due to mutual interference. However field evidence shows they are actually quite effective in regulating pest densities. In this work we provide a plausible answer to this paradox. We analyze a three species model, where a generalist top predator is introduced into an ecosystem as a biological control, to check the population of a middle predator, that in turn is depredating on a prey species. We show that the inclusion of predator interference alone, can cause the solution of the top predator equation to blow-up in finite time, while there is global existence in the no interference case. This result shows that interference could actually cause a population explosion of the top predator, enabling it to control the target species, thus corroborating recent field evidence. Our results might also partially explain the population explosion of certain species, introduced originally for biological control purposes, such as the cane toad (Bufo marinus) in Australia, which now functions as a generalist top predator. We also show both Turing instability and spatio-temporal chaos in the model. Lastly we investigate time delay effects.

  9. Biologically templated assembly of hybrid semiconducting nanomesh for high performance field effect transistors and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hye-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kim, Woong; Yi, Hyunjung

    2016-10-01

    Delicately assembled composites of semiconducting nanomaterials and biological materials provide an attractive interface for emerging applications, such as chemical/biological sensors, wearable health monitoring devices, and therapeutic agent releasing devices. The nanostructure of composites as a channel and a sensing material plays a critical role in the performance of field effect transistors (FETs). Therefore, it is highly desirable to prepare elaborate composite that can allow the fabrication of high performance FETs and also provide high sensitivity and selectivity in detecting specific chemical/biological targets. In this work, we demonstrate that high performance FETs can be fabricated with a hydrodynamically assembled composite, a semiconducting nanomesh, of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (S-SWNTs) and a genetically engineered M13 phage to show strong binding affinity toward SWNTs. The semiconducting nanomesh enables a high on/off ratio (~104) of FETs. We also show that the threshold voltage and the channel current of the nanomesh FETs are sensitive to the change of the M13 phage surface charge. This biological gate effect of the phage enables the detection of biologically important molecules such as dopamine and bisphenol A using nanomesh-based FETs. Our results provide a new insight for the preparation of composite material platform for highly controllable bio/electronics interfaces.

  10. Biologically templated assembly of hybrid semiconducting nanomesh for high performance field effect transistors and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Hye-Hyeon; Lee, Seung-Woo; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kim, Woong; Yi, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Delicately assembled composites of semiconducting nanomaterials and biological materials provide an attractive interface for emerging applications, such as chemical/biological sensors, wearable health monitoring devices, and therapeutic agent releasing devices. The nanostructure of composites as a channel and a sensing material plays a critical role in the performance of field effect transistors (FETs). Therefore, it is highly desirable to prepare elaborate composite that can allow the fabrication of high performance FETs and also provide high sensitivity and selectivity in detecting specific chemical/biological targets. In this work, we demonstrate that high performance FETs can be fabricated with a hydrodynamically assembled composite, a semiconducting nanomesh, of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (S-SWNTs) and a genetically engineered M13 phage to show strong binding affinity toward SWNTs. The semiconducting nanomesh enables a high on/off ratio (~104) of FETs. We also show that the threshold voltage and the channel current of the nanomesh FETs are sensitive to the change of the M13 phage surface charge. This biological gate effect of the phage enables the detection of biologically important molecules such as dopamine and bisphenol A using nanomesh-based FETs. Our results provide a new insight for the preparation of composite material platform for highly controllable bio/electronics interfaces. PMID:27762315

  11. Role of prefrontal cortical calcium-independent phospholipase A2 in antinociceptive effect of the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor antidepresssant maprotiline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Wee-Siong; Shalini, Suku-Maran; Torta, Federico; Wenk, Markus R; Stohler, Christian; Yeo, Jin-Fei; Herr, Deron R; Ong, Wei-Yi

    2017-01-06

    The prefrontal cortex is essential for executive functions such as decision-making and planning. There is also accumulating evidence that it is important for the modulation of pain. In this study, we investigated a possible role of prefrontal cortical calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) in antinociception induced by the norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI) and tetracyclic (tricyclic) antidepressant, maprotiline. Intraperitoneal injections of maprotiline increased iPLA2 mRNA and protein expression in the prefrontal cortex. This treatment also reduced grooming responses to von-Frey hair stimulation of the face after facial carrageenan injection, indicating decreased sensitivity to pain. The antinociceptive effect of maprotiline was abrogated by iPLA2 antisense oligonucleotide injection to the prefrontal cortex, indicating a role of this enzyme in antinociception. In contrast, injection of iPLA2 antisense oligonucleotide to the somatosensory cortex did not reduce the antinociceptive effect of maprotiline. Lipidomic analysis of the prefrontal cortex showed decrease in phosphatidylcholine species, but increase in lysophosphatidylcholine species, indicating increased PLA2 activity, and release of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) after maprotiline treatment. Differences in sphingomyelin/ceramide were also detected. These changes were not observed in maprotiline-treated mice that received iPLA2 antisense oligonucleotide to the prefrontal cortex. Metabolites of DHA and EPA may help to strengthen a known supraspinal antinociceptive pathway from the prefrontal cortex to the periaqueductal gray. Together, results indicate a role of prefrontal cortical iPLA2 and its enzymatic products in the antinociceptive effect of maprotiline.

  12. Optimum electrode configuration selection for electrical resistance change based damage detection in composites using an effective independence measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Luis; Díaz-Montiel, Paulina; Venkataraman, Satchi

    2016-04-01

    Laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite materials are increasingly used in aerospace structures due to their superior mechanical properties and reduced weight. Assessing the health and integrity of these structures requires non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques to detect and measure interlaminar delamination and intralaminar matrix cracking damage. The electrical resistance change (ERC) based NDE technique uses the inherent changes in conductive properties of the composite to characterize internal damage. Several works that have explored the ERC technique have been limited to thin cross-ply laminates with simple linear or circular electrode arrangements. This paper investigates a method of optimum selection of electrode configurations for delamination detection in thick cross-ply laminates using ERC. Inverse identification of damage requires numerical optimization of the measured response with a model predicted response. Here, the electrical voltage field in the CFRP composite laminate is calculated using finite element analysis (FEA) models for different specified delamination size and locations, and location of ground and current electrodes. Reducing the number of sensor locations and measurements is needed to reduce hardware requirements, and computational effort needed for inverse identification. This paper explores the use of effective independence (EI) measure originally proposed for sensor location optimization in experimental vibration modal analysis. The EI measure is used for selecting the minimum set of resistance measurements among all possible combinations of selecting a pair of electrodes among the n electrodes. To enable use of EI to ERC required, it is proposed in this research a singular value decomposition SVD to obtain a spectral representation of the resistance measurements in the laminate. The effectiveness of EI measure in eliminating redundant electrode pairs is demonstrated by performing inverse identification of

  13. Biologically effective doses of postoperative radiotherapy in the prevention of keloids. Dose-effect relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kal, H.B.; Veen, R.E. [University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2005-11-01

    Purpose: To review the recurrence rates of keloids after surgical excision followed by radiotherapy, and to answer the question whether after normalization of the dose, a dose-effect relationship could be derived. Material and Methods: A literature search was performed to identify studies dealing with the efficacy of various irradiation regimes for the prevention of keloids after surgery. Biologically effective doses (BEDs) of the various irradiation regimens were calculated using the linear-quadratic concept. A distinction between recurrence rates of keloids in the face and neck region and those in other parts of the body was made. Results: 31 reports were identified with PubMed with the search terms keloids, surgery, radiation therapy, radiotherapy. 13 reports were excluded, because no link could be found between recurrence rate and dose, or if less than ten patients per dose group. The recurrence rate for surgery only was 50-80%. For BED values >10 Gy the recurrence rate decreased as a function of BED. For BED values >30 Gy the recurrence rate was <10%. For a given dose, the recurrence rates of keloids in the sites with high stretch tension were not significantly higher than in sites without stretch tension. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that for effectively treating keloids postoperatively, a relatively high dose must be applied in a short overall treatment time. The optimal treatment probably is an irradiation scheme resulting in a BED value of at least 30 Gy. A BED value of 30 Gy can be obtained with, for instance, a single acute dose of 13 Gy, two fractions of 8 Gy two fractions of 8 Gy or three fractions of 6 Gy, or a single dose of 27 Gy at low dose rate. The radiation treatment should be administered within 2 days after surgery. (orig.)

  14. Effects of Developed Electronic Instructional Medium on Students' Achievement in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinna, Nsofor Caroline; Dada, Momoh Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of developed electronic instructional medium (video DVD instructional package) on students' achievement in Biology. It was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses, using a quasi-experimental, pretest-postest control group design. The sample comprised of 180 senior secondary, year two students from six…

  15. Static magnetic fields: A summary of biological interactions, potential health effects, and exposure guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenforde, T.S.

    1992-05-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of interaction and the biological effects of static magnetic fields has increased significantly during the past two decades as a result of the growing number of applications of these fields in research, industry and medicine. A major stimulus for research on the bioeffects of static magnetic fields has been the effort to develop new technologies for energy production and storage that utilize intense magnetic fields (e.g., thermonuclear fusion reactors and superconducting magnet energy storage devices). Interest in the possible biological interactions and health effects of static magnetic fields has also been increased as a result of recent developments in magnetic levitation as a mode of public transportation. In addition, the rapid emergence of magnetic resonance imaging as a new clinical diagnostic procedure has, in recent years, provided a strong rationale for defining the possible biological effects of magnetic fields with high flux densities. In this review, the principal interaction mechanisms of static magnetic fields will be described, and a summary will be given of the present state of knowledge of the biological, environmental, and human health effects of these fields.

  16. Biological effects from electric fields associated with high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-11-01

    Efforts during the past year by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute-funded laboratories to investigate the biological effects from electric fields are described in resume form. Investigations generally have been summarized with objectives, accomplishments of the past year, and some indication of projected studies.

  17. The Effectiveness of a Virtual Field Trip (VFT) Module in Learning Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haris, Norbaizura; Osman, Kamisah

    2015-01-01

    Virtual Field Trip is a computer aided module of science developed to study the Colonisation and Succession in Mangrove Swamps, as an alternative to the real field trip in Form for Biology. This study is to identify the effectiveness of the Virtual Field Trip (VFT) module towards the level of achievement in the formative test for this topic. This…

  18. Effectiveness of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment in Biology Teaching: Classroom Community Sense, Academic Achievement and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapici, I. Ümit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Blended Cooperative Learning Environment (BCLE) in biology teaching on students' classroom community sense, their academic achievement and on their levels of satisfaction. In the study, quantitative and qualitative research methods were used together. The study was carried out with 30 students in…

  19. Biological assessment of effects of combined sewer overflows and storm water discharges.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijklema, L.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Cuppen, J.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The biological effects of discharges from combined or separated sewer systems are difficult to assess or to predict due to variahilities in concentrations, environmental conditions, morphometry, susceptibility of organisms, seasonality and other factors. A general discussion of the problem results i

  20. Simulation of the radiation effects on biological objects; Simulation der Strahlenwirkung auf biologische Objekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bug, Marion; Nettelbeck, Heidi [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe ' Biologische Wirksamkeit Ionisierender Strahlung'

    2013-06-15

    The simulation of biological radiation effects by means of the electron transport in water and DNA and the cross sections for elastic scattering, electronic excitation, and ionization in electron collisions with tetrahydrofuran molecules is described, whereby the strand-breaking probabilities are determined. (HSI)

  1. Effects of organic versus conventional management on chemical and biological parameters in agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeningen, van A.D.; Vos, de O.J.; Korthals, G.W.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    A comparative study of organic and conventional arable farming systems was conducted in The Netherlands to determine the effect of management practices on chemical and biological soil properties and soil health. Soils from thirteen accredited organic farms and conventionally managed neighboring farm

  2. Effectiveness of the Biology PTechLS Module in a Felda Science Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Norlidah; DeWitt, Dorothy; Rahman, Mohd Nazri Abdul; Gelamdin, Rashidah Begum; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Siraj, Saedah

    2014-01-01

    The PTechLS module combines learning styles with the use of technology to increase students' learning experience, especially in learning abstract concepts. The PTechLS module prototype was developed by Norlidah Alias (2010). The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation effectiveness of the Biology PTechLS module in a Felda Learning…

  3. Why magnetic and electromagnetic effects in biology are irreproducible and contradictory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchachenko, Anatoly

    2016-01-01

    The main source of magnetic and electromagnetic effects in biological systems is now generally accepted and demonstrated in this paper to be radical pair mechanism which implies pairwise generation of radicals in biochemical reactions. This mechanism was convincingly established for enzymatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and desoxynucleic acid (DNA) synthesis by using catalyzing metal ions with magnetic nuclei ((25)Mg, (43)Ca, (67)Zn) and supported by magnetic field effects on these reactions. The mechanism, is shown to function in medicine as a medical remedy or technology (trans-cranial magnetic stimulation, nuclear magnetic control of the ATP synthesis in heart muscle, the killing of cancer cells by suppression of DNA synthesis). However, the majority of magnetic effects in biology remain to be irreproducible, contradictory, and enigmatic. Three sources of such a state are shown in this paper to be: the presence of paramagnetic metal ions as a component of enzymatic site or as an impurity in an uncontrollable amount; the property of the radical pair mechanism to function at a rather high concentration of catalyzing metal ions, when at least two ions enter into the catalytic site; and the kinetic restrictions, which imply compatibility of chemical and spin dynamics in radical pair. It is important to keep in mind these factors to properly understand and predict magnetic effects in magneto-biology and biology itself and deliberately use them in medicine.

  4. Risk of serious adverse effects of biological and targeted drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Simon; Eric Furst, Daniel; Boers, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible differences in serious adverse effects among the 10 currently approved biological and targeted synthetic DMARDs (b/ts-DMARDs) for RA. METHODS: Systematic review in bibliographic databases, trial registries and websites of regulatory agencies identified randomized...... differences in rates of SAEs. Our data suggest caution should be taken when deciding among available drugs. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42014014842....

  5. Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Effect of temperature on the biology of Paracoccus marginatus was investigated. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18°, 20°, 25° and 30°C. At 15°, 34° and 35°C eggs hatched, but further development was arrested. Approximately 80 -90% of the eggs survived betw...

  6. THE EFFECT OF USING DIGIMON (SCIENCE DIGITAL MODULE WITH SCIENTIFIC APPROACH AT THE VISUALIZATIONOF STUDENTS’ INDEPENDENCE AND LEARNING RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Syahroni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the influence of digimon based scientific approach on independence and learning autcomes of learners. This research has designed as quasi-experimental nonequivalent control group design. Subjects of this reaserch is learners at 8 E and 8 F on SMP N 1 Magelang in year 2014/2015. The results showed that there was a strong perfect linear relationship between digimon with independent learning or learning outcomes of learners. The result of independent assessment on the experiment group was 85,47 while the result of independent assessment on the control group was 69,94. Digimon based scientific approach are influential 51.93% to the independence of learners, while the rest influenced by other factors. Digimon give influence 39.69% on learning outcomes of learners, while the rest influenced by other factors.This relation is empharized through an independent test (t-test which shows dependent bridge between digimon with independence toward concept understanding of learners in experiment group.

  7. Source credibility and idea improvement have independent effects on unconscious plagiarism errors in recall and generate-new tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Timothy J; Field, Ian; Jones, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Unconscious plagiarism occurs when people try to generate new ideas or when they try to recall their own ideas from among a set generated by a group. In this study, the factors that independently influence these two forms of plagiarism error were examined. Participants initially generated solutions to real-world problems in 2 domains of knowledge in collaboration with a confederate presented as an expert in 1 domain. Subsequently, the participant generated improvements to half of the ideas from each person. Participants returned 1 day later to recall either their own ideas or their partner's ideas and to complete a generate-new task. A double dissociation was observed. Generate-new plagiarism was driven by partner expertise but not by idea improvement, whereas recall plagiarism was driven by improvement but not expertise. This improvement effect on recall plagiarism was seen for the recall-own but not the recall-partner task, suggesting that the increase in recall-own plagiarism is due to mistaken idea ownership, not source confusion.

  8. Tau Pathology and Parietal White Matter Lesions Have Independent but Synergistic Effects on Early Development of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Hertze

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: White matter lesions (WMLs are a common finding in patients with dementia. This study investigates the relationship between WMLs, hyperphosphorylated tau (P-tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and apolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 genotype in prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: Baseline levels of tau, P-tau and β-amyloid 1-42 in CSF, the presence of WMLs in the brain, and the APOE genotype were ascertained in 159 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and 38 cognitively healthy controls. Results: After 5.7 years, 58 patients had developed AD. In this group, patients with normal levels of CSF P-tau had higher levels of WMLs in the parietal regions than those with pathological P-tau levels (p Conclusions: We suggest that WMLs in parietal lobes and tau pathology likely have independent but synergistic effects on the reduction of the cognitive reserve capacity of the brain. In patients with a more low-grade AD pathology, WMLs in the parietal lobes might increase the risk of developing dementia.

  9. Maternal marijuana use has independent effects on risk for spontaneous preterm birth but not other common late pregnancy complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leemaqz, Shalem Y; Dekker, Gustaaf A; McCowan, Lesley M; Kenny, Louise C; Myers, Jenny E; Simpson, Nigel A B; Poston, Lucilla; Roberts, Claire T

    2016-07-01

    Widespread legalisation of marijuana raises safety concerns for its use in pregnancy. This study investigated the association of marijuana use prior to and during pregnancy with pregnancy outcomes in a prospective cohort of 5588 nulliparous women from the international SCOPE study. Women were assessed at 15±1 and 20±1 weeks' gestation. Cases [278 Preeclampsia, 470 gestational hypertension, 633 small-for-gestational-age, 236 spontaneous preterm births (SPTB), 143 gestational diabetes] were compared separately with 4114 non-cases. Although the numbers are small, continued maternal marijuana use at 20 weeks' gestation was associated with SPTB independent of cigarette smoking status [adj OR 2.28 (95% CI:1.45-3.59)] and socioeconomic index (SEI) [adj OR 2.17 (95% CI:1.41-3.34)]. When adjusted for maternal age, cigarette smoking, alcohol and SEI, continued maternal marijuana use at 20 weeks' gestation had a greater effect size [adj OR 5.44 (95% CI 2.44-12.11)]. Our data indicate that increasing use of marijuana among young women of reproductive age is a major public health concern.

  10. Correlation between prefrontal cortex activity during working memory tasks and natural mood independent of personality effects: an optical topography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Sato, Hiroki; Katura, Takusige; Matsuda, Ryoichi; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2013-04-30

    Interactions between mood and cognition have drawn much attention in the fields of psychology and neuroscience. Recent neuroimaging studies have examined a neural basis of the mood-cognition interaction that which emphasize the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Although these studies have shown that natural mood variations among participants are correlated with PFC activity during cognitive tasks, they did not control for personality differences. Our aim in this study was to clarify the relationship between natural mood and PFC activity by partialling out the effects of personality. Forty healthy adults completed self-report questionnaires assessing natural mood (the Profile of Mood States) and personality (the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Behavioral Inhibition/Activation Systems scales). They performed verbal and spatial working memory (WM) tasks while their PFC activity was measured using optical topography, a non-invasive, low-constraint neuroimaging tool. Correlation analysis showed that the level of negative mood was inversely associated with PFC activity during the verbal WM task, which replicated our previous findings. Furthermore, the negative correlation between negative mood and PFC activity remained significant after controlling for participants' personality traits, suggesting that natural mood is an independent contributing factor of PFC activity during verbal WM tasks.

  11. Effect of weight loss, independent of change in diet composition, on apolipoprotein AI kinetic in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Caroline; Couture, Patrick; Desroches, Sophie; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Lamarche, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of weight loss, independent of change in diet composition, on HDL and apoAI metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Subjects (19 men with MetS [NCEP-ATPIII]) were fed an isoenergetic Mediterranean-style diet for 5 weeks (all foods provided). Participants then underwent a 20-week free-living period during which they were counseled to restrict energy intake, after which they were again fed an isoenergetic Mediterranean-style diet for 5 weeks. At the end of the two controlled diets, participants received a single bolus of [5,5,5-(2)H(3)] (L)-leucine, and fasting blood samples were collected over a 96 h period. ApoAI kinetic was assessed using multicompartmental modeling of the tracer enrichment data. Participants achieved a 9.1 ± 2.8% reduction in body weight (P diet composition, increases plasma HDL primarily by delaying the catabolism of apoAI.

  12. Piperine, a Bioactive Component of Pepper Spice Exerts Therapeutic Effects on Androgen Dependent and Androgen Independent Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash Samykutty

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most common solid malignancy in men, with 32,000 deaths annually. Piperine, a major alkaloid constituent of black pepper, has previously been reported to have anti-cancer activity in variety of cancer cell lines. The effect of piperine against prostate cancer is not currently known. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the anti-tumor mechanisms of piperine on androgen dependent and androgen independent prostate cancer cells. Here, we show that piperine inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP, PC-3, 22RV1 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, Annexin-V staining demonstrated that piperine treatment induced apoptosis in hormone dependent prostate cancer cells (LNCaP. Using global caspase activation assay, we show that piperine-induced apoptosis resulted in caspase activation in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Further studies revealed that piperine treatment resulted in the activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP-1 proteins in LNCaP, PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells. Piperine treatment also disrupted androgen receptor (AR expression in LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Our evaluations further show that there is a significant reduction of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA levels following piperine treatment in LNCaP cells. NF-kB and STAT-3 transcription factors have previously been shown to play a role in angiogenesis and invasion of prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, treatment of LNCaP, PC-3 and DU-145 prostate cancer cells with piperine resulted in reduced expression of phosphorylated STAT-3 and Nuclear factor-κB (NF-kB transcription factors. These results correlated with the results of Boyden chamber assay, wherein piperine treatment reduced the cell migration of LNCaP and PC-3 cells. Finally, we show that piperine treatment significantly reduced the androgen dependent and androgen independent tumor growth in nude mice model xenotransplanted with prostate cancer cells. Taken together, these

  13. Independent School Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, E. Laurence

    This book deals with the management of privately supported schools and offers guidelines on how these schools might be operated more effectively and economically. The discussions and conclusions are based on observations and data from case studies of independent school operations. The subjects discussed include the role and organization of…

  14. EFFECTS OF POLLUTANTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1980-10-01

    Planning a rational energy future requires anticipating the environmental consequences of various technologies. This is difficult to do with precision as the effects of pollutants are often determined by interactions between and among complex physical (abiotic) and biological (biotic) systems. A given pollutant may affect human beings through direct exposure or indirectly through inducing changes to biological systems which humans need to utilize. The concentration of a toxin in the food chain or the destruction of organisms necessary for the maintenance of high quality water are examples of indirect effects. Pollutants can be transformed and/or degraded as they establish residence in various components of an ecosystem. Anticipation and amelioration of pollutant effects involves the integration of a vast range of data. This data includes: (1) physical and chemical characterization cf the pollutant as it enters the environment; (2) determining effects on the various components (biotic and abiotic) within the context of the functioning ecosystem of interest; (3) transformation in movements and/or degradation of the pollutant within that ecosystem and within specific organisms and physical components; and (4) determining a detailed biochemical and biological picture of the interactions of pollutants with particular organisms and/or their cellular components judged salient for various processes. The major programs described below are designed to answer parts of the above fundamental questions relevant to pollutants generated by energy related technologies. Their emphasis is on anticipating consequences to the biological components of various ecosystems. The work ranges from studies involving parts of a single cell (the membranes) to studies involving the whole ecosystem (in the pelagic zone of a lake). The programs take advantage of expertise and technical abilities present at LBL. Two small exploratory projects which were of brief duration and not related to

  15. Information on biological health effects of ionizing radiation and radionuclides: the rule of a web site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comte, A.; Gaillard-Lecanu, E.; Flury-Herard, A. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, 92 (France); Ourly, F. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France); Hemidy, P.; Lallemand, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), Service de Radioprotection, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a source of information on biological and health effects of radionuclides and ionizing radiation in an easy to use format. Reported work is made up of two distinct parts: data sheets for selected radionuclides and a web file. Data sheets: Specific radiation data sheets provide an overview of the properties, the environmental behaviour, the different pathways of human exposure and the biological and health consequences of selected radionuclides. Radionuclides that have been selected are those commonly dealt with in nuclear industry (and in other areas such as medicine) and released to the environment or naturally occurring (plutonium, tritium, carbon 14). Data sheets corresponding to the different radionuclides are based on the main sources of scientific information in dosimetry, epidemiology, radiobiology and radiation protection. These data sheets are intended for radiation protection specialists and physicians. They include: main physical and chemical characteristics, main radiation protection data: dose coefficients (public, workers), dose limits sources, total released estimate (nuclear industry, atmospheric tests, main pathway of human exposure and biological behaviour, biological and health effects, medical supervision, treatment a list of the main references, appendix providing accurate information. Web file: http://www-dsv.cea.fr/doc/carmin{sub e}xt/fond.php This web file provides a source of information on biological and health effects of ionizing radiation and biological basic knowledge of radiation protection. Available for consultation via Internet, compiled information provides, in a same file, subjects as varied as biological mechanisms, ionizing radiations action, biological and health effects, risk assessment This file is mainly intended to assist in informing and training of non-specialist readership (students, teaching on radiation protection basic knowledge. This electronic document is divided in three

  16. Biological and Molecular Effects of Small Molecule Kinase Inhibitors on Low-Passage Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falko Lange

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-passage cancer cell lines are versatile tools to study tumor cell biology. Here, we have employed four such cell lines, established from primary tumors of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, to evaluate effects of the small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMI vemurafenib, trametinib, perifosine, and regorafenib in an in vitro setting. The mutant BRAF (V600E/V600K inhibitor vemurafenib, but also the MEK1/2 inhibitor trametinib efficiently inhibited DNA synthesis, signaling through ERK1/2 and expression of genes downstream of ERK1/2 in BRAF mutant cells only. In case of the AKT inhibitor perifosine, three cell lines showed a high or intermediate responsiveness to the drug while one cell line was resistant. The multikinase inhibitor regorafenib inhibited proliferation of all CRC lines with similar efficiency and independent of the presence or absence of KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA, and TP53 mutations. Regorafenib action was associated with broad-range inhibitory effects at the level of gene expression but not with a general inhibition of AKT or MEK/ERK signaling. In vemurafenib-sensitive cells, the antiproliferative effect of vemurafenib was enhanced by the other SMI. Together, our results provide insights into the determinants of SMI efficiencies in CRC cells and encourage the further use of low-passage CRC cell lines as preclinical models.

  17. Status of study on biological and toxicological effects of nanoscale materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Bing; FENG; Weiyue; ZHAO; Yuliang; XING; Gengmei; CH

    2005-01-01

    Because the physical and chemical properties of nanosized materials mostly differ from the existing microsized materials, their potential impacts on human health and the environment will be topics under the serious discussions in press and in a number of international scientific journals. We analyze and summarize the existing data of the experimental study on the biological activities and adverse effects of nanoscale materials/particles including single wall carbon nanotubes, multi wall carbon nanotubes, titanium oxide and iron powders. Though some biological behaviors of nanoscale materials observed cannot be understood on the basis of the current knowledge, as the existing data are mostly preliminary, it is too early to make some exclusive conclusions on biological activities (or the toxicity) of any of nanoscale materials. The experimental techniques, the current topics, and the future research directions for this new research field are also discussed.

  18. Biological effects of mercury pollution. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biological and biochemical effects of mercury pollutants on humans, animals, and plants. References cover long-term and short-term experiments, biochemical reaction kinetics, pollution sources, and ecosystems. Mercury poisoning, metabolism, and related diseases are described. Carcinogenicity testing, health risk and assessment, and the effects on food chains are examined. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Biological effects of low-level exposures: a perspective from U.S. EPA scientists.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, J M; Farland, W H

    1998-01-01

    Biological effects of low-level exposures (BELLE) may be very important in characterizing the potential health risks of environmental pollutants. Before some features of BELLE, such as effects that may be modulated by adaptive or defense mechanisms, can be taken into greater consideration in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency risk assessments, however adequate information on a toxicant's mode of action and answers to other questions are needed.

  20. Cellular Internalization of Fibroblast Growth Factor-12 Exerts Radioprotective Effects on Intestinal Radiation Damage Independently of FGFR Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumiaki, E-mail: f_naka@nirs.go.jp [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Umeda, Sachiko [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Yasuda, Takeshi [Radiation Emergency Medicine Research Program, Research Center for Radiation Emergency Medicine, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Fujita, Mayumi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan); Asada, Masahiro [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Meineke, Viktor [Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology affiliated to the University of Ulm, Munich (Germany); Imamura, Toru [Signaling Molecules Research Group, Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, Chiba (Japan)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Several fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) were shown to inhibit radiation-induced tissue damage through FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling; however, this signaling was also found to be involved in the pathogenesis of several malignant tumors. In contrast, FGF12 cannot activate any FGFRs. Instead, FGF12 can be internalized readily into cells using 2 cell-penetrating peptide domains (CPP-M, CPP-C). Therefore, this study focused on clarifying the role of FGF12 internalization in protection against radiation-induced intestinal injury. Methods and Materials: Each FGF or peptide was administered intraperitoneally to BALB/c mice in the absence of heparin 24 hours before or after total body irradiation with γ rays at 9 to 12 Gy. Several radioprotective effects were examined in the jejunum. Results: Administration of FGF12 after radiation exposure was as effective as pretreatment in significantly promoting intestinal regeneration, proliferation of crypt cells, and epithelial differentiation. Two domains, comprising amino acid residues 80 to 109 and 140 to 169 of FGF12B, were identified as being responsible for the radioprotective activity, so that deletion of both domains from FGF12B resulted in a reduction in activity. Interestingly, these regions included the CPP-M and CPP-C domains, respectively; however, CPP-C by itself did not show an antiapoptotic effect. In addition, FGF1, prototypic FGF, possesses a domain corresponding to CPP-M, whereas it lacks CPP-C, so the fusion of FGF1 with CPP-C (FGF1/CPP-C) enhanced cellular internalization and increased radioprotective activity. However, FGF1/CPP-C reduced in vitro mitogenic activity through FGFRs compared with FGF1, implying that FGFR signaling might not be essential for promoting the radioprotective effect of FGF1/CPP-C. In addition, internalized FGF12 suppressed the activation of p38α after irradiation, resulting in reduced radiation-induced apoptosis. Conclusions: These findings indicate that FGF12 can protect the

  1. The role of cell hydration in realization of biological effects of non-ionizing radiation (NIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2015-09-01

    The weak knowledge on the nature of cellular and molecular mechanisms of biological effects of NIR such as static magnetic field, infrasound frequency of mechanical vibration, extremely low frequency of electromagnetic fields and microwave serves as a main barrier for adequate dosimetry from the point of Public Health. The difficulty lies in the fact that the biological effects of NIR depend not only on their thermodynamic characteristics but also on their frequency and intensity "windows", chemical and physical composition of the surrounding medium, as well as on the initial metabolic state of the organism. Therefore, only biomarker can be used for adequate estimation of biological effect of NIR on organisms. Because of the absence of such biomarker(s), organizations having the mission to monitor hazardous effects of NIR traditionally base their instruction on thermodynamic characteristics of NIR. Based on the high sensitivity to NIR of both aqua medium structure and cell hydration, it is suggested that cell bathing medium is one of the primary targets and cell hydration is a biomarker for NIR effects on cells and organisms. The purpose of this article is to present a short review of literature and our own experimental data on the effects of NIR on plants' seeds germination, microbe growth and development, snail neurons and heart muscle, rat's brain and heart tissues.

  2. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    Full Text Available Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history, the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard, or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  3. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  4. Biological effects of atmospheric particles on human bronchial epithelial cells. Comparison with diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulig, Augustin; Sourdeval, Matthieu; Meyer, Martine; Marano, Francelyne; Baeza-Squiban, Armelle

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated the increase of respiratory disorders with high levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) levels although the underlying biological mechanisms are unclear. PM are a complex mixture of particles with different origins but in urban areas, they mainly contain soots from transport like Diesel exhaust particles (DEP). In order to determine whether PM biological effects can be explained by the presence of DEP, the effects of urban PM, DEP and carbon black particles (CB) were compared on a human bronchial epithelial cell line (16-HBE14o-). Two types of PM were used : reference material (RPM) and PM with an aerodynamic diameter particles. However, DEP and to a lower extent PM inhibited cell proliferation, induced the release of a pro-inflammatory cytokine, GM-CSF, and generated a pro-oxidant state as shown by the increased intracellular peroxides production. By contrast, CB never induced such effects. Nevertheless CB are more endocytosed than DEP whereas PM are the less endocytosed particles. In conclusion, PM induced to a lower extent the same biological effects than DEP in 16-HBE cells suggesting that particle characteristics should be thoroughly considered in order to clearly correlate adverse effects of PM to their composition and to clarify the role of DEP in PM effects.

  5. Benthic biological effects of seasonal hypoxia in a eutrophic estuary predate rapid coastal development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Melanie J.; Powers, Sean P.; Porter, Hugh J.; Peterson, Charles H.

    2006-11-01

    Nutrient and organic loading associated with escalating human activities increases biological oxygen demand from microbial decomposition. In the Neuse River estuary, North Carolina, recurrent nuisance algal blooms, bottom-water hypoxic events, and fish kills during summers of the 1990s suggest that uncapped nutrient loading may have increased the frequency, duration, and/or spatial scope of important biological effects of hypoxia during summer, when persistent water column stratification can occur and microbial metabolism is greatest. We test the hypothesis that the severity of benthic biological effects of hypoxia in this estuary has increased over a 30-year period of dramatic human population growth in eastern North Carolina by comparing survival over summer of the benthic bivalve Macoma spp. between historical (1968-1970) and recent (1997-1998) years. Macoma is a demonstrated indicator of oxygen availability, the benthic biomass dominant in the Neuse and other temperate estuaries and the major prey link to higher trophic levels. All three historical summers exhibited patterns of collapse in Macoma populations indistinguishable from the recent summer of severe hypoxia (1997) but distinct from the modest changes documented during the mildly hypoxic summer of 1998. The only Macoma to survive any severely hypoxic summer were those in shallows where oxygen could be renewed by surface mixing. Thus, the biological effects of hypoxia observed in the Neuse River estuary in the late 1990s appear no more severe than 30 years before. Historic rates of organic loading to the Neuse River estuary may have been sufficient to induce widespread and intense hypoxia beneath the surface mixed layer, implying that even if algal blooms are diminished through nutrient reductions, the severity of biological effects of bottom-water hypoxia may not change detectably.

  6. Independent effects of diet and exercise training on fat oxidation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croci, Ilaria; Byrne, Nuala M; Chachay, Veronique S; Hills, Andrew P; Clouston, Andrew D; O’Moore-Sullivan, Trisha M; Prins, Johannes B; Macdonald, Graeme A; Hickman, Ingrid J

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the independent effects of 6-mo of dietary energy restriction or exercise training on whole-body and hepatic fat oxidation of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS Participants were randomised into either circuit exercise training (EX; n = 13; 3 h/wk without changes in dietary habits), or dietary energy restriction (ER) without changes in structured physical activity (ER; n = 8). Respiratory quotient (RQ) and whole-body fat oxidation rates (Fatox) were determined by indirect calorimetry under basal, insulin-stimulated and exercise conditions. Severity of disease and steatosis was determined by liver histology; hepatic Fatox was estimated from plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations; cardiorespiratory fitness was expressed as VO2peak. Complete-case analysis was performed (EX: n = 10; ER: n = 6). RESULTS Hepatic steatosis and NAFLD activity score decreased with ER but not with EX. β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations increased significantly in response to ER (0.08 ± 0.02 mmol/L vs 0.12 ± 0.04 mmol/L, P = 0.03) but remained unchanged in response to EX (0.10 ± 0.03 mmol/L vs 0.11 ± 0.07 mmol/L, P = 0.39). Basal RQ decreased (P = 0.05) in response to EX, while this change was not significant after ER (P = 0.38). VO2peak (P 0.05). The increase in β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations was correlated with the reduction in hepatic steatosis (r = -0.56, P = 0.04). CONCLUSION ER and EX lead to specific benefits on fat metabolism of patients with NAFLD. Increased hepatic Fatox in response to ER could be one mechanism through which the ER group achieved reduction in steatosis.

  7. The Effects of Magnesium Ions on the Enzymatic Synthesis of Ligand-Bearing Artificial DNA by Template-Independent Polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Takezawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A metal-mediated base pair, composed of two ligand-bearing nucleotides and a bridging metal ion, is one of the most promising components for developing DNA-based functional molecules. We have recently reported an enzymatic method to synthesize hydroxypyridone (H-type ligand-bearing artificial DNA strands. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT, a template-independent DNA polymerase, was found to oligomerize H nucleotides to afford ligand-bearing DNAs, which were subsequently hybridized through copper-mediated base pairing (H–CuII–H. In this study, we investigated the effects of a metal cofactor, MgII ion, on the TdT-catalyzed polymerization of H nucleotides. At a high MgII concentration (10 mM, the reaction was halted after several H nucleotides were appended. In contrast, at lower MgII concentrations, H nucleotides were further appended to the H-tailed product to afford longer ligand-bearing DNA strands. An electrophoresis mobility shift assay revealed that the binding affinity of TdT to the H-tailed DNAs depends on the MgII concentration. In the presence of excess MgII ions, TdT did not bind to the H-tailed strands; thus, further elongation was impeded. This is possibly because the interaction with MgII ions caused folding of the H-tailed strands into unfavorable secondary structures. This finding provides an insight into the enzymatic synthesis of longer ligand-bearing DNA strands.

  8. Distinct biological effects of different nanoparticles commonly used in cosmetics and medicine coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Julia X

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metal oxides in nanoparticle form such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide now appear on the ingredient lists of household products as common and diverse as cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpaste, and medicine. Previous studies of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide in non-nanoparticle format using animals have found few adverse effects. This has led the FDA to classify zinc oxide as GRAS (generally recognized as safe for use as a food additive. However, there is no regulation specific for the use of these chemicals in nanoparticle format. Recent studies, however, have begun to raise concerns over the pervasive use of these compounds in nanoparticle forms. Unfortunately, there is a lack of easily-adaptable screening methods that would allow for the detection of their biological effects. Results We adapted two image-based assays, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based caspase activation assay and a green fluorescent protein coupled-LC3 assay, to test for the biological effects of different nanoparticles in a high-throughput format. We show that zinc oxide nanoparticles are cytotoxic. We also show that titanium dioxide nanoparticles are highly effective in inducing autophagy, a cellular disposal mechanism that is often activated when the cell is under stress. Conclusion We suggest that these image-based assays provide a method of screening for the biological effects of similar compounds that is both efficient and sensitive as well as do not involve the use of animals.

  9. In vitro cultured cells as probes for space radiation effects on biological systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meli, A.; Perrella, G.; Curcio, F.; Ambesi-Impiombato, F.S. [Dipartimento di Patologia e Medicina Sperimentale e Clinica, Universita di Udine, P.le S. Maria della Misericordia, 33100 Udine (Italy)

    1999-12-06

    Near future scenarios of long-term and far-reaching manned space missions, require more extensive knowledge of all possible biological consequences of space radiation, particularly in humans, on both a long-term and a short-term basis. In vitro cultured cells have significantly contributed to the tremendous advancement of biomedical research. It is therefore to be expected that simple biological systems such as cultured cells, will contribute to space biomedical sciences. Space represents a novel environment, to which life has not been previously exposed. Both microgravity and space radiation are the two relevant components of such an environment, but biological adaptive mechanisms and efficient countermeasures can significantly minimize microgravity effects. On the other hand, it is felt that space radiation risks may be more relevant and that defensive strategies can only stem from our deeper knowledge of biological effects and of cellular repair mechanisms. Cultured cells may play a key role in such studies. Particularly, thyroid cells may be relevant because of the exquisite sensitivity of the thyroid gland to radiation. In addition, a clone of differentiated, normal thyroid follicular cells (FRTL5 cells) is available in culture, which is well characterized and particularly fit for space research.

  10. Biological Effect of Ultraviolet Photocatalysis on Nanoscale Titanium with a Focus on Physicochemical Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jingyi; Zhou, Lei; Ding, Xianglong; Gao, Yan; Liu, Xiangning

    2015-09-15

    Physicochemical properties, regulated by various surface modifications, influence the biological performance of materials. The interaction between surface charge and biomolecules is key to understanding the mechanism of surface-tissue integration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological response to a nanoscale titanium surface after ultraviolet (UVC, λ = 250 ± 20 nm) irradiation and to analyze the effects via a physicochemical mechanism. The surface characteristics were evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface profilometry, and contact angle assay. In addition, we applied the zeta-potential, a direct method to measure the electrostatic charge on UV-treated and UV-untreated titanium nanotube surfaces. The effect of the Ti surface after UV treatment on the biological process was determined by analyzing bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption and osteoblast-like MG-63 early adhesion, morphology, cytoskeletal arrangement, proliferation, and focal adhesion. Compared to an anodized titanium nanotube coating, UV irradiation altered the contact angles on the control surface from 51.5° to 6.2° without changing the surface topography or roughness. Furthermore, titanium nanotubes after UV treatment showed a significant reduction in the content of acidic hydroxyl groups and held less negative charge than the anodized coating. With regard to the biological response, along with an enhanced capability to adsorb BSA, osteoblasts exhibited higher colonization and viability on the UV-treated material. The results suggest that UV treatment enhances the biocompatibility by reducing the electrostatic repulsion between biomaterials and biomolecules.

  11. Blood pressure-independent effect of candesartan on cardio-ankle vascular index in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Bokuda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Kanako Bokuda1, Atsuhiro Ichihara1,2, Mariyo Sakoda1, Asako Mito1, Kenichiro Kinouchi1, Hiroshi Itoh11Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Endocrinology and Anti-Aging Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs are known to reduce the cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients. This study was designed to examine the effect of an ARB candesartan on subclinical atherosclerosis assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI in comparison with calcium channel blockers (CCBs alone in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS. A total of 53 consecutive hypertensive patients with MetS were randomly assigned to the candesartan group, in which candesartan was added on, or the CCBs group, in which CCBs were added on. Clinical and biological parameters were obtained before and after the 12-month treatment period. The primary measure of efficacy was the %change in CAVI. When treated with candesartan, but not CCBs, CAVI significantly decreased from 8.7 to 7.7 by 11%. Blood pressure (BP significantly decreased with both treatments, but the differences between groups were not significant. The changes in other parameters remained unchanged in both the groups. Analysis of covariance found that both the BP reduction and the therapy difference contributed to the decrease in CAVI, but the BP reduction was not involved in the decrease in CAVI caused by the difference in the therapy. Candesartan may be a better antihypertensive drug than CCBs to that subclinical atherosclerosis of patients with MetS.Keywords: albuminuria, ambulatory blood pressure, calcium channel blockers, carotid ­intima-media thickness

  12. The effect of TNFalpha blockade on the antinuclear antibody profile in patients with chronic arthritis: biological and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rycke, L; Baeten, D; Kruithof, E; Van den Bosch, F; Veys, E M; De Keyser, F

    2005-01-01

    Since the first proof of efficacy of TNFalpha blockade, both the number of patients treated worldwide and the number of indications for treatment with TNFalpha blockers have grown steadily. Surprisingly, the profound immunomodulation induced by anti-TNFalpha therapy is associated with a relatively low incidence of immune-related complications such as lupus-like syndromes and demyelinating disease. This contrasts sharply with the prominent induction of autoantibodies such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibodies during TNFalpha blockade. Although this phenomenon has been recognized for several years, the clinical and biological implications are not yet fully understood. In this review, recent studies analysing the effect of TNFalpha blockade (infliximab and etanercept) on the ANA profile in autoimmune arthritis will be discussed. Taken together, these reports indicate that the prominent ANA and anti-dsDNA autoantibody response is 1) not a pure class effect of TNFalpha blockers, 2) independent of the disease background, 3) largely restricted to the induction of short-term IgM anti-dsDNA antibodies, and 4) not associated with other serological or clinically relevant signs of lupus. Nevertheless, a careful follow-up of patients treated with TNFalpha blockers remains mandatory, including monitoring for lupus-like characteristics.

  13. Effectiveness of biological surrogates for predicting patterns of marine biodiversity: a global meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Mellin

    Full Text Available The use of biological surrogates as proxies for biodiversity patterns is gaining popularity, particularly in marine systems where field surveys can be expensive and species richness high. Yet, uncertainty regarding their applicability remains because of inconsistency of definitions, a lack of standard methods for estimating effectiveness, and variable spatial scales considered. We present a Bayesian meta-analysis of the effectiveness of biological surrogates in marine ecosystems. Surrogate effectiveness was defined both as the proportion of surrogacy tests where predictions based on surrogates were better than random (i.e., low probability of making a Type I error; P and as the predictability of targets using surrogates (R(2. A total of 264 published surrogacy tests combined with prior probabilities elicited from eight international experts demonstrated that the habitat, spatial scale, type of surrogate and statistical method used all influenced surrogate effectiveness, at least according to either P or R(2. The type of surrogate used (higher-taxa, cross-taxa or subset taxa was the best predictor of P, with the higher-taxa surrogates outperforming all others. The marine habitat was the best predictor of R(2, with particularly low predictability in tropical reefs. Surrogate effectiveness was greatest for higher-taxa surrogates at a <10-km spatial scale, in low-complexity marine habitats such as soft bottoms, and using multivariate-based methods. Comparisons with terrestrial studies in terms of the methods used to study surrogates revealed that marine applications still ignore some problems with several widely used statistical approaches to surrogacy. Our study provides a benchmark for the reliable use of biological surrogates in marine ecosystems, and highlights directions for future development of biological surrogates in predicting biodiversity.

  14. State-of-the-art exposure chamber for highly controlled and reproducible THz biological effects studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna, Cesario Z.; Elam, David P.; Echchgadda, Ibtissam; Sloan, Mark A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging and sensing technologies are increasingly being used at international airports for security screening purposes and at major medical centers for cancer and burn diagnosis. The emergence of new THz applications has directly resulted in an increased interest regarding the biological effects associated with this frequency range. Knowledge of THz biological effects is also desired for the safe use of THz systems, identification of health hazards, and development of empirically-based safety standards. In this study, we developed a state-of-the-art exposure chamber that allowed for highly controlled and reproducible studies of THz biological effects. This innovative system incorporated an industry grade cell incubator system that permitted a highly controlled exposure environment, where temperatures could be maintained at 37 °C +/- 0.1 °C, carbon dioxide (CO2) levels at 5% +/- 0.1%, and relative humidity (RH) levels at 95% +/- 1%. To maximize the THz power transmitted to the cell culture region inside the humid incubator, a secondary custom micro-chamber was fabricated and incorporated into the system. This micro-chamber shields the THz beam from the incubator environment and could be nitrogen-purged to eliminate water absorption effects. Additionally, a microscope that allowed for real-time visualization of the live cells before, during, and after THz exposure was integrated into the exposure system.

  15. Functional Independence Measure in Iran: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Evaluation of Ceiling and Floor Effects in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezaei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The functional independence measure (FIM is one of the most important assessment instruments for motor and cognitive dependence in rehabilitation medicine; however, there is little data about its confirmatory factor analysis (CFA and ceiling/floor effects from other countries and also in Iranian patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate a two-factor model (motor and cognitive independence as latent variables and ceiling/floor effects for FIM in Iranian patients with traumatic brain injuries (TBI. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, 185 subacute TBI patients were selected from emergency and neurosurgery departments of Poursina Hospital (the largest trauma hospital in northern Iran, Rasht using the consecutive sampling method and were assessed for functional independence. Results The results of this study showed that the floor effect was not observed; however, ceiling effects were observed for the FIM total score and its subscales. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the chi-square/df ratio was 2.8 for the two-factor structure and the fit indices for this structural model including root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA = 0.099, normed fit index (NFI = 0.96, tucker lewis index (TLI = 0.97, comparative fit index (CFI = 0.97 were close to standard indices. Conclusions Although ceiling effects should be considered for rehabilitation targets, the two-factor model of FIM (motor and cognitive independence has an eligible fitness for Iranian patients with TBI.

  16. Effect of some botanical materials on certain biological aspects of the house fly, Musca domestica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabawy A. I. Elkattan, Khalafalla S. Ahmed, Saadya M. Elbermawy and Rabab

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lantana camara (leaves, Pelargonium zonale (leaves, Cupressus macrocarpa (leaves, Cyperus rotundus (whole plant and Acacia nilotica (seeds powders on some biological aspects of house fly, M. domestica L. were tested. The effects of three lethal concentrations LC25, LC50 and LC75 on the larval duration, pupation percent, pupal weight, pupal duration, adult emergence percent, sex ratio, adult longevity, and fecundity were determined. The induced malformed larvae, pupae and adults were recorded and photographed. The powders of the five plants were found to have promising effects in controlling this insect.

  17. Effective diffusion coefficient of biological liquids in porous calcium phosphate coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarenko, N. N.; Knyazeva, A. G.

    2016-11-01

    The study offers a method to estimate effective diffusion coefficients for transfer of biological liquids in porous materials. The method is based on the analysis of areas occupied by pores and solid materials on slice images. The possibility is shown for ascertaining a correlation between the effective coefficient and technological conditions because different structure and porosity are observed experimentally. The correlations of effective diffusion coefficients with the production voltage for different coating-base compositions, on which the coating was grown, have been built.

  18. Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Sam; Bertolotti, Jacopo; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain

    2015-05-01

    High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues. It therefore grants access to superficial layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations (`angular memory effect') are of very short range and, in theory, only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range (and thus the possible field-of-view) by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for $\\sim$1\\,mm thick tissue layers.

  19. Characterization of the angular memory effect of scattered light in biological tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Schott, Sam; Léger, Jean-Francois; Bourdieu, Laurent; Gigan, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    High resolution optical microscopy is essential in neuroscience but suffers from scattering in biological tissues. It therefore grants access to superficial layers only. Recently developed techniques use scattered photons for imaging by exploiting angular correlations in transmitted light and could potentially increase imaging depths. But those correlations (`angular memory effect') are of very short range and, in theory, only present behind and not inside scattering media. From measurements on neural tissues and complementary simulations, we find that strong forward scattering in biological tissues can enhance the memory effect range (and thus the possible field-of-view) by more than an order of magnitude compared to isotropic scattering for $\\sim$1\\,mm thick tissue layers.

  20. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two...

  1. Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-28

    seasonal breakup of the ice has begun. The bowhead whales detections finally disappear as these mammals begin their annual migration to the Arctic Ocean...Final Report Cumulative and Synergistic Effects of Physical, Biological, and Acoustic Signals on Marine Mammal Habitat Use Jeffrey A Nystuen...signals impact marine mammal habitat use. This is especially critical in areas like the Bering Sea where global climate change can lead to rapid changes

  2. Effects of organic amendment on soil quality as assessed by biological indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Sultana, Salma

    2011-01-01

    Soil quality decline is one of the most predominant effect deriving from human activities. In particular, intensive agricultural management can affect negatively soils, principally due to rapid depletion of soil organic matter, that affects, in turn, soil physical, chemical and biological properties. The declining trend of soil quality coupled with mismanagement of agricultural production is pose a serious threat to sustainability of intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture is...

  3. Biological Effects of Short, High-Level Exposure to Gases: Nitrogen Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOT ES3 This project was one of four under the same contract; the others covered ammonia , carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide. 3 IS. KEY wOROS...characterize the biological responses to short, high-level exposures to four gases associated with certain Army weapons systems ( ammonia , carbon monoxide...20- i --- 7 (2) Biochemical and Other Effects Buckley and BalchumlO found biochemical changes, principally in enzyme activity of the liver, spleen

  4. Computation of the effective mechanical response of biological networks accounting for large configuration changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Nady, K; Ganghoffer, J F

    2016-05-01

    The asymptotic homogenization technique is involved to derive the effective elastic response of biological membranes viewed as repetitive beam networks. Thereby, a systematic methodology is established, allowing the prediction of the overall mechanical properties of biological membranes in the nonlinear regime, reflecting the influence of the geometrical and mechanical micro-parameters of the network structure on the overall response of the equivalent continuum. Biomembranes networks are classified based on nodal connectivity, so that we analyze in this work 3, 4 and 6-connectivity networks, which are representative of most biological networks. The individual filaments of the network are described as undulated beams prone to entropic elasticity, with tensile moduli determined from their persistence length. The effective micropolar continuum evaluated as a continuum substitute of the biological network has a kinematics reflecting the discrete network deformation modes, involving a nodal displacement and a microrotation. The statics involves the classical Cauchy stress and internal moments encapsulated into couple stresses, which develop internal work in duality to microcurvatures reflecting local network undulations. The relative ratio of the characteristic bending length of the effective micropolar continuum to the unit cell size determines the relevant choice of the equivalent medium. In most cases, the Cauchy continuum is sufficient to model biomembranes. The peptidoglycan network may exhibit a re-entrant hexagonal configuration due to thermal or pressure fluctuations, for which micropolar effects become important. The homogenized responses are in good agreement with FE simulations performed over the whole network. The predictive nature of the employed homogenization technique allows the identification of a strain energy density of a hyperelastic model, for the purpose of performing structural calculations of the shape evolutions of biomembranes.

  5. [Properties and biological effect of dust of various artificial mineral fibers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elovskaja, L T; Werner, I; Kupina, L M; Loscilov, J A; Efremov, L D

    1990-09-01

    Developments and use of man-made mineral fibres are important for the progress in some technical fields. In the last years the number of man-made mineral fibres increased extraordinarily. For the medical evaluation it is necessary to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of the man-made mineral fibre dust and its biological effects in animal experiments. The results of the investigations are described.

  6. On the effect of prestrain and residual stress in thin biological membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Manuel K; Kuhl, Ellen

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the difference between ex vivo and in vivo measurements is critical to interpret the load carrying mechanisms of living biological systems. For the past four decades, the ex vivo stiffness of thin biological membranes has been characterized using uniaxial and biaxial tests with remarkably consistent stiffness parameters, even across different species. Recently, the in vivo stiffness was characterized using combined imaging techniques and inverse finite element analyses. Surprisingly, ex vivo and in vivo stiffness values differed by up to three orders of magnitude. Here, for the first time, we explain this tremendous discrepancy using the concept of prestrain. We illustrate the mathematical modeling of prestrain in nonlinear continuum mechanics through the multiplicative decomposition of the total elastic deformation into prestrain-induced and load-induced parts. Using in vivo measured membrane kinematics and associated pressure recordings, we perform an inverse finite element analysis for different prestrain levels and show that the resulting membrane stiffness may indeed differ by four orders of magnitude depending on the prestrain level. Our study motivates the hypothesis that prestrain is important to position thin biological membranes in vivo into their optimal operating range, right at the transition point of the stiffening regime. Understanding the effect of prestrain has direct clinical implications in regenerative medicine, medical device design, and and tissue engineering of replacement constructs for thin biological membranes.

  7. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  8. In utero glucocorticoid exposure reduced fetal skeletal muscle mass in rats independent of effects on maternal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal stress and undernutrition can occur together and expose the fetus to high glucocorticoid (GLC) levels during this vulnerable period. To determine the consequences of GLC exposure on fetal skeletal muscle independently of maternal food intake, groups of timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n ...

  9. Source Credibility and Idea Improvement Have Independent Effects on Unconscious Plagiarism Errors in Recall and Generate-New Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Timothy J.; Field, Ian; Jones, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Unconscious plagiarism occurs when people try to generate new ideas or when they try to recall their own ideas from among a set generated by a group. In this study, the factors that independently influence these two forms of plagiarism error were examined. Participants initially generated solutions to real-world problems in 2 domains of knowledge…

  10. Relative biological effectiveness for photons: implication of complex DNA double-strand breaks as critical lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Fu, Qibin; Wang, Xudong; Liu, Feng; Yang, Gen; Luo, Chunxiong; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Yugang

    2017-03-01

    Current knowledge in radiobiology ascribes the adverse biological effects of ionizing radiation primarily to the induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), which is supposed to be potentially lethal and may be converted to lethal damage due to misrepair. Soft and ultrasoft x-rays have been found to bear elevated biological effectiveness for cell killing compared with conventional x-rays or 60Co γ-rays. This phenomenon is qualitatively interpreted as the increased level of DSB induction for low energy photons, however, a thorough quantitative reasoning is lacking. Here, we systematically compared the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) with relative DSB induction for photons from several hundreds of eV up to MeV. Although there is an approximate two-fold increase in the yields of DSB for low energy photons found in our calculation and a large number of experimental measurements, it is far from enough to account for the three- to four-fold increase in RBE. Further theoretical investigations show that DSB complexity (additional single-strand breaks and base damage within 10 base pairs) increases notably for low energy photons, which largely reconciles the discrepancy between RBE and DSB induction. Our theoretical results are in line with accumulating experimental evidence that complex DSBs are refractory to repair machinery and may contribute predominantly to the formation of lethal damage.

  11. Deciphering the biological effects of acupuncture treatment modulating multiple metabolism pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aihua; Yan, Guangli; Sun, Hui; Cheng, Weiping; Meng, Xiangcai; Liu, Li; Xie, Ning; Wang, Xijun

    2016-02-16

    Acupuncture is an alternative therapy that is widely used to treat various diseases. However, detailed biological interpretation of the acupuncture stimulations is limited. We here used metabolomics and proteomics technology, thereby identifying the serum small molecular metabolites into the effect and mechanism pathways of standardized acupuncture treatments at 'Zusanli' acupoint which was the most often used acupoint in previous reports. Comprehensive overview of serum metabolic profiles during acupuncture stimulation was investigated. Thirty-four differential metabolites were identified in serum metabolome and associated with ten metabolism pathways. Importantly, we have found that high impact glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, ether lipid metabolism were acutely perturbed by acupuncture stimulation. As such, these alterations may be useful to clarify the biological mechanism of acupuncture stimulation. A series of differentially expressed proteins were identified and such effects of acupuncture stimulation were found to play a role in transport, enzymatic activity, signaling pathway or receptor interaction. Pathway analysis further revealed that most of these proteins were found to play a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple metabolism pathways. It demonstrated that the metabolomics coupled with proteomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in understanding the biological effects of acupuncture stimulation.

  12. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Williams, J. R.; Dicello, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/micrometers. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used.

  13. Nanometallomics: an emerging field studying the biological effects of metal-related nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Feng; Gao, Yuxi; Chai, Zhifang; Chen, Chunying

    2014-02-01

    Metallomics, focusing on the global and systematic understanding of the metal uptake, trafficking, role and excretion in biological systems, has attracted more and more attention. Metal-related nanomaterials, including metallic and metal-containing nanomaterials, have unique properties compared to their micro-scaled counterparts and therefore require special attention. The small size effect, surface effect, and quantum size effect directly influence the physicochemical properties of nanostructured materials and their fate and behavior in biota. However, to our knowledge, the metallomics itself did not touch this special category of materials yet. Therefore, the term "nanometallomics" is proposed and the systematic study on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) behavior of metal-related nanomaterials in biological systems and their interactions with genes, proteins and other biomolecules will be reviewed. The ADME behavior of metal-related nanomaterials in the biological systems is influenced by their physicochemical properties, the exposure route, and the microenvironment of the deposition site. Nanomaterials may not only interact directly or indirectly with genes, proteins and other molecules to cause DNA damage, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and cytotoxicity, but also stimulate the immune responses, circumvent tumor resistance and inhibit tumor metastasis. Nanometallomics needs to be integrated with other omics sciences, such as genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, to explore the biomedical data and obtain the overall knowledge of underlying mechanisms, and therefore to improve the application performance and to reduce the potential risk of metal-related nanomaterials.

  14. Arachidonic acid drives postnatal neurogenesis and elicits a beneficial effect on prepulse inhibition, a biological trait of psychiatric illnesses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Maekawa

    Full Text Available Prepulse inhibition (PPI is a compelling endophenotype (biological markers for mental disorders including schizophrenia. In a previous study, we identified Fabp7, a fatty acid binding protein 7 as one of the genes controlling PPI in mice and showed that this gene was associated with schizophrenia. We also demonstrated that disrupting Fabp7 dampened hippocampal neurogenesis. In this study, we examined a link between neurogenesis and PPI using different animal models and exploring the possibility of postnatal manipulation of neurogenesis affecting PPI, since gene-deficient mice show biological disturbances from prenatal stages. In parallel, we tested the potential for dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, arachidonic acid (ARA and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, to promote neurogenesis and improve PPI. PUFAs are ligands for Fabp members and are abundantly expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells in the hippocampus. Our results are: (1 an independent model animal, Pax6 (+/- rats, exhibited PPI deficits along with impaired postnatal neurogenesis; (2 methylazoxymethanol acetate (an anti-proliferative drug elicited decreased neurogenesis even in postnatal period, and PPI defects in young adult rats (10 weeks when the drug was given at the juvenile stage (4-5 weeks; (3 administering ARA for 4 weeks after birth promoted neurogenesis in wild type rats; (4 raising Pax6 (+/- pups on an ARA-containing diet enhanced neurogenesis and partially improved PPI in adult animals. These results suggest the potential benefit of ARA in ameliorating PPI deficits relevant to psychiatric disorders and suggest that the effect may be correlated with augmented postnatal neurogenesis.

  15. The Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction and Field Independence on the Development of Rhythm Sight-Reading Skills of Middle School Instrumental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated how the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to teach rhythm reading skills may be influenced by subjects' level of field dependence/independence. The subjects for the study consisted of 120 middle school instrumental music students divided into four groups based on scores from the Group Embedded Figures…

  16. New insight into the molecular mechanisms of the biological effects of DNA minor groove binders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bisbenzimides, or Hoechst 33258 (H258, and its derivative Hoechst 33342 (H342 are archetypal molecules for designing minor groove binders, and widely used as tools for staining DNA and analyzing side population cells. They are supravital DNA minor groove binders with AT selectivity. H342 and H258 share similar biological effects based on the similarity of their chemical structures, but also have their unique biological effects. For example, H342, but not H258, is a potent apoptotic inducer and both H342 and H258 can induce transgene overexpression in in vitro studies. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hoechst dyes induce apoptosis and enhance transgene overexpression are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To determine the molecular mechanisms underlying different biological effects between H342 and H258, microarray technique coupled with bioinformatics analyses and multiple other techniques has been utilized to detect differential global gene expression profiles, Hoechst dye-specific gene expression signatures, and changes in cell morphology and levels of apoptosis-associated proteins in malignant mesothelioma cells. H342-induced apoptosis occurs in a dose-dependent fashion and is associated with morphological changes, caspase-3 activation, cytochrome c mitochondrial translocation, and cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins. The antagonistic effect of H258 on H342-induced apoptosis indicates a pharmacokinetic basis for the two dyes' different biological effects. Differential global gene expression profiles induced by H258 and H342 are accompanied by unique gene expression signatures determined by DNA microarray and bioinformatics software, indicating a genetic basis for their different biological effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A unique gene expression signature associated with H342-induced apoptosis provides a new avenue to predict and classify the therapeutic class of minor groove binders in the drug

  17. Novel Biological Approaches for Testing the Contributions of Single DSBs and DSB Clusters to the Biological Effects of High LET Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Veronika; Mladenov, Emil; Iliakis, George

    2016-01-01

    The adverse biological effects of ionizing radiation (IR) are commonly attributed to the generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). IR-induced DSBs are generated by clusters of ionizations, bear damaged terminal nucleotides, and frequently comprise base damages and single-strand breaks in the vicinity generating a unique DNA damage-clustering effect that increases DSB "complexity." The number of ionizations in clusters of different radiation modalities increases with increasing linear energy transfer (LET), and is thought to determine the long-known LET-dependence of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Multiple ionizations may also lead to the formation of DSB clusters, comprising two or more DSBs that destabilize chromatin further and compromise overall processing. DSB complexity and DSB-cluster formation are increasingly considered in the development of mathematical models of radiation action, which are then "tested" by fitting available experimental data. Despite a plethora of such mathematical models the ultimate goal, i.e., the "a priori" prediction of the radiation effect, has not yet been achieved. The difficulty partly arises from unsurmountable difficulties in testing the fundamental assumptions of such mathematical models in defined biological model systems capable of providing conclusive answers. Recently, revolutionary advances in methods allowing the generation of enzymatic DSBs at random or in well-defined locations in the genome, generate unique testing opportunities for several key assumptions frequently fed into mathematical modeling - including the role of DSB clusters in the overall effect. Here, we review the problematic of DSB-cluster formation in radiation action and present novel biological technologies that promise to revolutionize the way we address the biological consequences of such lesions. We describe new ways of exploiting the I-SceI endonuclease to generate DSB-clusters at random locations in the genome and describe the

  18. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  19. Effects of transgenic Bt cotton on soil fertility and biology under field conditions in subtropical inceptisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S; Singh, Surender

    2013-01-01

    Although there is large-scale adoption of Bt cotton by the farmers because of immediate financial gain, there is concern that Bt crops release Bt toxins into the soil environment which reduces soil chemical and biological activities. However, the majorities of such studies were mainly performed under pot experiments, relatively little research has examined the direct and indirect effects of associated cover crop of peanut with fertilization by combined application of organic and inorganic sources of nitrogen under field conditions. We compared soil chemical and biological parameters of Bt cotton with pure crop of peanut to arrive on a valid conclusion. Significantly higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity and KMnO(4)-N content of soil were observed in Bt cotton with cover crop of peanut over pure Bt cotton followed by pure peanut at all the crop growth stages. However, higher microbial population was maintained by pure peanut over intercropped Bt cotton, but these differences were related to the presence of high amount of KMnO(4)-N content of soil. By growing cover crop of peanut between Bt cotton rows, bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes population increased by 60%, 14%, and 10%, respectively, over Bt cotton alone. Bt cotton fertilized by combined application of urea and farm yard manure (FYM) maintained higher dehydrogenase enzyme activity, KMnO(4)-N content of soil and microbial population over urea alone. Significant positive correlations were observed for dry matter accumulation, dehydrogenase enzyme activity, KMnO(4)-N content, and microbial population of soil of Bt cotton, which indicates no harmful effects of Bt cotton on soil biological parameters and associated cover crop. Our results suggest that inclusion of cover crop of peanut and FYM in Bt cotton enhanced soil chemical and biological parameters which can mask any negative effect of the Bt toxin on microbial activity and thus on enzymatic activities.

  20. Systems Biology and Biomarkers of Early Effects for Occupational Exposure Limit Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBord, D Gayle; Burgoon, Lyle; Edwards, Stephen W; Haber, Lynne T; Kanitz, M Helen; Kuempel, Eileen; Thomas, Russell S; Yucesoy, Berran

    2015-01-01

    In a recent National Research Council document, new strategies for risk assessment were described to enable more accurate and quicker assessments. This report suggested that evaluating individual responses through increased use of bio-monitoring could improve dose-response estimations. Identification of specific biomarkers may be useful for diagnostics or risk prediction as they have the potential to improve exposure assessments. This paper discusses systems biology, biomarkers of effect, and computational toxicology approaches and their relevance to the occupational exposure limit setting process. The systems biology approach evaluates the integration of biological processes and how disruption of these processes by chemicals or other hazards affects disease outcomes. This type of approach could provide information used in delineating the mode of action of the response or toxicity, and may be useful to define the low adverse and no adverse effect levels. Biomarkers of effect are changes measured in biological systems and are considered to be preclinical in nature. Advances in computational methods and experimental -omics methods that allow the simultaneous measurement of families of macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins in a single analysis have made these systems approaches feasible for broad application. The utility of the information for risk assessments from -omics approaches has shown promise and can provide information on mode of action and dose-response relationships. As these techniques evolve, estimation of internal dose and response biomarkers will be a critical test of these new technologies for application in risk assessment strategies. While proof of concept studies have been conducted that provide evidence of their value, challenges with standardization and harmonization still need to be overcome before these methods are used routinely.

  1. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  2. Anti—inflammatory effect of cerivastatin in vascular injury independent of serum cholesterol and blood pressure lowering effects in mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小东; 李震; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To observe the anti-inflammatory effect of cerivastatin in a mouse model of vascular injury and its cholesterol-lowering effect.Methods:We developed a mouse model of vascular remodeling induced by polyethylene cuff placement and determined the anti-inflannatory effects of cerivastatin in wild mice.Cerivastatin was given by Alzet micro-osmotic minipumps implanted intraperitoneally at the same time as cuff placement at doses of 0.1mg/kg,0.5mg/kgand1mg/kgper day,respectively for 2weeks after cuff placement.The insufficient doses of Cerivastatin to lower serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressue through the neointimal formation and BrdUindex were investigated in mouse formation and BrdUindex were investigated in the 1mg/kg cerivastatin,but not in the 0.1mg/kgand0.5mg/kg cerivastatin,Furthermore,1mg/kg of cerivastatin significantly inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)and interleukin-1β(IL-1β)without lowering serum cholesterol.Conclusions:These results suggest that cerivastatin can inhitit vascular inflammation and ahe proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs)through its lipid-lowering independent action.Such effects of cerivastatin may be an important mechanism,by which it prevents the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  3. The study of biological effects of electromagnetic mobile phone radiation on experimental animals by combining numerical modeling and experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Krstić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study biological effects of electromagneticradiation, it is essential to know the real values of field componentsthat penetrated the tissue. The study of biological effects is usuallyperformed on experimental animals. The biological effects observedon experimental animals should be linked with penetrating field inthe tissue. The penetrating electromagnetic field is almost impossibleto measure; therefore, modeling process must be carried out and thefield components in models of experimental animals could becalculated. This paper presents an approach to modeling of fieldpenetration and gives contribution to understanding the real effects of the fields and the sensitivity of tissues to electromagnetic radiation generated by mobile phone.

  4. Biological Effects of Gamma-Ray Bursts: Critical distances for severe damage on the biota

    CERN Document Server

    Galante, D; Galante, Douglas; Horvath, Jorge Ernesto

    2005-01-01

    We present in this work a unified, quantitative synthesis of analytical and numerical calculations of the effects caused on an Earth-like planet by a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB), considering atmospheric and biological implications. The main effects of the illumination by a GRB are classified in four distinct ones and analyzed separately, namely the direct gamma radiation transmission, UV flash, ozone layer depletion and cosmic rays. The effectiveness of each of these effects is compared and lethal distances for significant biological damage are given for each one. We find that the first three effects have potential to cause global environmental changes and biospheric damages, even if the source is located at great distances (perhaps up to ~ 100 kpc). Instead, cosmic rays would only be a serious threat for very close sources. As a concrete example of a recorded similar event, the effects of the giant flare from SGR1806-20 of Dec 27, 2004 could cause on the biosphere are addressed. In spite of not belonging to the so...

  5. Comparing Effects of Biologic Agents in Treating Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Multiple Treatment Comparison Regression Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn Fride Tvete

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis patients have been treated with disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs and the newer biologic drugs. We sought to compare and rank the biologics with respect to efficacy. We performed a literature search identifying 54 publications encompassing 9 biologics. We conducted a multiple treatment comparison regression analysis letting the number experiencing a 50% improvement on the ACR score be dependent upon dose level and disease duration for assessing the comparable relative effect between biologics and placebo or DMARD. The analysis embraced all treatment and comparator arms over all publications. Hence, all measured effects of any biologic agent contributed to the comparison of all biologic agents relative to each other either given alone or combined with DMARD. We found the drug effect to be dependent on dose level, but not on disease duration, and the impact of a high versus low dose level was the same for all drugs (higher doses indicated a higher frequency of ACR50 scores. The ranking of the drugs when given without DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest, etanercept, tocilizumab/ abatacept and adalimumab. The ranking of the drugs when given with DMARD was certolizumab (ranked highest, tocilizumab, anakinra/rituximab, golimumab/ infliximab/ abatacept, adalimumab/ etanercept [corrected]. Still, all drugs were effective. All biologic agents were effective compared to placebo, with certolizumab the most effective and adalimumab (without DMARD treatment and adalimumab/ etanercept (combined with DMARD treatment the least effective. The drugs were in general more effective, except for etanercept, when given together with DMARDs.

  6. Cost-effective management alternatives for Snake river chinook salmon: A biological-economic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, D.L.; Moore, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The mandate to increase endangered salmon populations in the Columbia River Basin of North America has created a complex, controversial resource-management issue. We constructed an integrated assessment model as a tool for analyzing biological-economic trade-offs in recovery of Snake River spring- and summer-run chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). We merged 3 frameworks: a salmon-passage model to predict migration and survival of smolts; an age-structured matrix model to predict long-term population growth rates of salmon stocks; and a cost-effectiveness analysis to determine a set of least-cost management alternatives for achieving particular population growth rates. We assessed 6 individual salmon-management measures and 76 management alternatives composed of one or more measures. To reflect uncertainty, results were derived for different assumptions of effectiveness of smolt transport around dams. Removal of an estuarine predator, the Caspian Tern (Sterna caspia), was cost-effective and generally increased long-term population growth rates regardless of transport effectiveness. Elimination of adult salmon harvest had a similar effect over a range of its cost estimates. The specific management alternatives in the cost-effective set depended on assumptions about transport effectiveness. On the basis of recent estimates of smolt transport effectiveness, alternatives that discontinued transportation or breached dams were prevalent in the cost-effective set, whereas alternatives that maximized transportation dominated if transport effectiveness was relatively high. More generally, the analysis eliminated 80-90% of management alternatives from the cost-effective set. Application of our results to salmon management is limited by data availability and model assumptions, but these limitations can help guide research that addresses critical uncertainties and information. Our results thus demonstrate that linking biology and economics through integrated models can

  7. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Fenpropathrin on the Biological Performance of Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakyari, Hajar; Enkegaard, Annie

    2013-01-01

    affected the biological characteristics of treated females of S. longicornis, the most noticeable effects being a shortening of female life span by >70% accompanied by large reductions in oviposition period and fecundity. The offspring of females treated with low-lethal concentrations of fenpropathrin...... likewise had significantly reduced longevity, oviposition period, and fecundity, although not to the same extent as experienced by their mothers. Their juvenile development time was, however, not affected. These effects on the offspring were reflected in reduced rates of population increase and increased...

  8. Effect of radiation and fungal treatment on ligno celluloses and their biological activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.D.; Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Kume, Tamikazu E-mail: kume@taka.jaeri.go.jp

    2000-10-01

    Effects of high-dose irradiation and fungal treatment on some kinds of lignocellulose material were investigated in order to assess the potential effects of bioactive substances on plants. Each treatment and combination of treatments significantly altered the components of lignocellulose materials. Irradiation strongly affected all plant materials, causing a series of changes in physico-chemical parameters such as solubilization during solvent extraction and losses of fibre components. By these degradations, certain biologically active substances formed and acted as antagonists of auxin-induced growth.

  9. Engineered nanoparticles of titanium dioxide (TIO2): Uptake and biological effects in a sea bass cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchietti, S; Bernini, C; Stocchi, V; Taddei, A R; Meschini, R; Fausto, A M; Rocco, L; Buonocore, F; Cervia, D; Scapigliati, G

    2017-02-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology there has been a corresponding increase in the application of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) in various consumer and industrial products, consequently their potential health hazards and environmental effects are considered an aspect of great concern. In the present study, in order to assess the impact of TiO2-NPs in the marine environment, the biological effects of TiO2-NPs on a sea bass cell line (DLEC) were investigated. Cells were exposed for 24 h to different concentrations of TiO2-NPs (1, 8, 40, 200 and 1000 μg/ml) or co-exposed with CdCl2 (Cd). The effects of UV light irradiation were also investigated in cells treated with TiO2-NPs and/or Cd. The internalization of TiO2-NPs and the morphological cell modifications induced by the treatments were examined by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, this latter coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for particle element detection. In addition, the effects of controlled exposures were studied evaluating the cytotoxicity, the DNA damage and the expression of inflammatory genes. Our study indicates that TiO2-NPs were localized on the cell surface mainly as agglomerates revealed by EDS analysis and that they were uptaken by the cells inducing morphological changes. Photoactivation of TiO2-NPs and/or co-exposure with Cd affects ATP levels and it contributes to induce acute cellular toxicity in DLEC cells dependent on Ti concentration. The inflammatory potential and the DNA damage, this latter displayed through a caspase-3 independent apoptotic process, were also demonstrated. Overall our data suggest that the interaction of TiO2-NPs with marine water contaminants, such as cadmium, and the UV irradiation, may be an additional threat to marine organisms.

  10. High school teachers' perspectives on effective approaches for teaching biology to students with special needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Agnieszka

    The demands of national educational reforms require high school biology teachers to provide high quality instruction to students with and without special needs. The reforms, however, do not provide teachers with adequate teaching strategies to meet the needs of all students in the same context. The purpose of this grounded theory study was to understand high school biology teachers' perspectives, practices, and challenges in relation to teaching students with special needs. This approach was used to develop a substantive model for high school biology teachers who are challenged with teaching students with and without special needs. Data were collected via in-depth interviews with 15 high school teachers in a Midwestern school district. The data were analyzed using open coding, axial coding, and selective coding procedures in accordance with the grounded theory approach. Essential model components included skills and training for teachers, classroom management strategies, teaching strategies, and student skills. The emergent substantive theory indicated that that teacher preparation and acquired skills greatly influence the effectiveness of inclusion implementation. Key findings also indicated the importance of using of a variety of instructional strategies and classroom management strategies that address students' special needs and their learning styles. This study contributes to social change by providing a model for teaching students and effectively implementing inclusion in regular science classrooms. Following further study, this model may be used to support teacher professional development and improve teaching practices that in turn may improve science literacy supported by the national educational reforms.

  11. Biological Effects of Cloth Containing Specific Ore Powder in Patients with Pollen Allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suni LEE; YasuzoKIRITA; YoshioFUJII; TakemiOTSUKI; HitoshiOKAMOTO; ShokoYAMAMOTO; TamayoHATAYAMA; HidenoriMATSUZAKI; Naoko KUMAGAI-TAKEI; KeiYOSHITOME; YasumitsuNISHIMURA; ToshiakiSATO

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveThe custom-homebuilding company, Cosmic Garden Co. Ltd., located in Okayama City, Japan was established in 1997 and uses specific natural ore powder (SNOP) in wall materials and surveys customers in order to improve allergic symptoms. MethodsTo investigate the biological effects of SNOP, patients with a pollen allergy were recruited to stay in a room surrounded by cloth containing SNOP (CCSNOP), and their symptoms and various biological parameters were compared with those of individuals staying in a room surrounded by control non-woven cloth (NWC). Each stay lasted 60 min. Before and immediately after the stay, a questionnaire regarding allergic symptoms, as well as POMS (Profile of Mood Status) and blood sampling, was performed. Post-stay minus pre-stay values were calculated and compared between CCSNOP and NWC groups. ResultsResults indicated that some symptoms, such as nasal obstruction and lacrimation, improved, and POMS evaluation showed that patients were calmer following a stay in CCSNOP. Relative eosinophils, non-specific Ig E, epidermal growth factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and tumor necrosis factor-α increased following a stay in CCSNOP. ConclusionThis ore powder improved allergic symptoms, and long-term monitoring involving 1 to 2 months may be necessary to fully explore the biological and physical effects of SNOP on allergic patients.

  12. Effects of physical therapy for the management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis in the biological era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, Erika; Trainito, Sabina; Arioli, Giovanni; Rucco, Vincenzo; Masiero, Stefano

    2014-09-01

    Exercise is considered a fundamental tool for the management of ankylosing spondylitis (AS), in combination with pharmacological therapy that with the advent of biological therapy has improved dramatically the control of signs and symptoms of this challenging disease. Current evidence shows that a specific exercise protocol has not been validated yet. The purpose of this review is to update the most recent evidence (July 2010-November 2013) about physiotherapy in AS, analyzing the possible role and synergistic interactions between exercise and biological drugs. From 117 studies initially considered, only 15 were included in the review. The results support a multimodal approach, including educational sessions, conducted in a group setting, supervised by a physiotherapist and followed by a maintaining home-based regimen. Spa exercise and McKenzie, Heckscher, and Pilates methods seem promising in AS rehabilitation, but their effectiveness should be further investigated in future randomized controlled trials (RCTs). When performed in accordance with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines, cardiovascular training has been proven safe and effective and should be included in AS rehabilitation protocols. Exercise training plays an important role in the biological era, being now applicable to stabilized patients, leading ultimately to a better management of AS by physiatrists and rheumatologists throughout the world. On the basis of the current evidence, further research should aim to determine which exercise protocols should be recommended.

  13. The origin of neutron biological effectiveness as a function of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, G.; Barbieri, S.; Babini, G.; Morini, J.; Alloni, D.; Friedland, W.; Kundrát, P.; Schmitt, E.; Puchalska, M.; Sihver, L.; Ottolenghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the impact of radiation quality in early and late responses of biological targets to ionizing radiation exposure necessarily grounds on the results of mechanistic studies starting from physical interactions. This is particularly true when, already at the physical stage, the radiation field is mixed, as it is the case for neutron exposure. Neutron Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE) is energy dependent, maximal for energies ~1 MeV, varying significantly among different experiments. The aim of this work is to shed light on neutron biological effectiveness as a function of field characteristics, with a comprehensive modeling approach: this brings together transport calculations of neutrons through matter (with the code PHITS) and the predictive power of the biophysical track structure code PARTRAC in terms of DNA damage evaluation. Two different energy dependent neutron RBE models are proposed: the first is phenomenological and based only on the characterization of linear energy transfer on a microscopic scale; the second is purely ab-initio and based on the induction of complex DNA damage. Results for the two models are compared and found in good qualitative agreement with current standards for radiation protection factors, which are agreed upon on the basis of RBE data. PMID:27654349

  14. Building Effective Responses: An Independent Review of Violence against Women, Domestic Abuse and Sexual Violence Services in Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Vashti Louise; Stanley, Nicky; Radford, Lorraine; McCarry, Melanie; Larkins, Cath

    2014-01-01

    Independent researchers from the Connect Centre for International Research on Interpersonal Violence based in the School of Social Work at the University of Central Lancashire were commissioned by the Welsh Government in 2013 to conduct research into violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence services in Wales. The research aimed to inform the forthcoming Ending Violence Against Women and Domestic Abuse (Wales) Bill, implementation of the legislation and future policy more gen...

  15. Biological Matrix Effects in Quantitative Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Analytical Methods: Advancing Biomonitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E.; D’Souza, Priya E.; Chen, Xianyu; Radford, Samantha A.; Cohen, Jordan R.; Marder, M. Elizabeth; Kartavenka, Kostya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely, in biomonitoring, involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:25562585

  16. Biological effects of high strength electric fields. Second interim progress report, September 1976--March 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes progress made on the Project during the period of September 9, 1976 to March 31, 1977 towards the determination of the biological effects of high strength electric fields on small laboratory animals. The efforts to date can be divided into five categories: (1) the design, construction, and testing of a prototype and special studies exposure system; (2) the design and construction of exposure systems for rats and mice; (3) dosimetry; (4) experiments to determine the maximum field strength which does not produce corona discharge, ozone formation, shocks to the animal, hair stimulation, or a behavioral preference by rats to avoid exposure to the field; and (5) preparations for the biological screening experiments.

  17. Cellular burdens and biological effects on tissue level caused by inhaled radon progenies

    CERN Document Server

    Madas, Balázs G; Farkas, Árpád; Szőke, István

    2014-01-01

    In the case of radon exposure, the spatial distribution of deposited radioactive particles is highly inhomogeneous in the central airways. The objective of this research is to investigate the consequences of this heterogeneity regarding cellular burdens in the bronchial epithelium and to study the possible biological effects on tissue level. Applying a computational fluid dynamics program, the deposition distribution of inhaled radon daughters has been determined in a bronchial airway model for 23 minutes of work in the New Mexico uranium mine corresponding to 0.0129 WLM exposure. A numerical epithelium model based on experimental data has been utilized in order to quantify cellular hits and doses. Finally, a carcinogenesis model considering cell death induced cell cycle shortening has been applied to assess the biological responses. Computations present, that cellular dose may reach 1.5 Gy, which is several orders of magnitude higher than tissue dose. The results are in agreement with the histological findin...

  18. Across the Great Divide: The Effects of Technology in Secondary Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Johnny Howard, II

    This study investigates the relationship between technology use and student achievement in public high school across North Carolina. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in technology utilization based on student demographics of race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and municipality) exists among schools and whether those differences relate to student achievement in high school biology classrooms. The study uses North Carolina end-of-course (EOC) data for biology to analyze student demographic data and assessment results from the 2010-2011 school year from the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. The data analyses use descriptive and factorial univariate statistics to determine the existence of digital divides and their effects on biology achievement. Analysis of these data described patterns of technology use to determine whether potential variances resulted in a digital divide. Specific technology uses were identified in the data and then their impact on biology achievement scores within various demographic groups was examined. Research findings revealed statistically significant variations of use within different population groups. Despite being statistically significant, the relevance of the association in the variations was minimal at best -- based on the effect scale established by Cohen (1988). Additional factorial univariate analyses were employed to determine potential relationships between technology use and student achievement. The data revealed that technology use did not influence the variation of student achievement scale scores as much as race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. White students outperformed Hispanic students by an average of three scale score points and Black students by an average of six scale score points. Technology use alone averaged less than a one point difference in mean scale scores, and only when interacting with race, gender, and/or SES did the mean difference

  19. RANTES/CCL5 mediated-biological effects depend on the syndecan-4/PKCα signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Maillard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The perpetuation of angiogenesis is involved in certain chronic inflammatory diseases. The accelerated neovascularisation may result from an inflammatory status with a response of both endothelial cells and monocytes to inflammatory mediators such as chemokines. We have previously described in vitro and in vivo the pro-angiogenic effects of the chemokine Regulated on Activation, Normal T Cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES/CCL5. The effects of RANTES/CCL5 may be related to its binding to G protein-coupled receptors and to proteoglycans such as syndecan-1 and -4. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functionality of syndecan-4 as a co-receptor of RANTES/CCL5 by the use of mutated syndecan-4 constructs. Our data demonstrate that site-directed mutations in syndecan-4 modify RANTES/CCL5 biological activities in endothelial cells. The SDC4S179A mutant, associated with an induced protein kinase C (PKCα activation, leads to higher RANTES/CCL5 pro-angiogenic effects, whereas the SDC4L188QQ and the SDC4A198del mutants, leading to lower phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 binding or to lower PDZ protein binding respectively, are associated with reduced RANTES/CCL5 cellular effects. Moreover, our data highlight that the intracellular domain of SDC-4 is involved in RANTES/CCL5-induced activation of the PKCα signaling pathway and biological effect. As RANTES/CCL5 is involved in various physiopathological processes, the development of a new therapeutic strategy may be reliant on the mechanism by which RANTES/CCL5 exerts its biological activities, for example by targeting the binding of the chemokine to its proteoglycan receptor.

  20. Heavy-ion radiobiology: new approaches to delineate mechanisms underlying enhanced biological effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, E A; Kronenberg, A

    1998-11-01

    Shortly after the discovery of polonium and radium by Marie Curie and her husband and colleague, Pierre Curie, it was learned that exposure to these alpha-particle emitters produced deleterious biological effects. The mechanisms underlying the increased biological effectiveness of densely ionizing radiations, including alpha particles, neutrons and highly energetic heavy charged particles, remain an active area of investigation. In this paper, we review recent advances in several areas of the radiobiology of these densely ionizing radiations, also known as heavy ions. Advances are described in the areas of DNA damage and repair, chromosome aberrations, mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation in vitro, genomic instability, normal tissue radiobiology and carcinogenesis in vivo. We focus on technical innovations, including novel applications of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), linkage analysis, and studies of gene expression and protein expression. We also highlight the use of new cellular and animal systems, including those with defined DNA repair deficiencies, as well as epithelial cell model systems to assess neoplastic transformation both in vitro and in vivo. The studies reviewed herein have had a substantial impact on our understanding of the genotoxic effects of heavy ions as well as their distinct effects on tissue homeostasis. The use of these radiations in cancer therapy is also discussed. The use of both heavy-ion and proton therapy is on the upswing in several centers around the world, due to their unique energy deposition characteristics that enhance the therapeutic effect and help reduce damage to normal tissue.

  1. Heavy-ion radiobiology: new approaches to delineate mechanisms underlying enhanced biological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, E. A.; Kronenberg, A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Shortly after the discovery of polonium and radium by Marie Curie and her husband and colleague, Pierre Curie, it was learned that exposure to these alpha-particle emitters produced deleterious biological effects. The mechanisms underlying the increased biological effectiveness of densely ionizing radiations, including alpha particles, neutrons and highly energetic heavy charged particles, remain an active area of investigation. In this paper, we review recent advances in several areas of the radiobiology of these densely ionizing radiations, also known as heavy ions. Advances are described in the areas of DNA damage and repair, chromosome aberrations, mutagenesis, neoplastic transformation in vitro, genomic instability, normal tissue radiobiology and carcinogenesis in vivo. We focus on technical innovations, including novel applications of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), linkage analysis, and studies of gene expression and protein expression. We also highlight the use of new cellular and animal systems, including those with defined DNA repair deficiencies, as well as epithelial cell model systems to assess neoplastic transformation both in vitro and in vivo. The studies reviewed herein have had a substantial impact on our understanding of the genotoxic effects of heavy ions as well as their distinct effects on tissue homeostasis. The use of these radiations in cancer therapy is also discussed. The use of both heavy-ion and proton therapy is on the upswing in several centers around the world, due to their unique energy deposition characteristics that enhance the therapeutic effect and help reduce damage to normal tissue.

  2. Leishmania tropica: the effect of darkness and light on biological activities in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Koc, Rabia Cakir; Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Elcicek, Serhat; Oztel, Olga Nehir

    2011-08-01

    Leishmania parasites can be exposed to effects of light in their vectors and hosts, at various periods. However, there is no information about the effects of light on Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of light on various cell parameters of Leishmania tropica, in vitro. All experiments were conducted on L. tropica promastigotes and amastigote-macrophage cultures, using flow cytometric analysis, MTT and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, DAPI and Giemsa. The results showed that the morphology of parasites has changed; the cell cycle has been affected and this caused parasites to remain at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore the proliferation, infectivity, glucose consumption and mitochondrial dehydrogenase activities of parasites were decreased. Thus, for the first time, in this study, the effects of light on biological activities of Leishmania parasites were shown. These new information about parasites' biology, would be very important to investigate the effects of light on the parasites in infected vectors and hosts.

  3. Track Structure and the Biological Effectiveness of Accelerated Particles for the Induction of Chromosome Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K.; Hada, M.; Chappell, L.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    Track structure models predict that at a fixed value of LET, particles with lower charge number, Z will have a higher biological effectiveness compared to particles with a higher Z. In this report we investigated how track structure effects induction of chromosomal aberration in human cells. Human lymphocytes were irradiated in vitro with various energies of accelerated iron, silicon, neon, or titanium ions and chromosome damage was assessed in using three color FISH chromosome painting in chemically induced PCC samples collected a first cell division post irradiation. The LET values for these ions ranged from 30 to195 keV/micron. Of the particles studied, Neon ions have the highest biological effectiveness for induction of total chromosome damage, which is consistent with track structure model predictions. For complex-type exchanges 64 MeV/ u Neon and 450 MeV/u Iron were equally effective and induced the most complex damage. In addition we present data on chromosomes exchanges induced by six different energies of protons (5 MeV/u to 2.5 GeV/u). The linear dose response term was similar for all energies of protons suggesting that the effect of the higher LET at low proton energies is balanced by the production of nuclear secondaries from the high energy protons.

  4. Effect of capping agents: Structural, optical and biological properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Rabia [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Usman, Muhammad, E-mail: uk_phy@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences, Lahore 54729 (Pakistan); Tabassum, Saira; Zia, Muhammad [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanoparticles have been effectively capped with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) shown by the data of XRD, FTIR and UV–visible spectroscopy. • Reduction in size occurred from 34 nm to 26 nm due to capping agent and band gap energy increases with the decrease in the particle size. • Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria is greater than the Gram-negative bacteria. • All biological assays reveal highest activities in capped ZnO nanoparticles as compared to the uncapped ZnO nanoparticles. • Highest antibacterial activity has been exhibited by ZnO-PVP while highest antioxidant and antidiabetic activities have been conferred by ZnO- PEG. - Abstract: Different biological activities of capped and uncapped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated, and the effects of potential capping agents on these biological activities were studied. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and capped by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) using a simple chemical method of co-precipitation. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV–vis spectroscopy confirmed the crystallinity, size, functional group, and band gap of synthesized nanoparticles. Reduction in size occurred from 34 nm to 26 nm due to surfactant. Results of all biological activities indicated significantly higher values in capped as compared to uncapped nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Escherichia coli (ATCC15224), and Acetobacter was obtained. This activity was more prominent against Gram-positive bacteria, and ZnO-PVP nanoparticles elucidated highest antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition 17 mm) against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis species. Antioxidant activities including total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power and %age inhibition of DPPH, and

  5. The Effects of Using Concept Mapping for Improving Advanced Level Biology Students' Lower- and Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramwell-Lalor, Sharon; Rainford, Marcia

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on teachers' use of concept mapping as an alternative assessment strategy in advanced level biology classes and its effects on students' cognitive skills on selected biology concepts. Using a mixed methods approach, the study employed a pre-test/post-test quasi-experimental design involving 156 students and 8 teachers from…

  6. Effective automated feature construction and selection for classification of biological sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uday Kamath

    Full Text Available Many open problems in bioinformatics involve elucidating underlying functional signals in biological sequences. DNA sequences, in particular, are characterized by rich architectures in which functional signals are increasingly found to combine local and distal interactions at the nucleotide level. Problems of interest include detection of regulatory regions, splice sites, exons, hypersensitive sites, and more. These problems naturally lend themselves to formulation as classification problems in machine learning. When classification is based on features extracted from the sequences under investigation, success is critically dependent on the chosen set of features.We present an algorithmic framework (EFFECT for automated detection of functional signals in biological sequences. We focus here on classification problems involving DNA sequences which state-of-the-art work in machine learning shows to be challenging and involve complex combinations of local and distal features. EFFECT uses a two-stage process to first construct a set of candidate sequence-based features and then select a most effective subset for the classification task at hand. Both stages make heavy use of evolutionary algorithms to efficiently guide the search towards informative features capable of discriminating between sequences that contain a particular functional signal and those that do not.To demonstrate its generality, EFFECT is applied to three separate problems of importance in DNA research: the recognition of hypersensitive sites, splice sites, and ALU sites. Comparisons with state-of-the-art algorithms show that the framework is both general and powerful. In addition, a detailed analysis of the constructed features shows that they contain valuable biological information about DNA architecture, allowing biologists and other researchers to directly inspect the features and potentially use the insights obtained to assist wet-laboratory studies on retainment or modification

  7. Do mollusks use vertebrate sex steroids as reproductive hormones? II. Critical review of the evidence that steroids have biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alexander P

    2013-02-01

    In assessing the evidence as to whether vertebrate sex steroids (e.g. testosterone, estradiol, progesterone) have hormonal actions in mollusks, ca. 85% of research papers report at least one biological effect; and 18 out of 21 review papers (published between 1970 and 2012) express a positive view. However, just under half of the research studies can be rejected on the grounds that they did not actually test steroids, but compounds or mixtures that were only presumed to behave as steroids (or modulators of steroids) on the basis of their effects in vertebrates (e.g. Bisphenol-A, nonylphenol and sewage treatment effluents). Of the remaining 55 papers, some can be criticized for having no statistical analysis; some for using only a single dose of steroid; others for having irregular dose-response curves; 40 out of the 55 for not replicating the treatments; and 50 out of 55 for having no within-study repetition. Furthermore, most studies had very low effect sizes in comparison to fish-based bioassays for steroids (i.e. they had a very weak 'signal-to-noise' ratio). When these facts are combined with the fact that none of the studies were conducted with rigorous randomization or 'blinding' procedures (implying the possibility of 'operator bias') one must conclude that there is no indisputable bioassay evidence that vertebrate sex steroids have endocrinological or reproductive roles in mollusks. The only observation that has been independently validated is the ability of estradiol to trigger rapid (1-5 min) lysosomal membrane breakdown in hemocytes of Mytilus spp. This is a typical 'inflammatory' response, however, and is not proof that estradiol is a hormone - especially when taken in conjunction with the evidence (discussed in a previous review) that mollusks have neither the enzymes necessary to synthesize vertebrate steroids nor nuclear receptors with which to respond to them.

  8. Combined exposures: an update from the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Tony; Klaeboe, Ronny

    2012-01-01

    International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN) Team 8 deals with the effects of combined "agents" in the urban and work place settings. Results presented at the ICBEN conference indicate that some pesticides, more specifically the organophosphates, and a wider range of industrial chemicals are harmful to the auditory system at concentrations often found in occupational settings. Effects of occupational noise on hearing are exacerbated by toluene and possibly by carbon monoxide. Several of the chemicals studied found to be potentially toxic not only to hair cells in the cochlea but also to the auditory nerve. In urban environments, team 8 focuses on additive and synergetic effects of ambient stressors. It was argued that noise policies need to pay attention to grey areas with intermediate noise levels. Noteworthy is also stronger reactions to vibrations experienced in the evening and during the night. An innovative event-based model for sound perception was presented.

  9. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacao, Eliedonna; Hada, Megumi; Saganti, Premkumar B.; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2016-01-01

    The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE) particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictions of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE’s using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE’s are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (10) are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE’s against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function are discussed. PMID:27111667

  10. Relative Biological Effectiveness of HZE Particles for Chromosomal Exchanges and Other Surrogate Cancer Risk Endpoints.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliedonna Cacao

    Full Text Available The biological effects of high charge and energy (HZE particle exposures are of interest in space radiation protection of astronauts and cosmonauts, and estimating secondary cancer risks for patients undergoing Hadron therapy for primary cancers. The large number of particles types and energies that makeup primary or secondary radiation in HZE particle exposures precludes tumor induction studies in animal models for all but a few particle types and energies, thus leading to the use of surrogate endpoints to investigate the details of the radiation quality dependence of relative biological effectiveness (RBE factors. In this report we make detailed RBE predictions of the charge number and energy dependence of RBE's using a parametric track structure model to represent experimental results for the low dose response for chromosomal exchanges in normal human lymphocyte and fibroblast cells with comparison to published data for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation. RBE's are evaluated against acute doses of γ-rays for doses near 1 Gy. Models that assume linear or non-targeted effects at low dose are considered. Modest values of RBE (10 are predicted at low doses <0.1 Gy. The radiation quality dependence of RBE's against the effects of acute doses γ-rays found for neoplastic transformation and gene mutation studies are similar to those found for simple exchanges if a linear response is assumed at low HZE particle doses. Comparisons of the resulting model parameters to those used in the NASA radiation quality factor function are discussed.

  11. Assessment of the biological effects of 'strange' radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryakhin, E.A.; Tryapitsina, G.A. [Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Urutskoyev, L.I. [RECOM Company, Kurchatov Russian Research Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Akleyev, A.V. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    The results from studies of the effects produced by electrical explosions of foils made from super pure materials in water point to the emergence of new chemical elements. An additional finding was the discharge of 'strange' radiation accompanying the transformation of chemical elements. However, currently, the mechanism involved in the interaction between 'strange' radiation and a substance or a biological entity remains obscure. Therefore, the aim of the present research is to investigate the biological effects of the 'strange' radiation. Pilot studies were performed at the RECOM RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' in April-May of 2004. The animals used in the experiment were female mice of C57Bl/6 line aged 80 days with body weight 16-18 g. The animals were exposed to radiation discharged during explosions of Ti foils in water and aqueous solutions. The cages with animals were placed at 1 m from the epicenter of the explosion. Explosions were carried out on the 19. (3 explosions), 20. (4 explosions) and 22. (3 explosions) of April, 2004 (explosions No1373 - No1382, respectively). The animals were assigned to 4 experimental groups comprised of 17-20 mice per group. The animals received experimental exposure within 1, 2 and 3 days of the experiment. In total, the experimental groups were exposed to 3, 7 and 10 explosions, respectively. In order to identify the biological reactions, the following parameters were estimated: number of nucleated cells in the bone marrow, number of CFU in the spleen after additional gamma-irradiation (6 Gy), cell composition of the bone marrow, the rate of erythrocytes with the different level of maturation in the bone marrow, the rate of erythrocytes with the micronuclei in the bone marrow, the reaction of bone marrow cells to additional gamma-irradiation (2 Gy), number of leucocytes in the peripheral blood, and cell composition of the peripheral blood. The following conclusions were drawn from these

  12. The effect of teaching methods on cognitive achievement, retention, and attitude among in biology studying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Stavrova Veselinovskaa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of usage of sequential teaching method on the academic achievement and retention level of students. Three student groups of biology students in University “Goce Delcev”, Faculty of Natural and Technical Sciences, Institute of Biology, - Stip, R. Macedonia were offered a topic on general characteristics of Proteins: Their Biological Functions and Primary Structure with different sequences of 3 teaching methods. The teaching methods were Laboratory method (student experiment, slide demonstration and lecture method. The first group started to course with experiments in the laboratory, then the relevant theory of proteins was given lecture method, and then the slides was shown (Group I. The sequence of these three teaching methods used in the first group was changed in both second and third group as follow: The lecture methods, slide show and experiment in Group II, and slide show, experiment and lecture method in Group III, respectively. Laboratory method used in the study was focused on the topic of this diversity and abundance reflect the central role of proteins in virtually all aspects of cell structure and function. Achievement test contained 20 questions, testing the knowledge of facts as well as the ability to transfer the knowledge and problem solving ability. This test was used as pre-test before methods’ application, post-test after the methods’ application and retention test after 30 days from methods’ applied.

  13. Leukemia, an effective model for chemical biology and target therapy1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qiang CHEN; Li-shun WANG; Ying-li WU; Yun YU

    2007-01-01

    The rapid rise of chemical biology aimed at studying signaling networks for basic cellular activities using specific, active small molecules as probes has greatly accelerated research on pathological mechanisms and target therapy of diseases.This research is especially important for malignant tumors such as leukemia, a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic malignancies that occurs worldwide. With the use of a chemical approach combined with genetic manipulation, great progresshas been achieved over the past few decades on the biological, molecular and cytogenetic aspects of leukemia, and in its diagnosis and therapy. In particular,discoveries of the clinical effectiveness of all-trans rctinoic acid and arsenic trioxide in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia and the kinase inhibitorsImatinib and Dasatinib in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia not only make target therapy of leukemia a reality, but also push mechanisms of leukemo-genesis and leukemic cell activities forward. This review will outline advances in chemical biology that help our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cell differentiation and apoptosis induction and target therapy of leukemia.

  14. Protective Effect of Selected Medicinal Plants against Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Damage on Biological Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namratha Pai Kotebagilu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is developed due to susceptibility of biological substrates to oxidation by generation of free radicals. In degenerative diseases, oxidative stress level can be reduced by antioxidants which neutralize free radicals. Primary objective of this work was to screen four medicinal plants, namely, Andrographis paniculata, Costus speciosus, Canthium parviflorum, and Abrus precatorius, for their antioxidant property using two biological substrates—RBC and microsomes. The antioxidative ability of three solvent extracts, methanol (100% and 80% and aqueous leaf extracts, was studied at different concentrations by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances method using Fenton’s reagent to induce oxidation in the substrates. The polyphenol and flavonoid content were analyzed to relate with the observed antioxidant effect of the extracts. The phytochemical screening indicated the presence of flavonoids, polyphenols, tannins, and β-carotene in the samples. In microsomes, 80% methanol extract of Canthium and Costus and, in RBC, 80% methanol extract of Costus showed highest inhibition of oxidation and correlated well with the polyphenol and flavonoid content. From the results it can be concluded that antioxidants from medicinal plants are capable of inhibiting oxidation in biological systems, suggesting scope for their use as nutraceuticals.

  15. Effect of capping agents: Structural, optical and biological properties of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Rabia; Usman, Muhammad; Tabassum, Saira; Zia, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    Different biological activities of capped and uncapped ZnO nanoparticles were investigated, and the effects of potential capping agents on these biological activities were studied. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized and capped by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) using a simple chemical method of co-precipitation. Characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and UV-vis spectroscopy confirmed the crystallinity, size, functional group, and band gap of synthesized nanoparticles. Reduction in size occurred from 34 nm to 26 nm due to surfactant. Results of all biological activities indicated significantly higher values in capped as compared to uncapped nanoparticles. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633), Escherichia coli (ATCC15224), and Acetobacter was obtained. This activity was more prominent against Gram-positive bacteria, and ZnO-PVP nanoparticles elucidated highest antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition 17 mm) against Gram-positive, Bacillus subtilis species. Antioxidant activities including total flavonoid content, total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity, total reducing power and %age inhibition of DPPH, and antidiabetic activity against α-amylase enzyme found to be exhibited highest by ZnO-PEG nanoparticles.

  16. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that compon...

  17. Anti-inflammatory effect of cerivastatin in vascular injury independent of serum cholesterol and blood pressure lowering effects in mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小东; 李震; 李建文

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To observe the anti-inflammatory effect of cerivastatin in a mouse model of vascular injury and its cholesterol-lowering effect. Methods: We developed a mouse model of vascular remodeling induced by polyethylene cuff placement and determined the anti-inflammatory effects of cerivastatin in wild mice. Cerivastatin was given by Alzet micro-osmotic minipumps implanted intraperitoneally at the same time as cuff placement at doses of 0.1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg per day, respectively for 2 weeks after cuff placement. The insufficient doses of Cerivastatin to lower serum cholesterol and systolic blood pressure through the neointimal formation and BrdU index were investigated in mouse femoral injury artery induced by cuff-placement. Results: There was a little change in serum cholesterol by the treatment with cerivastatin, the cross-sectional area of intima of injured femoral artery was significantly increased, the neointima formation was significantly increased by the cuff-induced vascular injury at day 14. The neointimal formation and BrdU index were inhibited in the 1 mg/kg cerivastatin, but not in the 0.1 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg cerivastatin. Furthermore, 1 mg/kg of cerivastatin significantly inhibited the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) without lowering serum cholesterol.Conclusions: These results suggest that cerivastatin can inhibit vascular inflammation and the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) through its lipid-lowering independent action. Such effects of cerivastatin may be an important mechanism, by which it prevents the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  18. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhin, Eleonora; Gualtieri, Maurizio; Capasso, Laura; Bengalli, Rossella; Mollerup, Steen; Holme, Jørn A; Øvrevik, Johan; Casadei, Simone; Di Benedetto, Cristiano; Parenti, Paolo; Camatini, Marina

    2016-08-01

    Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects. Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones. Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure. These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  19. Physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles

    KAUST Repository

    Longhin, Eleonora

    2016-05-15

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Diesel combustion and solid biomass burning are the major sources of ultrafine particles (UFP) in urbanized areas. Cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, including lung cancer, are possible outcomes of combustion particles exposure, but differences in particles properties seem to influence their biological effects.Here the physico-chemical properties and biological effects of diesel and biomass particles, produced under controlled laboratory conditions, have been characterized. Diesel UFP were sampled from a Euro 4 light duty vehicle without DPF fuelled by commercial diesel and run over a chassis dyno. Biomass UFP were collected from a modern automatic 25 kW boiler propelled by prime quality spruce pellet. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of both diesel and biomass samples showed aggregates of soot particles, but in biomass samples ash particles were also present. Chemical characterization showed that metals and PAHs total content was higher in diesel samples compared to biomass ones.Human bronchial epithelial (HBEC3) cells were exposed to particles for up to 2 weeks. Changes in the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism were observed after exposure to both UFP already after 24 h. However, only diesel particles modulated the expression of genes involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), increased the release of inflammatory mediators and caused phenotypical alterations, mostly after two weeks of exposure.These results show that diesel UFP affected cellular processes involved in lung and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Biomass particles exerted low biological activity compared to diesel UFP. This evidence emphasizes that the study of different emission sources contribution to ambient PM toxicity may have a fundamental role in the development of more effective strategies for air quality improvement.

  20. Effect of iron oxide and gold nanoparticles on bacterial growth leading towards biological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandyopadhyay Arghya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticle-metal oxide and gold represents a new class of important materials that are increasingly being developed for use in research and health related activities. The biological system being extremely critical requires the fundamental understanding on the influence of inorganic nanoparticles on cellular growth and functions. Our study was aimed to find out the effect of iron oxide (Fe3O4, gold (Au nanoparticles on cellular growth of Escherichia coli (E. coli and also try to channelize the obtained result by functionalizing the Au nanoparticle for further biological applications. Result Fe3O4 and Au nanoparticles were prepared and characterized using Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. Preliminary growth analysis data suggest that the nanoparticles of iron oxide have an inhibitory effect on E. coli in a concentration dependant manner, whereas the gold nanoparticle directly showed no such activity. However the phase contrast microscopic study clearly demonstrated that the effect of both Fe3O4 and Au nanoparticle extended up to the level of cell division which was evident as the abrupt increase in bacterial cell length. The incorporation of gold nanoparticle by bacterial cell was also observed during microscopic analysis based on which glutathione functionalized gold nanoparticle was prepared and used as a vector for plasmid DNA transport within bacterial cell. Conclusion Altogether the study suggests that there is metal nanoparticle-bacteria interaction at the cellular level that can be utilized for beneficial biological application but significantly it also posses potential to produce ecotoxicity, challenging the ecofriendly nature of nanoparticles.

  1. Oxygen-independent inactivation of Haemophilus influenzae transforming DNA by monochromatic radiation: action spectrum, effect of histidine and repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera-Juarez, E.; Setlow, J.K.; Swenson, P.A.; Peak, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    The action spectrum for the oxygen-independent inactivation of native transforming DNA from Haemophilus influenzae with near-uv radiation revealed a shoulder beginning at 334 and extending to 460 nm. The presence of 0.2 M histidine during irradiation produced a small increase in inactivation at 254, 290 and 313 nm, a large increase at 334 nm and a decrease in inactivation at 365, 405, and 460 nm. Photoreactivation did not reverse the DNA damage produced at pH 7.0 at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm, but did reactivate the DNA after irradiation at 254, 290 and 313 nm. The inactivation of DNA irradiated at 254, 290 and 313 nm was considerably greater when the transforming ability was assayed in an excision-defective mutant compared with the wild type, although DNA irradiated at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm showed smaller differences. These results suggest that the oxygen-independent inactivation of H. influenzae DNA at pH 7 by irradiation at 334, 365, 405 and 460 nm is caused by lesions other than pyrimidine dimers.

  2. Environmental parameters of the Tennessee River in Alabama. 2: Physical, chemical, and biological parameters. [biological and chemical effects of thermal pollution from nuclear power plants on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, L. M.

    1976-01-01

    Physical, chemical and biological water quality data from five sites in the Tennessee River, two in Guntersville Reservoir and three in Wheeler Reservoir were correlated with climatological data for three annual cycles. Two of the annual cycles are for the years prior to the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant operations and one is for the first 14 months of Plant operations. A comparison of the results of the annual cycles indicates that two distinct physical conditions in the reservoirs occur, one during the warm months when the reservoirs are at capacity and one during the colder winter months when the reservoirs have been drawn-down for water storage during the rainy months and for weed control. The wide variations of physical and chemical parameters to which the biological organisms are subjected on an annual basis control the biological organisms and their population levels. A comparison of the parameters of the site below the Power plant indicates that the heated effluent from the plant operating with two of the three reactors has not had any effect on the organisms at this site. Recommendations given include the development of prediction mathematical models (statistical analysis) for the physical and chemical parameters under specific climatological conditions which affect biological organisms. Tabulated data of chemical analysis of water and organism populations studied is given.

  3. Radiation degradation of alginate and some results of biological effect of degraded alginate on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hien, N.Q.; Hai, L.; Luan, L.Q.; Hanh, T.T. [Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam); Nagasawa, Naotsugu; Yoshii, Fumio; Makuuchi, Keizo; Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2000-03-01

    Radiation degradation yields (Gd) of alginate in aqueous solution with different concentration were determined by viscometry method. The relationship between Gd and the alginate concentration was found out as: Gd=33.5 x C{sup -0.68}, with C% (w/v) and dry alginate referred to C=100%. An empirical equation for preparing degraded alginate with the desired low viscometry average molecular weight (Mv) by radiation was proposed. Alginate extracted directly horn seaweed'Sagassum, degraded by radiation was used for field experiments and results of the biological effect on plants (tea, carrot, chrysanthemum) were presented. (author)

  4. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident: facts, environmental contamination, possible biological effects, and countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Kazunori; Ban, Nobuhiko; Ozawa, Toshihiko; Tokonami, Shinji

    2012-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, an earthquake led to major problems at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A 14-m high tsunami triggered by the earthquake disabled all AC power to Units 1, 2, and 3 of the Power Plant, and carried off fuel tanks for emergency diesel generators. Despite many efforts, cooling systems did not work and hydrogen explosions damaged the facilities, releasing a large amount of radioactive material into the environment. In this review, we describe the environmental impact of the nuclear accident, and the fundamental biological effects, acute and late, of the radiation. Possible medical countermeasures to radiation exposure are also discussed.

  5. EFFECTS OF 5E LEARNING CYCLE ON STUDENTS ACHIEVEMENT IN BIOLOGY AND CHEMISTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Osawaru Ajaja,; Ochuko Eravwoke Urhievwejire

    2012-01-01

    The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of learning cycle as an instructional strategy on biology andchemistry students achievement. To guide this study, six research hypotheses were stated and tested at 0.05 level ofsignificance. The design of this study was 2x2x3x6 Pre-test Post-test non-equivalent control group quasi experimental design.These included two instructional groups (experimental and control groups), sex (male and female), repeated testing (Pre,Post and follo...

  6. Indium arsenide nanowire field-effect transistors for pH and biological sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, S.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J., E-mail: nygard@nbi.dk [Center for Quantum Devices and Nanoscience Center, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Frederiksen, R.; Lloret, N.; Martinez, K. L. [Bio-Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Laboratory, Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience Center, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); De Vico, L.; Jensen, J. H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-05-19

    Indium Arsenide is a high mobility semiconductor with a surface electron accumulation layer that allows ohmic electrical contact to metals. Here, we present nanowire devices based on this material as a platform for chemical and biological sensing. The sensing principle involves the binding of a charged species at the sensor surface transduced via field effect into a change in current flowing through the sensor. We show the sensitivity of the platform to the H{sup +} ion concentration in solution as proof of principle and demonstrate the sensitivity to larger charged protein species. The sensors are highly reproducible and reach a detection limit of 10 pM for Avidin.

  7. Biological Effects of Osteoblast-Like Cells on Nanohydroxyapatite Particles at a Low Concentration Range

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochen Liu; Jie Wei; Shicheng Wei

    2011-01-01

    The biological effects of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells on nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA) at the low concentration range (5–25  g/mL) for 5 days was investigated. The results showed the viability and actin cytoskeleton of the cells descended with the increase of the concentration of n-HA, and the actin cytoskeleton of cells was depolymerised and became more disordered. Apoptotic rate of cells (1.85%, 1.99%, and 2.29%) increased with the increase of n-HA concentration (5, 15, and 25  g/mL) and be...

  8. Progress of transcription factor Twist expression in breast cancer and its biological effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Qian

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant tumor in women and the pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Proliferation, invasion, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis are the links closely related to the occurrence and development of breast cancer. Twist is a type of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that can affect cell proliferation and invasion process, epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and angiogenesis process through regulating the transcription of downstream target genes. In the research, the study of transcription factor Twist expression in breast cancer and its biological effect is reviewed.

  9. Comment on "Constraints on biological effects of weak extremely-low-frequency electromagnetic fields"

    OpenAIRE

    Kirschvink, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent paper, Adair [Phys. Rev. A 43, 1039 (1991)] concludes that weak extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields cannot affect biology on the cell level. However, Adair’s assertion that few cells of higher organisms contain magnetite (Fe_(3)O_4) and his blanket denial of reproducible ELF effects on animals are both wrong. Large numbers of single-domain magnetite particles are present in a variety of animal tissues, including up to a hundred million per gram in human brain tiss...

  10. Functionalization and microfluidic integration of silicon nanowire biologically gated field effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea

    with nanowire sensors functionalized using different modification schemes. To facilitate functionalization and measurement and as a first step towards integration into a point-of-care device, several microfluidic tools were developed for sample delivery to the sensor surface and as a modular platform......This thesis deals with the development of a novel biosensor for the detection of biomolecules based on a silicon nanowire biologically gated field-effect transistor and its integration into a point-of-care device. The sensor and electrical on-chip integration was developed in a different project...

  11. The Effectiveness of an Online Curriculum on High School Students' Understanding of Biological Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsteller, Robert B.; Bodzin, Alec M.

    2015-01-01

    An online curriculum about biological evolution was designed to promote increased student content knowledge and evidentiary reasoning. A feasibility study was conducted with 77 rural high school biology students who learned with the online biological evolution unit. Data sources included the Biological Evolution Assessment Measure (BEAM), an…

  12. Effects of fumonisin B1 on selected biological responses and performance of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo H. Rauber

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of three doses of fumonisin B1 (0, 100, and 200mg/kg of feed on biological variables (relative weight of liver [RWL], total plasma protein [TPP], albumin [Alb], calcium [Ca], phosphorus [P], uric acid [UA], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma glutamyltransferase [GGT], alkaline phosphatase [AP], total cholesterol [Chol], triglycerides [Tri], sphinganine-to-sphingosine ratio [SA:SO], and C-reactive protein [CRP], morphological evaluation of the small intestine (villus height [VH], crypt depth [CD], and villus-to-crypt ratio [V:C], histological evaluation, and on performance (body weight [BW], feed intake [FI], and feed conversion rate [FCR] of broiler chickens. Significant effects of FB were observed on BW and FI (reduced, on RWL, TPP, Ca, ALT, AST, GGT, Chol, and Tri (increased at both 14 and 28 days evaluations. In addition, significant increase was observed on FCR, Alb, P, SA:SO, and CRP and significant reduction in UA, VH, and V:C only at the 28 days evaluation. Significant histological lesions were observed on liver and kidney of FB inoculated broilers at 14 and 28 days. Those results show that FB has a significant effect on biological and histological variables and on performance of broiler chickens.

  13. Tannins: current knowledge of food sources, intake, bioavailability and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, José; Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Dauer, Andreas; Aura, Anna-Marja; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2009-09-01

    Tannins are a unique group of phenolic metabolites with molecular weights between 500 and 30 000 Da, which are widely distributed in almost all plant foods and beverages. Proanthocyanidins and hydrolysable tannins are the two major groups of these bioactive compounds, but complex tannins containing structural elements of both groups and specific tannins in marine brown algae have also been described. Most literature data on food tannins refer only to oligomeric compounds that are extracted with aqueous-organic solvents, but a significant number of non-extractable tannins are usually not mentioned in the literature. The biological effects of tannins usually depend on their grade of polymerisation and solubility. Highly polymerised tannins exhibit low bioaccessibility in the small intestine and low fermentability by colonic microflora. This review summarises a new approach to analysis of extractable and non-extractable tannins, major food sources, and effects of storage and processing on tannin content and bioavailability. Biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial and antiviral effects are also described. In addition, the role of tannins in diabetes mellitus has been discussed.

  14. An analogy between effects of ultra-low doses of biologically active substances on biological objects and properties of spin supercurrents in superfluid 3He-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldyreva, Liudmila B

    2011-07-01

    The effects of ultra-low doses (ULDs) of biologically active substances (BASs) (with concentrations of 10(-13)M or lower) on biological objects (BOs), such as cells, organisms, etc., and the properties of spin supercurrents in superfluid (3)He-B are discussed. It is shown that the effects of ULDs of BASs on biologic objects can be specified by the same set of physical characteristics and described by the same mathematical relations as those used for the specification and description of the properties of spin supercurrents between spin structures in superfluid (3)He-B. This is based on the up-to-date physical concepts: 1) the physical vacuum has the properties of superfluid (3)He-B; 2) all quantum entities (hence, the BAS and the BO, which consist of such entities) produce spin structures in the physical vacuum. The photon being a quantum entity, the features of the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on BOs can be explained using the same approach.

  15. Biological effects of cesium-137 injected in beagle dogs of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikula, K.J.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Griffith, W.C. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The toxicity of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) in the Beagle dog was investigated at the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) as part of a program to evaluate the biological effects of internally deposited radionuclides. The toxicity and health effects of {sup 137}Cs are important to understand because {sup 137}Cs is produced in large amounts in light-water nuclear reactors. Large quantities of cesium radioisotopes have entered the human food chain as a result of atmospheric nuclear weapons test, and additional cesium radioisotopes were released during the Chernobyl accident. Although the final analyses are not complete, three findings are significant: older dogs dies significantly earlier than juvenile and young adult dogs; greater occurrence of sarcomas in the cesium-137 injected dogs; the major nonneoplastic effect in dogs surviving beyond 52 d appears to be testicular atrophy.

  16. Status of research on biological effects and safety of electromagnetic radiation: telecommunications frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, S.B.

    1994-06-01

    The possible adverse effects on human health of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave electromagnetic fields and radiation are of public concern. As the ambient electromagnetic environment continues to intensify (e.g. cellular and portable phones, wireless communications, LANs, PCNs) the effects of exposure from cumulative sources and prolonged exposure to low levels needs to be addressed. This review considers RF and microwave radiation above 100 kHz. It is acknowledged that there are several possible areas of biological interaction which have health implications and about which current knowledge is limited. Advice is based on the assessment of risks to health resulting from these exposures as derived from studies on the effects of RF radiation on animals and volunteers and from epidemiological studies of exposed populations. 360 refs., 9 tabs., 1 fig.

  17. Biological effects of static and low-frequency electromagnetic fields: an overview of United States literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, R.D.; Kaune, W.T.

    1977-04-12

    Results are reviewed from a number of studies on the biological effects of static and low frequency electromagnetic fields on animals. Based on a long history of experience with electric fields by the utility industry, it appears that intermittent and repeated exposures to strong 60-Hz electromagnetic fields from present power transmission systems have no obvious adverse effect on the health of man. It has been recognized recently that this belief must be tested by carefully designed and executed experiments under laboratory conditions where precise control can be exercised over coexisting environmental factors. A number of studies have been initiated in response to this need to evaluate possible effects from both acute and chronic exposures. 100 references.

  18. Chapter 6: Biological Effects of the Reopening of the San Luis Drain to Carry Subsurface Irrigation Drain Water

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the second year of operation of the Grassland Bypass Project (GBP), the biological effects of contaminants improved in some geographic areas and worsened in...

  19. Renoprotective Effects of Metformin are Independent of Organic Cation Transporters 1 &2 and AMP-activated Protein Kinase in the Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Michael; Jensen, Jonas B; Jakobsen, Steen; Jessen, Niels; Frøkiær, Jørgen; Kemp, Bruce E; Marciszyn, Allison L; Li, Hui; Pastor-Soler, Núria M; Hallows, Kenneth R; Nørregaard, Rikke

    2016-10-26

    The type-2 diabetes drug metformin has proven to have protective effects in several renal disease models. Here, we investigated the protective effects in a 3-day unilateral ureteral obstruction (3dUUO) mouse model. Compared with controls, ureteral obstructed animals displayed increased tubular damage and inflammation. Metformin treatment attenuated inflammation, increased the anti-oxidative response and decreased tubular damage. Hepatic metformin uptake depends on the expression of organic cation transporters (OCTs). To test whether the effects of metformin in the kidney are dependent on these transporters, we tested metformin treatment in OCT1/2(-/-) mice. Even though exposure of metformin in the kidney was severely decreased in OCT1/2(-/-) mice when evaluated with [(11)C]-Metformin and PET/MRI, we found that the protective effects of metformin were OCT1/2 independent when tested in this model. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been suggested as a key mediator of the effects of metformin. When using an AMPK-β1 KO mouse model, the protective effects of metformin still occurred in the 3dUUO model. In conclusion, these results show that metformin has a beneficial effect in early stages of renal disease induced by 3dUUO. Furthermore, these effects appear to be independent of the expression of OCT1/2 and AMPK-β1, the most abundant AMPK-β isoform in the kidney.

  20. Pomegranate Juice Metabolites, Ellagic Acid and Urolithin A, Synergistically Inhibit Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Cell Growth via Distinct Effects on Cell Cycle Control and Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Vicinanza; Yanjun Zhang; Susanne M Henning; David Heber

    2013-01-01

    Ellagitannins (ETs) from pomegranate juice (PJ) are bioactive polyphenols with chemopreventive potential against prostate cancer (PCa). ETs are not absorbed intact but are partially hydrolyzed in the gut to ellagic acid (EA). Colonic microflora can convert EA to urolithin A (UA), and EA and UA enter the circulation after PJ consumption. Here, we studied the effects of EA and UA on cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in DU-145 and PC-3 androgen-independent PCa cells and whether combi...